Wang, Mingjun; Johansen, Britta; Nissen, Mogens H; Thorn, Mette; Kløverpris, Henrik; Fomsgaard, Anders; Buus, Søren; Claësson, Mogens H
A large number of human tumor-associated antigen-derived peptides have been identified that are recognized by CTLs in a MHC-I restricted fashion. The apoptosis inhibitory protein Bcl2 is overexpressed in many human cancers as part of their neoplastic phenotype. Since inhibition or loss of Bcl2...... expression might impair tumor growth and survival, this protein may serve as a rational target for vaccine-induced CTL responses. By Western blot technique, we screened a panel of established human tumor cell lines for proteins involved in the apoptotic process. Two of eight tumor cell lines, a B lymphoma...... (Loukes) and a colon carcinoma (CCL220) cell line showed increased Bcl2 protein expression whereas the majority of tumor cell lines expressed proapoptotic proteins. Neither fibroblasts nor peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed Bcl2 expression. An HLA-A*0201 restricted CTL epitope was deduced in silica...
Xin-Yu Xiong; Xiao Liu; Yuan-Ding Chen
AIM: To develop the epitope-based vaccines to prevent Hepatitis C virus (HCV)/Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections.METHODS: The HCV core epitopes C1 STNPKPQRKTKRNTNRRPQD (residuals aa2-21) and C2 VKFPGGGQIVGGVYLLPRR (residuals aa22-40), envelope epitope E GHRMAWDMMMNWSP (residuals aa315-328) and HBsAg epitope S CTTPAQGNSMFPSCCCTKPTDGNC (residuals aa124-147) were displayed in five different sites of the flock house virus capsid protein as a vector, and expressed in E. coli cells (pET-3 system).Immunoreactivity of the epitopes with anti-HCV and anti-HBV antibodies in the serum from hepatitis C and hepatitis B patients were determined.RESULTS: The expressed chimeric protein carrying the HCV epitopes C1, C2, E (two times), L3C1-I2E-L1C2-L2E could react with anti-HCV antibodies. The expressed chimeric protein carrying the HBV epitopes S, I3S could react with anti-HBs antibodies. The expressed chimeric proteins carrying the HCV epitopes C1, C2, E plus HBV epitope S, L3C1-I2E-L1C2-L2E-I3S could react with antiHCV and anti-HBs antibodies.CONCLUSION: These epitopes have highly specific and sensitive immunoreaction and are useful in the development of epitope-based vaccines.
Full Text Available Both theoretical predictions and experimental findings suggest that T cell populations can compete with each other. There is some debate on whether T cells compete for aspecific stimuli, such as access to the surface on antigen-presenting cells (APCs or for specific stimuli, such as their cognate epitope ligand. We have developed an individual-based computer simulation model to study T cell competition. Our model shows that the expression level of foreign epitopes per APC determines whether T cell competition is mainly for specific or aspecific stimuli. Under low epitope expression, competition is mainly for the specific epitope stimuli, and, hence, different epitope-specific T cell populations coexist readily. However, if epitope expression levels are high, aspecific competition becomes more important. Such between-specificity competition can lead to competitive exclusion between different epitope-specific T cell populations. Our model allows us to delineate the circumstances that facilitate coexistence of T cells of different epitope specificity. Understanding mechanisms of T cell coexistence has important practical implications for immune therapies that require a broad immune response.
Apicella, M A; Shero, M; Jarvis, G A; Griffiss, J. M.; Mandrell, R E; Schneider, H.
Gonococcal lipooligosaccharides (LOSs) are a series of antigenically complex heteropolymers. To investigate whether all members of clonally selected populations of Neisseria gonorrhoeae express antigenically similar LOS, we studied gonococcal strains 4505 and 220 with monoclonal antibodies 6B4 and 3F11 which have specificity for different oligosaccharide epitopes on the same or comigrating LOS unit(s) on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Fluorescent-antibody and immun...
Krause, Anja; Joh, Ju H; Hackett, Neil R; Roelvink, Peter W; Bruder, Joseph T; Wickham, Thomas J; Kovesdi, Imre; Crystal, Ronald G; Worgall, Stefan
On the basis of the concept that the capsid proteins of adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors can be genetically manipulated to enhance the immunogenicity of Ad-based vaccines, the present study compared the antiantigen immunogenicity of Ad vectors with a common epitope of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the influenza A virus incorporated into the outer Ad capsid protein hexon, penton base, fiber knob, or protein IX. Incorporation of the same epitope into the different capsid proteins provided insights into the correlation between epitope position and antiepitope immunity. Following immunization of three different strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c, and CBA) with either an equal number of Ad particles (resulting in a different total HA copy number) or different Ad particle numbers (to achieve the same HA copy number), the highest primary (immunoglobulin M [IgM]) and secondary (IgG) anti-HA humoral and cellular CD4 gamma interferon and interleukin-4 responses against HA were always achieved with the Ad vector carrying the HA epitope in fiber knob. These observations suggest that the immune response against an epitope inserted into Ad capsid proteins is not necessarily dependent on the capsid protein number and imply that the choice of incorporation site in Ad capsid proteins in their use as vaccines needs to be compared in vivo. PMID:16699033
Full Text Available Abstract Classical swine fever is a highly contagious disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus, an OIE list A pathogen. Epitope-based vaccines is one of the current focuses in the development of new vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Two B-cell linear epitopes rE2-ba from the E2 glycoprotein of CSFV, rE2-a (CFRREKPFPHRMDCVTTTVENED, aa844-865 and rE2-b (CKEDYRYAISSTNEIGLLGAGGLT, aa693-716, were constructed and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as multiple epitope vaccine. Fifteen 6-week-old specified-pathogen-free (SPF piglets were intramuscularly immunized with epitopes twice at 2-week intervals. All epitope-vaccinated pigs could mount an anamnestic response after booster vaccination with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256. At this time, the pigs were subjected to challenge infection with a dose of 1 × 106 TCID50 virulent CSFV strain. After challenge infection, all of the rE2-ba-immunized pigs were alive and without symptoms or signs of CSF. In contrast, the control pigs continuously exhibited signs of CSF and had to be euthanized because of severe clinical symptoms at 5 days post challenge infection. The data from in vivo experiments shown that the multiple epitope rE2-ba shown a greater protection (similar to that of HCLV vaccine than that of mono-epitope peptide(rE2-a or rE2-b. Therefore, The results demonstrated that this multiple epitope peptide expressed in a prokaryotic system can be used as a potential DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals vaccine. The E.coli-expressed E2 multiple B-cell linear epitopes retains correct immunogenicity and is able to induce a protective immune response against CSFV infection.
Debyser Zeger; Van den Haute Chris; Gijsbers Rik; Thiry Irina; Paesen Kirsten; Ibrahimi Abdelilah; Reumers Veerle; Lobbestael Evy; Baekelandt Veerle; Taymans Jean-Marc
Abstract Background In vivo overexpression of proteins is a powerful approach to study their biological function, generate disease models or evaluate gene therapy approaches. In order to investigate an exogenously expressed protein, specific and sensitive detection is essential. Unfortunately, antibodies that allow histological detection of the protein of interest are not always readily available. The use of an epitope tag fused to the protein can circumvent this problem as well as provide th...
Bhatt, Jay M; Styers, Melanie L; Sztul, Elizabeth
Before the advent of molecular methods to tag proteins, visualization of proteins within cells required the use of antibodies directed against the protein of interest. Thus, only proteins for which antibodies were available could be visualized. Epitope tagging allows the detection of all proteins with existing sequence information, irrespective of the availability of antibodies directed against them. This technique involves the generation of DNA constructs that express the protein of interest tagged with an epitope that can be recognized by a commercially available antibody. Proteins can be tagged with a wide variety of epitopes using commercially available vectors that allow expression in mammalian cells. Epitope-tagged proteins are easily transfected into mammalian cell lines and, in most cases, tightly mimic the behavior of the endogenous protein. Tagged proteins exogenously expressed in cells provide different types of information depending on the subsequent detection approaches. Using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy with anti-tag antibodies, relative to known markers of cellular organelles, can provide information on the subcellular localization of the tagged protein and may provide clues regarding the protein's function. Immunofluorescence with anti-tag antibodies can also be utilized to assess the tagged protein's responses to cellular signals and pharmacological treatments. Immunoprecipitations with anti-tag antibodies can recover protein complexes containing the protein of interest, resulting in the identification of interacting proteins. Recovery of tagged proteins on affinity matrices allows their purification for use in biochemical assays. In addition, specialized fluorescent tags, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) allow the analysis of cellular dynamics in live cells in real time. PMID:27515071
Damodharan, Subha; Gujar, Ravindra; Pattabiraman, Sathyamurthy; Nesakumar, Manohar; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth; Vadakkuppattu, Ramanathan D; Usha, Ramakrishnan
The coat protein of cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV), a member of the genus Macluravirus, assembles into virus-like particles when expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. The N and C-termini of the coat protein were engineered with the Kennedy peptide and the 2F5 and 4E10 epitopes of gp41 of HIV. The chimeric proteins reacted with sera from HIV positive persons and also stimulated secretion of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these persons. Thus, a system based on the coat protein of CdMV can be used to display HIV-1 antigens. PMID:23668610
Tolson, D L; Turco, S J; Pearson, T W
Murine peritoneal macrophages were infected with living, virulent Leishmania donovani promastigotes. At intervals after infection, the macrophage surfaces were probed for the expression of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) epitopes by immunofluorescence with anti-LPG monoclonal antibodies. A repeating phosphorylated disaccharide epitope of LPG was detected as early as 5 to 10 min postinfection and was initially localized to the immediate area of internalization of the promastigote into the macrophage. ...
Zhu, Y; Tryon, V; Magee, D M; Cox, R. A.
Antigen 2 (Ag2), a major immunoreactive component of Coccidioides immitis mycelium- and spherule-phase cell walls, was recently cloned in our laboratory and was shown to elicit T-cell responses in Coccidioides-immune mice. In this investigation, we evaluated recombinant Ag2 (rAg2) and PCR-generated Ag2 truncations for expression of B-cell-reactive epitopes in enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunoblot assays with sera from patients with active coccidioidomycosis, a hyperimmune goat anti-Ag2 s...
Epitope-based design of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and immunodiagnostics is complicated by structural changes that radically alter immunological outcomes. This is obscured by expressing redundancy among linear-epitope data as fractional sequence-alignment identity, which fails to account for potentially drastic loss of binding affinity due to single-residue substitutions even where these might be considered conservative in the context of classical sequence analysis. From the perspective of immune function based on molecular recognition of epitopes, functional redundancy of epitope data (FRED) thus may be defined in a biologically more meaningful way based on residue-level physicochemical similarity in the context of antigenic cross-reaction, with functional similarity between epitopes expressed as the Shannon information entropy for differential epitope binding. Such similarity may be estimated in terms of structural differences between an immunogen epitope and an antigen epitope with reference to an idealized binding site of high complementarity to the immunogen epitope, by analogy between protein folding and ligand-receptor binding; but this underestimates potential for cross-reactivity, suggesting that epitope-binding site complementarity is typically suboptimal as regards immunologic specificity. The apparently suboptimal complementarity may reflect a tradeoff to attain optimal immune function that favors generation of immune-system components each having potential for cross-reactivity with a variety of epitopes.
Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV is an aphthovirus that belongs to the Picornaviridae family and causes one of the most important animal diseases worldwide. The capacity of other picornaviruses to express foreign antigens has been extensively reported, however, little is known about FMDV. To explore the potential of FMDV as a viral vector, an 11-amino-acid (aa HSV epitope and an 8 aa FLAG epitope were introduced into the C-terminal different regions of 3A protein of FMDV full-length infectious cDNA clone. Recombinant viruses expressing the HSV or FLAG epitope were successfully rescued after transfection of both modified constructs. Immunofluorescence assay, Western blot and sequence analysis showed that the recombinant viruses stably maintained the foreign epitopes even after 11 serial passages in BHK-21 cells. The 3A-tagged viruses shared similar plaque phenotypes and replication kinetics to those of the parental virus. In addition, mice experimentally infected with the epitope-tagged viruses could induce tag-specific antibodies. Our results demonstrate that FMDV can be used effectively as a viral vector for the delivery of foreign tags.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Glypican 3 (GPC-3 is an oncofoetal protein that is expressed in most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC. Since it is a potential target for T cell immunotherapy, we investigated the generation of functional, GPC-3 specific T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Methods Dendritic cells (DC were derived from adherent PBMC cultured at 37°C for 7 days in X-Vivo, 1% autologous plasma, and 800 u/ml GM-CSF plus 500 u/ml IL-4. Immature DC were transfected with 20 μg of in vitro synthesised GPC-3 mRNA by electroporation using the Easy-ject plus system (Equibio, UK (300 V, 150 μF and 4 ms pulse time, or pulsed with peptide, and subsequently matured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Six predicted GPC-3 peptide epitopes were synthesized using standard f-moc technology and tested for their binding affinity to HLA-A2.1 molecules using the cell line T2. Results DC transfected with GPC-3 mRNA but not control DC demonstrated strong intracellular staining for GPC-3 and in vitro generated interferon-gamma expressing T cells from autologous PBMC harvested from normal subjects. One peptide, GPC-3522-530 FLAELAYDL, fulfilled our criteria as a naturally processed, HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL epitope: i it showed high affinity binding to HLA-A2, in T2 cell binding assay; ii it was generated by the MHC class I processing pathway in DC transfected with GPC-3 mRNA, and iii HLA-A2 positive DC loaded with the peptide stimulated proliferation in autologous T cells and generated CTL that lysed HLA-A2 and GPC-3 positive target cells. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that electroporation of GPC-3 mRNA is an efficient method to load human monocyte-derived DC with antigen because in vitro they generated GPC-3-reactive T cells that were functional, as shown by interferon-gamma production. Furthermore, this study identified a novel naturally processed, HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope, GPC-3522-530 FLAELAYDL, which can be used to
Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Riber, Ulla;
Background: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptide binding and presentation are essential for antigen-specific activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and swine MHC class I molecules, also termed swine leukocyte antigens (SLA), thus play a crucial role in the process that leads...... to elimination of viruses such as swine influenza virus (SwIV). This study describes the identification of SLA-presented peptide epitopes that are targets for a swine CTL response, and further analyses multiple specificities expressed by SwIV activated CTL subsets. Findings: Four SwIV derived...... peptides were identified as T cell epitopes using fluorescent influenza: SLA tetramers. In addition, multiple CTL specificities were analyzed using peptide sequence substitutions in two of the four epitope candidates analyzed. Interestingly both conserved and substituted peptides were found to stain the CD...
Tolson, D L; Turco, S J; Pearson, T W
Murine peritoneal macrophages were infected with living, virulent Leishmania donovani promastigotes. At intervals after infection, the macrophage surfaces were probed for the expression of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) epitopes by immunofluorescence with anti-LPG monoclonal antibodies. A repeating phosphorylated disaccharide epitope of LPG was detected as early as 5 to 10 min postinfection and was initially localized to the immediate area of internalization of the promastigote into the macrophage. The epitopes were evenly distributed over the entire macrophage surface by 25 min postinfection. Treatments which inhibited macrophage phagolysosomal degradation processes had no effect on epitope expression, whereas reagents that affected macrophage membrane flow and, thus, phagocytosis drastically reduced or abolished expression. Purified LPG or phosphoglycan, the delipidated form of the LPG molecule, was also shown to bind to a variety of different cell types in a temperature-independent manner. Since LPG has been implicated as having an immunoprotective role in leishmaniasis, these results suggest a further mechanism(s) by which Leishmania LPG might be involved in parasite pathogenicity and virulence. PMID:1699895
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV, that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environmental effects. Methods We engineered the BaMV as a vaccine vector expressing the antigenic epitope(s of the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. The recombinant BaMV plasmid (pBVP1 was constructed by replacing DNA encoding the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues of the BaMV coat protein with that encoding 37 amino acid residues (T128-N164 of FMDV VP1. Results The pBVP1 was able to infect host plants and to generate a chimeric virion BVP1 expressing VP1 epitopes in its coat protein. Inoculation of swine with BVP1 virions resulted in the production of anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies. Real-time PCR analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the BVP1-immunized swine revealed that they produced VP1-specific IFN-γ. Furthermore, all BVP1-immunized swine were protected against FMDV challenge. Conclusion Chimeric BaMV virions that express partial sequence of FMDV VP1 can effectively induce not only humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also full protection against FMDV in target animals. This BaMV-based vector technology may be applied to other vaccines that require correct expression of antigens on chimeric viral particles.
Objective. To evaluate the Plasmodium falciparum CTL epitope vaccines in HLA class I allele specific human cell lines that have high frequency among Chinese population. Methods. Synthesized oligonucleotides encoding for P.f. CTL epitope genes, constructed eukaryotic expression plasmids, transfected the minigenes into HLA class I allele specific human cell lines and identified endogenous expressing of the minigenes by RT-PCR and HLA stabilization assay. Results. Two mini-genes encoding Plasmodium falciparum CTL epitopes were designed and cloned, respectively, into an eukaryotic expressing vector to form TR26 which was restricted to HLA-B51, SH6 which was restricted to HLA-A2.1, and TS, which had the two aforementioned mini-genes fused in tandem. All of these CTL epitope genes were transfected and endogenously expressed in respective cell lines containing appropriate HLA molecules. The obviously increased expressions of HLA class I molecules were detected in the transfected cell lines. It was demonstrated that the two discrete Plasmodium falciparum epitope genes were effectively processed and presented, and the close proximity of the two epitope genes in one chain as in mini-gene TS did not interfere with the processing and presenting of each epitope gene in corresponding cell line. Conclusion. A successful expression and presentation of multiple CTL epitope mini-gene in MHC class I allele specific human cell lines were demonstrated by an in vitro assay, which could be corresponding to the vaccination of CTL vaccines in people with different MHC I molecules. This work also suggested the possibility of constructing a multiple CTL epitope plasmodium falciparum DNA vaccine that could cover most of Chinese population.
Wuorela, M; Jalkanen, S; Kirveskari, J; Laitio, P; Granfors, K
The expression of serologic HLA-B27 epitopes on leukocytes of patients with reactive arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis has been shown to be modified in the course of the disease. The purpose of this work was to study whether phagocytosis of arthritis-triggering microbes in vitro alters the expression of HLA-B27 molecules on human antigen-presenting cells and to characterize the underlying mechanisms. Human monocytes and HLA-B27- or HLA-A2-transfected human U-937 cells were exposed to Yersin...
Kaushik, Himani; Deshmukh, Sachin; Mathur, Deepika Dayal; Tiwari, Archana; Garg, Lalit C
Epsilon toxin secreted by Clostridium perfringens types B and D has been directly implicated as the causative agent of fatal enterotoxemia in domestic animals. The aim of the present study is to use in silico approach for identification of B-cell epitope(s) of epsilon toxin, and its expression in fusion with a carrier protein to analyze its potential as vaccine candidate(s). Using different computational analyses and bioinformatics tools, a number of antigenic determinant regions of epsilon t...
KivelÃ€, Tero Tapani
Fifty formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded retinoblastoma specimens and five normal human eyes were studied with the monoclonal anti-Leu-7 antibody, directed against the HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope that is shared by human natural killer cells and many neuronal, glial and neuroectodermal cells. The laboratory method was a sensitive immunohistochemical staining procedure, and neuroectodermal tumours that usually express this epitope were used as positive controls. In the human retina, MÃŒller ce...
Caoili, Salvador Eugenio C.
Epitope-based design of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and immunodiagnostics is complicated by structural changes that radically alter immunological outcomes. This is obscured by expressing redundancy among linear-epitope data as fractional sequence-alignment identity, which fails to account for potentially drastic loss of binding affinity due to single-residue substitutions even where these might be considered conservative in the context of classical sequence analysis. From the perspective of...
Full Text Available The homeobox protein, PEPP2 (RHOXF2, has been suggested as a cancer/testis (CT antigen based on its expression pattern. However, the peptide epitope of PEPP2 that is recognized by cytotoxic T cells (CTLs is unknown. In this study, we revealed that PEPP2 gene was highly expressed in myeloid leukemia cells and some other hematological malignancies. This gene was also expressed in leukemic stem-like cells. We next identified the first reported epitope peptide (PEPP2(271-279. The CTLs induced by PEPP2(271-279 recognized PEPP2-positive target cells in an HLA-A*24:02-restricted manner. We also found that a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, could enhance PEPP2 expression in leukemia cells but not in blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. The cytotoxic activity of anti-PEPP2 CTL against leukemic cells treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine was higher than that directed against untreated cells. These results suggest a clinical rationale that combined treatment with this novel antigen-specific immunotherapy together with demethylating agents might be effective in therapy-resistant myeloid leukemia patients.
Wu, J Y; Newton, S; Judd, A; Stocker, B; Robinson, W S
A nonvirulent Salmonella dublin flagellin-negative, aromatic-dependent live vaccine strain has been used to express hepatitis B virus surface antigen epitopes in an immunogenic form. The envelope proteins of the virion are encoded by the S gene, which contains the pre-S1, pre-S2, and S coding regions. Synthetic oligonucleotides corresponding to amino acid residues S-(122-137) and pre-S2-(120-145) were inserted in-frame into the hypervariable region of a cloned Salmonella flagellin gene, and t...
Fu, T. M.; Bonneau, R H; Tevethia, M J; Tevethia, S S
Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen can immortalize a wide variety of mammalian cells in culture. We have taken advantage of this property of T antigen to use it as a carrier for the expression of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) recognition epitopes. DNA sequences corresponding to an H-2Db-restricted SV40 T-antigen site I (amino acids 205 to 215) were translocated into SV40 T-antigen DNA at codon positions 350 and 650 containing EcoRI linkers. An H-2Kb-restricted herpes simplex virus glycopro...
Natalia V. Petukhova
Full Text Available Recombinant viruses based on the cDNA copy of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV genome carrying different versions of the conserved M2e epitope from influenza virus A cloned into the coat protein (CP gene were obtained and partially characterized by our group previously; cysteines in the human consensus M2e sequence were changed to serine residues. This work intends to show some biological properties of these viruses following plant infections. Agroinfiltration experiments on Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed the efficient systemic expression of M2e peptides, and two point amino acid substitutions in recombinant CPs significantly influenced the symptoms and development of viral infections. Joint expression of RNA interference suppressor protein p19 from tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV did not affect the accumulation of CP-M2e-ser recombinant protein in non-inoculated leaves. RT-PCR analysis of RNA isolated from either infected leaves or purified TMV-M2e particles proved the genetic stability of TMV‑based viral vectors. Immunoelectron microscopy of crude plant extracts demonstrated that foreign epitopes are located on the surface of chimeric virions. The rod‑shaped geometry of plant-produced M2e epitopes is different from the icosahedral or helical filamentous arrangement of M2e antigens on the carrier virus-like particles (VLP described earlier. Thereby, we created a simple and efficient system that employs agrobacteria and plant viral vectors in order to produce a candidate broad-spectrum flu vaccine.
Zhu, Ye; Jiang, Janina; Said-Sadier, Najwane; Boxx, Gale; Champion, Cheryl; Tetlow, Ashley; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Rome, Leonard H.; Ojcius, David M.; Kelly, Kathleen A.
The full potential of vaccines relies on development of effective delivery systems and adjuvants and is critical for development of successful vaccine candidates. We have shown that recombinant vaults engineered to encapsulate microbial epitopes are highly stable structures and are an ideal vaccine vehicle for epitope delivery which does not require the inclusion of an adjuvant. We studied the ability of vaults which were engineered for use as a vaccine containing an immunogenic epitope of C. trachomatis, polymorphic membrane protein G (PmpG), to be internalized into human monocytes and behave as a “natural adjuvant”. We here show that incubation of monocytes with the PmpG-1-vaults activates caspase-1 and stimulates IL-1β secretion through a process requiring the NLRP3 inflammasome and that cathepsin B and Syk are involved in the inflammasome activation. We also observed that the PmpG-1-vaults are internalized through a pathway that is transiently acidic and leads to destabilization of lysosomes. In addition, immunization of mice with PmpG-1-vaults induced PmpG-1 responsive CD4+ cells upon re-stimulation with PmpG peptide in vitro, suggesting that vault vaccines can be engineered for specific adaptive immune responses. We conclude that PmpG-1-vault vaccines can stimulate NLRP3 inflammasomes and induce PmpG-specific T cell responses. PMID:25448112
Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Lee, Chin-Wei; Cho, Yu-Hsin; Wu, Feng-Chao; Hu, Chung-Chi; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu
We describe a novel strategy to produce vaccine antigens using a plant cell-suspension culture system in lieu of the conventional bacterial or animal cell-culture systems. We generated transgenic cell-suspension cultures from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves carrying wild-type or chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) expression constructs encoding the viral protein 1 (VP1) epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Antigens accumulated to high levels in BdT38 and BdT19 transgenic cell lines co-expressing silencing suppressor protein P38 or P19. BaMV chimeric virus particles (CVPs) were subsequently purified from the respective cell lines (1.5 and 2.1 mg CVPs/20 g fresh weight of suspended biomass, respectively), and the resulting CVPs displayed VP1 epitope on the surfaces. Guinea pigs vaccinated with purified CVPs produced humoral antibodies. This study represents an important advance in the large-scale production of immunopeptide vaccines in a cost-effective manner using a plant cell-suspension culture system. PMID:25879277
Foulds, S.; Wakefield, C. H.; Giles, M.; Gillespie, J.; Dye, J. F.; Guillou, P. J.
mRNA for the suppressive epitope of p15E was found to be present in 24 of 30 samples of human colorectal cancer and in all four specimens of gastric cancer. mRNA for p15E was seldom seen in nonmalignant colonic or gastric mucosa but, when present, was associated with inflammatory or pre-malignant conditions of the digestive tract. Synthetic peptides derived from the conserved p15E sequence were found to suppress some aspects of the immune response implicated in anti-tumour activity. These dat...
Dobbertin, Alexandre; Rhodes, Kate E; Garwood, Jeremy; Properzi, Francesca; Heck, Nicolas; Rogers, John H; Fawcett, James W; Faissner, Andreas
Several chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are upregulated after CNS injury and are thought to limit axonal regeneration in the adult mammalian CNS. Therefore, we examined the expression of the CSPG, receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTPbeta)/phosphacan, after a knife lesion to the cerebral cortex and after treatment of glial cultures with regulatory factors. The three splice variants of this CSPG gene, the secreted isoform, phosphacan, and the two transmembrane isoforms, the long and short RPTPbeta, were examined. Western blot and immunostaining analysis of injured and uninjured tissue revealed a transient decrease of phosphacan protein levels, but not of short RPTPbeta, in the injured tissue from 1 to 7 days postlesion (dpl). By real time RT-PCR, we show that phosphacan and long RPTPbeta mRNA levels are transiently down-regulated at 2 dpl, unlike those of short RPTPbeta which increased after 4 dpl. In contrast to the core glycoprotein, the phosphacan chondroitin sulfate (CS) glycosaminoglycan epitope DSD-1 was up-regulated after 7 dpl. Phosphacan was expressed by cultivated astrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursors but was more glycanated in oligodendrocyte precursors, which produce more of DSD-1 epitope than astrocytes. Epidermal growth factor/transforming growth factor alpha strongly increased the astrocytic expression of long RPTPbeta and phosphacan and slightly the short RPTPbeta protein levels, while interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha reduced astrocytic levels of phosphacan, but not of the receptor forms. Examining the effects of phosphacan on axon growth from rat E17 cortical neurons, we found that phosphacan stimulates outgrowth in a largely CS dependent manner, while it blocks the outgrowth-promoting effects of laminin through an interaction that is not affected by removal of the CS chains. These results demonstrate complex injury-induced modifications in phosphacan expression and glycanation that may well influence axonal
Underly, Robert; Song, Mee-Sook; Dunbar, Gary L.; Weaver, Charles L.
The neurofibrillary tau pathology and amyloid deposits seen in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) also have been seen in bacteria-infected brains. However, few studies have examined the role of these bacteria in the generation of tau pathology. One suggested link between infection and AD is edentulism, the complete loss of teeth. Edentulism can result from chronic periodontal disease due to infection by Enterococcus faecalis. The current study assessed the ability to generate early Alzheimer-like neurofibrillary epitopes in primary rat cortical neurons through bacterial infection by E. faecalis. Seven-day old cultured neurons were infected with E. faecalis for 24 and 48 h. An upward molecular weight shift in tau by Western blotting (WB) and increased appearance of tau reactivity in cell bodies and degenerating neurites was found in the 48 h infection group for the antibody CP13 (phospho-Serine 202). A substantial increase in reactivity of Alz-50 was seen at 24 and 48 h after infection. Furthermore, extensive microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) reactivity also was seen at 24 and 48 h post-infection. Our preliminary findings suggest a potential link between E. faecalis infection and intracellular changes that may help facilitate early AD-like neurofibrillary pathology. HighlightsEnterococcus faecalis used in the generation of AD neurofibrillary epitopes in rat.Infection increases Alz-50, phospho-Serine 202 tau, and MAP2 expression.Infection by Enterococcus may play a role in early Alzheimer neurofibrillary changes. PMID:26834627
Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported the usefulness of the αGal epitope as a target molecule for gene therapy against cancer. To induce cancer cell specific transcription of the αGal epitope, an expression vector which synthesizes the αGal epitope under the control of a promoter region of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT, NK7, was constructed. Methods NK7 was transfected into a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line, MIA cells, and telomerase-negative SUSM-1 cells served controls. Expression of the αGal epitope was confirmed by flow cytometry using IB4 lectin. The susceptibility of transfected MIA cells to human natural antibodies, was examined using a complement-dependent cytotoxic cross-match test (CDC and a flow cytometry using annexin V. Results The αGal epitope expression was detected only on the cell surfaces of NK7-transfected MIA cells, i.e., not on naive MIA cells or telomerase negative SUSM-1 cells. The CDC results indicated that MIA cells transfected with NK7 are susceptible to human natural antibody-mediated cell killing, and the differences, as compared to NK-7 transfected telomerase negative SUSM-1 cells or telomerase positive naïve MIA cells, were statistically significant. The flow cytometry using annexin V showed a higher number of the apoptotic cells in NK-7 transfected MIA cells than in naïve MIA cells. Conclusions The results suggest that αGal epitope-expression, under the control of the hTERT-promoter, may be useful in cancer specific gene therapy.
Yang, Chen; Luo, Fangni; Dai, Weixing; Li, Shanshan; Huang, Renhua; Xie, Yangmei; Xue, Feiyue; Li, Xiangming
When we try to establish the gene recombinant yeast cell to screen the androgenic endocrine disruptors, the key procedure is the androgen receptor (AR) expression in the yeast cell. For this purpose, we obtained the GPD (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphote dehydrogenase) promoter from the yeast genosome of W303-1A using PCR system and inserting it into Swa I and BamH I sites of pYestrp2. The new constructed vector was named pGPD. The V5 epitope tag DNA with a 5'-BamH I and a 3'-EcoR I sticky end was cloned into the corresponding site of the pGPD vector to yield the vector of pGPDV5. The 2 723 bp full length AR ORF amplified by PCR from pcDNA3.1/AR was fused to V5 epitope tag DNA in pGPDV5 to give the AR yeast expression vector of pGPDV5/AR. This fused vector was transformed into the yeast cell (W303-1A). Western blot was used to detect the V5 fused protein of AR, in the protocol of which the primary monoclonal antibody (IgG(2a)) of mouse anti-V5 and the polyclonal secondary antibody of goat anti-mouse (IgG) linked to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were used to detect the specific protein in the given sample of the transformed yeast extract. The result showed that the fused protein of AR was expressed successfully in the yeast cell. PMID:24059072
Adair, Sara J; Carr, Tiffany M; Fink, Mitsú J; Slingluff, Craig L; Hogan, Kevin T
The TAG-1, TAG-2a, TAG-2b, and TAG-2c cancer/testis genes, known to be expressed in an unusually high percentage of melanoma cell lines, are shown here to be expressed in a variety of tumor lines of diverse histologic type, including cancers of the brain, breast, colon, lung, ovary, pharynx, and tongue. The genes are also expressed in fresh, uncultured melanoma, and ovarian cancer cells. Epitope prediction algorithms were used to identify potential HLA-A1, HLA-A2, HLA-A3, HLA-B7, and HLA-B8 epitopes, and these potential epitopes were tested for their ability to stimulate a peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response using lymphocytes from healthy donors. Two HLA-A2-restricted epitopes (SLGWLFLLL and LLLRLECNV) were identified using this approach. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for each of these peptides were capable of recognizing tumor cells expressing both the corresponding class I major histocompatibility complex encoded molecule and the TAG genes. These results indicate that TAG-derived peptides may be good components of a therapeutic vaccine designed to target melanoma and a variety of epithelial cell-derived malignancies. PMID:18157007
McCarvil, J; McKenna, A J; Grief, C; Hoy, C S; Sesardic, D; Maiden, M C; Feavers, I M
The class 1 outer membrane protein (OMP), a major variable surface antigen of Neisseria meningitidis, is a component of novel meningococcal vaccines currently in field trials. Serological variants of the protein are also used to serosubtype meningococci. Most of the amino acid changes that give rise to antigenic variants of the protein occur in two variable regions (VR1 and VR2) that are thought to form loops on the cell surface. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the nucleotide sequences encoding VR1 and VR2 from the chromosomal DNA of N. meningitidis strain M1080. These were cloned in frame into the lamB gene of the Escherichia coli expression vector pAJC264. Whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), using monoclonal antibodies, and SDS-PAGE confirmed that, upon induction, strains of E. coli carrying these constructs expressed hybrid LamB proteins containing the N. meningitidis surface loops. These strains were used to immunize rabbits and the resultant polyclonal antisera reacted specifically with the class 1 OMP of reference strain M1080 (P1.7). Immunogold labelling of meningococcal cells and whole-cell dot-blot analyses with these antisera showed that the variable epitopes were exposed on the cell surface and confirmed that this approach could be used to obtain serosubtype-specific antisera. The binding profiles of the antisera were determined from their reactions with overlapping synthetic peptides and their reactivity compared with that of relevant serosubtype-specific monoclonal antibodies. This approach was used successfully to raise antisera against two other class 1 OMP VR2s. A fourth antiserum raised against a VR2, including the P1.1 epitope, was not subtype specific. PMID:7526119
Gal α(1,3)Gal(gal epitope)is a carbohydrate epitope and synthesized in large amount by α(1,3)galactosyltransferase [α(1,3)GT] enzyme on the cells of lower mammalian animals such as pigs and mice.Human has no gal epitope due to the inactivation of α(1,3)GT gene but produces a large amount of antibodies(anti-Gal)which recognize Gal α(1,3)Gal structures specifically.In this study,a replicationdeficient recombinant adenoviral vector Ad5sGT containing pig α(1,3)GT cDNA was constructed and characterized.Adenoviral vector-mediated transfer of pig α(1,3)GT gene into human tumor cells such as malignant melanoma A375,stomach cancer SGC-7901,and lung cancer SPC-A-1 was reported for the first time.Results showed that Gal epitope did not increase the sensitivity of human tumor cells to human complement-mediated lysis,although human complement activation and the binding of human IgG and IgM natural antibodies to human tumor cells were enhanced significantly after Ad5sGT transduction.Appearance of gal epitope on the human tumor cells changed the expression of cell surface carbohydrates reacting with Ulex europaeus I(UEA I)lectins,Vicia villosa agglutinin(VVA),Arachis hypogaea agglutinin(PNA),and Glycine max agglutinin(SBA)to different degrees.In addition,no effect of gal epitope on the growth in vitro of human tumor cells was observed in MTT assay.
Kleinman, Y.; Schonfeld, g.; Oshry, Y.; Gevish, d.; Eisenberg, S.
LDL of untreated hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients are smaller and enriched in triglycerides and proteins compared with normal LDL. HTG-LDL also bind defectively to the LDL receptor of cultured human fibroblasts. These defects are reversible by hypolipidemic therapy. The authors tested the hypothesis that LDL binding to cells may be altered by modulation of apoB epitopes on the surface of LDL. Fasting plasma samples were obtained from 5 HTG patients before and three weeks after bezafibrate therapy when mean triglyceride levels were 436 and 157 mg/dl, respectively (p<0.01). LDL were isolated in zonal rotors and assayed for binding to a degradation by fibroblasts. LDL immunoreactivity was tested in solid phase competitive radioimmunoassays (RIA) using three monoclonal antiLDL antibodies (Mab). Mab B1B3 inhibits the binding of LDL to its receptor. Therapy reduced mean LDL-triglycerides from 9.4 to 5.8% of LDL mass (p < 0.025) and LDL-protein from 29.4 to 24.8% (p < 0.025). Mean cell association rose from 277 to 400 ng LDL/mg cell protein (p < 0.025) and degradation from 596 to 957 ng/mg (p < 0.005). In RIA's mean ED/sub 50/ values of LDL with Mab B1B3 fell from 6.0 to 3.2 ..mu..g LDL protein (p < 0.005) and with Mab B6C3 from 17.3 to 7.5 (p < 0.05). ED/sub 50/ did not change with Mab D7.1. Thus, the improved interaction of LDL is related to the altered disposition of apoB on LDL.
Kløverpris, Henrik N; McGregor, Reuben; McLaren, James E; Ladell, Kristin; Buus, Anette Stryhn; Koofhethile, Catherine; Brener, Jacqui; Chen, Fabian; Riddell, Lynn; Graziano, Luzzi; Klenerman, Paul; Leslie, Alasdair; Buus, Søren; Price, David A; Goulder, Philip
) clonotypes within individual HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell populations was also apparent, independent of clonal dominance hierarchies. Positive correlations were detected between PD-1 expression and plasma viral load, which were reinforced by stratification for epitope sequence stability and dictated by...... effector memory CD8+ T cells. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these data suggest that PD-1 expression on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells tracks antigen load at the level of epitope specificity and TCR clonotype usage. These findings are important because they provide evidence that PD-1 expression levels are......OBJECTIVES: Although CD8+ T cells play a critical role in the control of HIV-1 infection,their antiviral efficacy can be limited by antigenic variation and immune exhaustion.The latter phenomenon is characterized by the upregulation of multiple inhibitory receptors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1...
The epitope-G1 gene of Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) glycoprotein was synthesised by PCR and cloned into expression vector pPIC9K to construct recombinant plasmid pPIC9K-G1. Then the pPIC9K-G1 was linearized and transformed into Pichia pastoris GS 115. The recombinant P. pastoris strains were selected by a G418 transformation screen and confirmed by PCR. After being induced with methanol, an expressed protein with 26 kDa molecular weight was obtained, which was much bigger than the predicted size (15.54 kDa). Deglycosylation analysis indicated the recombinant G1 was glycosylated. Western blot and ELISA tests, as well as rabbit immunization and specificity experiments indicated that the target protein had both higher reaction activity and higher immunocompetence and specificity. The recombinant G1 protein could be used as a coating antigen to develop an ELISA kit for bovine ephemeral fever diagnosis.
Sarhan, Mohammed A A; Musa, Mustaffa; Zainuddin, Zainul F
Expressing proteins of interest as fusion to proteins of bacterial envelope is a powerful technique for biotechnological and medical applications. The synthetic gene (VacII) encoding for T-cell epitopes of selected genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis namely, ESAT6, MTP40, 38 kDa, and MPT64 was fused with N- terminus of Pseudomonas syringae ice nucleation protein (INP) outer membrane protein. The fused genes were cloned into a bacterial expression vector pKK223-3. The recombinant protein was purified by Ni-NAT column. VacII gene was displayed on the cell surface of Salmonella typhi Ty21a using N-terminal region of ice nucleation proteins (INP) as an anchoring motif. Glycine method confirmed that VacII was anchored on the cell surface. Western blot analysis further identified the synthesis of INP derivatives containing the N-terminal domain INP- VacII fusion protein of the expected size (52 kDa). PMID:21941936
Optimization of multi-epitopic HIV-1 recombinant protein expression in prokaryote system and conjugation to mouse DEC-205 monoclonal antibody: implication for in-vivo targeted delivery of dendritic cells
Roghayeh Rahimi; Massoumeh Ebtekar; Seyed Mohammad Moazzeni; Ali Mostafaie; Mehdi Mahdavi
Objective(s):Multi-epitopic protein vaccines and direction of vaccine delivery to dendritic cells (DCs) are promising approaches for enhancing immune responses against mutable pathogens. Escherichia coli is current host for expression of recombinant proteins, and it is important to optimize expression condition. The aim of this study was the optimization of multi-epitopic HIV-1 tat/pol/gag/env recombinant protein (HIVtop4) expression by E. coli and conjugation of purified protein to anti DEC-...
Tosi, P; D'Ovidio, R; Napier, J A; Bekes, F; Shewry, P R
The low-molecular-weight (LMW) glutenin subunits are components of the highly cross-linked glutenin polymers that confer viscoelastic properties to gluten and dough. They have both quantitative and qualitative effects on dough quality that may relate to differences in their ability to form the inter-chain disulphide bonds that stabilise the polymers. In order to determine the relationship between dough quality and the amounts and properties of the LMW subunits, we have transformed the pasta wheat cultivars Svevo and Ofanto with three genes encoding proteins, which differ in their numbers or positions of cysteine residues. The transgenes were delivered under control of the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunit 1Dx5 gene promoter and terminator regions, and the encoded proteins were C-terminally tagged by the introduction of the c-myc epitope. Stable transformants were obtained with both cultivars, and the use of a specific antibody to the c-myc epitope tag allowed the transgene products to be readily detected in the complex mixture of LMW subunits. A range of transgene expression levels was observed. The addition of the epitope tag did not compromise the correct folding of the trangenic subunits and their incorporation into the glutenin polymers. Our results demonstrate that the ability to specifically epitope-tag LMW glutenin transgenes can greatly assist in the elucidation of their individual contributions to the functionality of the complex gluten system. PMID:14574453
Würtzen, Peter A; Claesson, Mogens H
, the CTL line, which expressed relatively low affinity for the HLA-A2/peptide complex, was able to kill 3 different HLA-A2(+) p53 mutated tumor cell lines. The present and our previous observations expand the number of p53-derived peptides suitable for vaccination protocols for cancer patients with p53......A p53 peptide-specific CTL line was generated through stimulation with autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with wild-type HLA-A2 binding p53 derived peptides. A p53 peptide-specific CD8(+) CTL line was established from a healthy HLA-A2 positive donor. The CTL line was...... characterized with respect to specificity, affinity and killing of cell lines derived from p53 mutated spontaneous tumors. The CTL line demonstrated lysis of p53(139-147) pulsed target cells and cold target inhibition experiments as well as antibody blocking confirmed that the killing was epitope-specific, HLA...
Čeřovská, Noemi; Hoffmeisterová, Hana; Moravec, Tomáš; Plchová, Helena; Folwarczna, Jitka; Synková, Helena; Ryšlavá, H.; Ludvíková, V.; Šmahel, M.
Roč. 37, č. 1 (2012), s. 125-133. ISSN 0250-5991 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/06/0973; GA ČR GA521/09/1525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Human papillomavirus (HPV-16) * L2- and E7-derived epitopes * transient expression Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.759, year: 2012
Hoang, Vinh Van; Zou, Yanshuang; Kurata, Kentaro; Enomoto, Keiichi
Peptides containing T-cell epitopes from allergens, which are not reactive to allergen-specific IgE, are appropriate candidates as antigens for specific immunotherapy against allergies. To develop a vaccine that can be used in practical application to prevent and treat Japanese cedar pollen allergy, four major T-cell epitopes from the Cry j 1 antigen and six from the Cry j 2 antigen were selected to design cry j 1 epi and cry j 2 epi, DNA constructs encoding artificial polypeptides of the selected epitopes. To apply cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant, cry j 1 epi and cry j 2 epi were linked and then fused to the CTB gene in tandem to construct a fusion gene, ctb-linker-cry j 1 epi- cry j 2 epi-flag. The fusion gene was introduced into a pET-28a(+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The expressed recombinant protein was purified by a His-tag affinity column and confirmed by western blot analysis using anti-CTB and anti-FLAG antibodies. The purified recombinant protein also proved to be antigenic against anti-Cry j 1 and anti-Cry j 2 antibodies. Expression of the recombinant protein induced with 1mM IPTG reached a maximum in 3-5h, and recovery of the affinity-purified recombinant protein was approximately 120mg/L of culture medium. The present study indicates that production of sufficient amounts of recombinant protein with antigenic epitopes may be possible by recombinant techniques using E. coli or other bacterial strains for protein expression. PMID:25665505
Sun, Jianhui; Huang, Liping; Wei, Yanwu; Wang, Yiping; Chen, Dongjie; Du, Wenjuan; Wu, Hongli; Feng, Li; Liu, Changming
Porcine parvovirus type 1 (PPV1) is a major causative agent of embryonic and fetal death in swine. The PPV1 VP2 protein is closely associated with viral immunogenicity for eliciting neutralizing antibodies, but its antigenic structures have been largely unknown. We generated three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against baculovirus-expressed recombinant PPV1 VP2 protein. A PEPSCAN analysis identified the minimal B cell linear epitopes of PPV1 VP2 based on these MAbs. Three core epitopes, (228)QQITDA(233), (284)RSLGLPPK(291), and (344)FEYSNGGPFLTPI(356), were defined and mapped onto three-dimensional models of the PPV1 virion and VP2 monomer. The epitope (228)QQITDA(233) is exposed on the virion surface, and the other two are located inside the protein. An alignment of the PPV1 VP2 amino acid sequences showed that (284)RSLGLPPK(291) and (344)FEYSNGGPFLTPI(356) are absolutely conserved, whereas (228)QQITDA(233) has a single substitution at residue 233 in some (S → A or T). We developed a VP2 epitope-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) to test for anti-PPV1 antibodies. In a comparative analysis with an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay using 135 guinea pig sera, the VP2-epitope-based iELISA had a concordance rate of 85.19 %, sensitivity of 83.33 %, and specificity of 85.47 %. MAb 8H6 was used to monitor VP2 during the PPV1 replication cycle in vitro with an indirect immunofluorescence assay, which indicated that newly encapsulated virions are released from the nucleus at 24 h postinfection and the PPV1 replication cycle takes less than 24 h. This study provides valuable information clarifying the antigenic structure of PPV1 VP2 and lays the foundations for PPV1 serodiagnosis and antigen detection. PMID:26153140
Pablo D. Becker
Full Text Available Viral vectors are promising tools for vaccination strategies and immunotherapies. However, CD8+ T cell responses against pathogen-derived epitopes are usually limited to dominant epitopes and antibody responses to recombinant encoded antigens (Ags are mostly weak. We have previously demonstrated that the timing of viral Ag expression in infected professional Ag-presenting cells strongly shapes the epitope immunodominance hierarchy. T cells recognizing determinants derived from late viral proteins have a clear disadvantage to proliferate during secondary responses. In this work we evaluate the effect of overexpressing the recombinant Ag using the modified vaccinia virus early/late promoter H5 (mPH5. Although the Ag-expression from the natural promoter 7.5 (P7.5 and the mPH5 seemed similar, detailed analysis showed that mPH5 not only induces higher expression levels than P7.5 during early phase of infection, but also Ag turnover is enhanced. The strong overexpression during the early phase leads to broader CD8 T cell responses, while preserving the priming efficiency of stable Ags. Moreover, the increase in Ag-secretion favors the induction of strong antibody responses. Our findings provide the rationale to develop new strategies for fine-tuning the responses elicited by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara by using selected promoters to improve the performance of this viral vector.
Yong-Hong Guo; Zhi-Ming Hao; Jin-Yan Luo; Jun-Hong Wang
AIM: To insert the constructed TGF-β1the el loop of C-terminus of truncated hepatitis B core antigen to increase TGF-β1expression system and to identify immunity of the expressed recombinant protein in order to exploit the possibility for obtaining anti- TGF-β1METHODS: The TGF-β1mature TGF-β1TGF-32) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the recombinant pGEM-7z/TGF-β1HBcAg gene fragments (encoding HBcAg from 1-71 and 89-144 amino acid residues) were amplified from PYTA1-HBcAg vector. The recombinant vector pGEMEX-1 was used to insert HBcAg1-71, TGF-β1into restrictive endonuclease enzyme and ligated with T4ligase. The fusion gene fragments HBcAg1-71-TGF-β1HBcAg89-144 were recloned to pET28a(+) and the DNA sequence was confirmed by the dideoxy chain termination method. The recombinant vector pET28a (+)/CTC was transformed and expressed in E.. Coli BL21 (DE3)under induction of IPTG. After purification with Ni+2-NTA agarose resins, the antigenicity of purified protein was detected by ELISA and Western blot and visualized under electron microscope.RESULTS: Enzyme digestion analysis and sequencing showed that TGF-β1loop of C-terminus of truncated hepatitis B core antigen.SDS-PAGE analysis showed that relative molecular mass(Mr) of the expressed product by pET28a (+)/CTC was Mr 24 600.The output of the target recombinant protein was approximately 34.8％ of the total bacterial protein,mainly presented in the form of inclusion body. Western blotting and ELISA demonstrated that the fusion protein could combine with anti-TGF-β1not with anti-HBcAg. The purity of protein was about 90% and the protein was in the form of self-assembling particles visualized under electron microscope. This fusion protein had good anti-TGF-β1could be used as anti-TGF-β1CONCLUSION: A recombinant prokaryotic expression system with high expression efficiency of the target TGF- epitope gene was successfully established.The fusion protein is in the form of self-assembling particles
Yuan, Xiaomin; Lin, Huixing; Fan, Hongjie
To explore the possibility of developing a vaccine against transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection, a recombinant swinepox virus (rSPV-SA) expressing a TGEV protective antigen has been constructed. Immune responses and protection efficacy of the vaccination vector were assessed in both mice and pig models. An indirect ELISA assay suggested that when mice were vaccinated with rSPV-SA, the level of IgG against TGEV was enhanced dramatically. The cytokine assays were employed and the results indicated that both the Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine levels raised after vaccination with rSPV-SA in mice models. Results from the passive immunity protection test of new born piglets demonstrated that the recombinant live-vector vaccine, rSPV-SA, could 100% protect piglets from the SPV infection, and there was no significant clinical symptom in the rSPV-SA treatment group during this experiment. The data suggest that the novel recombinant swinepox virus is a potential vaccine against TGEV infection. PMID:26116254
Fehr, Thomas; Skrastina, Dace; Pumpens, Paul; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.
Recombinant viral or virus-like particles offer new tools for vaccine development. This study investigated hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) capsids and RNA phage Qβ coats as carriers of a foreign epitope to induce antibody responses in mice. HBcAg capsids were shown to induce T cell-independent (TI) antibodies. We found that these particles behave as antigen-specific TI type 1 (TI-1) Ag comparable to other rigidly structured viruses. When a 5-aa long epitope of the pre-S1 domain of hepatitis ...
Noemi Cerovska; Hana Hoffmeisterova; Tomas Moravec; Helena Plchova; Jitka Folwarczna; Helena Synkova; Helena Ryslava; Viera Ludvikova; Michal Smahel
Transient expression of foreign genes based on plant viral vectors is a suitable system for the production of relevant immunogens that can be used for the development of a new generation of vaccines against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study the epitope derived from HPV-16 L2 minor capsid protein (amino acids 108–120) was expressed from Potato virus X (PVX)-based vector pGR106 as N- or C-terminal fusion with the PVX coat protein (PVX CP) in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The fusion protein L2108-120-PVX CP was successfully expressed in plants at a level of 170 mg/kg of fresh leaf tissue. The C-terminal fusion protein PVX CP- L2108-120 was expressed using mutated vector sequence to avoid homologous recombination at a level of 8 mg/kg of fresh leaf tissue. Immunogenicity of L2108-120-PVX CP virus-like particles was tested after immunization of mice by subcutaneous injection or tattoo administration. In animal sera the antibodies against the PVX CP and the L2108-120 epitope were found after both methods of vaccine delivery.
Ruiz-Pérez, Fernando; León-Kempis, Rocío; Santiago-Machuca, Araceli; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Barry, Eileen; Levine, Myron; González-Bonilla, César
Gram-negative bacterial proteins which are exported from the cytosol to the external environment by the type V secretion system are also known as autotransporters. Once translocated to the periplasmic compartment by the sec-dependent general secretory pathway, their C-terminal domain forms a pore through which the N-terminal domain travels to the outer membrane without the need of other accessory proteins. MisL (protein of membrane insertion and secretion) is a protein of unknown function located in the pathogenicity island SPI-3 of Salmonella enterica and classified as an autotransporter due to its high homology to Escherichia coli AIDA-I. In the present work, the MisL C-terminal translocator domain was used to display the immunodominant B-cell epitope of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) from Plasmodium falciparum on the surface of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (serovar Typhimurium SL3261) and serovar Typhi (serovar Typhi CVD 908). The MisL β domain was predicted by alignment with AIDA-I, amplified from serovar Typhimurium SL3261, cloned in a plasmid fused to four repeats of the tetrapeptide NANP behind the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit signal peptide to ensure periplasmic traffic, and expressed under the control of the anaerobically inducible nirB promoter. The fusion protein was translocated to the outer membrane of both bacterial strains, although the foreign epitope was displayed more efficiently in serovar Typhimurium SL3261, which elicited a better specific antibody response in BALB/c mice. More importantly, antibodies were able to recognize the native CSP in P. falciparum sporozoites. These results confirm that MisL is indeed an autotransporter and that it can be used to express foreign immunogenic epitopes on the surface of gram-negative bacteria. PMID:12065502
Peng Peng Ip
Full Text Available Tumor vaccine design requires prediction and validation of immunogenic MHC class I epitopes expressed by target cells as well as MHC class II epitopes expressed by antigen-presenting cells essential for the induction of optimal immune responses. Epitope prediction methods are based on different algorithms and are instrumental for a first screening of possible epitopes. However, their results do not reflect a one-to-one correlation with experimental data. We combined several in silico prediction methods to unravel the most promising C57BL/6 mouse-restricted Hepatitis C virus (HCV MHC class I epitopes and validated these epitopes in vitro and in vivo. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL epitopes within the HCV non-structural proteins were identified, and proteasomal cleavage sites and helper T cell (Th epitopes at close proximity to these CTL epitopes were analyzed using multiple prediction algorithms. This combined in silico analysis enhances the precision of identification of functional HCV-specific CTL epitopes. This approach will be applicable to the design of human vaccines not only for HCV, but also for other antigens in which T-cell responses play a crucial role.
Even-Desrumeaux, Klervi; Nevoltris, Damien; Lavaut, Marie Noelle; Alim, Karima; Borg, Jean-Paul; Audebert, Stéphane; Kerfelec, Brigitte; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick
Phage display is a well-established procedure to isolate binders against a wide variety of antigens that can be performed on purified antigens, but also on intact cells. As selection steps are performed in vitro, it is possible to focus the outcome of the selection on relevant epitopes by performing some additional steps, such as depletion or competitive elutions. However in practice, the efficiency of these steps is often limited and can lead to inconsistent results. We have designed a new selection method named masked selection, based on the blockade of unwanted epitopes to favor the targeting of relevant ones. We demonstrate the efficiency and flexibility of this method by selecting single-domain antibodies against a specific portion of a fusion protein, by selecting binders against several members of the seven transmembrane receptor family using transfected HEK cells, or by selecting binders against unknown breast cancer markers not expressed on normal samples. The relevance of this approach for antibody-based therapies was further validated by the identification of four of these markers, Epithelial cell adhesion molecule, Transferrin receptor 1, Metastasis cell adhesion molecule, and Sushi containing domain 2, using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. This new phage display strategy can be applied to any type of antibody fragments or alternative scaffolds, and is especially suited for the rapid discovery and identification of cell surface markers. PMID:24361863
Yang, Zhenxi; Li, Shichong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Miao; Ye, Lingling; Wu, Yanzhuo; Xu, Mingbo; Chen, Zhaolie
Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrying preS sequences could be an ideal candidate for a new hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine with higher efficacy. Here we report the success in achieving efficient and stable expression of hepatitis B virus S antigen and preS1 epitope fusion protein (S/preS1) in CHO cells. The HMRCHEF53u/Neo-S/preS1 expression vector carrying S/preS1 gene was constructed and transfected into CHO-S cells. A stable and high-expression CHO cell line, named 10G6, was selected by ELISA and limiting dilution analysis. Western blotting analysis showed S/preS1 expressed from 10G6 cells possessed both S and preS1 antigenicity. 10G6 cells displayed characters of favorable growth and stable S/preS1 expression in repeated batch cultures as evaluated by viable cell density, viability and S/preS1 concentration. And cultivation of 10G6 cells in fed-batch mode resulted in S/preS1 production at 17-20 mg/L with viable cell density at 7 x 10(6)-10 x 10(6) cells/mL. PMID:24660628
Transient expression of fusion gene coding for the HPV-16 epitopes fused to the sequence of potyvirus coat protein using different means of inoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana and Brassica rapa, cv. Rapa plants
Hoffmeisterová, Hana; Čeřovská, Noemi; Moravec, Tomáš; Plchová, Helena; Kmoníčková, Jitka; Velemínský, Jiří
Roč. 94, č. 3 (2008), s. 261-267. ISSN 0167-6857 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/06/0973 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Edible vaccine * epitope expression * E7 oncogen Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2008
Full Text Available The neurofibrillary tau pathology and amyloid deposits seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD also have been seen in bacteria-infected brains. However, few studies have examined the role of these bacteria in the generation of tau pathology. One suggested link between infection and Alzheimer’s disease is edentulism, the complete loss of teeth. Edentulism can result from chronic periodontal disease due to infection by Enterococcus faecalis. The current study assessed the ability to generate early Alzheimer-like neurofibrillary epitopes in primary rat cortical neurons through bacterial infection by Enterococcus faecalis. Seven-day old cultured neurons were infected with Enterococcus faecalis for 24- and 48-hours. An upward molecular weight shift in tau by western blotting and increased appearance of tau reactivity in cell bodies and degenerating neurites was found in the 48-hour infection group for the antibody CP13 (phospho-Serine-202. A substantial increase in reactivity of Alz-50 was seen at 24- and 48- hours after infection. Furthermore, extensive MAP2 reactivity also was seen at 24- and 48-hours post-infection. Our preliminary findings suggest a potential link between Enterococcus faecalis infection and intracellular changes that may help facilitate early AD-like neurofibrillary pathology.
Frimann, Tine; Barfoed, Annette Malene; Aasted, Bent;
The capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) displays several independent B cell epitopes, which stimulate the production of neutralising antibodies. Some of these epitopes are highly variable between virus strains, but dominate the immune response. The site A on VP1 is the most prominent...
Full Text Available Abstract Background A hallmark of prion disease is the transformation of normal cellular prion protein (PrPc into an infectious disease-associated isoform, (PrPsc. Anti-prion protein monoclonal antibodies are invaluable for structure-function studies of PrP molecules. Furthermore recent in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies can prevent the incorporation of PrPc into propagating prions. In the present article, we show two new human phage antibodies, isolated on recombinant hamster prion protein (rHaPrP. Results We adopted an antibody phage display strategy to isolate specific human antibodies directed towards rHaPrP which has been used as a bait for panning the synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library. Two phage antibodies clones named MA3.B4 and MA3.G3 were isolated and characterized under genetic biochemical and immunocytochemical aspects. The clones were found to recognize the prion protein in ELISA studies. In flow-cytometry studies, these human single chain Fragment variable (scFv phage-antibodies show a well defined pattern of reactivity on human lymphoblastoid and myeloid cells. Conclusion Sequence analysis of the gene encoding for the antibody fragments and antigen recognition patterns determined by flow-cytometry analysis indicate that the isolated scFvs recognize novel epitopes in the PrPc molecule. These new anti PrPc human antibodies are unique reagents for prion protein detection and may represent a biologic platform to develop new reagents to treat PrPsc associated disease.
Bullock, Timothy N.J.; Patterson, Anthony E.; Franlin, Laura L.; Notidis, Evangelia; Eisenlohr, Laurence C.
Accumulating evidence shows that the repertoire of major histocompatibility complex class I–restricted epitopes extends beyond conventional translation reading frames. Previously, we reported that scanthrough translation, where the initiating AUG of a primary open reading frame is bypassed, is most likely to account for the presentation of cryptic epitopes from alternative reading frames within the influenza A PR/8/34 nucleoprotein gene. Here, we confirm and extend these findings using an epi...
Peijnenburg Ad ACM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic proteins expressed by genetically modified food crops are evaluated for their potential allergenic properties prior to marketing, among others by identification of short identical amino acid sequences that occur both in the transgenic protein and allergenic proteins. A strategy is proposed, in which the positive outcomes of the sequence comparison with a minimal length of six amino acids are further screened for the presence of potential linear IgE-epitopes. This double track approach involves the use of literature data on IgE-epitopes and an antigenicity prediction algorithm. Results Thirty-three transgenic proteins have been screened for identities of at least six contiguous amino acids shared with allergenic proteins. Twenty-two transgenic proteins showed positive results of six- or seven-contiguous amino acids length. Only a limited number of identical stretches shared by transgenic proteins (papaya ringspot virus coat protein, acetolactate synthase GH50, and glyphosate oxidoreductase and allergenic proteins could be identified as (part of potential linear epitopes. Conclusion Many transgenic proteins have identical stretches of six or seven amino acids in common with allergenic proteins. Most identical stretches are likely to be false positives. As shown in this study, identical stretches can be further screened for relevance by comparison with linear IgE-binding epitopes described in literature. In the absence of literature data on epitopes, antigenicity prediction by computer aids to select potential antibody binding sites that will need verification of IgE binding by sera binding tests. Finally, the positive outcomes of this approach warrant further clinical testing for potential allergenicity.
Scientists at NIH have identified 7 new agonist epitopes of the MUC-1 tumor associated antigen. Compared to their native epitope counterparts, peptides reflecting these agonist epitopes have been shown to enhance the generation of human tumor cells, which in turn have a greater ability to kill human tumor cells endogenously expressing the native MUC-1 epitope.
H. Bakker; G.J.A. Rouwendal; A.S. Karnoup; D.E.A. Florack; G.M. Stoopen; J.P.F.G. Helsper; R. van Ree; I. van Die; D. Bosch
N-glycosylation of a mAb may have a major impact on its therapeutic merits. Here, we demonstrate that expression of a hybrid enzyme (called xylGaIT), consisting of the N-terminal domain of Arabidopsis thaliana xylosyltra nsf erase and the catalytic domain of human 0-1,4-galactosyltransf erase I (GaI
Full Text Available Abstract Background A novel tyrosine kinase receptor EphA2 is expressed at high levels in advanced and metastatic cancers. We examined whether vaccinations with synthetic mouse EphA2 (mEphA2-derived peptides that serve as T cell epitopes could induce protective and therapeutic anti-tumor immunity. Methods C57BL/6 mice received subcutaneous (s.c. vaccinations with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs pulsed with synthetic peptides recognized by CD8+ (mEphA2671–679, mEphA2682–689 and CD4+ (mEphA230–44 T cells. Splenocytes (SPCs were harvested from primed mice to assess the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses against syngeneic glioma, sarcoma and melanoma cell lines. The ability of these vaccines to prevent or treat tumor (s.c. injected MCA205 sarcoma or B16 melanoma; i.v. injected B16-BL6 establishment/progression was then assessed. Results Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with mEphA2-derived peptides induced specific CTL responses in SPCs. Vaccination with mEPhA2 peptides, but not control ovalbumin (OVA peptides, prevented the establishment or prevented the growth of EphA2+ or EphA2-negative syngeneic tumors in both s.c. and lung metastasis models. Conclusions These data indicate that mEphA2 can serve as an attractive target against which to direct anti-tumor immunity. The ability of mEphA2 vaccines to impact EphA2-negative tumors such as the B16 melanoma may suggest that such beneficial immunity may be directed against alternative EphA2+ target cells, such as the tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells.
Zhao, Jingxian; Zhao, Jincun; Fett, Craig; Trandem, Kathryn; Fleming, Erica; Perlman, Stanley
Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells (T reg cells) are important in limiting immunopathology in infections. However, identifying pathogen-specific epitopes targeted by these cells has been elusive. Using MHC class II/peptide tetramers and intracellular cytokine staining, we identify T reg cells recognizing two virus-specific CD4 T cell epitopes in the coronavirus-infected central nervous system as well as naive T cell precursor pools. These T reg cells are detected at the same time as effector T cel...
Plant viruses have gained sustainable interest as presentation and production systems for immunogenic peptides within the last decade and consequently their use as vaccines has become an increasingly viable proposition. In this study it was investigated if Alfalfa mosaic virus could be used to present (i) an RSV-F-derived peptide library, (ii) phage-selected mimics and (iii) anti-viral peptide fusion inhibitors. The library was then used to screen for B- and T-cell epitopes. The data obtained...
The equine MHC class I molecule was crystallized in complex with β2-microglobulin and a CTL epitope and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution. In order to clarify the structure and the peptide-presentation characteristics of the equine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule, a complex of equine MHC class I molecule (ELA-A1 haplotype, 7-6 allele) with mouse β2-microglobulin and the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope Env-RW12 (RVEDVTNTAEYW) derived from equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) envelope protein (residues 195–206) was refolded and crystallized. The crystal, which belonged to space group P21, diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution and had unit-cell parameters a = 82.5, b = 71.4, c = 99.8 Å, β = 102.9°. The crystal structure contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. These results should help to determine the first equine MHC class I molecule structure presenting an EIAV CTL epitope
Wang, Eddy H C; Yu, Mei; Breitkopf, Trisia; Akhoundsadegh, Noushin; Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Feng-Tao; Leung, Gigi; Dutz, Jan P; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J
Alopecia areata (AA) is believed to be a cell-mediated autoimmune hair loss disease. Both CD4 and cytotoxic CD8 T cells (CTLs) are important for the onset and progression of AA. Hair follicle (HF) keratinocyte and/or melanocyte antigen epitopes are suspected potential targets of autoreactive CTLs, but the specific epitopes have not yet been identified. We investigated the potential for a panel of known epitopes, expressed by HF keratinocytes and melanocytes, to induce activation of CTL populations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Specific synthetic epitopes derived from HF antigens trichohyalin and tyrosinase-related protein-2 induced significantly higher frequencies of response in AA CTLs compared with healthy controls (IFN-gamma secretion). Apoptosis assays revealed conditioned media from AA peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with trichohyalin peptides elevated the expression of apoptosis markers in primary HF keratinocytes. A cytokine array revealed higher expression of IL-13 and chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5, RANTES) from AA peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with trichohyalin peptides compared with controls. The data indicate that AA affected subjects present with an increased frequency of CTLs responsive to epitopes originating from keratinocytes and melanocytes; the activated CTLs secreted soluble factors that induced apoptosis in HF keratinocytes. Potentially, CTL response to self-antigen epitopes, particularly trichohyalin epitopes, could be a prognostic marker for human AA. PMID:27094591
Robotham, Jason M; Xia, Lixin; Willison, LeAnna N; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H
Both linear and conformational epitopes likely contribute to the allergenicity of tree nut allergens, yet, due largely to technical issues, few conformational epitopes have been characterized. Using the well studied recombinant cashew allergen, Ana o 2, an 11S globulin or legumin, we identified a murine monoclonal antibody which recognizes a conformational epitope and competes with patient IgE Ana o 2-reactive antibodies. This epitope is expressed on the large subunit of Ana o 2, but only when associated with an 11S globulin small subunit. Both Ana o 2 and the homologous soybean Gly m 6 small subunits can foster epitope expression, even when the natural N-terminal to C-terminal subunit order is reversed in chimeric molecules. The epitope, which is also expressed on native Ana o 2, is readily susceptible to destruction by physical and chemical denaturants. PMID:20362336
Hansen, Scott G.; Sacha, Jonah B.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ford, Julia C.; Burwitz, Benjamin J.; Scholz, Isabel; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Gilliam, Awbrey N.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Malouli, Daniel; Xu, Guangwu; Richards, Rebecca; Whizin, Nathan; Reed, Jason S.
CD8+ T cell responses focus on a small fraction of pathogen- or vaccine-encoded peptides, and for some pathogens, these restricted recognition hierarchies limit the effectiveness of anti-pathogen immunity. We found that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) protein-expressing Rhesus Cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vectors elicit SIV-specific CD8+ T cells that recognize unusual, diverse and highly promiscuous epitopes, including dominant responses to epitopes restricted by class II major histocompatibil...
The minigenes encoding Plasmodium falciparum CTL epitopesrestricted to human MHC class I molecular HLA-A2 and HLA-B51, which were both at high frequency among Chinese population, were constructed as mono-epitope CTL vaccines named pcDNA3.1/tr and pcDNA3.1/ sh. The minigenes of the two epitopes were then tandem linked to form a dimeric CTL epitope minigene recombinant vaccine. After DNA transfection, the epitope minigenes were expressed respectively in two human cell lines, each bearing one MHC class I molecule named CIR/HLA-A2.1 and K562/HLA-B51. The intracellular expression of the CTL epitope minigenes not only enhanced the stability of HLA-A2.1 and HLA-B51 molecules but also increased the assemblage of MHC class I molecules on cell surfaces, which testified the specific process and presentation of those endogenous expressed epitopes. For the cells transfected with the dimeric minigene encoding two tandem linked epitopes, the expression and presentation of each epitope were also detected on cell membranes that bore different MHC class I molecules. It meant that the adjacency of the two CTL epitopes did not interfere with the specific process and presentation of each epitope. Compared with the ordinary CTL studies that inoculated synthesized epitope peptides with peripheral blood cells, this work aimed to process the epitopes directly inside HLA class I allele specific human cells, and thus theoretically imitated the same procedure in vivo. It was also an economical way to predict the immunogenicity of CTL epitopes at an early stage especially in laboratories with limited financial resource.
We have generated a codon-optimized hGagp17p24-Polp51 plasmid DNA expressing the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-Pol fusion protein that consists of clusters of highly conserved cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes presented by multiple MHC class I alleles. In the hGagp17p24-Polp51 construct, the ribosomal frameshift site had been deleted together with the potentially immunosuppressive Gag nucleocapsid (p15) as well as Pol protease (p10) and integrase (p31). Analyses of the magnitude and breadth of cellular responses demonstrated that immunization of HLA-A2/Kb transgenic mice with the hGagp17p24-Polp51 construct induced 2- to 5-fold higher CD8+ T-cell responses to Gag p17-, p24-, and Pol reverse transcriptase (RT)-specific CTL epitopes than the full-length hGag-PolΔFsΔPr counterpart. The increases were correlated with higher protection against challenge with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVVs) expressing gag and pol gene products. Consistent with the profile of Gag- and Pol-specific CD8+ T cell responses, an elevated level of type 1 cytokine production was noted in p24- and RT-stimulated splenocyte cultures established from hGagp17p24-Polp51-immunized mice compared to responses induced with the hGag-PolΔFsΔPr vaccine. Sera of mice immunized with the hGagp17p24-Polp51 vaccine also exhibited an increased titer of p24- and RT-specific IgG2 antibody responses. The results from our studies provide insights into approaches for boosting the breadth of Gag- and Pol-specific immune responses
Asano, Y.; Tada, T.
We described in this paper systematic alterations in the expression of unique I region controlled epitopes on helper T cells (Th) in chimeras according to the changes in their H-2 restriction specificity. Taking advantage of the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies (anti-Iat) putatively specific for the epitopes indirectly controlled by I region and expressed in association with the Iak restriction site of Th, we examined the alterations of these epitopes on Th cells from various bone marrow chimeras. Iatk epitopes were physiologically expressed on Iak-restricted but not on Iab-restricted Th cells in (H-2k X H-2b)F1 mice. In the chimeric condition, the H-2k-restricted Th of B6----F1 chimera acquired the expression of Iatk even though B6 Th is unable to express Iatk when developed under the physiologic condition. Iatk are also found on Th of fully allogeneic chimera of B6----C3H, whereas Th cells of C3H----B6 completely lost the Iatk expression. These results indicate that Iat epitopes originally defined as unique I region-controlled determinants selectively expressed on T cells are not encoded by the I region genes but are associated with the T cell receptor that sees the self Ia. The epitopes undergo the adaptive alterations according to the acquisition of a new MHC restriction. This is the first example to demonstrate the epitope associated with T cell receptor which undergo the systematic adaptive differentiation.
We described in this paper systematic alterations in the expression of unique I region controlled epitopes on helper T cells (Th) in chimeras according to the changes in their H-2 restriction specificity. Taking advantage of the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies (anti-Iat) putatively specific for the epitopes indirectly controlled by I region and expressed in association with the Iak restriction site of Th, we examined the alterations of these epitopes on Th cells from various bone marrow chimeras. Iatk epitopes were physiologically expressed on Iak-restricted but not on Iab-restricted Th cells in (H-2k X H-2b)F1 mice. In the chimeric condition, the H-2k-restricted Th of B6----F1 chimera acquired the expression of Iatk even though B6 Th is unable to express Iatk when developed under the physiologic condition. Iatk are also found on Th of fully allogeneic chimera of B6----C3H, whereas Th cells of C3H----B6 completely lost the Iatk expression. These results indicate that Iat epitopes originally defined as unique I region-controlled determinants selectively expressed on T cells are not encoded by the I region genes but are associated with the T cell receptor that sees the self Ia. The epitopes undergo the adaptive alterations according to the acquisition of a new MHC restriction. This is the first example to demonstrate the epitope associated with T cell receptor which undergo the systematic adaptive differentiation
Kim, Yohan; Ponomarenko, Julia; Zhu, Zhanyang;
homology mapping tool was updated to enable mapping of discontinuous epitopes onto 3D structures. Furthermore, to serve a wider range of users, the number of ways in which IEDB-AR can be accessed has been expanded. Specifically, the predictive tools can be programmatically accessed using a web interface......The immune epitope database analysis resource (IEDB-AR: http://tools.iedb.org) is a collection of tools for prediction and analysis of molecular targets of T- and B-cell immune responses (i.e. epitopes). Since its last publication in the NAR webserver issue in 2008, a new generation of peptide......:MHC binding and T-cell epitope predictive tools have been added. As validated by different labs and in the first international competition for predicting peptide:MHC-I binding, their predictive performances have improved considerably. In addition, a new B-cell epitope prediction tool was added, and the...
introduces the NetMHCIIpan-3.0 predictor based on artificial neural networks, which is capable of giving binding affinities to any human MHC class II molecule. Chapter 4 of this thesis gives an overview of bioinformatics tools developed by the Immunological Bioinformatics group at Center for Biological...... machine learning techniques. Several MHC class I binding prediction algorithms have been developed and due to their high accuracy they are used by many immunologists to facilitate the conventional experimental process of epitope discovery. However, the accuracy of these methods depends on data defining...... the MHC molecule in question, making it difficult for the non-expert end-user to choose the most suitable predictor. The first paper in this thesis presents a new, publicly available, consensus method for MHC class I predictions. The NetMHCcons predictor combines three state-of-the-art prediction...
McLachlan, Sandra M.; Aliesky, Holly A.; Chen, Chun-Rong; Chong, Gao; Rapoport, Basil
Transgenic mice with the human thyrotropin-receptor (TSHR) A-subunit targeted to the thyroid are tolerant of the transgene. In transgenics that express low A-subunit levels (Lo-expressors), regulatory T cell (Treg) depletion using anti-CD25 before immunization with adenovirus encoding the A-subunit (A-sub-Ad) breaks tolerance, inducing extensive thyroid lymphocytic infiltration, thyroid damage and antibody spreading to other thyroid proteins. In contrast, no thyroiditis develops in Hi-express...
Virus-like particles (VLPs) of chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were generated by replacing the nuclear localization signal (NLS; at 1–39 aa) of PCV2 capsid protein (Cap) with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) T-cell epitope (1446–1460 aa), CSFV B-cell epitope (693–716 aa) and CSFV T-cell epitope conjugated with B-cell epitope. The recombinant proteins were expressed using the baculovirus expression system and detected by immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The ab...
Hetzel, C.; Janssen, R.; Ely, S.J.; Kristensen, N.M.; Bunting, K.; Cooper, J.B.; Lamb, J.R.; Young, D.B.; Thole, J.E.R.
We have developed a novel epitope delivery system based on the insertion of peptides within a permissive loop of a bacterial superoxide dismutase molecule. This system allowed high-level expression of heterologous peptides in two mycobacterial vaccine strains, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette- G
Hou, Minbo; Zhou, Defang; Li, Gen; Guo, Huijun; Liu, Jianzhu; Wang, Guihua; Zheng, Qiankun; Cheng, Ziqiang
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a hypervariable oncogenic retrovirus that causes great economic loss in poultry. Antigenic variations in the variable regions make the development of an effective vaccine a challenging task. In the present study, we identified a variant antigenic neutralizing epitope using reverse vaccinology methods. First, we predicted the B-cell epitopes in gp85 gene of ALV-J strains by DNAman and bioinformatics. Fourteen candidate epitopes were selected and linked in tandem with glycines or serines as a multi-epitope gene. The expressed protein of multi-epitope gene can induce high-titer antibody that can recognize nature ALV-J and neutralize the infectivity of ALV-J strains. Next, we identified a high effective epitope using eight overlapping fragments of gp85 gene reacting with mAb 2D5 and anti-multi-epitope sera. The identified epitope contained one of the predicted epitopes and localized in hyervariable region 1 (hr1), indicating a variant epitope. To better understand if the variants of the epitope have a good antigenicity, we synthesized four variants to react with mAb 2D5 and anti-ALV-J sera. The result showed that all variants could react with the two kinds of antibodies though they showed different antigenicity, while could not react with ALV-J negative sera. Thus, the variant antigenic neutralizing epitope was determined as 137-LRDFIA/E/TKWKS/GDDL/HLIRPYVNQS-158. The result shows a potential use of this variant epitopes as a novel multi-epitope vaccine against ALV-J in poultry. PMID:26850757
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This repository contains antibody/B cell and T cell epitope information and epitope prediction and analysis tools for use by the research community worldwide....
Mark D Hicar
Full Text Available Numerous broadly neutralizing antibodies (Abs target epitopes that are formed or enhanced during mature HIV envelope formation (i.e. quaternary epitopes. Generally, it is thought that Env epitopes that induce broadly neutralizing Abs are difficult to access and poorly immunogenic because of the characteristic oligomerization, conformational flexibility, sequence diversity and extensive glycosylation of Env protein. To enhance for isolation of quaternary epitope-targeting Abs (QtAbs, we previously used HIV virus-like particles (VLPs to bind B cells from long-term non-progressor subjects to identify a panel of monoclonal Abs. When expressed as recombinant full-length Abs, a subset of these novel Abs exhibited the binding profiles of QtAbs, as they either failed to bind to monomeric Env protein or showed much higher affinity for Env trimers and VLPs. These QtAbs represented a significant proportion of the B-cell response identified with VLPs. The Ab genes of these clones were highly mutated, but they did not neutralize common HIV strains. We sought to further define the epitopes targeted by these QtAbs. Competition-binding and mapping studies revealed these Abs targeted four separate epitopes; they also failed to compete for binding by Abs to known major neutralizing epitopes. Detailed epitope mapping studies revealed that two of the four epitopes were located in the gp41 subunit of Env. These QtAbs bound pre-fusion forms of antigen and showed differential binding kinetics depending on whether oligomers were produced as recombinant gp140 trimers or as full-length Env incorporated into VLPs. Antigenic regions within gp41 present unexpectedly diverse structural epitopes, including these QtAb epitopes, which may be targeted by the naturally occurring Ab response to HIV infection.
Hicar, Mark D; Chen, Xuemin; Sulli, Chidananda; Barnes, Trevor; Goodman, Jason; Sojar, Hakimuddin; Briney, Bryan; Willis, Jordan; Chukwuma, Valentine U; Kalams, Spyros A; Doranz, Benjamin J; Spearman, Paul; Crowe, James E
Numerous broadly neutralizing antibodies (Abs) target epitopes that are formed or enhanced during mature HIV envelope formation (i.e. quaternary epitopes). Generally, it is thought that Env epitopes that induce broadly neutralizing Abs are difficult to access and poorly immunogenic because of the characteristic oligomerization, conformational flexibility, sequence diversity and extensive glycosylation of Env protein. To enhance for isolation of quaternary epitope-targeting Abs (QtAbs), we previously used HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) to bind B cells from long-term non-progressor subjects to identify a panel of monoclonal Abs. When expressed as recombinant full-length Abs, a subset of these novel Abs exhibited the binding profiles of QtAbs, as they either failed to bind to monomeric Env protein or showed much higher affinity for Env trimers and VLPs. These QtAbs represented a significant proportion of the B-cell response identified with VLPs. The Ab genes of these clones were highly mutated, but they did not neutralize common HIV strains. We sought to further define the epitopes targeted by these QtAbs. Competition-binding and mapping studies revealed these Abs targeted four separate epitopes; they also failed to compete for binding by Abs to known major neutralizing epitopes. Detailed epitope mapping studies revealed that two of the four epitopes were located in the gp41 subunit of Env. These QtAbs bound pre-fusion forms of antigen and showed differential binding kinetics depending on whether oligomers were produced as recombinant gp140 trimers or as full-length Env incorporated into VLPs. Antigenic regions within gp41 present unexpectedly diverse structural epitopes, including these QtAb epitopes, which may be targeted by the naturally occurring Ab response to HIV infection. PMID:27411063
杜寿文; 任大勇; 王宇航; 王婧; 孙丹丹; 任静强; 李昌; 金宁一
Objective To construct a eukaryotic expression vector of HIV multi-epitope gene containing unmethylated CpG ODN sequence and cholera toxin B subunit( CTB ) and expression in vitro. Methods The primers of CTB gene containing CpG ODN and linker sequence were designed and synthesized. CpG-CTB gene sequence(CC) was obtained by PCR,and connected to pVL. HIV multi-epitope gene was inserted into the downstream of CC gene to construct pVL-CC-MEGNp24. The recombination plasmid was confirmed by enzyme digestion. 293T Cells were transfected with the purified recombination plasmid pVL-CC-MEGNp24. The transcription of CTB and p24 gene in the transfected 293T cells was detected by RT-PCR, and the expression of CTB and p24 protein was confirmed by cellular immunostaining. The plasmid pVL and blank controls were established simultaneously. Results The results showed that the recombination plasmid of pVL-CC-MEGNp24 was constructed, and CTB and multi-epitope gene were stably expressed in the 293T ceils transfected with the plasmid pVL-CC-MEGNp24. Conclusion The eukaryotic expression vector of HIV multi-epitope gene containing immunological adjuvants is successfully constructed, facilitating studies of HIV vaccine.%目的 构建含非甲基化的CpG ODN序列及霍乱毒素B亚单位(CTB)的HIV复合多表位基因的真核表达载体,并在体外进行表达.方法 设计并合成含CpG ODN序列和linker序列的CTB基因引物,用PCR方法扩增CpG-CTB基因(CC),定向连接到真核表达载体pVL上,然后在CC基因下游插入HIV复合多表位基因MEGNp24,构建重组质粒pVL-CC-MEGNp24,酶切鉴定.纯化重组质粒,转染293T细胞,RT-PCR和细胞免疫染色方法分别检测CTB和p24基因的转录及表达,同时设质粒pVL及空白对照.结果 构建了重组质粒pVL-CC-MEGNp24,该质粒转染293T细胞后,CTB和复合多表位基因在293T细胞中得到稳定表达.结论 成功构建了含免疫佐剂的HIV复合多表位真核表达载体,为后期疫苗的研究奠定了基础.
朱磊; 吴梅芝; 赵林; 黄绮玲; 梁梅; 李黄金
目的 利用基因工程手段建立表皮生长因子受体(EGFR)二聚化B细胞表位抗原肽MVF-ER的高效制备方法.方法 采用重叠延伸PCR扩增MVF-ER后克隆于表达载体pET32a,于大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)进行表达,产物采用肠激酶酶切和镍离子鳌合亲和层析法纯化.结果 通过10对引物5步重叠延伸得到273bp的扩增产物,目的基因与硫氧环蛋白(Trx)融合后可高效表达,经酶切和层析后得到纯度为95%的抗原肤.结论 成功建立抗原肽"MVF-ER"的高效制备方法,为进一步研究EGFR过表达恶性肿瘤的治疗性疫苗打下了坚实基础.%We aim to establish a high performance preparation system for B cell epitope antigen peptide of EGFR dimerization for further research on therapeutic vaccine of EGFR over-expression tumors. The MVF-ER gene of 273 bp was amplified by splicing overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR), then cloned into the vector of pET32a, and expressed in E.coli BL21 (DE3) in the form of fusion with Trx. The expression product was purified by Ni+ affinity chromatography. The antigen peptide was recovered from the fusion protein by enterokinase and purified to a purity of 95% confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The results above showed that the preparation method of MVF-ER antigen peptide was successfully established, which will facilitate further study of the therapeutic cancer vaccine.
Abidin, R S; Lua, L H L; Middelberg, A P J; Sainsbury, F
The Polyomavirus coat protein, VP1 has been developed as an epitope presentation system able to provoke humoral immunity against a variety of pathogens, such as Influenza and Group A Streptococcus. The ability of the system to carry cytotoxic T cell epitopes on a surface-exposed loop and the impact on protein solubility has not been examined. Four variations of three selected epitopes were cloned into surface-exposed loops of VP1, and expressed in Escherichia coli. VP1 pentamers, also known as capsomeres, were purified via a glutathione-S-transferase tag. Size exclusion chromatography indicated severe aggregation of the recombinant VP1 during enzymatic tag removal resulting from the introduction the hydrophobic epitopes. Inserts were modified to possess double aspartic acid residues at each end of the hydrophobic epitopes and a high-throughput buffer condition screen was implemented with protein aggregation monitored during tag removal by spectrophotometry and dynamic light scattering. These analyses showed that the insertion of charged residues at the extremities of epitopes could improve solubility of capsomeres and revealed multiple windows of opportunity for further condition optimization. A combination of epitope design, pH optimization, and the additive l-arginine permitted the recovery of soluble VP1 pentamers presenting hydrophobic epitopes and their subsequent assembly into virus-like particles. PMID:26401641
Sandra M McLachlan
Full Text Available Transgenic mice with the human thyrotropin-receptor (TSHR A-subunit targeted to the thyroid are tolerant of the transgene. In transgenics that express low A-subunit levels (Lo-expressors, regulatory T cell (Treg depletion using anti-CD25 before immunization with adenovirus encoding the A-subunit (A-sub-Ad breaks tolerance, inducing extensive thyroid lymphocytic infiltration, thyroid damage and antibody spreading to other thyroid proteins. In contrast, no thyroiditis develops in Hi-expressor transgenics or wild-type mice. Our present goal was to determine if thyroiditis could be induced in Hi-expressor transgenics using a more potent immunization protocol: Treg depletion, priming with Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA + A-subunit protein and further Treg depletions before two boosts with A-sub-Ad. As controls, anti-CD25 treated Hi- and Lo-expressors and wild-type mice were primed with CFA+ mouse thyroglobulin (Tg or CFA alone before A-sub-Ad boosting. Thyroiditis developed after CFA+A-subunit protein or Tg and A-sub-Ad boosting in Lo-expressor transgenics but Hi- expressors (and wild-type mice were resistant to thyroiditis induction. Importantly, in Lo-expressors, thyroiditis was associated with the development of antibodies to the mouse TSHR downstream of the A-subunit. Unexpectedly, we observed that the effect of bacterial products on the immune system is a "double-edged sword". On the one hand, priming with CFA (mycobacteria emulsified in oil plus A-subunit protein broke tolerance to the A-subunit in Hi-expressor transgenics leading to high TSHR antibody levels. On the other hand, prior treatment with CFA in the absence of A-subunit protein inhibited responses to subsequent immunization with A-sub-Ad. Consequently, adjuvant activity arising in vivo after bacterial infections combined with a protein autoantigen can break self-tolerance but in the absence of the autoantigen, adjuvant activity can inhibit the induction of immunity to autoantigens
GAO; Jun; GONG; Yuping; ZHAO; Ping; ZHU; Qing; YANG; Xiaoping; QI; Zhongtian
Hepatitis C (HCV) genome is highly variable, particularly in the hypervariable region 1(HVR1) of its E2 envelope gene. The variability of HCV genome has been a major obstacle for developing HCV vaccines. Due to B-cell HVR1 mimotopes mimicking the antigenicity of natural HVR1 epitopes and some T-cell epitopes from the consensus sequence of HCV genes conserving among the different HCV genotypes, we synthesized an minigene of HCV-derived multi-epitope peptide antigen (CMEP), which contains 9 B-cell HVR1 mimotopes in E2, 2 conserved CTL epitopes in C, 1conserved CTL epitope in NS3 and 1 conserved Th epitope in NS3. This minigene was cloned into a GST expression vector to generate a fusion protein GST-CMER The immunogenic properties of CEMP were characterized by HCV infected patients' sera, and found that the reactivity frequency reached 75%. The cross reactivity of anti-CEMP antibody with different natural HVR1 variants was up to 90%. Meanwhile, we constructed an HCV DNA vaccine candidate, plasmid pVAX1.0-st-CMEP carrying the recombinant gene (st) of a secretion signal peptide and PADRE universal Th cell epitope sequence in front of the CMEP minigene. Immunization of rabbits with pVAX1.0-st-CMEP resulted in the production of antibody, which was of the same cross reactivity as the fusion protein GST-CMEP.Our findings indicate that the HCV-derived multi-epitope peptide antigen in some degree possessed the characteristics of neutralizing HCV epitopes, and would be of the value as a candidate for the development of HCV vaccines.
Full Text Available The use of whole viruses as antigen scaffolds is a recent development in vaccination that improves immunogenicity without the need for additional adjuvants. Previous studies highlighted the potential of foamy viruses (FVs in prophylactic vaccination and gene therapy. Replication-competent FVs can trigger immune signaling and integrate into the host genome, resulting in persistent antigen expression and a robust immune response. Here, we explored feline foamy virus (FFV proteins as scaffolds for therapeutic B and T cell epitope delivery in vitro. Infection- and cancer-related B and T cell epitopes were grafted into FFV Gag, Env, or Bet by residue replacement, either at sites of high local sequence homology between the epitope and the host protein or in regions known to tolerate sequence alterations. Modified proviruses were evaluated in vitro for protein steady state levels, particle release, and virus titer in permissive cells. Modification of Gag and Env was mostly detrimental to their function. As anticipated, modification of Bet had no impact on virion release and affected virus titers of only some recombinants. Further evaluation of Bet as an epitope carrier was performed using T cell epitopes from the model antigen chicken ovalbumin (OVA, human tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP-2, and oncoprotein E7 of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16E7. Transfection of murine cells with constructs encoding Bet-epitope chimeric proteins led to efficient MHC-I-restricted epitope presentation as confirmed by interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assays using epitope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL lines. FFV infection-mediated transduction of cells with epitope-carrying Bet also induced T-cell responses, albeit with reduced efficacy, in a process independent from the presence of free peptides. We show that primate FV Bet is also a promising T cell epitope carrier for clinical translation. The data demonstrate the utility of replication
Ghochikyan, Anahit; Davtyan, Hayk; Petrushina, Irina; Hovakimyan, Armine; Movsesyan, Nina; Davtyan, Arpine; Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Cribbs, David H.; Agadjanyan, Michael G.
We previously demonstrated that our second-generation DNA-based Alzheimer disease (AD) epitope vaccine comprising three copies of a short amyloid-β (Aβ) B cell epitope, Aβ11 fused with the foreign promiscuous Th epitope, PADRE (p3Aβ11-PADRE) was immunogenic in mice. However, since DNA vaccines exhibit poor immunogenicity in large animals and humans, in this study, we sought to improve the immunogenicity of p3Aβ11-PADRE by modifying this vaccine to express protein 3Aβ11-PADRE with a free N-ter...
We have previously shown that avian reovirus (ARV) σA and σNS proteins possess dsRNA and ssRNA binding activity and suggested that there are two epitopes on σA (I and II) and three epitopes (A, B, and C) on σNS. To further define the location of epitopes on σA and σNS proteins and to further elucidate the biological functions of these epitopes by using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 62, 1F9, H1E1, and 4A123 against the ARV S1133 strain, the full-length and deletion fragments of S2 and S4 genes of ARV generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were cloned into pET32 expression vectors and the fusion proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 strain. Epitope mapping using MAbs and E. coli-expressed deletion fragments of σA and σNS of the ARV S1133 strain, synthetic peptides, and the cross reactivity of MAbs to heterologous ARV strains demonstrated that epitope II on σA was located at amino acid residues 340QWVMAGLVSAA350 and epitope B on σNS at amino acid residues 180MLDMVDGRP188. The MAbs (62, 1F9, and H1E1) directed against epitopes II and B did not require the native conformation of σA and σNS, suggesting that their binding activities were conformation-independent. On the other hand, MAb 4A123 only reacted with complete σNS but not with truncated σNS fusion proteins in Western blot, suggesting that the binding activity of MAb to epitope A on σNS was conformation-dependent. Amino acid sequence analysis and the binding assays of MAb 62 to heterologous ARV strains suggested that epitope II on σA was highly conserved among ARV strains and that this epitope is suitable as a serological marker for the detection of ARV antibodies following natural infection in chickens. On the contrary, an amino acid substitution at position 183 (M to V) in epitope B of ARV could hinder the reactivity of the σNS with MAb 1F9. The σNS of ARV with ssRNA-binding activity could be blocked by monoclonal antibody 1F9. The epitope B on σNS is required for ss
Hayes, Anthony J.; Mitchell, Ruth E; Bashford, Andrew; Reynolds, Scott; Caterson, Bruce; Hammond, Chrissy L
Background: The zebrafish is an important developmental model. Surprisingly, there are few studies that describe the glycosaminoglycan composition of its extracellular matrix during skeletogenesis. Glycosaminoglycans on proteoglycans contribute to the material properties of musculo skeletal connective tissues, and are important in regulating signalling events during morphogenesis. Sulfation motifs within the chain structure of glycosaminoglycans on cell-associated and extracellular matrix pro...
Reversal of tolerance induced by transplantation of skin expressing the immunodominant T cell epitope of rat type II collagen entitles development of collagen-induced arthritis but not graft rejection
Bäcklund, Johan; Treschow, Alexandra; Firan, Mihail; Malmström, Vivianne; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Ward, E Sally; Holmdahl, Rikard
collagen (CI), e.g. in skin, are tolerized against rat CII and resistant to CIA. In this study we transplanted skin from TSC transgenic mice onto non-transgenic CIA-susceptible littermates to investigate whether introduction of this epitope to a naïve immune system would lead to T cell priming and graft...... rejection or instead to tolerance and arthritis protection. Interestingly, TSC grafts were accepted and not even immunization of recipient mice with CII in adjuvant induced graft rejection. Instead, TSC skin recipients displayed a reduced T and B cell response to CII and were also protected from arthritis....... However, additional priming could break arthritis protection and was accompanied by an increased T cell response to the grafted epitope. Strikingly, despite the regained T cell response, development of arthritis was not accompanied by graft rejection, showing that these immune-mediated inflammatory...
Hua, Rong-Hong; Liu, Li-Ke; Chen, Zhen-Shi; Li, Ye-Nan; Bu, Zhi-Gao
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) contributes to virus replication and elicits protective immune responses during infection. JEV NS1-specific antibody responses could be a target in the differential diagnosis of different flavivirus infections. However, the epitopes on JEV NS1 are poorly characterized. The present study describes the full mapping of linear B-cell epitopes in JEV NS1. We generated eleven NS1-specific monoclonal antibodies from mice immunized with recombinant NS1. For epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies, a set of 51 partially-overlapping peptides covering the entire NS1 protein were expressed with a GST-tag and then screened using monoclonal antibodies. Through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), five linear epitope-containing peptides were identified. By sequentially removing amino acid residues from the carboxy and amino terminal of peptides, the minimal units of the five linear epitopes were identified and confirmed using monoclonal antibodies. Five linear epitopes are located in amino acids residues (5)AIDITRK(11), (72)RDELNVL(78), (251)KSKHNRREGY(260), (269)DENGIVLD(276), and (341)DETTLVRS(348). Furthermore, it was found that the epitopes are highly conserved among JEV strains through sequence alignment. Notably, none of the homologous regions on NS1 proteins from other flaviviruses reacted with the MAbs when they were tested for cross-reactivity, and all five epitope peptides were not recognized by sera against West Nile virus or Dengue virus. These novel virus-specific linear B-cell epitopes of JEV NS1 would benefit the development of new vaccines and diagnostic assays. PMID:23825668
Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 contributes to virus replication and elicits protective immune responses during infection. JEV NS1-specific antibody responses could be a target in the differential diagnosis of different flavivirus infections. However, the epitopes on JEV NS1 are poorly characterized. The present study describes the full mapping of linear B-cell epitopes in JEV NS1. We generated eleven NS1-specific monoclonal antibodies from mice immunized with recombinant NS1. For epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies, a set of 51 partially-overlapping peptides covering the entire NS1 protein were expressed with a GST-tag and then screened using monoclonal antibodies. Through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, five linear epitope-containing peptides were identified. By sequentially removing amino acid residues from the carboxy and amino terminal of peptides, the minimal units of the five linear epitopes were identified and confirmed using monoclonal antibodies. Five linear epitopes are located in amino acids residues (5AIDITRK(11, (72RDELNVL(78, (251KSKHNRREGY(260, (269DENGIVLD(276, and (341DETTLVRS(348. Furthermore, it was found that the epitopes are highly conserved among JEV strains through sequence alignment. Notably, none of the homologous regions on NS1 proteins from other flaviviruses reacted with the MAbs when they were tested for cross-reactivity, and all five epitope peptides were not recognized by sera against West Nile virus or Dengue virus. These novel virus-specific linear B-cell epitopes of JEV NS1 would benefit the development of new vaccines and diagnostic assays.
Birkelund, Svend; Mygind, P; Holm, A;
this protein. By use of recombinant DNA techniques, we located the epitopes for two MAbs in the C-terminal variable part. Although the antibodies reacted in an immunoblot assay, it was not possible to map the epitopes completely by use of 16-mer synthetic peptides displaced by one amino acid corresponding...... to the C-terminal part of C. trachomatis DnaK. To determine the limits of the epitopes, C. trachomatis DnaK and glutatione S-transferase fusion proteins were constructed and affinity purified. The purified DnaK fusion proteins were used for a fluid-phase inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...... with the two antibodies. The epitopes were found not to overlap. To obtain DnaK fragments recognized by the antibodies with the same affinity as native C. trachomatis DnaK, it was necessary to express, respectively, regions of 127 and 77 amino acids. The MAbs described in this study thus recognized...
The artificial protein TBI constructed from four T-cell epitopes and five neutralizing B-cell epitopes is an experimental new-generation multiple-epitope vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The TBI protein was expressed in Escherichia coli cells, isolated, and purified to the homogeneous state. The growth conditions for protein crystal were found, and the crystals thus grown were studied by the method of X-ray diffraction analysis
Some neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 envelope proteins were highly effective to inhibit the infection of different strains in vitro, and existed in the infected individuals with very low levels. We suggested multi-epitope-vaccine as a new strategy to increase levels of neutralizing antibodies and the abilities against HIV mutation in vivo. Two candidate multi-epitope-vaccines induced antibodies with predefined multi-epitope-specificity in rhesus macaque. These antibodies recognized corresponding neutralizing epitopes on epitope-peptides, gp41 peptides, V3 loop peptide, rsgp41 and rgp120. Besides, three candidate epitope-vaccines in combination (another kind of multi-epitopevaccines) showed similar potency to induce predefined multiple immune responses in rabbits. These results suggest that multi-epitope-vaccines may be a new strategy to induce multi-antiviral activities against HIV-1 infection and mutafions.
YING LIN; JIN WANG; HONG XIA WANG; HUA LIANG JIANG; JIAN HUA SHEN; YOU HUA XIE; YUAN WANG; GANG PEI; BEI FEN SHEN; JIA RUI WU; BING SUN; XU SHEN; RUI FU YANG; YI XUE LI; YONG YONG JI; YOU YU HE; MUDE SHI; WEI LU; TIE LIU SHI
The nucleocapsid (N) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a majorvirion structural protein. In this study, two epitopes (N1 and N2) of the N protein of SARS-CoV werepredicted by bioinformatics analysis. After immunization with two peptides, the peptides-specific antibodieswere isolated from the immunized rabbits. The further experiments demonstrated that N1 peptide-inducedpolyclonal antibodies had a high affinity to bind to E. coli expressed N protein of SARS-CoV. Furthermore, itwas confirmed that N1 peptide-specific IgG antibodies were detectable in the sera of severe acute respiratorysyndrome (SARS) patients. The results indicated that an epitope of the N protein has been identified andN protein specific Abs were produced by peptide immunization, which will be useful for the study of SARS-CoV.
徐沁; 丁建芳; 胡红雨; 许根俊
The 6-His tagged firefly luciferase was highly expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. After immunizing Balb/c mice with the antigen, 6 hybridomas clones were found to secrete monoelonal antibodies (mAbs) and the mAbs were also purified separately. The competitive binding experiments show that 2 mAbs can bind heat-denatured antigen or its proteolytic fragments but not the native lueiferase, suggesting that their epitopes might be accommodated in the internal segments of the protein. On the other hand, the other 4 mAbs are capable of binding both native and denatured antigens. It infers that their epitopes locate in the segments on the protein surface. The results also suggest that the six mAbs are all sequence-specific.
Bidlingmaier, Scott; Zhu, Xiaodong; Liu, Bin
Human CD133 (human prominin-1), a five transmembrane domain glycoprotein, was originally identified as a cell surface antigen present on CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. Although the biological function of CD133 is not well understood, antibodies to CD133 epitopes have been widely used to purify hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that a rare population of tumor cells possessing increased capacities for self-renewal and tumor initiation is responsible for maintaining the growth of neoplastic tissue. The expression of the CD133 epitopes, AC133 and AC141, has been shown to define a subpopulation of brain tumor cells with significantly increased capacity for tumor initiation in xenograft models. Following the discovery of the AC133/AC141+ population of brain tumor stem cells, the AC133 and AC141 epitopes have been extensively used as markers for purifying CSCs in other solid tumors. There are, however, several issues associated with the use of the AC133 and AC141 CD133 epitopes as markers for CSCs. The antibodies routinely used for purification of AC133 and AC141-positive cells target poorly characterized glycosylated epitopes of uncertain specificity. Discordant expression of the AC133 and AC141 epitopes has been observed, and the epitopes can be absent despite the presence of CD133 protein. In addition, CD133 expression has recently been shown to be modulated by oxygen levels. These factors, in combination with the uncertain biological role of CD133, suggest that the use of CD133 expression as a marker for CSCs should be critically evaluated in each new experimental system and highlight the need for additional CSC surface markers that are directly involved in maintaining CSC properties. PMID:18535813
Groux-Degroote, Sophie; Krzewinski-Recchi, Marie-Ange; Cazet, Aurélie; Vincent, Audrey; Lehoux, Sylvain; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Delannoy, Philippe
Abstract Bronchial mucins from patients suffering from cystic fibrosis exhibit glycosylation alterations, especially increased amounts of the sialyl-Lewis x} (NeuAc?2-3Gal?1-4[Fuc?1-3]GlcNAc-R) and 6-sulfo-sialyl-Lewis x} (NeuAc?2-3Gal?1-4[Fuc?1-3][SO3H-6]GlcNAc-R) terminal structures. These epitopes are preferential receptors for P. aeruginosa, the bacteria responsible for the chronicity of airway infection and involved in the morbidity and early death of cystic fibrosis patients....
Existing methods for the prediction of immunologically active T-cell epitopes are based on the amino acid sequence or structure of pathogen proteins. Additional information regarding the locations of epitopes may be acquired by considering the evolution of viruses in hosts with different immune backgrounds. In particular, immune-dependent evolutionary patterns at sites within or near T-cell epitopes can be used to enhance epitope identification. We have developed a mutation-selection model of T-cell epitope evolution that allows the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype of the host to influence the evolutionary process. This is one of the first examples of the incorporation of environmental parameters into a phylogenetic model and has many other potential applications where the selection pressures exerted on an organism can be related directly to environmental factors. We combine this novel evolutionary model with a hidden Markov model to identify contiguous amino acid positions that appear to evolve under immune pressure in the presence of specific host immune alleles and that therefore represent potential epitopes. This phylogenetic hidden Markov model provides a rigorous probabilistic framework that can be combined with sequence or structural information to improve epitope prediction. As a demonstration, we apply the model to a data set of HIV-1 protein-coding sequences and host HLA genotypes.
Hoof, Ilka; Vita, R; Zarebski, L;
The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB, www.iedb.org) provides a catalog of experimentally characterized B and T cell epitopes, as well as data on Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) binding and MHC ligand elution experiments. The database represents the molecular structures recognized by adaptive...... unavailable to the public from 129,186 experiments were submitted directly by investigators. The curation of epitopes related to autoimmunity is expected to be completed by the end of 2010. The database can be queried by epitope structure, source organism, MHC restriction, assay type or host organism, among...... other criteria. The database structure, as well as its querying, browsing and reporting interfaces, was completely redesigned for the IEDB 2.0 release, which became publicly available in early 2009....
J Field; Nikawa, J; Broek, D; MacDonald, B.; Rodgers, L; Wilson, I A; Lerner, R A; Wigler, M
We developed a method for immunoaffinity purification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase based on creating a fusion with a small peptide epitope. Using oligonucleotide technology to encode the peptide epitope we constructed a plasmid that expressed the fusion protein from the S. cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase promoter ADH1. A monoclonal antibody previously raised against the peptide was used to purify adenylyl cyclase by affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme appeared to be ...
Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni remains one of the major gut pathogens of our time. Its zoonotic nature and wide-spread distribution in industrialized countries calls for a quick and reliable diagnostic tool. Antibody-based detection presents a suitable means to identify pathogenic bacteria. However, the knowledge about immunodominant targets is limited. Thus, an approach is presented, which allows for the rapid screening of numerous cDNA derived expression clones to identify novel antigens. The deeper understanding of immunodominant proteins assists in the design of diagnostic tools and furthers the insight into the bacterium's pathogenicity as well as revealing potential candidates for vaccination. We have successfully screened 1536 clones of an expression library to identify 22 proteins that have not been described as immunodominant before. After subcloning the corresponding 22 genes and expression of full-length proteins, we investigated the immunodominant character by microarrays and ELISA. Subsequently, seven proteins were selected for epitope mapping. For cj0669 and cj0920c linear epitopes were identified. For cj0669, specificity assays revealed a specific linear epitope site. Consequently, an eleven amino acid residue sequence TLIKELKRLGI was analyzed via alanine scan, which revealed the glycine residue to be significant for binding of the antibody. The innovative approach presented herein of generating cDNAs of prokaryotes in combination with a microarray platform rendering time-consuming purification steps obsolete has helped to illuminate novel immunodominant proteins of C.jejuni. The findings of a specific linear epitope pave the way for a plethora of future research and the potential use in diagnostic applications such as serological screenings. Moreover, the current approach is easily adaptable to other highly relevant bacteria making it a formidable tool for the future discovery of antigens and potential biomarkers. Consequently, it is
Thompson, Nancy E; Arthur, Terrance M; Burgess, Richard R
Polyol-responsive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are useful tools for the gentle purification of proteins and protein complexes. These are high-affinity mAbs that release the antigen in the presence of a nonchaotropic salt and a low-molecular-weight polyhydroxylated compound (polyol). The epitope for the polyol-responsive mAb NT73, which reacts with Escherichia coli RNA polymerase, was located at the C terminus of the beta' subunit. Using recombinant DNA techniques, we have identified the epitope to be within the 13-amino-acid sequence SLAELLNAGLGGS and have developed an epitope tag that can be fused to a protein of interest for use as a purification tag. This epitope tag (designated Softag1) was fused to either the N or the C terminus of the green fluorescent protein. These tagged proteins were expressed in E. coli, and the tagged proteins were purified from the soluble fraction by a single-step immunoaffinity chromatography procedure. This approach extends the powerful technique of gentle-release immunoaffinity chromatography to many expressed proteins. PMID:14656522
丁士标; 李召东; 严杰; 林旭瑷
目的 构建问号钩端螺旋体(简称钩体)LipL32、OmpL1和LipL21蛋白的优势T-和B-细胞联合表位融合基因及其原核表达系统,并对表达产物的免疫原性进行鉴定.方法 人工合成多表位联合基因并构建其原核表达系统.采用SDS-PAGE检测重组蛋白；采用MAT检测重组蛋白兔抗血清与我国钩体标准参考株的凝集效价；Western blot和ELISA检测重组蛋白的免疫原性.结果 获得了多表位融合基因并构建了原核表达系统.表达产物的相对分子质量约为23×103,且主要以可溶性形式存在；重组蛋白兔抗血清免疫双扩散效价为1∶8,该抗血清能与我国15群的钩体标准参考株发生凝集反应,ELISA证明该重组蛋白能检测不同群型钩体感染患者血清中的抗钩体抗体.结论 成功构建了包含钩体LipL32、OmpL1和LipL21蛋白的优势T和B细胞联合表位基因及其原核表达系统,表达产物具有良好的抗原性和交叉免疫反应性,可作为研制通用型问号钩体基因工程疫苗及血清学检测的抗原.%Objective To construct the T-cells and B-cells combined epitope peptide gene based on the LipL32,OmpL1 and LipL21 protein from Leptospira interrogans and E.coli expression system,and better understanding of the immunological activity of the recombinant protein. Methods The immunodomaint T- and B-cells combined epitopes of LipL32,OmpL1 and LipL21 were identified and used to synthetic a new gene and then construct its prokaryotic expression system.The expression of recombinant protein was determined by SDS-PAGE; MAT was used to determine the titer of the antiserum to L. interrogans standard strains of China ; Western blot and ELISA were used to identify the immunity activity of the recombinant protein.Results The synthetic gene was effectively expressed in E.coli BL21 ( DE3 ) strain and mainly presented in dissoluble protein.Western blot result showed that the expression protein react well with the
Full Text Available Virus-like particles (VLPs of chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 were generated by replacing the nuclear localization signal (NLS; at 1–39 aa of PCV2 capsid protein (Cap with classical swine fever virus (CSFV T-cell epitope (1446–1460 aa, CSFV B-cell epitope (693–716 aa and CSFV T-cell epitope conjugated with B-cell epitope. The recombinant proteins were expressed using the baculovirus expression system and detected by immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The abilities to form PCV2 VLPs were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Immunogenicities of the three recombinant proteins were evaluated in mice. Our Results indicated that Cap protein NLS deletion or substitution with CSFV epitopes did not affect the VLPs assembly. Three chimeric Cap proteins could form VLPs and induce efficient humoral and cellular immunity against PCV2 and CSFV in mice. Results show that PCV2 VLPs can be used as an efficient antigen carrier for delivery of foreign epitopes, and a potential novel vaccine.
Zhang, Huawei; Qian, Ping; Liu, Lifeng; Qian, Suhong; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin
Virus-like particles (VLPs) of chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were generated by replacing the nuclear localization signal (NLS; at 1-39 aa) of PCV2 capsid protein (Cap) with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) T-cell epitope (1446-1460 aa), CSFV B-cell epitope (693-716 aa) and CSFV T-cell epitope conjugated with B-cell epitope. The recombinant proteins were expressed using the baculovirus expression system and detected by immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The abilities to form PCV2 VLPs were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Immunogenicities of the three recombinant proteins were evaluated in mice. Our Results indicated that Cap protein NLS deletion or substitution with CSFV epitopes did not affect the VLPs assembly. Three chimeric Cap proteins could form VLPs and induce efficient humoral and cellular immunity against PCV2 and CSFV in mice. Results show that PCV2 VLPs can be used as an efficient antigen carrier for delivery of foreign epitopes, and a potential novel vaccine. PMID:25490764
高翔; 许会会; 雷连成
In order to achieve the special antigen protein and prepare polyclonal antibody,so as to lay the foundation of the rapid detection of Staphylococcus a ureus, this experiment screened the antigen epitopes of FnbpA,ClfA, Ebps of Staphylococcus aureus using the DNAStar software,then connected the epitopes with a linker and synthesized the whole genes. The objective gene was cloned into expression vector pGEX-4T-l,followed by transformation into E. coli BL21. The expression production was purified through Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography method,and the purified protein was injected into rabbits to prepare polyclonal antibody,at the 42 days peripheral blood was collected and the serum was obtained. The results revealed that this experiment has successfully established the expression vector, and the antibody titer was more than 1 : 10000 analysised by ELISA. These results were benefit to develop the rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus using immunological methods.%为获得金黄色葡萄球菌特异性抗原蛋白并以此制备多克隆抗体,应用DNAStar软件筛选金黄色葡萄球菌FnbpA、ClfA、Ebps的抗原表位,以柔性氨基酸序列连接后进行全基因合成,将目的基因克隆到pGEX-4T-1原核表达载体,转化至大肠杆菌感受态细胞,诱导表达,采用sepharose 4B柱亲和层析纯化表达蛋白,制备抗原后对家兔进行皮下多点注射,于第42天采集外周血,获得血清.结果表明,本试验成功构建了金黄色葡萄球菌抗原基因表达载体,并获得了高免血清,经ELIsA的方法检测血清效价可达到1:10000以上,成功制备多克隆抗体,为以后采用免疫学方法快速检测金黄色葡萄球菌奠定了基础.
欧瑜; 鄢方兵; 唐泰山; 祝长青; 蒋原; 张常印
构建空肠弯曲菌表面蛋白特异性多表位抗原原核表达载体,并在大肠杆菌中诱导表达,免疫动物后检测其抗血清与空肠弯曲菌菌体的反应性.从空肠弯曲菌的6个表面蛋白中分析到特异性抗原表位,人工合成其串联基因片段,将其插入原核表达载体,获得重组质粒pET-32a(+ )-CJMEA-A,经IPTG诱导后表达出25k的目标蛋白,纯化后免疫新西兰大白兔,Western blot和间接ELISA检测重组蛋白抗原性和抗血清反应性.结果表明目标蛋白具有良好的反应原和免疫原性,抗血清能与菌体发生反应.其抗体可用于C.jejuni免疫磁珠和免疫胶体金等检测方法的建立.%To construct and to express the gene of specific multi-epitope antigen from Campylobacter jejuni and to detect the reactivity of its antibody to this bacteria. Firstly ,some specific antigenic determinants were obtained after 6 surface proteins of Campytobacter jejuni were analyzed. Secondly these epitopes were linked in series and its gene was synthesized. Thirdly, the recombinant plasmid pET-32a( + )-CJMEA-A was obtained when the gene was inserted into pET-32a( + ) vector. Then,after being induced by IPTG,the 25ku of fusion protein was expressed,purified and used for the immunization of rabbits. Finally,SDS-PAGE and indirect ELISA were used to detect the antigenicity of the protein and the reactivity of the antiserum. The results showed that this protein was expressed successfully;it possesses good unnuinogem'city and reactogenicity;its antiserum can react to thalli of C. Jejuni . A conclusion can be made that the antibody of this protein could be used to detect C. Jejuni by inununomagnetic beads or immune colloidal gold technique.
Jafarpour, Nazli; Memarnejadian, Arash; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Kohram, Fatemeh; Aghababa, Haniyeh; Khoramabadi, Nima; Mahdavi, Mehdi
Despite a huge number of studies towards vaccine development against human immunodeficiency virus-1, no effective vaccine has been approved yet. Thus, new vaccines should be provided with new formulations. Herein, a new DNA vaccine candidate encoding conserved and immunogenic epitopes from HIV-1 antigens of tat, pol, gag and env is designed and constructed. After bioinformatics analyses to find the best epitopes and their tandem, nucleotide sequence corresponding to the designed multiepitope was synthesized and cloned into pcDNA3.1+ vector. Expression of pcDNA3.1-tat/pol/gag/env plasmid was evaluated in HEK293T cells by RT-PCR and western-blotting. Seven groups of BALB/c mice were intramuscularly immunized three times either with 50, 100, 200 µg of plasmid in 2-week intervals or with similar doses of insert-free plasmid. Two weeks after the last injection, proliferation of T cells and secretion of IL4 and IFN-γ cytokines were evaluated using Brdu and ELISA methods, respectively. Results showed the proper expression of the plasmid in protein and mRNA levels. Moreover, the designed multiepitope plasmid was capable of induction of both proliferation responses as well as IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokine production in a considerable level compared to the control groups. Overall, our primary data warranted further detailed studies on the potency of this vaccine. PMID:24842263
Zhang, Chunhua; Li, Yunyun; Tang, Weina; Zhou, Zhiguo; Sun, Pingping; Ma, Zhiqiang
B-cell epitope is a group of residues which is on the surface of an antigen. It invokes humoral responses. Locating B-cell epitope is important for effective vaccine design, and the development of diagnostic reagents. Mimotope-based B-cell epitope prediction method is a kind of conformational B-cell epitope prediction, and the core idea of the method is mapping the mimotope sequences which are obtained from a random phage display library. However, current mimotope-based B-cell epitope prediction methods cannot maintain a high degree of satisfaction in the circumstances of employing only mimotope sequences. In this study, we did a multi-perspective analysis on parameters for conformational B-cell epitopes and characteristics between epitope and mimotope on a benchmark datasets which contains 67 mimotope sets, corresponding to 40 unique complex structures. In these 67 cases, there are 25 antigen-antibody complexes and 42 protein-protein interactions. We analyzed the two parts separately. The results showed the mimotope sequences do have some epitope features, but there are also some epitope properties that mimotope sequences do not contain. In addition, the numbers of epitope segments with different lengths were obviously different between the antigen-antibody complexes and the protein-protein interactions. This study reflects how similar do mimotope sequence and genuine epitopes have; and evaluates existing mimotope-based B-cell epitope prediction methods from a novel viewpoint. PMID:26715528
Full Text Available This paper shows a computational approach for quantitative prediction of B cell epitopes. The function was defined, which reflects the average value of B epitopes, according to eight predictors of different B epitopes, as well as structural and energetic considerations of the origin protein. The proposed methodology could be useful to develop both dengue and chikungunya vaccines
This paper shows a computational approach for quantitative prediction of B cell epitopes. The function was defined, which reflects the average value of B epitopes, according to eight predictors of different B epitopes, as well as structural and energetic considerations of the origin protein. The proposed methodology could be useful to develop both dengue and chikungunya vaccines
Appelmelk, Ben J; Martino, M. Celeste; Veenhof, Eveline; Monteiro, Mario A.; Maaskant, Janneke J.; Negrini, Riccardo; Lindh, Frank; Perry, Malcolm; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.
Helicobacter pylori NCTC 11637 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) expresses the human blood group antigens Lewis x (Lex), Ley, and H type I. In this report, we demonstrate that the H type I epitope displays high-frequency phase variation. One variant expressed Lex and Ley and no H type I as determined by serology; this switch was reversible. Insertional mutagenesis in NCTC 11637 of JHP563 (a poly(C) tract containing an open reading frame homologous to glycosyltransferases) yielded a transformant with a...
R.C. Aalberse; R. Crameri
Here, we discuss various questions related to IgE epitopes: What are the technical possibilities and pitfalls, what is currently known, how can we put this information into hypothetical frameworks and the unavoidable question: how useful is this information for patient care or allergenicity predicti
Xu, Qingqing; Ma, Xingjiang; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiaomin
The intricate sequence and antigenic variability of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) have led to unprecedented difficulties in the development of vaccines. Much experimental evidence demonstrates that ALV-J mutants have caused immune evasion and pose a challenge for traditional efforts to develop effective vaccines. To investigate the potential of a multi-epitope vaccination strategy to prevent chickens against ALV-J infections, a recombinant chimeric multi-epitope protein X (rCMEPX) containing both immunodominant B and T epitope concentrated domains selected from the major structural protein of ALV-J using bioinformatics approach was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Its immunogenicity and protective efficacy was studied in chickens. The results showed that rCMEPX could elicit neutralizing antibodies and cellular responses, and antibodies induced by rCMEPX could specifically recognize host cell naturally expressed ALV-J proteins, which indicated that the rCMEPX is a good immunogen. Challenge experiments showed 80% chickens that received rCMEPX were well protected against ALV-J challenge. This is the first report of a chimeric multi-epitope protein as a potential immunogen against ALV-J. PMID:26196055
许发芝; 吴胜国; 余为一
To explore the immune adjuvant effects of chicken IL-2 ( ChIL-2), a recombinant plasmid with ChlL-2 and multi-antigen epitopes from F gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV-F) was built and expressed in prokaryotic cells to prevent and control the chicken ND disease. The recombinant chimeric gene of ChIL-2-linker-NDV-F constructed by chicken ChIL-2 gene linked multi-antigen epitopes gene of NDV F protein via a serine-rich linker by overlap-PCR method was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector PET-32a. After identification by sequencing, the recombinant ChIL-2-inker-NDV-F protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 through IPTG and purified with the Ni2+ affinity column. The expressed ChIL-2-linker-NDV-F protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western-blot and indirect ELISA, respectively. The chimeric gene of ChIL-2-linker-NDV-F was successfully constructed and cloned into PET-32a vector respectively. The expressed ChIL-2-linker-NDV-F protein was shown by a major band with a expected molecular weight about 48 kD on SDS-PAGE and Western-blot and accounted for almost 45 ％ of the total bacteria proteins, Serological assay by indirect ELISA showed that it reacted strongly and specifically with chicken serum of NDV infection. These results indicated that the chimeric gene encoding ChIL-2-linker-NDV-F could effectively express in prokaryotic cells and the expressed protein had high specificity and good immunogenicity.%研究鸡白细胞介素-2(chicken interleukin-2,ChlL-2)的免疫佐剂功能,构建ChlL-2与新城疫病毒F蛋白多抗原表位(NDV-F)的嵌合基因,以对鸡新城疫疫病进行防治.采用重叠延伸PCR方法通过基因柔性接头将ChlL-2基因和NDV-F多抗原表位基因构建成ChL-2-linker-NDV-F嵌合基因并克隆入PET-32a载体,经测序鉴定后,转化BL21大肠杆菌,IPTG诱导表达6×His融合蛋白,Ni2+亲和柱纯化,表达产物经SDS-PAGE、Western blot 和间接ELISA检测和鉴定.结果表明,实验成功构建并克隆了ChlL-2-linker
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ebola viruses (EBOVs cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. At present, there are no licensed vaccines or efficient therapies to combat EBOV infection. Previous studies have shown that both humoral and cellular immune responses are crucial for controlling Ebola infection. CD8+ T cells play an important role in mediating vaccine-induced protective immunity. The objective of this study was to identify H-2d-specific T cell epitopes in EBOV glycoproteins (GPs. Results Computer-assisted algorithms were used to predict H-2d-specific T cell epitopes in two species of EBOV (Sudan and Zaire GP. The predicted peptides were synthesized and identified in BALB/c mice immunized with replication-deficient adenovirus vectors expressing the EBOV GP. Enzyme-linked immunospot assays and intracellular cytokine staining showed that the peptides RPHTPQFLF (Sudan EBOV, GPCAGDFAF and LYDRLASTV (Zaire EBOV could stimulate splenoctyes in immunized mice to produce large amounts of interferon-gamma. Conclusion Three peptides within the GPs of two EBOV strains were identified as T cell epitopes. The identification of these epitopes should facilitate the evaluation of vaccines based on the Ebola virus glycoprotein in a BALB/c mouse model.
Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Rasmussen, Michael; Harndahl, Mikkel;
The affinity for and stability of peptides bound by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are instrumental factors in presentation of viral epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In swine, such peptide presentations by swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) are crucial for swine...... immunity during viral infections and disease. Here we combine the ability of complete nonamer peptide based binding matrices for three different SLA proteins to predict good candidates for peptide-SLA (pSLA) binding with that of an online available algorithm, NetMHCpan. Further we analyze the correlation...... between high affinity and high stability peptides bound by the highly expressed SLA molecules, SLA-1*0401, SLA-2*0401, and SLA-3*0401, using a luminescence oxygen channeling (LOCI) and a scintillation proximity assay, respectively. With this procedure, high affinity and highly stable SLA peptide epitopes...
Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.
Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.
Ping Chen; Simon Rayner; Kang-hong Hu
In recent years, the in silico epitopes prediction tools have facilitated the progress of vaccines development significantly and many have been applied to predict epitopes in viruses successfully. Herein, a general overview of different tools currently available, including T cell and B cell epitopes prediction tools, is presented. And the principles of different prediction algorithms are reviewed briefly. Finally, several examples are present to illustrate the application of the prediction tools.
Roark, Christina L.; Anderson, Kirsten M.; Simon, Lucas J.; Schuyler, Ronald P.; Aubrey, Michael T; Freed, Brian M.
Disease susceptibility for type 1 diabetes is strongly associated with the inheritance of specific HLA alleles. However, conventional allele frequency analysis can miss HLA associations because many alleles are rare. In addition, disparate alleles that have similar peptide-binding sites, or shared epitopes, can be missed. To identify the HLA shared epitopes associated with diabetes, we analyzed high-resolution genotyping for class I and class II loci. The HLA epitopes most strongly associated...
Gui, Xun; Ge, Pinghui; Wang, Xuliang; Yang, Kunyu; Yu, Hai; Zhao, Qinjian; Chen, Yixin; Xia, Ningshao
Influenza virus still poses a major threat to human health worldwide. The nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A virus plays an essential role in the viral replication and transcription and hence becomes a promising therapeutic target. NP forms a complicated conformation under native conditions and might denature when performing immunoassays such as western blot in the study of NP function. Therefore, it is useful to make an NP specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes linear epitope instead of conformational epitope. In this study, a recombinant NP (rNP) of influenza A virus was over-expressed and used to generate a panel of anti-NP mAbs. These anti-NP mAbs were grouped into three classes based on their reactivity in Western blots. Only Class I mAb can react with linear rNP fragments. One of Class I mAb, 4D2, was characterized further by epitope mapping with a series of overlapping synthetic peptides, indicating that the 4D2 epitope is a surface exposed, linear epitope between amino acid residues 243 and 251. This epitope is highly conserved among different influenza A viruses with an identity of 98.4% (17,922/18,210). Western blot, co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry experiments all indicated 4D2 is highly specific to NP of influenza A virus. The results demonstrated that 4D2 can be used as a research tool for functional study of NP in the replication cycle of influenza A virus. Further work is needed to understand the function and importance of this epitope. PMID:24136709
陈心春; 刘威龙; 杨桂林; 刘勇军; 朱秀云; 张红梅; 周伯平; Lybarger Lonnie
目的 采用携带GFP报告基因腺病毒载体表达HBsAg细胞毒性T细胞(CIL)表位MHC单链三聚体,为增强HBV特异性免疫提供新方法.方法 构建小鼠MHC Ⅰ类分子(H-2Ld)限制的HBsAg优势CTL表位肽与MHCⅠ类分子重链(Ld)和β2M链(β2-microglobulin,β2微球蛋白)的单链三聚体(HBsAg-SCT).并将HBsAg-SCT亚克隆到GFP标记腺病毒载体,以HBsAg和OVA-SCT作为对照,转染293A细胞,包装产生携带HBsAs-SCT,HBsAg和OVA-SCT的重组腺病毒.结果 经双酶切和克隆测序鉴定,HBsAg-SCT能成功克隆到编码GFP标记的腺病毒载体,通过荧光显微镜观察到转染的293A细胞含有绿色荧光素蛋白.通过Western Blot进一步证实表达的重组蛋白HBsAg-SCT能与抗-腿抗体发生反应.结论 编码HBsAg-SCT的荧光蛋白腺病毒载体成功构建,并能在293A细胞中完整包装成重组腺病毒颗粒.%Objective To generate a recombinant Adenovh'us encoding a GFP (green fluorescent protein)-report gene and a single-chain trimer of MHC restricted HBsAg CTL epitope. Methods An oligonucleotide encoding H-2Ld restricted HBsAg CTL epitopo was synthesized and fused with H-2Ld DNA molecule to construct the eukaryotic expression vector carrying the HBsAg-SCT gene. The HBsAg-SCT gene was subcloned into a GFP adenovirus expression vector,which was transfeeted into Ad293 cells for packaging and amplification of recombinant adenovirus encoding HBsAg-SCT. Results HBsAg-SCT has been cloned into an adenovirus vector encoding GFP report gene successfully as confirmed by double enzyme digestion and direct sequencing. HBsAg-SCT was expressed by infected Ad293 ceils demonstrated by western blot assay. Conclusion A recombinant adenovirus expressing HBsAg-SCT and green fluorescent protein report gene has been generated.
Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with high mortality among children. Various neutralizing B cell epitopes of EV71 have been identified as potential vaccine candidates. Capsid-incorporation of antigens into adenovirus (Ad has been developed for a novel vaccine approach. We constructed Ad3-based EV71 vaccine vectors by incorporating a neutralizing epitope SP70 containing 15 amino acids derived from capsid protein VP1 of EV71 within the different surface-exposed domains of the capsid protein hexon of Ad3EGFP, a recombinant adenovirus type 3 (Ad3 expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein. Thermostability and growth kinetic assays suggested that the SP70 epitope incorporation into hypervariable region (HVR1, HVR2, or HVR7 of the hexon did not affect Ad fitness. The SP70 epitopes were thought to be exposed on all hexon-modified intact virion surfaces. Repeated administration of BALB/c mice with the modified Ads resulted in boosting of the anti-SP70 humoral immune response. Importantly, the modified Ads immunization of mother mice conferred protection in vivo to neonatal mice against the lethal EV71 challenge, and the modified Ads-immunized mice serum also conferred passive protection against the lethal challenge in newborn mice. Compared with the recombinant GST-fused SP70 protein immunization, immunization with the Ads containing SP70 in HVR1 or HVR2 elicited higher SP70-specific IgG titers, higher neutralization titers, and conferred more effective protection to neonatal mice. Thus, this study provides valuable information for hexon-modified Ad3 vector development as a promising EV71 vaccine candidate and as an epitope-delivering vehicle for other pathogens.
The major encephalitogenic epitope for Lewis rats is the 72-89 sequence of guinea pig basic protein (GP-BP) or rat basic protein (Rt-BP). T cells responsive to this epitope are I-A restricted and preferentially express the V alpha 2:V beta 8 gene combination in their TCR. In this work, we describe for the first time the delayed appearance of T cells specific for additional discrete determinant of BP, the nonencephalitogenic 55-68 sequence of GP-BP restricted by I-A, and the encephalitogenic 8...
Forti, Katia; Rizzo, Giorgia; Cagiola, Monica; Ferrante, Giovanna; Marini, Carla; Feliziani, Francesco; Pezzotti, Giovanni; De Giuseppe, Antonio
Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV), an oncogenic C-type retrovirus, is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. Binding of BLV to its cellular receptor is mediated by the surface envelope glycoprotein subunit (SU). Previous studies have identified eight different epitopes (A through H) on the BLV SU. In this study, a new sequential epitope was identified using the monoclonal antibody 2G7 (MAb 2G7) on the C-terminal region of the BLV SU. To localise and refine the map of this epitope, a series of deleted forms in the C and N-terminal ends of the glycoprotein were made and synthesised in baculovirus and Escherichia coli expression systems. The synthetic proteins were analysed both in Western blot and MAb-capture ELISA assays. MAb 2G7 recognised a stretch of 11 amino acids, named epitope E', corresponding to residues 189-SDWVPSVRSWA-199 (comprising the 33 amino acids signal peptide) overlapping with the E epitope of the SU. The data obtained by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) revealed that the E' epitope was hidden on whole BLV particles and that the variation in reactivity between epitope E' and MAb 2G7 depends on the glycosylation state of SU. Similarly, the analysis of immunological data evidenced that the failure of interaction between the MAb anti-DD' and its epitope was also due to a steric hindrance of the glycosylation. Finally, the ELISA assay analysis performed with the deleted and mutated forms of rSU evidenced that the conformational epitopes F, G and H lied into in the 34-173 amino-acids residues of N-terminal region of SU. PMID:24916842
Identification and characterization of a virus-specific continuous B-cell epitope on the PrM/M protein of Japanese Encephalitis Virus: potential application in the detection of antibodies to distinguish Japanese Encephalitis Virus infection from West Nile Virus and Dengue Virus infections
Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential diagnose of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV infection from other flavivirus especially West Nile virus (WNV and Dengue virus (DV infection was greatly hindered for the serological cross-reactive. Virus specific epitopes could benefit for developing JEV specific antibodies detection methods. To identify the JEV specific epitopes, we fully mapped and characterized the continuous B-cell epitope of the PrM/M protein of JEV. Results To map the epitopes on the PrM/M protein, we designed a set of 20 partially overlapping fragments spanning the whole PrM, fused them with GST, and expressed them in an expression vector. Linear epitope M14 (105VNKKEAWLDSTKATRY120 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. By removing amino acid residues individually from the carboxy and amino terminal of peptide M14, we confirmed that the minimal unit of the linear epitope of PrM/M was M14-13 (108KEAWLDSTKAT118. This epitope was highly conserved across different JEV strains. Moreover, this epitope did not cross-react with WNV-positive and DENV-positive sera. Conclusion Epitope M14-13 was a JEV specific lineal B-cell epitpe. The results may provide a useful basis for the development of epitope-based virus specific diagnostic clinical techniques.
McComb, Ryan C; Ho, Chi-Lee; Bradley, Kenneth A; Grill, Laurence K; Martchenko, Mikhail
The current anthrax vaccine requires improvements for rapidly invoking longer-lasting neutralizing antibody responses with fewer doses from a well-defined formulation. Designing antigens that target neutralizing antibody epitopes of anthrax protective antigen, a component of anthrax toxin, may offer a solution for achieving a vaccine that can induce strong and long lasting antibody responses with fewer boosters. Here we report implementation of a strategy for developing epitope focused virus nanoparticle vaccines against anthrax by using immunogenic virus particles to present peptides derived from anthrax toxin previously identified in (1) neutralizing antibody epitope mapping studies, (2) toxin crystal structure analyses to identify functional regions, and (3) toxin mutational analyses. We successfully expressed two of three peptide epitopes from anthrax toxin that, in previous reports, bound antibodies that were partially neutralizing against toxin activity, discovered cross-reactivity between vaccine constructs and toxin specific antibodies raised in goats against native toxin and showed that antibodies induced by our vaccine constructs also cross-react with native toxin. While protection against intoxication in cellular and animal studies were not as effective as in previous studies, partial toxin neutralization was observed in animals, demonstrating the feasibility of using plant-virus nanoparticles as a platform for epitope defined anthrax vaccines. PMID:26514421
CD8+ T cells play a critical role in protective immunity against Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). Epitope-based DNA vaccines expressing HBV-dominant CTL epitopes can be used as candidate vaccines capable of inducing cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) responses. A plasmid DNA encoding a CTL epitope of HBV core antigen, HBc18-27, was constructed. Intramuscular immunization of C57BL/6 mice with this DNA vaccine resulted in successful induction of HBV-specific CTL responses. In order to promote transportation of the peptide into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to bind to MHC class I molecules for optimal class I antigen presentation, an ER targeting sequence (ERTS) was fused with the C18-27 encoding gene. ERTS fusion significantly enhanced specific CD8+ T cell responses in terms of CTL cytolysis as well as IFN-γ secretion. This enhancement was correlated with promoted epitope presentation on target cell surface. We report here an enhanced immunogenicity of an epitope-based DNA vaccine using an ER targeting signal sequence, which has significant implications for future design of therapeutic HBV vaccine
Viruses-like particles (VLPs) are frequently being used as platforms for polyvalent display of foreign epitopes of interest on their capsid surface to improve their presentation enhancing the antigenicity and host immune response. In the present study, we used the VLPs of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), an icosahedral plant virus, as a platform to display 180 copies of 16 amino acid epitopes of ricin toxin fused to the C-terminal end of a modified TBSV capsid protein (NΔ52). Expression of the chimeric recombinant protein in insect cells resulted in spontaneous assembly of VLPs displaying the ricin epitope. Cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of the chimeric VLPs at 22 A resolution revealed the locations and orientation of the ricin epitope exposed on the TBSV capsid surface. Furthermore, injection of chimeric VLPs into mice generated antisera that detected the native ricin toxin. The ease of fusing of short peptides of 15-20 residues and their ability to form two kinds (T = 1, T = 3) of bio-nanoparticles that result in the display of 60 or 180 copies of less constrained and highly exposed antigenic epitopes makes TBSV an attractive and versatile display platform for vaccine design.
Wang QM; Sun SH; Hu ZL; Zhou FJ; Yin M; Xiao CJ; Zhang JC
Cell-mediated immune responses are crucial in the protection against tuberculosis. In this study, we constructed epitope DNA vaccines (p3-M-38) encoding cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes of MPT64 and 38 kDa proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to observe the influence of spacer sequence (Ala-Ala-Tyr) or ubiquitin (UbGR) on the efficacy of the two CTL epitopes, we also constructed DNA vaccines, p3-M-S(spacer)-38, p3-Ub (UbGR)-M-S-38 and p3-Ub-M-38. The immune responses elicited by the four DNA vaccines were tested in C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice. The cytotoxicity of T cells was detected by LDH-release method and by enzyme-linked immunospot assay for epitope-specific cells secreting interferon-gamma. The results showed that DNA immunization with p3-M-38 vaccine could induce epitope-specific CD8+ CTL response and that the spacer sequence (AAY) only enhanced M epitope presentation. The protein-targeting sequence (UbGR) enhanced the immunogenicity of the two epitopes. The finding that defined spacer sequences at C-terminus and protein-targeting degradation modulated the immune response of epitope string DNA vaccines will be of importance for the further development of multi-epitope DNA vaccines against tuberculosis.
Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ipsen, H; Larsen, J N; Wissenbach, M; Spangfort, M D; Gajhede, M
, that has been solved to 2.9 A resolution by x-ray diffraction. The mAb is shown to inhibit the binding of allergic patients' IgE to Bet v 1, and the allergen-IgG complex may therefore serve as a model for the study of allergen-IgE interactions relevant in allergy. The size of the BV16 epitope is 931 A2...... development of new and safer vaccines for allergen immunotherapy in the form of mutated allergens....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious and devastating disease affecting livestock that causes significant financial losses. Therefore, safer and more effective vaccines are required against Foot-and-mouth disease virus(FMDV. The purpose of this study is to screen and identify an H-2d restricted T cell epitope from the virus structural protein VP1, which is present with FMD. We therefore provide a method and basis for studying a specific FMDV T cell epitope. Results A codon-optimized expression method was adopted for effective expression of VP1 protein in colon bacillus. We used foot-and-mouth disease standard positive serum was used for Western blot detection of its immunogenicity. The VP1 protein was used for immunizing BALB/c mice, and spleen lymphocytes were isolated. Then, a common in vitro training stimulus was conducted for potential H-2Dd, H-2Kd and H-2Ld restricted T cell epitope on VP1 proteins that were predicted and synthesized by using a bioinformatics method. The H-2Kd restricted T cell epitope pK1 (AYHKGPFTRL and the H-2Dd restricted T cell epitope pD7 (GFIMDRFVKI were identified using lymphocyte proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT experiments. Conclusions The results of this study lay foundation for studying the FMDV immune process, vaccine development, among other things. These results also showed that, to identify viral T cell epitopes, the combined application of bioinformatics and molecular biology methods is effective.
Zhang, Qing; Wang, Peng; Kim, Yohan;
We present a new release of the immune epitope database analysis resource (IEDB-AR, http://tools.immuneepitope.org), a repository of web-based tools for the prediction and analysis of immune epitopes. New functionalities have been added to most of the previously implemented tools, and a total of...
kill the infected cells. The focus of my PhD project has been on improving a method for CTL epitope pathway prediction, on analyzing the epitope density in the alternative cancer exome, and on a study investigating minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) associated with leukemia. Part I......CTL methods, the experimental effort to identify 90% of new epitopes can be reduced by 15% and 40%, respectively. Part III reports the results of an analysis investigating how the alternatively spliced cancer exome differs from the exome of normal tissue in terms of containing predicted MHC class I binding...... epitopes. We show that peptides unique to cancer splice variants comprise significantly fewer predicted HLA class I epitopes than peptides unique to spliced transcripts in normal tissue. We furthermore find that hydrophilic amino acids are significantly enriched in the unique carcinoma sequences, which...
Phillips, J. C.
There is an urgent need for economical blood based, noninvasive molecular biomarkers to assist in the detection and diagnosis of cancers in a cost-effective manner at an early stage, when curative interventions are still possible. Serum autoantibodies are attractive biomarkers for early cancer detection, but their development has been hindered by the punctuated genetic nature of the ten million known cancer mutations. A landmark study of 50,000 patients (Pedersen et al., 2013) showed that a few p53 15-mer epitopes are much more sensitive colon cancer biomarkers than p53, which in turn is a more sensitive cancer biomarker than any other protein. The function of p53 as a nearly universal "tumor suppressor" is well established, because of its strong immunogenicity in terms of not only antibody recruitment, but also stimulation of autoantibodies. Here we examine dimensionally compressed bioinformatic fractal scaling analysis for identifying the few sensitive epitopes from the p53 amino acid sequence, and show how it could be used for early cancer detection (ECD). We trim 15-mers to 7-mers, and identify specific 7-mers from other species that could be more sensitive to aggressive human cancers, such as liver cancer. Our results could provide a roadmap for ECD.
Kim, Na Young; Jung, Woon-Won; Oh, Yu-Kyung; Chun, Taehoon; Park, Hong-Yang; Lee, Hoon-Taek; Han, In-Kwon; Yang, Jai Myung; Kim, Young Bong
Clinical transplantation has become one of the preferred treatments for end-stage organ failure, and one of the novel approaches being pursued to overcome the limited supply of human organs involves the use of organs from other species. The pig appears to be a near ideal animal due to proximity to humans, domestication, and ability to procreate. The presence of Gal-alpha1,3-Gal residues on the surfaces of pig cells is a major immunological obstacle to xenotransplantation. Alpha1,3galactosyltransferase (alpha1,3GT) catalyzes the synthesis of Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc-R (alpha-gal epitope) on the glycoproteins and glycolipids of non-primate mammals, but this does not occur in humans. Moreover, the alpha-gal epitope causes hyperacute rejection of pig organs in humans, and thus, the elimination of this antigen from pig tissues is highly desirable. Recently, concerns have been raised that the risk of virus transmission from such pigs may be increased due to the absence of alpha-gal on their viral particles. In this study, transgenic cells expressing alpha1,3GT were selected using 1.25 mg/ml neomycin. The development of HeLa cells expressing alpha1,3GT now allows accurate studies to be conducted on the function of the alpha-gal epitope in xenotransmission. The expressions of alpha-gal epitopes on HeLa/alpha-gal cells were demonstrated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy using cells stained with IB4-fluorescein isothiocyanate lectin. Vaccinia viruses propagated in HeLa/alpha-gal cells also expressed alpha-gal on their viral envelopes and were more sensitive to inactivation by human sera than vaccinia virus propagated in HeLa cells. Moreover, neutralization of vaccinia virus was inhibited in human serum by 10 mm ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethylether)tetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment. Our data indicated that alpha-gal epitopes are one of the major barriers to zoonosis via xenotransmission. PMID:17381684
Beaver, John E.; Bourne, Philip E.; Ponomarenko, Julia V.
Background Structural information about epitopes, particularly the three-dimensional (3D) structures of antigens in complex with immune receptors, presents a valuable source of data for immunology. This information is available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and provided in curated form by the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB). With continued growth in these data and the importance in understanding molecular level interactions of immunological interest there is a need for n...
HUAI, GUOLI; QI, PING; YANG, HONGJI; WANG, YI
The α-Gal epitope (Galα1,3Galα1,4GlcNAc-R) is ubiquitously presented in non-primate mammals, marsupials and New World Monkeys, but it is absent in humans, apes and Old World monkeys. However, the anti-Gal antibody (~1% of immunoglobulins) is naturally generated in human, and is found as the immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM and IgA isotypes. Owing to the specific binding of the anti-Gal antibody with the α-Gal epitope, humans have a distinct anti-α-gal reactivity, which is responsible for hyperacute rejection of organs transplanted from α-gal donors. In addition, the α1,3 galactosyltransferases (α1,3GT) can catalyze the synthesis of the α-Gal epitope. Therefore, the α1,3GT gene, which encodes the α1,3GT, is developed profoundly. The distributions of the α-Gal epitope and anti-Gal antibody, and the activation of α1,3GT, reveal that the enzyme of α1,3GT in ancestral primates is ineffective. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the human α1,3-GT pseudogene to the corresponding different species sequence, and according to the evolutionary tree of different species, the results of evolutionary inactivation of the α1,3GT gene in ancestral primates attribute to the mutations under a stronger selective pressure. However, on the basis of the structure, the mechanism and the specificity of the α-Gal epitope and anti-Gal antibody, they can be applied to clinical exploitation. Knocking out the α1,3GT gene will eliminate the xenoantigen, Gal(α1,3)Gal, so that the transplantation of α1,3GT gene knockout pig organ into human becomes a potential clinically acceptable treatment for solving the problem of organ shortage. By contrast, the α-Gal epitope expressed through the application of chemical, biochemical and genetic engineering can be exploited for the clinical use. Targeting anti-Gal-mediated autologous tumor vaccines, which express α-Gal epitope to antigen-presenting cells, would increase their immunogenicity and elicit an immune response, which will be
Liliane Maria Fernandes de Oliveira
Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a common type of cancer among women worldwide and infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVs types represents the major risk factor for the etiopathogenesis of the disease. HPV-16 is the most frequently identified HPV type in cervical lesions and expression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins is required for the uncontrolled cellular proliferation. In the present study we report the design and experimental testing of a recombinant multi-epitope protein containing immunogenic epitopes of HPV-16 E6 and E7. Tumor preventive assays, based on the engraftment of TC-1 cells in mice, showed that the E6E7 multi-epitope protein induced a full preventive anti-tumor protection in wild-type mice, as well as in mice deficient in expression of CD4+ T cells and TLR4 receptor. Nonetheless, no anti-tumor protection was observed in mice deficient in CD8+ T cells. Also, the vaccine promoted high activation of E6/E7-specific T cells and in a therapeutic-approach, E6E7 protein conferred full anti-tumor protection in mice. These results show a potential use of this E6E7 multi-epitope antigen as a new and promising antigen for the development of a therapeutic vaccine against tumors induced by HPV.
Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which insulin-producing pancreatic islet β cells are the target of self-reactive B and T cells. T cells reactive with epitopes derived from insulin and/or IGRP are critical for the initiation and maintenance of disease, but T cells reactive with other islet antigens likely have an essential role in disease progression. We sought to identify candidate CD8+ T cell epitopes that are pathogenic in type 1 diabetes. Proteins that elicit autoantibodies in human type 1 diabetes were analyzed by predictive algorithms for candidate epitopes. Using several different tolerizing regimes using synthetic peptides, two new predicted tolerogenic CD8+ T cell epitopes were identified in the murine homolog of the major human islet autoantigen zinc transporter ZnT8 (aa 158–166 and 282–290 and one in a non-β cell protein, dopamine β-hydroxylase (aa 233–241. Tolerizing vaccination of NOD mice with a cDNA plasmid expressing full-length proinsulin prevented diabetes, whereas plasmids encoding ZnT8 and DβH did not. However, tolerizing vaccination of NOD mice with the proinsulin plasmid in combination with plasmids expressing ZnT8 and DβH decreased insulitis and enhanced prevention of disease compared to vaccination with the plasmid encoding proinsulin alone.
Yu, Cailin; Burns, Jeremy C.; Robinson, William H.; Utz, Paul J.; Ho, Peggy P.; Steinman, Lawrence; Frey, Alan B.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which insulin-producing pancreatic islet β cells are the target of self-reactive B and T cells. T cells reactive with epitopes derived from insulin and/or IGRP are critical for the initiation and maintenance of disease, but T cells reactive with other islet antigens likely have an essential role in disease progression. We sought to identify candidate CD8+ T cell epitopes that are pathogenic in type 1 diabetes. Proteins that elicit autoantibodies in human type 1 diabetes were analyzed by predictive algorithms for candidate epitopes. Using several different tolerizing regimes using synthetic peptides, two new predicted tolerogenic CD8+ T cell epitopes were identified in the murine homolog of the major human islet autoantigen zinc transporter ZnT8 (aa 158–166 and 282–290) and one in a non-β cell protein, dopamine β-hydroxylase (aa 233–241). Tolerizing vaccination of NOD mice with a cDNA plasmid expressing full-length proinsulin prevented diabetes, whereas plasmids encoding ZnT8 and DβH did not. However, tolerizing vaccination of NOD mice with the proinsulin plasmid in combination with plasmids expressing ZnT8 and DβH decreased insulitis and enhanced prevention of disease compared to vaccination with the plasmid encoding proinsulin alone. PMID:27069933
Kumar, Vikram; Damodharan, S; Pandaranayaka, Eswari P J; Madathiparambil, Madanan G; Tennyson, Jebasingh
Expression of Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) coat protein (CP) in E. coli forms virus-like particles. In this study, the structure of CdMV CP was predicted and used as a platform to display epitopes of the most abundant surface-associated protein, LipL32 of Leptospira at C, N, and both the termini of CdMV CP. In silico, we have mapped sequential and conformational B-cell epitopes from the crystal structure of LipL32 of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni str. Fiocruz L1-130 using IEDB Elipro, ABCpred, BCPRED, and VaxiJen servers. Our results show that the epitopes displayed at the N-terminus of CdMV CP are promising vaccine candidates as compared to those displayed at the C-terminus or at both the termini. LipL32 epitopes, EP2, EP3, EP4, and EP6 are found to be promising B-cell epitopes for vaccine development. Based on the type of amino acids, length, surface accessibility, and docking energy with CdMV CP model, the order of antigenicity of the LipL32 epitopes was found to be EP4 > EP3 > EP2 > EP6. PMID:25692534
Willats, William George Tycho; McCartney, L.; Steele-King, C.G.;
A monoclonal antibody (LM8) was generated with specificity for xyloglacturonan (XGA) isolated from pea (Pisum sativum L.) testae. Characterization of the LM8 epitope indicates that it is a region of XGA that is highly substituted with xylose. Immunocytochemical analysis indicates that this epitop...... that is specifically associated with a plant cell separation process that results in complete cell detachment....... is restricted to loosely attached inner parenchyma cells at the inner face of the pea testa and does not occur in other cells of the testa. Elsewhere in the pea seedling, the LM8 epitope was found only in association with root cap cell development at the root apex. Furthermore, the LM8 epitope is...... specifically associated with root cap cells in a range of angiosperm species. In embryogenic carrot suspension cell cultures the epitope is abundant at the surface of cell walls of loosely attached cells in both induced and non-induced cultures. The LM8 epitope is the first cell wall epitope to be identified...
Anugraha, G; Madhumathi, J; Prince, P R; Prita, P J Jeya; Khatri, V K; Amdare, N P; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P
Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne parasitic disease, affects more than 120 million people worldwide. Vaccination for filariasis by targeting different stages of the parasite will be a boon to the existing MDA efforts of WHO which required repeated administration of the drug to reduce the infection level and sustained transmission. Onset of a filaria-specific immune response achieved through antigen vaccines can act synergistically with these drugs to enhance the parasite killing. Multi-epitope vaccine approach has been proved to be successful against several parasitic diseases as it overcomes the limitations associated with the whole antigen vaccines. Earlier results from our group suggested the protective efficacy of multi-epitope vaccine comprising two immunodominant epitopes from Brugia malayi antioxidant thioredoxin (TRX), several epitopes from transglutaminase (TGA) and abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2). In this study, the prophylactic efficacy of the filarial epitope protein (FEP), a chimera of selective epitopes identified from our earlier study, was tested in a murine model (jird) of filariasis with L3 larvae. FEP conferred a significantly (P < 0.0001) high protection (69.5%) over the control in jirds. We also observed that the multi-epitope recombinant construct (FEP) induces multiple types of protective immune responses, thus ensuring the successful elimination of the parasite; this poses FEP as a potential vaccine candidate. PMID:26179420
Forsström, Björn; Axnäs, Barbara Bisławska; Rockberg, Johan; Danielsson, Hanna; Bohlin, Anna; Uhlen, Mathias
An important issue for the performance and specificity of an antibody is the nature of the binding to its protein target, including if the recognition involves linear or conformational epitopes. Here, we dissect polyclonal sera by creating epitope-specific antibody fractions using a combination of epitope mapping and an affinity capture approach involving both synthesized peptides and recombinant protein fragments. This allowed us to study the relative amounts of antibodies to linear and conformational epitopes in the polyclonal sera as well as the ability of each antibody-fraction to detect its target protein in Western blot assays. The majority of the analyzed polyclonal sera were found to have most of the target-specific antibodies directed towards linear epitopes and these were in many cases giving Western blot bands of correct molecular weight. In contrast, many of the antibodies towards conformational epitopes did not bind their target proteins in the Western blot assays. The results from this work have given us insights regarding the nature of the antibody response generated by immunization with recombinant protein fragments and has demonstrated the advantage of using antibodies recognizing linear epitopes for immunoassay involving wholly or partially denatured protein targets. PMID:25816293
Full Text Available An important issue for the performance and specificity of an antibody is the nature of the binding to its protein target, including if the recognition involves linear or conformational epitopes. Here, we dissect polyclonal sera by creating epitope-specific antibody fractions using a combination of epitope mapping and an affinity capture approach involving both synthesized peptides and recombinant protein fragments. This allowed us to study the relative amounts of antibodies to linear and conformational epitopes in the polyclonal sera as well as the ability of each antibody-fraction to detect its target protein in Western blot assays. The majority of the analyzed polyclonal sera were found to have most of the target-specific antibodies directed towards linear epitopes and these were in many cases giving Western blot bands of correct molecular weight. In contrast, many of the antibodies towards conformational epitopes did not bind their target proteins in the Western blot assays. The results from this work have given us insights regarding the nature of the antibody response generated by immunization with recombinant protein fragments and has demonstrated the advantage of using antibodies recognizing linear epitopes for immunoassay involving wholly or partially denatured protein targets.
This article reports the design and construction of a multiple-epitope foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV)antigen, designated as OAAT. This recombinant antigen consists of the structural protein VP1 genes from serotypes A and O FMDV, five major VP1 immunodominant epitopes from two genotypes of Asia1 serotype, and three Th2 epitopes originating from the nonstructural protein, three ABC gene and structural protein VP4 gene. Expressions of target gene from these plasmids in HeLa cells were verified by Western-blot. BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with the DNA vaccines thrice every two weeks. We found that pA could induce simultaneously specific antibodies against serotypes A, Asia1, and O FMDV. Compared to those of the controls, the spots of FMDV-specific IFN-γ and cytotoxic activity from mice immunized with pA were significantly increased. pA provided full protection in 2/4 guinea pigs from challenge with FMDV O/NY00 and Asia1/YNBS/58, respectively. The results show that although pA did not give full protection in 100% immunized guinea pigs from challenge with type O and Asia1 FMDV, respectively, OAAT may be potential immunogen against FMDV and pA may be potential DNA vaccines against FMDV.
Epitope presentation to the immune system for vaccination purposes can be achieved either via an inactivated or attenuated form of a pathogen or via its isolated antigenic sequences. When free, these peptides can adopt a variety of conformations, most of which will not exist in their native environment. Conjugation to carrier proteins restricts mobility of the peptides and increases their immunogenicity. A high local concentration of epitopes boosts the immune response further and can be generated by the use of self-aggregating carriers, such as the capsid proteins of viruses. In this regard plant viruses have in recent years started to make an impact as safer alternatives to the use of bacterial and attenuated animal viruses: the latter both require propagation in costly cell-culture systems where they can undergo reversion towards a virulent form and/or become contaminated by other pathogens. Plant virus-based vectors can be multiplied cheaply and to high yields (exceeding 1 mg/g plant tissue) in host plants. Both helical (tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X, alfalfa mosaic virus) and icosahedral (cowpea mosaic virus, tomato bushy stunt virus) particles have been used to express a number of animal B-cell epitopes, whose immunogenic properties have been explored to varying degrees. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10398492
Zhou, Minghai; Xu, Dongping; Li, Xiaojuan; Li, Hongtao; Shan, Ming; Tang, Jiaren; Wang, Min; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Zhu, Xiaodong; Tao, Hua; He, Wei; Tien, Po; Gao, George F
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious and life-threatening disease that emerged in China in November 2002. A novel SARS-associated coronavirus was identified as its principal etiologic agent; however, the immunopathogenesis of SARS and the role of special CTLs in virus clearance are still largely uncharacterized. In this study, potential HLA-A*0201-restricted spike (S) and nucleocapsid protein-derived peptides were selected from an online database and screened for potential CTL epitopes by in vitro refolding and T2 cell-stabilization assays. The antigenicity of nine peptides which could refold with HLA-A*0201 molecules was assessed with an IFN-gamma ELISPOT assay to determine the capacity to stimulate CTLs from PBMCs of HLA-A2(+) SARS-recovered donors. A novel HLA-A*0201-restricted decameric epitope P15 (S411-420, KLPDDFMGCV) derived from the S protein was identified and found to localize within the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor-binding region of the S1 domain. P15 could significantly enhance the expression of HLA-A*0201 molecules on the T2 cell surface, stimulate IFN-gamma-producing CTLs from the PBMCs of former SARS patients, and induce specific CTLs from P15-immunized HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice in vivo. Furthermore, significant P15-specific CTLs were induced from HLA-A2.1-transgenic mice immunized by a DNA vaccine encoding the S protein; suggesting that P15 was a naturally processed epitope. Thus, P15 may be a novel SARS-associated coronavirus-specific CTL epitope and a potential target for characterization of virus control mechanisms and evaluation of candidate SARS vaccines. PMID:16887973
Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS are the primary diseases affecting the pig industry globally. Vaccine induced CD8(+ T cell-mediated immune response might be long-lived and cross-serotype and thus deserve further attention. Although large panels of synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of the polyproteins of a virus facilitate the detection of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL epitopes, it is an exceedingly costly and cumbersome approach. Alternatively, computational predictions have been proven to be of satisfactory accuracy and are easily performed. Such a method enables the systematic identification of genome-wide CTL epitopes by incorporating epitope prediction tools in analyzing large numbers of viral sequences. In this study, we have implemented an integrated bioinformatics pipeline for the identification of CTL epitopes of swine viruses including the CSF virus (CSFV, FMD virus (FMDV and PRRS virus (PRRSV and assembled these epitopes on a web resource to facilitate vaccine design. Identification of epitopes for cross protections to different subtypes of virus are also reported in this study and may be useful for the development of a universal vaccine against such viral infections among the swine population. The CTL epitopes identified in this study have been evaluated in silico and possibly provide more and wider protection in compared to traditional single-reference vaccine design. The web resource is free and open to all users through http://sb.nhri.org.tw/ICES.
Resende Daniela M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epitope prediction using computational methods represents one of the most promising approaches to vaccine development. Reduction of time, cost, and the availability of completely sequenced genomes are key points and highly motivating regarding the use of reverse vaccinology. Parasites of genus Leishmania are widely spread and they are the etiologic agents of leishmaniasis. Currently, there is no efficient vaccine against this pathogen and the drug treatment is highly toxic. The lack of sufficiently large datasets of experimentally validated parasites epitopes represents a serious limitation, especially for trypanomatids genomes. In this work we highlight the predictive performances of several algorithms that were evaluated through the development of a MySQL database built with the purpose of: a evaluating individual algorithms prediction performances and their combination for CD8+ T cell epitopes, B-cell epitopes and subcellular localization by means of AUC (Area Under Curve performance and a threshold dependent method that employs a confusion matrix; b integrating data from experimentally validated and in silico predicted epitopes; and c integrating the subcellular localization predictions and experimental data. NetCTL, NetMHC, BepiPred, BCPred12, and AAP12 algorithms were used for in silico epitope prediction and WoLF PSORT, Sigcleave and TargetP for in silico subcellular localization prediction against trypanosomatid genomes. Results A database-driven epitope prediction method was developed with built-in functions that were capable of: a removing experimental data redundancy; b parsing algorithms predictions and storage experimental validated and predict data; and c evaluating algorithm performances. Results show that a better performance is achieved when the combined prediction is considered. This is particularly true for B cell epitope predictors, where the combined prediction of AAP12 and BCPred12 reached an AUC value
Baltabekova, A Zh; Shagyrova, Zh S; Kamzina, A S; Voykov, M; Zhiyenbay, Ye; Ramanculov, E M; Shustov, A V
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays a central role in type I hypersensitivity including allergy and asthma. Novel treatment strategy envisages development of a therapeutic vaccine designed to elicit autologous blocking antibodies against the IgE. We sought to develop an IgE-epitope antigen that induces antibodies against a receptor-contacting epitope on human IgE molecule. We designed the VLP immunogens which utilize hepatitis B virus core protein (HBcAg) as a carrier, and present arrays of the receptor-contacting epitopes of the human IgE on their surfaces. FG loop from the IgE domain Cε3 was engineered into the HBcAg. Two constructs explore a well-established approach of insertion into a main immunodominant region of the HBcAg. Third construct is different in that the carrier is produced in a form of an assembly of two polypeptide chains which upon expression remain associated in a stable VLP-forming subunit (SplitCore technology). No VLPs were isolated from E.coli expressing the IgE-epitope antigens with contiguous sequences. On the contrary, the SplitCore antigen carrying the FG loop efficiently formed the VLPs. Immunization of mice with the VLPs presenting receptor-contacting epitope of the IgE elicited antibodies recognizing the human IgE in ELISA. PMID:25837568
Yi, Guohua; Tu, Xiongying; Bharaj, Preeti; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Junli; Shankar, Premlata; Manjunath, N
Attempts at eliciting neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 have generally failed. Computationally designed epitope-scaffold platforms allow transplantation of structural epitopes to scaffold proteins. Human rhinovirus (HRV) allows such engrafting of HIV-1 epitopes on the surface scaffold proteins. However, since HRV infects only humans and great apes, the efficacy of chimeric HRV-based live viral vaccines is difficult to assess in animal models. Here, we used human ICAM-1 transgenic (hICAM-1 Tg) mice that support productive HRV infection to assess the efficacy of chimeric HRV expressing the HIV-1 membrane proximal external region (MPER) epitope, 4E10. Intranasal immunization with chimeric HRV in transgenic mice effectively induced antibodies that recognized 4E10 peptide as well as HIV-1 Env trimer. Importantly, the immunized mouse sera were able to neutralize HIV strains including those belonging to clades B and C. Moreover, intranasal immunization could bypass pre-existing immunity to HRV. Thus, chimeric HRV appears to provide a viable vaccine vehicle for HIV-1 immunization in humans. PMID:26061648
A radioimmunoassay that makes use of whole Schistosomula and 125I-labeled protein A has been used to characterize and to quantify the binding of antisera to the surface of 3 hr mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. This technique facilitates the determination of epitopes on the schistosomula in addition to those detected by surface labeling and immunoprecipitation. By using this technique, it has been demonstrated that there is a much greater binding to the parasite surface of antibodies from chronically infected mice (CMS) than of antibodies from mice infected with highly irradiated cercariae (VMS), and CMS recognizes epitopes that VMS does not. Treatment of the surface of the schistosomula with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid and sodium metaperiodate has suggested that the discrepancy of the binding between the two sera is due to the recognition of a large number of additional epitopes by CMS, which are carbohydrate in nature. Some of the carbohydrate epitopes are expressed on the previously described surface glycoprotein antigens of M/sub r/ 200,000, 38,000, and 17,000
Omer-ali, P.; Magee, A.I.; Kelly, C.; Simpson, A.J.G.
A radioimmunoassay that makes use of whole Schistosomula and /sup 125/I-labeled protein A has been used to characterize and to quantify the binding of antisera to the surface of 3 hr mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. This technique facilitates the determination of epitopes on the schistosomula in addition to those detected by surface labeling and immunoprecipitation. By using this technique, it has been demonstrated that there is a much greater binding to the parasite surface of antibodies from chronically infected mice (CMS) than of antibodies from mice infected with highly irradiated cercariae (VMS), and CMS recognizes epitopes that VMS does not. Treatment of the surface of the schistosomula with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid and sodium metaperiodate has suggested that the discrepancy of the binding between the two sera is due to the recognition of a large number of additional epitopes by CMS, which are carbohydrate in nature. Some of the carbohydrate epitopes are expressed on the previously described surface glycoprotein antigens of M/sub r/ 200,000, 38,000, and 17,000.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a common cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in young children. It is often associated with severe neurological diseases and mortalities in recent outbreaks across the Asia Pacific region. Currently, there is no efficient universal antibody test available to detect EV71 infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present study, an epitope-blocking ELISA was developed to detect specific antibodies to human EV71 viruses in human or animal sera. The assay relies on a novel monoclonal antibody (Mab 1C6 that specifically binds to capsid proteins in whole EV71 viruses without any cross reaction to any EV71 capsid protein expressed alone. The sensitivity and specificity of the epitope-blocking ELISA for EV71 was evaluated and compared to microneutralization using immunized animal sera to multiple virus genotypes of EV71 and coxsackieviruses. Further, 200 serum sample from human individuals who were potentially infected with EV71 viruses were tested in both the blocking ELISA and microneutralization. Results indicated that antibodies to EV71 were readily detected in immunized animals or human sera by the epitope blocking ELISA whereas specimens with antibodies to other enteroviruses yielded negative results. This assay is not only simpler to perform but also shows higher sensitivity and specificity as compared to microneutralization. CONCLUSION: The epitope-blocking ELISA based on a unique Mab 1C6 provided highly sensitive and 100% specific detection of antibodies to human EV71 viruses in human sera.
Hasan, Noor Haliza; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Tarigan, Simson; Peaston, Anne; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid
A common approach for developing diagnostic tests for influenza virus detection is the use of mouse or rabbit monoclonal and/or polyclonal antibodies against a target antigen of the virus. However, comparative mapping of the target antigen using antibodies from different animal sources has not been evaluated before. This is important because identification of antigenic determinants of the target antigen in different species plays a central role to ensure the efficiency of a diagnostic test, such as competitive ELISA or immunohistochemistry-based tests. Interest in the matrix 2 ectodomain (M2e) protein of avian influenza virus (AIV) as a candidate for a universal vaccine and also as a marker for detection of virus infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) is the rationale for the selection of this protein for comparative mapping evaluation. This study aimed to map the epitopes of the M2e protein of avian influenza virus H5N1 using chicken, mouse and rabbit monoclonal or monospecific antibodies. Our findings revealed that rabbit antibodies (rAbs) recognized epitope 6EVETPTRN13 of the M2e, located at the N-terminal of the protein, while mouse (mAb) and chicken antibodies (cAbs) recognized epitope 10PTRNEWECK18, located at the centre region of the protein. The findings highlighted the difference between the M2e antigenic determinants recognized by different species that emphasized the importance of comparative mapping of antibody reactivity from different animals to the same antigen, especially in the case of multi-host infectious agents such as influenza. The findings are of importance for antigenic mapping, as well as diagnostic test and vaccine development. PMID:27362795
Nasoff, M S; Zebedee, S L; Inchauspé, G; Prince, A. M.
We have isolated cDNA clones from the 5' end of the Hutchinson strain of hepatitis C virus. Sequences encoding various segments of the HCV structural region were fused to the gene for glutathione S-transferase and analyzed for the expression of hepatitis C virus-capsid fusion proteins. With a set of these fusion proteins, both human and chimpanzee immune responses to capsid were studied. An immunodominant epitope was located within the amino-terminal portion of capsid that is preferentially r...
De Santis, M; Ceribelli, A; Cavaciocchi, F; Generali, E; Massarotti, M; Isailovic, N; Crotti, C; Scherer, H U; Montecucco, C; Selmi, C
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the native, citrullinated or carbamylated type II human collagen T cell- and B cell-epitopes on the adaptive immune response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Peripheral blood T and B cells obtained from a human leucocyte D4-related (antigen DR4(-) HLA-DR4)(+) woman with early RA, her healthy monozygotic twin and an unrelated HLA-DR3(+) woman with early RA were analysed for activation (CD154/CD69), apoptosis (annexin/7-aminoactinomycin), cytokine production [interferon (IFN)γ/interleukin (IL)-17/IL-4/IL-10/IL-6] and functional phenotype (CD45Ra/CCR7) after stimulation with the collagen native T cell epitope (T261-273), the K264 carbamylated T cell epitope (carT261-273), the native B cell epitope (B359-369) or the R360 citrullinated B cell epitope (citB359-369), and the combinations of these. The T cell memory compartment was activated by T cell epitopes in both discordant DR4(+) twins, but not in the DR3(+) RA. The collagen-specific activation of CD4(+) T cells was induced with both the native and carbamylated T cell epitopes only in the RA twin. Both T cell epitopes also induced IL-17 production in the RA twin, but a greater IL-4 and IL-10 response in the healthy twin. The citrullinated B cell epitope, particularly when combined with the carbamylated T cell epitope, induced B cell activation and an increased IL-6/IL-10 ratio in the RA twin compared to a greater IL-10 production in the healthy twin. Our data suggest that circulating collagen-specific T and B cells are found in HLA-DR4(+) subjects, but only RA activated cells express co-stimulatory molecules and produce proinflammatory cytokines. Carbamylation and citrullination further modulate the activation and cytokine polarization of T and B cells. PMID:27314557
Liang, Weifeng; Zhou, Guohui; Liu, Wenming; Yang, Baolin; Li, Chaosi; Wang, Haiwei; Yang, Decheng; Ma, Wenge; Yu, Li
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. In recent years, a series of outbreaks of serotype A FMD have occurred in many countries. High-affinity neutralizing antibodies against a conserved epitope have the potential to provide protective immunity against diverse subtypes of FMDV serotype A and to protect against future pandemics. In this study, we produced an A serotype FMDV-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the viral capsid protein VP1, designated 9A9, that potently neutralized FMDV A/JLYS/CHA/2014 with a 50 % neutralization titer (NT50) of 4,096. GST-fusion proteins expressing truncated peptides of VP1 were subjected to Western blot analysis using MAb 9A9, and it was found that the peptide (143)RGDLGPLAARL(153) of VP1 was the minimal epitope for MAb 9A9 binding. Western blot analysis also revealed that the epitope peptide could be recognized by positive sera from serotype A FMDV-infected pigs and cattle. Subsequent alanine-scanning mutagenesis analysis revealed that residues Gly(147) and Leu(149) of the 9A9-recognized epitope are crucial for MAb 9A9 binding. Furthermore, under immunological pressure selected by MAb 9A9, a single amino acid residue replacement (L149P) occurred in a viral neutralization-escape mutant, which verified the location of a critical residue of this epitope at Leu(149). Importantly, the epitope (143)RGDLGPLAARL(153) was highly conserved among different topotypes of serotype A FMDV strains in sequence alignment analysis. Thus, the results of this study could have application potential in the development of epitope-based vaccines and a suitable MAb-based diagnostic method for detection of type A FMDV as well as quantitation of antibodies against FMDV serotype A. PMID:27422396
Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the human humoral immune response against enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection and map human epitopes on the viral capsid proteins. Methods A series of 256 peptides spanning the capsid proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3 of BJ08 strain (genomic C4 were synthesized. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was carried out to detect anti-EV71 IgM and IgG in sera of infected children in acute or recovery phase. The partially overlapped peptides contained 12 amino acids and were coated in the plate as antigen (0.1 μg/μl. Sera from rabbits immunized with inactivated BJ08 virus were also used to screen the peptide panel. Results A total of 10 human anti-EV71 IgM epitopes (vp1-14 in VP1; vp2-6, 21, 40 and 50 in VP2 and vp3-10, 12, 15, 24 and 75 in VP3 were identified in acute phase sera. In contrast, only one anti-EV71 IgG epitope in VP1 (vp1-15 was identified in sera of recovery stage. Four rabbit anti-EV71 IgG epitopes (vp1-14, 31, 54 and 71 were identified and mapped to VP1. Conclusion These data suggested that human IgM epitopes were mainly mapped to VP2 and VP3 with multi-epitope responses occurred at acute infection, while the only IgG epitope located on protein VP1 was activated in recovery phase sera. The dynamic changes of humoral immune response at different stages of infection may have public health significance in evaluation of EV71 vaccine immunogenicity and the clinical application of diagnostic reagents.
Inaba, Hidefumi; De Groot, Leslie J; Akamizu, Takashi
Graves' disease (GD) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease, and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major autoantigen in this condition. Since the extracellular domain of human TSHR (TSHR-ECD) is shed into the circulation, TSHR-ECD is a preferentially immunogenic portion of TSHR. Both genetic factors and environmental factors contribute to development of GD. Inheritance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, especially HLA-DR3, is associated with GD. TSHR-ECD protein is endocytosed into antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and processed to TSHR-ECD peptides. These peptide epitopes bind to HLA-class II molecules, and subsequently the complex of HLA-class II and TSHR-ECD epitope is presented to CD4+ T cells. The activated CD4+ T cells secrete cytokines/chemokines that stimulate B-cells to produce TSAb, and in turn hyperthyroidism occurs. Numerous studies have been done to identify T- and B-cell epitopes in TSHR-ECD, including (1) in silico, (2) in vitro, (3) in vivo, and (4) clinical experiments. Murine models of GD and HLA-transgenic mice have played a pivotal role in elucidating the immunological mechanisms. To date, linear or conformational epitopes of TSHR-ECD, as well as the molecular structure of the epitope-binding groove in HLA-DR, were reported to be related to the pathogenesis in GD. Dysfunction of central tolerance in the thymus, or in peripheral tolerance, such as regulatory T cells, could allow development of GD. Novel treatments using TSHR antagonists or mutated TSHR peptides have been reported to be effective. We review and update the role of immunogenic TSHR epitopes and HLA in GD, and offer perspectives on TSHR epitope specific treatments. PMID:27602020
Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J.L.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Venteo, A.;
function of VP5, the other component of the capsid, is unknown. In this report, AHSV VP5, expressed in insect cells alone or together with VP2, was able to induce AHSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, two VP5-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were able to neutralize the virus in a....... Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques...
He, X S; Rivkina, M; Stocker, B A; Robinson, W S
To identify the major antigenic determinant of native Salmonella flagella of antigenic type d, we constructed a series of mutated fliCd genes with deletions and amino acid alterations in hypervariable region IV and in region of putative epitopes as suggested by epitope mapping with synthetic octameric peptides (T.M. Joys and F. Schödel, Infect. Immun. 59:3330-3332, 1991). The expressed product of most of the mutant genes, with deletions of up to 92 amino acids in region IV, assembled into fun...
Full Text Available Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs represent a promising tool for protein engineering. Recently, trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV viral protein 1 (VP1 was efficiently produced in yeast expression system and shown to self-assemble to VLPs. In the current study, TSPyV VP1 protein was exploited as a carrier for construction of chimeric VLPs harboring selected B and T cell-specific epitopes and evaluated in comparison to hamster polyomavirus VP1 protein. Chimeric VLPs with inserted either hepatitis B virus preS1 epitope DPAFR or a universal T cell-specific epitope AKFVAAWTLKAAA were produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Target epitopes were incorporated either at the HI or BC loop of the VP1 protein. The insertion sites were selected based on molecular models of TSPyV VP1 protein. The surface exposure of the insert positions was confirmed using a collection of monoclonal antibodies raised against the intact TSPyV VP1 protein. All generated chimeric proteins were capable to self-assemble to VLPs, which induced a strong immune response in mice. The chimeric VLPs also activated dendritic cells and T cells as demonstrated by analysis of cell surface markers and cytokine production profiles in spleen cell cultures. In conclusion, TSPyV VP1 protein represents a new potential carrier for construction of chimeric VLPs harboring target epitopes.
Giuseppina Li Pira
Full Text Available Mapping of antigenic peptide sequences from proteins of relevant pathogens recognized by T helper (Th and by cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL is crucial for vaccine development. In fact, mapping of T-cell epitopes provides useful information for the design of peptide-based vaccines and of peptide libraries to monitor specific cellular immunity in protected individuals, patients and vaccinees. Nevertheless, epitope mapping is a challenging task. In fact, large panels of overlapping peptides need to be tested with lymphocytes to identify the sequences that induce a T-cell response. Since numerous peptide panels from antigenic proteins are to be screened, lymphocytes available from human subjects are a limiting factor. To overcome this limitation, high throughput (HTP approaches based on miniaturization and automation of T-cell assays are needed. Here we consider the most recent applications of the HTP approach to T epitope mapping. The alternative or complementary use of in silico prediction and experimental epitope definition is discussed in the context of the recent literature. The currently used methods are described with special reference to the possibility of applying the HTP concept to make epitope mapping an easier procedure in terms of time, workload, reagents, cells and overall cost.
Xinjun, Lv; Xuejun, Ma; Lihua, Wang; Hao, Li; Xinxin, Shen; Pengcheng, Yu; Qing, Tang; Guodong, Liang
Bioinformatics analysis was used to predict potential epitopes of Lyssavirus nucleoprotein and highlighted some distinct differences in the quantity and localization of the epitopes disclosed by epitope analysis of monoclonal antibodies against Lyssavirus nucleoprotein. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the domain containing residues 152-164 of Lyssavirus nucleoprotein was a conserved linear epitope that had not been reported previously. Immunization of two rabbits with the corresponding synthetic peptide conjugated to the Keyhole Limpe hemocyanin (KLH) macromolecule resulted in a titer of anti-peptide antibody above 1:200,000 in rabbit sera as detected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot analysis demonstrated that the anti-peptide antibody recognized denatured Lyssavirus nucleoprotein in sodium dodecylsulfonate-polyacrylate gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Affinity chromatography purification and FITC-labeling of the anti-peptide antibody in rabbit sera was performed. FITC-labeled anti-peptide antibody could recognize Lyssavirus nucleoprotein in BSR cells and canine brain tissues even at a 1:200 dilution. Residues 152-164 of Lyssavirus nucleoprotein were verified as a conserved linear epitope in Lyssavirus. PMID:22405880
Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A33 is a type II integral membrane protein expressed on the extracellular enveloped form of vaccinia virus (VACV. Passive transfer of A33-directed monoclonal antibodies or vaccination with an A33 subunit vaccine confers protection against lethal poxvirus challenge in animal models. Homologs of A33 are highly conserved among members of the Orthopoxvirus genus and are potential candidates for inclusion in vaccines or assays targeting extracellular enveloped virus activity. One monoclonal antibody directed against VACV A33, MAb-1G10, has been shown to target a conformation-dependent epitope. Interestingly, while it recognizes VACV A33 as well as the corresponding variola homolog, it does not bind to the monkeypox homolog. In this study, we utilized a random phage display library to investigate the epitope recognized by MAb-1G10 that is critical for facilitating cell-to-cell spread of the vaccinia virus. Results By screening with linear or conformational random phage libraries, we found that phages binding to MAb-1G10 display the consensus motif CEPLC, with a disulfide bond formed between two cysteine residues required for MAb-1G10 binding. Although the phage motif contained no linear sequences homologous to VACV A33, structure modeling and analysis suggested that residue D115 is important to form the minimal epitope core. A panel of point mutants expressing the ectodomain of A33 protein was generated and analyzed by either binding assays such as ELISA and immunoprecipitation or a functional assessment by blocking MAb-1G10 mediated comet inhibition in cell culture. Conclusions These results confirm L118 as a component of the MAb-1G10 binding epitope, and further identify D115 as an essential residue. By defining the minimum conformational structure, as well as the conformational arrangement of a short peptide sequence recognized by MAb-1G10, these results introduce the possibility of designing small molecule mimetics that may
杨琼; 王丽; 卢大宁; 邢沈阳; 尹东; 朱筱娟
@@ Recently, the frequent use of immunosuppressants and chemotherapeutic drugs for cancers has caused an increase in the frequency of life-threatening systemic candidiasis.1 Studies by Matthews et al2 indicated HSP90 fragments are major targets for the immune system in infection due to C. albicans, and anti-epitope LKVIRK of HSP90 antibody is a serological marker for diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. Cloning and sequencing HSP90 antigen revealed that the linear epitope LKVIRK, localized near the C-terminus of the 47 kDa protein which circulates in the sera of patients with invasive candidiasis, as a heat-stable breakdown product of large more heat-labile antigen HSP90.2 In this study, epitope LKVIRK was displayed on the surface of phage fd to develop a new serological test for systemic candidiasis.
Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Nielsen, H.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Mills, E.N.C.; Rigby, N.; Eiwegger, T.; Szépfalusi, Z.; Roggen, E.L.
epitopes have been suggested to be of great importance. ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify IgE specific epitopes of intact and digested Ara h 1, and to compare epitope patterns between humans and rats. MethodsSera from five peanut allergic patients and five Brown Norway rats were used to......E, which by far accounted for most of the eluted peptide sequences. Epitope patterns were rather similar for both intact and digested Ara h 1 as well as for humans and rats. ConclusionsIndividual patient specific epitope patterns have been identified for the major allergen Ara h 1. IgE binding epitopes......Background Allergen epitope characterization provides valuable information useful for the understanding of proteins as food allergens. It is believed that IgE epitopes in general are conformational, nevertheless, for food allergens known to sensitize through the gastrointestinal tract linear...
Santos, Anderson R; Pereira, Vanessa Bastos; Barbosa, Eudes;
BACKGROUND: Current immunological bioinformatic approaches focus on the prediction of allele-specific epitopes capable of triggering immunogenic activity. The prediction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitopes is well studied, and various software solutions exist for this purpose...
Full Text Available Stimulating, and some blocking, antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR have conformation-dependent epitopes reported to involve primarily the leucine rich repeat region of the ectodomain (LRD. However, successful crystallization of TSHR residues 22-260 has omitted important extracellular non-LRD residues including the hinge region which connects the TSHR ectodomain to the transmembrane domain and which is involved in ligand induced signal transduction. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to determine if TSHR antibodies (TSHR-Abs have non-LRD binding sites outside the LRD. To obtain this information we employed the method of epitope protection in which we first protected TSHR residues 1-412 with intact TSHR antibodies and then enzymatically digested the unprotected residues. Those peptides remaining were subsequently delineated by mass spectrometry. Fourteen out of 23 of the reported stimulating monoclonal TSHR-Ab crystal contact residues were protected by this technique which may reflect the higher binding energies of certain residues detected in this approach. Comparing the protected epitopes of two stimulating TSHR-Abs we found both similarities and differences but both antibodies also contacted the hinge region and the amino terminus of the TSHR following the signal peptide and encompassing cysteine box 1 which has previously been shown to be important for TSH binding and activation. A monoclonal blocking TSHR antibody revealed a similar pattern of binding regions but the residues that it contacted on the LRD were again distinct. These data demonstrated that conformationally dependent TSHR-Abs had epitopes not confined to the LRDs but also incorporated epitopes not revealed in the available crystal structure. Furthermore, the data also indicated that in addition to overlapping contact regions within the LRD, there are unique epitope patterns for each of the antibodies which may contribute to their functional heterogeneity.
Latif, Rauf; Teixeira, Avelino; Michalek, Krzysztof; Ali, M Rejwan; Schlesinger, Max; Baliram, Ramkumarie; Morshed, Syed A; Davies, Terry F
Stimulating, and some blocking, antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) have conformation-dependent epitopes reported to involve primarily the leucine rich repeat region of the ectodomain (LRD). However, successful crystallization of TSHR residues 22-260 has omitted important extracellular non-LRD residues including the hinge region which connects the TSHR ectodomain to the transmembrane domain and which is involved in ligand induced signal transduction. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to determine if TSHR antibodies (TSHR-Abs) have non-LRD binding sites outside the LRD. To obtain this information we employed the method of epitope protection in which we first protected TSHR residues 1-412 with intact TSHR antibodies and then enzymatically digested the unprotected residues. Those peptides remaining were subsequently delineated by mass spectrometry. Fourteen out of 23 of the reported stimulating monoclonal TSHR-Ab crystal contact residues were protected by this technique which may reflect the higher binding energies of certain residues detected in this approach. Comparing the protected epitopes of two stimulating TSHR-Abs we found both similarities and differences but both antibodies also contacted the hinge region and the amino terminus of the TSHR following the signal peptide and encompassing cysteine box 1 which has previously been shown to be important for TSH binding and activation. A monoclonal blocking TSHR antibody revealed a similar pattern of binding regions but the residues that it contacted on the LRD were again distinct. These data demonstrated that conformationally dependent TSHR-Abs had epitopes not confined to the LRDs but also incorporated epitopes not revealed in the available crystal structure. Furthermore, the data also indicated that in addition to overlapping contact regions within the LRD, there are unique epitope patterns for each of the antibodies which may contribute to their functional heterogeneity. PMID:22957097
Solassol, I; Granier, C; Pèlegrin, A
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a heavily glycosylated tumor-associated protein with an N-A1-B1-A2-B2-A3-B3 domain structure. Circulating CEA immunoassays are used for monitoring digestive cancer patients, and radiolabeled anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies (MAb) are used for the diagnosis and therapy of CEA-positive tumors. The five major nonoverlapping epitopes (Gold 1-5) have been broadly correlated with the domain organization, but there is no precise localization of the epitopes at the sequence level. In an attempt to identify the peptide sequences corresponding to the five Gold epitopes on the CEA molecule, we prepared a set of 227 overlapping fifteen-mer peptides corresponding to the complete CEA sequence with the SPOT method. Using five high affinity MAbs directed against the five CEA Gold epitopes, we demonstrated that none of these epitopes could be mimicked by a fifteen-mer peptide sequence. However, using rabbit and goat anti-CEA sera, we identified six major continuous antigenic regions. All are included in the Ig-like domains of the CEA: two in the A1 domain (residues 120-134 and 153-164), one each in the A2 (329-337) and A3 domains (508-513), one at the junction between the A3 and B3 domains (553-561) and one in the B3 domain (565-573). A very homologous sequence (common residues VSPRL) was mapped in each of the three A domains. Thus, in terms of occurrence of continuous epitopes, the Ig-like domains A1, A2, A3 and B3 seem to be the most antigenic parts of CEA. These peptide sequences should be good candidates for the future development of site-specific anti-CEA MAbs. PMID:11275797
Full Text Available Abstract Background The West Nile virus (WNV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 is an important antigenic protein that elicits protective antibody responses in animals and can be used for the serological diagnosis of WNV infection. Although previous work has demonstrated the vital role of WNV NS1-specific antibody responses, the specific epitopes in the NS1 have not been identified. Results The present study describes the identification of two linear B-cell epitopes in WNV NS1 through screening a phage-displayed random 12-mer peptide library with two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 3C7 and 4D1 that directed against the NS1. The mAbs 3C7 and 4D1 recognized phages displaying peptides with the consensus motifs LTATTEK and VVDGPETKEC, respectively. Exact sequences of both motifs were found in the NS1 (895LTATTEK901 and 925VVDGPETKEC934. Further identification of the displayed B cell epitopes were conducted using a set of truncated peptides expressed as MBP fusion proteins. The data indicated that 896TATTEK901 and925VVDGPETKEC934 are minimal determinants of the linear B cell epitopes recognized by the mAbs 3C7 and 4D1, respectively. Antibodies present in the serum of WNV-positive horses recognized the minimal linear epitopes in Western blot analysis, indicating that the two peptides are antigenic in horses during infection. Furthermore, we found that the epitope recognized by 3C7 is conserved only among WNV strains, whereas the epitope recognized by 4D1 is a common motif shared among WNV and other members of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV serocomplex. Conclusions We identified TATTEK and VVDGPETKEC as NS1-specific linear B-cell epitopes recognized by the mAbs 3C7 and 4D1, respectively. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study may have potential applications in differential diagnosis and the development of epitope-based marker vaccines against WNV and other viruses of JEV serocomplex.
Duellman, Sarah J; Thompson, Nancy E; Burgess, Richard R
Polyol-responsive monoclonal antibodies (PR-mAbs) provide a strategy to purify active, nondenatured proteins by a single-step immunoaffinity chromatography procedure. The high affinity interaction between these antibodies and the antigen can be dissociated in the presence of a nonchaotropic salt and a low molecular weight polyhydroxylated compound (polyol). The epitope for PR-mAb IIB8 is located near the N-terminus of the human transcription factor IIB (TFIIB). The epitope is an eight amino acid sequence, TKDPSRVG, that can be fused to a desired protein for use as a purification tag. This epitope tag (termed hIIB) was fused to the C-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP). An additional GFP fusion protein utilized another version of hIIB containing a point mutation at position two. These fusion proteins, expressed in Escherichia coli, allowed successful separation of the desired protein in a single chromatographic step. This strategy extends PR-mAb gentle-release purification to numerous expressed proteins. PMID:15039078
Full Text Available Peptide immunotherapy using T-cell epitopes is expected to be an effective treatment for allergic diseases such as Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica; Cj pollinosis. To develop a treatment for pollen allergy by inducing oral tolerance, we generated genetically manipulated (GM chickens by retroviral gene transduction, to produce a fusion protein of chicken egg white lysozyme and a peptide derived from seven dominant human T-cell epitopes of Japanese cedar pollen allergens (cLys-7crp. The transgene sequence was detected in all chickens transduced with the retroviral vector. Transduction efficiency in blood cells correlated to transgene expression. Western blot analysis revealed that cLys-7crp was expressed in the egg white of GM hens. Mice induced to develop allergic rhinitis by Cj pollinosis were fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white produced by GM chickens. Total and Cj allergen (Cry j 1-specific IgE levels were significantly decreased in allergic mice fed with cLys-7crp-containing egg white compared with allergic mice fed with normal egg white. These results suggest that oral administration of T-cell epitope-containing egg white derived from GM chickens is effective for the induction of immune tolerance as an allergy therapy.
Natural infection and vaccination with a live-attenuated measles virus (MV) induce CD8+ T-cell-mediated immune responses that may play a central role in controlling MV infection. In this study, we show that newly identified human HLA-A2 epitopes from MV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins induced protective immunity in HLA-A2 transgenic mice challenged with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing F or H protein. HLA-A2 epitopes were predicted and synthesized. Five and four peptides from H and F, respectively, bound to HLA-A2 molecules in a T2-binding assay, and four from H and two from F could induce peptide-specific CD8+ T cell responses in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. Further experiments proved that three peptides from H (H9-567, H10-250, and H10-516) and one from F protein (F9-57) were endogenously processed and presented on HLA-A2 molecules. All peptides tested in this study are common to 5 different strains of MV including Edmonston. In both A2Kb and HHD-2 mice, the identified peptide epitopes induced protective immunity against recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing H or F. Because F and H proteins induce neutralizing antibodies, they are major components of new vaccine strategies, and therefore data from this study will contribute to the development of new vaccines against MV infection
Huang, Liping; Lu, Yuehua; Wei, Yanwu; Guo, Longjun; Liu, Changming
Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) has been identified as a contaminant of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15). Serological evidence and genetic studies have suggested that PCV1 is widespread in domestic pigs. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) were generated against a recombinant PCV1 Cap protein (PCV1-Cap), which was expressed using the baculovirus system. PEPSCAN analysis was used to identify epitopes on the PCV1-Cap with mAbs and pAbs. Three linear B-cell epitopes, including residues (85)GGTNPLP(91), (162)FTPKPELDKTIDWFHPNNK(180) and (219)YVQFREFILKDPLNK(233), specific for PCV1-Cap, were finely defined. These results will facilitate future investigations into antigenic differences and differential diagnosis between PCV1 and PCV2. PMID:22437253
Szurgot, Inga; Szolajska, Ewa; Laurin, David; Lambrecht, Benedicte; Chaperot, Laurence; Schoehn, Guy; Chroboczek, Jadwiga
We exploit the features of a virus-like particle, adenoviral dodecahedron (Ad Dd), for engineering a multivalent vaccination platform carrying influenza epitopes for cell-mediated immunity. The delivery platform, Ad Dd, is a proteinaceous, polyvalent, and biodegradable nanoparticle endowed with remarkable endocytosis activity that can be engineered to carry 60 copies of a peptide. Influenza M1 is the most abundant influenza internal protein with the conserved primary structure. Two different M1 immunodominant epitopes were separately inserted in Dd external positions without destroying the particles' dodecahedric structure. Both kinds of DdFluM1 obtained through expression in baculovirus system were properly presented by human dendritic cells triggering efficient activation of antigen-specific T cells responses. Importantly, the candidate vaccine was able to induce cellular immunity in vivo in chickens. These results warrant further investigation of Dd as a platform for candidate vaccine, able to stimulate cellular immune responses. PMID:23880363
Grosch, Jason S; Yang, Jing; Shen, Alice; Sereda, Yuriy V; Ortoleva, Peter J
Prediction of immunogenicity is a substantial barrier in vaccine design. Here, a molecular dynamics approach to assessing the immunogenicity of nanoparticles based on structure is presented. Molecular properties of epitopes on nonenveloped viral particles are quantified via a set of metrics. One such metric, epitope fluctuation (and implied flexibility), is shown to be inversely correlated with immunogenicity for each of a broad spectrum of nonenveloped viruses. The molecular metrics and experimentally determined immunogenicities for these viruses are archived in the open-source vaccine computer-aided design database. Results indicate the promise of computer-aided vaccine design to bring greater efficiency to traditional lab-based vaccine discovery approaches. PMID:26187254
Schieferdecker, Aneta; Oberle, Anna; Thiele, Benjamin; Hofmann, Fabian; Göthel, Markus; Miethe, Sebastian; Hust, Michael; Braig, Friederike; Voigt, Mareike; von Pein, Ute-Marie; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Haag, Friedrich; Alawi, Malik; Indenbirken, Daniela; Grundhoff, Adam; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Bacher, Ulrike; Kröger, Nicolaus; Binder, Mascha
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological cancer for which immune-based treatments are currently in development. Many of these rely on the identification of highly disease-specific, strongly and stably expressed antigens. Here, we profiled the myeloma B-cell immunome both to explore its predictive role in the context of autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and to identify novel immunotherapeutic targets. We used random peptide phage display, reverse immunization, and next-generation sequencing-assisted antibody phage display to establish a highly myeloma-specific epitope fingerprint targeted by B-cell responses of 18 patients in clinical remission. We found that allogeneic HSCT more efficiently allowed production of myeloma-specific antibodies compared with autologous HSCT and that a highly reactive epitope recognition signature correlated with superior response to treatment. Next, we performed myeloma cell surface screenings of phage-displayed patient transplant immunomes. Although some of the screenings yielded clear-cut surface binders, the majority of screenings did not, suggesting that many of the targeted antigens may in fact not be accessible to the B-cell immune system in untreated myeloma cells. This fit well with the identification of heat-shock proteins as a class of antigens that showed overall the broadest reactivity with myeloma patient sera after allogeneic HSCT and that may be significantly translocated to the cell surface upon treatment as a result of immunogenic cell death. Our data reveal a disease-specific epitope signature of MM that is predictive for response to treatment. Mining of transplant immunomes for strong myeloma surface binders may open up avenues for myeloma immunotherapy. PMID:27034429
Full Text Available Epitopes for a panel of anti-αVβ3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs were investigated to explore the activation mechanism of αVβ3 integrin. Experiments utilizing αV/αIIb domain-swapping chimeras revealed that among the nine mAbs tested, five recognized the ligand-binding β-propeller domain and four recognized the thigh domain, which is the upper leg of the αV chain. Interestingly, the four mAbs included function-blocking as well as non-functional mAbs, although they bound at a distance from the ligand-binding site. The epitopes for these four mAbs were further determined using human-to-mouse αV chimeras. Among the four, P3G8 recognized an amino acid residue, Ser-528, located on the side of the thigh domain, while AMF-7, M9, and P2W7 all recognized a common epitope, Ser-462, that was located close to the α-genu, where integrin makes a sharp bend in the crystal structure. Fibrinogen binding studies for cells expressing wild-type αVβ3 confirmed that AMF-7, M9, and P2W7 were inhibitory, while P3G8 was non-functional. However, these mAbs were all unable to block binding when αVβ3 was constrained in its extended conformation. These results suggest that AMF-7, M9, and P2W7 block ligand binding allosterically by stabilizing the angle of the bend in the bent conformation. Thus, a switchblade-like movement of the integrin leg is indispensable for the affinity regulation of αVβ3 integrin.
Kramer, Victor G; Byrareddy, Siddappa N.
The success of vaccine regimens against viral pathogens hinges on the elicitation of protective responses. Hypervariable pathogens such as HIV avoid neutralization by masking protective epitopes with more immunogenic decoys. The identification of protective, conserved epitopes is crucial for future vaccine candidate design. The strategies employed for identification of HIV protective epitopes will also aid towards rational vaccine design for other viral pathogens.
Moise, Leonard; McMurry, Julie A; Buus, Søren; Frey, Sharon; Martin, William D; De Groot, Anne S
Epitopes shared by the vaccinia and variola viruses underlie the protective effect of vaccinia immunization against variola infection. We set out to identify a subset of cross-reactive epitopes using bioinformatics and immunological methods. Putative T-cell epitopes were computationally predicted...... experimental validation of computational predictions illustrates the potential for immunoinformatics methods to identify candidate immunogens for a new, safer smallpox vaccine....
Full Text Available Oth.Prs.10.Epitope_tags.AllCell hg19 TFs and others Epitope tags Prostate SRX084528...,SRX084527,SRX084524 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Prs.10.Epitope_tags.AllCell.bed ...
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