Sample records for bean sprouts

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori


    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. PMID:27155370

  2. Intake of bean sprouts influences melatonin and antioxidant capacity biomarker levels in rats.

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Herrera, Teresa; Cayuelas, L Tábata; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; de Pablo, Ángel L López; Arribas, Silvia M; Martin-Cabrejas, María A


    Melatonin is an endogenous antioxidant hormone, which reduces with ageing and the low levels are associated with some chronic diseases. Germination of legumes increases the plant levels of melatonin, making sprouts a suitable food source of this hormone. However, information on its bioavailability after consumption is lacking. We aimed to evaluate in rats the effect of kidney bean sprout intake on the plasma levels of melatonin and metabolically related compounds (serotonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin), total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we compared the plasma bioavailability derived from kidney bean sprouts versus synthetic melatonin intake. Kidney beans were germinated for 6 days and an extract was prepared in water. Male young Sprague Dawley rats were used; blood and urine samples were obtained before and after 90 min of administration of kidney bean sprout extract via a gavage. The plasmatic melatonin levels increased after sprout ingestion (16%, p phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity levels did not exhibit any significant variation. The comparison of the bioavailability between the melatonin contained in the kidney bean sprouts and in a synthetic solution evidenced slightly higher levels of plasmatic melatonin (17%) in rats fed with the solution of synthetic melatonin. We conclude that kidney bean sprouts could be a good source of dietary melatonin and other bioactive compounds known to have health benefits. PMID:26841704

  3. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula


    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures. PMID:25952846

  4. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system.

    Ge, Chongtao; Rymut, Susan; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung


    Mung bean sprouts, typically consumed raw or minimally cooked, are often contaminated with pathogens. Internalized pathogens pose a high risk because conventional sanitization methods are ineffective for their inactivation. The studies were performed (i) to understand the potential of internalization of Salmonella in mung bean sprouts under conditions where the irrigation water was contaminated and (ii) to determine if pre- and postharvest intervention methods are effective in inactivating the internalized pathogen. Mung bean sprouts were grown hydroponically and exposed to green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium through maturity. One experimental set received contaminated water daily, while other sets received contaminated water on a single day at different times. For preharvest intervention, irrigation water was exposed to UV, and for postharvest intervention-contaminated sprouts were subjected to a chlorine wash and UV light. Harvested samples were disinfected with ethanol and AgNO3 to differentiate surface-associate pathogens from the internalized ones. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each set was quantified using the plate count method. Internalized Salmonella Typhimurium was detected at levels of 2.0 to 5.1 log CFU/g under all conditions. Continuous exposure to contaminated water during the entire period generated significantly higher levels of Salmonella Typhimurium internalization than sets receiving contaminated water for only a single day (P < 0.05). Preintervention methods lowered the level of internalized Salmonella by 1.84 log CFU/g (P < 0.05), whereas postintervention methods were ineffective in eliminating internalized pathogens. Preintervention did not completely inactivate bacteria in sprouts and demonstrated that the remaining Salmonella Typhimurium in water became more resistant to UV. Because postharvest intervention methods are ineffective, proper procedures for maintaining clean irrigation water must be followed

  5. Fortifi cation of white fl at bread with sprouted red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Kiruthika Viswanathan


    Full Text Available Background. Protein quantity in diet including the digestibility and bioavailability of protein is of importance to eradicate undernutrition in developing countries. Bread protein is an incomplete source as it lacks an essential amino acid lysine. When they are combined with other plant foods like pulses and legumes, they become a complete source of protein. Since bread is most common staple food the objective of this study is to fortify bread with legumes in order to increase the total protein content of bread to 13-15% which is required to meet at least 1/3rd of protein requirement of an adult recommended daily allowance. Material and methods. Fortifi cation of fl at bread was done by adding sprouted red kidney bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris at 5, 15 and 25% to white fl our. The composite bread was analysed for crude protein and in vitro protein digestibility using the Kjeldahl and pepsin-pancreatin method. Results. The protein content of raw beans showed trivial increase on soaking for 17h and sprouting for 3 days. On the other hand, a remarkable increase was observed in protein digestibility i.e., 8% and 11% respectively. The protein content of control and composite breads increased gradually at 1% and protein digestibility decreased by 12% from control. This is due to the presence of dietary fi bers which bind with protein and inhibit its digestibility. Conclusion. The study infers that sprouting the beans for 72 h did not show any remarkable increase in protein content but a signifi cant increase in invitro protein digestibility was observed. Overall, breads made using 15% legume fl our was comparatively equal in protein content, with overall acceptable quality.

  6. Synthesis of biomimetic cerium oxide by bean sprouts bio-template and its photocatalytic performance

    周梦凯; 张凯; 陈丰; 陈志刚


    Biomimetic nano CeO2 materials were prepared by using bean sprouts as bio-template through impregnation and thermal decomposition. For characterization of structure, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis/DRS) nitrogen adsorp-tion-desorption measurements and Labsolar H2 system were adopted. The results demonstrated that the samples prepared at 550 ºC not only completely removed the original bio-template, but also retained the morphology and microstructure of bean sprouts. Then the biomorphic structure of fluorite structure CeO2 material was obtained. Micro-pores with a diameter of about 2–3 nm were distributed among the particles, which provided more favorable channel for the photocatalytic reaction. Biomimetic CeO2 materials exhibited clear red shift (50 nm) compared with powder CeO2, which could be excited by visible irradiation. Biomimetic CeO2 materials dis-played the superior photocatalytic activity for the hydrogen production by water splitting under the sunlight irradiation, the hydrogen yield could reach 400μmol/g catalyst after 6 h.

  7. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water and ethanol vapours treatment on functional properties of mung bean sprouts

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem; Upadhyay, Neelam; Soni, Jyoti


    The present investigation was conducted with the objective to study the effects of various treatments and storage conditions on ascorbic acid, total phenols, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase activity of mung bean sprouts. The sprouts subjected to various treatments viz., pulsed electric field (PEF) (10,000 V for 10 s), hot water dip (HWD) (50 °C for 2 min), ethanol vapours (1 h) and UV-Irradiation (10 kJm-2 in laminar flow chamber for 1 h); and then stored at room (25 ± 1 °C) and l...

  8. Effects of different media on the enrichment of low numbers of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in mung bean sprouts and on the development of the sprout microbiome.

    Margot, H; Tasara, T; Zwietering, M H; Joosten, H; Stephan, R


    Sprouted seeds have been implicated in a number of serious outbreaks caused by Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Sprouts pose a very complex challenge to bacterial pathogen enrichment and detection since they naturally contain high levels of background microflora including members of the Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the currently used method cannot ensure reliable detection of STEC in sprouts. In this study, we compared different media for the enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae in their ability to promote the growth of stressed STEC at 37°C and 42°C. Mung bean sprouts were spiked with low levels of STEC and their growth was recorded over time. In addition, the microbiome of mung bean sprouts was analysed before and after enrichment. Our results indicate that the growth of dry-stressed STEC is comparable in all of the tested enrichment media except for mTSB+Novobiocin and not influenced by the incubation temperature. Low levels of STEC spiked into the sprouts resuspended in media only grew to levels of around 4logcfu/ml during enrichment, which could reduce the probability of detection. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum detected within the microbiome of non-enriched mung bean sprouts. During enrichment in EE-broth, Proteobacteria remained the most abundant phylum. In contrast, during enrichment in BPW the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased whereas Firmicutes increased when compared to the non-enriched mung bean sprout microbiome. The microbiome composition was not significantly influenced by the incubation temperature during enrichment in both BPW and EE-broth. This is the first study to examine the microbiome on sprouted mung bean seeds during BPW and EE enrichment and relates the bacterial community composition changes to the enrichment of pathogens. PMID:27240217

  9. Characteristics of Fermentation Drink made from Juice of Winged Bean Sprouts (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and Red Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas

    Novelina Novelina


    Full Text Available Fermented milk is a product that was produced from fermentation of fresh milk using lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. A variety of plant materials can also be used as raw material in making of  fermentation drinks, such as nuts and tubers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of fermentation drink made from juice of winged bean sprout and red sweet potatoes. The treatment in this study is the level of mixing between juice of winged bean sprout with red sweet potatoes , consist of ;A (30:70, B (40:60, C (50:50, D (60:40 and E (70:30. Completely randomized design had been used with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The data colected was pH, viscosity, protein content, fat content, total solids, total acid, ash content, calcium content, total lactic acid bacteria, total plate count and sensory evaluation. Data processing is performed using statistical 8, followed by Tuckey test HSD All-Pair wise Comparisons Test at level of 5%. Mixing of winged bean sprouts with red sweet potato can increase the value of pH, viscosity, protein content, fat content, total solids, total acid, ash content, calcium content, and total lactic acid bacteria. The best product was the product of B (40% winged bean sprout and 60% red sweet potatoes already meets SNI 7552:2009, contain : 2.36% protein content, fat content of 1.24%, 18.77% total solids, pH was 4, 2, 0.54% total acid, 0.23% ash content, 0.173% calcium content, viscosity was 3.56 DPA,  total  lactic acid bacteria (CFU / ml was 1.9 x1010 , total plate count was 2.1 x1010 (CFU / ml.

  10. Simultaneous determination of plant growth regulator and pesticides in bean sprouts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Kim, Kwang-Gon; Park, Duck-Woong; Kang, Gyung-Ri; Kim, Tae-Sun; Yang, Yongshik; Moon, Su-Jin; Choi, Eun-Ah; Ha, Dong-Ryong; Kim, Eun-Sun; Cho, Bae-Sik


    A simple and sensitive analytical method based on QuEChERS approach using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the determination of 6-benzylaminopurine, carbendazim and thiabendazole in bean sprouts. Sodium chloride and sodium acetate were used for salting-out step and magnesium sulfate for clean-up. The validation of optimized method was satisfactory with recoveries, between 89.5% and 103.2% for the three compounds, and relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 3.3% at 20 and 40ng/g fortification levels (n=5). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2.1-3.7ng/g and 6.3-11.1ng/g, respectively. Monitoring of 126 bean sprout samples collected from local markets was performed to verify the adaptability in real samples. No pesticides were detected but 6-benzylaminopurine was found in 3 samples at the level of 15-20ng/g. The optimized method should be applicable for monitoring of 6-benzylaminopurine, carbendazim and thiabendazole in bean sprouts in short time. PMID:27132845

  11. Effect of chemical stress on germination of cv Dalia bean (Phaseolus vularis L.) as an alternative to increase antioxidant and nutraceutical compounds in sprouts.

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Magdalena; Guevara-González, Ramón G; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chitosan (CH), salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at different concentrations on the antinutritional and nutraceutical content, as well as the antioxidant capacity of bean sprouts (cv Dalia). All elicitors at medium and high concentrations reduced the antinutritional content of lectins (48%), trypsin inhibitor (57%), amylase inhibitor (49%) and phytic acid (56%). Sprouts treated with CH, SA and H2O2 (7μM; 1 and 2mM, and 30mM respectively) increased the content of phenolic compounds (1.8-fold), total flavonoids (3-fold), saponins (1.8-fold) and antioxidant capacity (37%). Furthermore, the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed an increase of several nutraceutical compounds in bean sprouts treated with SA such as coumaric (8.5-fold), salicylic (115-fold), gallic (25-fold) and caffeic (1.7-fold) acids, as well as epigallocatechin (63-fold), rutin (41-fold) and quercetin (16.6-fold) flavonoids. The application of elicitors in bean seed during sprouting enhances their nutraceutical properties. PMID:27374516

  12. Engineering analysis of the high-density heterotrophic cultivation of mung bean sprouts.

    Tamate, Haruka; Nakai, Ran; Nakamori, Yasuyuki; Esashi, Masahiro; Iwamoto, Yasushi; Tsukada, Yoshihiro; Saito, Mika; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Fujii, Tomoyuki


    This study investigated the heterotrophic growth behavior of mung beans cultivated in an individual bed under water supply. The fresh weight of mung beans in the bed was estimated, and changes in temperature, and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were recorded during the cultivation period. The specific growth rate, oxygen uptake rate, and carbon dioxide evolution rate, based on the fresh weight in the bed, were calculated. Growth under heterotrophic cultivation can be classified into the following three stages. Reductions in specific oxygen uptake rate, specific carbon dioxide evolution rate, and specific energy production rate corresponded to that of specific growth rate. Indicators of biological activity related to oxygen and carbon dioxide were evaluated quantitatively for beds under high-density heterotrophic cultivation. Moreover, the results obtained from this study successfully demonstrate that there is a relationship between the growth of mung beans and indicators of biological activity. PMID:27121990

  13. 豆芽立枯病诊断与防治试验%Diagnosis and Control of Bean Sprouts Rhizoctonia solani

    张丽; 张力群; 段会梅; 康玉凡; 吕玉兰


    模拟工厂化生产豆芽工艺培育黄豆芽,对培育过程中出现的烂芽病样进行病原菌的分离、纯化及鉴定,确定病原菌为立枯丝核菌(Rhizoctonia solani);并测定了立枯丝核菌不同菌量对绿豆芽的致病性,结果显示:不同接种量引起绿豆芽的发病时间、发病率及生物产量均存在明显差异.接种量为2块菌饼配制5 mL和2块菌饼配制10 mL的菌丝悬浮液造成严重的烂芽,第5天发病率分别达46%和25%.不同处理防治豆芽立枯病的试验表明:40℃热力消毒、1%石灰水和1/5 000高锰酸钾均有一定的防治作用,相对防治效果分别为91.30%、54_35%和50.00%.%Simulating factory production process of sproutsing to cultivate bean sprouts, taking spoilage sprouts samples during the process of cultivating, then separating, purifying and identification were carried out to determine the pathogen. Finalized for the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani was finalized. Observing the pathogenicity of inoculation volume of different Rhizoctonia mycelial suspensions on bean sprouts was tested. The results showed that different inoculums leaded to the differencest of disease occurring the time of incidence, the incidence rate and bean sprouts biological production. Using inoculums at 2 pieces bacteria per 5 milliliter and 2 pieces bacteria per 10 milliliter of mycelial suspensions to treat bean sprouts,the spoilage of bean sprouts was serious. The incidence rate at the 5th day were 46 %, 25 %, respectively.The results of using different treatments to protect Rhizoctonia solani showed that 40 ℃ hot-water disinfection, 1% lime water, 1/5 000 potassium permanganate might control the occurrence of Rhizoctonia to some extent, the relative control efficiencies were 91.30 %, 54.35 %, 50.00 %, respectively.

  14. Mung bean sprout (Phaseolus aureus) nuclease and its biological and antitumor effects

    Souček, J.; Škvor, J.; Poučková, P.; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Slavík, Tomáš; Matoušek, Josef


    Roč. 53, - (2006), s. 402-409. ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/06/1149; GA ČR GA523/04/0755 Keywords : mung bean * nuclease Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.247, year: 2006

  15. 硒浸种对绿豆芽用特性及营养品质的影响%Effects of Soaking with Selenium on the Sprout Traits and Nutritional Quality of Mung Bean Sprout

    张华华; 李航宇; 秦少伟; 康玉凡


    In this study, mung bean seeds were soaked in varied concentrations of Selenium (Se) for 12 hours and then germinated in growth chamber to stimulate the production of mung bean sprouts in factory. The effects of Se on mung bean sprout traits, nutritional qualities and antioxidant capacities were investigated. The results showed that low concentration (10 μmol/L) treatment can increase the biomass, output ratio, root length, hypocotyl length, total length and vitamin C content. Biomass, output ratio, root length, hypocotyl length, total length and vitamin C content were suppressed, while hypocotyl diameter, soluble sugar and soluble protein contents increased when treated with high concentrations of Se. Total phenolic content decreased at low concentrations and increased at high concentrations. DPPH free-radical-scavenging capacities of Se treatments were higher than that of control and peaked at 50μmol/L. In conclusion, 10μmol/L was better for production of Se-enriched mung bean sprouts according to this study.%模拟工厂化生产豆芽条件,以不同浓度亚硒酸钠溶液浸泡绿豆12 h,研究硒对豆芽芽用特性、营养品质及1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼自由基(DPPH)清除率的影响。结果显示:低浓度硒(10μmol/L)可以提高绿豆芽产量和产出比,并增加根长、下胚轴长、总长和VC含量;随硒浓度升高,产量性状、根长、下胚轴长、总长、VC含量不断降低,但下胚轴粗、可溶性糖含量、可溶性蛋白含量逐渐升高;总酚含量随浓度的升高呈先降低后升高的趋势;DPPH自由基清除率则随着硒浓度升高呈现先升高后降低的变化趋势,但处理的清除率均高于对照。试验表明10μmol/L亚硒酸钠溶液浸泡绿豆12 h适于生产富硒绿豆芽。

  16. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of 6-benzylaminopurine and its ribose adduct in bean sprouts.

    Zhang, Wei; He, Lishan; Zhang, Rui; Guo, Suqin; Yue, Huanfang; Ning, Xiangxue; Tan, Guiyu; Li, Qing X; Wang, Baomin


    6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BA), a cytokinin plant growth regulator, has been banned for use in bean sprout production in China. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed with a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 3E5). The assay showed a half-maximum inhibition concentration (IC50) and detection range of 18.9ng/mL and 3.6-106ng/mL, respectively. Recoveries of 6-BA spiked in home cultured bean sprout samples averaged from 75% to 89% with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.998 between the results determined by icELISA and those by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). LC-ESI-MS showed that 6-BA had been partially metabolized to 6-benzylaminopurine riboside (6-BAR) in the positive samples. The content of 6-BA determined by icELISA was about 5-70 times higher than that of LC-ESI-MS because mAb 3E5 had 315% cross-reactivity with 6-BAR. Such icELISA being ultra-sensitive to 6-BAR would allow quick monitoring of 6-BA by detecting 6-BAR as a potential biomarker. PMID:27080901

  17. 物理刺激提高豆芽中大豆异黄酮含量的研究%Study on improving the content of soybean isoflavone in bean sprouts by the physical stimulation

    尉志鹏; 杨海艳; 高天宇; 魏哓晶; 邵倩倩; 杨帅; 解雪飞; 杨志孝


    目的:筛选适宜的物理刺激方法,提高豆芽中大豆异黄酮的含量水平,提高大豆芽的品质。方法利用多种物理因素(紫外、高热、低温等)刺激的方式,刺激生长中的豆芽,使其产生应激反应。利用超声振荡法提取豆芽中的大豆异黄酮。在最佳波长下测定吸光度值,并通过标准曲线求出产品中大豆异黄酮浓度,根据线性回归方程计算出豆芽中大豆异黄酮的含量并加以比较。结果在豆芽生长过程中,人为加大温差,用0℃和50℃冷热交替刺激能有效提高异黄酮含量,比常规恒温(26.5℃)生产的豆芽大豆异黄酮含量提高了44.24%。结论本实验成功筛选到提高豆芽中大豆异黄酮含量的方法,此法生产豆芽不但简单易行,便于推广,而且提高了营养品质,具有重要的实际应用价值。%Objective:To screen out the suitable physical stimulation in order to increase the content of soybean isofla-vone in bean sprout and improve the quality of the bean sprouts. Methods:A variety of physical factors( UV,high or low temperature,etc. )was used to stimulate the growing bean sprouts to make stress response. Soybean isoflavone was extrac-ted by ultrasonic vibration method. The absorbance value was determination at the optimum wavelength,and through the standard curve of concentration of isoflavone products,according to the linear regression equation to calculate the content of isoflavone in bean sprout and compared. Results:In bean sprout growth process,0 ℃ and 50 ℃ alternating hot and cold stimulation in increasing temperature difference can effectively improve the isoflavone content. Compared to the bean sprouts produced with conventional constant temperature(26. 5℃),soybean isoflavone content was increased by 44. 24%. Conclusion:The experiment is successful in screening the suitable physical stimulation to increase the content of soybean isoflavone in bean sprout. This

  18. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    Jensen, L.B.; Pedersen, M.H.; Skov, P.S.;


    Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes.......Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes....

  19. Application of Combined Process of Ozone/Activated Carbon and UF in Bean Sprouts Spray Water Reuse Project%臭氧活性炭/超滤工艺用于豆芽喷淋水回用工程

    马伟芳; 陈国伟; 韩东梅; 郭浩


    The combined process of ozone/activated carbon, UF membrane and UV disinfection was used for treatment and reuse of bean sprouts spray water. The effluent quality can reach Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749 -2006 ). The quality of bean sprouts has no significant difference compared with the control group, and it can reach Hygienic Standard for Bean Sprouts (GB 22556 - 2008). This combined process is feasible in economy and reliable in technology, and it provides a new idea for high-quality miscellaneous wastewater reclamation and reuse.%采用臭氧活性岌/超滤/紫外消毒组合工艺对豆芽喷淋水进行处理后回用,出水水质可满足国家(GB 5749-2006),豆芽品质与对照试验相比没有显著性差异,达到国家(GB 22556-2008).该组合工艺技术可靠,经济可行,为优质杂排水再生回用提供了新思路.

  20. 磁化水对豆类芽菜生长过程中VC含量影响%Effects of Magnetized Water on Vitamin Contents of Bean Sprouts during Growth Process

    朱磊; 王颖; 张桂芳; 王世鹏; 王欣卉; 陈纯琦


    为了探明磁化水对两种豆类芽菜(小明绿和大红袍)VC含量的影响,利用2,6-二氯靛酚(DIP)滴定法测定自来水和磁化水培养芽菜的VC含量。结果表明:芽菜中VC含量总体上随培养时间的延长呈现先增加后下降的趋势;磁化水使芽菜在生长过程中的VC含量上升速度加快;在适合食用的培养阶段显著提高了VC含量;对大红袍芽菜VC含量的影响比小明绿芽菜的影响显著。说明利用磁化水可较快培养得到高VC含量的食用豆类芽菜,并可增加人们日常VC的摄入量。%In order to investigate the effects of magnetized water on VC contents in two bean sprouts,Xiaominglv and DahongpaoVC contents during the process of sprout culture were measured by using 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DIP)titrimetric method. As the culture time extended,and the VC contents in sprouts presented first increased and then decreased trend on the whole. The results indicated that the magnetized water could expedite the pace of VC increasing as sprouts growing,and the significantly increased VC contents at the suitable eating time. During the growth processes of sprouts,the magnetized water had more significant effects on VC contents of Xiaominglv sprouts than those of Dahongpao sprouts. The results showed that the magnetized water could culture the edible bean sprouts faster with more VC content,and increase the daily VC intake.


    程彦伟; 唐琳; 李勇慧; 押辉远; 仝瑞键; 任艳波; 蒋与燕


    以绿豆芽和苹果为原料,研制绿豆芽苹果汁复合型果蔬饮料,着重对杀青时间、饮料配方、杀菌条件等进行了研究,以豆芽苹果汁液量、蔗糖量、柠檬酸量为因素进行正交试验分析,筛选出最佳试验配方为豆芽苹果汁添加量为24%、蔗糖用量为8%、柠檬酸用量为0.06%、稳定剂为0.2%的羧甲基纤维素钠;最佳杀青条件为95℃热水4 min;最佳灭菌条件为115℃高压蒸汽灭菌6 min.%The article discussed the process of a compound beverage prepared from mung-bean sprout and apple juice, and mainly studied the influences of the deactivation time, the formula, the sterilization conditions and so on. Through orthogonal experiments taking the amount of mung-bean sprout juice and apple juice, the sugar amount and the citric acid amount as the factors, the optimum formula was as follows: the amount of mung-bean sprout juice and apple juice 24%, the sugar amount 8%, the citric acid amount 0.06%, and 0.2% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose as the stabilizer; the deactivation was carried out in 95 ℃ hot water for 4 minutes; and the beverage was sterilized by 115 ℃ high-pressure steam for 6 minutes.

  2. Facile Determination of Forchlorfenuron in Bean Sprout via QuEChERs Sample Preparation Technique%QuEChERs前处理快速测定豆芽中氯吡脲残留

    毛建霏; 雷绍荣; 郭灵安; 欧阳华学; 梁立


    建立了基于QuEChERS前处理的高效液相色谱法快速测定豆芽中氯吡脲残留的方法.样品经过PSA分散固相萃取净化,使用高效液相色谱紫外检测器进行测定.线性范围0.005~100.0 μg/mL,方法的定量限为0.01 mg/kg,检出限为0.003mg/kg,空白豆芽样品中氯吡脲的添加浓度在0.05 ~0.2 mg/kg范围内的回收率为80%~100%,日内和日间变异系数均小于10.该方法操作简便,所用试剂对环境污染小,分析成本低,适用于豆芽中氯吡脲的检测,并可推广用于一些其他水果及蔬菜中氯吡脲的测定.%A facile high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of forchlorfenuron residual in bean sprout based on QuEChERs (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe) sample preparation technique. After dispersive solid extraction purification using PSA, forchlorfenuron residual was quantified with HPLC-UV. The linearity of the analytical response across the studied range of concentrations ( 0.005 -100. Oμg/mL) was excellent. The limits of quantification and determination are 0.01 and 0.003 mg/ kg, respectively. The average recoveries were 80 % - 100 % , inter and intra CVs were lower than 10 % for blank bean sprout samples spiked with 0.05 - 0.2 mg/kg of forchlorfenuron. The method was facile, environment-friendly and at low cost, which was not only suitable for the determination of forchlorfenuron residual in bean sprout but also in many other fruits and vegetables.

  3. Composition and physiological profiling of sprout-associated microbial communities

    Matos, Anabelle; Garland, Jay L.; Fett, William F.


    The native microfloras of various types of sprouts (alfalfa, clover, sunflower, mung bean, and broccoli sprouts) were examined to assess the relative effects of sprout type and inoculum factors (i.e., sprout-growing facility, seed lot, and inoculation with sprout-derived inocula) on the microbial community structure of sprouts. Sprouts were sonicated for 7 min or hand shaken with glass beads for 2 min to recover native microfloras from the surface, and the resulting suspensions were diluted and plated. The culturable fraction was characterized by the density (log CFU/g), richness (e.g., number of types of bacteria), and diversity (e.g., microbial richness and evenness) of colonies on tryptic soy agar plates incubated for 48 h at 30 degrees C. The relative similarity between sprout-associated microbial communities was assessed with the use of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) based on patterns of utilization of 95 separate carbon sources. Aerobic plate counts of 7.96 +/- 0.91 log CFU/g of sprout tissue (fresh weight) were observed, with no statistically significant differences in microbial cell density, richness, or diversity due to sprout type, sprout-growing facility, or seed lot. CLPP analyses revealed that the microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts are more similar than those associated with the other sprout types tested. Variability among sprout types was more extensive than any differences between microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts from different sprout-growing facilities and seed lots. These results indicate that the subsequent testing of biocontrol agents should focus on similar organisms for alfalfa and clover, but alternative types may be most suitable for the other sprout types tested. The inoculation of alfalfa sprouts with communities derived from various sprout types had a significant, source-independent effect on microbial community structure, indicating that the process of

  4. Effects of Exogenous GA3, 6-BA and Mineral on Mung Bean Sprouts Growth%外源赤霉素、6-苄基腺嘌呤及矿物质对水培绿豆芽生长的影响

    丁俊胄; 尹涛; 余翔; 赵思明; 熊善柏; 詹伟明


    Take green bean ‘ZL1’ as the material used to grow bean sprouts, and research the effects of GA3,6-BA and minerals on the growth of mung bean sprouts, to optimize bean sprouts nutritious liquid formula. The results indicated that the hypocotyls of bean sprouts were longer (4.25 cm±0.44 cm), the roots were shorter (1.15 cm±0.23 cm), the hypocotyls diameter were thicker (2.78 mm±0.16 mm), the bean sprouts grew faster,meanwhile, the lusters were pure white, gemma crisp and tender, which were cultivated with GA3 100 mg·L-1,6-BA 5 mg·L-1, potassium nitrate 0.810 g·L-1, calcium nitrate 0.950 g·L-1, magnesium sulfate 0.500 g·L-1.%以‘中绿一号'绿豆为原料用水培法制作豆芽,研究赤霉素、6-苄基腺嘌呤和矿物质对其生长的影响,优化绿豆芽营养液的配方.结果表明,使用由100 mg·L-1赤霉素、5 mg·L-16-苄基腺嘌呤、0.810 g·L-1硝酸钾、0.950 g·L-1硝酸钙,0.500g·L-1硫酸镁复配而成的营养液可以缩短豆芽生长周期,且培养出的绿豆芽芽长适宜(4.25 cm±0.44cm)、根长较短(1.15 cm±0.23cm)、轴径较粗(2.78 cm±0.16 mm),芽体洁白而脆嫩.

  5. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to inactivate Salmonella enterica on mungbean sprouts

    Although fresh-sprouted beans and grains are considered a good source of nutrients, they have been associated with foodborne outbreaks. Sprouts provide a good matrix for microbial localization and growth due to optimal conditions of temperature and humidity while sprouting. Also, the lack of a kill...

  6. Fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante do extrato aquoso de broto de feijão-mungo (Vigna radiata L. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.

    Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão de Lima


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Considerando a importância dos compostos fenólicos em alimentos e que o broto de feijão-mungo vem sendo incluído na culinária brasileira, este estudo teve como objetivo quantificar o teor de fenólicos totais deste vegetal e avaliar a ação antioxidante do seu extrato aquoso. MÉTODOS: Os compostos fenólicos foram extraídos por quatro sistemas de solventes e dois métodos de extração, os quais foram diferenciados no tempo (2 e 1h e número de extrações (2 e 3 extrações. Os fenólicos totais dos extratos foram quantificados por método espectrofotométrico. RESULTADOS: Os extratos obtidos com água à temperatura ambiente (28ºC, nos dois métodos de extração, foram os que apresentaram maior quantidade de fenólicos totais, sem contudo apresentar diferença significativa entre eles. O método II, que consistiu de três extrações em 1h, pode ser considerado o melhor por ter utilizado menor tempo de extração. O extrato aquoso em sistema modelo b-caroteno/ácido linoléico exibiu ação antioxidante (48,07% de inibição da oxidação, entretanto foi inferior ao padrão BHT. CONCLUSÃO: O broto de feijão-mungo possui considerável quantidade de fenólicos totais, compostos responsáveis por sua ação antioxidante, cujo consumo pode proporcionar efeitos benéficos à saúde.OBJECTIVE: Considering the importance of phenolic compounds in foods and the increasing consumption of mung bean sprouts in Brazil, this study had the objective of quantifying the total phenolic content in this vegetable and to assess the antioxidant activity of its aqueous extract. METHODS: The phenolic compounds were extracted by four solvent systems and two extraction methods, which were different in time (2 and 1h and in number of extractions (2 and 3 extractions. The total phenolic content of the extracts were quantified by the spectrophotometric method. RESULTS: The extracts obtained with water at room temperature (28ºC in both extraction

  7. The Determination of Free Lead in Bean Sprout and Soil with Ultrasonic Extraction%超声分离法测定植物及土壤中游离铅

    蔡卓; 卢登峰; 张娴; 杜良伟; 梁信源; 莫利书; 黄富嵘


    提出以超声提取,单扫描极谱法测定植物和土壤中游离态铅的方法.实验发现,在酸性条件下,超声波能有效地分离提取豆芽和土壤样品中的游离铅,并用单扫描极谱法进行测定.分别以去离子水、2 mol/L HNO3、4 mol/L HNO3为溶液考察了超声介质及超声时间对铅提取量的影响.结果表明:豆芽和土壤样品在硝酸介质中分别超声80、50 min即达到饱和提取量,而在去离子水介质中超声的分离作用不大.与酸浸泡法相比,超声提取法具有更为显著的分离效果,表明超声促进了氢离子置换样品中铅离子的反应.该方法具有化学试剂消耗少、分析速度快、对环境污染小等优点,将其应用于实际样品的测定,结果满意.%A new method for determination of trace free lead in plant and soil by single sweep polarography with ultrasonic extraction was described. The results show that free lead in bean sprout and soil could be separated effectively by ultrasonic extraction in acidic solution and measured using single sweep polarography. The effects of ultrasonic medium and ultrasonic time on the extract amount of lead were investigated in deionized water,2 mol/L HNO3, and 4 mol/LHNO3 respectively. The results show that the extraction of lead in nitric acid medium reached the maximum amount with the ultrasonic time of 80 min for bean sprouts samples and the ultrasonic time of 50 min for soil samples respectively, while in deionized water media ultrasound extraction did not show any advantage in the separation of free lead from the samples. This indicates that ultrasound can accelerate the reactions of H + replacing Pb2+ in the samples.Compared with acid soak method, ultrasonic extraction is more effective, and of little chemical reagent consumption,simple procedure, rapid separation, and no environment pollution. The new method was applied to the determination of free lead in actual samples with satisfactory result.

  8. 萌发绿豆种子中的一种大豆胰蛋白酶抑制剂钝化酶%A Proteinase from Mung Bean Sprouts That Inactivaties Soybean Trypsin Inhib itor

    陈中; 杨晓泉; 赵谋明


    By 30%-60% (NH4)2SO4 fractional precipitation, anion-exchange chromatogr aphy o n DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 and anion-exchange chr omatography on Waters AP-1 column (ProteinPM-Pak DEAE 15HR), a proteinase which can inactivate soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) was purified from mun g bean (Vigna rabiata (L.) Wilczek) sprouts. Its molecular weight wa s estimated to be 29.8 kD by SDS-PAGE, and its Km and V max for STI were 769.2 N-α-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester BAEE/mL and 115.3 BAEE· mL-1·min-1 respectively. This proteinase was stable at temperatures lower than 50 ℃ and pH 6.5-8.5, and 90.91% STI activity of defatted soybean powder was inact ivated by this preparation, with proteolytic activity 5 000 BAEE/mL at 50 ℃ and pH 8.0 in 4 h.%通过30%~60% (NH4)2SO4分级沉淀、DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B离子交换层析、Sepha c ryl S-200凝胶过滤层析和Waters AP-1离子交换层析,从萌发的绿豆(Vigna rabiata ( L.) Wilczek)种子中分离纯化出一种可降解大豆胰蛋白酶抑制剂(STI)的蛋白酶.SDS-PAG E测定该酶的分子量为29.8 kD.该酶催化降解STI的Km值为769.2 BAEE/mL,V max为115.3 BAEE·mL-1·min-1.该酶在50 ℃、pH 8.0、相对酶活力5 0 00 BAEE/mL和4 h的反应时间时可将脱脂大豆粉中的STI 活性钝化90.91%.该酶在温度低于5 0 ℃及pH 6.5~8.5时能保持其活性.

  9. 河北省市售豆芽菜中6种植物生长调节剂残留调查分析%Analysis of the residues of 6 kinds of plant growth regulators in bean sprouts in Hebei province

    刘印平; 王丽英; 路杨; 常凤启; 杨立新; 张永茂


    目的:分析调查6种植物生长调节剂在黄豆芽和绿豆芽中残留情况。方法2014年,应用气相色谱-质谱法对河北省10个区市在本辖区的市场销售的豆芽菜开展了食品安全风险监测,监测项目为4-氯苯氧乙酸、吲哚乙酸、2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸、2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸丁酯、吲哚丁酸、萘乙酸。结果在所检测的52份样品中,其中12份检出4-氯苯氧乙酸、33份检出吲哚乙酸、13份检出吲哚丁酸,其他三项均未检出。检出样品均未超出国家规定的植物生长调节剂的最大残留限量(MRLs)。结论有必要持续监测和控制豆芽中生长调节剂和植物激素的残留,禁防滥用植物生长调节剂给人类健康带来的风险。%Objective To investigate the residues of 6 kinds of plant growth regulators (PGRs) in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprout.MethodsA total of 52 bean sprouts samples were sampled in 2014 from 10 main areas in Hebei province of China, and 6 kinds of plant growth regulators including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4-D-ethyl ester, 4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (4-CPA),β-naphthyl acetic acid (NAA), indole acetic acid (IAA) and indole butyric acid (IBA) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS).Results12 samples were detected of 4-CPA and 33 samples were detected of IAA. IBA was found in 13 samples. In addition, 2,4-D, 2,4-D-ethyl ester and NAA were not detected in the present study. All the results were not exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of the plant growth regulators set in China.ConclusionThe continuous monitoring and control of PGRs in bean sprouts are still necessary, which can reduce the risk from abuse of plant growth regulators.

  10. Determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid residues in bean sprout samples by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定豆芽中2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸残留

    夏慧; 陆自强; 杨益众


    A method for determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid residues in bean sprout samples by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography was developed. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was extracted with alkaline water from bean sprout samples and then the total extract was cleaned up by the LC-18 cartridges and eluted by CH3OH after centrifugation, filtration and acidification. CH3OH-H2O CV/V, 4 : 1) was applied as mobile phase, the flow rate was 0. 8 Ml · min-1 , detection wavelength was 290 nm and the analysis was carried out by separation with Agilent TC-C18 column and determination with PDA detector. Under the experimental conditions the results of determination were as follows: the detection limit of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was 0. 01 mg · kg-1 (S/N=3) , the average fortified recoveries of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the blank was 91. 16% - 108. 35% and the relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 5) was 3. 51% -6. 27%. The method was simple, sensitive, accurate and repeatable and can be used to determine 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid residues in bean sprout samples.%为建立高效液相色谱法测定豆芽中2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸残留量的方法,样品采用碱化水提取,离心、过滤后将提取液酸化,经LC-18固相萃取小柱净化,甲醇洗脱,以甲醇-水(体积比4:1)为流动相,流速为0.8 mL·min-1,检测波长为290 nm.用Agilent TC-C18色谱柱分离,PDA紫外检测器测定豆芽中2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸含量.结果表明:该方法2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸的检测限(S/N=3)为0.01 mg·kg-1,样品回收率为91.16%~108.35%,RSD为3.51%~6.27%.该方法操作过程简单,灵敏度和准确度较高,重复性好,可用于豆芽中2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸残留量的检测.

  11. Optimization and kinetics for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of L-dopa from fava bean (Vicia faba L.) sprouts%发芽蚕豆左旋多巴超声强化提取及其动力学过程

    宋江峰; 李大婧; 刘春泉


    In order to fully extract and utilize high bioactive natural L-DOPA (Levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine), the present study was undertaken to explore the potential applicability of ultrasonic waves to isolate L-DOPA from germinated sprouts, extraction kinetics were also preliminarily studied. Based on single factor experiments, a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the processing conditions for the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of L-DOPA in germinated fava bean sprouts and evaluate the effects of three independent variables (ultrasonic power, liquid-solid ratio and extraction time on the yield of L-DOPA. The results showed that ultrasonic power was the most important factor, the maximum yield of L-DOPA (1.47%) was found when 2.0 g germinated sprouts was extracted with 30% (by vol.) ethanol-0.1 M acetic acid solution at ultrasonic power 257 W, liquid-solid ratio 31 mL/g and extraction time 37.4 min. Under the optimum UAE conditions, L-DOPA recovery of the germinated sprouts was a little higher than that of conventional solvent extraction (CSE) and represented almost 0.58-fold increase when compared with ungerminated sprouts, UAE significantly shortened the time required for the extraction process. The yields of L-DOPA at different extraction time were simulated by three kinetic models, .i e. the film theory, the unsteady diffusion through plant and the empirical equation of Ponomaryov. The film model gave good simulation to the experimental data with the highest R2 at 0.9928. The results can provide a reference for natural L-DOPA preparation.%为了充分提取和利用高生物活性的天然左旋多巴(L-DOPA),研究了超声波强化提取发芽蚕豆L-DOPA的工艺条件,并初步探讨了超声浸提动力学过程.基于单因素试验,以超声功率、液固比、萃取时间为考察因素,采用Box-Behnken试验设计进行了工艺参数优化,结果表明,超声功率对发芽蚕豆L-DOPA得率的影响较大;原料用量2.0 g

  12. Characterization of the cultivable microbiota of sprouts and their potential for application as protective cultures.

    Weiss, Alexander; Hertel, Christian; Grothe, Silke; Ha, Diep; Hammes, Walter P


    The microbiota of ten seeds and ready-to-eat sprouts produced thereof was characterized by bacteriological culture and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified DNA fragments of the 16S rRNA gene. The predominant bacterial biota of hydroponically grown sprouts mainly consisted of enterobacteria, pseudomonades and lactic acid bacteria (LAB). For adzuki, alfalfa, mung bean, radish, sesame and wheat, the ratio of these bacterial groups changed strongly in the course of germination, whereas for broccoli, red cabbage, rye and green pea the ratio remained unchanged. Within the pseudomonades, Pseudomonas gesardii and Pseudomonas putida have been isolated and strains of the potentially pathogenic species Enterobacter cancerogenes and Pantoea agglomerans were found as part of the main microbiota on hydroponically grown sprouts. In addition to the microbiota of the whole seedlings, the microbiota of root, hypocotyl and seed leafs were examined for alfalfa, radish and mung bean sprouts. The highest and lowest total counts for aerobic bacteria were found on seed leafs and hypocotyls, respectively. On the other hand, the highest numbers for LAB on sprouts were found on the hypocotyl. When sprouting occurred under the agricultural conditions, e.g. in soil, the dominating microbiota changed from enterobacteria to pseudomonades for mung beans and alfalfa sprouts. No pathogenic enterobacteria have been isolated from these sprout types. Within the pseudomonades group, Pseudomonas jessenii and Pseudomonas brassicacearum were found as dominating species on all seedling parts from soil samples. In practical experiments, a strain of P. jessenii was found to exhibit a potential for use as protective culture, as it suppresses the growth of pathogenic enterobacteria on ready-to-eat sprouts. PMID:17512686

  13. Inactivation of Salmonella on Sprouting Seeds Using a Spontaneous Carvacrol Nanoemulsion Acidified with Organic Acids.

    Landry, Kyle S; Komaiko, Jennifer; Wong, Dana E; Xu, Ting; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne


    Over the past decade, demand has increased for natural, minimally processed produce, including sprout-based products. Sanitization with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite is currently recommended for all sprouting seeds before germination to limit sprout-related foodborne outbreaks. A potentially promising disinfectant as an alternative to calcium hypochlorite is acidified spontaneous essential oil nanoemulsions. In this study, the efficacy of an acidified carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against mung beans and broccoli seeds artificially contaminated with a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis cocktail (ATCC BAA-709, ATCC BAA-711, and ATCC BAA-1045). Treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in acidified (50 mM acetic or levulinic acid) carvacrol nanoemulsions (4,000 or 8,000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. After treatment, the number of surviving cells was determined via plate counts and/or the most probable number (MPN) approach. Treatment for 30 min successfully reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by 4 log CFU/g on mung beans (from an initial contamination level of 4.2 to 4.6 log CFU/g) and by 2 log CFU/g on broccoli seeds (from an initial contamination level of 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/g) to below our detection limit (≤3 MPN/g). Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens and sprout yield. The final sprout product had no detectable pathogens, and total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatment. PMID:27357030

  14. Replacing corn with pearl millet (raw and sprouted) with and without enzyme in chickens' diet.

    Afsharmanesh, M; Ghorbani, N; Mehdipour, Z


    An experiment was conducted to compare a commercial corn-soya bean meal diet with a pearl millet (raw and sprouted) diet containing less soya bean meal, alone or in combination with exogenous enzyme, on growth performance and ileal villus development of chicks. Two-hundred-and-forty-one-day-old male broilers (10/pen) were randomly allocated to one of the following dietary treatments: (i) a standard corn-soya bean meal control diet (CTL); (ii) a raw pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (PM); (iii) a sprouted pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (SPM); (iv) CTL + exogenous enzymes (CE); (v) PM + exogenous enzymes (PE); and (vi) SPM + exogenous enzymes (SPE) with four replicate pens/treatment. Body weight of birds at day 21 did not differ between those fed the CTL, and SPM and PE diets. In comparison with feeding broilers the CTL diet, feeding the PE and SPM diets caused significant decrease in feed intake, but with equivalent growth and feed efficiency. However, at day 21, feed conversion ratio did not differ between birds fed the CTL diet and those fed the PM, PE and SPM diets. At day 21, broilers fed the PM and PE diets had longer villi (p corn, broiler diets formulated with sprouted pearl millet or pearl millet with enzyme require less soya bean meal and can be used to improve growth performance traits and villus development. PMID:26033116

  15. [Sprouting of forensic medicine].

    Jia, J


    Since there are materials relevant to medical jurisprudence in Qin Lu (law of Qin Dynasty), Feng Zhen Shi (sealed pattern of investigation) and Huangdi Neijing (inner canon of Yellow Emperor), and the examining system of Warring States Period include procedures, personnel and reports on examination of medical jurisprudence, it can be concluded that the pre-Qin Period saw the sprouting period of Chinese medical jurisprudence. PMID:11615229

  16. Determination of sodium parachlorophenoxy in bean sprouts by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry%高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定豆芽中4-氯苯氧乙酸钠

    卢高超; 王小娟; 李红光; 穆登峰; 刘永健


    Objective To establish a method for determination of sodium parachlorophenoxy (4-CPANa) in bean sprouts by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). MethodsThe soybean sample was extracted with 0.01 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution, and the extracting solution was recovered by diethyl ether in acidic condition. After centrifugation, the organic phase was concentrated completely and re-dissolved with methanol. The sample was separated by a Hypersil GOLD aQ column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 3μm) with methanol and 0.1% FA aqueous as mobile phase. The remnant was detected by MS/MS using H-ESI technology (negative ion mode) and SRM detection mode.ResultsThe detection limit was 0.005 mg/kg and the linear range was 1~100 ng/mL with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9998. The average recoveries were between 79.1%~104.7% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 5% (n=6).ConclusionThisanalytical method is sample, rapid, accurate, and sensitive, and can be used for the rapid detection of sodium parachlorophenoxy in bean sprouts.%目的:建立豆芽中4-氯苯氧乙酸钠的液相色谱-串联质谱测定方法。方法豆芽样品均质后以0.01 mol/L氢氧化钠溶液提取,提取液经酸化后再用乙酸乙酯萃取,收集经离心分层的有机相,浓缩后用甲醇溶解进行测定分析。以甲醇和0.1%甲酸(FA)水溶液为流动相,采用Hypersil GOLD aQ (100 mm×2.1 mm,3μm)色谱柱分离,电喷雾电离负离子条件下以选择反应监测模式(SRM)检测。结果该方法检出限0.005 mg/kg,在1~100 ng/mL范围内具有良好线性,相关系数为0.9998。回收率为79.1%~104.7%,相对标准偏差低于5%(n=6)。结论该方法前处理简单快速,定性准确,灵敏度好,适用于豆芽中4-氯苯氧乙酸钠的残留检测。

  17. 西宁市中院审理“毒豆芽”案的调查研究报告%Investigation Report of Poison Bean Sprouts Case in Xi'ning City Court



    管仲曾说:“王者以民为天,民以食为天,能知天之天者,斯可矣。”食品安全不仅直接关系着人们的身体健康和生命安全,而且影响着社会稳定及其和谐发展。西宁市城东区“毒豆芽”案就是当前食品安全犯罪的典型代表,通过对本案的调研,发现了我国食品安全犯罪刑法规制存在缺乏资格刑、刑法与食品安全其他相关法律衔接不足、食品安全犯罪罪名归属章节欠合理等问题,以此提出完善的建议和做法。%Once Guan Chong has said:‘The king must rely on people and people must rely on diet, a person who knows the truth can be the king.’ Food security is not only directly related to people’s health and safety, but also has a profound impact on the major issues of social stability and harmonious development.‘Poison bean sprouts’ in Xining city is the typical representatives of the current food safety crime. Through the investigation of the case, it shows the criminal law of our country food safety crime lacks qualifications, the criminal law and other relevant laws on food safety convergence insufficiency, food safety crime attributable to unreasonable chapters and so on.

  18. Flow cytometry for rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in seed sprouts

    Bledar Bisha


    Full Text Available Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc. have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1 of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present in relatively low numbers. We combined DNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with flow cytometry (FCM for the rapid molecular detection of Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in artificially contaminated alfalfa and other seed sprouts. Components of the assay included a set of cooperatively binding probes, a chemical blocking treatment intended to reduce non-specific background, and sample concentration via tangential flow filtration (TFF. We were able to detect S. Typhimurium in sprout wash at levels as low as 103 CFU ml−1 sprout wash (104 CFU g−1 sprouts against high microbial backgrounds (~108 CFU g−1 sprouts. Hybridization times were typically 30 min, with additional washing, but we ultimately found that S. Typhimurium could be readily detected using hybridization times as short as 2 min, without a wash step. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of combined DNA-FISH and FCM for rapid detection of Salmonella in this challenging food matrix and provide industry with a useful tool for compliance with sprout production standards proposed in the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA.

  19. Outbreaks caused by sprouts, United States, 1998-2010: lessons learned and solutions needed.

    Dechet, Amy M; Herman, Karen M; Chen Parker, Cary; Taormina, Peter; Johanson, Joy; Tauxe, Robert V; Mahon, Barbara E


    After a series of outbreaks associated with sprouts in the mid-1990s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published guidelines in 1999 for sprouts producers to reduce the risk of contamination. The recommendations included treating seeds with an antimicrobial agent such as calcium hypochlorite solution and testing spent irrigation water for pathogens. From 1998 through 2010, 33 outbreaks from seed and bean sprouts were documented in the United States, affecting 1330 reported persons. Twenty-eight outbreaks were caused by Salmonella, four by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and one by Listeria. In 15 of the 18 outbreaks with information available, growers had not followed key FDA guidelines. In three outbreaks, however, the implicated sprouts were produced by firms that appeared to have implemented key FDA guidelines. Although seed chlorination, if consistently applied, reduces pathogen burden on sprouts, it does not eliminate the risk of human infection. Further seed and sprouts disinfection technologies, some recently developed, will be needed to enhance sprouts safety and reduce human disease. Improved seed production practices could also decrease pathogen burden but, because seeds are a globally distributed commodity, will require international cooperation. PMID:25076040

  20. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Messina, Virginia


    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. PMID:24871476

  1. Study of Active Ingredients in Black Soybean Sprouts and Their Safety in Cosmetic Use

    Yinmao Dong


    Full Text Available Active ingredients in different lengths of black soybean sprouts were extracted with water. Concentrations of the main proteins and polysaccharides were determined by the Forint phenol assay and phenol-sulfuric acid assay, respectively. Anti-oxidizing capacities of the extracts were measured in vitro using the DPPH scavenging test and whitening capacity was measured in vitro using the tyrosinase inhibition test. The effects of the bean sprout extracts on human skin fibroblasts damnified by H2O2 were studied using an MTT colorimetric assay. The safety of the extracts was determined using the red blood cell (RBC test, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay and human patch test. Results show that DPPH radical scavenging rates at different shoot lengths were all greater than 95%, while the tyrosinase inhibition capacity of the extracts reached 98%. Hemolysis rate in all extracts were lower than 10%, below the 20% regulatory limit for the RBC test. No signs of allergic reactions were observed in the human patch tests. The optimum extract was obtained from bean sprouts grown to 0.5 cm. Extracts of black bean sprouts are safe and can be used as additives in anti-aging and whitening cosmetic products.

  2. Determination of 10 Plant Growth Regulators in Bean Sprouts by Sequential Cleaning-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%分级净化结合气相色谱-质谱联用法测定豆芽中10种植物生长调节剂

    吴平谷; 王天娇; 谭莹; 张晶; 王立媛; 汤鋆; 姜维; 潘晓东; 马冰洁; 倪竹南


    建立了豆芽10种植物生长调节剂的分级净化体系,采用气相色谱质谱法(GC/ MS)对该体系的效果进行了评价。豆芽先用酸性乙腈提取,浓缩后用甲醇复溶,部分经 QuECHERS 试剂盒净化后用 GC/ MS 分析2,4-D-乙酯2,4-D-丁酯。另一部分经 MCS 固相萃取柱净化,先用5 mL 甲醇洗脱得组分1,再用5%氨化甲醇洗脱得组分2;组分1浓缩后用10%三氟化硼甲醇溶液甲酯化,提取后 GC/ MS 测定4-氯苯氧乙酸、α-萘乙酸、2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸、吲哚乙酸、吲哚丁酸,组分2浓缩后用 GC/ MS 测定多效唑、激动素、6-苄基腺嘌呤。采用此净化体系对可以对不同性质的植物生长调节剂进行有效净化。结果表明,本方法完全可以用于豆芽中10种植物生长调节剂残留的检测,在豆芽中的添加0.01~0.1 mg/ kg,10种植物生长调节剂平均回收率范围为70.5%~93.2%,RSD 为5.2%~12.3%,本方法对10种植物生长调节剂的定量限(S/ N≥10)为0.01~0.025 mg/ kg,检出限(S/ N≥3)为0.003~0.008 mg/ kg。此净化体系简便、快速、准确,结合 GC/ MS 可以满足豆芽中植物生长调节剂多残留检测要求。%A sequential clean-up method was developed for the quantification of 10 plant growth regulators in bean sprout by the gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (GC / MS). The analytes were firstly extracted by the acided acetonitrile. Extraction was concentrated and re-dissovled by methanol. Then, it was divided to two aliquots. One of that was analyzed for 2,4-D-butyl ester and 2,4-D-ethyl ester after the purification by QuECHERS cartridge. Another one was treated by MCS solid phase extraction column including diverse eluting steps. After eluting by 5 mL methanol, composition 1 was obtain, concentrated, and methyl esterified by 10% boron trifluoride methanol solution. The treated extract was used for the determination of 4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid, β-naphthyl acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, indole

  3. Disinfection of seeds and sprout inhibition of potatoes with low energy electrons

    Todoriki, S. E-mail:; Hayashi, T


    Electrons at acceleration voltages of 170-190 kV reduced microbial count of seeds of adzuki bean, pot herb mustered and black gram to undetectable levels without any detrimental effects on the germination ability. However, electrons at 200 kV or higher affected the growing of black gram sprouts. The energies of electrons at the surface of seed (15 cm distance from the accelerator's window) at acceleration voltages of 170-190 kV were estimated to be 60-90 kV, based on the stopping powers of titanium and air. Electrons at acceleration voltages of 250 kV or higher inhibited sprouting of potato tubers of various cultivars. The results suggest the efficacy of low energy electron treatment for disinfection of seeds and sprout inhibition of potatoes. (author)

  4. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K


    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed. PMID:26742616

  5. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy


    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans. PMID:25987998

  6. Dormancy and sprout control in root and tuber crops

    Cheema, M.U.A.


    Research objectives were to study dormancy/sprout control in potato and sweetpotato, and to identify novel sprout control strategies. Consistent with sprout stimulation by gibberellins (GAs) in potato, 10 mM GA3 enhanced sprout length and number in sweetpotato roots and sprout growth was decreased by 20 ml/L piccolo (GA synthesis inhibitor). Continuous application of 10 ppm ethylene or greater prevented sprouting in sweetpotato roots over 4 weeks storage at 25° C. Sprout growth was also i...

  7. An ultrasensitive fluorescence method suitable for quantitative analysis of mung bean nuclease and inhibitor screening in vitro and vivo.

    Peng, Lan; Fan, Jialong; Tong, Chunyi; Xie, Zhenhua; Zhao, Chuan; Liu, Xuanming; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Bin


    Mung bean nuclease is a single stranded specific DNA and RNA endonuclease purified from mung bean sprouts. It yields 5'-phosphate terminated mono- and oligonucleotides. The activity level of this nuclease can act as a marker to monitor the developmental process of mung bean sprouts. In order to facilitate the activity and physiological analysis of this nuclease, we have developed a biosensing assay system based on the mung bean nuclease-induced single-stranded DNA scission and the affinity difference of graphene oxide for single-stranded DNA containing different numbers of bases. This end-point measurement method can detect mung bean nuclease in a range of 2×10(-4) to 4×10(-2) with a detection limit of 1×10(-4) unit/mL. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the assay for screening chemical antibiotics and metal ions, resulting in the identification of several inhibitors of this enzyme in vitro. Furthermore, we firstly report that inhibiting mung bean nuclease by gentamycin sulfate and kanamycin in vivo can suppress mung bean sprouts growth. In summary, this method provides an alternative tool for the biochemical analysis for mung bean nuclease and indicates the feasibility of high-throughput screening specific inhibitors of this nuclease in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27125839

  8. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis germinated in abiotic stress conditions

    Urszula Złotek


    Full Text Available Background. Adzuki sprouts are one of more valuable but still underappreciated dietary supplements which may be considered as functional food. Sprouting reduces anti-nutritional factors and increases the bioavailability of macro and micronutrients and also affects phytochemical levels. Exposure of plants to abiotic stresses results in change in production of phytochemical compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the content and antioxidant properties of phenolic in adzuki bean seeds germinated in selected abiotic stress conditions. Material and methods. Adzuki bean seeds were germinated in different abiotic stress conditions: thermal, osmotic and oxidative. The content of phenolics in adzuki bean seeds coat extracts and antioxidant activity Fe2+ chelating ability and neutralization of the free radicals generated from DPPH and ABTS were determined. Results. All applied stress conditions (except for thermal stress have caused decrease the content of the analysed phenolic fractions. The lowest amounts of polyphenols in extracts of sprouts obtained in oxidative stress conditions were observed. The highest ability to neutralize free radicals generated with ABTS and DPPH have extracts from sprouts germinated under thermal stress 39.94 and 13.20 μmol TEAC/g d.w., respectively. The lowest – sprouts obtained in oxidative stress conditions (18.2 and 9.72 μmol TEAC/g d.w.. The highest ability to chelate Fe2+ has been shown by the extract from adzuki bean seeds coat subjected to thermal stress (7.06 % and the lowest control extract (3.08%. Conclusions. It can be concluded that only thermal stress contributes to the improvement of antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from adzuki bean seeds coat.

  9. 我国发芽粮食及食品应用研究最新进展%Research progress on sprouted grain and food application in China

    马先红; 刘景圣; 陈翔宇; 李艳红; 李侠东; 谢忠民


    综述了我国糙米、玉米、大豆、黑豆、绿豆、豇豆、黑米、大麦、荞麦、燕麦、小麦及薏米等粮食发芽后营养成分与生物活性成分的变化,以及发芽粮食在食品中的应用,以期为粮食深加工提供一些理论参考。%The research of sprouted grain with thechanges of nutritionalcompositions and some functioncomponents in brown rice,corn,soybean,black bean,mung bean,cowpea,black rice, barley,buckwheat,oats,wheat and adlay were reviewed. In the study,a review wasmade on food application of sprouted grain and it will provide a basis for the depth using of grain.

  10. Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern.

    Taormina, P. J.; Beuchat, L. R.; Slutsker, L.


    Recent outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with raw seed sprouts have occurred in several countries. Subjective evaluations indicate that pathogens can exceed 107 per gram of sprouts produced from inoculated seeds during sprout production without adversely affecting appearance. Treating seeds and sprouts with chlorinated water or other disinfectants fails to eliminate the pathogens. A comprehensive approach based on good manufacturing practices and principles of hazard analysis and critical control points can reduce the risk of sprout-associated disease. Until effective measures to prevent sprout-associated illness are identified, persons who wish to reduce their risk of foodborne illness from raw sprouts are advised not to eat them; in particular, persons at high risk for severe complications of infections with Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7, such as the elderly, children, and those with compromised immune systems, should not eat raw sprouts. PMID:10511518

  11. SproutCore web application development

    Keating, Tyler


    Written as a practical, step-by-step tutorial, Creating HTML5 Apps with SproutCore is full of engaging examples to help you learn in a practical context.This book is for any person looking to write software for the Web or already writing software for the Web. Whether your background is in web development or in software development, Creating HTML5 Apps with SproutCore will help you expand your skills so that you will be ready to apply the software development principles in the web development space.

  12. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.


    ... Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis) using the sprout portion of malt barley as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt...

  13. Comparing potato tuberization and sprouting: opposite phenomena

    Vreugdenhil, D.


    The regulation of tuber formation and tuber sprouting are compared. As a starting point it is hypothesized that these two phenomena are opposite to each other. This idea is tested from three points of view: hormonal regulation, gene expression, and carbohydrate metabolism. It is concluded that there

  14. Carbon disulphide promotes sprouting of potato minitubers

    Salimi, Kh.; Hosseini, M.B.; Struik, P.C.; Tavakkol Afshari, R.


    We investigated the effects of postharvest application of carbon disulphide (CS2) in various concentrations (0, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 ml m-3) and with different exposure duration (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) on breaking of dormancy and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Marfona) minitubers of t

  15. Regulation of potato tuber dormancy and sprouting

    Aksenova, N.P.; Sergeeva, L.; Konstantinova, T.N.; Golyanovskaya, S.A.; Kolachevskaya, O.O.; Romanov, G.A.


    Dormancy is the final stage of tuber life serving to preserve tubers as organs of vegetative reproduction under unfavorable growth conditions. Since the duration of potato tuber dormancy and their sprouting time have significant economic importance, much attention is given to the study of the regula

  16. Sprouting inhibition of rhizomes by gamma irradiation

    Sprouting inhibition by gamma irradiation to prolong the storage life of 4 species of rhizomes, namely curcuma domestica, kaemferia galanga, curcuma xanthoriza and curcuma aeruginosa, has been carried out. Two groups of samples were used, freshly harvested rhizomes and fresh rhizomes which have been stored for about two weeks. The samples were packed in a plastic net bag, each contained about 100 grams of rhizomes. Irradiation was carried out at room temperature at the doses of 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 kGy. Post irradiation storage was done at room temperature with relative humidity ranging between 85 and 95%. The results showed that irradiation doses of 0.06 to 0.08 kGy was sufficient to inhibit sprouting of freshly harvested rhizomes and prolonged its storage life for 6 weeks, while in the other group sprouting still occured at the dose of 0.25 kGy. Irradiation dose up to 0.25 kGy did not cause significant effect on moisture and volatile oil contents, as well as volatile oil characteristics of the samples. About 50% of weight losses were found either in irradiated or unirradiated samples after being stored for 8 weeks. Odour and texture were evaluated organoleptically while mould growth and insect damage were observed visually. (author)

  17. Nitrogen and post-harvest yellowing of Brussels sprouts

    Everaarts, A.P.


    A study was made of the effect of a late nitrogen application on post-harvest yellowing of Brussels sprouts. Application of nitrogen, whether as granular fertilizer or as a lower amount sprayed over the crop in a watery solution, increased the nitrogen concentration in the outer leaves of the sprouts, but this did not result in less post-harvest yellowing. Size of the sprouts and moment of harvest, however, strongly influenced post-harvest yellowing.

  18. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts

    Fahey Jed W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increased interest in consuming green vegetable sprouts has been tempered by the fact that fresh sprouts can in some cases be vehicles for food-borne illnesses. They must be grown according to proper conditions of sanitation and handled as a food product rather than as an agricultural commodity. When sprouts are grown in accordance with the criteria proposed from within the sprout industry, developed by regulatory agencies, and adhered to by many sprouters, green sprouts can be produced with very low risk. Contamination may occur when these guidelines are not followed. Methods A one year program of microbial hold-and-release testing, conducted in concert with strict seed and facility cleaning procedures by 13 U.S. broccoli sprout growers was evaluated. Microbial contamination tests were performed on 6839 drums of sprouts, equivalent to about 5 million consumer packages of fresh green sprouts. Results Only 24 (0.75% of the 3191 sprout samples gave an initial positive test for Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp., and when re-tested, 3 drums again tested positive. Composite testing (e.g., pooling up to 7 drums for pathogen testing was equally sensitive to single drum testing. Conclusion By using a "test-and-re-test" protocol, growers were able to minimize crop destruction. By pooling drums for testing, they were also able to reduce testing costs which now represent a substantial portion of the costs associated with sprout growing. The test-and-hold scheme described herein allowed those few batches of contaminated sprouts to be found prior to packaging and shipping. These events were isolated, and only safe sprouts entered the food supply.

  19. Ecological and environmental factors constrain sprouting ability in tropical trees.

    Salk, Carl F; McMahon, Sean M


    Most theories of forest biodiversity focus on the role of seed dispersal and seedling establishment in forest regeneration. In many ecosystems, however, sprouting by damaged stems determines which species occupies a site. Damaged trees can quickly recover from disturbance and out-compete seedlings. Links among species' traits, environmental conditions and sprouting could offer insight into species' resilience to changes in climate, land use, and disturbance. Using data for 25 Neotropical tree species at two sites with contrasting rainfall and soil, we tested hypotheses on how four functional traits (seed mass, leaf mass per area, wood density and nitrogen fixation) influence species' sprouting responses to disturbance and how these relationships are mediated by a tree's environmental context. Most species sprouted in response to cutting, and many species' sprouting rates differed significantly between sites. Individual traits showed no direct correlation with sprouting. However, interactions among traits and site variables did affect sprouting rates. Many species showed increased sprouting in the higher-quality site. Most nitrogen-fixing species showed the opposite trend, sprouting more frequently where resources are scarce. This study highlights the use of functional traits as a proxy for life histories, and demonstrates the importance of environmental effects on demography. PMID:21116651

  20. Growth characteristics of mung beans and water convolvuluses exposed to 425-MHz electromagnetic fields.

    Jinapang, Peeraya; Prakob, Panida; Wongwattananard, Pongtorn; Islam, Naz E; Kirawanich, Phumin


    Effects of high-frequency, continuous wave (CW) electromagnetic fields on mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) and water convolvuluses (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) were studied at different growth stages (pre-sown seed and early seedling). Specifically, the effects of the electromagnetic source's power and duration (defined as power-duration level) on the growth of the two species were studied. Mung beans and water convolvuluses were exposed to electromagnetic fields inside a specially designed chamber for optimum field absorption, and the responses of the seeds to a constant frequency at various power levels and durations of exposure were monitored. The frequency used in the experiments was 425 MHz, the field strengths were 1 mW, 100 mW, and 10 W, and the exposure durations were 1, 2, and 4 h. Results show that germination enhancement is optimum for the mung beans at 100 mW/1 h power-duration level, while for water convolvuluses the optimum germination power-duration level was 1 mW/2 h. When both seed types were exposed at the early sprouting phase with their respective optimum power-duration levels for optimum seed growth, water convolvuluses showed growth enhancement while mung bean sprouts showed no effects. Water content analysis of the seeds suggests thermal effects only at higher field strength. PMID:20564175

  1. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  2. Carbon disulphide promotes sprouting of potato minitubers

    Salimi, Kh.; Hosseini, M.B.; Struik, P.C.; Tavakkol Afshari, R.


    We investigated the effects of postharvest application of carbon disulphide (CS2) in various concentrations (0, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 ml m-3) and with different exposure duration (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) on breaking of dormancy and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Marfona) minitubers of two ages (freshly harvested and one week after harvest) and two weight classes (1.5 and 12 g). In comparison with the control minitubers, CS2 treated minitubers showed significantly shorter dormancy...

  3. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre


    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  4. Sprout inhibition of onions by irradiation

    Onions of a set grown local variety were gamma irradiated in the dose range of 2-8 Krad. The irradiated onions were then stored in 10 lb. bags and in single layer at an average ambient temperature of 830F and 79% relative humidity. Radiation doses of 4 Krad and above were completely inhibitory to sprouting of onions. Weight loss and rot incidence were markedly reduced in irradiated samples up to 10 months in both jute bag and single layer storage. An analysis of the cost benefit revealed that commercial irradiation of onions is economically feasible in Bangladesh if post-irradiation of storage extends for a period of over 6 months. (author)

  5. Reduction in flatulence factors in mung beans (Vigna radiata) using low-dose gamma-irradiation

    Mungbeans (Vigna radiata), control and gamma-irradiated at insect disinfestation dose levels (0.25 and 0.75 kGy) were germinated (0-6 Bays) and the qualitative and quantitative changes in soluble carbohydrates were studied in detail. The key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides inmungbeans were degraded in the irradiated samples at the onset of the germination (0-2 days) compared to the control where it occurred much later (>4days). However, the reducing sugars, mainly glucose, fructose and galactose, which are metabolised easily, were enhanced in the irradiated samples. At low dose (0.25 kGy), irradiation had no effect on germination and sprout length, indicating that irradiated beans are suitable for use as sprouted beans. These observations clearly indicate that gamma-irradiation at insect disinfestation dose levels improved the digestibility and nutritional quality of mung beans by reducing the content of oligosaccharides responsible for intestinal gas production. (C) 1999 Society of Chemical Industry

  6. Starch-related Enzymes during Potato Tuber Dormancy and Sprouting

    Sergeeva, L.I.; Claassens, M.M.J.; Jamar, D.C.L.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Vreugdenhil, D.


    Activities of enzymes presumably involved in starch biosynthesis (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, AGPase) and/or breakdown (starch phosphorylase, STP; amylases) were determined during potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber dormancy and sprouting. Overall activities of all these enzymes decreased during

  7. Storage changes in the quality of sound and sprouted flour.

    Sur, R; Nagi, H P; Sharma, S; Sekhon, K S


    Sound and sprouted flours (24 and 48 hr) from bread wheat (WL-1562), durum wheat (PBW-34) and triticale (TL-1210) were stored at room temperature (34.8 degrees C) and relative humidity (66.7%) for 0, 45, 90 and 135 days to assess the changes in physico-chemical and baking properties. Protein, gluten, sedimentation value, starch and crude fat decreased during storage in all the samples; however, the decrease was more in sprouted flours. Free amino acids, proteolytic activity, diastatic activity and damaged starch decreased with increase in storage period. Total sugars and free fatty acids increased more rapidly in the flours of sprouted wheats during 135 days of storage. Loaf volume of breads decreased during storage in both sound and sprouted flour but the mean percent decrease in loaf volume was more in stored sound flours. Aging of sprouted flour for 45 days improved the cookie and cake making properties but further storage was of no value for these baked products. Chapati making properties of stored sound and sprouted flour were inferior to that of fresh counterparts. PMID:8332585

  8. Can leek interfere with bean plant–bean fly interaction?

    Bandara, PB; V Kumar; Ninkovic, Velemir; Ahmed, Elham; Pettersson, Jan; Glinwood, Robert


    Effects of volatile odors from leek, Allium porum L., on the behavior of bean ßy, Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), were tested in laboratory olfactometer bioassays. Aqueous and solvent extracts (dichloromethane and methanol) of leek were repellent to adult ßies. Whole leek plants were repellent and prevented attraction to the host plant, beans. Beans that had been exposed to volatiles from living leek plants for 7 d became repellent to the ßy. Leek and several...

  9. Development of Combined Dry Heat and Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment with Mechanical Mixing for Inactivation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo on Mung Bean Seeds.

    Annous, Bassam A; Burke, Angela


    Foodborne outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh sprouted beans. The sprouting conditions of mung bean seeds provide optimal conditions of temperature and relative humidity for any potential pathogenic contaminant on the seeds to grow. The lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. Thus, the use of a kill step on the seeds prior to a sprouting step would enhance the safety of fresh sprouts. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined thermal and chlorine dioxide gas (3.5 mg/liter of air) treatment with mechanical mixing (tumbling) to eliminate Salmonella on artificially inoculated mung bean seeds. Although no viable Salmonella was recovered from seeds treated in hot water at 60°C for 2 h, these treated seeds failed to germinate. Dry heat treatments (55, 60, or 70°C) for up to 8 h reduced Salmonella populations in excess of 3 log CFU/g. The use of tumbling, while treating the seeds, resulted in up to 1.6 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella populations compared with no tumbling. Dry heat treatment at 65°C for 18 h with tumbling resulted in a complete inactivation of Salmonella populations on inoculated seeds with low inoculum levels (2.83 log CFU/g) as compared with high inoculum levels (4.75 log CFU/g). The increased reductions in pathogenic populations on the seeds with the use of tumbling could be attributed to increased uniformity of heat transfer and exposure to chlorine dioxide gas. All treated seeds were capable of germinating, as well as the nontreated controls. These results suggest that this combined treatment would be a viable process for enhancing the safety of fresh sprouts. PMID:25951379

  10. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting induced by botulinum toxin type A

    Hong Jiang; Yi Xiang; Xingyue Hu; Huaying Cai


    Botulinum toxin type A is a potent muscle relaxant that blocks the transmission and release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A has served as an effective and safe therapy for strabismus and focal dystonia. However, muscular weakness is temporary and after 3-4 months, muscle strength usually recovers because function-al recovery is mediated by nerve sprouting and reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction. Acrylamide may produce neurotoxic substances that cause retrograde necrotizing neuropathy and inhibit nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A. This study investigated whether acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. A tibial nerve sprouting model was established through local injection of botulinum toxin type A into the right gastrocnemius muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats. Following intramuscular injection, rats were given intraperitoneal injection of 3%acrylamide every 3 days for 21 days. Nerve sprout-ing appeared 2 weeks after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A and single-fiber electromyography revealed abnormal conduction at the neuromuscular junction 1 week after intra-muscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. Following intraperitoneal injection of acrylamide, the peak muscle ifber density decreased. Electromyography jitter value were restored to normal levels 6 weeks after injection. This indicates that the maximal decrease in ifber density and the time at which functional conduction of neuromuscular junction was restored were delayed. Addition-ally, the increase in tibial nerve ifbers was reduced. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A and may be used to prolong the clinical dosage of botulinum toxin type A.

  11. Spinal irradiation does not inhibit distal axonal sprouting

    In an attempt to determine the relative importance of the nerve cell body and of the axon in initiating and controlling axonal regeneration, nerve cell bodies were irradiated and the ability of the distal axon to sprout was examined. Mice were subjected to either 25 or 50 Gray (Gy) of x-irradiation localized to the lumbar spinal cord. After times varying from 1 day to 6 months after irradiation, a sublethal dose of botulinum toxin (BoTx) was injected into the calf muscles of one leg. The soleus muscle was examined histologically after times varying from 1 week to 6 months after injection, and BoTx-induced ultraterminal axonal sprouting was assessed by the number of motor endplates showing sprouts, the length of the sprouts, and the long term endplate morphology. Apart from some irradiated subgroups having slightly shorter sprout lengths, no significant differences were found between irradiated and nonirradiated groups. The results suggest either that the processes in the nerve cell body responsible for initiating and supporting axonal growth are resistant to large doses of irradiation, or that growth regulatory mechanisms in the distal axon are under local control

  12. Registration of 'Croissant' pinto bean

    ‘Croissant’ (Reg. No. CV-299, PI 656597), a new medium-maturity (94–98 d) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar was released by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station to provide dry bean producers in the USA with a high-yielding cultivar that combines resistance to rust [caused by Uromyc...

  13. The effect of essential oil formulations for potato sprout suppression.

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N


    The concerns over safety and environmental impact of synthetic pesticides such as chlorpropham (CIPC) has stimulated interest in finding environmentally benign, natural sprout suppressants, including essential oils. The effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Lippia multiflora essential oils on sprout growth and decay of stored potatoes has been investigated. Formulations of essential oils with alumina, bentonite, or kaolin, both with and without Triton X-100 additive, were tested. These formulations have been compared to the pulverized plant materials themselves as well as wick-volatilized essential oils. The results showed that the tested oils possess compositions that make them suitable for application as sprout suppressants. Additionally, the formulation seems to be able to reduce the volatility of the essential oil and artificially extend dormancy of stored potatoes. PMID:20433090

  14. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    Senay Simsek


    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS and Hard White Spring (HWS wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat.

  15. Irradiated cocoa beans

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F0 animals and growth and development of the F1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  16. Effects of Yeast Polysaccharide on Growth and Flavonoid Accumulation in Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures

    Gang Zhao; Jianglin Zhao; Lianxin Peng; Liang Zou; Jingbo Wang; Lingyun Zhong; Dabing Xiang


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS) on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat). Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures ...

  17. Report on sprout inhibition of onions by irradiation

    A study on sprout inhibition of onions by irradiation had been performed on the basis of the basic plan for food irradiation research and development, and almost satisfactory results were obtained. This study revealed that sprout of onions was inhibited by irradiation with 2 - 13 Krad of 60Co.γ-ray at room temperature for 8 months after the harvest without hurting the quality of onions. As to safety of irradiated onions, induced radiation, changes in nutrition, hygienic and chemical effects of radiation on onions, and the toxicity of irradiated onions were discussed. The result revealed that there were not any problems on these items. (Tsunoda, M.)

  18. The Characteristic of Hyperspectral Image of Wheat Seeds during Sprouting

    Chen, Jiayu; Chen, Honghui; Wang, Xiaodong; Yu, Chunhua; Wang, Cheng; Zhu, Dazhou


    The pre-harvest sprouting of wheat have significant influence for its quality and yield, therefore the fast detection of sprouting extent of wheat is very important for breeding and producing. In this study, the hyperspectral images of these seeds were collected by a near infrared hyperspectral imaging system, the wavelength of which was 850-1700 nm after wheat germination experiment at 0h, 12h, 24h, and 48h. The original light intensity of embryo and endosperm were extracted, and were then c...

  19. Nitrogen balances during growth of Brussels sprouts and leeks

    Booij, R.; Willigen, van, J.A.; Kreuzer, A.D.H.; Smit, A.L.; Werf, van der, F.


    The nitrogen balance at different N-application rates was determined in Brussels sprouts and leeks during growth of the crop in two field experiments on a sandy soil. The N-input (from fertilizer and mineralisation) and the N-output (N in the above-ground crop parts and the residual mineral N in the soil (Nmin)) were calculated. No deficit on the nitrogen balance was observed during crop growth of Brussels sprouts up to a fertilizer rate of 300 kg ha-1. In leeks no deficit was found when 125 ...

  20. Adventitious sprouting of Pinus leiophylla in response to salt stress

    Jimenez-Casas, Marcos; Zwiazek, Janusz J.


    & Context Although adventitious shoots are produced in many tree species in response to injury, little is known about the effects of salinity on sprouting. & Aims The main objective was to examine the sprouting capacity of Pinus leiophylla seedlings in relation to injury and physiological changes induced by NaCl. & Methods Seedlings were grown in controlled-environment growth rooms and treated with 0, 100, 150, and 200 mM NaCl. Numbers of adventitious shoots were recorded and growth and physi...

  1. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    Ou, Keqin; Cheng, Yongqiang; Xing, Ying; Lin, Li; Nout, Robert; Liang, Jianfen


    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity (p 

  2. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E


    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  3. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Nieves Baenas


    Full Text Available We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo, a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  4. Research on sprout inhibition effect of refrigerated garlic by irradiation

    This paper researches the sprout inhibition effect by irradiation on refrigerated garlic. The results shows that, the garlic is still in the period of dormancy within 7 days after taken out from the refrigerated warehouse, and irradiation have a good sprout inhibition effect on it. The irradiation dose is 40-90 Gy, the same as that of the post harvest irradiation treatment on garlic. Refrigerate the Zhongmu Garlic (at -2 degree C-0 degree C) until the middle ten days of February the next year, place it at the room temperature (10 degree C-15 degree C) for 1-7 days after taking it out of the warehouse, then use 60Co γ-ray to irradiate it until the absorbed dose reaches 40-90 Gy, the sprout inhibition effect can be realized. The test also indicates that the deposited time after taking out of the refrigerated warehouse is crucial to the sprout inhibition effect of refrigerated garlic by irradiation. (authors)

  5. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Sprouting Angiogenesis: Proteases Pave the Way.

    Laurenzana, A; Fibbi, G; Margheri, F; Biagioni, A; Luciani, C; Del Rosso, M; Chillà, A


    Sprouting angiogenesis consists of the expansion and remodelling of existing vessels, where the vascular sprouts connect each other to form new vascular loops. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are a subtype of stem cells, with high proliferative potential, able to differentiate into mature Endothelial Cells (ECs) during the neovascularization process. In addition to this direct structural role EPCs improve neovascularization, also secreting numerous pro-angiogenic factors able to enhance the proliferation, survival and function of mature ECs, and other surrounding progenitor cells. While sprouting angiogenesis by mature ECs involves resident ECs, the vasculogenic contribution of EPCs is a high hurdle race. Bone marrowmobilized EPCs have to detach from the stem cell niche, intravasate into bone marrow vessels, reach the hypoxic area or tumour site, extravasate and incorporate into the new vessel lumen, thus complementing the resident mature ECs in sprouting angiogenesis. The goal of this review is to highlight the role of the main protease systems able to control each of these steps. The pivotal protease systems here described, involved in vascular patterning in sprouting angiogenesis, are the matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), the serineproteinases urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) associated with its receptor (uPAR) and receptorassociated plasminogen/plasmin, the neutrophil elastase and the cathepsins. Since angiogenesis plays a critical role not only in physiological but also in pathological processes, such as in tumours, controlling the contribution of EPCs to the angiogenic process, through the regulation of the protease systems involved, could yield new opportunities for the therapeutic prospect of efficient control of pathological angiogenesis. PMID:26321757

  6. Locomotion of Mexican jumping beans

    The Mexican jumping bean, Laspeyresia saltitans, consists of a hollow seed housing a moth larva. Heating by the sun induces movements by the larva which appear as rolls, jumps and flips by the bean. In this combined experimental, numerical and robotic study, we investigate this unique means of rolling locomotion. Time-lapse videography is used to record bean trajectories across a series of terrain types, including one-dimensional channels and planar surfaces of varying inclination. We find that the shell encumbers the larva's locomotion, decreasing its speed on flat surfaces by threefold. We also observe that the two-dimensional search algorithm of the bean resembles the run-and-tumble search of bacteria. We test this search algorithm using both an agent-based simulation and a wheeled Scribbler robot. The algorithm succeeds in propelling the robot away from regions of high temperature and may have application in biomimetic micro-scale navigation systems. (paper)

  7. purple_bean_crithab_streams

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This linear coverage represents critical habitat deliniation for the Purple Bean in the Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins. Linear segments were digitized over a...

  8. Faba bean in cropping systems

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik


    the plant–soil system associated with faba bean cropping via nitrate leaching or emissions of N2O to the atmosphere as a consequence of the rapid mineralization of N from its N-rich residues. It is important to develop improved preventive measures, such as catch crops, intercropping, or no-till technologies......The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  9. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States


    ... ). The PRA, titled ``Importation of French Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Runner Bean, Phaseolus... as follows: Sec. 319.56-51 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya...

  10. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    ... peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as beans and other legumes are an important source of protein. They are a key food in healthy diets and have many benefits. Beans, lentils, and ...

  11. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.

    McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F


    Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

  12. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting induced by botulinum toxin type A

    Jiang, Hong; Xiang, Yi; Hu, XingYue; Cai, Huaying


    Botulinum toxin type A is a potent muscle relaxant that blocks the transmission and release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A has served as an effective and safe therapy for strabismus and focal dystonia. However, muscular weakness is temporary and after 3–4 months, muscle strength usually recovers because functional recovery is mediated by nerve sprouting and reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction. Acrylamide may produce n...

  13. Hibernating myocardium results in partial sympathetic denervation and nerve sprouting

    Stanley F. Fernandez; Ovchinnikov, Vladislav; Canty, John M.; Fallavollita, James A.


    Hibernating myocardium due to chronic repetitive ischemia is associated with regional sympathetic nerve dysfunction and spontaneous arrhythmic death in the absence of infarction. Although inhomogeneity in regional sympathetic innervation is an acknowledged substrate for sudden death, the mechanism(s) responsible for these abnormalities in viable, dysfunctional myocardium (i.e., neural stunning vs. sympathetic denervation) and their association with nerve sprouting are unknown. Accordingly, ma...

  14. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    Salter, David


    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  15. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.


    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio


    Elisabete Vuaden


    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing some models that allow estimating the biomass of commercial green shoots of Ilex paraguariensis after pruning, at 10 years-old. In September 2007, 40 Ilex paraguariensis were pruned. One year after the first pruning, in 2008, they were evaluated dendrometrically and their biomass was determined from the commercial harvest of 16 individuals. To the others, the commercial biomass was estimated by the sum of the biomass of shoots.  The result obtained is that the biomass of commercial sprouts can be estimated as a function of the length of the rolls sprouting, with specific models for sprouts short, simple and compound average sprouts and long sprouts compounds. The models used to estimate the biomass of commercial sprouts using the length sum rolls and rolls of the length as independent variables underestimate the values of biomass with a margin of error of only 2.6%.

  17. Histogenesis of potato light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus

    Grażyna Garbaczewska


    Developmental stages of potato (Solanum tuberosum) light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) have been distinguished. Potato light sprouts from healthy tubers differentiate in the early stages to the apical and basal parts, which are characterized by distinct dynamics of growth. Ultrastructural examination of apex meristem and phloem ontogeny was carried out for healthy plants. In the development of potato light sprouts of plants infected with PLRV ...

  18. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    Senay Simsek; Jae-Bom Ohm; Haiyan Lu; Mory Rugg; William Berzonsky; Alamri, Mohammed S.; Mohamed Mergoum


    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS) and Hard White Spring (HWS) wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscositi...

  19. Control of weight loss and sprouting of ginger rhizome in storage

    Methods were investigated to control weight loss and sprouting of stored ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Rosc), including waxing, sprout inhibitors, and gamma irradiation. Rhizomes stored for 3 months at 22°C and 70% RH lost about 20% weight. Waxing of the rhizome did not reduce water loss. Some wax treatments increased the number and length of sprouts. Preharvest application of maleic hydrazide significantly increased the number and reduced the length of sprouts. Postharvest CIPC application significantly reduced the length of sprouts. Vacuum infiltration increased the effectiveness of CIPC in reducing sprout length. Gamma and X-ray irradiation also reduced sprout number and length. Minimum doses of gamma radiation for sprout control was 25 Gy and 120 to 150 Gy for X-ray irradiation if the rhizome was stored for more than 3 months at 22°C. At higher dose of irradiation (500 Gy) was required if complete sprout growth control was needed for storage periods < 3 months at Suberization occurred during curing at 22°C, but the suberin layer did not completely protect the cut surface

  20. Study on optimization of forced sprouting of Chinese yam. Development of a Chinese yam forced sprouting device; Nagaimo saiga saitekika kenkyu. Nagaimo saiga sochi no kaihatsu

    Ishikawa, M.; Konno, T.; Kogayashi, Y. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)


    In Chinese yam cultivation in Hokkaido, curing and forced sprouting treatments are indispensable, by which the cut faces of seed yams are dried completely into cork, and the treatments are the important factors to govern the yield. In practice, the work is being done using vinyl greenhouses, but it tends to be dependent of climate, its control is complex, and much labor is consumed for an extended period of time. Status of sprouting also tends to become non-uniform. In order to perform simply and stably the curing and the forced sprouting treatment, an electric heat utilizing device was developed, that can identify suitable environmental conditions and realize the conditions. It was verified that both of the curing (using air permeable sheets) and the forced sprouting treatment (using temperature keeping sheets) can raise and maintain the temperature to the optimum value. Humidity stayed in an adequate humidity band for the curing and the forced sprouting treatment at about 70% when the air permeable sheets are used, and 80% to saturation when the temperature keeping sheets are used, respectively. Some humidifying water addition may suffice the cultivation during the period of the forced sprouting, and the temperature control has reduced largely manpower consumption when compared to the greenhouse side window opening and closing practice. No re-stacking is required to make the sprouting condition uniform, thus production stability can be enhanced. (NEDO)

  1. Interaction between beans and objects

    The interaction between the X-ray beans and objects are studied, with the modification in the intensity. The kilovolt, the bundle filtration, the structure and composition of the patient and the quantity of scattered radiation are also described, as the main parameters for the contrast and for the dose of the patient. (C.G.C.)

  2. A link between hurricane-induced tree sprouting, high stem density and short canopy in tropical dry forest.

    Van Bloem, Skip J; Murphy, Peter G; Lugo, Ariel E


    The physiognomy of Caribbean dry forest is shorter, denser and contains a greater proportion of multi-stemmed trees than other neotropical dry forests. Our previous research, conducted after Hurricane Georges in 1998, has shown that dry forest trees sprout near the base following hurricane disturbance, even if the trees have not incurred structural damage. However, for these hurricane-induced sprouts to contribute to the physiognomy of the forest, they must grow and survive. We followed sprout dynamics and stem mortality on 1,407 stems from 1998, after Hurricane Georges, until 2005. The number of surviving sprouts and the proportion of sprouting stems decreased during the 7-year period, but the sprouting rate was still 3-fold higher and the proportion of sprouting stems 5-fold higher than before the hurricane. Mortality of non-sprouting stems (15.4%) was about the same as for sprouting stems (13.9%) after 7 years. The mean length of the dominant sprout surpassed 1.6 m by 2005, with over 13% of the dominant sprouts reaching subcanopy height. Sprout growth and survival varied among species. These results demonstrate that, despite some thinning, hurricane-induced sprouts survive and grow and that the unique physiognomic characteristic of Caribbean dry forests is related to hurricane disturbance. PMID:17241989

  3. Mint essential oil can induce or inhibit potato sprouting by differential alteration of apical meristem.

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Dudai, Nativ; Fischer, Ravit; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Shoseyov, Oded; Eshel, Dani


    Sprouting of potatoes during storage, due to tuber dormancy release, is associated with weight loss and softening. Sprout-preventing chemicals, such as chlorpropham (CIPC), can negatively impact the environment and human health. Monthly thermal fogging with mint (Mentha spicata L.) essential oil (MEO) inhibited sprouting in eight potato cultivars during large-volume 6-month storage: the tubers remained firm with 38% lower weight loss after 140 days of storage. The sprout-inhibitory action may be nullified: treated tubers washed with water resumed sprouting within days, with reduced apical dominance. MEO application caused local necrosis of the bud meristem, and a few weeks later, axillary bud (AX) growth was induced in the same sprouting eye. MEO components analysis showed that 73% of its content is the monoterpene R-carvone. Tubers treated with synthetic R-carvone in equivalent dose, 4.5 microl l(-1), showed an inhibitory effect similar to that of MEO. Surprisingly, 0.5 microl l(-1) of MEO or synthetic R-carvone catalyzed AX sprouting in the tuber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an essential oil vapor inducing early sprouting of potato tubers. R-carvone caused visible damage to the meristem membrane at sprout-inhibiting, but not sprout-inducing doses, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. After 5 days' exposure to R-carvone, its derivatives transcarveol and neo-dihydrocarveol were found in buds of tubers treated with the inhibitory dose, suggesting biodegradation. These experiments demonstrate the potential of MEO vapor as an environmentally friendly alternative to CIPC in stored potatoes and as a research tool for the control of sprouting in plants. PMID:20390295

  4. Catalase inhibition accelerates dormancy release and sprouting in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers

    Mohammed Bajji


    Full Text Available The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 metabolism in dormancy release and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers has been investigated using three complementary approaches. In the first approach, the evolution of the sprouting kinetics, H2O2 content and antioxidant enzyme activities were examined during tuber storage. The most important changes occurred at the « bud/sprout » level. In particular, dormancy release was accompanied by a transient but remarkable increase in H2O2 content. In the second approach, the effect of a catalase (CAT, EC inhibitor (thiourea or of exogenous H2O2 application on tuber sprouting behaviour was assessed. Both treatments resulted in a reduction of the dormancy period and in rapid and synchronised sprouting of the treated tubers when compared to the control as well as in increased sprout number per tuber. In the third approach, the effect of CAT inhibition on potato tuber dormancy and sprouting was evaluated using the transgenic technology. Plants partially repressed in their CAT activity were produced and, once again, CAT inhibition resulted in acceleration of the sprouting kinetics and in increased sprout number of the transgenic tubers compared to those from the wild type. It thus appears that tuber dormancy and sprouting can be controlled in potato by the manipulation of H2O2 metabolism via the inhibition of CAT activity. The possible mechanisms whereby CAT inhibitors or H2O2 overcome dormancy and promote sprouting in the potato tuber are discussed in relation to what is known in other plant models (seeds and fruit tree buds.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of two international sprout-borne Salmonella outbreaks.

    Puohiniemi, R; Heiskanen, T.; Siitonen, A.


    Sprout-borne Salmonella outbreaks in Finland have increased during the last 10 years. The latest two were caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Bovismorbificans (antigenic structure 6,8:r:1,5) in 1994 and S. enterica serovar Stanley (4,5, 12:d:1,2) in 1995. In this study, the restriction fragment length polymorphism of genomic DNA after pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial resistance profiles of the outbreak and nonoutbreak strains were compared. In each separate outbreak...

  6. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (∼10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein

  7. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge


    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  8. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge


    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  9. Selenium enrichment of broccoli sprout extract increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells

    Suzuki Kazuhiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Broccoli is a Brassica vegetable that is believed to possess chemopreventive properties. Selenium also shows promise as an anticancer agent. Thus, selenium enrichment of broccoli has the potential to enhance the anticancer properties of broccoli sprouts. Method Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were prepared using a sodium selenite solution. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in human prostate cancer cell lines and compared with those of a control broccoli sprout extract. Results Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were superior to normal broccoli sprouts in inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing prostate-specific antigen secretion, and inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts but, not normal broccoli sprouts, induced a downregulation of the survival Akt/mTOR pathway. Conclusion Our results suggest that selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts could potentially be used as an alternative selenium source for prostate cancer prevention and therapy.

  10. Different aspects of S-carvone A natural potato sprout growth inhibitor.

    Oosterhaven, J.


    After harvest, potato tubers are usually stored at a temperature of 6-8°C in combination with the application of a synthetic sprout inhibitor. Frequently used sprout inhibitors are isopropyl N-phenyl-carbamate (propham or IPC), isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamate (chlorpropham or CIPC) or a combin

  11. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk


    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  12. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil


    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility. PMID:26396436

  13. Comparison of the Stress Response of Listeria monocytogenes Strains with Sprout Colonization

    Seventeen strains of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes were tested for their ability to colonize alfalfa, radish, and broccoli sprouts, as well as their capacity to withstand acid and oxidative stress, two stresses common to the sprout growth environment. Whereas large variations in dif...

  14. Jack bean urease inhibition by crude juices of Allium and Brassica plants. Determination of thiosulfinates.

    Olech, Zofia; Zaborska, Wiesława; Kot, Mirosława


    The aim of this study was the elucidation of the inhibitory influence of Allium (garlic, onion, leek) and Brassica (cabbage, Brussels sprouts) plants juices, on jack bean urease activity. Concentrations of thiosulfinates, the compounds responsible for the inhibition, were determined in studied materials. The kinetics and mechanism of the inhibitions were investigated. Biphasic, time-dependent courses of the inhibition reactions were observed for all tested Allium and Brussels sprouts from Brassica. The cabbage material caused the monophasic course of the inhibition. In the presence of dithiothreitol, a total reactivation of the inhibited urease proceeded for the tested plants except for the onion. The onion juice modified urease, regained only half of the initial activity. The irreversible contribution was related to the presence of 1-propanethial-S-oxide, cepaenes and zwiebelanes formed in the onion juice. It was found that the thermal processing of the plant juices, results in the decrease of thiosulfinates concentration, as well as the efficiency of urease inhibition. PMID:24128461

  15. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael;


    . A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling...... seed dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was......Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable...

  16. Methods for assessment of pre-harvest sprouting in wheat cultivars

    Melícia Ingredi Araújo Gavazza


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to test methods for pre-harvest sprouting assessment in wheat cultivars. Fourteen wheat cultivars were grown in Londrina and Ponta Grossa municipalities, Paraná state, Brazil. They were sampled at 10 and 17 days after physiological maturity and evaluated using the methods of germination by rainfall simulation (in a greenhouse, in-ear grain sprouting, and grains removed from the ears. The in-ear grain sprouting method allowed the differentiation of cultivars, but showed different resistance levels from the available description of cultivars. The sprouting of grain removed from the ears did not allow a reliable distinction of data on germination in any harvest date or location. The method of rainfall simulation is the most suitable for the assessment of cultivars as to pre-harvest sprouting, regardless of the sampling date and evaluated location.

  17. Sprouted buckwheat an important vegetable source of antioxidants

    Caterina Brajdes


    Full Text Available Germination process is the only food processing which provides asignificant increase of the nutritional value by enhancing the bioavailability of some nutritional compounds, such as vitamins. The aim of our study was to test the antioxidant properties of the buckwheat sprout. The total polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid contents during seven days of germination were determined. The results indicate that important changes occur in the amount of biologically active compounds during germination: the amount of polyphenols increases from 50.26 to 298.03 mg/100g d.w., the amount of rutin increases from 13.66 to 283.43 mg/100g d.w., the amount of quercitin increases from 4.77 to 223.76 mg/100g d.w., whereasthe amount of ascorbic acid increases from 0 to 1.09 mg/100g d.w. Due to the excellent antioxidant properties, the buckwheat sprouts can be considered good candidate ingredients for functional foods to be used for lowering the risk of various diseases and/or for exerting health promoting effects in addition to its nutritive value.

  18. Improvement of the nutraceutical quality of broccoli sprouts by elicitation.

    Natella, Fausta; Maldini, Mariateresa; Nardini, Mirella; Azzini, Elena; Foddai, Maria Stella; Giusti, Anna Maria; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina


    Epidemiological studies show an inverse association between Brassica consumption and chronic diseases. Phytochemicals are thought to be beneficial for human health and therefore responsible for this protective effect. Increasing their levels into Brassica food is considered an expedient nutritional strategy that can be achieved through the manipulation of growth conditions by elicitors. In this work we systematically evaluated the influence of treatment with different elicitors (sucrose, mannitol, NaCl, 1-aminocyclopropane-L-carboxylic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate) on the phytochemical composition of broccoli sprouts. The content of total and single glucosinolates, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, vitamin C and E and β-carotene was assessed. The exposure to different elicitors produced concentration- and elicitor-dependent specific changes in the content of all the phytochemicals considered. Sucrose, identified as the most effective elicitor by principal component analysis, induced a significant increase of total and specific glucosinolates, vitamin C, total anthocyanins and polyphenols. Sucrose is likely to represent an effective tool to increase the nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. PMID:26868554

  19. Systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome in monkeys fed alfalfa sprouts: role of a nonprotein amino acid.

    Malinow, M R; Bardana, E J; Pirofsky, B; Craig, S; McLaughlin, P


    Hematologic and serologic abnormalities similar to those observed in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed in cynomolgus macaques fed alfalfa sprouts. L-Canavanine sulfate, a constituent of alfalfa sprouts, was incorporated into the diet and reactivated the syndrome in monkeys in which an SLE-like syndrome had previously been induced by the ingestion of alfalfa seeds or sprouts. PMID:7071589

  20. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P


    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. PMID:27341891

  1. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny


    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  2. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.


    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of droug...

  3. Propoxur residues in cocoa beans

    Pod-bearing Amazon and Amelonado cocoa plants were sprayed with Unden 20% (propoxur, arprocarb, baygon) at the recommended rate of 210 g a.i./ha and twice the recommended rate at monthly intervals from July to October, 1976, and cured beans from the ripe pods analysed for propoxur residues by gas chromatography. In a radiotracer study with 14C-labelled propoxur, the effect of processing methods on residues and systemic uptake of propoxur from insecticide deposits on pod surfaces were also investigated. Residues did not exceed 0.03 ppm. There was no relationship between residues and harvesting time, cocoa type or rate of application. Contamination of beans with insecticide deposits on the pod surface during processing, and systemic uptake of insecticide from pod surfaces were negligible. (author)

  4. Process of Soft Canned Mung-Bean Sprout%绿豆芽软罐头加工工艺

    崔丽娟; 徐莹; 刘爱霞



  5. Blocking CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding inhibits sprouting angiogenesis and tumour growth

    PJ, Noy; P, Lodhia; K, Khan; X, Zhuang; DG, Ward; AR, Verissimo; A, Bacon; R, Bicknell


    We previously identified CLEC14A as a tumour endothelial marker. Here we show CLEC14A is a regulator of sprouting angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Using a HUVEC spheroid sprouting assay we found CLEC14A to be a regulator of sprout initiation. Analysis of endothelial sprouting in aortic ring and in vivo subcutaneous sponge assays from clec14a+/+ and clec14a−/− mice revealed defects in sprouting angiogenesis in CLEC14A deficient animals. Tumour growth was retarded and vascularity reduced in clec14a−/− mice. Pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed MMRN2 binds to the extracellular region of CLEC14A. The CLEC14A-MMRN2 interaction was interrogated using mouse monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies were screened for their ability to block this interaction. Clone C4 but not C2 blocked CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding. C4 antibody perturbed tube formation and endothelial sprouting in vitro and in vivo, with a similar phenotype to loss of CLEC14A. Significantly, tumour growth was impaired in C4 treated animals and vascular density was also reduced in the C4 treated group. We conclude that CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding has a role in inducing sprouting angiogenesis during tumour growth, that has the potential to be manipulated in future anti-angiogenic therapy design. PMID:25745997

  6. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts

    Rong-fang GUO; Gao-feng YUAN; Qiao-mei WANG


    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts,the germination rate,fresh weight,contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane,as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0,20,40,60,80,and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment.The results showed that glucoerucin,glucobrassicin,and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl.However,the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations(20,40,and 60 mmol/L).NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity.A relatively high level of NaCl treatment(100 mmol/L)significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control.These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition.

  7. Vegetable product containing caseinomacropeptide and germinated seed and sprouts.

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Simsek, Sebnem; Buyukkestelli, Hulya Ilyasoglu


    In this study vegetable product containing germinated seed and sprouts of lentils and cowpeas, and caseinomacropeptide isolated from whey is produced. Three different forms of vegetable product namely puree (VP), freeze-dried (FD) and drum-dried (DD) are produced. Freeze-dried and DD forms are produced to diversify forms of utilization and to improve functionality such as increased shelf life and decreased storage space. Their beneficial effects on health are determined using in vitro methods. All forms displayed antioxidant activities against DPPH radical and oxygen radical, α-amylase inhibitory activities, bile acid binding capacities, and angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Freeze-dried product exhibited the strongest inhibition on α-amylase and ACE with the IC50 value 0.09 μM total phenolic and 0.82 mg protein/g sample, respectively when evaluated on the basis of serving size. PMID:26788011

  8. Investigations into the endogenic abcisinic acid and cytokinin content of soja bean cultures with varying salt sensitivity, as well as into the effect of exogenically applied abcisinic acid to the Cl--translocation

    Two soja bean cultures with different Cl- sensitivity the 'Lee' and 'Jackson' were used for the investigation. Salting of the growth medium with 75 nM NaCl massively increased the obcisinic acid (ABA) concentration in the leaves, not however of the cytokinin content. The high ABA concentrations remained in the 'Jackson' sort even after a 7-day salt treatment. The moderately salt-resistant sort 'Lee' had a remarkable Cl- retention mechanism. The addition of 10-5 and 10-6 M ABA to the growth medium reduced the Cl- concentration in the sprout and simultaneously increased the accumulation in the root. This ABA effect failed at high salt concentration. The order of magnitude in which ABA is taken up from a normal or salted growth medium and its distribution were investigated using 14C. Macroautoradiographic investigations show that after 35 h the whole sprout is radioactively labelled whereby a prefered accumulation is found in youngest part of the sprout. The highest Cl- values were found in the older leaves. The ABA is obviously transported to the stomata with the transpiration flow and inhibits the transpiration by its effect on the stomata. Subjecting the soja beans to a 75 mM NaCl concentration, can lead to a decrease of transpiration due to the strong salt concentration. The addition of ABA as well had an inhibiting effect on the water release of the plants without influencing the Cl- translocation. (MG)

  9. Autonomic fiber sprouting in the skin in chronic inflammation

    Longo Geraldine


    Full Text Available Abstract Pain is a major symptom associated with chronic inflammation. In previous work from our laboratory, we have shown that in animal models of neuropathic pain there is a sprouting of sympathetic fibers into the upper dermis, a territory normally devoid of them. However, it is not known whether such sympathetic spouting, which is likely trophic factor mediated, also occurs in chronic inflammation and arthritis. In the present study, we used a rat model of chronic inflammation in which a small single dose of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA was injected subcutaneously, unilaterally, into the plantar surface of the hindpaw. This led to a localized long-term skin inflammation and arthritis in all joints of the hindpaw. Animals were perfused with histological fixatives at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after the injection. Experimental animals treated with CFA were compared to saline-injected animals. We then investigated the changes in the pattern of peripheral innervation of the peptidergic nociceptors and sympathetic fibers in rat glabrous hindpaw skin. Antibodies directed towards calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH were used for the staining of peptidergic and sympathetic fibers, respectively. Immunofluorescence was then used to analyze the different nerve fiber populations of the upper dermis. At 4 weeks following CFA treatment, DBH-immunoreactive (IR fibers were found to sprout into the upper dermis, in a pattern similar to the one we had observed in animals with a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in a previous publication. There was also a significant increase in the density of CGRP-IR fibers in the upper dermis in CFA treated animals at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-injection. The increased peptidergic fiber innervation and the ectopic autonomic fibers found in the upper dermis may have a role in the pain-related behavior displayed by these animals.

  10. Influence of size of onion bulb cv. 'Czerniakowska' on its dormancy, sprouting and rooting

    M. Bielińska-Czarnecka; A. Kępkowa; E. Kielak; E. Zdanowska


    Sprouting and rooting of onion bulb explants (bulbs deprived of open and closed shells) and of whole onion bulbs of three sizes, horizontal diameters: 2.5-3.5 cm, 3.6-5.0 cm, 5.1-7.0 cm were studied. During storage the earliest sprouting and rooting of bulb explants and of the whole onion bulbs was observed in small bulbs of diameters: 2.5-3.5, and the latest in large bulbs of 5.1-7.0 cm. The longer the period of storage the larger the amount of sprouted and rooted bulb explants and whole bul...

  11. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa


    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  12. Performance of the Bean-protein Fiber

    韩光亭; 杜宁; 孙亚宁


    The methods in testing the bean-protein fiber and the standards used were simply introduced. The fiber's mechanical and chemical performances were further analyzed. And the correlative performance of the bean-protein fibers and other natural fibers have been compared, then full knowledge of the fiber's performance was concluded.

  13. Common beans, diseases: ecology and control

    Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is one of the most important edible legume crops worldwide, nutritionally and economically. Diseases caused by pathogens that affect beans can have catastrophic effects, destroying entire crops in some instances. There are more than 200 pathogens (bacterial, fungal,...

  14. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    Rubinger, Andrew


    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  15. Histogenesis of potato light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus

    Grażyna Garbaczewska


    Full Text Available Developmental stages of potato (Solanum tuberosum light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus (PLRV have been distinguished. Potato light sprouts from healthy tubers differentiate in the early stages to the apical and basal parts, which are characterized by distinct dynamics of growth. Ultrastructural examination of apex meristem and phloem ontogeny was carried out for healthy plants. In the development of potato light sprouts of plants infected with PLRV a great many anomalies have been described. Three types of light sprouts developed from infected tubers. Anatomical investigations indicated a rapid growth of the number of necroses in the phloem, and submicroscopic observations showed the presence of virus particles and cytopathological structures: tubular and vesicular structures, paramural bodies and callose deposits. In the companion cells of the phloem the occurrence of very regular inclusions of virus particles was recorded.

  16. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

    Leena Hamberg

    Full Text Available We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr. Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh. 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  17. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    A Ri Byun; Hyejin Chun; Jin Lee; Sang Wha Lee; Hong Soo Lee; Kyung Won Shim


    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided i...


    Safronova, Tatiana; Evtuhova, Olga


    The present work is devoted to the development of technological parameters for the hydrothermal processing of powdered sprouted wheat and justification of use of the powder produced as a food additive. Introduction of sprouts into the diet stimulates metabolism and hematopoiesis, boosts immunity, compensates for vitamin and mineral deficiency, normalizes the acid-alkaline balance, promotes the elimination of toxins from the body, stimulates digestion, and slows the aging process. The use of s...

  19. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya


    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  20. Attachment to an endogenous laminin-like protein initiates sprouting by leech neurons


    Leech neurons in culture sprout rapidly when attached to extracts from connective tissue surrounding the nervous system. Laminin-like molecules that promote sprouting have now been isolated from this extracellular matrix. Two mAbs have been prepared that react on immunoblots with a approximately equal to 220- and a approximately equal to 340-kD polypeptide, respectively. These antibodies have been used to purify molecules with cross-shaped structures in the electron microscope. The molecules,...

  1. The spatial and temporal rooting pattern of Brussels sprouts and leeks

    Smit, A.L.; Booij, R.; Werf, van der, F.


    Rooting intensity and root distribution of Brussels sprouts and leeks were assessed in field experiments and in the Wageningen Rhizolab, a rhizotron facility built in 1990, in relation to their contrasting N uptake behaviour (Brussels sprouts usually take up N rapidly after planting, resulting in soil depletion, while leeks generally use only half of the available N). In field experiments rooting was quantified in the various layers of the profile as the volumetric root length density (RLD; c...

  2. Cereal cystatins delay sprouting and nutrient loss in tubers of potato, Solanum tuberosum

    Munger, Aurélie; Simon, Marie-Aube; Khalf, Moustafa; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Michaud, Dominique


    Background Recent studies have reported agronomically useful ectopic effects for recombinant protease inhibitors expressed in leaves of transgenic plants, including improved tolerance to abiotic stress conditions and partial resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. Here we assessed the effects of these proteins on the post-dormancy sprouting of storage organs, using as a model potato tubers expressing cysteine protease inhibitors of the cystatin protein superfamily. Results Sprout emergence and ...

  3. Radiation disinfestation of grains and cocoa beans

    A series of experiments has been performed by Ghanaian scientists from 1977 to 1987 to evaluate the seriousness of infestation and to establish effective doses for radiation disinfestation against insects and fungi which cause deterioration in grains and cocoa beans. Supporting investigations have been done on the effect of radiation disinfestation on some quality parameters and wholesomeness of grains (with maize as the test grain) and cocoa beans. A minimum dose of 0.8 kGy was established for effective control of insects present in stored grains and cocoa beans. For the decontamination against fungi and yeasts, a combination of moist heat (85% RH) applied to 60 deg. C for 30 min followed by a dose of 4 kGy was effective for maize and moist heat (85% RH) applied 80 deg. C and a dose of 4 kGy was recommended for cocoa beans. No significant difference was found between the organoleptic qualities of the products from maize and cocoa that had been treated with moist heat and radiation and the untreated samples. The cooling (solidifying) curves of cocoa butter prepared from untreated and treated cocoa beans were very similar. Irradiated cocoa beans were found to be wholesome. The prospects of radiation disinfestation of grains and cocoa beans have also been discussed. (author). 27 refs, 4 tabs

  4. Development of Lipophilic Antioxidants and Chloroplasts during the Sprouting of Diverse Triticum spp.

    Ziegler, Jochen U; Flockerzie, Miriam; Longin, C Friedrich H; Würschum, Tobias; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M


    The influence of sprouting times and illumination conditions on lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids, tocochromanols, alkylresorcinols, and steryl ferulates), chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was investigated using four varieties each of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum), spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta), durum (T. durum), emmer (T. dicoccum), and einkorn (T. monococcum). Carotenoid levels significantly increased during sprouting, particularly, under light exposure. In contrast, concentrations of other lipophilic antioxidants were affected to a lesser extent. Moreover, the quantitative development of lipophilic antioxidants was evidently determined by genotype. On the basis of the levels of carotenoids newly synthesized during sprouting, a chloroplast development index indicated that chloroplast ontogenesis during sprouting occurred at different species-dependent rates. Thermal degradation of carotenoids, tocochromanols, chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was observed during the drying of sprouts at 40 and 90 °C, while alkylresorcinol and steryl ferulate levels remained unaffected. Wheat sprouts were shown to be potential functional ingredients to increase the nutritional value of cereal products. PMID:26752117

  5. Endophytic bacterial and fungal microbiota in sprouts, roots and stems of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Wang, Wenfeng; Zhai, Yanyan; Cao, Lixiang; Tan, Hongming; Zhang, Renduo


    The objective of this study was to elucidate the endophytic microbiota in rice sprouts, roots, and stems, and their transmission in the plant development. Prior to DNA extraction, roots and stems were treated with 36% formaldehyde and 0.1M NaOH solutions to remove epiphytic bacterial whole 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial and fungal taxa in the sprout, root, and stem samples were analyzed using Illumina-based sequencing of the V3-V4 hyper variable regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the ITS2 regions of fungal rRNA genes, respectively. Results showed that more diverse bacterial OTUs were detected in roots than in stems, while more diverse fungal OTUs were detected in stems than in roots. Compared with the endophytic microbiota in sprouts, the bacterial OTUs increased in roots but decreased in stems, whereas the fungal OTUs in both stems and roots decreased. Sprout-borne bacterial genera Sphingomonas and Pseudomonus, and fungal genera Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, and Penicillium were detected in stems and roots. The coexistence of these indigenous bacterial and fungal taxa in sprouts, roots, and stems indicated their transmission during the development from sprouts to mature plants. The results from this study should be useful to better understand the plant-microbe interactions and to select suitable microbial taxa for rice production. PMID:27296957


    B.Tavasolian; S.Nikpour; B.Makanvand


    Castor bean, peanut, Soy bean and safflower protein isolates were prepared. The amino acid content of each of the protein isolates was analysed and the essential amino acid contents were compared with the FAO human requirements. The results indicated that castor bean has the highest oil and the protein content of defatted meal. Safflower 3148 (Marand, Iran) has the highest amount of essential amino acids. Peanut (Gilan Iran) has the lowest content of essential amino acids, however, in compari...

  7. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki


    Full Text Available This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities; however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention.

  8. Brain derived nerve growth factor induces spinal noradrenergic fiber sprouting and enhances clonidine analgesia following nerve injury in rats

    Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Clayton, Bridgette A.; Johnson, James E.; Eisenach, James C.


    Many treatments for neuropathic pain activate or augment norepinephrine release in the spinal cord, yet these treatments are less effective against acute nociceptive stimuli. We previously showed in mice that peripheral nerve injury results in sprouting of spinal noradrenergic fibers, possibly reflecting the substrate for this shift in drug efficacy. Here we tested whether such sprouting also occurs in rats after nerve injury and examined one signal for such sprouting. Ligation of L5 and L6 s...

  9. Effect of nitrogen availability on dry matter production, nitrogen uptake and light interception of Brussels sprouts and leeks

    Booij, R.; Kreuzer, A.D.H.; Smit, A.L.; Werf, van der, F.


    In field experiments with Brussels sprouts (cv. Kundry) and leeks (cv. Arcona) on a sandy soil, DM production and N uptake during crop growth were studied at different N application rates. N fertilizer application rate affected DM production, leaf area expansion and N uptake more strongly in Brussels sprouts than in leeks. When all N was applied before transplanting, Brussels sprouts showed a higher recovery of N fertilizer than leeks. This was explained by a higher rate of DM production in B...

  10. Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Serovar Muenchen Infections Associated with Alfalfa Sprouts Grown from Seeds Pretreated with Calcium Hypochlorite

    Proctor, Mary E.; Hamacher, Marge; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Archer, John R.; Davis, Jeffrey P.


    During September 1999, a multistate outbreak of Salmonella serovar Muenchen infection associated with eating raw alfalfa sprouts was identified in Wisconsin. Despite use of a calcium hypochlorite sanitizing procedure to pretreat seeds before sprouting, at least 157 outbreak-related illnesses were identified in seven states having sprouters who received alfalfa seed from a specific lot. The continued occurrence of sprout-related outbreaks despite presprouting disinfection supports the concern ...

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on germination and Vitamin-C content of green gram and moth beans

    Insect disinfestation of prepacked legumes by using low dose gamma irradiation is well known. Changes in sprout length, water uptake and Vitamin C contents of radiation processed legumes were studied. Gamma irradiation (0.25 kGy) of green gram (Phaseolus aureus) and moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius) reduced the sprout length on germination by 6-18% at 0.25 kGy and 20-32% at 0.75 kGy, compared to control. Water uptake was not affected in both the legumes by radiation treatment. Vitamin C content increased significantly on germination in both the legumes for 24 and 48 hrs. Further on cooking of the seeds, Vitamin C contents were decreased in both the legumes significantly, more so in pressure cooked and shallow fried samples, compared to boiled (simple cooking). As such radiation treatment did not show any significant change in Vitamin C content of both the legumes either on germination and/or on cooking compared to control. (author)

  12. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa; Valdinei Sofiatti; Cleber Daniel de Góes Maciel; Juliana Parisotto Poletine; João Igor de Sousa


    Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide s...

  13. Maleic hydrazide: sprout suppression of potatoes in the field.

    De Blauwer, V; Demeulemeester, K; Demeyere, A; Hofmans, E


    In 2005, the active substance maleic hydrazide was released on the Belgian market. Maleic hydrazide is authorized in potatoes as foliar treatment for instore sprout suppression and control of volunteers. The mode of action is based on blocking cell division whilst cell elongation is not affected. The product must be applied at once during the growing season, only after at least 80% of the tubers have reached 25 mm diameter and not later than 3 weeks before haulm killing. The first 24 h after application, no meaningful precipitation should occur to insure sufficiently uptake of the product by the crop. Field trials were set up for 4 years (2005-2008) and 4 locations per year with application of maleic hydrazide in four different cultivars (Bintje, Fontane, Asterix and Cilena). After application, the cultivar Asterix showed almost every year a temporarily phytotoxicity (bronze discoloration). On the first place yield was determined. When maleic hydrazide was applied too early (80% tubers % 25mm diameter) yield was negatively affected (3 years on 4) except for the cultivar Cilena (fresh market). Internal quality (dry matter and fry quality) was not influenced by the application of maleic hydrazide. Only Fontane had a slightly lower dry matter content. Maleic hydrazide also influenced appearance of secondary growth. However, the results were very variable depending on cultivar, location and time of application. After harvest, the tubers were kept in storage and assessed monthly on germination. Potatoes treated late in the growing season, showed a shorter dormancy period. A part of the tubers was replanted the following spring to verify volunteer control. Additional trials were set up by the Flemish government for two years (2010-2011). The results of previous trials were confirmed. Additional, the influence of maleic hydrazide on internal germination during storage was examined on the cultivar Innovator. The tests clearly showed a positive effect for this parameter

  14. Physiological analysis on pre-harvest sprouting in recombinant inbred rice lines

    TAO Longxing; WANG Xi; TAN Huijuan; CHEN Haisheng; YANG Changdeng; ZHUANG Jieyun; ZHENG Kangle


    Pre-harvest sprouting(PHS)in rice production is usually caused by high temperature and humidity or continuous rains.It frequently happens in F1 in hybrid rice seed production.The PHS or "Physiologically germinated" seeds are of lower quality,by which the hybrid rice seed production is badly affected every three years at a loss of 20% or even 50% yield in seed production over the vast Yangtse River Valley and Southwest China.It is estimated that PHS causes an average decrease of seed activity by 10%.A recombinant inbred line population including 304 lines,derived from a cross between Indica rice(Oryza sativa L.)cultivars Zhong-156 and Gumei-2,was used to study the PHS physiology.Based on the data of sprouting rate in panicles and sprouting rate in grains,two kinds of lines,namely easy-to-sprout lines and hard-to-sprout lines,were selected to investigate their physiological differences when PHS happened.The experiment was conducted in a special field with a microclimate of higher temperature and humidity.The results indicated that it was easier to produce PHS from the female parent GM-2 than the male parent ZH-156,besides,the GA1 content and amylase activity in GM-2 grains were higher than those in ZH-156.However,the abscisic acid(ABA)content in GM-2 grains was lower than that in ZH-156.Higher temperature and higher humidity facilitated the GA~ increment from milk ripe stage to yellow ripe stage.GM-2 and the easily-sprouting lines showed an even higher increase in GA1 than ZH-156 and the hardly-sprouting lines,which enhanced the amylase activity and induced pre-harvest sprouting.This may be the physiological basis for pre-harvest sprouting induced by higher temperature and higher humidity,and these special characteristics must be inherited from their parents.

  15. Hic-5 mediates the initiation of endothelial sprouting by regulating a key surface metalloproteinase.

    Dave, Jui M; Abbey, Colette A; Duran, Camille L; Seo, Heewon; Johnson, Gregory A; Bayless, Kayla J


    During angiogenesis, endothelial cells must coordinate matrix proteolysis with migration. Here, we tested whether the focal adhesion scaffold protein Hic-5 (also known as TGFB1I1) regulated endothelial sprouting in three dimensions. Hic-5 silencing reduced endothelial sprouting and lumen formation, and sprouting defects were rescued by the return of Hic-5 expression. Pro-angiogenic factors enhanced colocalization and complex formation between membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, also known as MMP14) and Hic-5, but not between paxillin and MT1-MMP. The LIM2 and LIM3 domains of Hic-5 were necessary and sufficient for Hic-5 to form a complex with MT1-MMP. The degree of interaction between MT1-MMP and Hic-5 and the localization of the complex within detergent-resistant membrane fractions were enhanced during endothelial sprouting, and Hic-5 depletion lowered the surface levels of MT1-MMP. In addition, we observed that loss of Hic-5 partially reduced complex formation between MT1-MMP and focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2), suggesting that Hic-5 bridges MT1-MMP and FAK. Finally, Hic-5 LIM2-LIM3 deletion mutants reduced sprout initiation. Hic-5, MT1-MMP and FAK colocalized in angiogenic vessels during porcine pregnancy, supporting that this complex assembles during angiogenesis in vivo. Collectively, Hic-5 appears to enhance complex formation between MT1-MMP and FAK in activated endothelial cells, which likely coordinates matrix proteolysis and cell motility. PMID:26769900

  16. The gamma-ray dose-rate effect in the sprout inhibition of onion and potato

    The gamma-ray dose and dose-rate effects in the sprout inhibition of onion bulbs (Senshu-kohdaka) and potato tubers (Danshaku) were studied in the dose-rate range from 2 - 5 x 102 R/h to 5 x 105 R/h changing the dose from 500 R to 20 kR in 1975, 1976 and 1977. The irradiated onion and potato specimens were stored for 5 to 8 months in natural conditions. The obtained results are as follows. 1) The time of sprouting of irradiated specimens is delayed compared to that of non-irradiated ones. 2) The sprout inhibition is more effective not only by heavier irradiation dose, but also by irradiation under higher dose-rate. The relation between the irradiation dose-rate ''R'' and the necessary dose ''D'' for sprout inhibition is expressed by D = (1/a) (log10b - log10R) here a and b are constant. 3) The browned inner bud appeared in the sprout inhibited onion bulbs irradiated to high dose under high dose-rate is compartively short and light browning. (author)

  17. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism.

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won


    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed. PMID:26101533

  18. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    A Ri Byun


    Full Text Available Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L. contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n=51. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n=25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years and the other consumed placebo capsules (n=26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL- cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p=0.415 and p=0.351, resp. and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed.

  19. Effect of application of Chlorpropham in sprouting of olluco tubers (Ullucus tuberosus L. under storage

    Isaac Aliaga


    Full Text Available It was evaluated the effect of Chlorpropham on the sprouting of root’s tubers vegetables (Ullucus tuberosum L. Tarmeño variety during storage at 15 °C and RH of 85 %, the treatments were 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg of Chlorpropham / kg of tubers, in a completely random design with 4 repetitions. After 60 days of storage the sprouts, length for the control without Chlorpropham was 9.63 cm and for the treatments with Chlorpropham from 0.22 to 0.71 cm after 90 days the length of the sprouts were kept the same and some of them began to dry up, except the control where increased in size from 15 to 20 cm. After 90 days of storage, weight loss for the treatments with Chlorpropham was averaged of 21 % and for the witness of 37.35 %. All Chlorpropham treatments showed a lower number of sprouts per tuber, lower length of buds, fewer number of tubers with sprouts and less weight loss, with a p <0.05, Duncan test showed don’t exist significant differences between treatments with Chlorpropham for the assessed variables, but significant differences with the control treatment

  20. Change in carbohydrate and enzymes from harvest to sprouting in garlic.

    Mashayekhi, Kambiz; Mohammadi Chiane, Siamak; Mianabadi, Manizheh; Ghaderifar, Farshid; Mousavizadeh, Seyyed Javad


    Changes in carbohydrates, enzymes, and pigments were investigated in the Red Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Azarshahr bulbs in storage from harvest to sprouting. For storage period, garlic cloves of the same diameter with 3-4 g weight were arranged in dark condition and exposed to 4 and 21°C, separately. Soluble sugar, total sugar, glucose, sucrose, fructose, starch, chlorophyll a, b, ab, carotenoid, anthocyanin, lipase, α-amylase, and protease were measured every 2 weeks up to sprouting time. Result revealed that starch, lipase, and protease levels declined at the end of storage when clove sprouting started at both 4 and 21°C storage temperature. Starch, glucose, chlorophyll a, b, ab, and carotenoid content during the first 14 days and sucrose at 42 days showed a decreasing trend. Anthocyanin showed an increasing trend 14 and 42 days after harvesting and then decreased at the end of storage (when sprouting began) at both 4 and 21°C storage periods. Finally, starch, glucose, and sucrose measurement can be used as a criterion to predict sprouting time of garlic, due to the decrease in the levels of starch, lipase, and protease, and increase in the levels of α-amylase, glucose, and sucrose in garlic cloves under storage. PMID:27247767

  1. Agent-based model of angiogenesis simulates capillary sprout initiation in multicellular networks.

    Walpole, J; Chappell, J C; Cluceru, J G; Mac Gabhann, F; Bautch, V L; Peirce, S M


    Many biological processes are controlled by both deterministic and stochastic influences. However, efforts to model these systems often rely on either purely stochastic or purely rule-based methods. To better understand the balance between stochasticity and determinism in biological processes a computational approach that incorporates both influences may afford additional insight into underlying biological mechanisms that give rise to emergent system properties. We apply a combined approach to the simulation and study of angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from existing networks. This complex multicellular process begins with selection of an initiating endothelial cell, or tip cell, which sprouts from the parent vessels in response to stimulation by exogenous cues. We have constructed an agent-based model of sprouting angiogenesis to evaluate endothelial cell sprout initiation frequency and location, and we have experimentally validated it using high-resolution time-lapse confocal microscopy. ABM simulations were then compared to a Monte Carlo model, revealing that purely stochastic simulations could not generate sprout locations as accurately as the rule-informed agent-based model. These findings support the use of rule-based approaches for modeling the complex mechanisms underlying sprouting angiogenesis over purely stochastic methods. PMID:26158406

  2. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana


    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts. PMID:26433888

  3. Combined Effects of Blue and Ultraviolet Lights on the Accumulation of Flavonoids in Tartary Buckwheat Sprouts

    Ji Hongbin


    Full Text Available The effects of blue and UV-A (365 nm/UV-C (254 nm or their combinations on the levels of total flavonoids, rutin, quercetin, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL, chalcone isomerase (CHI, rutin degrading enzymes (RDEs and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity in tartary buckwheat sprouts were investigated in this study. The total flavonoids content in the tartary buckwheat sprouts irradiated with blue light followed by UV-C (BL+UV-C raised by 10%, compared with the opposite combination sequence (UV-C+BL. However, blue light did not show the same results when combined with UV-A, and their combinations on the accumulation of total flavonoids were still lower than that of UV-A/UV-C. Key enzymes (PAL, CHI and RDEs revealed a significant correlation with total flavonoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  4. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L. )

    Croci, C.A.; Curvetto, N.R.; Orioli, G.A. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)); Arguello, J.A. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Dept. de Biologia Aplicada)


    The effects of an acute dose of {gamma}-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19+-1{sup 0}C and 42+-2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author).

  5. Large scale determination of glucosinolates in brussels sprouts samples after degradation of endogenous glucose.

    van Doorn, H E; van der Kruk, G C; van Holst, G J


    A method was developed for the determination of the glucosinolate content in glucose-rich samples of Brassica vegetables such as Brussels sprouts. Glucose in the samples was enzymatically degraded by the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD). The resulting hydrogen peroxide and the enzyme GOD were thereafter respectively dissociated and inactivated by a heat treatment at 100 degrees C. After the degradation of endogenous glucose the glucosinolates were converted into glucose and related metabolites with the enzyme thioglucosidase originating from Brussels sprouts seeds. Glucose released was determined enzymatically with a glucose oxidase/peroxidase assay as a measure for the glucosinolate content of samples. The method was used to study the influence of harvest time, crop production location, and the choice of parental lines on the glucosinolate content of Brussels sprouts F1-hybrids. The sum of sinigrin and progoitrin of F1-hybrids was found to be significantly correlated to the glucosinolate content. PMID:10552411

  6. Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Sulphur Compounds in White Radish During the First Three Days of Sprouting

    Maria Doinița Borș


    Full Text Available  Glucosinolates (GLs and S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide (SMCSO are natural sulphur containing phytochemicals. They are two of the most important bioactive compounds found in brassica vegetables, which are highly regarded for their health-promoting activity. In this study we have analysed the content of GLs and SMCSO in white radish, by an HPLC-MS method, in order to illustrate their biosynthesis and accumulation during the first 72 hours of sprouting. Total GLs content ranged between  54.17 and 126.86 µmol/g DW. There were eight GLs identified, in radish sprouts and around 94 % of them were aliphatic. Obvious differences, during the 72 hours of sprouting, were noticed in glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin. S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide content ranged between 0.21 and 35.95 µmol/g DW. Our results revealed a negative strong correlation between GLs and SMCSO.

  7. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    The effects of an acute dose of γ-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19±10C and 42±2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author)

  8. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    Heffelfinger, David R


    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  9. Conditioning nerve crush accelerates cytoskeletal protein transport in sprouts that form after a subsequent crush

    To examine the relationship between axonal outgrowth and the delivery of cytoskeletal proteins to the growing axon tip, outgrowth was accelerated by using a conditioning nerve crush. Because slow component b (SCb) of axonal transport is the most rapid vehicle for carrying cytoskeletal proteins to the axon tip, the rate of SCb was measured in conditioned vs. sham-conditioned sprouts. In young Sprague-Dawley rats, the conditioning crush was made to sciatic nerve branches at the knee; 14 days later, the test crush was made where the L4 and L5 spinal nerves join to form the sciatic nerve in the flank. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled in motor neurons by injecting 35S-methionine into the lumbar spinal cord 7 days before the test crush. The wave of pulse-labeled SCb proteins reached the crush by the time it was made and subsequently entered sprouts. The nerve was removed and sectioned for SDS-PAGE and fluorography 4-12 days after the crush. Tubulins, neurofilament proteins, and representative 'cytomatrix' proteins (actin, calmodulin, and putative microtubule-associated proteins) were removed from gels for liquid scintillation counting. Labeled SCb proteins entered sprouts without first accumulating in parent axon stumps, presumably because sprouts begin to grow within hours after axotomy. The peak of SCb moved 11% faster in conditioned than in sham-conditioned sprouts: 3.0 vs. 2.7 mm/d (p less than 0.05). To confirm that sprouts elongate more rapidly when a test crush is preceded by a conditioning crush, outgrowth distances were measured in a separate group of rats by labeling fast axonal transport with 3H-proline 24 hours before nerve retrieval

  10. Development of Buckwheat Sprouts Dried Noodles%苦荞苗挂面的研制



    The effects on dose of buckwheat sprouts in dried noodles on its cooking time,cooked-off rate and cooking loss were studied.Experiments results showed that with the increasing of buckwheat sprouts addition dose,the cooking time gradually reduced,while cooked-off rate and cooking loss decreased firstly and then increased.The cooked-off rate was the lowest when buckwheat sprouts addition dose was 5%,10%,15%; and cooking loss was the lowest when buckwheat sprouts addition dose was 20%.Considering the quality and nutritional value of buckwheat sprouts dry noodles,the appropriate addition dose of buckwheat sprouts should be 20%~25%.%研究了苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum)苗添加量对挂面烹调时间、熟断条率、烹调损失率的影响.结果表明,随着苦荞苗添加量的增加,烹调时间逐渐减少,熟断条率和烹调损失率先降低后增加;熟断条率在苦荞苗添加量为5%、10%、15%时最低,烹调损失率在苦荞苗添加量为20%时最低;综合考虑苦荞苗挂面的品质和营养价值,苦荞苗合适的添加量为20%~25%.

  11. Effect of gamma radiation and temperature on ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) sprout and weight

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) preservation was conducted by irradiated ginger at 0 (control), 4, 6 and 10 Krad and then stored at 20(+-1) deg C and room temperature (32+-3 deg C) with 75% relative humidity. The results of the experiment are as follows: after 1 month storage at 32 deg C both irradiated and non-irradiated ginger weight losses were 15-18% and water contents decreased from 88.67 to 81.82%. Only non-irradiated ginger sprouted 1 cm. in length by average at this time. Weight loss after three month storage of irradiated 0, 4, 6 and 10 Krad ginger increased to 36.37, 32.67, 34.95 and 35.95% respectively, and the water contents decreased to 69.33, 72.00, 73.33 and 70.66% respectively. No sprout also, was found in 4-10 Krad ginger. The weight loss of non-irradiated ginger stored at 20 deg C for 6 months was lower than those irradiated ginger, i.e. only 21.07 for 0 Krad but 26.55, 28.07 and 34.30% for 4, 6 and 10 Krad ginger respectively. In addition, water contents were found to be highest in non-irradiated ginger (76.00%) but lowest in irradiated ginger, at 10 Krad (66,66%). However, non-irradiated ginger sprouted 1.5 cm but no sprout was found in irradiated ginger. In conclusion, radiation only 4 Krad inhibited ginger sprout and did not decrease ginger weight (P<.01). Furthermore, cool temperature at 20 deg C delayed ginger sprout up to 4 months and decreased ginger weight loss

  12. Contact-inhibited chemotaxis in de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth.

    Roeland M H Merks

    Full Text Available Blood vessels form either when dispersed endothelial cells (the cells lining the inner walls of fully formed blood vessels organize into a vessel network (vasculogenesis, or by sprouting or splitting of existing blood vessels (angiogenesis. Although they are closely related biologically, no current model explains both phenomena with a single biophysical mechanism. Most computational models describe sprouting at the level of the blood vessel, ignoring how cell behavior drives branch splitting during sprouting. We present a cell-based, Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model (also called Cellular Potts Model simulation of the initial patterning before the vascular cords form lumens, based on plausible behaviors of endothelial cells. The endothelial cells secrete a chemoattractant, which attracts other endothelial cells. As in the classic Keller-Segel model, chemotaxis by itself causes cells to aggregate into isolated clusters. However, including experimentally observed VE-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of chemotaxis in the simulation causes randomly distributed cells to organize into networks and cell aggregates to sprout, reproducing aspects of both de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth. We discuss two branching instabilities responsible for our results. Cells at the surfaces of cell clusters attempting to migrate to the centers of the clusters produce a buckling instability. In a model variant that eliminates the surface-normal force, a dissipative mechanism drives sprouting, with the secreted chemical acting both as a chemoattractant and as an inhibitor of pseudopod extension. Both mechanisms would also apply if force transmission through the extracellular matrix rather than chemical signaling mediated cell-cell interactions. The branching instabilities responsible for our results, which result from contact inhibition of chemotaxis, are both generic developmental mechanisms and interesting examples of unusual patterning instabilities.

  13. Sweet potato cysteine proteases SPAE and SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Liang, Shu-Hao; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei


    Sweet potato sporamins are trypsin inhibitors and exhibit strong resistance to digestion by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. In addition, they constitute the major storage proteins in the sweet potato and, after degradation, provide nitrogen as a nutrient for seedling regrowth in sprouting storage roots. In this report, four cysteine proteases-one asparaginyl endopeptidase (SPAE), two papain-like cysteine proteases (SPCP1 and SPCP2), and one granulin-containing cysteine protease (SPCP3)-were studied to determine their association with sporamin degradation in sprouting storage roots. Sporamin degradation became significant in the flesh of storage roots starting from week 4 after sprouting and this correlated with expression levels of SPAE and SPCP2, but not of SPCP1 and SPCP3. In the outer flesh near the skin, sporamin degradation was more evident and occurred earlier than in the inner flesh of storage roots. Degradation of sporamins in the outer flesh was inversely correlated with the distance of the storage root from the sprout. Exogenous application of SPAE and SPCP2, but not SPCP3, fusion proteins to crude extracts of the outer flesh (i.e., extracted from a depth of 0.3cm and within 2cm of one-week-old sprouts) promoted in vitro sporamin degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of SPAE and SPCP2 fusion proteins at 95°C for 5min prior to their application to the crude extracts reduced sporamin degradation. These data show that sweet potato asparaginyl endopeptidase SPAE and papain-like cysteine protease SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting. PMID:26363719

  14. Impact of selenium supply on se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates accumulation in selenium-biofortified brassica sprouts

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, ...

  15. Effects of Yeast Polysaccharide on Growth and Flavonoid Accumulation in Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures

    Gang Zhao


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat. Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures on day 6, the total rutin and quercentin content was effectively increased to 42.8 mg/gdw, or about 1.4-fold in comparison with the control of 31.2 mg/gdw. Feeding with 800 mg/L of YPS on day 9, the sprouts biomass was increased by about 8% compared to the control culture (0.99 gdw/100 sprouts versus 0.92 gdw/100 sprouts. Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. It could be an effective strategy for improving the functional quality of the F. tataricum sprouts provided with YPS.

  16. Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW)

    Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW) ABSTRACT Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can negatively impact end-use quality and seed viability at planting. Due to preferences for white ...

  17. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    Kiers, J.L.


    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describes effects of fermented soya beans on gastrointestinal physiology and addresses digestion, absorption and diarrhoea.Using an in vitro digestion model it appeared that fermentation increased solubil...

  18. On the Specification of Components - the JavaBeans Example

    Heisel, Maritta; Santen, Thomas; Souquières, Jeanine


    We specify the JavaBean component model and concrete beans using a combination of UML class diagrams, an extension of Object-Z, and life sequence charts. We extend Object-Z by keywords that allow one to concisely describe the interface of a bean by an Object-Z class specification. The component model specification provides specification templates consisting of class diagrams, Object-Z fragments, and life sequence charts that precisely capture the functional behavior of beans in general, inclu...

  19. The irradiation dose for the inhibition of the sprouting of Baraka variety potatoes

    Baraka variety potatoes graded in the packing house, were irradiated with doses of 0.08; 0.10; 0.15 and 0.20 kGy after a two weeks curing period. The potatoes were stored for five months at 120 +- 20C and relative humidity of 85 to 95%, and to determine the percentages of sprouting, rotting and loss in weight. It was concluded that doses of 0.08 kGy or more inhibited definitively the sprouting process. Less total losses and better commercial quality were obtained with a dose of 0.08 kGy the last of the store. 13 refs

  20. Effect of application of Chlorpropham in sprouting of olluco tubers (Ullucus tuberosus L.) under storage

    Isaac Aliaga; Frank Velásquez; René Mendoza; Roberto Chuquilín


    It was evaluated the effect of Chlorpropham on the sprouting of root’s tubers vegetables (Ullucus tuberosum L.) Tarmeño variety during storage at 15 °C and RH of 85 %, the treatments were 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg of Chlorpropham / kg of tubers, in a completely random design with 4 repetitions. After 60 days of storage the sprouts, length for the control without Chlorpropham was 9.63 cm and for the treatments with Chlorpropham from 0.22 to 0.71 cm after 90 days the length of the spro...

  1. Effect of Spearmint Oil on Sprouting and Processing Quality of Diamant and Sinora Potato Varieties

    Hind A. ELbashir; Abdel Halim; Ahmed, R.; Khahil S. Yousif


    The effect of spearmint oil on the storage and processing qualities of two potato varieties Diamant and Sinora was investigated and compared with the sprout inhibitor, isopropyl - N 3-chlorophenyl carbamate (CIPC). Potatoes were stored at 10±1ºC and (73-78% RH) for 6 months. Results showed spearmint oil was as effective as CIPC in checking the break of dormancy, fast sprout growth, high fresh weight loss but unlike CIPC did not kill the eye buds; so can be used for seed tubers. The oil had no...

  2. Ingestion of broccoli sprouts does not improve endothelial function in humans with hypertension

    Christiansen, Buris; Bellostas Muguerza, Natalia; Petersen, Atheline Major;


    be the case in humans suffering from essential hypertension. METHODS: 40 hypertensive individuals without diabetes and with normal levels of cholesterol were examined. The participants were randomized either to ingest 10 g dried broccoli sprouts, a natural donor of glucosinolates with high in vitro...... groups. Diastolic blood pressure stayed essentially unchanged in both groups, while the systolic blood pressure showed a small non significant decrease (9 mm Hg) in the interventional group from a value of 153 mm Hg at start. CONCLUSION: Daily ingestion of 10 g dried broccoli sprouts does not improve...

  3. Evaluation of the recycle of nitrogen in a succession bean - corn -bean By means of the isotopic method

    To determine the recycle of Nitrogen in a succession bean - corn - bean a was developed I experience under field conditions, on Red Ferralitic soils (Rhodic Ferrasols) with the one I use of the stable isotope 15 Nitrogen

  4. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    Kiers, J.L.


    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describ

  6. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    The 14C activity in unroasted [14C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH3Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH3Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH3Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  7. Stem Anatomy of Country Bean

    M. Touhidul Islam


    Full Text Available Anatomical investigation has been made on the stem of country bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet at different stages of growth following the standard paraffin method of microtechnique. The epidermis is single layered with multicellular hairs and glandular trichomes. Beneath the epidermis there are 5-10 layers of cortical cells. The primary vascular tissue appears after the elongation of the first internode of the stem. The vascular bundles are collateral and arranged in a ring. There are two types of vascular bundles, large and small. There are one or more small vascular bundles in between two large bundles. The large vascular bundle contains xylem and phloem but small bundle may or may not contain both xylem and phloem. There are several poles of primary phloem outside the primary xylem. The pericycle is discontinuous. Two adjacent groups of sclerenchyma are connected by one or two layers of sclerenchymatous cells. The cambium initiates in the primary vascular bundle between xylem and phloem at the basal part of the stem of 4 days old plant. Gradually it extends towards the upper part. The cambium is at first confined to the fascicular region. Subsequently it extends into the interfascicular region forming a complete cambial ring. After the formation of the fascicular cambium it gives rise to the secondary xylem adaxially and secondary phloem abaxially. In the mature stem, most of the vessels are multiple, some are paired while the others are solitary. Most of the fibre cells in the phloem region are found in groups. The fibre cells are arranged in such a way that the structure looks like a pyramid. Tannin cells are present in the phloem region of younger and mature stem. The secretory cells devoid of tanniniferous contents have been observed in the secondary phloem region of the mature stem. The phellogen appears in the deeper cortex and produces periderm with lenticel. The periderm consists of 3-5 layers of cork cells abaxially and 2-3 layers

  8. Axonal sprouting regulates myelin basic protein gene expression in denervated mouse hippocampus

    Jensen, M B; Poulsen, F R; Finsen, B


    radiatum of CA3 and the dentate hilus, which display axonal sprouting but no degenerative changes or microglial activation, and (2) the outer part of the molecular layer of the fascia dentata, and in stratum moleculare of CA3 and stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1, areas that display dense anterograde...

  9. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A


    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet. PMID:26988507

  10. Human iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cell Sprouting Assay in Synthetic Hydrogel Arrays

    Activation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by growth factors initiates a cascade of events in vivo consisting of EC tip cell selection, sprout formation, EC stalk cell proliferation, and ultimately vascular stabilization by support cells. Although EC functional assays can rec...

  11. The transcription factor MEF2C negatively controls angiogenic sprouting of endothelial cells depending on oxygen.

    Caterina Sturtzel

    Full Text Available The MADS box transcription factor MEF2C has been detected by us to be upregulated by the angiogenic factors VEGF-A and bFGF in endothelial cells. We have here investigated its potential role for angiogenesis. MEF2C was surprisingly found to strongly inhibit angiogenic sprouting, whereas a dominant negative mutant rather induced sprouting. The factor mainly affected migratory processes of endothelial cells, but not proliferation. In gene profiling experiments we delineated the alpha-2-macroglobulin gene to be highly upregulated by MEF2C. Further data confirmed that MEF2C in endothelial cells indeed induces alpha-2-macroglobulin mRNA as well as the secretion of alpha-2-macroglobulin and that conditioned supernatants of cells overexpressing MEF2C inhibit sprouting. Alpha-2-macroglobulin mediates, at least to a large extent, the inhibitory effects of MEF2C as is shown by knockdown of alpha-2-macroglobulin mRNA by lentiviral shRNA expression which reduces the inhibitory effect. However, under hypoxic conditions the VEGF-A/bFGF-mediated upregulation of MEF2C is reduced and the production of alpha-2-macroglobulin largely abolished. Taken together, this suggests that the MEF2C/alpha-2-macroglobulin axis functions in endothelial cells as a negative feed-back mechanism that adapts sprouting activity to the oxygen concentration thus diminishing inappropriate and excess angiogenesis.

  12. Root-sprouting in myco-heterotrophic plants: prepackaged symbioses or overcoming meristem limitation?

    Klimešová, Jitka


    Roč. 173, - (2007), s. 8-10. ISSN 0028-646X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : root sprouting * bud bank * Myco-heterotrophic plants Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.249, year: 2007

  13. Polyphenol oxidase expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers inhibited to sprouting by treatment with iodine atmosphere.

    Eolini, Francesco; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Credi, Andrea; Rodríguez, Antonio Gonzàlez Vara Y; Poggi, Valeria


    Iodine-saturated atmosphere was found to inhibit the sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. The iodine concentration in tuber tissues increased as a function of exposure length, and the onset of inhibition of sprouting was found to depend on tubers genotype. During the time-course of the treatment, the transcription of polyphenol oxidases (EC and EC was undetectable in tuber peel, whereas in bud tissues featured an increase, followed by a decrease occurring simultaneously with the suppression of sprouting. The treatment of tubers with iodine strongly affected the expression of polyphenol oxidases at the transcriptional level. Polyphenol oxidase activity in buds poorly reflected the corresponding level of transcription; similarly, little differences were found among the enzyme isoforms expressed in buds as a function of length of exposure to iodine. These findings suggest that the induction of polyphenol oxidases mRNAs transcription could probe the inhibition of sprouting by iodine. PMID:15587701

  14. Research of histochemical features of one-year sprouts of the Cotoneaster genus

    D. D. Tishchenko


    Full Text Available Research data of the anatomic structure, the character of starch deposits and lignification’s degree of one-year sprouts of representatives of the Cotoneaster Medic. genus, introduced in theDNUBotanical garden, are presented. Frigostable and frigolabile cotoneasters species are determined.

  15. Dissection of Genetic Componenets of Preharvest Sprouting Resistance in White Wheat.

    Preharvest sprouting (PHS) in rain-affected wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a major constraint to the production of high-quality wheat, especially in regions where white grain wheat cultivars are preferred. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for PHS resistance and seed dormancy (SD), we eva...

  16. Vasohibin inhibits angiogenic sprouting in vitro and supports vascular maturation processes in vivo

    The murine homologue of human vasohibin (mVASH1), a putative antiangiogenic protein, was investigated for its effects on in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis. Cell growth and migration were analyzed in murine fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Angiogenic sprouting was studied in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the spheroid sprouting assay. In vivo effects on blood vessel formation were investigated in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and in the C57BL/6 melanoma xenograft model. Purified murine and human VASH1 protein induced apoptosis of murine fibroblasts in vitro, but not of vascular aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC) or endothelial cells. Adenoviral overexpression of murine and human VASH1 inhibited capillary sprouting of HUVECs in the spheroid assay. Administration of recombinant murine and human VASH1 inhibited growth of large vessels in the CAM assay and promoted the formation of a dense, fine vascular network. Murine VASH1-overexpressing B16F10 melanomas displayed a reduction in large vessels and vascular area. Moreover, tumors showed more microvessels that stained positive for the mural cell markers α-smooth muscle cell actin (ASMA) and proteoglycan (NG2). Our data imply that murine VASH1 causes angiogenic remodelling by inhibiting angiogenic sprouting and large vessel growth, thereby supporting the formation of a vascular bed consisting predominantly of mature microvessels

  17. Features of a reciprocating sprout-broadcaster in the process of granular fertilizer application

    Speelman, L.


    IntroductionSince the end of the 1950's, variable bout width distributors were used for broadcast application of granular fertilizers. The bout width is a multiple of the width of the metering and distribution devices. The most important types are the spinning disc and reciprocating sprout broadcast

  18. 6苄基腺嘌呤、赤霉素对黄豆芽菜和绿豆芽菜生长的影响%Influence of 6-Benzyladenine and Gibberellic Acid on Soybean and Green Bean Shoot Food Growth

    张静; 杜庆平; 朱巍巍; 孙彩艳


    In this paper, the experiment compares the different concentrations of 6 benzyladenine (6 BA),gibberellic acid (GA3 )on soybean,green bean shoot food growth and development.The results show that the green bean sprouts,sprayed with the concentration of 3 mg·L-1 6 BA or 300 mg·L-1 GA3 ,grows better while soy bean sprouts,sprayed with the concentration of 1 mg·L-1 6 BA or 500 mg·L-1 GA3 grows better.Both are superior to the control group with water.%比较了不同浓度的6苄基腺嘌呤(6 BA)、赤霉素(GA3)对黄豆芽菜和绿豆芽菜生长的影响。结果表明:绿豆芽在喷施浓度为3 mg·L-1的6 BA 或300 mg·L-1的 GA3时,生长较好;黄豆芽在喷施1 mg·L-1的6 BA或500 mg·L-1的 GA3时生长较好,均优于清水对照。

  19. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    Ambrosano Edmilson José


    Full Text Available Nitrogen (15N released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea, velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground parts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha-1 of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean, and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experiment al period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox.

  20. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    Nitrogen (15N) released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea), velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground arts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha-1 of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 x 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf) and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean), and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experimental period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox. (author)

  1. Virus diseases of peas, beans, and faba bean in the Mediterranean region.

    Makkouk, Khaled; Pappu, Hanu; Kumari, Safaa G


    In the Mediterranean region, pea, bean, and faba bean production is affected by around 17 major viruses. These viruses do not have the same ecology and consequently require a variety of different preventive measures to control them. Some of these viruses have a narrow host range, such as Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV), and others, such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), a very wide host range. Such features are important when identifying sources of virus inoculum in a region, and the vectors can transmit viruses from natural reservoirs to the crop plants. Some of these viruses are seed borne and, consequently, can be disseminated long distances through infected seeds. Crop losses caused by these viruses are variable, depending on the sensitivity and susceptibility of the crop to infection. Host resistance genes have been identified for some of these viruses, but in others, such as FBNYV, no resistance genes in faba bean have been identified yet. Significant progress was made in developing precise methods for the identification of these viruses, and new virus problems are being identified every year. This chapter is not intended to be a review for pea, bean, and faba bean viruses, but rather focuses on the major viruses which affect these crops in the Mediterranean basin with focus on the progress made over the past two decades. PMID:22682174

  2. The influence of selenium addition during germination of Brassica seeds on health-promoting potential of sprouts.

    Piekarska, Anna; Kołodziejski, Dominik; Pilipczuk, Tadeusz; Bodnar, Małgorzata; Konieczka, Piotr; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika; Cyprys, Joanna; Groszewska, Milena; Namieśnik, Jacek; Bartoszek, Agnieszka


    The correlation among selenium uptake, the content of bioactive compounds in sprouts, and biological activities triggered in cultured human cells by sprout extracts was investigated. Seeds of Brassica crops and rye were treated with SeO2 water solution. The selenium levels in sprouts increased from 1.0-4.1 to 53.3-382 μg/g dw with no influence on plant physiology according to the indices used. Neither the composition of glucosinolates (GL) in Brassica sprouts nor the myrosinase activity nor the composition of GL breakdown lipophilic products were significantly affected. In all Brassica sprouts, conversion to health-promoting isothiocyanates (ITC) and indoles corresponded to only 1% of total GLs. Low ITC concentration may explain observed lack of induction of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) detoxifying enzymes in HT29 cells exposed to sprout extracts. The insignificant impact on cell growth and genome function suggests that Brassica sprouts may be safe vehicle of selenium to combat its dietary deficiency. PMID:24827602

  3. Production of ready-to-eat lentil sprouts with improved antioxidant capacity: optimization of elicitation conditions with hydrogen peroxide.

    Świeca, Michał


    This study evaluates the optimal conditions for elicitation with H2O2 for improving the antioxidant capacity of lentil sprouts. Generally, except for 3-day-old sprouts, elicitation increased phenolic content (in respect to the control). The highest phenolic content was determined for 2-day-old sprouts treated with 15 mM H2O2 (0.71 mg/gf.m.). All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts. The highest elevation (3.2-fold) was found for 5-day-old sprouts (single 15 mM H2O2 treatment). A significant increase was also found on the 2nd and 4th days (2.13- and 2.14-fold, respectively). Elicitation induced tyrosine and phenylalanine ammonia-lyases activities. H2O2 treatments induced the activity of catalase - especially for 2-day-old sprouts treated with 150 mM H2O2 (597 U/gf.m.). Elicitation with H2O2 is a useful tool for designing some features of sprouts. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity are strongly affected by concentration of the elicitor, and time and intervals of its application. PMID:25766821

  4. Mutations in cauliflower and sprout broccoli grown from seeds flown in space

    Wu, Hong; Huang, Congli; Zhang, Keping; Sun, Yeqing


    Cauliflower and sprout broccoli are widely planted vegetables particularly in Fujian Province, China. To study the mutation in these two types of vegetables induced from spaceflight, we flew the seeds on the 20th Chinese recoverable satellite which orbited the Earth for 18 days. After returning to the Earth, the cauliflower seeds were planted for two generations and the sprout broccoli seeds for one generation at the Xiamen Agriculture Research Institute. Of the 12 cauliflowers planted for the first generation, two showed significant phenotypical changes in both the size of the plant and the weight of the flower head. In addition, most of the space flown plants were found to be resistant to the black rot attack in the field. Cauliflowers planted for the second generation from the seeds in one of the two plants that displayed phenotypical changes in the first generation showed similar mutations. For the first generation of sprout broccoli, the rate of emergence from the flown seeds was lower than that of the control by 30%. No significant changes in the phenotype between the sprout broccolis planted from the flown seeds and the control were observed except one of the mutated sprout broccolis showed a change in the appearance in the lesser bud of the chief flower head. Results of the study demonstrated that DNA damages in some of the genes may have occurred in the seeds flown in space, and some of the changes in the genes may have inherited from the first to the second generation. The improved resistance to the black rot attack and increased size of the flower head are apparently beneficial.

  5. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P


    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding. PMID:26400359

  6. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    ... beans (15 oz.) ½ medium onion 2 garlic cloves 2 tablespoons vegetable oil ½ teaspoon cumin (ground) ½ teaspoon salt ¼ ... pieces. Set the onions aside. Peel the garlic cloves and mince ... heat your cooking oil over medium high heat. Add the onions and ...

  7. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola


    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  8. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  9. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  10. Registration of ‘Eldorado’ pinto bean

    ‘Eldorado’ (Reg. No. CV-302, PI 665012) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which was developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch, was released in 2012 as an upright, full-season,disease-resistant cultivar. Eldorado, tested as MSU breeding line P07863, was developed using the single-seed-de...

  11. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  12. Preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans in the highland tropics of Ecuador

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Andrade-Piedra, Jorge L.;


    Experiments were conducted to determine whether preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans occurs in the highland tropics of Ecuador. In three separate experiments in the field, P. infestans was identified on the preemerged sprouts of 49, 5, and 43% of tubers, respectively...... over 24 h in the field. Deposition had been measured at 1 m from a severely infected potato plot. Our study demonstrated the potential for preemergence infection of potato sprouts by P. infestans in the highlands of Ecuador, where year-round aerial inoculum is present. Preemergence infection is...

  13. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez


    Full Text Available Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots and control without zinc supplementation (four plots. Plants were subjected to two treatments: zinc supplementation and control. Yield, number of defective beans, beans attacked by berry borers, bean size, cup quality, beans zinc concentration, potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, color index, total tritable acidity, pH, chlorogenic acids contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity of beans were evaluated. Zinc positively affected quality of coffee beans, which presented lower percentage of medium and small beans, lower berry borer incidence, lower potassium leaching and electrical conductivity, higher contents of zinc and chlorogenic acids and higher antioxidant activity in comparison with control beans.

  14. Sprouting productivity and allometric relationships of two oak species managed for traditional charcoal making in central Mexico.

    Aguilar, R.; Ghilardi, A.; Vega, E.; Skutsch, M.; Oyama, K.


    Sustainable production systems for woodfuels in developing countries require basic information on tree productivity, and particularly on their coppicing productivity under current forms of management. We report biomass equations and sprouting productivity of two oak species (Quercus castanea and Que

  15. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena


    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses. PMID:26111585

  16. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao


    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods. PMID:25029555

  17. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. protein hydrolysates

    Jarine Amaral do EVANGELHO


    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared, when the beans protein was subjected to hydrolysis with pepsin. The bean protein hydrolysate obtained by hydrolysis with alcalase enzyme, showed higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical ABTS●+. However, the hydrolysates obtained by hydrolysis with pepsin had higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical DPPH. The use of pepsin and alcalase enzymes, under the same reaction time, produced black bean protein hydrolysates with different molecular weight profiles and superior antioxidant activity than the native bean protein.

  18. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  19. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Debastiani, R., E-mail:; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.


    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  20. FT-ICR/MS and GC-EI/MS Metabolomics Networking Unravels Global Potato Sprout's Responses to Rhizoctonia solani Infection

    Aliferis, Konstantinos A.; Jabaji, Suha


    The complexity of plant-pathogen interactions makes their dissection a challenging task for metabolomics studies. Here we are reporting on an integrated metabolomics networking approach combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance/mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS) and bioinformatics analyses for the study of interactions in the potato sprout-Rhizoctonia solani pathosystem and the fluctuations in the global metabolome of sprouts. The develop...

  1. Experimental evaluation of the sustainability of dwarf bamboo (Pseudosasa usawai) sprout-harvesting practices in Yangminshan National Park, Taiwan.

    Liao, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Ru; Hsu, Meng-Ting; Poo, Wak-Kim


    Sustainable harvest of natural products that meets the needs of local people has been viewed by many as an important means for sustaining conservation projects. Although plants often respond to tissue damage through compensatory growth, it may not secure long-term sustainability of the populations because many plants enhance individual well-being at the expense of propagation. Sustainability may further be threatened by infrequent, large-scale events, especially ill-documented ones. We studied the impacts of sprout harvesting on sprout growth in a dwarf bamboo (Pseudosasa usawai) population that has seemingly recovered from an infrequent, large-scale masting event. Experimental results suggest that although a single sprout harvest did not significantly alter the subsequent abundance and structure of sprouts, culm damage that accompanied sprout harvesting resulted in shorter, thinner, and fewer sprouts. Weaker recovery was found in windward, continually harvested, and more severely damaged sites. These findings suggest that sprout growth of damaged dwarf bamboos is likely non-compensatory, but is instead supported through physiological integration whose strength is determined by the well-being of the supplying ramets. Healthy culms closer to the damage also provided more resources than those farther away. Sustainable harvesting of sprouts could benefit from organized community efforts to limit the magnitude of culm damage, provide adequate spacing between harvested sites, and ensure sufficient time interval between harvests. Vegetation boundaries relatively resilient to infrequent, large-scale events are likely maintained by climatic factors and may be sensitive to climate change. Continual monitoring is, therefore, integral to the sustainability of harvesting projects. PMID:24950959

  2. Effect of radiation processing on nutritional and sensory quality of minimally processed green gram and garden pea sprouts

    In the present study, radiation processing of minimally processed green gram and garden pea sprouts was carried out at doses 1 and 2 kGy. The effect of this treatment on different quality parameters like vitamin C content, total carotenoids content, sensory quality, texture, and color was determined over a storage period of 12 days at two different temperatures, a 4 and 8 deg. C. It was observed that treatment of irradiation (1 and 2 kGy) and storage period did not have any significant effect on vitamin C content of control as well as irradiated sprout samples stored at 4 and 8 deg.C. Total carotenoids content of sprouts stored at 4, as well as at 8 deg. C, for 12 days remained almost unchanged after irradiation as well as during storage. Sensory evaluation studies showed that irradiation had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the ratings of any of the sensory attributes in green gram as well as garden pea sprouts and, thus, did not alter the overall acceptability of the irradiated sprouts. Textural studies revealed that there was no significant change (p>0.05) in the firmness of irradiated sprouts (1 and 2 kGy) as compared to control samples at both the temperatures. Storage period of 12 days also did not affect the firmness of sprouts significantly. Color measurement results indicated no drastic change in the color coordinates of the green gram samples except greenness of controls stored at both the temperatures, which showed insignificant decrease in the a * values. Thus, the nutritional as well as sensory quality of minimally processed green gram and garden pea sprouts did not alter significantly after gamma irradiation with a dose of 1 and 2 kGy

  3. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds

    Bollini R.; Carnovale E.; Campion B.


    Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show t...

  4. Two distinct nanovirus species infecting faba bean in Morocco

    Abraham, Adane; Bencharki, Bouchaib; Torok, Valeria; Katul, Lina; Varrelmann, Mark; Josef Vetten, H.


    Using monoclonal antibodies raised against a Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV) isolate from Egypt and a Faba bean necrotic stunt virus (FBNSV) isolate from Ethiopia, a striking serological variability among nanovirus isolates from faba bean in Morocco was revealed. To obtain a better understanding of this nanovirus variability in Morocco, the entire genomes of two serologically contrasting isolates referred to as Mor5 and Mor23 were sequenced. The eight circular ssDNA components, each ...

  5. Biology of the Coconut Bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French Beans

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy


    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with...

  6. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques


    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and for...

  7. Intermittent drying of beans in a spouted bed

    de Oliveira, C A; S.C.S. Rocha


    Carioca beans are a highly nutritious grain, in terms of the amount of protein, iron and potassium as well as carbohydrates and fiber and as a source of vitamins. The moisture content of recently picked beans is too high for good preservation and storage, resulting in the need for drying before packaging. In this work, the drying of Carioca beans in a laboratory scale spouted bed under intermittent conditions of the drying air was experimentally analyzed. Experiments carried out consisted of ...

  8. Effect of bean polyphenols on iron absorption in humans

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia are major public health problems in many developing countries. Common beans are a staple food in various Eastern African countries. Beans contain high amounts of iron, but the iron is poorly absorbed due to the presence of the iron absorption inhibitors polyphenols and phytic acid. With the overall aim of increasing the intake of bioavailable iron from beans by plant breeding strategies, this study evaluates the importance bean polyphenols on iron absorption. In common beans the polyphenols are concentrated in the bean hulls. Therefore bean hulls were used as a source of natural bean polyphenols and added in three different amounts to a non-inhibitory test meal (phytic acid free bread rolls). Iron absorption from the test meals was measured in three groups of 16 apparently healthy female volunteers using stable iron isotope techniques. Each volunteer consumed a test meal with and a test meal without bean polyphenols extrinsically labeled with 57Fe and 58Fe respectively. Iron absorption was determined based on the incorporation of iron stable isotopes into red blood cells 14 days after administration. Isotopic analysis was performed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The results of the absorption studies showed a dose dependent negative effect of bean polyphenols on iron absorption in humans. At the lowest polyphenol content tested (20 mg per test meal) no impact on iron absorption was found (p 0.92). A polyphenol content of 50 mg reduced the mean iron absorption significantly from 20.3% to 17.3% (p 0.044). The highest polyphenol content of 200 mg significantly reduced the mean iron absorption from 14.3% to 7.9% (p 0.0001). Further studies are planned to evaluate the relative effect of polyphenols and phytic acid on iron absorption from beans to provide guidance for breeding beans with improved iron bioavailability. (author)

  9. Promotion of neural sprouting using low-level green light-emitting diode phototherapy

    Alon, Noa; Duadi, Hamootal; Cohen, Ortal; Samet, Tamar; Zilony, Neta; Schori, Hadas; Shefi, Orit; Zalevsky, Zeev


    We irradiated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line with low-level light-emitting diode (LED) illumination at a visible wavelength of 520 nm (green) and intensity of 100 mW/cm2. We captured and analyzed the cell morphology before LED treatment, immediately after, and 12 and 24 h after treatment. Our study demonstrated that LED illumination increases the amount of sprouting dendrites in comparison to the control untreated cells. This treatment also resulted in more elongated cells after treatment in comparison to the control cells and higher levels of expression of a differentiation related gene. This result is a good indication that the proposed method could serve in phototherapy treatment for increasing sprouting and enhancing neural network formation.

  10. Zinc-deficient sprouting blight potatoes and their possible relation with neural tube defects.

    Ulman, Cevval; Taneli, Fatma; Oksel, Figen; Hakerlerler, Huseyin


    Maternal nutritional zinc deficiency is blamed in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. In animal and plant domains zinc is required for growth and development. The objective of the present study was to show that sprouting blighted potato tuber is zinc deficient. In five potato varieties, zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in wet-ashed paired slices of edible potato tuber and in its peel, in blighted potato tuber and in its sprout. Zinc contents were measured as the mean (+/- SEM) and the following values were found, 0.388 +/- 0.036, 0.623 +/- 0.059, 0.550 +/- 0.030 and 1.089 +/- 0.181 mg per 100 g wet weight, respectively. In conclusion, we believe that long-term consumption of zinc-depleted, blight potato tuber by pregnant woman could be potentially teratogenic with the consequent birth of a baby with neural tube defects. PMID:15376231

  11. Inductive effect of coconut water on germination of seeds and sprouting of corms of Dracontium grayumianum

    The objective of this study was to determine the promotional effect of coconut water, gibberellic acid, cold stratification and mechanical scarification on seed germination of Dracontium grayumianum, and the effect of gibberellic acid and coconut water on the sprouting of corms of the same species. The seeds without the inductive treatment were unable to germinate, but the immersion in coconut water had significant effects, producing a germination rate of 50%, higher than the effect achieved with other treatments. The liquid endosperm of coconut also had favorable effect on the sprouting of corms under nursery conditions, like the treatment with gibberellic acid solution. This is the first report of the use of coconut water as a promoter of seed germination with high latency, which places this resource as an additional alternative, highly efficient, and cost-effective, for use in plant propagation strategies of species with seeds of deep dormancy.

  12. The impact of Trichoderma harzianum on sprouting and early development of pepper until thinning

    Galonja-Coghill Tamara A.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study on the analysis of the stimulative and biopesticide effects of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-22 on germination, sprouting and early development of two pepper varieties (Amfora and Buketna 1 in organic production. The results show the significant effect of the applied T-22 strain on ger­mination, sprouting, growth and early development of both aboveground and underground parts of plants, either used as soil or seed inoculum, in comparison to controls. It was concluded that T. harzianum T-22 proved its efficiency in promoting growth and development of pepper, and preventing the development of mycoses. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31031: Promotion of sustainability and competitiveness in organic plant and stock production using new technologies and inputs

  13. Effect of Spearmint Oil on Sprouting and Processing Quality of Diamant and Sinora Potato Varieties

    Hind A. ELbashir


    Full Text Available The effect of spearmint oil on the storage and processing qualities of two potato varieties Diamant and Sinora was investigated and compared with the sprout inhibitor, isopropyl - N 3-chlorophenyl carbamate (CIPC. Potatoes were stored at 10±1ºC and (73-78% RH for 6 months. Results showed spearmint oil was as effective as CIPC in checking the break of dormancy, fast sprout growth, high fresh weight loss but unlike CIPC did not kill the eye buds; so can be used for seed tubers. The oil had no adverse effects on reducing sugars, dry matter, specific gravity and chips yield. After storage for six months both varieties were still suitable for making chips and French fries. Consumers preferred chips prepared from Sinora tubers and French fries prepared from Diamant tubers treated with spearmint oil.

  14. Effect of sprouting and roasting processes on some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of soybean seed and oils.

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad


    Free fatty acid contents of sprouted soybean oil were found between 1.26% (Adasoy) and 4.20% (Nazlıcan and Türksoy). Peroxide values (PV) of sprouted soybean oils were found between 1.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 3.85meq/kg (A3935), while peroxide values of roasted seed oils were determined between 2.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 4.03meq/kg (Nova). Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were found as major fatty acids of soybean genotypes. Oleic acid contents of samples were found between 19.07% (roasted Adasoy) and 35.31% (roasted A3935), linoleic contents of oils ranged between 42.17% (roasted Nazlican) and 54.76% (sprouted A3127). Macro and micro element contents of sprouted, oven roasted and raw (untreated) soybean seeds were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. The potassium contents of soybean seeds ranged between 16,375mg/kg (raw Adasoy) and 20,357mg/kg (sprouted A3127, while phosphorus contents of seeds varied from 5427mg/kg (oven roasted Türksoy) to 7759mg/kg (sprouted Nova). The micro element contents of samples were found to be different depending on the processing procedures and soybean genotypes. PMID:24518351

  15. Simulation of tumor induced angiogenesis using an analytical adaptive modeling including dynamic sprouting and blood flow modeling.

    Naghavi, Nadia; Hosseini, Farideh S; Sardarabadi, Mohammad; Kalani, Hadi


    In this paper, an adaptive model for tumor induced angiogenesis is developed that integrates generation and diffusion of a growth factor originated from hypoxic cells, adaptive sprouting from a parent vessel, blood flow and structural adaptation. The proposed adaptive sprout spacing model (ASS) determines position, time and number of sprouts which are activated from a parent vessel and also the developed vascular network is modified by a novel sprout branching prediction algorithm. This algorithm couples local vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations, stresses due to the blood flow and stochastic branching to the structural reactions of each vessel segment in response to mechanical and biochemical stimuli. The results provide predictions for the time-dependent development of the network structure, including the position and diameters of each segment and the resulting distributions of blood flow and VEGF. Considering time delays between sprout progressions and number of sprouts activated at different time durations provides information about micro-vessel density in the network. Resulting insights could be useful for motivating experimental investigations of vascular pattern in tumor induced angiogenesis and development of therapies targeting angiogenesis. PMID:27179697

  16. Crushing of roasted arabica coffee beans

    Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Severa, L.; Stoklasová, Pavla; Buchar, J.

    Vol. 1. Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, 2010 - (Vozárová, V.). s. 24-25 ISBN 978-80-552-0463-5. [International Conference on Food Physics ICFP 2010 /9./. 20.10.2010-21.10.2010, Nitra] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA201990701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : strain gauges * impactor * roasted beans Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  17. Enhancement of Alcohol Metabolism by Sprouted Peanut Extract in SD Rats

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seong Soon; Kim, Jong-Sang


    Excessive ethanol intake is known to induce a number of physiological symptoms, including headache, dizziness and vertigo. In this study, we investigated the attenuation effect of sprouted peanut extract (SPE) on ethanol-induced hangover in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into five groups: the control group, which was administered ethanol only; the ethanol plus SPE experimental groups, which were administered ethanol and 100, 200, or 400 mg SPE/kg b.w.; and the positive con...

  18. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle: a consequence of prolonged feeding barley malt sprouts.

    Kul, O; Karahan, S; Basalan, M; Kabakci, N


    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) in ruminants has been recognized as a consequence of excess sulphur intake. The present study describes clinical, gross and histopathological findings of PEM following an abrupt change of diet in two ranches housing 2750 dairy and 2300 beef cattle. As a result of severe PEM, 256 cattle died or were slaughtered. Clinical findings included circling, hypersensitivity, excessive salivation, hypermetria, incoordination, blindness and death. The first clinical signs occurred in beef calves (6-8 months old) at a holding facility. Clinical signs of the disorder continued intermittently during the 5-month period in both ranches and were more evident in calves and lactating dairy cows. The affected cattle did not respond to thiamine injections. Clinical signs disappeared gradually following removal of barley malt sprouts from the diet. Although macroscopic lesions were not apparent in the brain tissues of some animals, histopathology typical of PEM was found in most cases: spongiosis in the neuropil and neuronal necrosis, haemorrhage, capillary hyperplasia, fibrinoid degeneration in arterioles, multifocal liquefaction necroses in the grey matter and abundance of gitter cells with vacuolar large cytoplasm. Sulphide in rumen fluid of a clinically affected animal was measured as 1.55 mg/dl, which is considerably higher than that collected from two control cows (mean 0.21 mg/dl). The total sulphur content of the diet containing barley malt sprouts was estimated to be 0.45%, which is also higher than the National Research Council (NRC) maximum tolerable levels. In conclusion, PEM can result from excess barley malt sprout intake because of its higher sulphur content. Clinical signs may occur shortly after the intake of barley malt sprout as outbreaks with a higher number of deaths or as an ongoing periodic condition. PMID:16533327

  19. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts

    Mariateresa Maldini; Fausta Natella; Simona Baima; Giorgio Morelli; Cristina Scaccini; James Langridge; Giuseppe Astarita


    The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird’s-eye view of the overall metabolic response af...

  20. Reprogramming of Seed Metabolism Facilitates Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance of Wheat

    Caixiang Liu; Feng Ding; Fuhua Hao; Men Yu; Hehua Lei; Xiangyu Wu; Zhengxi Zhao; Hongxiang Guo; Jun Yin; Yulan Wang; Huiru Tang


    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is a worldwide problem for wheat production and transgene antisense-thioredoxin-s (anti-trx-s) facilitates outstanding resistance. To understand the molecular details of PHS resistance, we analyzed the metabonomes of the transgenic and wild-type (control) wheat seeds at various stages using NMR and GC-FID/MS. 60 metabolites were dominant in these seeds including sugars, organic acids, amino acids, choline metabolites and fatty acids. At day-20 post-anthesis, only m...

  1. Elongation, proliferation & migration differentiate endothelial cell phenotypes and determine capillary sprouting

    Popel Aleksander S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis, the growth of capillaries from preexisting blood vessels, has been extensively studied experimentally over the past thirty years. Molecular insights from these studies have lead to therapies for cancer, macular degeneration and ischemia. In parallel, mathematical models of angiogenesis have helped characterize a broader view of capillary network formation and have suggested new directions for experimental pursuit. We developed a computational model that bridges the gap between these two perspectives, and addresses a remaining question in angiogenic sprouting: how do the processes of endothelial cell elongation, migration and proliferation contribute to vessel formation? Results We present a multiscale systems model that closely simulates the mechanisms underlying sprouting at the onset of angiogenesis. Designed by agent-based programming, the model uses logical rules to guide the behavior of individual endothelial cells and segments of cells. The activation, proliferation, and movement of these cells lead to capillary growth in three dimensions. By this means, a novel capillary network emerges out of combinatorially complex interactions of single cells. Rules and parameter ranges are based on literature data on endothelial cell behavior in vitro. The model is designed generally, and will subsequently be applied to represent species-specific, tissue-specific in vitro and in vivo conditions. Initial results predict tip cell activation, stalk cell development and sprout formation as a function of local vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations and the Delta-like 4 Notch ligand, as it might occur in a three-dimensional in vitro setting. Results demonstrate the differential effects of ligand concentrations, cell movement and proliferation on sprouting and directional persistence. Conclusion This systems biology model offers a paradigm closely related to biological phenomena and highlights previously

  2. Materials for the vegetative identification of segetal weeds sprouted from subterranean organs

    Antal NYARADY


    Full Text Available In complement of their paper about the morphology of weed seedlings geminated from seeds (Acta Agron. acada.Sci. Hung., Tom. XVIII, 1969, pp.1-47 in this note the authors presents the results of comparative morphological studies on perennial segetal weeds sprouted from subterranean organs. The verified distinctive characteristics are included in an analitical key which allow the identification of 72 weed species (3 Pteridophytae, 17 Monocotyledoneae, 52 Dicotyledoneae recurrent on the ploughed fields in Romania.

  3. The Effects of Light and Temperature on Biotin Synthesis in Pea Sprouts.

    Kamiyama, Shin; Ohnuki, Risa; Moriki, Aoi; Abe, Megumi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Sone, Hideyuki


    Biotin is an essential micronutrient, and is a cofactor for several carboxylases that are involved in the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. Because plant cells can synthesize their own biotin, a wide variety of plant-based foods contains significant amounts of biotin; however, the influence of environmental conditions on the biotin content in plants remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different cultivation conditions on the biotin content and biotin synthesis in pea sprouts (Pisum sativum). In the experiment, the pea sprouts were removed from their cotyledons and cultivated by hydroponics under five different lighting and temperature conditions (control [25ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], low light [25ºC, 4-h light/20-h dark cycle], dark [25ºC, 24 h dark], low temperature [12ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], and cold [6ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle]) for 10 d. Compared to the biotin content of pea sprouts under the control conditions, the biotin contents of pea sprouts under the low-light, dark, and cold conditions had significantly decreased. The dark group showed the lowest biotin content among the groups. Expression of the biotin synthase gene (bio2) was also significantly decreased under the dark and cold conditions compared to the control condition, in a manner similar to that observed for the biotin content. No significant differences in the adenosine triphosphate content were observed among the groups. These results indicate that environmental conditions such as light and temperature modulate the biotin content of pea plant tissues by regulating the expression of biotin synthase. PMID:27117847

  4. Genetic analysis of preharvest sprouting tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Thell.)

    Yücel, Cemal; BALOCH, Faheem Shehzad; HATİPOĞLU, RÜŞTÜ; Özkan, Hakan


    Rains during grain ripening in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can cause preharvest sprouting (PHS), which drastically affects the grain yield and the baking quality of flour. In the present study, to screen 7 cultivars and 4 lines of spring bread wheat for PHS, germination tests were conducted with seeds obtained from wet spikes harvested immediately after natural rainfall. Germination tests were carried out as 3 different treatments: 1) seeds immediately germinated after hand-threshing on samp...

  5. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)


    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  6. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    A.Q. Liu


    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  7. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  8. The Moche Lima beans recording system, revisited

    Tomi S. Melka


    Full Text Available One matter that has raised sufficient uncertainties among scholarsin the study of the Old Moche culture is a system that comprises patterned Lima beans. The marked beans, plus various associated effigies, appear painted by and large with a mixture of realism and symbolism on the surface of ceramic bottles and jugs, with many of them showing an unparalleled artistry in the great area of the South American subcontinent. A range of accounts has been offered as to what the real meaning of these items is: starting from a recreationaland/or a gambling game, to a divination scheme, to amulets, to an application for determining the length and order of funerary rites, to a device close to an accountancy and data storage medium, ending up with an ‘ideographic’, or even a ‘pre-alphabetic’ system.The investigation brings together structural, iconographic and cultural aspects, and indicates that we might be dealing with an original form of mnemotechnology, contrived to solve the problems of medium and long-distance communication among the once thriving Moche principalities. Likewise, by reviewing the literature, by searching for new material, and exploring the structure and combinatory properties of the marked Lima beans, as well as by placing emphasis on joint scholarly efforts, may enhance the studies.

  9. Sprout inhibition and change in organic components of potato by gamma-irradiation

    Radiation technology for sprout inhibition and change in organic components of potato by irradiation were investigated. Dose distribution in the package filled with potatoes (depth 45cm, density: 0.56g/cm3) was measured using Fricke dosimeter. When the package was irradiated at dose rate of 5 x 105, 1 x 105 and 5 x 104 rad/hr, the dose uniformities were calculated as 1.79, 1,45 and 1.35, and the relative throughput capacities were 1.0, 0.26 and 0.14, respectively. After 7 months storage, the sprout of potatoes was not observed at 10 krad irradiation while 57% of potatoes was sprouted at 5 krad. The contents of oxalic and malic acids were slightly increased by irradiation up to 100 krad while that of citric and succinic acids were not changed. The change in contents of these organic acids during storage was almost the same in both unirradiated and irradiated samples. Sucrose content was reached maximum after 8 days in 15 krad irradiated sample while it was increased through 40 days storage in 300 krad irradiated sample. The increase in sucrose contents by irradiation was higher in cortical tissue than in medullary tissue. (author)

  10. Changes in water absorption of gluten as a result of sprouting of wheat grain

    Miś A.


    Full Text Available The laboratory test for sprouting of wheat grain (cv. Igna and Roma was used to evaluate the influence of the degree of sprouting on changes in sorption and rheological properties of gluten freshly washed out by means of the Glutomatic device. Lower water additions used for sprouting did not change the water absorption of gluten and the gluten index. A further increase in the water addition caused significant changes in the gluten properties in relation to the untreated grain (control. Gluten index values decreased from about 57 to 35% for cv. Roma and from 94 to 38% for cv. Igna, and contents of the non-absorbed water contents in gluten freshly washed out increased from 4.1 to 13.9% and from 1.2 to 9.6%, respectively. Simultaneously there took place decreases in the absorbed water contents in the gluten from 63.3 to 55.1% for cv. Roma and from 65.8 to 59.0% for cv. Igna.