PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this calculation is to provide a dose consequence analysis of high-level waste (HLW) consisting of plutonium immobilized in vitrified HLW to be handled at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain for a beyond design basis event (BDBE) under expected conditions using best estimate values for each calculation parameter. In addition to the dose calculation, a plutonium respirable particle size for dose calculation use is derived. The current concept for this waste form is plutonium disks enclosed in cans immobilized in canisters of vitrified HLW (i.e., glass). The plutonium inventory at risk used for this calculation is selected from Plutonium Immobilization Project Input for Yucca Mountain Total Systems Performance Assessment (Shaw 1999). The BDBE examined in this calculation is a nonmechanistic initiating event and the sequence of events that follow to cause a radiological release. This analysis will provide the radiological releases and dose consequences for a postulated BDBE. Results may be considered in other analyses to determine or modify the safety classification and quality assurance level of repository structures, systems, and components. This calculation uses best available technical information because the BDBE frequency is very low (i.e., less than 1.0E-6 events/year) and is not required for License Application for the Monitored Geologic Repository. The results of this calculation will not be used as part of a licensing or design basis
PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D.C. Richardson
2003-03-19
In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both.
PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both
Radioactive cloud dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radiological dosage principles, as well as methods for calculating external and internal dose rates, following dispersion and deposition of radioactive materials in the atmosphere are described. Emphasis has been placed on analytical solutions that are appropriate for hand calculations. In addition, the methods for calculating dose rates from ingestion are discussed. A brief description of several computer programs are included for information on radionuclides. There has been no attempt to be comprehensive, and only a sampling of programs has been selected to illustrate the variety available
Population dose calculation technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An original method is suggested for calculating the population doses from gas and aerosol radioactive releases. The method is based on the assumption of uniform population and arable land distribution. The validity of this assumption has been proved for a rather large condition range. Though, some modified formulae are given to take into account the non-uniformity of population distribution, connected with large cities, on the one hand, and with woods, shores, regional borders, on the other hand. Employment of the suggested method results in an apriciable calculation accuracy rise for the long-living slowly precipitating radionuclides as compared with the existing methods
Weldon Spring dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In response to a request by the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) for assistance to the Department of the Army (DA) on the decommissioning of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, the Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed limited dose assessment calculations for that site. Based upon radiological measurements from a number of soil samples analyzed by ORNL and from previously acquired radiological data for the Weldon Spring site, source terms were derived to calculate radiation doses for three specific site scenarios. These three hypothetical scenarios are: a wildlife refuge for hunting, fishing, and general outdoor recreation; a school with 40 hr per week occupancy by students and a custodian; and a truck farm producing fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products which may be consumed on site. Radiation doses are reported for each of these scenarios both for measured uranium daughter equilibrium ratios and for assumed secular equilibrium. Doses are lower for the nonequilibrium case
Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.
Calculational Tool for Skin Contamination Dose Assessment
Hill, R L
2002-01-01
Spreadsheet calculational tool was developed to automate the calculations preformed for dose assessment of skin contamination. This document reports on the design and testing of the spreadsheet calculational tool.
Tank Z-361 dose rate calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutron and gamma ray dose rates were calculated above and around the 6-inch riser of tank Z-361 located at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Dose rates were also determined off of one side of the tank. The largest dose rate 0.029 mrem/h was a gamma ray dose and occurred 76.2 cm (30 in.) directly above the open riser. All other dose rates were negligible. The ANSI/ANS 1991 flux to dose conversion factor for neutrons and photons were used in this analysis. Dose rates are reported in units of mrem/h with the calculated uncertainty shown within the parentheses
Methods of bone marrow dose calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several methods of bone marrow dose calculation for photon irradiation were analised. After a critical analysis, the author proposes the adoption, by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/CNEN, of Rosenstein's method for dose calculations in Radiodiagnostic examinations and Kramer's method in case of occupational irradiation. It was verified by Eckerman and Simpson that for monoenergetic gamma emitters uniformly distributed within the bone mineral of the skeleton the dose in the bone surface can be several times higher than dose in skeleton. In this way, is also proposed the Calculation of tissue-air ratios for bone surfaces in some irradiation geometries and photon energies to be included in the Rosenstein's method for organ dose calculation in Radiodiagnostic examinations. (Author)
Dose calculation system for remotely supporting radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dose calculation system IMAGINE is being developed keeping in mind remotely supporting external radiation therapy using photon beams. The system is expected to provide an accurate picture of the dose distribution in a patient body, using a Monte Carlo calculation that employs precise models of the patient body and irradiation head. The dose calculation will be performed utilising super-parallel computing at the dose calculation centre, which is equipped with the ITBL computer, and the calculated results will be transferred through a network. The system is intended to support the quality assurance of current, widely carried out radiotherapy and, further, to promote the prevalence of advanced radiotherapy. Prototypes of the modules constituting the system have already been constructed and used to obtain basic data that are necessary in order to decide on the concrete design of the system. The final system will be completed in 2007. (authors)
Equivalent-spherical-shield neutron dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutron doses through 162-cm-thick spherical shields were calculated to be 1090 and 448 mrem/h for regular and magnetite concrete, respectively. These results bracket the measured data, for reinforced regular concrete, of /approximately/600 mrem/h. The calculated fraction of the high-energy (>20 MeV) dose component also bracketed the experimental data. The measured and calculated doses were for a graphite beam stop bombarded with 100 nA of 800-MeV protons. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab
Radiological Dose Calculations for Fusion Facilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michael L. Abbott; Lee C. Cadwallader; David A. Petti
2003-04-01
This report summarizes the results and rationale for radiological dose calculations for the maximally exposed individual during fusion accident conditions. Early doses per unit activity (Sieverts per TeraBecquerel) are given for 535 magnetic fusion isotopes of interest for several release scenarios. These data can be used for accident assessment calculations to determine if the accident consequences exceed Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy evaluation guides. A generalized yearly dose estimate for routine releases, based on 1 Terabecquerel unit releases per radionuclide, has also been performed using averaged site parameters and assumed populations. These routine release data are useful for assessing designs against US Environmental Protection Agency yearly release limits.
Historical river flow rates for dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Annual average river flow rates are required input to the LADTAP Computer Code for calculating offsite doses from liquid releases of radioactive materials to the Savannah River. The source of information on annual river flow rates used in dose calculations varies, depending on whether calculations are for retrospective releases or prospective releases. Examples of these types of releases are: Retrospective - releases from routine operations (annual environmental reports) and short term release incidents that have occurred. Prospective - releases that might be expected in the future from routine or abnormal operation of existing or new facilities (EIS's, EID'S, SAR'S, etc.). This memorandum provides historical flow rates at the downstream gauging station at Highway 301 for use in retrospective dose calculations and derives flow rate data for the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment plants
Validation of dose calculation programmes for recycling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report contains the results from an international project initiated by the SSI in 1999. The primary purpose of the project was to validate some of the computer codes that are used to estimate radiation doses due to the recycling of scrap metal. The secondary purpose of the validation project was to give a quantification of the level of conservatism in clearance levels based on these codes. Specifically, the computer codes RESRAD-RECYCLE and CERISE were used to calculate radiation doses to individuals during the processing of slightly contaminated material, mainly in Studsvik, Sweden. Calculated external doses were compared with measured data from different steps of the process. The comparison of calculations and measurements shows that the computer code calculations resulted in both overestimations and underestimations of the external doses for different recycling activities. The SSI draws the conclusion that the accuracy is within one order of magnitude when experienced modellers use their programmes to calculate external radiation doses for a recycling process involving material that is mainly contaminated with cobalt-60. No errors in the codes themselves were found. Instead, the inaccuracy seems to depend mainly on the choice of some modelling parameters related to the receptor (e.g., distance, time, etc.) and simplifications made to facilitate modelling with the codes (e.g., object geometry). Clearance levels are often based on studies on enveloping scenarios that are designed to cover all realistic exposure pathways. It is obvious that for most practical cases, this gives a margin to the individual dose constraint (in the order of 10 micro sievert per year within the EC). This may be accentuated by the use of conservative assumptions when modelling the enveloping scenarios. Since there can obviously be a fairly large inaccuracy in the calculations, it seems reasonable to consider some degree of conservatism when establishing clearance levels based on
Evolution of dose distribution calculations in brachytherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this report the evolution of dose distribution calculations is revised in detail, considering the simplest case (a point source in free space) and the more complex situation of a real encapsulated line source embedded in a scattering medium. The most recent formalism to perform the dosimetry of interstitial brachytherapy sources is presented, where measured or measurable dose rates from actual sources in a tissue equivalent phantom are required as input data
Multigroup neutron dose calculations for proton therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have developed tools for the preparation of coupled multigroup proton/neutron cross section libraries. Our method is to use NJOY to process evaluated nuclear data files for incident particles below 150 MeV and MCNPX to produce data for higher energies. We modified the XSEX3 program of the MCNPX code system to produce Legendre expansions of scattering matrices generated by sampling the physics models that are comparable to the output of the GROUPR routine of NJOY. Our code combines the low and high energy scattering data with user input stopping powers and energy deposition cross sections that we also calculated using MCNPX. Our code also calculates momentum transfer coefficients for the library and optionally applies an energy straggling model to the scattering cross sections and stopping powers. The motivation was initially for deterministic solution of space radiation shielding calculations using Attila, but noting that proton therapy treatment planning may neglect secondary neutron dose assessments because of difficulty and expense, we have also investigated the feasibility of multi group methods for this application. We have shown that multigroup MCNPX solutions for secondary neutron dose compare well with continuous energy solutions and are obtainable with less than half computational cost. This efficiency comparison neglects the cost of preparing the library data, but this becomes negligible when distributed over many multi group calculations. Our deterministic calculations illustrate recognized obstacles that may have to be overcome before discrete ordinates methods can be efficient alternatives for proton therapy neutron dose calculations
Multigroup neutron dose calculations for proton therapy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelsey Iv, Charles T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prinja, Anil K [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
We have developed tools for the preparation of coupled multigroup proton/neutron cross section libraries. Our method is to use NJOY to process evaluated nuclear data files for incident particles below 150 MeV and MCNPX to produce data for higher energies. We modified the XSEX3 program of the MCNPX code system to produce Legendre expansions of scattering matrices generated by sampling the physics models that are comparable to the output of the GROUPR routine of NJOY. Our code combines the low and high energy scattering data with user input stopping powers and energy deposition cross sections that we also calculated using MCNPX. Our code also calculates momentum transfer coefficients for the library and optionally applies an energy straggling model to the scattering cross sections and stopping powers. The motivation was initially for deterministic solution of space radiation shielding calculations using Attila, but noting that proton therapy treatment planning may neglect secondary neutron dose assessments because of difficulty and expense, we have also investigated the feasibility of multi group methods for this application. We have shown that multigroup MCNPX solutions for secondary neutron dose compare well with continuous energy solutions and are obtainable with less than half computational cost. This efficiency comparison neglects the cost of preparing the library data, but this becomes negligible when distributed over many multi group calculations. Our deterministic calculations illustrate recognized obstacles that may have to be overcome before discrete ordinates methods can be efficient alternatives for proton therapy neutron dose calculations.
Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs
Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.
1987-10-01
Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.
Dose calculation in brachytherapy with microcomputers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The computer algorithms, that allow the calculation of brachytherapy doses and its graphic representation for implants, using programs developed for Pc microcomputers are presented. These algorithms allow to localized the sources in space, from their projection in radiographics images and trace isodose counter. (C.G.C.)
Calculation of external dose from distributed source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper discusses a relatively simple calculational method, called the point kernel method (Fo68), for estimating external dose from distributed sources that emit photon or electron radiations. The principles of the point kernel method are emphasized, rather than the presentation of extensive sets of calculations or tables of numerical results. A few calculations are presented for simple source geometries as illustrations of the method, and references and descriptions are provided for other caluclations in the literature. This paper also describes exposure situations for which the point kernel method is not appropriate and other, more complex, methods must be used, but these methods are not discussed in any detail
Dose calculations for intakes of ore dust
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report describes a methodology for calculating the committed effective dose for mixtures of radionuclides, such as those which occur in natural radioactive ores and dusts. The formulae are derived from first principles, with the use of reasonable assumptions concerning the nature and behaviour of the radionuclide mixtures. The calculations are complicated because these 'ores' contain a range of particle sizes, have different degrees of solubility in blood and other body fluids, and also have different biokinetic clearance characteristics from the organs and tissues in the body. The naturally occurring radionuclides also tend to occur in series, i.e. one is produced by the radioactive decay of another 'parent' radionuclide. The formulae derived here can be used, in conjunction with a model such as LUDEP, for calculating total dose resulting from inhalation and/or ingestion of a mixture of radionuclides, and also for deriving annual limits on intake and derived air concentrations for these mixtures
Recommendations for Insulin Dose Calculator Risk Management
Rees, Christen
2014-01-01
Several studies have shown the usefulness of an automated insulin dose bolus advisor (BA) in achieving improved glycemic control for insulin-using diabetes patients. Although regulatory agencies have approved several BAs over the past decades, these devices are not standardized in their approach to dosage calculation and include many features that may introduce risk to patients. Moreover, there is no single standard of care for diabetes worldwide and no guidance documents for BAs, specificall...
Phantoms for calculations of absorbed organ dose
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have developed a computer code IDES (Internal Dose Estimation System). In this code, MIRD Transformation Method is used and photon simulation by Monte Carlo method is also possible. We have studied Japanese phantoms in two procedures, mathematical phantom and 'symbol phantoms'. Our mathematical phantoms realize their height and body weights but does not hold some of organ weights, which were measured by TANAKA and KAWAMURA. The symbol phantom can solve this discrepancy and realize a realistic phantom, although it remains problems of authorization and normalization. Errors were estimated for internal dose calculations and it was pointed out that to use realistic organ weights and parameters of kinetics was important competitively to reduce uncertainty of the results. (author)
Annual dose rate calculations for thermoluminescence dating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tabulations of decay data and dose rate calculations that are necessary for TL dating are presented. An effort has been made to collect the latest evaluated data and to catalog them in a form that is easily accessible, so that they may be updated as new revised values are reported. It is suggested that the largest error in thermoluminescence dating will come from sources other than the tabulated particle energies and branching ratios. These include: (a) the alpha to beta thermoluminescence efficiency determination; (b) concentration measurements of K, Rb, Th, and U; (c) all departures from secular equilibrium in the uranium and thorium decay chains; and (d) the imprecise calibration of laboratory radiation sources
Recommendations for Insulin Dose Calculator Risk Management
2014-01-01
Several studies have shown the usefulness of an automated insulin dose bolus advisor (BA) in achieving improved glycemic control for insulin-using diabetes patients. Although regulatory agencies have approved several BAs over the past decades, these devices are not standardized in their approach to dosage calculation and include many features that may introduce risk to patients. Moreover, there is no single standard of care for diabetes worldwide and no guidance documents for BAs, specifically. Given the emerging and more stringent regulations on software used in medical devices, the approval process is becoming more difficult for manufacturers to navigate, with some manufacturers opting to remove BAs from their products altogether. A comprehensive literature search was performed, including publications discussing: diabetes BA use and benefit, infusion pump safety and regulation, regulatory submissions, novel BAs, and recommendations for regulation and risk management of BAs. Also included were country-specific and international guidance documents for medical device, infusion pump, medical software, and mobile medical application risk management and regulation. No definitive worldwide guidance exists regarding risk management requirements for BAs, specifically. However, local and international guidance documents for medical devices, infusion pumps, and medical device software offer guidance that can be applied to this technology. In addition, risk management exercises that are algorithm-specific can help prepare manufacturers for regulatory submissions. This article discusses key issues relevant to BA use and safety, and recommends risk management activities incorporating current research and guidance. PMID:24876550
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
V. Scott Barnes
2014-12-01
On October 21, 2014, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in coordination with local jurisdictions, and Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) conducted an evaluated drill to demonstrate the ability to implement the requirements of DOE O 151.1C, “Comprehensive Emergency Management System” when responding to a beyond design basis event (BDBE) scenario as outlined in the Office of Health, Safety, and Security Operating Experience Level 1 letter (OE-1: 2013-01). The INL contractor, Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), in coordination with CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC (CWI), and Idaho Treatment Group LLC (ITG), successfully demonstrated appropriate response measures to mitigate a BDBE event that would impact multiple facilities across the INL while protecting the health and safety of personnel, the environment, and property. Offsite response organizations participated to demonstrate appropriate response measures.
PRDC - A software package for personnel radiation dose calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To determine effective dose, we usually need to use a very complicated human body model and a sophisticated computer code to transport radiations in the body model and surrounding medium, which is not very easy to practicing health physicists in the field. This study develops and tests a software package, called PRDC (Personnel Radiation Dose Calculation), which calculates effective dose and radiation doses to various organs/tissues and personal dosemeters based on a series of interpolations. (authors)
Monte Carlo dose calculations for dynamic IMRT treatments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dose calculations for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) face new challenges due to the complex leaf geometry and time dependent nature of the delivery. A fast method of particle transport through a dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) geometry that accounts for photon attenuation and first-scattered Compton photon production has been incorporated into an existing Monte Carlo code used for patient dose calculations. Dosimetric agreement between calculation and measurement for two photon energies and MLC types is within experimental error for the sliding window tests. For a patient IMRT field, the Monte Carlo calculations are closer to measured dose than similar superposition or pencil beam calculations. (author)
DICOM organ dose does not accurately represent calculated dose in mammography
Suleiman, Moayyad E.; Brennan, Patrick C.; McEntee, Mark F.
2016-03-01
This study aims to analyze the agreement between the mean glandular dose estimated by the mammography unit (organ dose) and mean glandular dose calculated using Dance et al published method (calculated dose). Anonymised digital mammograms from 50 BreastScreen NSW centers were downloaded and exposure information required for the calculation of dose was extracted from the DICOM header along with the organ dose estimated by the system. Data from quality assurance annual tests for the included centers were collected and used to calculate the mean glandular dose for each mammogram. Bland-Altman analysis and a two-tailed paired t-test were used to study the agreement between calculated and organ dose and the significance of any differences. A total of 27,869 dose points from 40 centers were included in the study, mean calculated dose and mean organ dose (+/- standard deviation) were 1.47 (+/-0.66) and 1.38 (+/-0.56) mGy respectively. A statistically significant 0.09 mGy bias (t = 69.25; p<0.0001) with 95% limits of agreement between calculated and organ doses ranging from -0.34 and 0.52 were shown by Bland-Altman analysis, which indicates a small yet highly significant difference between the two means. The use of organ dose for dose audits is done at the risk of over or underestimating the calculated dose, hence, further work is needed to identify the causal agents for differences between organ and calculated doses and to generate a correction factor for organ dose.
Study of dose calculation on breast brachytherapy using prism TPS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
PRISM is one of non-commercial Treatment Planning System (TPS) and is developed at the University of Washington. In Indonesia, many cancer hospitals use expensive commercial TPS. This study aims to investigate Prism TPS which been applied to the dose distribution of brachytherapy by taking into account the effect of source position and inhomogeneities. The results will be applicable for clinical Treatment Planning System. Dose calculation has been implemented for water phantom and CT scan images of breast cancer using point source and line source. This study used point source and line source and divided into two cases. On the first case, Ir-192 seed source is located at the center of treatment volume. On the second case, the source position is gradually changed. The dose calculation of every case performed on a homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantom with dimension 20 × 20 × 20 cm3. The inhomogeneous phantom has inhomogeneities volume 2 × 2 × 2 cm3. The results of dose calculations using PRISM TPS were compared to literature data. From the calculation of PRISM TPS, dose rates show good agreement with Plato TPS and other study as published by Ramdhani. No deviations greater than ±4% for all case. Dose calculation in inhomogeneous and homogenous cases show similar result. This results indicate that Prism TPS is good in dose calculation of brachytherapy but not sensitive for inhomogeneities. Thus, the dose calculation parameters developed in this study were found to be applicable for clinical treatment planning of brachytherapy
Study of dose calculation on breast brachytherapy using prism TPS
Fendriani, Yoza; Haryanto, Freddy
2015-09-01
PRISM is one of non-commercial Treatment Planning System (TPS) and is developed at the University of Washington. In Indonesia, many cancer hospitals use expensive commercial TPS. This study aims to investigate Prism TPS which been applied to the dose distribution of brachytherapy by taking into account the effect of source position and inhomogeneities. The results will be applicable for clinical Treatment Planning System. Dose calculation has been implemented for water phantom and CT scan images of breast cancer using point source and line source. This study used point source and line source and divided into two cases. On the first case, Ir-192 seed source is located at the center of treatment volume. On the second case, the source position is gradually changed. The dose calculation of every case performed on a homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantom with dimension 20 × 20 × 20 cm3. The inhomogeneous phantom has inhomogeneities volume 2 × 2 × 2 cm3. The results of dose calculations using PRISM TPS were compared to literature data. From the calculation of PRISM TPS, dose rates show good agreement with Plato TPS and other study as published by Ramdhani. No deviations greater than ±4% for all case. Dose calculation in inhomogeneous and homogenous cases show similar result. This results indicate that Prism TPS is good in dose calculation of brachytherapy but not sensitive for inhomogeneities. Thus, the dose calculation parameters developed in this study were found to be applicable for clinical treatment planning of brachytherapy.
Fast dose calculation in magnetic fields with GPUMCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hissoiny, S; Ozell, B [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Departement de genie informatique et genie logiciel, 2500 Chemin de Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Raaijmakers, A J E; Raaymakers, B W [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht (Netherlands); Despres, P, E-mail: sami.hissoiny@polymtl.ca [Departement de physique, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)
2011-08-21
A new hybrid imaging-treatment modality, the MRI-Linac, involves the irradiation of the patient in the presence of a strong magnetic field. This field acts on the charged particles, responsible for depositing dose, through the Lorentz force. These conditions require a dose calculation engine capable of taking into consideration the effect of the magnetic field on the dose distribution during the planning stage. Also in the case of a change in anatomy at the time of treatment, a fast online replanning tool is desirable. It is improbable that analytical solutions such as pencil beam calculations can be efficiently adapted for dose calculations within a magnetic field. Monte Carlo simulations have therefore been used for the computations but the calculation speed is generally too slow to allow online replanning. In this work, GPUMCD, a fast graphics processing unit (GPU)-based Monte Carlo dose calculation platform, was benchmarked with a new feature that allows dose calculations within a magnetic field. As a proof of concept, this new feature is validated against experimental measurements. GPUMCD was found to accurately reproduce experimental dose distributions according to a 2%-2 mm gamma analysis in two cases with large magnetic field-induced dose effects: a depth-dose phantom with an air cavity and a lateral-dose phantom surrounded by air. Furthermore, execution times of less than 15 s were achieved for one beam in a prostate case phantom for a 2% statistical uncertainty while less than 20 s were required for a seven-beam plan. These results indicate that GPUMCD is an interesting candidate, being fast and accurate, for dose calculations for the hybrid MRI-Linac modality.
Aviation route dose calculation and its numerical basis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The European Directive 96/12 requires that aircrew be considered as occupationally exposed persons and that measures are taken to determine the individual doses of air crew and cabin personnel. Consequently, several European research institutes have undertaken an extensive programme of air borne and mountain based experiments to measure the radiation field in the earth's atmosphere. Furthermore, Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations were done to follow the radiation cascades from the top of the atmosphere down to the earth's surface. Though the basic physical processes and radiation components have been studied previously, the determination of dose quantities require more physical information: Both operational (ambient dose equivalent) and risk related quantities (effective dose) contain non-physical information which is described by quality and radiation weighting factors, respectively. The radiation transport calculations show that at normal flight altitudes the spectral shapes of the particle fluences are essentially invariable. This permits to use calculated conversion coefficients to determine the dose quantities from calculated and experimental spectral data. This appears necessary especially for those radiation components whose dose contribution can not experimentally separated, but may considerably contribute to the effective dose considering the radiation factors presently recommended by the ICRP, e.g. for protons. The European Computer Package EPCARD for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses was designed to combine the experimental and theoretical data in the best available way. The concept is to treat each major component of the cosmic rays separately, i.e. muons, electrons and photons, neutrons, protons and charged particles. The influence of geomagnetic shielding is considered based on calculations and experimental data, and the magnitude of solar modulation is inferred from neutron monitor data. Route doses are calculated along any specified
A program for synchrotron radiation dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The computer program PHOTON was obtained from Brookhaven National Laboratory (courtesy D. Chapman, NSLS), and has now been installed at APS VAX. In the following a brief description of the program and how to access to it is described with an example. A detailed manual for the program is also available. The program is developed to calculate the transmitted and scattered spectra of the synchrotron radiation, as it passes through series of filters. The source can be a bending magnet or a wiggler. This can be generated for any bending magnet or a wiggler source by varying ring energy, the critical energy and opening angles of the radiation beam. Monochromatic beams to white radiation can be treated. Filter materials can be pure elements or composites. The absorption cross-sections of all elements for covering 10-2 to 106 keV are now included in a table, which can be accessed by giving the atomic symbol
Weighting of secondary radiations in organ dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The current system of dose quantities in radiological protection is based, in addition to the absorbed dose, on the concepts of equivalent dose and effective dose. This system has been developed mainly with uniform whole-body exposures in mind. Conceptual and practical problems arise when the system is applied to more general exposure situations where the radiation quality is altered within the human body. In this article these problems are discussed, using proton beam radiotherapy as a specific example, and a proposition is made that dose equivalent quantities should be used instead of equivalent doses when organ doses are of interest. The calculations of out-of-field organ doses in proton therapy show that the International Commission on Radiological Protection-prescribed use of the proton weighting factor generally leads to an underestimation of the stochastic risks, while the use of neutron weighting factors in the way as practised in the literature leads to a significant overestimation of these risks. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Hanford Dose Overview Program is a Hanford site-wide service established to provide a method of assuring the consistency of Hanford-related environmental dose assessments. This document serves as a guide to the Hanford contractors for obtaining or performing Hanford-related environmental dose calculations. The program serves as a focal point for Hanford environmental dose calculation activities and provides a number of services for Hanford contractors involved in calculation of environmental doses. Site specific input data and assumptions have been compiled and are maintained for use by the contractors in calculating Hanford environmental doses. The data and assumptions, to the extent they apply, should be used in Hanford calculations. These data are not all inclusive and will be modified should additional or more appropriate information become available
Application of a sitting MIRD phantom for effective dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In typical realistic scenarios, dose factors due to 60Co contaminated steel, used in consumer products, cannot be approximated by standard exposure geometries. It is then necessary to calculate the effective dose using an appropriate anthropomorphic phantom. MCNP calculations were performed using a MIRD human model in two settings. In the first, a male office worker is sitting in a chair containing contaminated steel, surrounded by contaminated furniture. In the second, a male driver is seated inside an automobile, the steel of which is uniformly contaminated. To accurately calculate the dose to lower body organs, especially the gonads, it was essential to modify the MIRD model to simulate two sitting postures: chair and driving position. The phantom modifications are described, and the results of the calculations are presented. In the case of the automobile scenarios, results are compared to those obtained using an isotropic fluence-to-dose conversion function. (authors)
Verification of Calculated Skin Doses in Postmastectomy Helical Tomotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: To verify the accuracy of calculated skin doses in helical tomotherapy for postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). Methods and Materials: In vivo thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to measure the skin dose at multiple points in each of 14 patients throughout the course of treatment on a TomoTherapy Hi.Art II system, for a total of 420 TLD measurements. Five patients were evaluated near the location of the mastectomy scar, whereas 9 patients were evaluated throughout the treatment volume. The measured dose at each location was compared with calculations from the treatment planning system. Results: The mean difference and standard error of the mean difference between measurement and calculation for the scar measurements was -1.8% ± 0.2% (standard deviation [SD], 4.3%; range, -11.1% to 10.6%). The mean difference and standard error of the mean difference between measurement and calculation for measurements throughout the treatment volume was -3.0% ± 0.4% (SD, 4.7%; range, -18.4% to 12.6%). The mean difference and standard error of the mean difference between measurement and calculation for all measurements was -2.1% ± 0.2% (standard deviation, 4.5%: range, -18.4% to 12.6%). The mean difference between measured and calculated TLD doses was statistically significant at two standard deviations of the mean, but was not clinically significant (i.e., was <5%). However, 23% of the measured TLD doses differed from the calculated TLD doses by more than 5%. Conclusions: The mean of the measured TLD doses agreed with TomoTherapy calculated TLD doses within our clinical criterion of 5%.
Outline of the dose calculation system imagine for radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dose calculation system IMAGINE is under development for supporting X-ray radiotherapy by rapidly providing the accurate dose distribution in a patient body utilizing precise models of the patient body and accelerator assembly incorporated with Monte Carlo calculations. The system will be used for the quality assurance of the current radiotherapy widely carried out at present, and further for promoting the prevalence of advanced therapy. The system is scheduled to be completed in 2007 after the five-year project. (author)
Study of dose calculation on breast brachytherapy using prism TPS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fendriani, Yoza; Haryanto, Freddy [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, FMIPA Institut Teknologi Bandung, Physics Buildings, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)
2015-09-30
PRISM is one of non-commercial Treatment Planning System (TPS) and is developed at the University of Washington. In Indonesia, many cancer hospitals use expensive commercial TPS. This study aims to investigate Prism TPS which been applied to the dose distribution of brachytherapy by taking into account the effect of source position and inhomogeneities. The results will be applicable for clinical Treatment Planning System. Dose calculation has been implemented for water phantom and CT scan images of breast cancer using point source and line source. This study used point source and line source and divided into two cases. On the first case, Ir-192 seed source is located at the center of treatment volume. On the second case, the source position is gradually changed. The dose calculation of every case performed on a homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantom with dimension 20 × 20 × 20 cm{sup 3}. The inhomogeneous phantom has inhomogeneities volume 2 × 2 × 2 cm{sup 3}. The results of dose calculations using PRISM TPS were compared to literature data. From the calculation of PRISM TPS, dose rates show good agreement with Plato TPS and other study as published by Ramdhani. No deviations greater than ±4% for all case. Dose calculation in inhomogeneous and homogenous cases show similar result. This results indicate that Prism TPS is good in dose calculation of brachytherapy but not sensitive for inhomogeneities. Thus, the dose calculation parameters developed in this study were found to be applicable for clinical treatment planning of brachytherapy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This document serves as a guide to Hanford contractors for obtaining or performing Hanford-related environmental dose calculations. Because environmental dose estimation techniques are state-of-the-art and are continually evolving, the data and standard methods presented herein will require periodic revision. This document is scheduled to be updated annually, but actual changes to the program will be made more frequently if required. For this reason, PNL's Occupational and Environmental Protection Department should be contacted before any Hanford-related environmental dose calculation is performed. This revision of the Hanford Dose Overview Program Report primarily reflects changes made to the data and models used in calculating atmospheric dispersion of airborne effluents at Hanford. The modified data and models are described in detail. In addition, discussions of dose calculation methods and the review of calculation results have been expanded to provide more explicit guidance to the Hanford contractors. 19 references, 30 tables
Calculation of the dose caused by internal radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-07-01
For the purposes of monitoring radiation exposure it is necessary to determine or to estimate the dose caused by both external and internal radiation. When comparing the value of exposure to the dose limits, account must be taken of the total dose incurred from different sources. This guide explains how to calculate the committed effective dose caused by internal radiation and gives the conversion factors required for the calculation. Application of the maximum values for radiation exposure is dealt with in ST guide 7.2, which also sets out the definitions of the quantities and concepts most commonly used in the monitoring of radiation exposure. The monitoring of exposure and recording of doses are dealt with in ST Guides 7.1 and 7.4.
Calculation method for gamma dose rates from Gaussian puffs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Lagrangian puff models are widely used for calculation of the dispersion of releases to the atmosphere. Basic output from such models is concentration of material in the air and on the ground. The most simple method for calculation of the gamma dose from the concentration of airborne activity is based on the semi-infinite cloud model. This method is however only applicable for puffs with large dispersion parameters, i.e. for receptors far away from the release point. The exact calculation of the cloud dose using volume integral requires large computer time usually exceeding what is available for real time calculations. The volume integral for gamma doses could be approximated by using the semi-infinite cloud model combined with correction factors. This type of calculation procedure is very fast, but usually the accuracy is poor because only a few of the relevant parameters are considered. A multi-parameter method for calculation of gamma doses is described here. This method uses precalculated values of the gamma dose rates as a function of Eγ, σy, the asymmetry factor - σy/σz, the height of puff center - H and the distance from puff center Rxy. To accelerate the calculations the release energy, for each significant radionuclide in each energy group, has been calculated and tabulated. Based on the precalculated values and suitable interpolation procedure the calculation of gamma doses needs only short computing time and it is almost independent of the number of radionuclides considered. (au) 2 tabs., 15 ills., 12 refs
Quantification of Proton Dose Calculation Accuracy in the Lung
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grassberger, Clemens, E-mail: Grassberger.Clemens@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Center for Proton Radiotherapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Daartz, Juliane; Dowdell, Stephen; Ruggieri, Thomas; Sharp, Greg; Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To quantify the accuracy of a clinical proton treatment planning system (TPS) as well as Monte Carlo (MC)–based dose calculation through measurements and to assess the clinical impact in a cohort of patients with tumors located in the lung. Methods and Materials: A lung phantom and ion chamber array were used to measure the dose to a plane through a tumor embedded in the lung, and to determine the distal fall-off of the proton beam. Results were compared with TPS and MC calculations. Dose distributions in 19 patients (54 fields total) were simulated using MC and compared to the TPS algorithm. Results: MC increased dose calculation accuracy in lung tissue compared with the TPS and reproduced dose measurements in the target to within ±2%. The average difference between measured and predicted dose in a plane through the center of the target was 5.6% for the TPS and 1.6% for MC. MC recalculations in patients showed a mean dose to the clinical target volume on average 3.4% lower than the TPS, exceeding 5% for small fields. For large tumors, MC also predicted consistently higher V5 and V10 to the normal lung, because of a wider lateral penumbra, which was also observed experimentally. Critical structures located distal to the target could show large deviations, although this effect was highly patient specific. Range measurements showed that MC can reduce range uncertainty by a factor of ∼2: the average (maximum) difference to the measured range was 3.9 mm (7.5 mm) for MC and 7 mm (17 mm) for the TPS in lung tissue. Conclusion: Integration of Monte Carlo dose calculation techniques into the clinic would improve treatment quality in proton therapy for lung cancer by avoiding systematic overestimation of target dose and underestimation of dose to normal lung. In addition, the ability to confidently reduce range margins would benefit all patients by potentially lowering toxicity.
The effect of dose calculation accuracy on inverse treatment planning
Jeraj, Robert; Keall, Paul J.; Siebers, Jeffrey V.
2002-02-01
The effect of dose calculation accuracy during inverse treatment planning for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was studied in this work. Three dose calculation methods were compared: Monte Carlo, superposition and pencil beam. These algorithms were used to calculate beamlets, which were subsequently used by a simulated annealing algorithm to determine beamlet weights which comprised the optimal solution to the objective function. Three different cases (lung, prostate and head and neck) were investigated and several different objective functions were tested for their effect on inverse treatment planning. It is shown that the use of inaccurate dose calculation introduces two errors in a treatment plan, a systematic error and a convergence error. The systematic error is present because of the inaccuracy of the dose calculation algorithm. The convergence error appears because the optimal intensity distribution for inaccurate beamlets differs from the optimal solution for the accurate beamlets. While the systematic error for superposition was found to be ~1% of Dmax in the tumour and slightly larger outside, the error for the pencil beam method is typically ~5% of Dmax and is rather insensitive to the given objectives. On the other hand, the convergence error was found to be very sensitive to the objective function, is only slightly correlated to the systematic error and should be determined for each case individually. Our results suggest that because of the large systematic and convergence errors, inverse treatment planning systems based on pencil beam algorithms alone should be upgraded either to superposition or Monte Carlo based dose calculations.
Automatic computed tomography patient dose calculation using header metadata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present work describes a method that calculates the patient dose values in computed tomography (CT) based on metadata contained in DICOM images in support of patient dose studies. The DICOM metadata is pre-processed to extract necessary calculation parameters. Vendor-specific DICOM header information is harmonized using vendor translation tables and unavailable DICOM tags can be completed with a graphical user interface. CT-Expo, an MS Excel application for calculating the radiation dose, is used to calculate the patient doses. All relevant data and calculation results are stored for further analysis in a relational database. Final results are compiled by utilizing data mining tools. This solution was successfully used for the 2009 CT dose study in Luxembourg. National diagnostic reference levels for standard examinations were calculated based on each of the countries' hospitals. The benefits using this new automatic system saved time as well as resources during the data acquisition and the evaluation when compared with earlier questionnaire-based surveys. (authors)
Calculation method for gamma-dose rates from spherical puffs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Lagrangian puff-models are widely used for calculation of the dispersion of atmospheric releases. Basic output from such models are concentrations of material in the air and on the ground. The most simple method for calculation of the gamma dose from the concentration of airborne activity is based on semi-infinite cloud model. This method is however only applicable for points far away from the release point. The exact calculation of the cloud dose using the volume integral requires significant computer time. The volume integral for the gamma dose could be approximated by using the semi-infinite cloud model combined with correction factors. This type of calculation procedure is very fast, but usually the accuracy is poor due to the fact that the same correction factors are used for all isotopes. The authors describe a more elaborate correction method. This method uses precalculated values of the gamma-dose rate as a function of the puff dispersion parameter (δp) and the distance from the puff centre for four energy groups. The release of energy for each radionuclide in each energy group has been calculated and tabulated. Based on these tables and a suitable interpolation procedure the calculation of gamma doses takes very short time and is almost independent of the number of radionuclides. (au) (7 tabs., 7 ills., 12 refs.)
DS86 and DS02 organ dose calculations.
Kerr, George D
2012-03-01
A brief review of the techniques used to calculate organ doses for the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is provided using the original dosimetry system 1986 (DS86) and revised dosimetry system 2002 (DS02). The DS02 study was undertaken to address a serious discrepancy between calculated and measured values for neutron activation at Hiroshima that had caused a lack of confidence in the previous dosimetry, designated as DS86. Some potential improvements to the organ dose calculations that were not considered during the DS02 study due to time and funding limitations are recommended in this paper. PMID:21725078
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Transporting and processing of radioisotopes and irradiated targets inside hot cells generate a significant contamination. The majority of contamination comes from dispersion of radioactive materials during processing the samples after irradiation. Processing includes opening, extracting the irradiated samples, and preparing the samples in a shield prior to transportation. A model of dispersion of radioactive products inside the cell is postulated. Before decontaminating the cell, the expected dose received by the worker must be evaluated. A RESRAD-BUILD code is used in this study to calculate the dose and the corresponding risk. The calculated dose received during the decontamination process is more than the permissible dose and many proposals are presented in the study to decrease the level of received doses
Calculation of surface dose in rotational total skin electron irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A single-field rotational total skin electron irradiation technique has recently been developed at the McGill University for treatment of skin malignancies. The dose received by a given surface point during rotation in a uniform large electron field depends on the radius of rotation of the surface point, on the local radius of curvature of the contour in the vicinity of the point of interest, and on the shadows cast by limbs (arms upon trunk or head and neck, and legs upon each other). A method for calculating the surface dose distribution on a patient is presented accounting for the various parameters affecting the dose. A series of measurements were performed with polystyrene and a humanoid phantom, and an excellent agreement between measured and calculated dose distributions was obtained
Comparison of dose calculation methods for brachytherapy of intraocular tumors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rivard, Mark J.; Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Finger, Paul T.; Meigooni, Ali S.; Melhus, Christopher S.; Mourtada, Firas; Napolitano, Mary E.; Rogers, D. W. O.; Thomson, Rowan M.; Nath, Ravinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Quality MediPhys LLC, Denville, New Jersey 07834 (United States); New York Eye Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89169 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Physics, Elekta Inc., Norcross, Georgia 30092 (United States); Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)
2011-01-15
Purpose: To investigate dosimetric differences among several clinical treatment planning systems (TPS) and Monte Carlo (MC) codes for brachytherapy of intraocular tumors using {sup 125}I or {sup 103}Pd plaques, and to evaluate the impact on the prescription dose of the adoption of MC codes and certain versions of a TPS (Plaque Simulator with optional modules). Methods: Three clinical brachytherapy TPS capable of intraocular brachytherapy treatment planning and two MC codes were compared. The TPS investigated were Pinnacle v8.0dp1, BrachyVision v8.1, and Plaque Simulator v5.3.9, all of which use the AAPM TG-43 formalism in water. The Plaque Simulator software can also handle some correction factors from MC simulations. The MC codes used are MCNP5 v1.40 and BrachyDose/EGSnrc. Using these TPS and MC codes, three types of calculations were performed: homogeneous medium with point sources (for the TPS only, using the 1D TG-43 dose calculation formalism); homogeneous medium with line sources (TPS with 2D TG-43 dose calculation formalism and MC codes); and plaque heterogeneity-corrected line sources (Plaque Simulator with modified 2D TG-43 dose calculation formalism and MC codes). Comparisons were made of doses calculated at points-of-interest on the plaque central-axis and at off-axis points of clinical interest within a standardized model of the right eye. Results: For the homogeneous water medium case, agreement was within {approx}2% for the point- and line-source models when comparing between TPS and between TPS and MC codes, respectively. For the heterogeneous medium case, dose differences (as calculated using the MC codes and Plaque Simulator) differ by up to 37% on the central-axis in comparison to the homogeneous water calculations. A prescription dose of 85 Gy at 5 mm depth based on calculations in a homogeneous medium delivers 76 Gy and 67 Gy for specific {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd sources, respectively, when accounting for COMS-plaque heterogeneities. For off
Optimizing an analytical dose calculation algorithm for fast 2D calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lorenz, Friedlieb [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim Medical Centre, Univ. of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Richter, Henning [Technical Univ. of Kaiserslautern (Germany); Zygmanski, Piotr [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Centre, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)
2010-07-01
Previously, an analytical dose calculation algorithm for MLC-based radiotherapy was developed and commissioned, which includes a detailed model of various MLC effects as a unique feature [1]. The algorithm was originally developed as an independent verification of the treatment planning system's dose calculation and it explicitly modeled spatial and depth dependent MLC effects such as interleaf transmission, the tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf ends, MLC scatter, beam hardening, and gradual MLC transmission fall-off with increasing off-axis distance. Originally the algorithm was implemented in Mathematica trademark (Wolfram). To speed up the calculation time and to be able to calculate high resolution 2D dose distributions within a reasonable time frame (<2 s) the algorithm needs to be optimized and to be embedded in a user friendly environment. To achieve this goal, the dose calculation model is implemented in Visual Basic 6.0, which decreases the calculation time moderately. More importantly, the numerical algorithm for dose calculation is changed at two levels: the dose contributions are split into their x- and y-contributions and the calculation is aperture- rather than as originally point-based. Implementing these three major changes, the calculation time is reduced considerably without loosing accuracy. The time for a typical IMRT field with about 2500 calculation points decreased from 2387 seconds to 0.624 seconds (a factor of about 3800). The mean agreement of the optimized and the not optimized calculation algorithm at the isocenter for a fairly complex IMRT plan with 23 fields is better than 1% relative to the local dose at the measuring point. (orig.)
Development of a computational methodology for internal dose calculations
Yoriyaz, H
2000-01-01
A new approach for calculating internal dose estimates was developed through the use of a more realistic computational model of the human body and a more precise tool for the radiation transport simulation. The present technique shows the capability to build a patient-specific phantom with tomography data (a voxel-based phantom) for the simulation of radiation transport and energy deposition using Monte Carlo methods such as in the MCNP-4B code. In order to utilize the segmented human anatomy as a computational model for the simulation of radiation transport, an interface program, SCMS, was developed to build the geometric configurations for the phantom through the use of tomographic images. This procedure allows to calculate not only average dose values but also spatial distribution of dose in regions of interest. With the present methodology absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in various organs of the Zubal segmented phantom were calculated and compared to those reported for the mathematical phanto...
Impact of dose calculation algorithm on radiation therapy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen-Zhou; Chen; Ying; Xiao; Jun; Li
2014-01-01
The quality of radiation therapy depends on the ability to maximize the tumor control probability while minimizing the normal tissue complication probability.Both of these two quantities are directly related to the accuracy of dose distributions calculated by treatment planning systems.The commonly used dose calculation algorithms in the treatment planning systems are reviewed in this work.The accuracy comparisons among these algorithms are illustrated by summarizing the highly cited research papers on this topic.Further,the correlation between the algorithms and tumor control probability/normal tissue complication probability values are manifested by several recent studies from different groups.All the cases demonstrate that dose calculation algorithms play a vital role in radiation therapy.
Dose calculation of 6 MV Truebeam using Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this work is to simulate 6 MV Varian Truebeam linac dosimeter characteristics using Monte Carlo method and to investigate the availability of phase space file and the accuracy of the simulation. With the phase space file at linac window supplied by Varian to be a source, the patient-dependent part was simulated. Dose distributions in a water phantom with a 10 cm × 10 cm field were calculated and compared with measured data for validation. Evident time reduction was obtained from 4-5 h which a whole simulation cost on the same computer to around 48 minutes. Good agreement between simulations and measurements in water was observed. Dose differences are less than 3% for depth doses in build-up region and also for dose profiles inside the 80% field size, and the effect in penumbra is good. It demonstrate that the simulation using existing phase space file as the EGSnrc source is efficient. Dose differences between calculated data and measured data could meet the requirements for dose calculation. (authors)
Satory, P R
2012-03-01
This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient. PMID:22298238
Monte Carlo dose calculation in dental amalgam phantom.
Aziz, Mohd Zahri Abdul; Yusoff, A L; Osman, N D; Abdullah, R; Rabaie, N A; Salikin, M S
2015-01-01
It has become a great challenge in the modern radiation treatment to ensure the accuracy of treatment delivery in electron beam therapy. Tissue inhomogeneity has become one of the factors for accurate dose calculation, and this requires complex algorithm calculation like Monte Carlo (MC). On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) images used in treatment planning system need to be trustful as they are the input in radiotherapy treatment. However, with the presence of metal amalgam in treatment volume, the CT images input showed prominent streak artefact, thus, contributed sources of error. Hence, metal amalgam phantom often creates streak artifacts, which cause an error in the dose calculation. Thus, a streak artifact reduction technique was applied to correct the images, and as a result, better images were observed in terms of structure delineation and density assigning. Furthermore, the amalgam density data were corrected to provide amalgam voxel with accurate density value. As for the errors of dose uncertainties due to metal amalgam, they were reduced from 46% to as low as 2% at d80 (depth of the 80% dose beyond Zmax) using the presented strategies. Considering the number of vital and radiosensitive organs in the head and the neck regions, this correction strategy is suggested in reducing calculation uncertainties through MC calculation. PMID:26500401
Monte carlo dose calculation in dental amalgam phantom
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohd Zahri Abdul Aziz
2015-01-01
Full Text Available It has become a great challenge in the modern radiation treatment to ensure the accuracy of treatment delivery in electron beam therapy. Tissue inhomogeneity has become one of the factors for accurate dose calculation, and this requires complex algorithm calculation like Monte Carlo (MC. On the other hand, computed tomography (CT images used in treatment planning system need to be trustful as they are the input in radiotherapy treatment. However, with the presence of metal amalgam in treatment volume, the CT images input showed prominent streak artefact, thus, contributed sources of error. Hence, metal amalgam phantom often creates streak artifacts, which cause an error in the dose calculation. Thus, a streak artifact reduction technique was applied to correct the images, and as a result, better images were observed in terms of structure delineation and density assigning. Furthermore, the amalgam density data were corrected to provide amalgam voxel with accurate density value. As for the errors of dose uncertainties due to metal amalgam, they were reduced from 46% to as low as 2% at d80 (depth of the 80% dose beyond Zmax using the presented strategies. Considering the number of vital and radiosensitive organs in the head and the neck regions, this correction strategy is suggested in reducing calculation uncertainties through MC calculation.
Monte Carlo dose calculation in dental amalgam phantom
Mohd Zahri Abdul Aziz; Yusoff, A. L.; N D Osman; R. Abdullah; Rabaie, N. A.; M S Salikin
2015-01-01
It has become a great challenge in the modern radiation treatment to ensure the accuracy of treatment delivery in electron beam therapy. Tissue inhomogeneity has become one of the factors for accurate dose calculation, and this requires complex algorithm calculation like Monte Carlo (MC). On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) images used in treatment planning system need to be trustful as they are the input in radiotherapy treatment. However, with the presence of metal amalgam in treatm...
A Monte Carlo dose calculation tool for radiotherapy treatment planning
Ma, C.-M.; Li, J. S.; Pawlicki, T.; Jiang, S. B.; Deng, J.; Lee, M. C.; Koumrian, T.; Luxton, M.; Brain, S.
2002-05-01
A Monte Carlo user code, MCDOSE, has been developed for radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP) dose calculations. MCDOSE is designed as a dose calculation module suitable for adaptation to host RTP systems. MCDOSE can be used for both conventional photon/electron beam calculation and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning. MCDOSE uses a multiple-source model to reconstruct the treatment beam phase space. Based on Monte Carlo simulated or measured beam data acquired during commissioning, source-model parameters are adjusted through an automated procedure. Beam modifiers such as jaws, physical and dynamic wedges, compensators, blocks, electron cut-outs and bolus are simulated by MCDOSE together with a 3D rectilinear patient geometry model built from CT data. Dose distributions calculated using MCDOSE agreed well with those calculated by the EGS4/DOSXYZ code using different beam set-ups and beam modifiers. Heterogeneity correction factors for layered-lung or layered-bone phantoms as calculated by both codes were consistent with measured data to within 1%. The effect of energy cut-offs for particle transport was investigated. Variance reduction techniques were implemented in MCDOSE to achieve a speedup factor of 10-30 compared to DOSXYZ.
Calculation and measurement of depth dose distributions in bricks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dose accumulated in bricks exposed to gamma radiation can be measured as a function of depth using luminescence methods. The dependence of dose on depth has the potential of providing information on the energy as well as on the angular distribution of the incident radiation, which could give indications on the configuration of the radiation sources. A prerequisite for such an analysis is a comprehensive knowledge on the dependence of dose on depth for different source energies and for specific source configurations. Depth dose distribution in brick walls have been calculated by Monte Carlo simulations for a source distribution on a wall, for a source distribution on the ground and for a parallel photon beam, for source energies ranging from 140 keV to 1600 keV. It is shown that depth dose distributions depend substantially on source configuration and energy. Depth dose distributions measured in ceramic materials irradiated in the laboratory and in a brick from a contaminated area are compared with results of Monte Carlo calculations. (Author)
Tissue heterogeneity in IMRT dose calculation for lung cancer.
Pasciuti, Katia; Iaccarino, Giuseppe; Strigari, Lidia; Malatesta, Tiziana; Benassi, Marcello; Di Nallo, Anna Maria; Mirri, Alessandra; Pinzi, Valentina; Landoni, Valeria
2011-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in accuracy of dose calculation between 3 commonly used algorithms, the Pencil Beam algorithm (PB), the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA), and the Collapsed Cone Convolution Superposition (CCCS) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The 2D dose distributions obtained with the 3 algorithms were compared on each CT slice pixel by pixel, using the MATLAB code (The MathWorks, Natick, MA) and the agreement was assessed with the γ function. The effect of the differences on dose-volume histograms (DVHs), tumor control, and normal tissue complication probability (TCP and NTCP) were also evaluated, and its significance was quantified by using a nonparametric test. In general PB generates regions of over-dosage both in the lung and in the tumor area. These differences are not always in DVH of the lung, although the Wilcoxon test indicated significant differences in 2 of 4 patients. Disagreement in the lung region was also found when the Γ analysis was performed. The effect on TCP is less important than for NTCP because of the slope of the curve at the level of the dose of interest. The effect of dose calculation inaccuracy is patient-dependent and strongly related to beam geometry and to the localization of the tumor. When multiple intensity-modulated beams are used, the effect of the presence of the heterogeneity on dose distribution may not always be easily predictable. PMID:20970989
Analytical probabilistic proton dose calculation and range uncertainties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce the concept of analytical probabilistic modeling (APM) to calculate the mean and the standard deviation of intensity-modulated proton dose distributions under the influence of range uncertainties in closed form. For APM, range uncertainties are modeled with a multivariate Normal distribution p(z) over the radiological depths z. A pencil beam algorithm that parameterizes the proton depth dose d(z) with a weighted superposition of ten Gaussians is used. Hence, the integrals ∫ dz p(z) d(z) and ∫ dz p(z) d(z)2 required for the calculation of the expected value and standard deviation of the dose remain analytically tractable and can be efficiently evaluated. The means μk, widths δk, and weights ωk of the Gaussian components parameterizing the depth dose curves are found with least squares fits for all available proton ranges. We observe less than 0.3% average deviation of the Gaussian parameterizations from the original proton depth dose curves. Consequently, APM yields high accuracy estimates for the expected value and standard deviation of intensity-modulated proton dose distributions for two dimensional test cases. APM can accommodate arbitrary correlation models and account for the different nature of random and systematic errors in fractionated radiation therapy. Beneficial applications of APM in robust planning are feasible.
Touch screen man machine interfere for emergency dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emergency dose calculation systems generally use a keyboard to provide the interface between the user and the computer. This interface is preferred by users who work daily with computers; however, for many plant personnel who are not continuously involved with computer operations, the use of a keyboard can be cumbersome and time consuming. This is particularly true when the user is under pressure during a drill or an actual emergency. Experience in many applications of Pickard, Lowe and Garrick's PLG's Meteorological Information and Dose Assessment System (MIDAS) has shown that user friendliness is a key ingredient toward achieving acceptance of computerized systems. Hardware to support to touch screen interface is now available and has been implemented in MIDAS. Recent experience has demonstrated that selection times for dose calculations are reduced, data entry errors have been minimized, and confusion over appropriate entries has been avoided due to the built-in logic. A 10-yr search for an acceptable keyboard replacement has ended
Development of new methodology for dose calculation in photographic dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The personal dosemeter system of IPEN is based on film dosimetry. Personal doses at IPEN are mainly due to X or gamma radiation. The use of personal photographic dosemeters involves two steps: firstly, data acquisition including their evaluation with respect to the calibration quantity and secondly, the interpretation of the data in terms of effective dose. The effective dose was calculated using artificial intelligence techniques by means of neural network. The learning of the neural network was performed by taking the readings of optical density as a function of incident energy and exposure from the calibration curve. The obtained output in the daily grind is the mean effective energy and the effective dose. (author)
Dose Calculation Evolution for Internal Organ Irradiation in Humans
Jimenez V., Reina A.
2007-10-01
The International Commission of Radiation Units (ICRU) has established through the years, a discrimination system regarding the security levels on the prescription and administration of doses in radiation treatments (Radiotherapy, Brach therapy, Nuclear Medicine). The first level is concerned with the prescription and posterior assurance of dose administration to a point of interest (POI), commonly located at the geometrical center of the region to be treated. In this, the effects of radiation around that POI, is not a priority. The second level refers to the dose specifications in a particular plane inside the patient, mostly the middle plane of the lesion. The dose is calculated to all the structures in that plane regardless if they are tumor or healthy tissue. In this case, the dose is not represented by a point value, but by level curves called "isodoses" as in a topographic map, so you can assure the level of doses to this particular plane, but it also leave with no information about how this values go thru adjacent planes. This is why the third level is referred to the volumetrical description of doses so these isodoses construct now a volume (named "cloud") that give us better assurance about tissue irradiation around the volume of the lesion and its margin (sub clinical spread or microscopic illness). This work shows how this evolution has resulted, not only in healthy tissue protection improvement but in a rise of tumor control, quality of life, better treatment tolerance and minimum permanent secuelae.
Dose Calculation Evolution for Internal Organ Irradiation in Humans
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The International Commission of Radiation Units (ICRU) has established through the years, a discrimination system regarding the security levels on the prescription and administration of doses in radiation treatments (Radiotherapy, Brach therapy, Nuclear Medicine). The first level is concerned with the prescription and posterior assurance of dose administration to a point of interest (POI), commonly located at the geometrical center of the region to be treated. In this, the effects of radiation around that POI, is not a priority. The second level refers to the dose specifications in a particular plane inside the patient, mostly the middle plane of the lesion. The dose is calculated to all the structures in that plane regardless if they are tumor or healthy tissue. In this case, the dose is not represented by a point value, but by level curves called 'isodoses' as in a topographic map, so you can assure the level of doses to this particular plane, but it also leave with no information about how this values go thru adjacent planes. This is why the third level is referred to the volumetrical description of doses so these isodoses construct now a volume (named 'cloud') that give us better assurance about tissue irradiation around the volume of the lesion and its margin (sub clinical spread or microscopic illness). This work shows how this evolution has resulted, not only in healthy tissue protection improvement but in a rise of tumor control, quality of life, better treatment tolerance and minimum permanent secuelae
Automated objective thyroid ablation dose calculations using interactive computer program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aim: Development of an interactive computer program allowing automatic calculation of an optimized dose of I-131 required for the effective ablation of remnants of thyroid tissue. Materials and methods: The Standard Thyroid Uptake Neck Phantom (Nucl.Assoc.) was used for measurements of efficiency of high energy (for I-131) and low energy (for I-123) collimator mounted on the Picker Prism 2000 gamma camera. The efficiency was calculated for a wide range of distances between the patient's neck and the camera head and for different sizes of remnant thyroid tissue and activities. These data were built into the computer memory (Picker Odyssey FX 729) and then were used for calculation of percentage uptake in the neck (regular quality control and maintenance of gamma camera secures the stability of its performance). On the basis of the uptake on an early and late image after the administration of radioisotope, its biological and effective half lives in the patient are calculated and the dose required for delivery of 50mGy per gram of I-131 radiation to the remaining thyroid tissue is evaluated. Results: The technologist selects the appropriate isotope, enters the patient's dose and the neck to collimator distance then draws the regions of interests around the thyroid remnants on each of anterior images. No other operator interventions are required. When regions are assigned the percentage uptake, biological half life, effective half life and required I-131 activity in MBq per gram are calculated automatically. It was found that efficiency is independent of activity over the range seen clinically. The need for a standard is eliminated and automated calculations ensure accuracy. Estimation of remnant mass and desired radiation dose is required to complete the dose calculations. The program works for both I-131 (using 1 to 3 day and 5 to 10 day images) and I-123 (using 6 and 24 hrs images). The program automatically corrects for the exact imaging time. Results are displayed
Internal dose conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This publication contains 50-year committed dose equivalent factors, in tabular form. The document is intended to be used as the primary reference by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors for calculating radiation dose equivalents for members of the public, resulting from ingestion or inhalation of radioactive materials. Its application is intended specifically for such materials released to the environment during routine DOE operations, except in those instances where compliance with 40 CFR 61 (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) requires otherwise. However, the calculated values may be equally applicable to unusual releases or to occupational exposures. The use of these committed dose equivalent tables should ensure that doses to members of the public from internal exposures are calculated in a consistent manner at all DOE facilities
Fast optimization and dose calculation in scanned ion beam therapy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hild, S. [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Clinic Erlangen and Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences, 35390 Giessen (Germany); Graeff, C.; Trautmann, J.; Kraemer, M. [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Zink, K. [Institute for Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences, 35390 Giessen, Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Durante, M. [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany and Faculty of Physics, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Bert, C., E-mail: christoph.bert@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany and Department of Radiation Oncology, University Clinic Erlangen and Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), 91054 Erlangen (Germany)
2014-07-15
Purpose: Particle therapy (PT) has advantages over photon irradiation on static tumors. An increased biological effectiveness and active target conformal dose shaping are strong arguments for PT. However, the sensitivity to changes of internal geometry complicates the use of PT for moving organs. In case of interfractionally moving objects adaptive radiotherapy (ART) concepts known from intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can be adopted for PT treatments. One ART strategy is to optimize a new treatment plan based on daily image data directly before a radiation fraction is delivered [treatment replanning (TRP)]. Optimizing treatment plans for PT using a scanned beam is a time consuming problem especially for particles other than protons where the biological effective dose has to be calculated. For the purpose of TRP, fast optimization and fast dose calculation have been implemented into the GSI in-house treatment planning system (TPS) TRiP98. Methods: This work reports about the outcome of a code analysis that resulted in optimization of the calculation processes as well as implementation of routines supporting parallel execution of the code. To benchmark the new features, the calculation time for therapy treatment planning has been studied. Results: Compared to the original version of the TPS, calculation times for treatment planning (optimization and dose calculation) have been improved by a factor of 10 with code optimization. The parallelization of the TPS resulted in a speedup factor of 12 and 5.5 for the original version and the code optimized version, respectively. Hence the total speedup of the new implementation of the authors' TPS yielded speedup factors up to 55. Conclusions: The improved TPS is capable of completing treatment planning for ion beam therapy of a prostate irradiation considering organs at risk in this has been overseen in the review process. Also see below 6 min.
Fast optimization and dose calculation in scanned ion beam therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: Particle therapy (PT) has advantages over photon irradiation on static tumors. An increased biological effectiveness and active target conformal dose shaping are strong arguments for PT. However, the sensitivity to changes of internal geometry complicates the use of PT for moving organs. In case of interfractionally moving objects adaptive radiotherapy (ART) concepts known from intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can be adopted for PT treatments. One ART strategy is to optimize a new treatment plan based on daily image data directly before a radiation fraction is delivered [treatment replanning (TRP)]. Optimizing treatment plans for PT using a scanned beam is a time consuming problem especially for particles other than protons where the biological effective dose has to be calculated. For the purpose of TRP, fast optimization and fast dose calculation have been implemented into the GSI in-house treatment planning system (TPS) TRiP98. Methods: This work reports about the outcome of a code analysis that resulted in optimization of the calculation processes as well as implementation of routines supporting parallel execution of the code. To benchmark the new features, the calculation time for therapy treatment planning has been studied. Results: Compared to the original version of the TPS, calculation times for treatment planning (optimization and dose calculation) have been improved by a factor of 10 with code optimization. The parallelization of the TPS resulted in a speedup factor of 12 and 5.5 for the original version and the code optimized version, respectively. Hence the total speedup of the new implementation of the authors' TPS yielded speedup factors up to 55. Conclusions: The improved TPS is capable of completing treatment planning for ion beam therapy of a prostate irradiation considering organs at risk in this has been overseen in the review process. Also see below 6 min
External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1988-07-01
This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.
A convolution-superposition dose calculation engine for GPUs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: Graphic processing units (GPUs) are increasingly used for scientific applications, where their parallel architecture and unprecedented computing power density can be exploited to accelerate calculations. In this paper, a new GPU implementation of a convolution/superposition (CS) algorithm is presented. Methods: This new GPU implementation has been designed from the ground-up to use the graphics card's strengths and to avoid its weaknesses. The CS GPU algorithm takes into account beam hardening, off-axis softening, kernel tilting, and relies heavily on raytracing through patient imaging data. Implementation details are reported as well as a multi-GPU solution. Results: An overall single-GPU acceleration factor of 908x was achieved when compared to a nonoptimized version of the CS algorithm implemented in PlanUNC in single threaded central processing unit (CPU) mode, resulting in approximatively 2.8 s per beam for a 3D dose computation on a 0.4 cm grid. A comparison to an established commercial system leads to an acceleration factor of approximately 29x or 0.58 versus 16.6 s per beam in single threaded mode. An acceleration factor of 46x has been obtained for the total energy released per mass (TERMA) calculation and a 943x acceleration factor for the CS calculation compared to PlanUNC. Dose distributions also have been obtained for a simple water-lung phantom to verify that the implementation gives accurate results. Conclusions: These results suggest that GPUs are an attractive solution for radiation therapy applications and that careful design, taking the GPU architecture into account, is critical in obtaining significant acceleration factors. These results potentially can have a significant impact on complex dose delivery techniques requiring intensive dose calculations such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and arc therapy. They also are relevant for adaptive radiation therapy where dose results must be obtained rapidly.
A convolution-superposition dose calculation engine for GPUs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hissoiny, Sami; Ozell, Benoit; Despres, Philippe [Departement de genie informatique et genie logiciel, Ecole polytechnique de Montreal, 2500 Chemin de Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Departement de radio-oncologie, CRCHUM-Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada)
2010-03-15
Purpose: Graphic processing units (GPUs) are increasingly used for scientific applications, where their parallel architecture and unprecedented computing power density can be exploited to accelerate calculations. In this paper, a new GPU implementation of a convolution/superposition (CS) algorithm is presented. Methods: This new GPU implementation has been designed from the ground-up to use the graphics card's strengths and to avoid its weaknesses. The CS GPU algorithm takes into account beam hardening, off-axis softening, kernel tilting, and relies heavily on raytracing through patient imaging data. Implementation details are reported as well as a multi-GPU solution. Results: An overall single-GPU acceleration factor of 908x was achieved when compared to a nonoptimized version of the CS algorithm implemented in PlanUNC in single threaded central processing unit (CPU) mode, resulting in approximatively 2.8 s per beam for a 3D dose computation on a 0.4 cm grid. A comparison to an established commercial system leads to an acceleration factor of approximately 29x or 0.58 versus 16.6 s per beam in single threaded mode. An acceleration factor of 46x has been obtained for the total energy released per mass (TERMA) calculation and a 943x acceleration factor for the CS calculation compared to PlanUNC. Dose distributions also have been obtained for a simple water-lung phantom to verify that the implementation gives accurate results. Conclusions: These results suggest that GPUs are an attractive solution for radiation therapy applications and that careful design, taking the GPU architecture into account, is critical in obtaining significant acceleration factors. These results potentially can have a significant impact on complex dose delivery techniques requiring intensive dose calculations such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and arc therapy. They also are relevant for adaptive radiation therapy where dose results must be obtained rapidly.
Adjoint Monte Carlo techniques and codes for organ dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adjoint Monte Carlo simulations can be effectively used for the estimation of doses in small targets when the sources are extended in large volumes or surfaces. The main features of two computer codes for calculating doses at free points or in organs of an anthropomorphic phantom are described. In the first program (REBEL-3) natural gamma-emitting sources are contained in the walls of a dwelling room; in the second one (POKER-CAMP) the user can specify arbitrary gamma sources with different spatial distributions in the environment: in (or on the surface of) the ground and in the air. 3 figures
An efficient dose calculation strategy for intensity modulated proton therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
While intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) has great potential to improve the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy, IMPT optimization can be computationally demanding, particularly for large and complex tumors. Here we propose a dose calculation strategy to accelerate IMPT optimization while reducing memory requirements. By using two adjustable threshold parameters, our method separates dose contributions from proton beamlets into major and minor components for each dose voxel. The optimization proceeds with two levels of iterations: in inner iterations, doses are updated in correspondence with changes in beamlet intensities from only the major contributions while keeping the portions from the minor contributions constant; in outer iterations, doses are recalculated exactly by considering both major and minor contributions. Since the number of elements in the influence matrix for major contributions is relatively small, each inner iteration proceeds quickly. Each outer iteration requires a longer computation time, but only a few such iterations are needed. Our study shows that the proposed strategy leads to nearly identical dose distributions as those optimized with the full influence matrix, but reducing computing time by at least a factor of 3 and internal memory requirements by a factor of 10 or more. In addition, we show that the proposed approach could enhance other optimization-related applications such as optimizing beam angles. By using an advanced lung cancer case that would demand large computing resources by conventional optimization approach, we show how our method may potentially help improve IMPT treatment planning in real clinical situations. (note)
Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation; Praenatale Strahlenexposition. Dosisermittlung
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scharwaechter, C.; Schwartz, C.A.; Haage, P. [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Wuppertal (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Roeser, A. [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Wuppertal (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology
2015-05-15
The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.
A calculation of the dose distributions in a dog phantom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the research of radiobiology, animals sometimes receive non-uniform irradiation and the severity of radiation injury greatly depends on the uniformity of the dose in objects. It is necessary to obtain depth dose distributions to express the severity of injury. The dose distributions were calculated in a dog-sized cylindrical phantom using Monte Carlo methods in the paper. It was assumed that the phantom was composed of tissue equivalent material (10.2%H, 12.3%C, 3.5%N, 72.9%O, etc.) and that parallel beams of non-energetic neutrons from 0.3 eV to 14 MeV injected into the phantom with a direction perpendicular to the cylindrical axis
A unique manual method for emergency offsite dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describes a manual method developed for performance of emergency offsite dose calculations for PP and L's Susquehanna Steam Electric Station. The method is based on a three-part carbonless form. The front page guides the user through selection of the appropriate accident case and inclusion of meteorological and effluent data data. By circling the applicable accident descriptors, the user circles the dose factors on pages 2 and 3 which are then simply multiplied to yield the whole body and thyroid dose rates at the plant boundary, two, five, and ten miles. The process used to generate the worksheet is discussed, including the method used to incorporate the observed terrain effects on airflow patterns caused by the Susquehanna River Valley topography
A Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm for proton therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Monte Carlo (MC) code (VMCpro) for treatment planning in proton beam therapy of cancer is introduced. It is based on ideas of the Voxel Monte Carlo algorithm for photons and electrons and is applicable to human tissue for clinical proton energies. In the present paper the implementation of electromagnetic and nuclear interactions is described. They are modeled by a Class II condensed history algorithm with continuous energy loss, ionization, multiple scattering, range straggling, δ-electron transport, nuclear elastic proton nucleus scattering and inelastic proton nucleus reactions. VMCpro is faster than the general purpose MC codes FLUKA by a factor of 13 and GEANT4 by a factor of 35 for simulations in a phantom with inhomogeneities. For dose calculations in patients the speed improvement is larger, because VMCpro has only a weak dependency on the heterogeneity of the calculation grid. Dose distributions produced with VMCpro are in agreement with GEANT4 results. Integrated or broad beam depth dose curves show maximum deviations not larger than 1% or 0.5 mm in regions with large dose gradients for the examples presented here
NAC-1 cask dose rate calculations for LWR spent fuel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CARLSON, A.B.
1999-02-24
A Nuclear Assurance Corporation nuclear fuel transport cask, NAC-1, is being considered as a transport and storage option for spent nuclear fuel located in the B-Cell of the 324 Building. The loaded casks will be shipped to the 200 East Area Interim Storage Area for dry interim storage. Several calculations were performed to assess the photon and neutron dose rates. This report describes the analytical methods, models, and results of this investigation.
NAC-1 cask dose rate calculations for LWR spent fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Nuclear Assurance Corporation nuclear fuel transport cask, NAC-1, is being considered as a transport and storage option for spent nuclear fuel located in the B-Cell of the 324 Building. The loaded casks will be shipped to the 200 East Area Interim Storage Area for dry interim storage. Several calculations were performed to assess the photon and neutron dose rates. This report describes the analytical methods, models, and results of this investigation
Data base for terrestrial food pathways dose commitment calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A computer program is under development to allow calculation of the dose-to-man in Georgia and South Carolina from ingestion of radionuclides in terrestrial foods resulting from deposition of airborne radionuclides. This program is based on models described in Regulatory Guide 1.109 (USNRC, 1977). The data base describes the movement of radionuclides through the terrestrial food chain, growth and consumption factors for a variety of radionuclides
Off-center ratios for three-dimensional dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new method is proposed for computing the off-center ratios (OCR's) in three-dimensional dose calculations. For an open field, the OCR at a point is computed as the product of the primary OCR (POCR) and the boundary factors (BF's). The POCR describes the beam profile for an infinite field, that is, without the effect of the collimators. It is defined as the ratio of the dose at a point off the central ray to the dose at the point on the central ray at the same depth for an infinite field. The POCR is a function of radial distance from the beam central ray and depth. The BF describes the shape of the beam in the neighborhood of the field boundary defined by the collimators. It is defined as the ratio of the OCR at a point for a finite field to the OCR at the same point for an infinite field. The BF is a function of distance from the field boundary, depth, and field size. For a wedged field, we assume that the boundary factors remain the same as for open fields but the POCR's are altered. The changes in beam profiles are described by a factor called the wedge profile factor (WPF), defined as the ratio of the dose at a point for the largest wedged field to the dose at the same point for an open field of the same field size. The WPF is a function of lateral distance from the beam central plane and depth. Calculated OCR's using this new method are in agreement with the measured data along both the transverse and the diagonal directions of the field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: Treatment plans for the TomoTherapy unit are produced with a planning system that is integral to the unit. The authors have produced an independent dose calculation system, to enable plans to be recalculated in three dimensions, using the patient's CT data. Methods: Software has been written using MATLAB. The DICOM-RT plan object is used to determine the treatment parameters used, including the treatment sinogram. Each projection of the sinogram is segmented and used to calculate dose at multiple calculation points in a three-dimensional grid using tables of measured beam data. A fast ray-trace algorithm is used to determine effective depth for each projection angle at each calculation point. Calculations were performed on a standard desktop personal computer, with a 2.6 GHz Pentium, running Windows XP. Results: The time to perform a calculation, for 3375 points averaged 1 min 23 s for prostate plans and 3 min 40 s for head and neck plans. The mean dose within the 50% isodose was calculated and compared with the predictions of the TomoTherapy planning system. When the modified CT (which includes the TomoTherapy couch) was used, the mean difference for ten prostate patients, was -0.4% (range -0.9% to +0.3%). With the original CT (which included the CT couch), the mean difference was -1.0% (range -1.7% to 0.0%). The number of points agreeing with a gamma 3%/3 mm averaged 99.2% with the modified CT, 96.3% with the original CT. For ten head and neck patients, for the modified and original CT, respectively, the mean difference was +1.1% (range -0.4% to +3.1%) and 1.1% (range -0.4% to +3.0%) with 94.4% and 95.4% passing a gamma 4%/4 mm. The ability of the program to detect a variety of simulated errors has been tested. Conclusions: By using the patient's CT data, the independent dose calculation performs checks that are not performed by a measurement in a cylindrical phantom. This enables it to be used either as an additional check or to replace phantom
Is it worth to calculate the dose of radioiodine?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Administration of empirical doses of radioiodine (RAI) has been preferred to calculated doses in many hospitals, because the need to measure the size and the iodine uptake in the thyroid involves considerable inconvenience to the patient and additional costs. The preparation of RAI of varying activities also means extra work. Today there is no general consensus on whether radioiodine should be given as a fixed dose or should be calculated. There is also no consensus regarding the question of which radiation burden should be administered to a given volume of thyroid if the activity is calculated. However, while it is possible to deliver a relatively precise dose of radiation to the thyroid gland, maybe it is worth doing this?The aim of this study was to investigate the results of different uptake and volume dependent target doses on clinical outcome of patients with hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease, multi-nodular toxic goiter or toxic adenoma after radioiodine therapy. We reviewed the records of 428 patients (389 women and 39 men, mean age 56.8±12.9 years) who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease and multinodular toxic goiter (n=312) or toxic adenoma (n=116) during the period of 2000-2004 in Kaunas Medical University Hospital. Most patients were given antithyroid drug therapy in order to achieve euthyroidism before treatment with RAI. Radioiodine uptake test with repeated measurements at 2, 6, 24, 48 and/or 72 and/or 96 hr to define the effective half-life was performed. In addition, all the patients underwent thyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy to define the volume of the thyroid. The 131I activities were calculated according to the formula of Marinelli. In addition to the normal calculation individual target doses were adjusted to the thyroid volumes of each patient before therapy. For statistical evaluation, the patients were divided into four groups: group I included those with a thyroid volume 51 ml. Statistical analysis was
Implementation of spot scanning dose optimization and dose calculation for helium ions in Hyperion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuchs, Hermann; Alber, Markus; Schreiner, Thomas;
2015-01-01
PURPOSE: Helium ions ((4)He) may supplement current particle beam therapy strategies as they possess advantages in physical dose distribution over protons. To assess potential clinical advantages, a dose calculation module accounting for relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was developed and...... Bragg-peak region, which was then kept constant over the fragmentation tail. To account for a variable proton RBE, the same model concept was also applied to protons with a maximum RBE of 1.6. Both RBE models were added to a previously developed pencil beam algorithm for physical dose calculation and...... included into the treatment planning system Hyperion. The implementation was validated against Monte Carlo simulations within a water phantom using γ-index evaluation. The potential benefits of (4)He based treatment plans were explored in a preliminary treatment planning comparison (against protons) for...
Kanematsu, Nobuyuki
2007-01-01
A simple and efficient variant of the pencil-beam algorithm for dose distribution calculation is proposed. Compared to the conventional pencil-beam algorithms, the new algorithm is intrinsically faster due to minimized computation within the convolution integral. Namely, computation for physical interaction is decoupled from the convolution integral and the convolution kernel is approximated by simple grid-to-grid correlation. Implementation to a treatment planning system for carbon-ion radiotherapy has enabled realistic beam blurring with marginal speed decrease from the broad-beam calculation. Evaluation of a modeled proton pencil beam exhibits inaccuracy within its spread at the Bragg peak when the beam incidence is angled to all the dose grid axes, which will be minimized in broad-beam formation and may be acceptable depending on its relative significance to the other sources of errors. The new algorithm will provide balanced accuracy and speed without technical difficulty for high-resolution dose distrib...
Source term calculations for assessing radiation dose to equipment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study examines results of analyses performed with the Source Term Code Package to develop updated source terms using NUREG-0956 methods. The updated source terms are to be used to assess the adequacy of current regulatory source terms used as the basis for equipment qualification. Time-dependent locational distributions of radionuclides within a containment following a severe accident have been developed. The Surry reactor has been selected in this study as representative of PWR containment designs. Similarly, the Peach Bottom reactor has been used to examine radionuclide distributions in boiling water reactors. The time-dependent inventory of each key radionuclide is provided in terms of its activity in curies. The data are to be used by Sandia National Laboratories to perform shielding analyses to estimate radiation dose to equipment in each containment design. See NUREG/CR-5175, ''Beta and Gamma Dose Calculations for PWR and BWR Containments.'' 6 refs., 11 tabs
Development of software for internal dose calculation from bioassay measurements
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Recently developed biokinetic models of ICRP permit increasingly realistic descriptions of the behaviour of radionuclides in the human body. This, however, has made the interpretation of bioassay data extremely difficult. Thus computer programs for implementing these models are in need, but very few are available. The present work describes personal-computer-based software, MONDAL2 (monitoring to dose calculation ver. 2), that enables users to estimate intake activity and the resulting effective doses from bioassay measurements for both workers and members of the public. This software runs on Microsoft Windows 95, 98, Millennium edition, 2000 or XP. If the system is to be fully copied to a hard disk, hard disk space of 23 MB is required. This software is distributed by the National Inst. of Radiological Sciences free of charge. (authors)
Measurements and calculations of doses from radioactive particles
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Three Mile Island (TMI) and Tchernobyl reactor accidents have revealed the importance of the skin exposure to beta radiation produced by small high activity sources, named 'hot particles'. In nuclear power reactors, they may arise as small fragments of irradiated fuel or material which have been neutron activated by passing through the reactor co. In recent years, skin exposure to hot particles has been subject to different limitation criteria, formulated by AIEA, ICRP, NCRP working groups. The present work is the contribution of CEA Grenoble to a contract of the Commission of the European communities in cooperation with several laboratories: University of Birmingham, University of Toulouse and University of Montpellier with the main goal to check experiments and calculations of tissue dose from 60Co radioactive particles. This report is split up into two parts: hot particle dosimetry close to a 60Co spherical sample with an approximately 200 μm diameter, using a PTW extrapolation chamber model 233991; dose calculations from two codes: the Varskin Mod 2 computer code and the Hot 25 S2 Monte Carlo algorithm. The two codes lead to similar results; nevertheless there is a large discrepancy (of about 2) between calculations and PTW measurements which are higher by a factor of 1.9. At a 70 μm skin depth and for 1 cm2 irradiated area, the total (β + γ) tissue dose rate delivered by a spherical ( φ = 200 μm) 60Co source, in contact with skin, is of the order of 6.1 10-2 nGy s-1 Bq-1. (author)
Deterministic calculations of radiation doses from brachytherapy seeds
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Brachytherapy is used for treating certain types of cancer by inserting radioactive sources into tumours. CDTN/CNEN is developing brachytherapy seeds to be used mainly in prostate cancer treatment. Dose calculations play a very significant role in the characterization of the developed seeds. The current state-of-the-art of computation dosimetry relies on Monte Carlo methods using, for instance, MCNP codes. However, deterministic calculations have some advantages, as, for example, short computer time to find solutions. This paper presents a software developed to calculate doses in a two-dimensional space surrounding the seed, using a deterministic algorithm. The analysed seeds consist of capsules similar to IMC6711 (OncoSeed), that are commercially available. The exposure rates and absorbed doses are computed using the Sievert integral and the Meisberger third order polynomial, respectively. The software also allows the isodose visualization at the surface plan. The user can choose between four different radionuclides (192Ir, 198Au, 137Cs and 60Co). He also have to enter as input data: the exposure rate constant; the source activity; the active length of the source; the number of segments in which the source will be divided; the total source length; the source diameter; and the actual and effective source thickness. The computed results were benchmarked against results from literature and developed software will be used to support the characterization process of the source that is being developed at CDTN. The software was implemented using Borland Delphi in Windows environment and is an alternative to Monte Carlo based codes. (author)
Comparison between calculation methods of dose rates in gynecologic brachytherapy
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In treatments with radiations for gynecologic tumors is necessary to evaluate the quality of the results obtained by different calculation methods for the dose rates on the points of clinical interest (A, rectal, vesicle). The present work compares the results obtained by two methods. The Manual Calibration Method (MCM) tri dimensional (Vianello E., et.al. 1998), using orthogonal radiographs for each patient in treatment, and the Theraplan/T P-11 planning system (Thratonics International Limited 1990) this last one verified experimentally (Vianello et.al. 1996). The results show that MCM can be used in the physical-clinical practice with a percentile difference comparable at the computerized programs. (Author)
Mathematical models for calculating radiation dose to the fetus
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Estimates of radiation dose from radionuclides inside the body are calculated on the basis of energy deposition in mathematical models representing the organs and tissues of the human body. Complex models may be used with radiation transport codes to calculate the fraction of emitted energy that is absorbed in a target tissue even at a distance from the source. Other models may be simple geometric shapes for which absorbed fractions of energy have already been calculated. Models of Reference Man, the 15-year-old (Reference Woman), the 10-year-old, the five-year-old, the one-year-old, and the newborn have been developed and used for calculating specific absorbed fractions (absorbed fractions of energy per unit mass) for several different photon energies and many different source-target combinations. The Reference woman model is adequate for calculating energy deposition in the uterus during the first few weeks of pregnancy. During the course of pregnancy, the embryo/fetus increases rapidly in size and thus requires several models for calculating absorbed fractions. In addition, the increases in size and changes in shape of the uterus and fetus result in the repositioning of the maternal organs and in different geometric relationships among the organs and the fetus. This is especially true of the excretory organs such as the urinary bladder and the various sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Several models have been developed for calculating absorbed fractions of energy in the fetus, including models of the uterus and fetus for each month of pregnancy and complete models of the pregnant woman at the end of each trimester. In this paper, the available models and the appropriate use of each will be discussed. (Author) 19 refs., 7 figs
Midplane dose determination and verification of calculated doses in total body irradiation
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Özlem ÖZDEMİR
2014-06-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To compare calculated and measured doses for different regions of anthropomorphic phantom and patients using ion chamber and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD for total body irradiation. METHODS Measurements were done for lateral fields with 6 MV, gantry 82º, 40x40 cm2 field and 400 cm source-axis distance (SAD. Entrance-exit and midline doses were measured on anthropomorphic phantom by TLD and entrance-exit doses were measured by TLD and ion chamber on patients. RESULTS For anthropomorphic phantom measurements differences between calculated and measured entrance-exit doses of head, neck, shoulder, lung and thick pelvis were 0.8%, 2.7%, 26.4%, 4.4% and 4.9% and for midline doses were 1.6%, 1.6%, 6.3%, -1.4% and 7.4% respectively. For patients; TLD differences were within -4.13% ile 6.7%, -3.3% ile 3.9%, 5.1% ile 16.6%, -7.8% ile 2.4%, and 3.6% ile 7.1% respectively. For thick pelvis measurements with ion chamber differences were within %0.1-1.9. CONCLUSION Total body irradiation is being applied in limit values in our clinic.
Japanese internet system for calculation of route doses (JISCARD)
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JISCARD was developed in 2005 by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Japan. The present report explains how to use the system to calculate exposure doses to be received by aircraft crew or passengers making a flight by international regular routes connecting Japan and the principle 35 cities of the world. Entering home page of NIRS, the user is requested to select the starting and arriving airports on graphical interface, the traveling date (year, month) which should be within 2001 - 2011, and the internet tool. The calculation is based on the code CARI-6, developed by FAA (the Federal Aviation Administration), and takes into consideration altitude effect as well as an 11-year cycle of the solar activity. (S. Ohno)
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Full text: With the growing need of energy all over the world there is no doubt that nuclear energy will be an important alternative. Nuclear energy is not only a good alternative energy source but also is getting more safe. In contrary to fossil fuels nuclear energy does not produce green house gases. With all adventages of nuclear energy, the safety of nuclear power plants must be taken into care. From the radiological point of view the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides and radiation dose calculations in case of a reactor accident is important. This study investigates the deposition and air concentration of 137Cs and 131I radionuclides and the radiation doses exposed to people living in different cities in Turkey after Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. WRF results and HYSPLIT results were compared with observation data and the 'Atlas on the cesium deposition across Europe' that published by European Commission respectively. Both WRF and HYSPLIT results were consistent with reference data. (author)
PFP vertical calciner shield wall dose rate calculations using MCNP
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This report yields a neutron shield wall design for a full time occupancy dose rate of 0.25 mrem/h. ORIGEN2 generated gamma ray spectrum and neutron intensity for plutonium. MCNP modeled the calciner glovebox and room for reflection of neutrons off concrete walls and ceiling. Neutron calculations used MCNP in mode n, p to include neutron capture gammas. Photon calculations used MCNP in mode p for gamma rays. Neutron shield with lower 137.16 cm (4.5 feet) of 12.7 cm (5 inch) thick Lucite reg-sign and 0.3175 cm (0.125 inch) stainless steel on both sides, and upper 76.2 cm (2.5 feet) of 10.16 cm (4 inch) thick Lucite reg-sign and 1.905 cm (0.75 inch) thick glass on each side gave a total weighted dose rate of 0.23 mrem/h, fulfilling the design goal. Lucite reg-sign is considered to be equivalent to Plexiglas reg-sign since both are methylmethacrylate polymers
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The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external dose from air submersion and inhalation doses following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine maximum conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. Doses are calculated using dose conversion factor supplied in a data library. Doses are reported for one and fifty year dose commitment periods for the maximum individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to dose by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested
Assessment of X-ray output dose in the dose calculation of linear accelerators
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Many structural types of MLC (multiple-leaf collimator) are now introduced for linear accelerators and are important factors influencing the exposure dose to patients. In other words, the formula for dose calculation would differ depending on the type which, however, does not always require the different method of dose assessment for different MLC type. Rather, the assessment can be generalized and be applicable in any case of irradiation conditions when the concept of output factors is used. This article described the concept now recognized globally: The output factors consists from field factors and scatter factors, which are further divided in some factors attributable to the apparatus with MLC and irradiation object. The review also demonstrated the effectiveness of the concept by experiments using phantoms under various irradiation conditions. (K.H.)
Effects of TPS calculation grid on dose calculation accuracy for 125I seed implantation
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Objective: To study the influence of TPS calculation grid on the dose calculation accuracy for 125I seed implantation. Methods: Ten verification plans were selected randomly. Calculating grids were modulated into four groups: 128 × 128, 96 × 96, 64 × 64 and 32 × 32. Under the conditions of same seeds number, location, activity and target volume, the doses resulting from every plan were calculated using TPS to obtain D90, V90, V100 and V150. Data were grouped into A, B, C and D by means of the calculating grid of 128 × 128, 96 × 96, 64 × 64 and 32 × 32. The percentage errors of four groups were calculated. Results: The arithmetic mean D90 of group A, B, C and D were (7 178.8 ± 2 237.7), (7 072.7 ±2 240.8), (6 889.1 ±2 305.5) and (6 351.0 ±2 515.7) cGy, respectively. The arithmetic mean of percentage errors of the four groups were (0.74 ± 0.6)%, (-0.89 ± 2.2)%, (-3.85 ± 4.7)% and (-10.46 ±4.8)% (F=8.95, P <0.05). The V90 of group A, B, C and D were (93.12 ± 0.32)%, (92.75 ±0.29)%, (91.87±1.28)% and (88.06 ±5.06)% (F=7.85, P<0.05). The V100 of group A, B, C and D were (90.21 ±0.14)%, (89.67 ±0.64)%, (88.68 ± 1.80)% and (84.10±6.56)% (F=6.64, P<0.05). The V150 of group A, B, C and D were (73.48 ±3.49)%,(72.66±3.96)%,(71.33±4.83)% and (65.41 ±9.49)% (F=3.90, P<0.05). Conclusions: The dose calculating accuracy of 125I seeds implantation is influenced significantly by TPS calculating grid. The calculating grid of 128 × 128 should be used as long as the calculating speed is not reduced. (authors)
Effect of tissue inhomogeneity on beta dose calculation
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Appropriate monoclonal antibodies labeled with beta-emitting nuclides of high specific activity have been suggested for treatment of specific tumors. In a homogeneous medium the radiation dose rate distribution R due to a distributed activity distribution C can be calculated by convolution of the beta dose point kernel of the radionuclide in soft tissue with C. Prototype computer programs using Fast Fourier Transform techniques have been developed to evaluate the three dimensional spatial convolution efficiently. To study the effect of tissue inhomogeneity on R, the authors simulated a soft tissue-bone interface by a polystyrene (PST)-aluminum (A1) interface and considered the backscattering of beta rays from a point source and a plane source of 32P. LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters were used. With the point source at the PST-A1 interface, R at 0-31, 125-156, and 283-314 mg/cm2 separations from the interface were increased by (12 +/- 3)%, (8 +/-2)%, and (3 +/- 2)%, respectively, compared with a PST-PST interface. With the plane source, the increases were (8 +/- 3)%, (6 +/- 3)%, and (5 +/- 5)% for separations of 23-58, 150-184, and 277-311 mg/cm2, respectively. With the point source at a PST-air interface to simulate soft tissue-air interface, R at 0-31, 139-170, and 283-314 mg/cm2 from the interface were decreased by (25 +/- 4)%, (11 +/- 7)%, and (5 +/-2)%, respectively. The changes in R have also been measured with degraded spectra of 32P. Comparison of the experimental data with Monte Carlo calculation and the Two-Group method of calculation will be discussed. 20 references, 6 figures, 2 tables
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Full text: For nuclear medicine patients who are breast feeding an infant, special radiation safety precautions may need to be taken. An estimate of the potential radiation dose to the child from ingested milk must be made, and breast-feeding may need to be suspended until levels of radioactivity in the breast-milk have fallen to acceptable levels. The risk of radiation to the child must be weighed against the benefits of breast-feeding and the possible trauma to both mother and child arising from interruption or cessation of the milk supply. In the United States, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has already published regulations which will necessitate an estimate of the infant's dose from breast milk to be made, in principle, for every breast-feeding patient. There is obviously, therefore, a need to provide a rapid and reliable means of estimating such doses. A spreadsheet template which automatically calculates the cumulative dose to breast feeding infants based on any multi-exponential clearance of activity from the breast milk, and any pattern of feeding, has been developed by the authors. The time (post administration) for which breast-feeding should be interrupted in order to constrain the radiation dose to a selected limit is also calculated along with the concentration of activity in breast milk at which feeding can resume. The effect of changing dose limits, feeding patterns and using individually derived breast milk clearance rates may be readily modelled using this spreadsheet template. Data has been included for many of the most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals and new data can readily be incorporated as it becomes available. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc
The models of internal dose calculation in ICRP
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There are a lot discussions about internal dose calculation in ICRP. Many efforts are devoted to improvement in models and parameters. In this report, we discuss what kind of models and parameters are used in ICRP. Models are divided into two parts, the dosimetric model and biokinetic model. The former is a mathematical phantom model, and it is mainly developed in ORNL. The results are used in many researchers. The latter is a compartment model and it has a difficulty to decide the parameter values. They are not easy to estimate because of their age dependency. ICRP officially sets values at ages of 3 month, 1 year, 5 year, 10 year, 15 year and adult, and recommends to get values among ages by linear age interpolate. But it is very difficult to solve the basic equation with these values, so we calculate by use of computers. However, it has complex shame and needs long CPU time. We should make approximated equations. The parameter values include much uncertainty because of less experimental data, especially for a child. And these models and parameter values are for Caucasian. We should inquire whether they could correctly describe other than Caucasian. The body size affects the values of calculated SAF, and the differences of metabolism change the biokinetic pattern. (author)
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the patient effective dose and scattered dose from recently developed dental mobile equipment in Korea. The MCNPX 2.6 (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) was used in a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate both the effective and scattered doses. The MCNPX code was constructed identically as in the general use of equipment and the effective dose and scattered dose were calculated using the KTMAN-2 digital phantom. The effective dose was calculated as 906 μSv. The equivalent doses per organ were calculated via the MCNPX code, and were 32 174 and 19 μSv in the salivary gland and oesophagus, respectively. The scattered dose of 22.5-32.6 μSv of the tube side at 25 cm from the centre in anterior and posterior planes was measured as 1.4-3 times higher than the detector side of 10.5-16.0 μSv. (authors)
Emergency Doses (ED) - Revision 3: A calculator code for environmental dose computations
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The calculator program ED (Emergency Doses) was developed from several HP-41CV calculator programs documented in the report Seven Health Physics Calculator Programs for the HP-41CV, RHO-HS-ST-5P (Rittman 1984). The program was developed to enable estimates of offsite impacts more rapidly and reliably than was possible with the software available for emergency response at that time. The ED - Revision 3, documented in this report, revises the inhalation dose model to match that of ICRP 30, and adds the simple estimates for air concentration downwind from a chemical release. In addition, the method for calculating the Pasquill dispersion parameters was revised to match the GENII code within the limitations of a hand-held calculator (e.g., plume rise and building wake effects are not included). The summary report generator for printed output, which had been present in the code from the original version, was eliminated in Revision 3 to make room for the dispersion model, the chemical release portion, and the methods of looping back to an input menu until there is no further no change. This program runs on the Hewlett-Packard programmable calculators known as the HP-41CV and the HP-41CX. The documentation for ED - Revision 3 includes a guide for users, sample problems, detailed verification tests and results, model descriptions, code description (with program listing), and independent peer review. This software is intended to be used by individuals with some training in the use of air transport models. There are some user inputs that require intelligent application of the model to the actual conditions of the accident. The results calculated using ED - Revision 3 are only correct to the extent allowed by the mathematical models. 9 refs., 36 tabs
A brachytherapy model-based dose calculation algorithm -AMIGOBrachy
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Brachytherapy treatments have been performed based on TG-43U1 water dose formalism which neglects human tissues density and composition, body interfaces and applicator effects. As these effects could be relevant for brachytherapy energy range, modern treatment planning systems (TPS) are now available that are based on model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCA) enabling heterogeneity corrections, which are needed to replace the TG-43U1 water dose formalism for a more accurate approach. The recently published AAPM TG-186 report is the first step towards to a TPS taking into account heterogeneities, applicators and human body complexities. This report presents the current status, recommendations for clinical implementation and specifies research areas where considerable efforts are necessary to move forward with MBDCA. Monte Carlo (MC) codes are an important part of the current algorithms due their flexibility and accuracy, although, almost all MC codes present no interface to process the large amount of data necessary to perform clinical cases simulations, which may include hundreds of dwell positions, inter-seed attenuation, image processing and others time consuming issues that can make MC simulation unfeasible without a pre-processing interface. This work presents the AMIGOBrachy interface tool (Algorithm for Medical Image-based Generating Object - Brachytherapy module) which provides all the pre-processing task needed for the simulation. This software can import and edit treatments plans from BrachyVision™ (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) and ONCENTRA™ (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden), and also create a new plan through contouring resources, needle recognition, HU segmentation, combining voxels phantoms with analytical geometries to define applicators and other resources used to create MCNP5 input and analyze the results. This work presents some results used to validate the software and to evaluate the heterogeneities impact in a clinical case
Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolch, W.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.
1990-12-01
Ionizing radiation has broad uses in modern science and medicine. These uses often require the calculation of energy deposition in the irradiated media and, usually, the medium of interest is the human body. Energy deposition from radioactive sources within the human body and the effects of such deposition are considered in the field of internal dosimetry. In July of 1988, a three-year research project was initiated by the Nuclear Engineering Department at Texas A M University under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The main thrust of the research was to consider, for the first time, the detailed spatial transport of electron and beta particles in the estimation of average organ doses under the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. At the present time (December of 1990), research activities are continuing within five areas. Several are new initiatives begun within the second or third year of the current contract period. They include: (1) development of small-scale dosimetry; (2) development of a differential volume phantom; (3) development of a dosimetric bone model; (4) assessment of the new ICRP lung model; and (5) studies into the mechanisms of DNA damage. A progress report is given for each of these tasks within the Comprehensive Report. In each case, preliminary results are very encouraging and plans for further research are detailed within this document.
Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ionizing radiation has broad uses in modern science and medicine. These uses often require the calculation of energy deposition in the irradiated media and, usually, the medium of interest is the human body. Energy deposition from radioactive sources within the human body and the effects of such deposition are considered in the field of internal dosimetry. In July of 1988, a three-year research project was initiated by the Nuclear Engineering Department at Texas A ampersand M University under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The main thrust of the research was to consider, for the first time, the detailed spatial transport of electron and beta particles in the estimation of average organ doses under the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. At the present time (December of 1990), research activities are continuing within five areas. Several are new initiatives begun within the second or third year of the current contract period. They include: (1) development of small-scale dosimetry; (2) development of a differential volume phantom; (3) development of a dosimetric bone model; (4) assessment of the new ICRP lung model; and (5) studies into the mechanisms of DNA damage. A progress report is given for each of these tasks within the Comprehensive Report. In each case, preliminary results are very encouraging and plans for further research are detailed within this document
Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ionizing radiation has broad uses in modern science and medicine. These uses often require the calculation of energy deposition in the irradiated media and, usually, the medium of interest is the human body. Energy deposition from radioactive sources within the human body and the effects of such deposition are considered in the field of internal dosimetry. In July of 1988, a three-year research project was initiated by the Nuclear Engineering Department at Texas A ampersand M University under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The main thrust of the research was to consider, for the first time, the detailed spatial transport of electron and beta particles in the estimation of average organ doses under the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. At the present time (December of 1990), research activities are continuing within five areas. Several are new initiatives begun within the second or third year of the current contract period. They include: (1) development of small-scale dosimetry; (2) development of a differential volume phantom; (3) development of a dosimetric bone model; (4) assessment of the new ICRP lung model; and (5) studies into the mechanisms of DNA damage. A progress report is given for each of these tasks within the Comprehensive Report. In each use, preliminary results are very encouraging and plans for further research are detailed within this document. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab
Pion dose distribution calculations and measurements for dynamic radiotherapy
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Routine three dimensional conformation therapy with negative pions is done with the PIOTRON at SIN since two years. More than 60 patients have been treated by spot scan with the 60 converging beams for deep seated tumors in the pelvic region. Extensive measurements have been performed on various phantoms, homogeneous and anthropomorphic, to investigate the influence of tissue inhomogeneities and verify treatment planning calculations. Total dose has been measured by T.E. ionization chambers and TLD, two dimensional stop distributions exposed in planes between phantom slices. In vivo measurements with ionization chambers, as well as catheters filled with /sup 7/LiF TLD's and rolled Al foils, introduced in bladder or rectum, have been used to confirm dose distributions in patients. To check predictions of differences of RBE due to variations in treatment volumes or beam configuration, treatment plans, reflecting typical situation in therapy, have been created for radiobiological investigations. Various user groups have measured biological effects by cell survival experiments with mammalian cells or with mouse intestinal crypt cell assay
Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolch, W.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)
1990-12-01
Ionizing radiation has broad uses in modern science and medicine. These uses often require the calculation of energy deposition in the irradiated media and, usually, the medium of interest is the human body. Energy deposition from radioactive sources within the human body and the effects of such deposition are considered in the field of internal dosimetry. In July of 1988, a three-year research project was initiated by the Nuclear Engineering Department at Texas A M University under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The main thrust of the research was to consider, for the first time, the detailed spatial transport of electron and beta particles in the estimation of average organ doses under the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. At the present time (December of 1990), research activities are continuing within five areas. Several are new initiatives begun within the second or third year of the current contract period. They include: (1) development of small-scale dosimetry; (2) development of a differential volume phantom; (3) development of a dosimetric bone model; (4) assessment of the new ICRP lung model; and (5) studies into the mechanisms of DNA damage. A progress report is given for each of these tasks within the Comprehensive Report. In each use, preliminary results are very encouraging and plans for further research are detailed within this document. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.
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Peiman Haddad
2014-02-01
Conclusion: In this study, the mean testis dose of radiation was 3.77 Gy, similar to the dose calculated by the planning software (4.11 Gy. This dose could be significantly harmful for spermatogenesis, though low doses of scattered radiation to the testis in fractionated radiotherapy might be followed with better recovery. Based on above findings, careful attention to testicular dose in radiotherapy of rectal cancer for the males desiring continued fertility seems to be required.
Off-site dose calculation computer code based on ICRP-60(II) - liquid radioactive effluents -
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The development of computer code for calculating off-site doses(K-DOSE60) was based on ICRP-60 and the dose calculationi equations of Reg. Guide 1.109. In this paper, the methodology to compute dose for liquid effluents was described. To examine reliability of the K-DOSE60 code the results obtained from K-DOSE60 were compared with analytic solutions. For liquid effluents. The results by K-DOSE60 are in agreement with analytic solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We assessed the reliability of the program with 80 patients in the usual points of prescription of each pathology. The average error of the calculation points is less than 0.3% in 95% of cases, finding the major differences in the axes of the applicators (maximum error -0.798%). The program has proved effective previously testing him with erroneous dosimetry. Thanks to the implementation of this program is achieved by the calculation of the dose and part of the process of quality assurance program in a few minutes, highlighting the case of HDR prostate due to having a limited time. Having separate data sheet allows each institution to its protocols modify parameters. (Author)
BENCHMARKING UPGRADED HOTSPOT DOSE CALCULATIONS AGAINST MACCS2 RESULTS
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Brotherton, Kevin
2009-04-30
The radiological consequence of interest for a documented safety analysis (DSA) is the centerline Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) incurred by the Maximally Exposed Offsite Individual (MOI) evaluated at the 95th percentile consequence level. An upgraded version of HotSpot (Version 2.07) has been developed with the capabilities to read site meteorological data and perform the necessary statistical calculations to determine the 95th percentile consequence result. These capabilities should allow HotSpot to join MACCS2 (Version 1.13.1) and GENII (Version 1.485) as radiological consequence toolbox codes in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Central Registry. Using the same meteorological data file, scenarios involving a one curie release of {sup 239}Pu were modeled in both HotSpot and MACCS2. Several sets of release conditions were modeled, and the results compared. In each case, input parameter specifications for each code were chosen to match one another as much as the codes would allow. The results from the two codes are in excellent agreement. Slight differences observed in results are explained by algorithm differences.
Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A computer program has been developed at Texas A ampersand M University to model the transport and energy deposition of electrons and photons for use in internal dose estimation. The code incorporates photon and electron transport subroutines with the geometry subroutine from ALGAM. A user code, called INDOSE, was used to provide estimates of the absorbed fraction of energy for selected target organs of a mathematically described human phantom. The INDOSE code is comprised of three primary sections: the MAIN program, AUSGAB, the scoring routine, and POSITIN, the geometry tracking routine. The geometry routine contains a mathematical representation of Reference Man. The total-body phantom consists of three principal sections and of three types of tissue: lung, skeletal tissue, and soft tissue. The skeletal system represents the total content of the intact skeleton and includes both bone and marrow. This material is considered to be distributed homogeneously throughout the phantom. In 1988, a research proposal was submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) to continue the code development for use in internal dosimetry calculations, particularly those related to diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. This document presents a progress report for the completion of tasks accomplished over the period of July 1989 through January 1990. 39 refs., 45 figs., 24 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach
Monte Carlo calculation of ''skyshine'' neutron dose from ALS [Advanced Light Source
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This report discusses the following topics on ''skyshine'' neutron dose from ALS: Sources of radiation; ALS modeling for skyshine calculations; MORSE Monte-Carlo; Implementation of MORSE; Results of skyshine calculations from storage ring; and Comparison of MORSE shielding calculations
Performance of independent dose calculation in helical tomotherapy: implementation of the MCSIM code
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Currently, a software-based second check dose calculation for helical tomotherapy (HT) is not available. The goal of this study is to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy of the in-house software using EGS4 /MCSIM Monte Carlo environment against the treatment planning system calculations. In-house software was used to convert HT treatment plan information into a non-helical format. The MCSIM dose calculation code was evaluated by comparing point dose calculations and dose profiles against those from the HT treatment plan. Fifteen patients, representing five treatment sites, were used in this comparison. Point dose calculations between the HT treatment planning system and the EGS4 /MCSIM Monte Carlo environment had percent difference values below 5 % for the majority of this study. Vertical and horizontal planar profiles also had percent difference values below 5 % for the majority of this study. Down sampling was seen to improve speed without much loss of accuracy. EGS4 /MCSIM Monte Carlo environment showed good agreement with point dose measurements, compared to the HT treatment plans. Vertical and horizontal profiles also showed good agreement. Significant time saving may be obtained by down-sampling beam projections. The dose calculation accuracy of the in-house software using the MCSIM code against the treatment planning system calculations was evaluated. By comparing point doses and dose profiles, the EGS4 /MCSIM Monte Carlo environment was seen to provide an accurate independent dose calculation.
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It is important to ensure that as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept during the radiopharmaceutical (RPH) dose administration in pediatric patients. Several methods have been suggested over the years for the calculation of individualized RPH dose, sometimes requiring complex calculations and large variability exists for administered dose in children. The aim of the present study was to develop a software application that can calculate and store RPH dose along with patient record. We reviewed the literature to select the dose formula and used Microsoft Access (a software package) to develop this application. We used the Microsoft Excel to verify the accurate execution of the dose formula. The manual and computer time using this program required for calculating the RPH dose were compared. The developed application calculates RPH dose for pediatric patients based on European Association of Nuclear Medicine dose card, weight based, body surface area based, Clark, Solomon Fried, Young and Webster's formula. It is password protected to prevent the accidental damage and stores the complete record of patients that can be exported to Excel sheet for further analysis. It reduces the burden of calculation and saves considerable time i.e., 2 min computer time as compared with 102 min (manual calculation with the calculator for all seven formulas for 25 patients). The software detailed above appears to be an easy and useful method for calculation of pediatric RPH dose in routine clinical practice. This software application will help in helping the user to routinely applied ALARA principle while pediatric dose administration. (author)
Hanford Site Annual Report Radiological Dose Calculation Upgrade Evaluation
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Snyder, Sandra F.
2010-02-28
Operations at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, result in the release of radioactive materials to offsite residents. Site authorities are required to estimate the dose to the maximally exposed offsite resident. Due to the very low levels of exposure at the residence, computer models, rather than environmental samples, are used to estimate exposure, intake, and dose. A DOS-based model has been used in the past (GENII version 1.485). GENII v1.485 has been updated to a Windows®-based software (GENII version 2.08). Use of the updated software will facilitate future dose evaluations, but must be demonstrated to provide results comparable to those of GENII v1.485. This report describes the GENII v1.485 and GENII v2.08 dose exposure, intake, and dose estimates for the maximally exposed offsite resident reported for calendar year 2008. The GENII v2.08 results reflect updates to implemented algorithms. No two environmental models produce the same results, as was again demonstrated in this report. The aggregated dose results from 2008 Hanford Site airborne and surface water exposure scenarios provide comparable dose results. Therefore, the GENII v2.08 software is recommended for future offsite resident dose evaluations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atsushi Komemushi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To assess differences in dose distribution of a vertebral body injected with bone cement as calculated by radiation treatment planning system (RTPS and actual dose distribution. Methods. We prepared two water-equivalent phantoms with cement, and the other two phantoms without cement. The bulk density of the bone cement was imported into RTPS to reduce error from high CT values. A dose distribution map for the phantoms with and without cement was calculated using RTPS with clinical setting and with the bulk density importing. Actual dose distribution was measured by the film density. Dose distribution as calculated by RTPS was compared to the dose distribution measured by the film dosimetry. Results. For the phantom with cement, dose distribution was distorted for the areas corresponding to inside the cement and on the ventral side of the cement. However, dose distribution based on film dosimetry was undistorted behind the cement and dose increases were seen inside cement and around the cement. With the equivalent phantom with bone cement, differences were seen between dose distribution calculated by RTPS and that measured by the film dosimetry. Conclusion. The dose distribution of an area containing bone cement calculated using RTPS differs from actual dose distribution.
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Purpose. To assess differences in dose distribution of a vertebral body injected with bone cement as calculated by radiation treatment planning system (RTPS) and actual dose distribution. Methods. We prepared two water-equivalent phantoms with cement, and the other two phantoms without cement. The bulk density of the bone cement was imported into RTPS to reduce error from high CT values. A dose distribution map for the phantoms with and without cement was calculated using RTPS with clinical setting and with the bulk density importing. Actual dose distribution was measured by the film density. Dose distribution as calculated by RTPS was compared to the dose distribution measured by the film dosimetry. Results. For the phantom with cement, dose distribution was distorted for the areas corresponding to inside the cement and on the ventral side of the cement. However, dose distribution based on film dosimetry was undistorted behind the cement and dose increases were seen inside cement and around the cement. With the equivalent phantom with bone cement, differences were seen between dose distribution calculated by RTPS and that measured by the film dosimetry. Conclusion. The dose distribution of an area containing bone cement calculated using RTPS differs from actual dose distribution
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Purpose: We describe computer software that performs, quickly and accurately, secondary dose calculations for high-dose-rate (HDR) treatment plans, including those employed for prostate treatments. Methods: The program takes as primary input the data file used by the HDR remote afterloader console for treatment. Dosimetric calculations are performed using the Meisberger polynomial and the anisotropy table for the HDR Iridium-192 source. For standard applicators, treatment geometry is automatically reconstructed and the dose is calculated at relevant reference point(s). Template-based treatment plans (e.g., prostate) require additional user input; the dose calculation is then performed at user-selected reference points. A total dwell time calculation for volume and planar implants using the Manchester tables was also implemented. Results: For fixed-geometry HDR procedures, secondary dose calculations are within 2% of the treatment plan, and results are available for review instantly. For more general applications, the calculated and planned doses are typically within 3% at the prescription isodose line. The Manchester-based dwell time calculation is within 10% of the planned time
The interpretation of animal data in the calculation of doses from new radiolabeled compounds
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At NRPB, dose calculations are performed for pharmaceutical companies wishing to obtain approval for human volunteer experiments. Animal data from one or more species are used to estimate the radiation doses to humans that would result from the administration of novel radiolabeled compounds. The calculations themselves are straightforward, but the animal data can be interpreted in different ways, leading to variations in the calculated dose. Doses to the gut compartments usually dominate the committed effective dose equivalent, but retention in other tissues may be important for some compounds. Long-term retention components in tissues can affect doses considerably, and the binding of many radiopharmaceuticals to melanin means that doses to the eye are particularly important. The effect of these considerations on calculating doses are considered, as well as the effect of changes in risk estimates and tissue weighting factors
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The analysis described in this report develops the Unit Liter Doses for use in the TWRS FSAR. The Unit Liter Doses provide a practical way to calculate conservative radiological consequences for a variety of potential accidents for the tank farms
Analysis of offsite dose calculation methodology for a nuclear power reactor
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This technical study reviews the methodology for calculating offsite dose estimates as described in the offsite dose calculation manual (ODCM) for Pennsylvania Power and Light - Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SSES). An evaluation of the SSES ODCM dose assessment methodology indicates that it conforms with methodology accepted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Using 1993 SSES effluent data, dose estimates are calculated according to SSES ODCM methodology and compared to the dose estimates calculated according to SSES ODCM and the computer model used to produce the reported 1993 dose estimates. The 1993 SSES dose estimates are based on the axioms of Publication 2 of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). SSES Dose estimates based on the axioms of ICRP Publication 26 and 30 reveal the total body estimates to be the most affected
Ability of medical students to calculate drug doses in children after their paediatric attachment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oshikoya KA
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Dose calculation errors constitute a significant part of prescribing errors which might have resulted from informal teaching of the topic in medical schools. Objectives: To determine adequacy of knowledge and skills of drug dose calculations in children acquired by medical students during their clinical attachment in paediatrics.Methods: Fifty two 5th year medical students of the Lagos State University College of Medicine (LASUCOM, Ikeja were examined on drug dose calculations from a vial and ampoules of injections, syrup and suspension, and tablet formulation. The examination was with a structured questionnaire mostly in the form of multiple choice questions.Results: Thirty-six (69.2% and 30 (57.7% students were taught drug dose calculation in neonatal posting and during ward rounds/ bed-side teaching, respectively. Less than 50% of the students were able to calculate the correct doses of each of adrenaline, gentamicin, chloroquine and sodium bicarbonate injections required by the patient. Dose calculation was however relatively better with adrenalin when compared with the other injections. The proportion of female students that calculated the correct doses of quinine syrup and cefuroxime suspension were significantly higher than those of their male counterparts (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively; Chi-square test. When doses calculated in mg/dose and mL/dose was compared for adrenalin injection and each of quinine syrup and cefuroxime suspension, there were significant differences (adrenaline and quinine, p=0.005; adrenaline and cefuroxime, p=0.003: Fischer’s exact test. Dose calculation errors of similar magnitude to injections, syrup and suspension were also observed with tablet formulation.Conclusions: LASUCOM medical students lacked the basic knowledge of paediatric drug dose calculations but were willing to learn if the topic was formally taught. Drug dose calculations should be given a prominent consideration in the undergraduate medical
Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: Comparison of Different Methods to Calculate Patient Doses
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Different methods have been proposed in the literature to calculate the dose to the patient's breast in 3-D mammography. The methods described by Dance et al. and Sechopoulos et al. have been compared in this study using the two tomosynthesis systems available in the authors' hospitals (Siemens and Hologic). There is a small but significant difference of 23% for the first X ray system and 13% for the second system between dose calculations performed with Dance's method and Sechopoulos' method. These differences are mainly due to the fact that the two sets of authors used different breast models for their Monte Carlo calculations. For each system, the calculated breast doses were compared with the dose values indicated on the system console. Good agreement was found when the method of Dance et al. was used for a breast glandularity based on the patient age. For the Siemens system, the calculated doses were 5% lower than the indicated dose and for the Hologic system, the calculated doses were 12% higher. Finally, the 3-D dose values were compared with the doses found in a large 2-D dosimetry study. The dose values for tomosynthesis on the Siemens system were almost double the doses in one view 2-D digital mammography. For a typical breast of thickness 45 mm, the dose of one 2-D view was 0.83 mGy and for one 3-D view 1.79 mGy. (author)
Calculation of mean kidney dose for a Co-57 external radiation source
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A description is given of the numerical integration method for the calculation of the mean kidney dose for a Co-57 external radiation source. Based on this theory, a computer program was written. Initial calculation of the kidney volume shows that the method has a good accuracy. For the mean kidney dose, this method gives satisfactory result, since the calculated value lies within the acceptable range of the central axis depth dose
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The gantry for proton radiotherapy at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is designed specifically for the spot-scanning technique. Use of this technique to its full potential requires dose calculation algorithms which are capable of precisely simulating each scanned beam individually. Different specialized analytical dose calculations have been developed, which attempt to model the effects of density heterogeneities in the patient's body on the dose. Their accuracy has been evaluated by a comparison with Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions in the case of a simple geometrical density interface parallel to the beam and typical anatomical situations. A specialized ray casting model which takes range dilution effects (broadening of the spectrum of proton ranges) into account has been found to produce results of good accuracy. This algorithm can easily be implemented in the iterative optimization procedure used for the calculation of the optimal contribution of each individual scanned pencil beam. In most cases an elemental pencil beam dose calculation has been found to be most accurate. Due to the long computing time, this model is currently used only after the optimization procedure as an alternative method of calculating the dose. (author)
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In this research, total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) and collective dose (CD) are calculated for the most adverse potential accident in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant from the viewpoint of radionuclides release to the environment. Calculations are performed using a Gaussian diffusion model and a slightly modified version of AIREM computer code to adopt for conditions in Bushehr. The results are comparable with the final safety analysis report which used DOZAM code. Results of our calculations show no excessive dose in populated regions. Maximum TEDE is determined to be in the WSW direction. CD in the area around the nuclear power plant by a distance of 30 km (138 man Sv) is far below the accepted limits. Thyroid equivalent dose is also calculated for the WSW direction (maximum 25.6 mSv) and is below the limits at various distances from the reactor stack. (authors)
Monte-Carlo Method Python Library for dose distribution Calculation in Brachytherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Cs-137 Brachytherapy treatment is performed in Madagascar since 2005. Time treatment calculation for prescribed dose is made manually. Monte-Carlo Method Python library written at Madagascar INSTN is experimentally used to calculate the dose distribution on the tumour and around it. The first validation of the code was done by comparing the library curves with the Nucletron company curves. To reduce the duration of the calculation, a Grid of PC's is set up with listner patch run on each PC. The library will be used to modelize the dose distribution in the CT scan patient picture for individual and better accuracy time calculation for a prescribed dose.
Radial Dose Profiles: Calculation Refinements and Sensitivities to Single Event Effects Analysis
Patterson, Jeffrey; Swimm, Randall
2005-01-01
Comparisons of radial dose calculation are performed, as well as the introduction of important physics to improve the calculation techniques. Also, the consequences to device performance are explored via numerical simulations.
Paradigm shift in LUNG SBRT dose calculation associated with Heterogeneity correction
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Treatment of lung injury SBRT requires great dosimetric accuracy, the increasing clinical importance of dose calculation heterogeneities introducing algorithms that adequately model the transport of particles narrow beams in media of low density, as with Monte Carlo calculation. (Author)
Experimental validation of Monte Carlo calculations for organ dose
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of validating estimates of absorbed dose due to photon energy deposition is examined. The computational approaches used for the estimation of the photon energy deposition is examined. The limited data for validation of these approaches is discussed and suggestions made as to how better validation information might be obtained
Probabilistic calculation of dose commitment from uranium mill tailings
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The report discusses in a general way considerations of uncertainty in relation to probabilistic modelling. An example of a probabilistic calculation applied to the behaviour of uranium mill tailings is given
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.
1980-03-01
A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), recently introduced in treatment planning systems (TPS) for brachytherapy, calculate tissue absorbed doses. In the TPS framework, doses have hereto been reported as dose to water and water may still be preferred as a dose specification medium. Dose to tissue medium Dmed then needs to be converted into dose to water in tissue Dw,med. Methods to calculate absorbed dose to differently sized water compartments/cavities inside tissue, infinitesimal (used for definition of absorbed dose), small, large or intermediate, are reviewed. Burlin theory is applied to estimate photon energies at which cavity sizes in the range 1 nm–10 mm can be considered small or large. Photon and electron energy spectra are calculated at 1 cm distance from the central axis in cylindrical phantoms of bone, muscle and adipose tissue for 20, 50, 300 keV photons and photons from 125I, 169Yb and 192Ir sources; ratios of mass-collision-stopping powers and mass energy absorption coefficients are calculated as applicable to convert Dmed into Dw,med for small and large cavities. Results show that 1–10 nm sized cavities are small at all investigated photon energies; 100 µm cavities are large only at photon energies w,med/Dmed is discussed in terms of the cavity size in relation to the size of important cellular targets. Free radicals from DNA bound water of nanometre dimensions contribute to DNA damage and cell killing and may be the most important water compartment in cells implying use of ratios of mass-collision-stopping powers for converting Dmed into Dw,med. (paper)
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The presence of heterogeneous media can produce significant perturbations of dose distribution in brachytherapy. In a companion paper, we proposed a dose decomposition approach for dose calculation in a heterogeneous medium, which separately treats dose contributions from primary, once-scattered and multiple-scattered photons. The companion paper also describes and verifies a micro-beam ray-tracing method for evaluating the once-scatter dose. This paper deals with the calculation of the multiple-scatter dose. We present two empirical formulations for evaluating the heterogeneity correction factor for a 27 keV point source in a water sphere containing a disc-shaped heterogeneity. The empirical formulations are based on nonlinear curve fitting of the Monte Carlo multiple-scatter dose estimates calculated for the heterogeneous system. Extensive benchmark comparisons show that these formulations provide results for the multiple-scatter dose that agree within 10% (and mostly within 5%) with corresponding Monte Carlo dose estimates. Combining them with the algorithms for primary and once-scatter dose calculation described in the companion paper yields results for the total dose of equivalent accuracy. The empirical formulations are expressed in simple mathematical forms which involve a separation of the geometry and position variables of the heterogeneous system. Such representation provides a good tool to investigate the heterogeneity-induced perturbation of a multiple-scatter dose at low photon energy
Recommended environmental dose calculation methods and Hanford-specific parameters
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This document was developed to support the Hanford Environmental Dose overview Panel (HEDOP). The Panel is responsible for reviewing all assessments of potential doses received by humans and other biota resulting from the actual or possible environmental releases of radioactive and other hazardous materials from facilities and/or operations belonging to the US Department of Energy on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. This document serves as a guide to be used for developing estimates of potential radiation doses, or other measures of risk or health impacts, to people and other biota in the environs on and around the Hanford Site. It provides information to develop technically sound estimates of exposure (i.e., potential or actual) to humans or other biotic receptors that could result from the environmental transport of potentially harmful materials that have been, or could be, released from Hanford operations or facilities. Parameter values and information that are specific to the Hanford environs as well as other supporting material are included in this document
Recommended environmental dose calculation methods and Hanford-specific parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schreckhise, R.G.; Rhoads, K.; Napier, B.A.; Ramsdell, J.V. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Davis, J.S. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))
1993-03-01
This document was developed to support the Hanford Environmental Dose overview Panel (HEDOP). The Panel is responsible for reviewing all assessments of potential doses received by humans and other biota resulting from the actual or possible environmental releases of radioactive and other hazardous materials from facilities and/or operations belonging to the US Department of Energy on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. This document serves as a guide to be used for developing estimates of potential radiation doses, or other measures of risk or health impacts, to people and other biota in the environs on and around the Hanford Site. It provides information to develop technically sound estimates of exposure (i.e., potential or actual) to humans or other biotic receptors that could result from the environmental transport of potentially harmful materials that have been, or could be, released from Hanford operations or facilities. Parameter values and information that are specific to the Hanford environs as well as other supporting material are included in this document.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method is described for determining an effective, depth dose consistent bremsstrahlung spectra for high-energy photon beams using depth dose curves measured in water. A simple, analytical model with three parameters, together with the nominal accelerating potential is used to characterise the bremsstrahlung spectra. The model is used to compute weights for depth dose curves from monoenergetic photons. These monoenergetic depth doses, calculated with the convolution method from Monte Carlo generated point spread functions (PSF), are added to yield the pure photon depth dose distribution. The parameters of the analytical spectrum model are determined using an iterative technique to minimise the difference between calculated and measured depth dose curves. The influence from contaminant electrons is determined from the difference between the calculated and the measured depth dose. (author)
Evaluation of a new commercial Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm for electron beams
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Purpose: In this report the authors present the validation of a Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm (XiO EMC from Elekta Software) for electron beams. Methods: Calculated and measured dose distributions were compared for homogeneous water phantoms and for a 3D heterogeneous phantom meant to approximate the geometry of a trachea and spine. Comparisons of measurements and calculated data were performed using 2D and 3D gamma index dose comparison metrics. Results: Measured outputs agree with calculated values within estimated uncertainties for standard and extended SSDs for open applicators, and for cutouts, with the exception of the 17 MeV electron beam at extended SSD for cutout sizes smaller than 5 × 5 cm2. Good agreement was obtained between calculated and experimental depth dose curves and dose profiles (minimum number of measurements that pass a 2%/2 mm agreement 2D gamma index criteria for any applicator or energy was 97%). Dose calculations in a heterogeneous phantom agree with radiochromic film measurements (>98% of pixels pass a 3 dimensional 3%/2 mm γ-criteria) provided that the steep dose gradient in the depth direction is considered. Conclusions: Clinically acceptable agreement (at the 2%/2 mm level) between the measurements and calculated data for measurements in water are obtained for this dose calculation algorithm. Radiochromic film is a useful tool to evaluate the accuracy of electron MC treatment planning systems in heterogeneous media
Calculation of age-dependent effective doses for external exposure using the MCNP code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hung, Tran Van [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, ThuDuc, HoChiMinh City (VT)
2013-07-15
Age-dependent effective dose for external exposure to photons uniformly distributed in air were calculated. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources with source energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years-old and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. From the calculated results, it is shown that the effective doses depend on the body size; the effective doses in younger phantoms are higher than those in the older phantoms, especially below 100 keV. (orig.)
佐藤, 薫; 遠藤 章; 斎藤 公明
2008-01-01
At the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, high-resolution five Japanese adult voxel phantoms have been constructed up to now to clarify the variation of organ doses due to the anatomical characteristics of Japanese. This report presents a complete set of conversion coefficients of organ doses and effective doses calculated for external photon exposure using five Japanese voxel phantoms. The calculated conversion coefficients are compared with those of Caucasian voxel phantoms and the recommended val...
Calculating integral dose using data exported from a commercial record and verify system.
Fox, C; Hardcastle, N; Lim, A; Khor, R
2015-06-01
Integral dose has been useful in investigations into the incidence of second primary malignancies in radiotherapy patients. This note outlines an approach to calculation of integral dose for a group of prostate patients using only data exported from a commercial record and verify system. Even though it was necessary to make some assumptions about patient anatomy, comparison with integral dose calculated from data exported from the planning system showed good agreement. PMID:25869674
Sakamoto, Y
2002-01-01
In the prevention of nuclear disaster, there needs the information on the dose equivalent rate distribution inside and outside the site, and energy spectra. The three dimensional radiation transport calculation code is a useful tool for the site specific detailed analysis with the consideration of facility structures. It is important in the prediction of individual doses in the future countermeasure that the reliability of the evaluation methods of dose equivalent rate distribution and energy spectra by using of Monte Carlo radiation transport calculation code, and the factors which influence the dose equivalent rate distribution outside the site are confirmed. The reliability of radiation transport calculation code and the influence factors of dose equivalent rate distribution were examined through the analyses of critical accident at JCO's uranium processing plant occurred on September 30, 1999. The radiation transport calculations including the burn-up calculations were done by using of the structural info...
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Due to secondary cosmic radiation (SCR), pilots and flight attendants receive elevated effective doses at flight altitudes. For this reason, since 2003 aircrew members are considered as occupationally exposed, in Germany. This work deals with the calculation of dose conversion coefficients (DCC) for protons, neutrons, electrons, positrons, photons and myons, which are crucial for estimation of effective dose from SCR. For the first time, calculations were performed combining Geant4 - a Monte Carlo code developed at CERN - with the voxel phantoms for the reference female and male published in 2008 by ICRP and ICRU. Furthermore, measurements of neutron fluence spectra - which contribute the major part to the effective dose of SCR - were carried out at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS) located at 2650 m above sea level nearby the Zugspitze mountain, Germany. These measured neutron spectra, and additionally available calculated spectra, were then folded with the DCC calculated in this work, and effective dose rates for different heights were calculated.
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To report the result of independent absorbed-dose calculations based on a Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for various treatment sites. All treatment plans were created by the superposition/convolution (SC) algorithm of SmartArc (Pinnacle V9.2, Philips). The beam information was converted into the format of the Monaco V3.3 (Elekta), which uses the X-ray voxel-based MC (XVMC) algorithm. The dose distribution was independently recalculated in the Monaco. The dose for the planning target volume (PTV) and the organ at risk (OAR) were analyzed via comparisons with those of the treatment plan. Before performing an independent absorbed-dose calculation, the validation was conducted via irradiation from 3 different gantry angles with a 10- × 10-cm2 field. For the independent absorbed-dose calculation, 15 patients with cancer (prostate, 5; lung, 5; head and neck, 3; rectal, 1; and esophageal, 1) who were treated with single-arc VMAT were selected. To classify the cause of the dose difference between the Pinnacle and Monaco TPSs, their calculations were also compared with the measurement data. In validation, the dose in Pinnacle agreed with that in Monaco within 1.5%. The agreement in VMAT calculations between Pinnacle and Monaco using phantoms was exceptional; at the isocenter, the difference was less than 1.5% for all the patients. For independent absorbed-dose calculations, the agreement was also extremely good. For the mean dose for the PTV in particular, the agreement was within 2.0% in all the patients; specifically, no large difference was observed for high-dose regions. Conversely, a significant difference was observed in the mean dose for the OAR. For patients with prostate cancer, the mean rectal dose calculated in Monaco was significantly smaller than that calculated in Pinnacle. There was no remarkable difference between the SC and XVMC calculations in the high-dose regions. The difference observed in the low-dose regions may
RADIATION DOSE CALCULATION FOR FUEL HANDLING FACILITY CLOSURE CELL EQUIPMENT
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This calculation evaluates the energy deposition rates in silicon, gamma and neutron flux spectra at various locations of interest throughout FHF closure cell. The physical configuration features a complex geometry, with particle flux attenuation of many orders of magnitude that cannot be modeled by computer codes that use deterministic methods. Therefore, in this calculation the Monte Carlo method was used to solve the photon and neutron transport. In contrast with the deterministic methods, Monte Carlo does not solve an explicit transport equation, but rather obtain answers by simulating individual particles, recording the aspects of interest of their average behavior, and estimates the statistical precision of the results
A new finite cloud method for calculating external exposure dose in a nuclear emergency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new finite cloud method (5/μ method) for calculating external exposure dose in a nuclear emergency is presented in this paper. The method calculates external exposure dose over a specially constructed three-dimensional columned space, whose underside center is the location of the receptor and underside radius and height are both five times mean free path of a gamma-photon. Then, the space is divided into many grid cells for integral to calculate external exposure dose (or dose rate). The calculation values of air external exposure dose rate conversion factors and air-absorbed dose rate conversion factors by the 5/μ method are accordant with the values presented in related references. Comparing with the discrete point approximation method (DPA) [USNRC, The MESORAD Dose Assessment Model. NUREG/CR-4000 Vol. 1, 1986] and the Nomogram method [USNRC, Nomogram for Evaluation of Doses from Finite Noble Gas Clouds, NUREG-0851, 1983], which are two traditional finite cloud methods for calculating external exposure dose, the 5/μ method has a distinct advantage of more fast calculation speed, which is very important in a nuclear emergency. What is more, the 5/μ method can be applied together with three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models
A new finite cloud method for calculating external exposure dose in a nuclear emergency
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Wang, X.Y.; Ling, Y.S. E-mail: lingyongsheng00@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Shi, Z.Q
2004-06-01
A new finite cloud method (5/{mu} method) for calculating external exposure dose in a nuclear emergency is presented in this paper. The method calculates external exposure dose over a specially constructed three-dimensional columned space, whose underside center is the location of the receptor and underside radius and height are both five times mean free path of a gamma-photon. Then, the space is divided into many grid cells for integral to calculate external exposure dose (or dose rate). The calculation values of air external exposure dose rate conversion factors and air-absorbed dose rate conversion factors by the 5/{mu} method are accordant with the values presented in related references. Comparing with the discrete point approximation method (DPA) [USNRC, The MESORAD Dose Assessment Model. NUREG/CR-4000 Vol. 1, 1986] and the Nomogram method [USNRC, Nomogram for Evaluation of Doses from Finite Noble Gas Clouds, NUREG-0851, 1983], which are two traditional finite cloud methods for calculating external exposure dose, the 5/{mu} method has a distinct advantage of more fast calculation speed, which is very important in a nuclear emergency. What is more, the 5/{mu} method can be applied together with three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models.
The calculation, presentation and use of collective doses for routine discharges
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Over recent decades concerns have been expressed about the way collective doses have been used. In particular, there is general agreement that using the fully aggregated collective dose masks a lot of useful information on levels of individual dose and their distribution over space and time, which decision makers may consider important. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has suggested a 'collective dose matrix' approach as a solution to this. A study has been carried out to explore some of the issues involved in the development and use of such matrices. In particular, practical issues regarding the disaggregation of collective dose in relation to individual dose rates and the temporal and spatial distribution of exposures have been addressed. Calculations have been undertaken to illustrate ways in which the estimated collective dose from routine discharges can be broken down. The nuclear site chosen was the Sellafield reprocessing plant but additional calculations were also undertaken for the Cap de La Hague reprocessing plant for comparative purposes. It was found that useful information on the temporal and spatial elements of collective doses can be obtained and that per-caput doses can be used to give an indication of the likely individual doses that make up the collective dose. At long times following discharges of radionuclides to the environment doses due to global circulation will dominate the collective dose and there is likely to be little requirement for obtaining information on individual dose distributions. (author)
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Purpose: To investigate the correlation of size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) with absorbed organ dose, and to develop a simple methodology for estimating patient organ dose in a pediatric population (5–55 kg). Methods: Four physical anthropomorphic phantoms representing a range of pediatric body habitus were scanned with metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters placed at 23 organ locations to determine absolute organ dose. Phantom absolute organ dose was divided by phantom SSDE to determine correlation between organ dose and SSDE. Organ dose correlation factors (CFSSDEorgan) were then multiplied by patient-specific SSDE to estimate patient organ dose. The CFSSDEorgan were used to retrospectively estimate individual organ doses from 352 chest and 241 abdominopelvic pediatric CT examinations, where mean patient weight was 22 kg ± 15 (range 5–55 kg), and mean patient age was 6 yrs ± 5 (range 4 months to 23 yrs). Patient organ dose estimates were compared to published pediatric Monte Carlo study results. Results: Phantom effective diameters were matched with patient population effective diameters to within 4 cm; thus, showing appropriate scalability of the phantoms across the entire pediatric population in this study. IndividualCFSSDEorgan were determined for a total of 23 organs in the chest and abdominopelvic region across nine weight subcategories. For organs fully covered by the scan volume, correlation in the chest (average 1.1; range 0.7–1.4) and abdominopelvic region (average 0.9; range 0.7–1.3) was near unity. For organ/tissue that extended beyond the scan volume (i.e., skin, bone marrow, and bone surface), correlation was determined to be poor (average 0.3; range: 0.1–0.4) for both the chest and abdominopelvic regions, respectively. A means to estimate patient organ dose was demonstrated. Calculated patient organ dose, using patient SSDE and CFSSDEorgan, was compared to previously published pediatric patient doses that
Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Masoumbeigi, Mahboubeh; Salimian, Morteza; Mohseni, Mehran
2015-01-01
The knowledge of the radiation dose received by the patient during the radiological examination is essential to prevent risks of exposures. The aim of this work is to study patient doses for common diagnostic radiographic examinations in hospitals affiliated to Kashan University of Medical sciences, Iran. The results of this survey are compared with those published by some national and international values. Entrance surface dose (ESD) was measured based on the exposure parameters used for the actual examination and effective dose (ED) was calculated by use of conversion coefficients calculated by Monte Carlo methods. The mean entrance surface dose and effective dose for examinations of the chest (PA, Lat), abdomen (AP), pelvis (AP), lumbar spine (AP, Lat) and skull (AP, Lat) are 0.37, 0.99, 2.01, 1.76, 2.18, 5.36, 1.39 and 1.01 mGy, and 0.04, 0.1, 0.28, 0,28, 0.23, 0.13, 0.01 and 0.01 mSv, respectively. The ESDs and EDs reported in this study, except for examinations of the chest, are generally lower than comparable reference dose values published in the literature. On the basis of the results obtained in this study can conclude that use of newer equipment and use of the proper radiological parameter can significantly reduce the absorbed dose. It is recommended that radiological parameter in chest examinations be revised. PMID:26156930
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This report presents a complete set of conversion coefficients of organ doses and effective doses calculated for external photon exposure using five Japanese adult voxel phantoms developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). At the JAEA, high-resolution Japanese voxel phantoms have been developed to clarify the variation of organ doses due to the anatomical characteristics of Japanese, and three male phantoms (JM, JM2 and Otoko) and two female phantoms (JF and Onago) have been constructed up to now. The conversion coefficients of organ doses and effective doses for the five voxel phantoms have been calculated for six kinds of idealized irradiation geometries from monoenergetic photons ranging from 0.01 to 10 MeV using EGS4, a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of coupled electron-photon transport. The dose conversion coefficients are given as absorbed dose and effective dose per unit air-kerma free-in-air, and are presented in tables and figures. The calculated dose conversion coefficients are compared with those of voxel phantoms based on the Caucasian and the recommended values in ICRP74 in order to discuss (1) variation of organ dose due to the body size and individual anatomy, such as position and shape of organs, and (2) effect of posture on organ doses. The present report provides valuable data to study the influence of the body characteristics of Japanese upon the organ doses and to discuss developing reference Japanese and Asian phantoms. (author)
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The comparatively high dose and increasing frequency of computed tomography (CT) examinations have spurred the development of techniques for reducing radiation dose to imaging patients. Among these is the application of tube current modulation (TCM), which can be applied either longitudinally along the body or rotationally along the body, or both. Existing computational models for calculating dose from CT examinations do not include TCM techniques. Dose calculations using Monte Carlo methods have been previously prepared for constant-current rotational exposures at various positions along the body and for the principle exposure projections for several sets of computational phantoms, including adult male and female and pregnant patients. Dose calculations from CT scans with TCM are prepared by appropriately weighting the existing dose data. Longitudinal TCM doses can be obtained by weighting the dose at the z-axis scan position by the relative tube current at that position. Rotational TCM doses are weighted using the relative organ doses from the principle projections as a function of the current at the rotational angle. Significant dose reductions of 15% to 25% to fetal tissues are found from simulations of longitudinal TCM schemes to pregnant patients of different gestational ages. Weighting factors for each organ in rotational TCM schemes applied to adult male and female patients have also been found. As the application of TCM techniques becomes more prevalent, the need for including TCM in CT dose estimates will necessarily increase. (author)
Application of the peregrine Monte Carlo dose calculation system to stereotactic radiosurgery
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Purpose/Objective: This work describes the capability to perform Monte Carlo dose calculations for stereotactic radiosurgery within the framework of the PEREGRINE dose calculation system. A future study will use this capability to assess the clinical benefits to this technique of higher accuracy in dose calculation. Materials and Methods: PEREGRINE is a first-principles 3D Monte Carlo dose calculation system for clinical radiation therapy treatment planning (RTP) systems. By taking advantage of recent advances in low-cost computer commodity hardware, modern symmetric multiprocessor architectures and state-of-the-art Monte Carlo transport algorithms, PEREGRINE performs high-resolution (1 mm), high accuracy, Monte Carlo RTP calculations in times that are reasonable for clinical use (< 30 minutes.) The PEREGRINE source model provides a compact, accurate representation of the radiation source and the effects of beam modifiers. Our experience in implementing blocks, wedges, and static MLC ports in PEREGRINE as beam modifiers provides physics models that accurately reproduce the transmitted and scattered fluence at the patient surface. Adapting PEREGRINE to calculate stereotactic radiosurgery dose distributions requires extending the PEREGRINE source model to include stereotactic apertures and treatment arcs. The physics models used for other modifiers will accurately determine stereotactic aperture effects. We only need to provide a new geometry module to describe the physical properties of the apertures. Treatment arcs are easily implemented as a probability distribution in beam direction as a function of delivered dose. Results: A comparison of results from PEREGRINE calculations and experimental measurements made at the University of Wisconsin/Madison is presented. The distribution of direct, transmitted and scattered radiation and the resulting contributions to dose from stereotactic apertures are shown. The accuracy and calculational efficiency of the physics
A computer code for calculating a γ-external dose from a randomly distributed radioactive cloud
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A computer code ( CIDE ) has been developed to calculate a γ-external dose from a randomly distributed radioactive cloud. Atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials accidentally released from a nuclear reactor needs to be estimated considering time-dependent meteorological data and terrain heights. Particle-in-Cell model is useful for that purpose, but it is not easy to calculate the dose from the randomly distributed concentration by numerical integration. In this study the mean concentration in a cell evaluated by PIC model was assumed to be uniformly distributed over that cell, which was integrated as a constant concentration by a point kernel method. The dose was obtained by summing the attributable cell doses. When the concentration of plume had a Gaussian distribution, the results of CIDE code well agreed with those of GAMPLE, which was the code for calculating the dose from the Gaussian distribution. The choice of cell sizes affecting the accuracy of the calculated results was discussed. (author)
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Age-dependent dose conversion coefficients for external exposure to photons emitted by radionuclides uniformly distributed in air were calculated. The size of the source region in the calculation was assumed to be effectively semi-infinite in extent. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using MCNP code, a Monte Carlo transport code. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources of twelve energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. The calculated effective doses were used to interpolate the conversion coefficients of the effective doses for 160 radionuclides, which are important for dose assessment of nuclear facilities. In the calculation, energies and intensities of emitted photons from radionuclides were taken from DECDC, a recent compilation of decay data for radiation dosimetry developed at JAERI. The results are tabulated in the form of effective dose per unit concentration and time (Sv per Bq s m-3). (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-07-01
The guide sets out the mathematical definitions and principles involved in the calculation of the equivalent dose and the effective dose, and the instructions concerning the application of the maximum values of these quantities. further, for monitoring the dose caused by internal radiation, the guide defines the limits derived from annual dose limits (the Annual Limit on Intake and the Derived Air Concentration). Finally, the guide defines the operational quantities to be used in estimating the equivalent dose and the effective dose, and also sets out the definitions of some other quantities and concepts to be used in monitoring radiation exposure. The guide does not include the calculation of patient doses carried out for the purposes of quality assurance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The guide sets out the mathematical definitions and principles involved in the calculation of the equivalent dose and the effective dose, and the instructions concerning the application of the maximum values of these quantities. further, for monitoring the dose caused by internal radiation, the guide defines the limits derived from annual dose limits (the Annual Limit on Intake and the Derived Air Concentration). Finally, the guide defines the operational quantities to be used in estimating the equivalent dose and the effective dose, and also sets out the definitions of some other quantities and concepts to be used in monitoring radiation exposure. The guide does not include the calculation of patient doses carried out for the purposes of quality assurance
A note on vector flux models for radiation dose calculations
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This paper reviews and extends modelling of anisotropic fluxes for radiation belt protons to provide closed-form equations for vector proton fluxes and proton flux anisotropy in terms of standard omnidirectional flux models. These equations provide a flexible alternative to the date-based vector flux models currently available. At higher energies, anisotropy of trapped proton flux in the upper atmosphere depends strongly on the variation of atmospheric density with altitude. Calculations of proton flux anisotropies using present models require specification of the average atmospheric density along trapped particle trajectories and its variation with mirror point altitude. For an isothermal atmosphere, calculations show that in a dipole magnetic field, the scale height of this trajectory-averaged density closely approximates the scale height of the atmosphere at the mirror point of the trapped particle. However, for the earth's magnetic field, the altitudes of mirror points vary for protons drifting in longitude. This results in a small increase in longitude-averaged scale heights compared to the atmospheric scale heights at minimum mirror point altitudes. The trajectory-averaged scale heights are increased by about 10-20% over scale heights from standard atmosphere models for protons mirroring at altitudes less than 500 km in the South Atlantic Anomaly Atmospheric losses of protons in the geomagnetic field minimum in the South Atlantic Anomaly control proton flux anisotropies of interest for radiation studies in low earth orbit. Standard atmosphere models provide corrections for diurnal, seasonal and solar activity-driven variations. Thus, determination of an ''equilibrium'' model of trapped proton fluxes of a given energy requires using a scale height that is time-averaged over the lifetime of the protons. The trajectory-averaged atmospheric densities calculated here lead to estimates for trapped proton lifetimes. These lifetimes provide appropriate time
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The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions from three different algorithms with the x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) calculations, in actual computed tomography (CT) scans for use in stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) of small lung cancers. Slow CT scan of 20 patients was performed and the internal target volume (ITV) was delineated on Pinnacle3. All plans were first calculated with a scatter homogeneous mode (SHM) which is compatible with Clarkson algorithm using Pinnacle3 treatment planning system (TPS). The planned dose was 48 Gy in 4 fractions. In a second step, the CT images, structures and beam data were exported to other treatment planning systems (TPSs). Collapsed cone convolution (CCC) from Pinnacle3, superposition (SP) from XiO, and XVMC from Monaco were used for recalculating. The dose distributions and the Dose Volume Histograms (DVHs) were compared with each other. The phantom test revealed that all algorithms could reproduce the measured data within 1% except for the SHM with inhomogeneous phantom. For the patient study, the SHM greatly overestimated the isocenter (IC) doses and the minimal dose received by 95% of the PTV (PTV95) compared to XVMC. The differences in mean doses were 2.96 Gy (6.17%) for IC and 5.02 Gy (11.18%) for PTV95. The DVH's and dose distributions with CCC and SP were in agreement with those obtained by XVMC. The average differences in IC doses between CCC and XVMC, and SP and XVMC were -1.14% (p = 0.17), and -2.67% (p = 0.0036), respectively. Our work clearly confirms that the actual practice of relying solely on a Clarkson algorithm may be inappropriate for SRT planning. Meanwhile, CCC and SP were close to XVMC simulations and actual dose distributions obtained in lung SRT
Babcock, Kerry Kent Ronald
2009-04-01
The goal of this thesis was to explore the effects of dose resolution, respiratory variation and dose calculation method on dose accuracy. To achieve this, two models of lung were created. The first model, called TISSUE, approximated the connective alveolar tissues of the lung. The second model, called BRANCH, approximated the lungs bronchial, arterial and venous branching networks. Both models were varied to represent the full inhalation, full exhalation and midbreath phases of the respiration cycle. To explore the effects of dose resolution and respiratory variation on dose accuracy, each model was converted into a CT dataset and imported into a Monte Carlo simulation. The resulting dose distributions were compared and contrasted against dose distributions from Monte Carlo simulations which included the explicit model geometries. It was concluded that, regardless of respiratory phase, the exclusion of the connective tissue structures in the CT representation did not significantly effect the accuracy of dose calculations. However, the exclusion of the BRANCH structures resulted in dose underestimations as high as 14% local to the branching structures. As lung density decreased, the overall dose accuracy marginally decreased. To explore the effects of dose calculation method on dose accuracy, CT representations of the lung models were imported into the Pinnacle 3 treatment planning system. Dose distributions were calculated using the collapsed cone convolution method and compared to those derived using the Monte Carlo method. For both lung models, it was concluded that the accuracy of the collapsed cone algorithm decreased with decreasing density. At full inhalation lung density, the collapsed cone algorithm underestimated dose by as much as 15%. Also, the accuracy of the CCC method decreased with decreasing field size. Further work is needed to determine the source of the discrepancy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo de Paiva
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Concave beta sources of 106Ru/106Rh are used in radiotherapy to treat ophthalmic tumors. However, a problem that arises is the difficult determination of absorbed dose distributions around such sources mainly because of the small range of the electrons and the steep dose gradients. In this sense, numerical methods have been developed to calculate the dose distributions around the beta applicators. In this work a simple code in Fortran language is developed to estimate the dose rates along the central axis of 106Ru/106Rh curved plaques by numerical integration of the beta point source function and results are compared with other calculated data.
de Paiva, Eduardo
Concave beta sources of 106Ru/106Rh are used in radiotherapy to treat ophthalmic tumors. However, a problem that arises is the difficult determination of absorbed dose distributions around such sources mainly because of the small range of the electrons and the steep dose gradients. In this sense, numerical methods have been developed to calculate the dose distributions around the beta applicators. In this work a simple code in Fortran language is developed to estimate the dose rates along the central axis of 106Ru/106Rh curved plaques by numerical integration of the beta point source function and results are compared with other calculated data.
Calculation of radiation dose rate arisen from radionuclide contained in building materials
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This paper presents some results that we used MCNP5 program to calculate radiation dose rate arisen from radionuclide in building materials. Since then, the limits of radionuclide content in building materials are discussed. The calculation results by MCNP are compared with those calculated by analytical method. (author)
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Calculations with the quadratic lineal model for medium rate using the equation dose-effect. Several calculations for system of low dose rate brachytherapy plus teletherapy, calculations for brachytherapy with medium dose rate together with teletherapy, dose for fraction and the one numbers of fractions in medium rate
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A series of scoping calculations have been undertaken to evaluate The absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 001) examined the contributions of the various exposure pathways associated with environmental transport and accumulation of iodine-131 in the pasture-cow-milk pathway. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose of infants and adult from (1) the ingestion by dairy cattle of various feedstuffs (pasturage, silage, alfalfa hay, and grass hay) in four different feeding regimes; (2) ingestion of soil by dairy cattle; (3) ingestion of stared feed on which airborne iodine-131 had been deposited; and (4) inhalation of airborne iodine-131 by dairy cows
Independent dose calculation in IMRT for the Tps Iplan using the Clarkson modified integral
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Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) treatments require a quality assurance (Q A) specific patient before delivery. These controls include the experimental verification in dose phantom of the total plan as well as dose distributions. The use of independent dose calculation (IDC) is used in 3D-Crt treatments; however its application in IMRT requires the implementation of an algorithm that allows considering a non-uniform intensity beam. The purpose of this work was to develop IDC software in IMRT with MLC using the algorithm proposed by Kung (Kung et al. 2000). The software was done using Matlab programming. The Clarkson modified integral was implemented on each flowing, applying concentric rings for the dose determination. From the integral of each field was calculated the dose anywhere. One time finished a planning; all data are exported to a phantom where a Q A plan is generated. On this is calculated the half dose in a representative volume of the ionization chamber and the dose at the center of it. Until now 230 IMRT planning were analyzed carried out ??in the treatment planning system (Tps) Iplan. For each one of them Q A plan was generated, were calculated and compared calculated dose with the Tps, IDC system and measurement with ionization chamber. The average difference between measured and calculated dose with the IDC system was 0.4% ± 2.2% [-6.8%, 6.4%]. The difference between the measured and the calculated doses by the pencil-beam algorithm (Pb) of Tps was 2.6% ± 1.41% [-2.0%, 5.6%] and with the Monte Carlo algorithm was 0.4% ± 1.5% [-4.9%, 3.7%]. The differences of the carried out software are comparable to the obtained with the ionization chamber and Tps in Monte Carlo mode. (author)
CT-based dose calculations and in vivo dosimetry for lung cancer treatment
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Reliable CT-based dose calculations and dosimetric quality control are essential for the introduction of new conformal techniques for the treatment of lung cancer. The first aim of this study was therefore to check the accuracy of dose calculations based on CT-densities, using a simple inhomogeneity correction model, for lung cancer patients irradiated with an AP-PA treatment technique. Second, the use of diodes for absolute exit dose measurements and an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) for relative transmission dose verification was investigated for 22 and 12 patients, respectively. The measured dose values were compared with calculations performed using our 3-dimensional treatment planning system, using CT-densities or assuming the patient to be water-equivalent. Using water-equivalent calculations, the actual exit dose value under lung was, on average, underestimated by 30%, with an overall spread of 10% (1 SD). Using inhomogeneity corrections, the exit dose was, on average, overestimated by 4%, with an overall spread of 6% (1 SD). Only 2% of the average deviation was due to the inhomogeneity correction model. An uncertainty in exit dose calculation of 2.5% (1 SD) could be explained by organ motion, resulting from the ventilatory or cardiac cycle. The most important reason for the large overall spread was, however, the uncertainty involved in performing point measurements: about 4% (1 SD). This difference resulted from the systematic and random deviation in patient set-up and therefore in diode position with respect to patient anatomy. Transmission and exit dose values agreed with an average difference of 1.1%. Transmission dose profiles also showed good agreement with calculated exit dose profiles. Our study shows that, for this treatment technique, the dose in the thorax region is quite accurately predicted using CT-based dose calculations, even if a simple inhomogeneity correction model is used. Point detectors such as diodes are not suitable for exit
Jeraj, Robert; Keall, Paul
2000-12-01
The effect of the statistical uncertainty, or noise, in inverse treatment planning for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) based on Monte Carlo dose calculation was studied. Sets of Monte Carlo beamlets were calculated to give uncertainties at Dmax ranging from 0.2% to 4% for a lung tumour plan. The weights of these beamlets were optimized using a previously described procedure based on a simulated annealing optimization algorithm. Several different objective functions were used. It was determined that the use of Monte Carlo dose calculation in inverse treatment planning introduces two errors in the calculated plan. In addition to the statistical error due to the statistical uncertainty of the Monte Carlo calculation, a noise convergence error also appears. For the statistical error it was determined that apparently successfully optimized plans with a noisy dose calculation (3% 1σ at Dmax ), which satisfied the required uniformity of the dose within the tumour, showed as much as 7% underdose when recalculated with a noise-free dose calculation. The statistical error is larger towards the tumour and is only weakly dependent on the choice of objective function. The noise convergence error appears because the optimum weights are determined using a noisy calculation, which is different from the optimum weights determined for a noise-free calculation. Unlike the statistical error, the noise convergence error is generally larger outside the tumour, is case dependent and strongly depends on the required objectives.
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AQUAMAN is an interactive computer code for calculating values of dose (50-year dose commitment) to man from aqueous releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. The data base contains values of internal and external dose conversion factors, and bioaccumulation (freshwater and marine) factors for 56 radionuclides. A maximum of 20 radionuclides may be selected for any one calculation. Dose and cumulative exposure index (CUEX) values are calculated for total body, GI tract, bone, thyroid, lungs, liver, kidneys, testes, and ovaries for each of three exposure pathways: water ingestion, fish ingestion, and submersion. The user is provided the option at the time of execution to change the default values of most of the variables, with the exception of the dose conversion factor values. AQUAMAN is written in FORTRAN for the PDP-10 computer
Comparison of measured and calculated peripheral doses in patients undergoing radiation therapy
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Background and purpose: Many papers have been published on the measurement for specific treatment machines and/or techniques of the dose to points outside the primary beam, often called the peripheral dose (PD). Most papers concern measurements in phantoms. We report on the results of a comparison of estimates of the PD, based on these phantom measurements, with PDs measured on patients. Material and methods: A special holder with thermoluminescent dosimeters was placed against the perineum of patients referred to our institute for radiation therapy. The measured dose was then compared with the dose calculated on the basis of published PD data. Results: For all measurements together, the calculated values exceeded the measured PDs by about 9%, with a standard deviation of 35%. The correlation varied between specific subgroups but the difference between measurement and calculation did not exceed 50%. Conclusions: We conclude that published PD data can be used to accurately predict the peripheral dose in the clinical situation
Effects of microdistribution of tritium on dose calculations
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Literature and data pertaining to the microdosimetry, relative biological effectiveness, subcellular distribution, organ uptake and retention for organically-bound tritium are reviewed. The quality factor for the electron degradation spectrum associated with the radiation field of tritium β-rays in water was calculated. The value was found to be 1.9 ± .2. A related experimental measure of quality with value 1.6 ± .2 and an estimate of 1.3 based on simulation studies are cited. The average value for relative biological effectiveness for a data base of 55 values was found to be 1.8 ± .1. The influence of reference radiation, in vivo versus in vitro methodologies, and the use of tritiated thymidine or tritiated water are discussed. A methodology designed to estimate the effects of subcellular distribution is described and a suitable parameter, the localization factor defined. Estimates of this factor are made for both nuclear-bound and organically-bound tritium. Values of 4 and 1.5 respectively are suggested. Organ uptake studies in rodents following long-term feeding of organically-bound tritium are compared. The tritium is found to be unequally distributed among the tissues studied. The highest specific activity occurs in liver, with the lowest in femur. The specific activity of tritium in tissue-free water slightly exceeds that of organically-bound tritium in liver. Retention studies reveal a three-component exponential decrease of organically-bound tritium. No discernible trends of the periods of the three components with specific organs could be established. Average values of the periods are 1.2 ± .2, 10 ± 2, and 65 ± 8 days. It is concluded that specific enhancement of radiobiological effectiveness due to incorporation of tritium in DNA does probably not occur. The radiotoxicological impact of organically-bound tritium could warrant the use of a radiation weighing factor between 2 and 3
Dose calculation from a D-D-reaction-based BSA for boron neutron capture synovectomy
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Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to calculate dose in a knee phantom from a D-D-reaction-based Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS). The BSA consists of a D(d,n)-reaction-based neutron source enclosed inside a polyethylene moderator and graphite reflector. The polyethylene moderator and graphite reflector sizes were optimized to deliver the highest ratio of thermal to fast neutron yield at the knee phantom. Then neutron dose was calculated at various depths in a knee phantom loaded with boron and therapeutic ratios of synovium dose/skin dose and synovium dose/bone dose were determined. Normalized to same boron loading in synovium, the values of the therapeutic ratios obtained in the present study are 12-30 times higher than the published values.
Dose calculation from a D-D-reaction-based BSA for boron neutron capture synovectomy
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Abdalla, Khalid [Department of Physics, Hail University, Hail (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: khalidafnan@uoh.edu.sa; Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals and Center for Applied Physical Sciences, Box No. 1815, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Maalej, N.; Elshahat, B. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals and Center for Applied Physical Sciences, Box No. 1815, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)
2010-04-15
Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to calculate dose in a knee phantom from a D-D-reaction-based Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS). The BSA consists of a D(d,n)-reaction-based neutron source enclosed inside a polyethylene moderator and graphite reflector. The polyethylene moderator and graphite reflector sizes were optimized to deliver the highest ratio of thermal to fast neutron yield at the knee phantom. Then neutron dose was calculated at various depths in a knee phantom loaded with boron and therapeutic ratios of synovium dose/skin dose and synovium dose/bone dose were determined. Normalized to same boron loading in synovium, the values of the therapeutic ratios obtained in the present study are 12-30 times higher than the published values.
Determination of uncertainties in the calculation of dose rates at transport and storage casks
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The compliance with the dose rate limits for transport and storage casks (TLB) for spent nuclear fuel from pressurised water reactors can be proved by calculation. This includes the determination of the radioactive sources and the shielding-capability of the cask. In this thesis the entire computational chain, which extends from the determination of the source terms to the final Monte-Carlo-transport-calculation is analysed and the arising uncertainties are quantified not only by benchmarks but also by variational calculi. The background of these analyses is that the comparison with measured dose rates at different TLBs shows an overestimation by the values calculated. Regarding the studies performed, the overestimation can be mainly explained by the detector characteristics for the measurement of the neutron dose rate and additionally in case of the gamma dose rates by the energy group structure, which the calculation is based on. It turns out that the consideration of the uncertainties occurring along the computational chain can lead to even greater overestimation. Concerning the dose rate calculation at cask loadings with spent uranium fuel assemblies an uncertainty of ((+21-28) ±2) % (rel.) for the total gamma dose rate and of (+28±23-55±4) % (rel.) for the total neutron dose rate are estimated. For mixed-loadings with spent uranium and MOX fuel assemblies an uncertainty of (+24±3-27±2) % (rel.) for the total gamma dose rate and of (+28±23-55±4) % (rel.) for the total neutron dose rate are quantified. The results show that the computational chain has not to be modified, because the calculations performed lead to conservative dose rate predictions, even if high uncertainties at neutron dose rate measurements arise. Thus at first the uncertainties of the neutron dose rate measurement have to be decreased to enable a reduction of the overestimation of the calculated dose rate afterwards. In the present thesis the deviation of the measured and calculated
Influence of polarization and a source model for dose calculation in MRT
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Bartzsch, Stefan, E-mail: s.bartzsch@dkfz.de; Oelfke, Uwe [The Institute of Cancer Research, 15 Cotswold Road, Belmont, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG, United Kingdom and Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lerch, Michael; Petasecca, Marco [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong 2522 (Australia); Bräuer-Krisch, Elke [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France)
2014-04-15
Purpose: Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), an alternative preclinical treatment strategy using spatially modulated synchrotron radiation on a micrometer scale, has the great potential to cure malignant tumors (e.g., brain tumors) while having low side effects on normal tissue. Dose measurement and calculation in MRT is challenging because of the spatial accuracy required and the arising high dose differences. Dose calculation with Monte Carlo simulations is time consuming and their accuracy is still a matter of debate. In particular, the influence of photon polarization has been discussed in the literature. Moreover, it is controversial whether a complete knowledge of phase space trajectories, i.e., the simulation of the machine from the wiggler to the collimator, is necessary in order to accurately calculate the dose. Methods: With Monte Carlo simulations in the Geant4 toolkit, the authors investigate the influence of polarization on the dose distribution and the therapeutically important peak to valley dose ratios (PVDRs). Furthermore, the authors analyze in detail phase space information provided byMartínez-Rovira et al. [“Development and commissioning of a Monte Carlo photon model for the forthcoming clinical trials in microbeam radiation therapy,” Med. Phys. 39(1), 119–131 (2012)] and examine its influence on peak and valley doses. A simple source model is developed using parallel beams and its applicability is shown in a semiadjoint Monte Carlo simulation. Results are compared to measurements and previously published data. Results: Polarization has a significant influence on the scattered dose outside the microbeam field. In the radiation field, however, dose and PVDRs deduced from calculations without polarization and with polarization differ by less than 3%. The authors show that the key consequences from the phase space information for dose calculations are inhomogeneous primary photon flux, partial absorption due to inclined beam incidence outside
A CT-based analytical dose calculation method for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: This article presents an analytical dose calculation method for high-dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy, taking into account the effects of inhomogeneities and reduced photon backscatter near the skin. The adequacy of the Task Group 43 (TG-43) two-dimensional formalism for treatment planning is also assessed. Methods: The proposed method uses material composition and density data derived from computed tomography images. The primary and scatter dose distributions for each dwell position are calculated first as if the patient is an infinite water phantom. This is done using either TG-43 or a database of Monte Carlo (MC) dose distributions. The latter can be used to account for the effects of shielding in water. Subsequently, corrections for photon attenuation, scatter, and spectral variations along medium- or low-Z inhomogeneities are made according to the radiological paths determined by ray tracing. The scatter dose is then scaled by a correction factor that depends on the distances between the point of interest, the body contour, and the source position. Dose calculations are done for phantoms with tissue and lead inserts, as well as patient plans for head-and-neck, esophagus, and MammoSite balloon breast brachytherapy treatments. Gamma indices are evaluated using a dose-difference criterion of 3% and a distance-to-agreement criterion of 2 mm. PTRANCT MC calculations are used as the reference dose distributions. Results: For the phantom with tissue and lead inserts, the percentages of the voxels of interest passing the gamma criteria (Pγ≥1) are 100% for the analytical calculation and 91% for TG-43. For the breast patient plan, TG-43 overestimates the target volume receiving the prescribed dose by 4% and the dose to the hottest 0.1 cm3 of the skin by 9%, whereas the analytical and MC results agree within 0.4%. Pγ≥1 are 100% and 48% for the analytical and TG-43 calculations, respectively. For the head-and-neck and esophagus patient plans, Pγ≥1 are ≥99
Monte Carlo calculation of 60Co γ-ray's albedo-dose rate from the air
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The Monte Carlo calculation of 60Co γ-ray's albedo-dose rate from the air is reported. A formula is presented with which the relations of the albedo-doserate with some parameters are simulated and fitted
Liang, X.; Penagaricano, J.; Zheng, D.; Morrill, S.; Zhang, X; Corry, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Han, E. Y.; Hardee, M.; Ratanatharathom, V.
2016-01-01
Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the radiobiological impact of Acuros XB (AXB) vs. Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA) dose calculation algorithms in combined dose-volume and biological optimized IMRT plans of SBRT treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods Twenty eight patients with NSCLC previously treated SBRT were re-planned using Varian Eclipse (V11) with combined dose-volume and biological optimization IMRT sliding window technique. The total dos...
An energy transfer method for 4D Monte Carlo dose calculation
Siebers, Jeffrey V; Zhong, Hualiang
2008-01-01
This article presents a new method for four-dimensional Monte Carlo dose calculations which properly addresses dose mapping for deforming anatomy. The method, called the energy transfer method (ETM), separates the particle transport and particle scoring geometries: Particle transport takes place in the typical rectilinear coordinate system of the source image, while energy deposition scoring takes place in a desired reference image via use of deformable image registration. Dose is the energy ...
Calculating patient specific doses in X-ray diagnostics and from radiopharmaceuticals
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The risk associated with exposure to ionising radiation is dependent on the characteristics of the exposed individual. The size and structure of the individual influences the absorbed dose distribution in the organs. Traditional methods used to calculate the patient organ doses are based on standardised calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. When estimating the radiation dose of an individual patient, patient specific calculation methods must be used. Methods for patient specific dosimetry in the fields of X-ray diagnostics and diagnostic and therapeutic use of radiopharmaceuticals were proposed in this thesis. A computer program, ODS-60, for calculating organ doses from diagnostic X-ray exposures was presented. The calculation is done in a patient specific phantom with depth dose and profile algorithms fitted to Monte Carlo simulation data from a previous study. Improvements to the version reported earlier were introduced, e.g. bone attenuation was implemented. The applicability of the program to determine patient doses from complex X-ray examinations (barium enema examination) was studied. The conversion equations derived for female and male patients as a function of patient weight gave the smallest deviation from the actual patient doses when compared to previous studies. Another computer program, Intdose, was presented for calculation of the dose distribution from radiopharmaceuticals. The calculation is based on convolution of an isotope specific point dose kernel with activity distribution, obtained from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Anatomical information is taken from magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) images. According to a phantom study, Intdose agreed within 3 % with measurements. For volunteers administered diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals, the results given by Intdose were found to agree with traditional methods in cases of medium sized patients. For patients
Calculations of received dose for different points in the enrichment uranium oxide warehouse at 4%
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In order to verifying that the received dose so much inside as outside of the warehouse of enriched uranium dioxide to 4% it doesn't represent risk to the personnel, the modelling of this and the corresponding calculations for the extreme case of dose at contact are made. (Author)
Monte Carlo calculation of received dose from ingestion and inhalation of natural uranium
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For the purpose of this study eighty samples are taken from the area Bela Crkva and Vrsac. The activity of radionuclide in the soil is determined by gamma- ray spectrometry. Monte Carlo method is used to calculate effective dose received by population resulting from the inhalation and ingestion of natural uranium. The estimated doses were compared with the legally prescribed levels. (author)
Calculation of the dose to lymphocytes in external beam radiation therapy
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Lymphopenia is known to occur in patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy when the radiation fields encompass major blood vessels and lymphatic tissue. The dose received by the lymphocytes has up to now not been determined. We present here a general formalism for the calculation of the lymphocyte dose for a patient undergoing fractionated radiation therapy at any irradiation site. The calculation procedure is demonstrated for a typical case of pelvic irradiation
Calculation of the dose to lymphocytes in external beam radiation therapy
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Ekstrand, K.E.; Dixon, R.L.; Plunkett, S.; Raben, M.
1981-02-01
Lymphopenia is known to occur in patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy when the radiation fields encompass major blood vessels and lymphatic tissue. The dose received by the lymphocytes has up to now not been determined. We present here a general formalism for the calculation of the lymphocyte dose for a patient undergoing fractionated radiation therapy at any irradiation site. The calculation procedure is demonstrated for a typical case of pelvic irradiation.
A clinical study of lung cancer dose calculation accuracy with Monte Carlo simulation
Zhao, Yanqun; Qi, Guohai; Yin, Gang; Wang, Xianliang; Wang, Pei; Li, Jian; Xiao, Mingyong; Li, Jie; Kang, Shengwei; Liao, Xiongfei
2014-01-01
Background The accuracy of dose calculation is crucial to the quality of treatment planning and, consequently, to the dose delivered to patients undergoing radiation therapy. Current general calculation algorithms such as Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) and Collapsed Cone Convolution (CCC) have shortcomings in regard to severe inhomogeneities, particularly in those regions where charged particle equilibrium does not hold. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the PBC and CCC alg...
Calculation of 131I-ortho-iodohippurate absorbed kidney dose: A literature review
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Extensive information has been made available relative to the physical aspects necessary for calculation of radiation absorbed dose from radiopharmaceuticals. A similar data base for the biological factors involved in these calculations has not been documented as thoroughly. The authors present an extensive literature review for the radiation absorbed dose of 131I-ortho-iodohippurate and discuss the rationale for adjusting previously accepted values with new biodistribution information
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A method is presented for estimating the total treatment time for a brachytherapy radiation fraction with a planar flexible intraoperative template (FIT), using an 192Ir high dose rate afterloading device. The FIT can be rectangular or irregularly shaped. The manual calculation serves as an independent check of the treatment time calculated by the treatment planning system for applications with varying sizes, shapes and dose prescription depths. The parameters required for the calculation are the number of active dwell positions, the catheter spacing and dwell position spacing, the source strength, the applied dose and the depth of dose prescription. For a fixed depth of dose prescription (1.25 cm) and fixed dwell position and catheter spacing (0.5 and 1 cm respectively) the manual calculation accurately predicts (usually within 2%) the total treatment time as calculated by the treatment planning system. For varying catheter and dwell position spacings and dose prescription depths the accuracy is still within 7%. An action threshold of 5% allows detection of errors made in the number of active dwell positions (±9), catheter spacing (±1 mm) and dose prescription depth (±1 mm). Errors in dwell position spacing (0.25 cm or more) could also be accurately detected. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dose quantity in the shielding design calculation was changed from the 1 cm depth dose equivalent to effective dose on the occasion of the introduction of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1990 Recommendations (ICRP Publication 60) into domestic laws. As dose conversion coefficients in the shielding design calculation for accelerator facilities, the values for front irradiation (AP irradiation geometry) of neutrons below 20 MeV based on the ICRP Publication 74 are listed in the accompanying table of the domestic laws, but the values for neutrons above 20 MeV are not shown in the accompanying table. The status of dose conversion coefficients for neutrons above 20 MeV was surveyed and the effective dose rates behind the concrete shield of proton accelerator facilities were obtained by using typical neutron spectra and various dose conversion coefficients. As a result of consideration, the effective dose conversion coefficients for front irradiation of neutrons above 20 MeV evaluated by using HERMES code system was recommended for high energy neutrons in the shielding design calculation of proton accelerator facilities and 77 energy group averaged dose conversion coefficients was produced from thermal energy to 2 GeV. (author)
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The γ-index test has been commonly adopted to quantify the degree of agreement between a reference dose distribution and an evaluation dose distribution. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has been widely used for the radiotherapy dose calculation for both clinical and research purposes. The goal of this work is to investigate both theoretically and experimentally the impact of the MC statistical fluctuation on the γ-index test when the fluctuation exists in the reference, the evaluation, or both dose distributions. To the first order approximation, we theoretically demonstrated in a simplified model that the statistical fluctuation tends to overestimate γ-index values when existing in the reference dose distribution and underestimate γ-index values when existing in the evaluation dose distribution given the original γ-index is relatively large for the statistical fluctuation. Our numerical experiments using realistic clinical photon radiation therapy cases have shown that (1) when performing a γ-index test between an MC reference dose and a non-MC evaluation dose, the average γ-index is overestimated and the gamma passing rate decreases with the increase of the statistical noise level in the reference dose; (2) when performing a γ-index test between a non-MC reference dose and an MC evaluation dose, the average γ-index is underestimated when they are within the clinically relevant range and the gamma passing rate increases with the increase of the statistical noise level in the evaluation dose; (3) when performing a γ-index test between an MC reference dose and an MC evaluation dose, the gamma passing rate is overestimated due to the statistical noise in the evaluation dose and underestimated due to the statistical noise in the reference dose. We conclude that the γ-index test should be used with caution when comparing dose distributions computed with MC simulation. (paper)
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Chibani, Omar, E-mail: omar.chibani@fccc.edu; C-M Ma, Charlie [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)
2014-05-15
Purpose: To present a new accelerated Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The new code (HDRMC) accounts for both tissue and nontissue heterogeneities (applicator and contrast medium). Methods: HDRMC uses a fast ray-tracing technique and detailed physics algorithms to transport photons through a 3D mesh of voxels representing the patient anatomy with applicator and contrast medium included. A precalculated phase space file for the{sup 192}Ir source is used as source term. HDRM is calibrated to calculated absolute dose for real plans. A postprocessing technique is used to include the exact density and composition of nontissue heterogeneities in the 3D phantom. Dwell positions and angular orientations of the source are reconstructed using data from the treatment planning system (TPS). Structure contours are also imported from the TPS to recalculate dose-volume histograms. Results: HDRMC was first benchmarked against the MCNP5 code for a single source in homogenous water and for a loaded gynecologic applicator in water. The accuracy of the voxel-based applicator model used in HDRMC was also verified by comparing 3D dose distributions and dose-volume parameters obtained using 1-mm{sup 3} versus 2-mm{sup 3} phantom resolutions. HDRMC can calculate the 3D dose distribution for a typical HDR cervix case with 2-mm resolution in 5 min on a single CPU. Examples of heterogeneity effects for two clinical cases (cervix and esophagus) were demonstrated using HDRMC. The neglect of tissue heterogeneity for the esophageal case leads to the overestimate of CTV D90, CTV D100, and spinal cord maximum dose by 3.2%, 3.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusions: A fast Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations which does not require a prebuilt applicator model is developed for those HDR brachytherapy treatments that use CT-compatible applicators. Tissue and nontissue heterogeneities should be taken into account in modern HDR
Development of the Calculation Module for Uncertainty of Internal Dose Coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) provides the coefficients as point values without uncertainties, it is important to understand sources of uncertainty in the derivation of the coefficients. When internal dose coefficients are calculated, numerous factors are involved such as transfer rate in biokinetic models, absorption rates and deposition in respiratory tract model, fractional absorption in alimentary tract model, absorbed fractions (AF), nuclide information and organ mass. These factors have uncertainty respectively, which increases the uncertainty of internal dose coefficients by uncertainty propagation. Since the procedure of internal dose coefficients calculation is somewhat complicated, it is difficult to propagate the each uncertainty analytically. The development of module and calculation were performed by MATLAB. In this study, we developed the calculation module for uncertainty of the internal dose coefficient. In this module, uncertainty of various factor used to calculate the internal dose coefficient can be considered using the Monte Carlo sampling method. After developing the module, we calculated the internal dose coefficient for inhalation of 90Sr with the uncertainty and obtained the distribution and percentile values. It is expected that this study will contribute greatly to the uncertainty research on internal dosimetry. In the future, we will update the module to consider more uncertainties
Dose calculation for neutrons of thermal to 10 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the ICRP publication 60 adopted in 1990, the drastic change was proposed regarding the definition of the dose used for radiation protection. The main changes were the introduction of radiation weighting factor, the definition of tissue equivalent dose, the change of tissue weighting factor and the change of the equation for defining radiation quality factor (the equation for Q-L relation). In the exposure to neutrons, all these changes exert influence. In the case of neutrons, the conservativeness of operational quantity in relation to the limit of exposure may break down. Effective dose is defined as the sum of weighted risks of the equivalent doses of 12 organs and tissues and the rest of tissues. Also it has been recommended to take the mass-weighted average value for 10 specified organs and tissues as the equivalent dose. As to the effective dose for neutrons, the calculating method, the effective dose for adults, the comparison of effective dose and effective dose equivalent, and the age dependence of effective dose are explained. It is difficult to directly measure effective dose which is the limiting quantity of exposure. Therefore, ICRU defined operational quantity for area monitoring and individual monitoring. The relation of effective dose with operational quantity is shown. (K.I.)
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Pilots, flight attendants, and passengers aboard jet aircrafts are subjected to higher cosmic radiation levels at high altitude than on the ground. Additional dose, received during flight is called 'aviation route dose'. Addressing the needs for precise and easy determination of aviation route doses (Sv), the authors have developed a new application 'JISCARD GUI' with a graphical user interface which provides dose rate (Sv/h) distribution along a flight route and aviation route dose. The graphical interface made with Adobe Flash provide functions to select airports on dynamic map or to search by airport/city names, and to report resulting aviation route doses and graphs of dose rate change through a flight. Dose rate data at several cut off rigidity, Rc and force field potential, FFP were calculated in advance using a PHITS-based analytical model and stored in the server as matrix data. Upon user's request of departure/arrival airports and flight date, interpolation using matrix data substantiates derivation of dose rate distribution in a simple and quick manner with sufficient accuracy. Precision of the dose calculation was verified by comparison with JISCARD EX (MS-Excel version) released in September 2008. This advanced application will be open to public through the website of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in the near future. (author)
Analysis of the dose calculation accuracy for IMRT in lung: A 2D approach
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Dvorak, Pavel; Stock, Markus; Kroupa, Bernhard; Bogner, Joachim; Georg, Diet mar [Div. of Medical Radiation Physics, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, AKH Vienna, Medical Univ. Vienna, Vienna (Austria)
2007-10-15
The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric accuracy of IMRT plans for targets in lung with the accuracy of standard uniform-intensity conformal radiotherapy for different dose calculation algorithms. Tests were performed utilizing a special phantom manufactured from cork and polystyrene in order to quantify the uncertainty of two commercial TPS for IMRT in the lung. Ionization and film measurements were performed at various measuring points/planes. Additionally, single-beam and uniform-intensity multiple-beam tests were performed, in order to investigate deviations due to other characteristics of IMRT. Helax-TMS V6.1(A) was tested for 6, 10 and 25 MV and BrainSCAN 5.2 for 6 MV photon beams, respectively. Pencil beam (PB) with simple inhomogeneity correction and 'collapsed cone' (CC) algorithms were applied for dose calculations. However, the latter was not incorporated during optimization hence only post-optimization recalculation was tested. Two-dimensional dose distributions were evaluated applying the b.gamma index concept. Conformal plans showed the same accuracy as IMRT plans. Ionization chamber measurements detected deviations of up to 5% when a PB algorithm was used for IMRT dose calculations. Significant improvement was observed when IMRT plans were recalculated with the CC algorithm, especially for the highest nominal energy. All b.gamma evaluations confirmed substantial improvement with the CC algorithm in 2D. While PB dose distributions showed most discrepancies in lower (<50%) and high (>90%) dose regions, the CC dose distributions deviated mainly in the high dose gradient (20-80%) region. The advantages of IMRT (conformity, intra-target dose control) should be counterbalanced with possible calculation inaccuracies for targets in the lung. Until no superior dose calculation algorithms are involved in the iterative optimization process it should be used with great care. When only PB algorithm with simple inhomogeneity correction is
Analysis of the dose calculation accuracy for IMRT in lung: a 2D approach.
Dvorak, Pavel; Stock, Markus; Kroupa, Bernhard; Bogner, Joachim; Georg, Dietmar
2007-01-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric accuracy of IMRT plans for targets in lung with the accuracy of standard uniform-intensity conformal radiotherapy for different dose calculation algorithms. Tests were performed utilizing a special phantom manufactured from cork and polystyrene in order to quantify the uncertainty of two commercial TPS for IMRT in the lung. Ionization and film measurements were performed at various measuring points/planes. Additionally, single-beam and uniform-intensity multiple-beam tests were performed, in order to investigate deviations due to other characteristics of IMRT. Helax-TMS V6.1(A) was tested for 6, 10 and 25 MV and BrainSCAN 5.2 for 6 MV photon beams, respectively. Pencil beam (PB) with simple inhomogeneity correction and 'collapsed cone' (CC) algorithms were applied for dose calculations. However, the latter was not incorporated during optimization hence only post-optimization recalculation was tested. Two-dimensional dose distributions were evaluated applying the gamma index concept. Conformal plans showed the same accuracy as IMRT plans. Ionization chamber measurements detected deviations of up to 5% when a PB algorithm was used for IMRT dose calculations. Significant improvement (deviations approximately 2%) was observed when IMRT plans were recalculated with the CC algorithm, especially for the highest nominal energy. All gamma evaluations confirmed substantial improvement with the CC algorithm in 2D. While PB dose distributions showed most discrepancies in lower (90%) dose regions, the CC dose distributions deviated mainly in the high dose gradient (20-80%) region. The advantages of IMRT (conformity, intra-target dose control) should be counterbalanced with possible calculation inaccuracies for targets in the lung. Until no superior dose calculation algorithms are involved in the iterative optimization process it should be used with great care. When only PB algorithm with simple inhomogeneity correction is
Analysis of the dose calculation accuracy for IMRT in lung: A 2D approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric accuracy of IMRT plans for targets in lung with the accuracy of standard uniform-intensity conformal radiotherapy for different dose calculation algorithms. Tests were performed utilizing a special phantom manufactured from cork and polystyrene in order to quantify the uncertainty of two commercial TPS for IMRT in the lung. Ionization and film measurements were performed at various measuring points/planes. Additionally, single-beam and uniform-intensity multiple-beam tests were performed, in order to investigate deviations due to other characteristics of IMRT. Helax-TMS V6.1(A) was tested for 6, 10 and 25 MV and BrainSCAN 5.2 for 6 MV photon beams, respectively. Pencil beam (PB) with simple inhomogeneity correction and 'collapsed cone' (CC) algorithms were applied for dose calculations. However, the latter was not incorporated during optimization hence only post-optimization recalculation was tested. Two-dimensional dose distributions were evaluated applying the b.gamma index concept. Conformal plans showed the same accuracy as IMRT plans. Ionization chamber measurements detected deviations of up to 5% when a PB algorithm was used for IMRT dose calculations. Significant improvement was observed when IMRT plans were recalculated with the CC algorithm, especially for the highest nominal energy. All b.gamma evaluations confirmed substantial improvement with the CC algorithm in 2D. While PB dose distributions showed most discrepancies in lower (90%) dose regions, the CC dose distributions deviated mainly in the high dose gradient (20-80%) region. The advantages of IMRT (conformity, intra-target dose control) should be counterbalanced with possible calculation inaccuracies for targets in the lung. Until no superior dose calculation algorithms are involved in the iterative optimization process it should be used with great care. When only PB algorithm with simple inhomogeneity correction is used, lower energy photon
Comparison of methods for calculating rectal dose after 125I prostate brachytherapy implants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: To compare several different methods of calculating the rectal dose and examine how accurately they represent rectal dose surface area measurements and, also, their practicality for routine use. Methods and Materials: This study comprised 55 patients, randomly selected from 295 prostate brachytherapy patients implanted at the Vancouver Cancer Center between 1998 and 2000. All implants used a nonuniform loading of 0.33 mCi (NIST-99) 125I seeds and a prescribed dose of 144 Gy. Pelvic CT scans were obtained for each patient ∼30 days after implantation. For the purposes of calculating the rectal dose, several structures were contoured on the CT images: (1) a 1-mm-thick anterior rectal wall, (2) the anterior half rectum, and (3) the whole rectum. Point doses were also obtained along the anterior rectal surface. The thin wall contour provided a surrogate for a dose-surface histogram (DSH) and was our reference standard rectal dose measurement. Alternate rectal dose measurements (volume, surface area, and length of rectum receiving a dose of interest [DOI] of ≥144 Gy and 216 Gy, as well as point dose measures) were calculated using several methods (VariSeed software) and compared with the surrogate DSH measure (SADOI). Results: The best correlation with SA144Gy was the dose volumes (whole or anterior half rectum) (R = 0.949). The length of rectum receiving ≥144 Gy also correlated well with SA144Gy (R ≥0.898). Point dose measures, such as the average and maximal anterior dose, correlated poorly with SA144Gy (R ≤0.649). The 216-Gy measurements supported these results. In addition, dose-volume measurements were the most practical (∼6 min/patient), with our surrogate DSH the least practical (∼20 min/patient). Conclusion: Dose-volume measurements for the whole or anterior half rectum, because they were the most practical measures and best represented the DSH measurements, should be considered a standard method of reporting the rectal dose when
Assessing the Clinical Impact of Approximations in Analytical Dose Calculations for Proton Therapy
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Schuemann, Jan, E-mail: jschuemann@mgh.harvard.edu; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens; Moteabbed, Maryam; Min, Chul Hee; Paganetti, Harald
2015-08-01
Purpose: To assess the impact of approximations in current analytical dose calculation methods (ADCs) on tumor control probability (TCP) in proton therapy. Methods: Dose distributions planned with ADC were compared with delivered dose distributions as determined by Monte Carlo simulations. A total of 50 patients were investigated in this analysis with 10 patients per site for 5 treatment sites (head and neck, lung, breast, prostate, liver). Differences were evaluated using dosimetric indices based on a dose-volume histogram analysis, a γ-index analysis, and estimations of TCP. Results: We found that ADC overestimated the target doses on average by 1% to 2% for all patients considered. The mean dose, D95, D50, and D02 (the dose value covering 95%, 50% and 2% of the target volume, respectively) were predicted within 5% of the delivered dose. The γ-index passing rate for target volumes was above 96% for a 3%/3 mm criterion. Differences in TCP were up to 2%, 2.5%, 6%, 6.5%, and 11% for liver and breast, prostate, head and neck, and lung patients, respectively. Differences in normal tissue complication probabilities for bladder and anterior rectum of prostate patients were less than 3%. Conclusion: Our results indicate that current dose calculation algorithms lead to underdosage of the target by as much as 5%, resulting in differences in TCP of up to 11%. To ensure full target coverage, advanced dose calculation methods like Monte Carlo simulations may be necessary in proton therapy. Monte Carlo simulations may also be required to avoid biases resulting from systematic discrepancies in calculated dose distributions for clinical trials comparing proton therapy with conventional radiation therapy.
Dose rates from a C-14 source using extrapolation chamber and MC calculations
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The extrapolation chamber technique and the Monte Carlo (MC) calculation technique based on the EGS4 system have been studied for application for determination of dose rates in a low-energy β radiation field e.g., that from a 14C source. The extrapolation chamber measurement method is the basic method for determination of dose rates in β radiation fields. Applying a number of correction factors and the stopping power ratio, tissue to air, the measured dose rate in an air volume surrounded by tissue equivalent material is converted into dose to tissue. Various details of the extrapolation chamber measurement method and evaluation procedure have been studied and further developed, and a complete procedure for the experimental determination of dose rates from a14C source is presented. A number of correction factors and other parameters used in the evaluation procedure for the measured data have been obtained by MC calculations. The whole extrapolation chamber measurement procedure was simulated using the MC method. The measured dose rates showed an increasing deviation from the MC calculated dose rates as the absorber thickness increased. This indicates that the EGS4 code may have some limitations for transport of very low-energy electrons. i.e., electrons with estimated energies less than 10 - 20 keV. MC calculations of dose to tissue were performed using two models: a cylindrical tissue phantom and a computer model of the extrapolation chamber. The dose to tissue in the extrapolation chamber model showed an additional buildup dose compared to the dose in the tissue model. (au) 10 tabs., 11 ills., 18 refs
The impact of dose calculation algorithms on partial and whole breast radiation treatment plans
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Berrang Tanya
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper compares the calculated dose to target and normal tissues when using pencil beam (PBC, superposition/convolution (AAA and Monte Carlo (MC algorithms for whole breast (WBI and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI treatment plans. Methods Plans for 10 patients who met all dosimetry constraints on a prospective APBI protocol when using PBC calculations were recomputed with AAA and MC, keeping the monitor units and beam angles fixed. Similar calculations were performed for WBI plans on the same patients. Doses to target and normal tissue volumes were tested for significance using the paired Student's t-test. Results For WBI plans the average dose to target volumes when using PBC calculations was not significantly different than AAA calculations, the average PBC dose to the ipsilateral breast was 10.5% higher than the AAA calculations and the average MC dose to the ipsilateral breast was 11.8% lower than the PBC calculations. For ABPI plans there were no differences in dose to the planning target volume, ipsilateral breast, heart, ipsilateral lung, or contra-lateral lung. Although not significant, the maximum PBC dose to the contra-lateral breast was 1.9% higher than AAA and the PBC dose to the clinical target volume was 2.1% higher than AAA. When WBI technique is switched to APBI, there was significant reduction in dose to the ipsilateral breast when using PBC, a significant reduction in dose to the ipsilateral lung when using AAA, and a significant reduction in dose to the ipsilateral breast and lung and contra-lateral lung when using MC. Conclusions There is very good agreement between PBC, AAA and MC for all target and most normal tissues when treating with APBI and WBI and most of the differences in doses to target and normal tissues are not clinically significant. However, a commonly used dosimetry constraint, as recommended by the ASTRO consensus document for APBI, that no point in the contra
A clinical study of lung cancer dose calculation accuracy with Monte Carlo simulation
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The accuracy of dose calculation is crucial to the quality of treatment planning and, consequently, to the dose delivered to patients undergoing radiation therapy. Current general calculation algorithms such as Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) and Collapsed Cone Convolution (CCC) have shortcomings in regard to severe inhomogeneities, particularly in those regions where charged particle equilibrium does not hold. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the PBC and CCC algorithms in lung cancer radiotherapy using Monte Carlo (MC) technology. Four treatment plans were designed using Oncentra Masterplan TPS for each patient. Two intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were developed using the PBC and CCC algorithms, and two three-dimensional conformal therapy (3DCRT) plans were developed using the PBC and CCC algorithms. The DICOM-RT files of the treatment plans were exported to the Monte Carlo system to recalculate. The dose distributions of GTV, PTV and ipsilateral lung calculated by the TPS and MC were compared. For 3DCRT and IMRT plans, the mean dose differences for GTV between the CCC and MC increased with decreasing of the GTV volume. For IMRT, the mean dose differences were found to be higher than that of 3DCRT. The CCC algorithm overestimated the GTV mean dose by approximately 3% for IMRT. For 3DCRT plans, when the volume of the GTV was greater than 100 cm3, the mean doses calculated by CCC and MC almost have no difference. PBC shows large deviations from the MC algorithm. For the dose to the ipsilateral lung, the CCC algorithm overestimated the dose to the entire lung, and the PBC algorithm overestimated V20 but underestimated V5; the difference in V10 was not statistically significant. PBC substantially overestimates the dose to the tumour, but the CCC is similar to the MC simulation. It is recommended that the treatment plans for lung cancer be developed using an advanced dose calculation algorithm other than PBC. MC can accurately
Dose calculation for 40K ingestion in samples of beans using spectrometry and MCNP
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A method based on gamma spectroscopy and on the use of voxel phantoms to calculate dose due to ingestion of 40K contained in bean samples are presented in this work. To quantify the activity of radionuclide, HPGe detector was used and the data entered in the input file of MCNP code. The highest value of equivalent dose was 7.83 μSv.y-1 in the stomach for white beans, whose activity 452.4 Bq.Kg-1 was the highest of the five analyzed. The tool proved to be appropriate when you want to calculate the dose in organs due to ingestion of food. (author)
GTV-based prescription in SBRT for lung lesions using advanced dose calculation algorithms
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The aim of current study was to investigate the way dose is prescribed to lung lesions during SBRT using advanced dose calculation algorithms that take into account electron transport (type B algorithms). As type A algorithms do not take into account secondary electron transport, they overestimate the dose to lung lesions. Type B algorithms are more accurate but still no consensus is reached regarding dose prescription. The positive clinical results obtained using type A algorithms should be used as a starting point. In current work a dose-calculation experiment is performed, presenting different prescription methods. Three cases with three different sizes of peripheral lung lesions were planned using three different treatment platforms. For each individual case 60 Gy to the PTV was prescribed using a type A algorithm and the dose distribution was recalculated using a type B algorithm in order to evaluate the impact of the secondary electron transport. Secondly, for each case a type B algorithm was used to prescribe 48 Gy to the PTV, and the resulting doses to the GTV were analyzed. Finally, prescriptions based on specific GTV dose volumes were evaluated. When using a type A algorithm to prescribe the same dose to the PTV, the differences regarding median GTV doses among platforms and cases were always less than 10% of the prescription dose. The prescription to the PTV based on type B algorithms, leads to a more important variability of the median GTV dose among cases and among platforms, (respectively 24%, and 28%). However, when 54 Gy was prescribed as median GTV dose, using a type B algorithm, the variability observed was minimal. Normalizing the prescription dose to the median GTV dose for lung lesions avoids variability among different cases and treatment platforms of SBRT when type B algorithms are used to calculate the dose. The combination of using a type A algorithm to optimize a homogeneous dose in the PTV and using a type B algorithm to prescribe the
Effects of the difference in tube voltage of the CT scanner on dose calculation
Rhee, Dong Joo; Kim, Sung-woo; Jeong, Dong Hyeok; Moon, Young Min; Kim, Jung Ki
2015-07-01
Computed tomography (CT) measures the attenuation coefficient of an object and converts the value assigned to each voxel into a CT number. In radiation therapy, the CT number, which is directly proportional to the linear attenuation coefficient, must be converted to an electron density for radiation dose calculations for cancer treatment. However, if various tube voltages are applied to take the patient's CT image without applying the specific CT number to the electron density conversion curve, the accuracy of the dose calculation is not assured. In this study, changes in CT numbers for different materials due to changes in the tube voltage were demonstrated, and the dose calculation errors in the percentage depth dose (PDD), along with a clinical case were analyzed. The maximum dose difference in the PDD from the treatment planning system (TPS) dose calculation and from the Monte Carlo simulation were 1.3% and 1.1%, respectively, when applying the same CT number to the electron density conversion curve for the 80-kVp and 140-kVp images. In the clinical case, different CT number to electron density conversion curves at tube voltage of 80 kVp and 140 kVp were applied to the same image and the maximum differences in the mean, maximum, and minimum doses were 1.1%, 1.2%, and 1.0%, respectively, at the central region of the phantom and 0.6%, 0.9%, and 0.8%, respectively, at the peripheral region of the phantom.
Fast Monte Carlo Simulation for Patient-specific CT/CBCT Imaging Dose Calculation
Jia, Xun; Gu, Xuejun; Jiang, Steve B
2011-01-01
Recently, X-ray imaging dose from computed tomography (CT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) scans has become a serious concern. Patient-specific imaging dose calculation has been proposed for the purpose of dose management. While Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation can be quite accurate for this purpose, it suffers from low computational efficiency. In response to this problem, we have successfully developed a MC dose calculation package, gCTD, on GPU architecture under the NVIDIA CUDA platform for fast and accurate estimation of the x-ray imaging dose received by a patient during a CT or CBCT scan. Techniques have been developed particularly for the GPU architecture to achieve high computational efficiency. Dose calculations using CBCT scanning geometry in a homogeneous water phantom and a heterogeneous Zubal head phantom have shown good agreement between gCTD and EGSnrc, indicating the accuracy of our code. In terms of improved efficiency, it is found that gCTD attains a speed-up of ~400 times in the homogeneous water ...
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Background and purpose: A series of phase I/II clinical trials are being initiated in several UK centres to explore the use of dose-escalated schedules for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Among them the IDEAL-CRT trial (ISRCTN12155469) will investigate the introduction of individualised 'isotoxic' treatment schedules based on the relative mean lung normalised total dose (rNTDmean), an estimator related to lung toxicity. Since treatment planning will be performed using different treatment planning systems (TPSs), for the quality assurance of the trial we have carried out work to quantify the influence of dose calculation algorithms based on the determination of rNTDmean and on the choice of individualised prescription doses. Material and methods: Twenty-five patient plans with stage I, II and III NSCLC were calculated, with the same prescription dose, using the Adaptive Convolve (AC) and Collapsed Cone (CC) algorithms of the Pinnacle TPS, the pencil beam convolution (PBC) and AAA algorithms of Eclipse, and the CC and pencil beam (PB) algorithms of Oncentra Masterplan (OMP). For the paired-lungs-GTV structure, dose-volume histograms were obtained and used to calculate the corresponding rNTDmean values and results obtained with the different algorithms were compared. Results: For most (19 out of 25) of the patients studied, no algorithm-to-algorithm differences were seen in dose prescription based on rNTDmean. For the other 6 patients differences were within 2.3 Gy, except in one case where the difference was 4 Gy. Conclusions: For the IDEAL-CRT trial no corrections need to be applied to the value of rNTDmean calculated using any of the more advanced convolution/superposition algorithms studied in this work. For the two pencil beam algorithms analysed, no correction is necessary for the data obtained with the Eclipse-PBC, while for OMP-PB data a small correction needs to be applied, by using a scaling factor, to make prescription doses consistent
Wilson, J. W.; Khandelwal, G. S.
1976-01-01
Calculational methods for estimation of dose from external proton exposure of arbitrary convex bodies are briefly reviewed. All the necessary information for the estimation of dose in soft tissue is presented. Special emphasis is placed on retaining the effects of nuclear reaction, especially in relation to the dose equivalent. Computer subroutines to evaluate all of the relevant functions are discussed. Nuclear reaction contributions for standard space radiations are in most cases found to be significant. Many of the existing computer programs for estimating dose in which nuclear reaction effects are neglected can be readily converted to include nuclear reaction effects by use of the subroutines described herein.
Dose calculations with SERA for the application of the BNCT at the TRIGA Mainz
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The BNCT shall be applied for an explantated organ with metastases at the TRIGA reactor Mainz, Germany. After the treatment of the patient with 10B pharmaceutical the liver will be explanted, irradiated in the thermal column and then implantated again (autotransplantation). This was first successfully done in 12/2001 for a 48 years old male patient at the TRIGA reactor in Pavia. For a treatment with BNCT it is necessary to determine the total dose and partial radiation doses like the boron and gamma dose. Since several parts of the dose can not be measured, calculations are necessary. For this procedure the program Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications (SERA) developed by INEEL, Idaho, U.S., can be applied, which allows an individual dosimetry for the patient. The SERA program consists of a manual and semi-automated geometric modeling of the treatment objects like the liver derived from MRI, CT or other medical imaging modalities. The dose for these geometric models is calculated with the INEEL radiation transport computer code and the dose contouring is also derived. The SERA program was adapted at MHH to calculate the radiation dose in the case of liver autotransplantation. Also, the technical characteristics and the physical environment of the thermal column were programmed for SERA. For the first reactor model the core of the MHH TRIGA reactor and the thermal column of the Mainz TRIGA reactor were used. The thermal column was modulated with layers of bismuth and lead to minimize the gamma dose. (author)
Calculation of dose in quartz for comparison with thermoluminescence dosimetry measurements
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Gamma radiation from the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki left a record in the quartz grains constituent to the tile and brick in city structures. That record has been read to determine the gamma-ray dose deposited in these grains, using thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry techniques. Because the quartz grains are imbedded in dense tile and brick material located on structures of complex geometry, the dose in quarts is not an exact measure of the free-field kerma. Therefore, calculations of dose deposition in the quartz grains were performed, using the same free-field fluence data and shielding computation methods as those incorporated in the dosimetry system delivered to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1986. This report presents a summary description of the experimental results, including total dose and background dose, as well as the salient features of the tiles and brick, including their locations on the various structures. The report provides a description of the approach used to calculate the dose to the quartz in the tile and brick samples, as well as a detailed tabulation of the calculated dose, including the contribution from each component of A-bomb radiation. Finally, the report provides a comparison of DS86 and T65D dose values with measured results and a discussion of issues raised in the process of that comparison
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In order to compare the internal effective dose evaluation in past and present, an automatic calculation sheet was developed using the parameters such as the dose conversion factors and intake of foods etc. in ICRP Pub.60, Pub72, the new 'Environmental Radiation Monitoring Guide' revised on March 29, 2001. It makes possible to sum up monitoring data in each year, to evaluate dose and to compare them to the past data. The equation, parameters of ingestion and inhalation, nuclides detected, subject nuclides, dose conversion factor of committed dose equivalent by ingestion and inhalation, fundamental principles, limits, model, monitoring results, calculation for estimation and valuation and discussion are described. This article must be handled with the utmost care on parameters, model, ND of monitoring results. (S.Y.)
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Uncertainty analysis of the dose calculation module of the COSYMA accident consequence assessment code has been undertaken, involving the following steps: (1) Expert judgement techniques were applied to assess uncertainties in measurable parameters determining external and internal doses. (2) The data obtained were used to calculate distributions on the dose quantities required as code input parameters. (3) The effect of uncertainties in dose quantities was analysed for a range of COSYMA end points, including the extent of countermeasures and incidences of early and late health effects, and the most important uncertainties were identified for inclusion in an overall uncertainty analysis of COSYMA. Parameters identified as making the largest contributions to uncertainty included external doses and location factors, residence times of materials on skin, breathing rates, and respiratory tract deposition and retention parameters, for the extent of countermeasures and early health effects, and caesium and iodine retention parameters for late effects. (author)
FOOD: an interactive code to calculate internal radiation doses from contaminated food products
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An interactive code, FOOD, has been written in BASIC for the UNIVAC 1108 to facilitate calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products. In the dose model, vegetation may be contaminated by either air or irrigation water containing radionuclides. The model considers two mechanisms for radionuclide contamination of vegetation: direct deposition on leaves and uptake from soil through the root system. The user may select up to 14 food categories with corresponding consumption rates, growing periods and either irrigation rates or atmospheric deposition rates. These foods include various kinds of produce, grains and animal products. At present, doses may be calculated for the skin, total body and five internal organs from 190 radionuclides. Dose summaries can be displayed at the local terminal. Further details on percent contribution to dose by nuclide and by food type are available from an auxiliary high-speed printer. This output also includes estimated radionuclide concentrations in soil, plants and animal products
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Verification of calculated lung dose in an anthropomorphic phantom is performed using two dosimetry media. Dosimetry is complicated by factors such as variations in density at slice interfaces and appropriate position on CT scanning slice to accommodate these factors. Dose in lung for a 6 MV and 10 MV anterior-posterior field was calculated with a collapsed cone convolution method using an ADAC Pinnacle, 3D planning system. Up to 5% variations between doses calculated at the centre and near the edge of the 2 cm phantom slice positioned at the beam central axis were seen, due to the composition of each phantom slice. Validation of dose was performed with LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and X-Omat V radiographic film. Both dosimetry media produced dose results which agreed closely with calculated results nearest their physical positioning in the phantom. The collapsed cone convolution method accurately calculates dose within inhomogeneous lung regions at 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray energy. (author)
Incorporating partial shining effects in proton pencil-beam dose calculation
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A range modulator wheel (RMW) is an essential component in passively scattered proton therapy. We have observed that a proton beam spot may shine on multiple steps of the RMW. Proton dose calculation algorithms normally do not consider the partial shining effect, and thus overestimate the dose at the proximal shoulder of spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) compared with the measurement. If the SOBP is adjusted to better fit the plateau region, the entrance dose is likely to be underestimated. In this work, we developed an algorithm that can be used to model this effect and to allow for dose calculations that better fit the measured SOBP. First, a set of apparent modulator weights was calculated without considering partial shining. Next, protons spilled from the accelerator reaching the modulator wheel were simplified as a circular spot of uniform intensity. A weight-splitting process was then performed to generate a set of effective modulator weights with the partial shining effect incorporated. The SOBPs of eight options, which are used to label different combinations of proton-beam energy and scattering devices, were calculated with the generated effective weights. Our algorithm fitted the measured SOBP at the proximal and entrance regions much better than the ones without considering partial shining effect for all SOBPs of the eight options. In a prostate patient, we found that dose calculation without considering partial shining effect underestimated the femoral head and skin dose
Incorporating partial shining effects in proton pencil-beam dose calculation
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Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Lii Mingfwu; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, Ron X; Gillin, Michael; Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)
2008-02-07
A range modulator wheel (RMW) is an essential component in passively scattered proton therapy. We have observed that a proton beam spot may shine on multiple steps of the RMW. Proton dose calculation algorithms normally do not consider the partial shining effect, and thus overestimate the dose at the proximal shoulder of spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) compared with the measurement. If the SOBP is adjusted to better fit the plateau region, the entrance dose is likely to be underestimated. In this work, we developed an algorithm that can be used to model this effect and to allow for dose calculations that better fit the measured SOBP. First, a set of apparent modulator weights was calculated without considering partial shining. Next, protons spilled from the accelerator reaching the modulator wheel were simplified as a circular spot of uniform intensity. A weight-splitting process was then performed to generate a set of effective modulator weights with the partial shining effect incorporated. The SOBPs of eight options, which are used to label different combinations of proton-beam energy and scattering devices, were calculated with the generated effective weights. Our algorithm fitted the measured SOBP at the proximal and entrance regions much better than the ones without considering partial shining effect for all SOBPs of the eight options. In a prostate patient, we found that dose calculation without considering partial shining effect underestimated the femoral head and skin dose.
Inverse treatment planning for radiation therapy based on fast Monte Carlo dose calculation
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An inverse treatment planning system based on fast Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation is presented. It allows optimisation of intensity modulated dose distributions in 15 to 60 minutes on present day personal computers. If a multi-processor machine is available, parallel simulation of particle histories is also possible, leading to further calculation time reductions. The optimisation process is divided into two stages. The first stage results influence profiles based on pencil beam (PB) dose calculation. The second stage starts with MC verification and post-optimisation of the PB dose and fluence distributions. Because of the potential to accurately model beam modifiers, MC based inverse planning systems are able to optimise compensator thicknesses and leaf trajectories instead of intensity profiles only. The corresponding techniques, whose implementation is the subject for future work, are also presented here. (orig.)
Dose calculation accuracy of lung planning with a commercial IMRT treatment planning system.
McDermott, Patrick N; He, Tongming; DeYoung, A
2003-01-01
The dose calculation accuracy of a commercial pencil beam IMRT planning system is evaluated by comparison with Monte Carlo calculations and measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom. The target volume is in the right lung and mediastinum and thus significant tissue inhomogeneities are present. The Monte Carlo code is an adaptation of the MCNP code and the measurements were made with TLD and film. Both the Monte Carlo code and the measurements show very good agreement with the treatment planning system except in regions where the dose is high and the electron density is low. In these regions the commercial system shows doses up to 10% higher than Monte Carlo and film. The average calculated dose for the CTV is 5% higher with the commercial system as compared to Monte Carlo. PMID:14604424
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Purpose: The dosimetric verification of treatment plans in helical tomotherapy usually is carried out via verification measurements. In this study, a method for independent dose calculation of tomotherapy treatment plans is presented, that uses a conventional treatment planning system with a pencil kernel dose calculation algorithm for generation of verification dose distributions based on patient CT data. Methods: A pencil beam algorithm that directly uses measured beam data was configured for dose calculation for a tomotherapy machine. Tomotherapy treatment plans were converted into a format readable by an in-house treatment planning system by assigning each projection to one static treatment field and shifting the calculation isocenter for each field in order to account for the couch movement. The modulation of the fluence for each projection is read out of the delivery sinogram, and with the kernel-based dose calculation, this information can directly be used for dose calculation without the need for decomposition of the sinogram. The sinogram values are only corrected for leaf output and leaf latency. Using the converted treatment plans, dose was recalculated with the independent treatment planning system. Multiple treatment plans ranging from simple static fields to real patient treatment plans were calculated using the new approach and either compared to actual measurements or the 3D dose distribution calculated by the tomotherapy treatment planning system. In addition, dose–volume histograms were calculated for the patient plans. Results: Except for minor deviations at the maximum field size, the pencil beam dose calculation for static beams agreed with measurements in a water tank within 2%/2 mm. A mean deviation to point dose measurements in the cheese phantom of 0.89% ± 0.81% was found for unmodulated helical plans. A mean voxel-based deviation of −0.67% ± 1.11% for all voxels in the respective high dose region (dose values >80%), and a mean local
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tuncay Bayram
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to make a computer program that calculates approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. Material and Methods: Radiation dose values per MBq-1 received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications were gathered from literature for various stages of pregnancy. These values were embedded in the computer code, which was written in Fortran 90 program language. Results: The computer program called nmfdose covers almost all radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine applications. Approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus can be calculated easily at a few steps using this computer program. Conclusion: Although there are some constraints on using the program for some special cases, nmfdose is useful and it provides practical solution for calculation of approximate dose to embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. (MIRT 2012;21:19-22
Study on the GEANT4 code applications to the dose calculation using imaging data
Lee, JeongOk; Kim, JhinKee; Kwon, HyeongCheol; Kim, JungSoo; Kim, BuGil; Jeong, DongHyeok
2015-01-01
The use of GEANT4 code has increased in the medical field. There are various studies to calculate the patient dose distributions with the GEANT4 code using the imaging data. In present study, the Monte Carlo simulations based on the DICOM data were performed to calculate absorbed dose in the patient's body. Various visualization tools were equipped in the GEANT4 code to display the detector construction, however there are limitations to display the DICOM images. In addition, it is difficult to display the dose distributions on the imaging data of the patient. Recently, gMocren code, volume visualization tool for GEANT4 simulation, has been developed and used in volume visualization of image files. In this study, the imaging data based absorbed dose distributions in patient were performed by using the gMocren code. The dosimetric evaluations with TLD and film dosimetry methods were carried out to verify the calculation results.
Study on GEANT4 code applications to dose calculation using imaging data
Lee, Jeong Ok; Kang, Jeong Ku; Kim, Jhin Kee; Kwon, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo; Kim, Bu Gil; Jeong, Dong Hyeok
2015-07-01
The use of the GEANT4 code has increased in the medical field. Various studies have calculated the patient dose distributions by users the GEANT4 code with imaging data. In present study, Monte Carlo simulations based on DICOM data were performed to calculate the dose absorb in the patient's body. Various visualization tools are installed in the GEANT4 code to display the detector construction; however, the display of DICOM images is limited. In addition, to displaying the dose distributions on the imaging data of the patient is difficult. Recently, the gMocren code, a volume visualization tool for GEANT4 simulation, was developed and has been used in volume visualization of image files. In this study, the imaging based on the dose distributions absorbed in the patients was performed by using the gMocren code. Dosimetric evaluations with were carried out by using thermo luminescent dosimeter and film dosimetry to verify the calculated results.
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Klüter, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.klueter@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Schubert, Kai; Lissner, Steffen; Sterzing, Florian; Oetzel, Dieter; Debus, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, and Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, and German Consortium for Translational Cancer Research (DKTK), Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlegel, Wolfgang [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Oelfke, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Nill, Simeon [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom)
2014-08-15
Purpose: The dosimetric verification of treatment plans in helical tomotherapy usually is carried out via verification measurements. In this study, a method for independent dose calculation of tomotherapy treatment plans is presented, that uses a conventional treatment planning system with a pencil kernel dose calculation algorithm for generation of verification dose distributions based on patient CT data. Methods: A pencil beam algorithm that directly uses measured beam data was configured for dose calculation for a tomotherapy machine. Tomotherapy treatment plans were converted into a format readable by an in-house treatment planning system by assigning each projection to one static treatment field and shifting the calculation isocenter for each field in order to account for the couch movement. The modulation of the fluence for each projection is read out of the delivery sinogram, and with the kernel-based dose calculation, this information can directly be used for dose calculation without the need for decomposition of the sinogram. The sinogram values are only corrected for leaf output and leaf latency. Using the converted treatment plans, dose was recalculated with the independent treatment planning system. Multiple treatment plans ranging from simple static fields to real patient treatment plans were calculated using the new approach and either compared to actual measurements or the 3D dose distribution calculated by the tomotherapy treatment planning system. In addition, dose–volume histograms were calculated for the patient plans. Results: Except for minor deviations at the maximum field size, the pencil beam dose calculation for static beams agreed with measurements in a water tank within 2%/2 mm. A mean deviation to point dose measurements in the cheese phantom of 0.89% ± 0.81% was found for unmodulated helical plans. A mean voxel-based deviation of −0.67% ± 1.11% for all voxels in the respective high dose region (dose values >80%), and a mean local
Calculation of the dose rate for the spent fuel assembly from VVER-1000 type reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dose rate from the spent fuel assembly presented in this paper was obtained by using of the SAS2H control module in Version 4.3 of the SCALE code system. The calculations were performed for a VVER-1000 type fuel assembly with 4.4wt% initial 235U enrichment and different storage time. The calculations may be divided into two steps: calculation of the characteristics - concentrations of fission products, actinides, neutron and gamma source emissions, and determination of the equivalent dose rate on the surface and at some distance from a single assembly. SAS2H computes neutron and gamma source spectrum and evaluates equivalent dose rates from spent nuclear fuel assembly using a 1-D transport shielding analysis. Obtained results presented in this paper are necessary step in shielding analysis of spent fuel casks and interim storage facilities. (author) Keywords: equivalent dose rate, spent fuel assembly, VVER-1000
Calculation of Ambient (H*(10)) and Personal (Hp(10)) Dose Equivalent from a 252Cf Neutron Source
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Traub, Richard J.
2010-03-26
The purpose of this calculation is to calculate the neutron dose factors for the Sr-Cf-3000 neutron source that is located in the 318 low scatter room (LSR). The dose factors were based on the dose conversion factors published in ICRP-21 Appendix 6, and the Ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) and Personal dose equivalent (Hp(10)) dose factors published in ICRP Publication 74.
Patient-specific dose calculations for pediatric CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Organ dose is essential for accurate estimates of patient dose from CT. To determine organ doses from a broad range of pediatric patients undergoing diagnostic chest-abdomen-pelvis CT and investigate how these relate to patient size. We used a previously validated Monte Carlo simulation model of a Philips Brilliance 64 multi-detector CT scanner (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands) to calculate organ doses for 40 pediatric patients (M:F = 21:19; range 0.6-17 years). Organ volumes and positions were determined from the images using standard segmentation techniques. Non-linear regression was performed to determine the relationship between volume CT dose index (CTDIvol)-normalized organ doses and abdominopelvic diameter. We then compared results with values obtained from independent studies. We found that CTDIvol-normalized organ dose correlated strongly with exponentially decreasing abdominopelvic diameter (R2 > 0.8 for most organs). A similar relationship was determined for effective dose when normalized by dose-length product (R2 = 0.95). Our results agreed with previous studies within 12% using similar scan parameters (e.g., bowtie filter size, beam collimation); however results varied up to 25% when compared to studies using different bowtie filters. Our study determined that organ doses can be estimated from measurements of patient size, namely body diameter, and CTDIvol prior to CT examination. This information provides an improved method for patient dose estimation. (orig.)
Comparison of organ dosimetry methods and effective dose calculation methods for paediatric CT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Computed tomography (CT) is the single biggest ionising radiation risk from anthropogenic exposure. Reducing unnecessary carcinogenic risks from this source requires the determination of organ and tissue absorbed doses to estimate detrimental stochastic effects. In addition, effective dose can be used to assess comparative risk between exposure situations and facilitate dose reduction through optimisation. Children are at the highest risk from radiation induced carcinogenesis and therefore dosimetry for paediatric CT recipients is essential in addressing the ionising radiation health risks of CT scanning. However, there is no well-defined method in the clinical environment for routinely and reliably performing paediatric CT organ dosimetry and there are numerous methods utilised for estimating paediatric CT effective dose. Therefore, in this study, eleven computational methods for organ dosimetry and/or effective dose calculation were investigated and compared with absorbed doses measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters placed in a physical anthropomorphic phantom representing a 10 year old child. Three common clinical paediatric CT protocols including brain, chest and abdomen/pelvis examinations were evaluated. Overall, computed absorbed doses to organs and tissues fully and directly irradiated demonstrated better agreement (within approximately 50 %) with the measured absorbed doses than absorbed doses to distributed organs or to those located on the periphery of the scan volume, which showed up to a 15-fold dose variation. The disparities predominantly arose from differences in the phantoms used. While the ability to estimate CT dose is essential for risk assessment and radiation protection, identifying a simple, practical dosimetry method remains challenging.
Patient-specific dose calculations for pediatric CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis
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Kost, Susan D.; Carver, Diana E.; Stabin, Michael G. [Vanderbilt University, Physics and Astronomy Department, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Fraser, Nicholas D.; Pickens, David R.; Price, Ronald R.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States)
2015-11-15
Organ dose is essential for accurate estimates of patient dose from CT. To determine organ doses from a broad range of pediatric patients undergoing diagnostic chest-abdomen-pelvis CT and investigate how these relate to patient size. We used a previously validated Monte Carlo simulation model of a Philips Brilliance 64 multi-detector CT scanner (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands) to calculate organ doses for 40 pediatric patients (M:F = 21:19; range 0.6-17 years). Organ volumes and positions were determined from the images using standard segmentation techniques. Non-linear regression was performed to determine the relationship between volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol})-normalized organ doses and abdominopelvic diameter. We then compared results with values obtained from independent studies. We found that CTDI{sub vol}-normalized organ dose correlated strongly with exponentially decreasing abdominopelvic diameter (R{sup 2} > 0.8 for most organs). A similar relationship was determined for effective dose when normalized by dose-length product (R{sup 2} = 0.95). Our results agreed with previous studies within 12% using similar scan parameters (e.g., bowtie filter size, beam collimation); however results varied up to 25% when compared to studies using different bowtie filters. Our study determined that organ doses can be estimated from measurements of patient size, namely body diameter, and CTDI{sub vol} prior to CT examination. This information provides an improved method for patient dose estimation. (orig.)
Tolerances for the accuracy of photon beam dose calculations of treatment planning systems
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Background and purpose: To design a consistent set of criteria for acceptability of photon beam dose calculations of treatment planning systems. The set should be applicable in combination with a test package used for evaluation of a treatment planning system, such as the ones proposed by the AAPM Task Group 23 or by the Netherlands Commission on Radiation Dosimetry. Results: Tolerances have been defined for the accuracy with which a treatment planning system should be able to calculate the dose in different parts of a photon beam: the central beam axis and regions with large and small dose gradients. For increasing complexity of the geometry, wider tolerances are allowed, varying between 2 and 5%. For the evaluation of a large number of data points an additional quantity, the confidence limit, has been introduced, which combines the influence of systematic and random deviations. The proposed tolerances have been compared with other recommendations for a number of clinically relevant examples, showing considerable differences, which are partly due to the way the complexity of the geometry is taken into account. Furthermore differences occur if criteria for acceptability of dose calculations are related either to the local dose value or to a normalized dose value. Conclusions: Although it is acknowledged that the general aim must be to have good agreement between dose calculation and the actual dose value, e.g. within 2% or 2 mm, current day algorithms and their implementation into commercial treatment planning systems result often in larger deviations. A high accuracy can at present only be achieved in relatively simple cases. The new set of tolerances and the quantity confidence limit have proven to be useful tools for the acceptance of photon beam dose calculation algorithms of treatment planning systems
A design of a DICOM-RT-based tool box for nonrigid 4D dose calculation.
Wong, Victy Y W; Baker, Colin R; Leung, T W; Tung, Stewart Y
2016-01-01
The study was aimed to introduce a design of a DICOM-RT-based tool box to facilitate 4D dose calculation based on deformable voxel-dose registration. The computational structure and the calculation algorithm of the tool box were explicitly discussed in the study. The tool box was written in MATLAB in conjunction with CERR. It consists of five main functions which allow a) importation of DICOM-RT-based 3D dose plan, b) deformable image registration, c) tracking voxel doses along breathing cycle, d) presentation of temporal dose distribution at different time phase, and e) derivation of 4D dose. The efficacy of using the tool box for clinical application had been verified with nine clinical cases on retrospective-study basis. The logistic and the robustness of the tool box were tested with 27 applications and the results were shown successful with no computational errors encountered. In the study, the accumulated dose coverage as a function of planning CT taken at end-inhale, end-exhale, and mean tumor position were assessed. The results indicated that the majority of the cases (67%) achieved maximum target coverage, while the planning CT was taken at the temporal mean tumor position and 56% at the end-exhale position. The comparable results to the literature imply that the studied tool box can be reliable for 4D dose calculation. The authors suggest that, with proper application, 4D dose calculation using deformable registration can provide better dose evaluation for treatment with moving target. PMID:27074476
Calculation of dose decrease in a finite phantom of a 192Ir point source
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The purpose of this study was to calculate the dose decrease in a finite phantom of a 192Ir-point source by using a new algorithm based on field theory. The methods used included the phenomenological application of the principle ''mirror image of an electric point source in front of a dielectric semi-plateau'' to a radioactive source in a finite phantom results in a function to calculate the dose decrease near the surface. Measurements were done in a water phantom in three different experimental setups. To verify the calculated results Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of dose distribution of a 192Ir point source in 34x40x40 cm3 water were carried out. The strength of mirror source was found -0.103 of the real source. A lack scatter function was necessary to handle the dose decrease very close to surface. The measured and calculated dose values differed less than 0.9%. Both MC simulations and the new algorithm show the dose decrease near phantom surface with differences less than 2% between each other. The new algorithm based on field theory calculated the dose decrease of a 192Ir point source in a finite phantom with a very good agreement to measured and simulated data. A clinical example, which affects only a single planar boundary, is given by using molds in the treatment of skin tumors. This was calculated with the new algorithm presented in this article. The comparison with the common algorithm demonstrates the differences that might cause an overestimation of the dose, which probably leads an underdosing of the tumor. The general use of the new algorithm in brachytherapy where a variety of boundary shapes are encountered has to be verified seriously
Fast pencil beam dose calculation for proton therapy using a double-Gaussian beam model
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Joakim eda Silva
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The highly conformal dose distributions produced by scanned proton pencil beams are more sensitive to motion and anatomical changes than those produced by conventional radiotherapy. The ability to calculate the dose in real time as it is being delivered would enable, for example, online dose monitoring, and is therefore highly desirable. We have previously described an implementation of a pencil beam algorithm running on graphics processing units (GPUs intended specifically for online dose calculation. Here we present an extension to the dose calculation engine employing a double-Gaussian beam model to better account for the low-dose halo. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first such pencil beam algorithm for proton therapy running on a GPU. We employ two different parametrizations for the halo dose, one describing the distribution of secondary particles from nuclear interactions found in the literature and one relying on directly fitting the model to Monte Carlo simulations of pencil beams in water. Despite the large width of the halo contribution, we show how in either case the second Gaussian can be included whilst prolonging the calculation of the investigated plans by no more than 16%, or the calculation of the most time-consuming energy layers by about 25%. Further, the calculation time is relatively unaffected by the parametrization used, which suggests that these results should hold also for different systems. Finally, since the implementation is based on an algorithm employed by a commercial treatment planning system, it is expected that with adequate tuning, it should be able to reproduce the halo dose from a general beam line with sufficient accuracy.
SU-E-I-28: Evaluating the Organ Dose From Computed Tomography Using Monte Carlo Calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: To evaluate organ doses from computed tomography (CT) using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. Methods: A Philips Brilliance CT scanner (64 slice) was simulated using the GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) based on the EGSnrc user code. The X-ray spectra and a bowtie filter for MC simulations were determined to coincide with measurements of half-value layer (HVL) and off-center ratio (OCR) profile in air. The MC dose was calibrated from absorbed dose measurements using a Farmer chamber and a cylindrical water phantom. The dose distribution from CT was calculated using patient CT images and organ doses were evaluated from dose volume histograms. Results: The HVLs of Al at 80, 100, and 120 kV were 6.3, 7.7, and 8.7 mm, respectively. The calculated HVLs agreed with measurements within 0.3%. The calculated and measured OCR profiles agreed within 3%. For adult head scans (CTDIvol) =51.4 mGy), mean doses for brain stem, eye, and eye lens were 23.2, 34.2, and 37.6 mGy, respectively. For pediatric head scans (CTDIvol =35.6 mGy), mean doses for brain stem, eye, and eye lens were 19.3, 24.5, and 26.8 mGy, respectively. For adult chest scans (CTDIvol=19.0 mGy), mean doses for lung, heart, and spinal cord were 21.1, 22.0, and 15.5 mGy, respectively. For adult abdominal scans (CTDIvol=14.4 mGy), the mean doses for kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and spinal cord were 17.4, 16.5, 16.8, 16.8, and 13.1 mGy, respectively. For pediatric abdominal scans (CTDIvol=6.76 mGy), mean doses for kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and spinal cord were 8.24, 8.90, 8.17, 8.31, and 6.73 mGy, respectively. In head scan, organ doses were considerably different from CTDIvol values. Conclusion: MC dose distributions calculated by using patient CT images are useful to evaluate organ doses absorbed to individual patients
SU-E-I-28: Evaluating the Organ Dose From Computed Tomography Using Monte Carlo Calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ono, T; Araki, F [Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To evaluate organ doses from computed tomography (CT) using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. Methods: A Philips Brilliance CT scanner (64 slice) was simulated using the GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) based on the EGSnrc user code. The X-ray spectra and a bowtie filter for MC simulations were determined to coincide with measurements of half-value layer (HVL) and off-center ratio (OCR) profile in air. The MC dose was calibrated from absorbed dose measurements using a Farmer chamber and a cylindrical water phantom. The dose distribution from CT was calculated using patient CT images and organ doses were evaluated from dose volume histograms. Results: The HVLs of Al at 80, 100, and 120 kV were 6.3, 7.7, and 8.7 mm, respectively. The calculated HVLs agreed with measurements within 0.3%. The calculated and measured OCR profiles agreed within 3%. For adult head scans (CTDIvol) =51.4 mGy), mean doses for brain stem, eye, and eye lens were 23.2, 34.2, and 37.6 mGy, respectively. For pediatric head scans (CTDIvol =35.6 mGy), mean doses for brain stem, eye, and eye lens were 19.3, 24.5, and 26.8 mGy, respectively. For adult chest scans (CTDIvol=19.0 mGy), mean doses for lung, heart, and spinal cord were 21.1, 22.0, and 15.5 mGy, respectively. For adult abdominal scans (CTDIvol=14.4 mGy), the mean doses for kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and spinal cord were 17.4, 16.5, 16.8, 16.8, and 13.1 mGy, respectively. For pediatric abdominal scans (CTDIvol=6.76 mGy), mean doses for kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and spinal cord were 8.24, 8.90, 8.17, 8.31, and 6.73 mGy, respectively. In head scan, organ doses were considerably different from CTDIvol values. Conclusion: MC dose distributions calculated by using patient CT images are useful to evaluate organ doses absorbed to individual patients.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this study is to perform a clinical evaluation of the first commercial (MDS Nordion, now Nucletron) treatment planning system for electron beams incorporating Monte Carlo dose calculation module. This software implements Kawrakow's VMC++ voxel-based Monte Carlo calculation algorithm. The accuracy of the dose distribution calculations is evaluated by direct comparisons with extensive sets of measured data in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms at different source-to-surface distances (SSDs) and gantry angles. We also verify the accuracy of the Monte Carlo module for monitor unit calculations in comparison with independent hand calculations for homogeneous water phantom at two different SSDs. All electron beams in the range 6-20 MeV are from a Siemens KD-2 linear accelerator. We used 10 000 or 50 000 histories/cm2 in our Monte Carlo calculations, which led to about 2.5% and 1% relative standard error of the mean of the calculated dose. The dose calculation time depends on the number of histories, the number of voxels used to map the patient anatomy, the field size, and the beam energy. The typical run time of the Monte Carlo calculations (10 000 histories/cm2) is 1.02 min on a 2.2 GHz Pentium 4 Xeon computer for a 9 MeV beam, 10x10 cm2 field size, incident on the phantom 15x15x10 cm3 consisting of 31 CT slices and voxels size of 3x3x3 mm3 (total of 486 720 voxels). We find good agreement (discrepancies smaller than 5%) for most of the tested dose distributions. We also find excellent agreement (discrepancies of 2.5% or less) for the monitor unit calculations relative to the independent manual calculations. The accuracy of monitor unit calculations does not depend on the SSD used, which allows the use of one virtual machine for each beam energy for all arbitrary SSDs. In some cases the test results are found to be sensitive to the voxel size applied such that bigger systematic errors (>5%) occur when large voxel sizes interfere with the extensions of
Estimates of Columbia River radionuclide concentrations: Data for Phase 1 dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project to estimate the radiation doses people may have received from historical Hanford Site operations. Under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel, the project is being conducted in phases. The objective of the first phase is to assess the feasibility of the project-wide technical approach for acquiring data and developing models needed to calculate potential radiation doses. This report summarizes data that were generated for the Phase 1 dose calculations. These included monthly average concentrations of specific radionuclides in Columbia River water and sediments between Priest Rapids Dam and McNary Dam for the years 1964 to 1966. Nine key radionuclides were selected for analysis based on estimation of their contribution to dose. Concentrations of these radionuclides in the river were estimated using existing measurements and hydraulic calculations based on the simplifying assumption that dilution and decay were the primary processes controlling the fate of radionuclides released to the river. Five sub-reaches between Priest Rapids Dam and McNary Dam, corresponding to population centers and tributary confluences, were identified and monthly average radionuclide concentrations were calculated for each sub-reach. The hydraulic calculations were performed to provide radionuclide concentration estimates for time periods and geographic locations where measured data were not available. The validity of the calculation method will be evaluated in Phase 2. 12 refs., 13 figs., 49 tabs
Monte Carlo calculation of dose to water of a 106Ru COB-type ophthalmic plaque
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The concave eye applicators with 106Ru/106Rh or 90Sr/90Y beta-ray sources are worldwide used in brachytherapy for treating intraocular tumors. It raises the need to know the exact dose delivered by beta radiation to tumors but measurement of the dose to water (or tissue) is very difficult due to short range of electrons. The Monte Carlo technique provides a powerful tool for calculation of the dose and dose distributions which helps to predict and determine the doses from different shapes of various types of eye applicators more accurately. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX has been used to calculate dose distributions from a COB-type 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicator manufactured by Eckert and Ziegler BEBIG GmbH. This type of a concave eye applicator has a cut-out whose purpose is to protect the eye nerve which makes the dose distribution more complicated. Several calculations have been performed including depth dose along the applicator central axis and various dose distributions. The depth dose along the applicator central axis and the dose distribution on a spherical surface 1 mm above the plaque inner surface have been compared with measurement data provided by the manufacturer. For distances from 0.5 to 4 mm above the surface, the agreement was within 2.5% and from 5 mm the difference increased from 6% up to 25% at 10 mm whereas the uncertainty on manufacturer data is 20% (2s). It is assumed that the difference is caused by nonuniformly distributed radioactivity over the applicator radioactive layer
Implementation of Monte Carlo Dose calculation for CyberKnife treatment planning
Ma, C.-M.; Li, J. S.; Deng, J.; Fan, J.
2008-02-01
Accurate dose calculation is essential to advanced stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) especially for treatment planning involving heterogeneous patient anatomy. This paper describes the implementation of a fast Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm in SRS/SRT treatment planning for the CyberKnife® SRS/SRT system. A superposition Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for this application. Photon mean free paths and interaction types for different materials and energies as well as the tracks of secondary electrons are pre-simulated using the MCSIM system. Photon interaction forcing and splitting are applied to the source photons in the patient calculation and the pre-simulated electron tracks are repeated with proper corrections based on the tissue density and electron stopping powers. Electron energy is deposited along the tracks and accumulated in the simulation geometry. Scattered and bremsstrahlung photons are transported, after applying the Russian roulette technique, in the same way as the primary photons. Dose calculations are compared with full Monte Carlo simulations performed using EGS4/MCSIM and the CyberKnife treatment planning system (TPS) for lung, head & neck and liver treatments. Comparisons with full Monte Carlo simulations show excellent agreement (within 0.5%). More than 10% differences in the target dose are found between Monte Carlo simulations and the CyberKnife TPS for SRS/SRT lung treatment while negligible differences are shown in head and neck and liver for the cases investigated. The calculation time using our superposition Monte Carlo algorithm is reduced up to 62 times (46 times on average for 10 typical clinical cases) compared to full Monte Carlo simulations. SRS/SRT dose distributions calculated by simple dose algorithms may be significantly overestimated for small lung target volumes, which can be improved by accurate Monte Carlo dose calculations.
Implementation of Monte Carlo Dose calculation for CyberKnife treatment planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accurate dose calculation is essential to advanced stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) especially for treatment planning involving heterogeneous patient anatomy. This paper describes the implementation of a fast Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm in SRS/SRT treatment planning for the CyberKnife (registered) SRS/SRT system. A superposition Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for this application. Photon mean free paths and interaction types for different materials and energies as well as the tracks of secondary electrons are pre-simulated using the MCSIM system. Photon interaction forcing and splitting are applied to the source photons in the patient calculation and the pre-simulated electron tracks are repeated with proper corrections based on the tissue density and electron stopping powers. Electron energy is deposited along the tracks and accumulated in the simulation geometry. Scattered and bremsstrahlung photons are transported, after applying the Russian roulette technique, in the same way as the primary photons. Dose calculations are compared with full Monte Carlo simulations performed using EGS4/MCSIM and the CyberKnife treatment planning system (TPS) for lung, head and neck and liver treatments. Comparisons with full Monte Carlo simulations show excellent agreement (within 0.5%). More than 10% differences in the target dose are found between Monte Carlo simulations and the CyberKnife TPS for SRS/SRT lung treatment while negligible differences are shown in head and neck and liver for the cases investigated. The calculation time using our superposition Monte Carlo algorithm is reduced up to 62 times (46 times on average for 10 typical clinical cases) compared to full Monte Carlo simulations. SRS/SRT dose distributions calculated by simple dose algorithms may be significantly overestimated for small lung target volumes, which can be improved by accurate Monte Carlo dose calculations
Implementation of Monte Carlo Dose calculation for CyberKnife treatment planning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, C-M; Li, J S; Deng, J; Fan, J [Radiation Oncology Department, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: Charlie.ma@fccc.edu
2008-02-01
Accurate dose calculation is essential to advanced stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) especially for treatment planning involving heterogeneous patient anatomy. This paper describes the implementation of a fast Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm in SRS/SRT treatment planning for the CyberKnife (registered) SRS/SRT system. A superposition Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for this application. Photon mean free paths and interaction types for different materials and energies as well as the tracks of secondary electrons are pre-simulated using the MCSIM system. Photon interaction forcing and splitting are applied to the source photons in the patient calculation and the pre-simulated electron tracks are repeated with proper corrections based on the tissue density and electron stopping powers. Electron energy is deposited along the tracks and accumulated in the simulation geometry. Scattered and bremsstrahlung photons are transported, after applying the Russian roulette technique, in the same way as the primary photons. Dose calculations are compared with full Monte Carlo simulations performed using EGS4/MCSIM and the CyberKnife treatment planning system (TPS) for lung, head and neck and liver treatments. Comparisons with full Monte Carlo simulations show excellent agreement (within 0.5%). More than 10% differences in the target dose are found between Monte Carlo simulations and the CyberKnife TPS for SRS/SRT lung treatment while negligible differences are shown in head and neck and liver for the cases investigated. The calculation time using our superposition Monte Carlo algorithm is reduced up to 62 times (46 times on average for 10 typical clinical cases) compared to full Monte Carlo simulations. SRS/SRT dose distributions calculated by simple dose algorithms may be significantly overestimated for small lung target volumes, which can be improved by accurate Monte Carlo dose calculations.
Development of dose calculation system of brachytherapy with a personal computer. 138
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A dose calculation system for the brachytherapy was developed with a personal computer. The system was made up of a 16 bits personal computer and a digitizer with a light panel. As the operating system, MS-DOS version 2.1 was used and the programs were written in the BASIC (compiler version) and the assembler. The followings are characteristics of the systeM1; (1) low cost, (2) high performances in the speed of calculation and the data-transfer, (3) high accuracy of the calculated dose-distribution, (4) consideration of the absorption of gamma rays within sources themselves and their containers. In this paper, functions of the system and the performances are described minutely. Moreover, we show the results of estimation of the accuracy of the calculated dose. 10 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table
Evaluation of an electron Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm for treatment planning.
Chamberland, Eve; Beaulieu, Luc; Lachance, Bernard
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm included in a commercial treatment planning system and compare its performance against an electron pencil beam algorithm. Several tests were performed to explore the system's behavior in simple geometries and in configurations encountered in clinical practice. The first series of tests were executed in a homogeneous water phantom, where experimental measurements and eMC-calculated dose distributions were compared for various combinations of energy and applicator. More specifically, we compared beam profiles and depth-dose curves at different source-to-surface distances (SSDs) and gantry angles, by using dose difference and distance to agreement. Also, we compared output factors, we studied the effects of algorithm input parameters, which are the random number generator seed, as well as the calculation grid size, and we performed a calculation time evaluation. Three different inhomogeneous solid phantoms were built, using high- and low-density materials inserts, to clinically simulate relevant heterogeneity conditions: a small air cylinder within a homogeneous phantom, a lung phantom, and a chest wall phantom. We also used an anthropomorphic phantom to perform comparison of eMC calculations to measurements. Finally, we proceeded with an evaluation of the eMC algorithm on a clinical case of nose cancer. In all mentioned cases, measurements, carried out by means of XV-2 films, radiographic films or EBT2 Gafchromic films. were used to compare eMC calculations with dose distributions obtained from an electron pencil beam algorithm. eMC calculations in the water phantom were accurate. Discrepancies for depth-dose curves and beam profiles were under 2.5% and 2 mm. Dose calculations with eMC for the small air cylinder and the lung phantom agreed within 2% and 4%, respectively. eMC calculations for the chest wall phantom and the anthropomorphic phantom also