Olusanya Bolajoko O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood immunisation is recognised worldwide as an essential component of health systems and an indispensable indicator of quality of care for vaccine-preventable diseases. While performance of immunisation programmes is more commonly measured by coverage, ensuring that every child is immunised at the earliest/appropriate age is an important public health goal. This study therefore set out to determine the pattern and predictors of Bacille de Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation delays in the first three months of life in a Sub-Saharan African community where BCG is scheduled at birth in order to facilitate necessary changes in current policy and practices for improved services. Methods A cross-sectional study in which immunisation delays among infants aged 0-3 months attending community-based BCG clinics in Lagos, Nigeria over a 2-year period from July 2005 to June 2007 were assessed by survival analysis and associated factors determined by multivariable logistic regression. Population attributable risk (PAR was computed for the predictors of delays. Results BCG was delayed beyond three months in 31.6% of all eligible infants. Of 5171 infants enrolled, 3380 (65.4% were immunised within two weeks and a further 1265 (24.5% by six weeks. A significantly higher proportion of infants born in hospitals were vaccinated in the first six weeks compared to those born outside hospitals. Undernourishment was predictive of delays beyond 2 and 6 weeks while treated hyperbilirubinaemia was associated with decreased odds for any delays. Lack of antenatal care and multiple gestations were also predictive of delays beyond 6 weeks. Undernourishment was associated with the highest PAR for delays beyond 2 weeks (18.7% and 6 weeks (20.8%. Conclusions BCG immunisation is associated with significant delays in this setting and infants at increased risk of delays can be identified and supported early possibly through improved maternal uptake of
Antas, P R Z; Castello-Branco, L R R
The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG has been employed for some 70 years in Brazil and lessons from its use should be taken in account for the development or improvement of new TB vaccines. The vast majority of the current population has been vaccinated with BCG, with the possible requirement for a booster immunisation in adulthood for TB protection. BCG Moreau strain also protects against leprosy, meningitis and extrapulmonary forms of TB. Factors related to differences in strain, dosage and BCG administering protocol have been responsible for the variable efficacy of BCG. This vaccine is clearly affected by, as yet unclear, host and/or environmental variables. In this brief review, we describe some aspects of BCG immunisation observed in Brazil that may be of importance for improving or replacing BCG. PMID:18440575
Qu, N; Naito, M; Terayama, H; Hirai, S; Musha, M; Itoh, M
Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), comprising a breakdown of the testicular immune privilege, is one of the models of immunological male infertility. EAO is characterised by CD4 + T-cell-dependent lymphocytic inflammation and augmented delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) against testicular antigens. We previously established an EAO model in mice by immunisation with viable syngeneic testicular germ cells (TGC) alone. However, the sequential change of DTH during development of this EAO has not been analysed yet. In this study, the DTH response during TGC-induced EAO was investigated by the injection of syngeneic TGC protein into the ears of mice. The results showed that a significant DTH response was observed on injection of 20 μg TGC protein, but not on that of 0.2 or 2 μg TGC protein. Also, the level of the DTH response to 20 μg TGC protein was highly relevant to the pathology of EAO development. These results indicate that the DTH response on injection of 20 μg TGC protein into the ears of mice is effective for predicting the pathology of EAO development. PMID:23710595
A randomised controlled trial of the effects of albendazole in pregnancy on maternal responses to mycobacterial antigens and infant responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation [ISRCTN32849447
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal schistosomiasis and filariasis have been shown to influence infant responses to neonatal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation but the effects of maternal hookworm, and of de-worming in pregnancy, are unknown. Methods In Entebbe, Uganda, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 400 mg of albendazole in the second trimester of pregnancy. Neonates received BCG. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-5 responses to a mycobacterial antigen (crude culture filtrate proteins (CFP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured in a whole blood assay. We analysed results for binary variables using χ2 tests and logistic regression. We analysed continuous variables using Wilcoxon's tests. Results Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced maternal IFN-γ responses to CFP (adjusted odds ratio for IFN-γ > median response: 0.14 (95% confidence interval 0.02–0.83, p = 0.021. Conversely, maternal hookworm was associated with subsequent increased IFN-γ responses in their one-year-old infants (adjusted OR 17.65 (1.20–258.66; p = 0.013. Maternal albendazole tended to reduce these effects. Conclusion Untreated hookworm infection in pregnancy was associated with reduced maternal IFN-γ responses to mycobacterial antigens, but increased responses in their infants one year after BCG immunisation. The mechanisms of these effects, and their implications for protective immunity remain, to be determined.
Bonhoeffer, J; Siegrist, C‐A; Heath, P T
Premature infants are at increased risk of vaccine preventable infections, but audits have shown that their vaccinations are often delayed. Early protection is desirable. While the evidence base for immunisation of preterm infants is limited, the available data support early immunisation without correction for gestational age. For a number of antigens the antibody response to initial doses may be lower than that of term infants, but protective concentrations are often achieved and memory succ...
Tchakoute, Christophe Toukam; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Kidzeru, Elvis B.; Gamieldien, Hoyam; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Jones, Christine E.; Gray, Clive M.; Sodora, Donald L.; Jaspan, Heather B.
Background. BCG vaccination prevents disseminated tuberculosis in children, but it is contraindicated for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection because it can result in severe disease in this population. In tuberculosis-endemic regions, BCG vaccine is administered soon after birth, before in utero and peripartum HIV infection is excluded. We therefore assessed the immunogenicity of BCG vaccine in HIV-exposed infants who received BCG at birth or at 8 weeks of age.
Malfroot, Anne; Adam, Georgios; Ciofu, Oana;
Although no special recommendations exist, clearly patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) can benefit from immunisation. We reviewed the literature regarding vaccination in CF and other chronic diseases. CF subjects should follow national immunisation programmes without delay to obtain optimal...
Dean, Gillian S; Clifford, Derek; Whelan, Adam O; Tchilian, Elma Z; Beverley, Peter C L; Salguero, Francisco J; Xing, Zhou; Vordermeier, Hans M; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo
The incidence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in the GB has been increasing since the 1980s. Immunisation, alongside current control measures, has been proposed as a sustainable measure to control bTB. Immunisation with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been shown to protect against bTB. Furthermore, much experimental data indicates that pulmonary local immunity is important for protection against respiratory infections including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that pulmonary immunisation is highly effective. Here, we evaluated protection against M. bovis, the main causative agent of bTB, conferred by BCG delivered subcutaneously, endobronchially or by the new strategy of simultaneous immunisation by both routes. We also tested simultaneous subcutaneous immunisation with BCG and endobronchial delivery of a recombinant type 5 adenovirus expressing mycobacterial antigen 85A. There was significantly reduced visible pathology in animals receiving the simultaneous BCG/BCG or BCG/Ad85 treatment compared to naïve controls. Furthermore, there were significantly fewer advanced microscopic granulomata in animals receiving BCG/Ad85A compared to naive controls. Thus, combining local and systemic immunisation limits the development of pathology, which in turn could decrease bTB transmission. PMID:26544594
Sagar, Karan S; Abdelmalik, Hashim; Wenger, Jay; Haldar, P; Goel, Naresh; Burgess, Craig
Vaccine preventable diseases have been reduced in the country since the routine immunisation programme started in 1978 as the Expanded Programme on Immunisation, then in 1985 renamed as Universal Immunisation Programme. Re-emergence of some vaccine preventable disease is a concern to all and the Government of India has launched a new multiyear plan to strengthen the routine immunisation. A number of recommendations was made to address the weaknesses in the programme. Some newer initiatives were also made under the multiyear plan and National Rural Health Mission to strengthen the routine immunisation. The general practitioners can play a positive role while immunising children as per Universal Immunisation Programme. Routine immunisation is one of the key components of polio eradication. PMID:16821662
Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik;
Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....
Nakamura, R. M.; Tokunaga, T; Yamamoto, S.
Purified protein derivative-pulsed spleen macrophages of Mycobacterium bovis BCG high-responder mice stimulated BCG-primed lymphocytes of F1 (low x high) mice well in vitro, but those of BCG low-responder mice did not.
Dean, GS; Clifford, D.; Whelan, AO; Tchilian, EZ; Beverley, PCL; Salguero, FJ; Z. Xing; Vordermeier, HM; Villarreal-Ramos, B
The incidence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in the GB has been increasing since the 1980s. Immunisation, alongside current control measures, has been proposed as a sustainable measure to control bTB. Immunisation with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been shown to protect against bTB. Furthermore, much experimental data indicates that pulmonary local immunity is important for protection against respiratory infections including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that pulmonary...
Isaacs, David; Kilham, Henry; Leask, Julie; Tobin, Bernadette
Discussions about current and future immunisation programmes raise novel questions about familiar ethical issues. Two sets of ethical issues dominate these discussions. The first is the issue of compulsory immunisation: what should be done about parents who fail to immunise their children? The second is: given competing demands on health care budgets, how should principles of justice in access and distribution inform vaccination programmes? This paper considers these two issues in the light of traditional ethical principles. With respect to the first, we argue that compulsion is justified only in cases in which we know with practical certainty that parental failure to immunise puts their own child or other children at high risk of severe illness. We also argue that the state should compensate those who suffer vaccine-related injury. With respect to the second, we claim that allocating resources according to health care need requires establishing priorities between public health programmes such as immunisation and other treatment programmes. PMID:19026706
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant immunisation is an effective public health intervention to reduce the morbidity and mortality of vaccine preventable diseases. However, some developing countries fail to achieve desirable vaccination coverage; Afghanistan is one such country. The present study was performed to evaluate the progress and variation in infant immunisation coverage by district and region in Afghanistan and to assess the impact of conflict and resource availability on immunisation coverage. Results This study analysed reports of infant immunisation from 331 districts across 7 regions of Afghanistan between 2000 and 2003. Geographic information system (GIS analysis was used to visualise the distribution of immunisation coverage in districts and to identify geographic inequalities in the process of improvement of infant immunisation coverage. The number of districts reporting immunisation coverage increased substantially during the four years of the study. Progress in Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG immunisation coverage was observed in all 7 regions, although satisfactory coverage of 80% remained unequally distributed. Progress in the third dose of Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus (DPT3 immunisation differed among regions, in addition to the unequal distribution of immunisation coverage in 2000. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a significant negative association between lack of security in the region and achievement of 80% coverage of immunisation regardless of available resources for immunisation, while resource availability showed no relation to immunisation coverage. Conclusion Although progress was observed in all 7 regions, geographic inequalities in these improvements remain a cause for concern. The results of the present study indicated that security within a country is an important factor for affecting the delivery of immunisation services.
Thysen, Sanne Marie; Byberg, Stine; Pedersen, Marie; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik; Martins, Cesario; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter; Fisker, Ane Bærent
BACKGROUND: BCG vaccination is recommended at birth in low-income countries, but vaccination is often delayed. Often 20-dose vials of BCG are not opened unless at least ten children are present for vaccination ("restricted vial-opening policy"). BCG coverage is usually reported as 12-month coverage......, not disclosing the delay in vaccination. Several studies show that BCG at birth lowers neonatal mortality. We assessed BCG coverage at different ages and explored reasons for delay in BCG vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) runs a health and demographic...... visits in selected intervention regions. Factors associated with delayed BCG vaccination were evaluated using logistic regression models. Coverage between intervention and control regions were evaluated in log-binomial regression models providing prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Among 3951 children born in...
Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization (WHO has recommended Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccination as a part of the global expanded program for immunization. Although the BCG vaccine is usually a safe vaccine, a number of complications with lymphadenitis being the most common complication, can occur. AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical presentation and the histomorphological features of BCG adenitis in children. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients with BCG lymphadenitis presented between June 2010 and December 2013. The most common age of presentation was 3 months. In the majority (50 of the cases, the lymphadenitis involved ipsilateral left axillary nodes. Other sites of involvement included the left supraclavicular lymph nodes in 5 (8.3% patients, and both the left axillary and supraclavicular lymph nodes were involved in 5 cases (8.3%. All the patients had history of BCG vaccination prior to the onset of lymphadenitis. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of BCG lymphadenitis is clinical. Parental education and awareness among paramedical personnel, including general practitioners, is essential so that prompt recognition and management of BCG adenitis can be ensured.
Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Kjærgaard, Jesper; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Birk, Nina Marie; Benn, Christine Stabell; Greisen, Gorm; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Pryds, Ole; Ravn, Henrik; Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Aaby, Peter; Stensballe, Lone Graff
days of life, infants were randomly assigned to intra-dermal vaccination with BCG or no intervention. At 3 and 13 months of age structured telephone interviews and clinical examinations of the children were conducted. In a subgroup of children blood samples were drawn and stool samples collected at age...... more than 93% adherence to clinical follow-up at 3 and 13 months, this randomised clinical trial has the potential to create evidence regarding non-specific effects of BCG vaccination in a high-income setting.......BACKGROUND: Studies from low-income countries report positive non-specific effects of early Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunisation on childhood health and survival. Neonatal immunisation with BCG may prime the immune system and offer partial protection against other infectious and possibly...
Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Stenholm, A C; Kronborg, O; Fenger, C; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Zeuthen, J; Kristensen, T; Christensen, P B
Patients with colorectal cancer were entered into a clinical phase I trial of immunotherapy with an autologous tumour cell/bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. We attempted to describe the possible effects and side effects of the immunisation, and further to investigate whether expression of...... immune-response-related surface molecules on the tumour cells in the vaccine correlated with survival. The first and second vaccine comprised of 107 irradiated tumour cells mixed with BCG, the third of irradiated tumour cells only. Thirty-nine patients were considered, but only 6 patients fulfilled the...... criteria for inclusion. No serious side effects were observed. With three years of observation time, two patients are healthy, while the rest have had recurrence, and two of them have died. In all vaccines, all tumour cells expressed HLA class I, some expressed HLA class II and none expressed CD80. There...
Department of Health
Immunisation Guidelines for Ireland (2008) This revised report on immunisation guidelines for Ireland has been prepared with the assistance of an active Committee from associated disciplines in Paediatrics, Infectious Diseases, General Practice, Public Health, Microbiology, Occupational Health, Travel Medicine and the Irish Medicines Board. The report itself continues to be simple and concise in design and of course does not claim to contain all information on any pharmacological material....
Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Diamant, M; Nansen, A; Rieneck, K; Otterness, I G; Bendtzen, K
High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinat...
Slack, M; Schapira, D
Four premature infants developed apnoeas severe enough to warrant resuscitation after immunisation with diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT), and Haemophilus influenzae B (Hib). One required re-intubation and ventilation. Although apnoeas after immunisation are recognised, they are not well documented. It is time for further research to elucidate the best time to immunise such infants.
Joung, Sun Myung; Ryoo, Sungweon
The anti-tuberculosis Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes of Lille in France, and was adopted by many countries. BCG strains comprise natural mutants of major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that BCG sub-strains differ markedly in virulence levels. The tuberculosis became endemic in Korea after the Korean War (1950s). The BCG strain, which was donated by Pasteur Institutes, was brought to Korea in 1955, and ...
Gomber, S; Taneja, D K; Mohan, K
Mass polio immunisation campaign was launched in the national capital territory of Delhi with 2 doses of polio vaccine to be administered to children upto 3 years of age on October and December 4, 1994 respectively. Massive information, education & communication (IEC) efforts through mass media and interpersonal communication preceded the dates of the campaign. A study to assess the awareness of general population was carried out by interviewing 225 adult residents of Delhi using a structured questionnaire. These were drawn by two stage stratified random sampling. Zonewise assembly segments in the first stage and census enumeration blocks in the second stage formed the sampling frame. The study, carried out 3 days prior to date of administration of first dose of oral polio, revealed that 60.4% of population was aware of the programme being launched and 31.6% about aim of the programme. None of the respondents were aware of all the specific parameters put together correctly viz., objective, immunisation days, age group & immunisation status of children. The higher level of awareness was directly proportional to the level of education. The overwhelming success of the programme was indicated by immunisation of > 90% children upto 3 years of age all over Delhi in the first phase of the programme. The key to success of the programme despite low awareness is explained on the basis of unflinching efforts put in by vaccine centre level committees, integrated child development scheme (ICDS) and urban basic service (UBS) functionaries in mobilising people to reach various vaccination centres. Other states planning to launch such mass campaigns should pay attention to social mobilisation in addition to IEC efforts for successful completion of the programme. PMID:10829972
Ashwin V; Shruti; De, Dipankar
BCG adenitis, the enlargement of regional lymph nodes after BCG vaccination is one of the common complications seen. BCG adenitis may present at varied time interval after the vaccine administration. Different medical and surgical treatment modalities have been reported for its management. We report our management experience of BCG adenitis seen over a period of 1 year.
Kaveh, Daryan A; Garcia-Pelayo, M Carmen; Webb, Paul R; Wooff, Esen E; Bachy, Véronique S; Hogarth, Philip J
Boosting BCG using heterologous prime-boost represents a promising strategy for improved tuberculosis (TB) vaccines, and adenovirus (Ad) delivery is established as an efficacious boosting vehicle. Although studies demonstrate that intranasal administration of Ad boost to BCG offers optimal protection, this is not currently possible in cattle. Using Ad vaccine expressing the mycobacterial antigen TB10.4 (BCG/Ad-TB10.4), we demonstrate, parenteral boost of BCG immunised mice to induce specific CD8(+) IFN-γ producing T cells via synergistic priming of new epitopes. This induces significant improvement in pulmonary protection against Mycobacterium bovis over that provided by BCG when assessed in a standard 4week challenge model. However, in a stringent, year-long survival study, BCG/Ad-TB10.4 did not improve outcome over BCG, which we suggest may be due to the lack of additional memory cells (IL-2(+)) induced by boosting. These data indicate BCG-prime/parenteral-Ad-TB10.4-boost to be a promising candidate, but also highlight the need for further understanding of the mechanisms of T cell priming and associated memory using Ad delivery systems. That we were able to generate significant improvement in pulmonary protection above BCG with parenteral, rather than mucosal administration of boost vaccine is critical; suggesting that the generation of effective mucosal immunity is possible, without the risks and challenges of mucosal administration, but that further work to specifically enhance sustained protective immunity is required. PMID:27317453
Biering-Sorensen, S.; Jensen, K.J.; Aamand, S.H.; Blok, B.; Andersen, A.; Monteiro, I.; Netea, M.G.; Aaby, P.; Benn, C.S.; Haslov, K.R.
INTRODUCTION: Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine has beneficial non-specific effects on overall survival. After BCG vaccination, positive PPD response and scar formation are associated with increased survival. During a trial randomising low-birth-weight neonates to BCG at birth or the usual delay
TheraCys® BCG ... TICE® BCG ... WHY is this medicine prescribed?BCG vaccine provides immunity or protection against tuberculosis (TB). The vaccine may be given to persons at high risk of developing TB. ...
Acetylcholine mediates the transfer of information between neurons in the electric organ of, for example, Torpedo as well as in vertebrate skeletal muscle. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex translates the binding of acetylcholine into ion permeability changes. This leads to an action potential in the muscle fibre. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein has been purified from Torpedo by use of affinity chromatography. The receptor is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein composed of five polypeptide chains. When various animals are immunised with the receptor they demonstrate clinical signs of severe muscle weakness coincident with high antibody titres in their sera. The symptoms resemble those found in the autoimmune neuromuscular disease myasthenia gravis in humans. This animal model has constituted a unique model for studying autoimmune diseases. This paper reviews some of the work using Torpedo acetylcholine receptor in order to increase the understanding of the motor nervous system function and myasthenia gravis. It is now known that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein is the antigen involved in myasthenia gravis. The mechanism of immune damage involves a direct block of the receptor function. This depends on the presence of antibodies which crosslink the postsynaptic receptors leading to their degradation. The questions to be answered in the future are; (a) what initiates or triggers the autoimmune response, (b) how do the antibodies cause the symptoms--is there a steric hindrance of the interaction of acetylcholine and the receptor, (c) why is there not a strict relationship between antibody titre and severity of symptoms, and (d) why are some muscles affected and other spared? With help of the experimental model, answers to these questions may result in improved strategies for the treatment of the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis. PMID:6097937
Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Aamand, Susanne Havn;
delayed BCG, the manufacturer of the BCG vaccine experienced a period with relatively slow growth rate of the BCG. We investigated the association between growth rate of BCG when manufacturing the vaccine and its capability to induce immune responses in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: 1633 neonates were......INTRODUCTION: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has beneficial non-specific effects on overall survival. After BCG vaccination, positive PPD response and scar formation are associated with increased survival. During a trial randomising low-birth-weight neonates to BCG at birth or the usual...... production of BCG vaccine may influence important immunological effects of the vaccine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00625482)....
Universal neonatal BCG vaccination was discontinued in Cork in 1972. Following an outbreak of TB in 2 creches in the HSE South, a universal BCG vaccination program was re-introduced in October 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination process (in-hospital and community) and the in-hospital uptake of the vaccine. Following informed parental consent, babies of birth weight > 2.5 Kg were eligible for in-hospital vaccination if they were not: febrile, jaundiced on phototherapy, on antibiotics and if not born to HIV- positive mothers. Parents of babies not vaccinated in-hospital were asked to book an appointment in either of the 2 Cork community clinics. The immunisation nurse collected data on BCG vaccination, prospectively. This study examined vaccination uptakes in-hospital and community over a 6 month period (October 2008 to March 2009). There were 4018 deliveries during the study period. In-hospital consent was declined in only 16 babies (<1%) while the in-hospital vaccination uptake was 80% of total liv births. Although 635 newborns were admitted to the NICU, only 46 (8%) were vaccinated while in the NICU. At least 48% of planned community vaccination has been achieved to date. In conclusion, in-hospital consent was almost universal and vaccination uptake was satisfactory. NICU exclusion criteria accounted for a significant proportion of non-vaccination in-hospital. These criteria need to be readdressed considering that all premature babies are given other routine newborn vaccines at 2 months of age, regardless of weight.
Universal neonatal BCG vaccination was discontinued in Cork in 1972. Following an outbreak of TB in 2 creches in the HSE South, a universal BCG vaccination program was re-introduced in October 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination process (in-hospital and community) and the in-hospital uptake of the vaccine. Following informed parental consent, babies of birth weight > 2.5 Kg were eligible for in-hospital vaccination if they were not: febrile, jaundiced on phototherapy, on antibiotics and if not born to HIV- positive mothers. Parents of babies not vaccinated in-hospital were asked to book an appointment in either of the 2 Cork community clinics. The immunisation nurse collected data on BCG vaccination, prospectively. This study examined vaccination uptakes in-hospital and community over a 6 month period (October 2008 to March 2009). There were 4018 deliveries during the study period. In-hospital consent was declined in only 16 babies (<1%) while the in-hospital vaccination uptake was 80% of total liv births. Although 635 newborns were admitted to the NICU, only 46 (8%) were vaccinated while in the NICU. At least 48% of planned community vaccination has been achieved to date. In conclusion, in-hospital consent was almost universal and vaccination uptake was satisfactory. NICU exclusion criteria accounted for a significant proportion of non-vaccination in-hospital. These criteria need to be readdressed considering that all premature babies are given other routine newborn vaccines at 2 months of age, regardless of weight.
Some improvements introduced in the BCG code with the objective of making the code faster in execution are reported. The impact of these improvements in terms of CPU time saving is discussed for a sample problem. (author)
Tabor, A; Jerne, D; Bock, J E
Of 655 Rh negative women without anti-D antibody in their serum at genetic amniocentesis, 361 delivered a Rh positive infant. Prophylactic treatment with anti-D immunoglobulin was not given at amniocentesis. The women were followed prospectively, being given a screening test for antibody after amniocentesis, at delivery, and six months later. Five of these 361 women yielded a positive test result due to anti-D antibody. The immunisation rate after genetic amniocentesis was no higher than the ...
Folan, J. C.
The present state of anti-tetanus immunisation amongst orienteering runners from 20 countries was assessed by questioning the orienteers as to when they last received an anti-tetanus injection. The results demonstrate that approximately 55% were within five years of their last injection, 18% were within 5-10 years, 12% were greater than 10 years and a further 15% did not know when or had never had an anti-tetanus injection.
To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of BCG lymphadenitis complicated by BCG vaccination in children. Ultrasonography was performed for 22 cases of BCG lymphadenitis in 21 patients who were diagnosed by clinical (n=10) or pathological (n=11) examinations. Their age ranged from 4 months to 3 years (mean age; 14 months). We retrospectively analyzed the ultrasonographic findings for location, multiplicity, size, shape, margin, echogenecity, posterior enhancement, calcifications, inner anechoic portion and Doppler pattern of the BCG lymphadenitis. The BCG lymphadenitis was found at the axillary area in 15 cases (68%) and at the supraclavicular area in 7 cases (32%). There were ten cases (45%) of solitary lesion and 12 cases (55%) of multiple conglomerated lesions. The maximum diameter ranged from about 0.9 cm to 3.2 cm. The BCG lymphadenitis showed as round (82%), well defined (86%), or heterogeneous hypoechoic (68%) lesions with posterior enhancement (78%). Calcifications were found in 6 cases (27%) and 5 cases (83%) had been vaccinated more than 5 months ago. There were eccentric inner anechoic portions in 16 cases (73%), which were pathologically confirmed as having caseating necrosis. There were increased Doppler flow patterns in 15 cases (68%); 4 cases (18%) were of the central type, 6 cases (27%) were of the peripheral type and 5 cases (23%) were of mixed type. BCG lymphadenitis is frequently located at the axillary area adjacent to a vaccination site. The ultrasonographic findings of BCG lymphadenitis are well-defined, round, heterogeneously hypoechoic lesions with posterior enhancement, calcifications and inner eccentric anechoic portion
Crawshaw, P. A.; Thomson, A H
Heaf testing was carried out on 98 preschool Asian children who had received a BCG vaccination. A strongly positive Heaf reaction (grade 3) occurred in only two children. Heaf testing can still be used in tuberculosis screening after neonatal BCG.
Full Text Available It is generally accepted that BCG vaccination is fully effective in preventing Tuberculous Meningitis and military Tuberculous, although it does not develop complete immunity for Tuberculous infection of lungs and other organs. A series of 3 children with Tuberculous Meningitis who had positive history of BCG vaccination as newborns and distinct BCG scar show that Tuberculous Meningitis may be caught despite successful BCG vaccination.
This paper presents seven ethical principles associated with the implementation of immunisation programs. For a public health immunisation program to be ethically justifiable, its principles and operation should be based on sound ethical values: the program should benefit the individual and the community; targeted diseases should be sufficiently severe and frequent to justify the risks and expense of the program, and vulnerable groups within the population should be targeted. The principles also deal with the obligation to monitor for adverse events and for disease incidence to ensure safety and effectiveness. When immunisations are voluntary, vaccine recipients or their parents or carers should be given sufficient information to make autonomous, informed decisions and incentives to participate in public health immunisation programs should not be coercive. Public health immunisation programs depend on mutual trust, which may be threatened by circumstances such as excessive media publicity about adverse events associated with vaccines. PMID:22738621
André Fukunishi Yamada
Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de um menino de 1 ano e 9 meses que apresentou lesão osteolítica na região proximal do úmero direito. Com base na história clínica e em achados histológicos, os autores suspeitaram de osteíte pósvacina BCG. Após o início do tratamento antituberculose, os sintomas desapareceram e o paciente apresentou melhora radiológica. Os autores descrevem esta entidade incomum na prática pediátrica e alertam para possíveis complicações da vacina BCG.The authors report the case of a 21-month-old boy with an osteolytic lesion in the proximal region of the right humerus. Based on the clinical history and histological findings, the authors suspected osteitis following BCG vaccination. Symptoms remitted after antituberculosis therapy was initiated, and the patient presented radiological improvement. The authors describe this uncommon entity in pediatric practice and call attention to possible complications of BCG vaccination.
Larcher, V.; Bourne, J; Aitken, C; Jeffries, D; Hodes, D; Sloan, D.; Ramsay, M; Goldberg, D.; BRAMLEY, C.
AIMS—To determine the effectiveness of a selective hospital based hepatitis B immunisation programme and the barriers to be overcome in obtaining a successful outcome. METHODS—Retrospective case note review of 265 infants born over a five year period to hepatitis B carrier mothers at a university affiliated hospital in Hackney, London. RESULTS—A total of 242 infants (91%) were fully vaccinated; 217 (82%) had serology; 31 required booster doses. Percentages failing to reach s...
Madhu Pai and colleagues introduce the BCG World Atlas, an open access, user friendly Web site for TB clinicians to discern global BCG vaccination policies and practices and improve the care of their patients.
Dahlan, A.; Alpar, H. O.; Stickings, P.; Sesardic, D.; Murdan, S.
Low-frequency ultrasound application is known to increase the skin's permeability to large molecules such as vaccines, and to enable transcutaneous immunisation. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) - a skin irritant - is often included in the coupling medium at 1% (w/v), as this has been found to enhance skin permeability. In this paper we show, for the first time, the feasibility of low-frequency ultrasound-assisted transcutaneous immunisation in the absence of SDS. Antibody titres were strongly i...
A case of a rare form of BCG osteomyelitis in the spine is presented. After vaccination, the disease started with a lymphadenitis. Later an abscess extended from the pelvic along the psoas muscles into the retroperitoneum. The soft tissue mass extended paraspinally and epidural involvement was also apparent. The vertebral involvement was detected by CT. The radiological findings are discussed with reference to the literature. (orig.)
Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Aaby, Peter;
rate ratio (MRR) comparing children with a BCG scar with those without was 0.42 (95% CI = 0.19; 0.93). There was a similar tendency for TST positivity: MRR = 0.47 (95% CI = 0.14; 1.54). For LBW children who had both a positive TST reaction and a scar, the MRR was 0.22 (95% CI = 0.05; 0.87). For NBW...
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most effective intravesical therapy of carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder. Six, weekly instillations of BCG result in a complete remission in about 70-80% of patients. The optimal dose however has still to be defined, and the value of maintenance therapy is also a matter of debate. Recurrent tumours after complete remission occur mainly in the distal ureter and prostatic urethra. In these patients, cystectomy may be required. In about 60-80% of patients, local (e.g. cystitis) and/or systemic (e.g. fever, malaise) side effects are observed. The occurrence of cystitis is associated with the number of instillations, BCG dose and a positive skin test. Systemic side effects are connected with pre-existing dysuria or bacterial cystitis and with traumatic catheterization. Severe toxicity occurs in about 5% of the patients. Prognostic parameters indicating complete remission have yet to be determined, but there is evidence that cytokines detected in the urine and immune-cell infiltration into the bladder wall revealed by immunohistochemistry, can be of value in this respect. PMID:1396945
Mustafa Abu S
Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectious disease of international importance and ranks among the top 10 causes of death in the World. About one-third of the world′s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Every year, approximately eight million people develop active disease and two million die of TB. The currently used BCG vaccines have shown variable protective efficacies against TB in different parts of the world. Moreover, being a live vaccine, BCG can be pathogenic in immunocompromised recipients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new vaccines against TB. The comparative genome analysis has revealed the existence of several M. tuberculosis-specific regions that are deleted in BCG. The work carried out to determine the immunological reactivity of proteins encoded by genes located in these regions revealed several major antigens of M. tuberculosis, including the 6 kDa early secreted antigen target (ESAT6. Immunization with ESAT6 and its peptide (aa51-70 protects mice challenged with M. tuberculosis. The protective efficacy of immunization further improves when ESAT6 is recombinantly fused with M. tuberculosis antigen 85B. In addition, ESAT6 delivered as a DNA vaccine is also protective in mice. Whether these vaccines would be safe or not cannot be speculated. The answer regarding the safety and efficacy of these vaccines has to await human trials in different parts of the world.
Bernd Eisele; Martin Gengenbacher; Reginald Kidd; David McCown; Sheldon Morris; Steven Derrick; David Hokey; Dominick Laddy; Rosemary Chang; Megan Fitzpatrick; Leander Grode; Kamalakannan Velmurugan; Stefan H. E. Kaufmann; John Fulkerson; Brennan, Michael J.
The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both ...
Talbot, E. A.; Williams, D L; Frothingham, R
The attenuated bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strain is derived from a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis. BCG is difficult to differentiate from other strains of M. bovis and other members of the M. tuberculosis complex by conventional methods. Recently, a genomic region designated RD1 was found to be present in all virulent M. bovis and M. tuberculosis strains tested but deleted from all BCG strains tested. With this information, a multiplex PCR method was developed to detect th...
Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, A R; Diamant, Marcus; Nansen, A; Rieneck, K; Otterness, I G; Bendtzen, K
High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinated...... with IL-1alpha coupled to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Both unprimed and primed animals developed IgG aAb to IL-1alpha. These aAb persisted at high levels more than 100 days after vaccination and did not cross-react with murine IL-1beta. The induced anti-IL-1alpha aAb inhibited...... induced in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients with...
Full Text Available Large-scale vaccination with BCG, the live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is being adopted around the world, although sporadic complications have occurred after the procedure. Lymphadenopathy is not uncommon especially in babies under one year (0.73% of vaccinated infants, but the swelling subsides within 2 months in most cases, with no medical or surgical treatment. Brazil adopted BCG vaccination program earlier in the seventies and by 1995 more than 96% of the infant population received this immunization. We report here the occurrence of lymphadenopathy in a two-year-old child vaccinated with the Brazilian BCG strain. The diagnosis was made using a lymph node biopsy and intestinal aspirates that yielded a positive mycobacterial culture. The isolate was resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and thiophen-2-carbonic acid hydrazide, sensitive to streptomycin, ethambutol, and p-nitrobenzoic acid, and reacted positively to cyclo-serine and negatively to niacin. The pncA gene involved in bacterial activation of pyrazinamide contains in M. bovis a point mutation that renders pyrazinamidase unable to catalyze drug activation. Therefore, this polymorphism is a good option for developing methods to differentiate M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. Taking advantage of this difference we further analyzed the isolates by single-stranded conformation polymorphism electrophoresis of DNA following PCR of the pncA gene. The isolate identity was confirmed by RFLP electrophoretic analysis of the amplified fragment following Eco065I digestion, which selectively cleaves M. tuberculosis DNA. From this result it is proposed that RFLP of pncA gene represents an alternative for differential diagnosis of M. bovis.
Full Text Available Splenic germinal center reactions were measured during primary response to a plasmidic DNA intramuscular injection. Cardiotoxin-pretreated Balb/c mice were immunized with DNA plasmids encoding or not the SAG1 protein, a membrane antigen of Toxoplasma gondii. Specific anti-SAG1 antibodies were detected on days 16 and 36 after injection of coding plasmids. The results of ELISAs showed that the SAG1-specific antibodies are of the IgG2a class. Morphometric analyses were done on serial immunostained cryosections of spleen and draining or non-draining lymph nodes. This new approach made it possible to evaluate the chronological changes induced by DNA immunisation in the germinal centres (in number and in size. Significant increases in the number of germinal centres were measured in the spleen and only in draining lymph nodes after plasmid injection. the measured changes of the germinal centers appeared to result from the adjuvant stimulatory effect of the plasmidic DNA since both the coding and the noncoding plasmid DNA induced them. No measurable changes were recorded in the Tdependent zone of lymph organs.
Cross, Martin L; Lambeth, Matthew R; Aldwell, Frank E
Oral delivery of live Mycobacterium bovis BCG in a lipid matrix invokes cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in mice and consequent protection against pulmonary challenge with virulent mycobacteria. To investigate the influence of prior BCG sensitization on oral vaccine efficacy, we assessed CMI responses and BCG colonization of the alimentary tract lymphatics 5 months after oral vaccination, in both previously naive mice and in mice that had been sensitized to BCG by injection 6 months previously. CMI responses did not differ significantly between mice that received subcutaneous BCG followed by oral BCG and those that received either injected or oral BCG alone. In vivo BCG colonization was predominant in the mesenteric lymph nodes after oral vaccination; this colonizing ability was not influenced by prior BCG sensitization. From this murine model study, we conclude that although prior parenteral-route BCG sensitization does not detrimentally affect BCG colonization after oral vaccination, there is no significant immune-boosting effect of the oral vaccine either. PMID:19918257
Katznelson, D; Gross, S.; Sack, J
A 12-year-old healthy, tuberculin negative boy was re-vaccinated with BCG. Nine days later symmetrical polyneuritis developed in all extremities. The tuberculin test was now strongly positive. It is suggested that the polyneuritis was due to a hypersensitivity reaction resulting from the BCG re-vaccination.
Granulomatous prostatitis was relatively uncommon until the introduction of intravesical BCG for the treament of bladder cancer. Since that time, there has been an increase in the number of cases of granulomatous prostatitis, but the domestic literature contains no report. We recently encountered a classic case of BCG induced granulomatous prostatitis and describe this case, including its radiologic findings. (author)=20
Odent, Michel R
We hypothesise that neonatal BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) might be used to adapt to a new phase in the history of human births. Among most mammals, the placenta is not effective at transferring antibodies to the fetus: antibodies are transferred immediately after birth via the colostrum. Among humans (and other mammals with hemochorial placentas) the transplacental transfer of antibodies (namely IgG) is effective. In humans, foetal concentrations of IgG sub-classes approximate to maternal concentrations at 38weeks and continue to increase thereafter. These facts explain inter-species differences regarding the basic needs of neonates. Among most mammals, the early colostrum is, strictly speaking, vital. Among humans, the main questions are about the bacteriological environment in the birthing place and how familiar it is to the mother. Today, most human beings are born in unfamiliar bacteriological environments characterized by a low microbial diversity. The effects of clinical environments may be amplified by the use of antibiotics and birth by caesarean, i.e. by-passing the bacteriologically rich perineal zone. There is already an accumulation of data confirming that the maturation of a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response is affected by the mode of delivery. There is also an accumulation of epidemiological studies detecting risk factors in the perinatal period for health conditions such as type 1 diabetes (and other autoimmune diseases), atopy, autism and obesity. In such a context there are reasons to plan randomized controlled trials with long term follow-up of the effects of BCG given immediately after birth, as a modulator of Th-1/Th-2 responses. A follow-up period in the region of 6-10years would be long enough to evaluate the prevalence of several nosologically well defined diseases. These studies would be ethically acceptable, since BCG is the only infancy vaccine that has been evaluated through randomised controlled trials with long term follow
Bell, F.; Martin, A; Blondeau, C.; THORNTON, C; Chaplais, J; A. Finn
A total of 146 infants were immunised at ages 2, 3, and 4 months with a combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTP)--Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) tetanus toxoid conjugate (PRP-T) vaccine (Pasteur Merieux) to assess the antibody response and adverse events associated with immunisation. Adverse events, including fever, were recorded by parents in a diary for three days following each injection. Blood was taken before the first immunisation and four weeks after the third immunisation to...
Pain and distress during immunisation of toddlers are reasons for non-immunisation of large number of toddlers. The present study was undertaken to assess the comparative effectiveness of distraction techniques in the process of immunisation i.e. toy and music. (The third group of study subjects was control group). It is concluded that distraction techniques are quite economical and safe in enhancing the magnitude of immunisation. PMID:23534177
M. J. Pereira Filho
the repetition of the tests, even though the intensity of the reaction always remains the same. This precocious reaction (Fernandez type occurs both shortly and long time after the application of the BCG. Its precocity depends not of the antigen only because the first Mitsuda's reaction after the BCG application occurs after some time and seems not influenced by the control lepromin test effected on the Rhesus before the BCG. 5 On the control group, the animals which received a.a.f. bacilli suspensions (Mycobacterium sp.; M. avium, and M. smegmatis, did not show reverseals of the Mitsuda's reaction. Two Rhesus, however, which received dead BCG (120ºC autoclave 1 hour, one intradermically (0.006 g and the other orally (1.2 g, did both present reversals of the Mitsuda's reaction, with weak positivity (+. In all animals of the control-group, the allergic reactions were found negative. 6 Strong local inflammatory reactions were observed in the Rhesus that had received living BCG by intradermal via, and in the one submitted to multipunctures, there occurred the formation of a large caseous abcess. 7 The allergic tuberculinic and infratuberculinic reactions appeared dissociated from the Mitsuda's reactions: sometimes they are more precocious, occurring before of the lepromin test; on other occasions they disappear, when the Mitsuda's reactions still persist; and finally, they may be absent, when the latter occur, especially after the oral application of the BCG. 8 In Rhesus which received BCG by testicular and peritonela via, in the infratuberculinic test (0.1 ml of total BCG extract, besides the classic answer, which occurs between 48 and 96 hours, one could observe a delayed answer (15 to 20 days, represented by a non-erythematous nodule, which persists for 11-14 days.
Ritz, Nicole; Tebruegge, Marc; Connell, Tom G.; Sievers, Aina; Robins-Browne, Roy; Curtis, Nigel
Mycobacterium bovis BCG is one of the most commonly administered vaccines. Complications, including disseminated BCG disease, are rare but increasingly reported in immunodeficient children. There is growing recognition of the importance of differences between BCG vaccine strains. We determined the susceptibilities of five genetically distinct BCG vaccine strains to 12 antituberculous drugs.
Non-specific immunomodulators including BCG or levamisole have been used as an adjunct to chemotherapy or radiotherapy in both Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). In early stage HD, BCG and levamisole failed to show any effect over the use of radiotherapy alone. In advanced stage HD, disease-free survival as well as delayed type hypersensitive (DTH) appeared to be better though not significantly, in patients receiving combination chemotherapy interspersed with BCG as compared to chemotherapy alone. Levamisole proved to be ineffective both in HD and NHL as an immuno-restorative agent. The present study indicates that non-specific immunotherapy in malignant lymphomas, administered during the induction phase of therapy may not have the desired beneficial effect. (author)
Velmurugan, Kamalakannan; Grode, Leander; Chang, Rosemary; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Laddy, Dominick; Hokey, David; Derrick, Steven; Morris, Sheldon; McCown, David; Kidd, Reginald; Gengenbacher, Martin; Eisele, Bernd; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Fulkerson, John; Brennan, Michael J
The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO) from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO) from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines. PMID:26343962
Full Text Available The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines.
To study the effect of sheep twinning after tandem inhibin gene immunisation, the recombinant plasmid of tandem inhibin were constructed with inhibin α-subunit (1-32) of pig and complement 3d (C3d) of sheep by real-time polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) and used to immunise sheep. The results showed that the recombinant plasmids, pcDNA-DPPISS-DINH and pcDNA-DPPISS-DINH-sC3d3 were constructed successfully. Expression products were secreted after BHK-21 cells were transfected with the recombinant plasmids. After immunisation with 0.4 mg DINH and 0.3 mg DINH-sC3d3, twinning rates were 12.5% and 25.0% respectively, which were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the control group. However, there was no significant association between twinning rate and immunisation dos- age with either antigen. On the basis of these preliminary studies, it is concluded that recombinant plasmids of tandem inhibin gene form a sound theoretical and technical basis for developing an inhibin- based-gene as a vaccine for increasing twinning and reproductive efficiency in sheep. However, further investigations involving more animals are required to determine the most effective dosage and timing of vaccination as well as choice of adjuvant for eliciting an optimal immune response for increasing twinning rates. (author)
The effects of BCG and x-radiation of sublethal dose on reticuloendothelial system (RES) were studied in mice. An attempt was also made to evaluate the action of BCG on the recovery of immune responsiveness in irradiated mice. Carbon clearance test and measurement of spread macrophage in peritoneal cells were used to assay the function of RES. The result of carbon clearance was in good accordance with the one of macrophage spreading test. Either intracutaneous or intravenous administration of BCG increased the activity of RES, and 3 to 5 weeks later, the functional levels of RES reached a maximum. When BCG was given intravenously, the highly increased level of phagocytic activity was obtained even one week after BCG injection. Whereas x-radiation of sublethal dose caused a marked reduction of the number of peritoneal cells, the decrease of RES activity was not found. Although x-radiation suppressed markedly the immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), delayed type reactivity recovered quickly to a normal level. The production of plaque forming cells (PEC) in spleen also recovered within 2 weeks after x-radiation and thereafter increased rather, while PFC in the draining lymph node reduced markedly and its recovery was protracted. BCG inoculation in x-radiated mice could not increase the number of peritoneal cells while it increased the activity of RES and the immune responsiveness to SRBC. BCG inoculation made mice extremely susceptible to pseudomonas infection either 2 to 3 weeks after i.v. inoculation or 5 weeks after i.c. inoculation. But a marked resistance than normal controls was found 10 weeks after the i.c. inoculation of BCG. On the other hand, x-radiation caused a serious damage to protective activity against pseudomonas infection and no increase of resistance throughout experimental period. (auth.)
Minden, P; Kelleher, P J; Freed, J. H.; Nielsen, L. D.; Brennan, P J; McPheron, L; McClatchy, J K
A component of Mycobacterium bovis BCG referred to as BCG-a was isolated through the combined use of monoclonal antibody directed to BCG and affinity chromatography. Analysis of BCG-a by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single prominent band with a molecular weight of ca. 10,000. Structural characterization of BCG-a consisting of amino acid composition and amino-terminal sequence determination was carried out. The intact BCG-a antigen was bound by neither t...
Degrave Wim M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG is currently the only available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB and comprises a heterogeneous family of sub-strains with genotypic and phenotypic differences. The World Health Organization (WHO affirms that the characterization of BCG sub-strains, both on genomic and proteomic levels, is crucial for a better comprehension of the vaccine. In addition, these studies can contribute in the development of a more efficient vaccine against TB. Here, we combine two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE and mass spectrometry to analyse the proteomic profile of culture filtrate proteins (CFPs from M. bovis BCG Moreau, the Brazilian vaccine strain, comparing it to that of BCG Pasteur. CFPs are considered of great importance given their dominant immunogenicity and role in pathogenesis, being available for interaction with host cells since early infection. Results The 2DE proteomic map of M. bovis BCG Moreau CFPs in the pH range 3 - 8 allowed the identification of 158 spots corresponding to 101 different proteins, identified by MS/MS. Comparison to BCG Pasteur highlights the great similarity between these BCG strains. However, quantitative analysis shows a higher expression of immunogenic proteins such as Rv1860 (BCG1896, Apa, Rv1926c (BCG1965c, Mpb63 and Rv1886c (BCG1923c, Ag85B in BCG Moreau when compared to BCG Pasteur, while some heat shock proteins, such as Rv0440 (BCG0479, GroEL2 and Rv0350 (BCG0389, DnaK, show the opposite pattern. Conclusions Here we report the detailed 2DE profile of CFPs from M. bovis BCG Moreau and its comparison to BCG Pasteur, identifying differences that may provide relevant information on vaccine efficacy. These findings contribute to the detailed characterization of the Brazilian vaccine strain against TB, revealing aspects that may lead to a better understanding of the factors leading to BCG's variable protective efficacy against TB.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB still increases in the number of new cases, which is estimated to approach 10 million in 2010. The number of aged people has been growing all over the world. Ageing is one of risk factors in tuberculosis because of decreased immune responses in aged people. Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG is a sole vaccine currently used for TB, however, the efficacy of BCG in adults is still a matter of debate. Emerging the multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB make us to see the importance of vaccination against TB in new light. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of BCG vaccination in aged mice. Results The Th1 responses, interferon-γ production and interleukin 2, in BCG inoculated aged mice (24-month-old were comparable to those of young mice (4- to 6-week-old. The protection activity of BCG in aged mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was also the same as young mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that vaccination in aged generation is still effective for protection against tuberculosis.
Abbink F; van der Avoort HGAM; Berbers WAM; van Binnendijk RS; Boot HJ; Duynhoven YTHP van; Geraedts JLE; de Greeff SC; Hofhuis A; Kemmeren JM; Kimman TG; Klein,, J.; Koedijk FDH; Koopmans MPG; Kremer K
In 2006 several changes were made in the Dutch National Immunisation Programme (NIP): Hepatitis B vaccination at birth was added for children born to mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen; a new vaccine for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (a-cellular), poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae (DTaP-IPV/Hib) was introduced; vaccination against pneumococcal disease was added at two, three, four and eleven months; risk groups for hepatitis B receive a combined vaccine for DTaP-IPV/Hib ...
Aickin, R.; Hill, D.; A. Kemp
OBJECTIVE--To examine the occurrence of adverse reactions to measles vaccine given as a single dose to children with egg allergy, and to determine if the administration of single dose to children with a positive result in an intradermal skin prick test with the vaccine is associated with adverse reactions. DESIGN--Review of results of immunisation and prospective study of 96 consecutively presenting children given intradermal skin testing with the vaccine. SETTING--Children's allergy centre. ...
David Mesher; Elaine Stanford; Joanne White; Jamie Findlow; Rosalind Warrington; Sukamal Das; Richard Pebody; Ray Borrow; Kate Soldan
Background Reported human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage in England is high, particularly in girls offered routine immunisation at age 12 years. Serological surveillance can be used to validate reported coverage and explore variations within it and changes in serological markers over time. Methods Residual serum specimens collected from females aged 15–19 years in 2010–2011 were tested for anti-HPV16 and HPV18 IgG by ELISA. Based on these results, females were classified as follows...
Nau, Gerard J.; Liaw, Lucy; Chupp, Geoffrey L.; Berman, Jeffrey S.; Hogan, Brigid L.M.; Young, Richard A.
Expression of the cytokine osteopontin (OPN) is elevated in granulomas caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We tested the hypothesis that OPN contributes to host protection in a mouse model of mycobacterial infection. When infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG, mice lacking a functional OPN gene had more severe infections characterized by heavier bacterial loads and a delayed clearance of the bacteria. The OPN-null mice had greater granuloma burdens consistent with the elevated bacterial loa...
Tuberculosis still remains a huge global health problem. Control of tuberculosis expansionis very difficult. It requires the long-term use of anti-mycobacterial drugs. The BacilleCalmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination protects against tuberculosis-related meningitis and disseminatedtuberculosis. Although vaccination with BCG is considered safe, adverse regional(BCG-itis) and disseminated (BCG-osis) diseases preferentially occur in the immunocompromisedhost. The infection with human immunodeficienc...
Collette, Georges; Bourhaba, Maryam; Moutschen, Michel
The BCG vaccine has demonstrated its efficacy to protect young children from severe extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis. Nevertheless, the immunity induced by the vaccine disappears in adults and cannot be boosted by readministration of BCG. Adverse effects of BCG are rare, but potentially dangerous (i.e. disseminated vaccinal infections) and they justify the fact that BCG should not be administered anymore in Western European countries where the incidence of pediatric tuberculous meningitis...
Malik, Neeraj; Kasana, Harit; Sikarwar, Gunjan; Pathania, Lavanyam; Tewari, Shalini; Kiran, Manjula; Soni, G. R.; Singh, Surinder
BCG vaccine has been in use globally to control the tuberculosis since the year 1921 and there has been significant achievement to curtail the disease. The important tests as per pharmacopoeial requirements including count of viable units (CVU) and excessive dermal reactivity (EDR) are required to be performed for ensuring the quality of BCG vaccine. In order to see the trend analysis of EDR of BCG vaccine used in India, a study has been carried out using 35 batches of BCG vaccine manufacture...
Jansen, H.M.; The, T H; Orie, N G
Fifty-four patients with evidence of locally advanced primary squamous cell bronchial carcinoma (SCC), and three patients with adenocarcinoma (AC) had lung resection to remove all the visible tumour. After operation an randomly chosen group of 20 SCC patients received adjuvant BCG immunostimulation by scarifications (BCG-A). An additional group of 14 SCC patients, and three AC patients received initially intrapleural BCG treatment and subsequently scarifications (BCG-B). A control group of 20...
Petousis-Harris, Helen; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Turner, Nikki; Soe, Ben
New Zealand (NZ) has low immunisation coverage for infants and children compared to many other westernised countries. Barriers to improving uptake are multifactorial, with health professional knowledge and attitudes identified as important modifiable factors. In NZ practice nurses give most childhood vaccinations in the primary health care setting. This study explored aspects of 150 family practice nurse views, knowledge and experience about immunisation. Qualitative and quantitative text data were obtained through randomised computer assisted telephone surveys and converged using a triangulated multi-method approach. Response rate was 89.3% nurses identified parents' fear as the greatest barrier to achieving better immunisation uptake and disagreed that health professional knowledge was a barrier. However, findings showed lack of knowledge among many participants, despite many feeling confident about their knowledge base. Factors associated with lower practice coverage of infants under 2 years were poorer knowledge of contraindications to vaccination and lack of completion of vaccinator training, especially an update course. A high level of confidence, more years in practice, dedicated time to follow-ups were not associated with better coverage rates. Practice nurses may be unaware that their knowledge in some areas needs improving. A trained practice nurse appears to play a significant role in overcoming fears and maintaining high coverage rates in their practice. We conclude that strategies that focus on primary health care provider support and education are more likely to gain high coverage than those that are purely directed at overcoming access barriers. PMID:15780719
Najeeha Talat Iqbal
Full Text Available BCG is a widely used vaccine worldwide for neonates including Pakistan. BCG has more than 90% coverage through the EPI program which was introduced in 1965 in Pakistan. BCG has limited efficacy against the transmissible form of pulmonary tuberculosis in high TB endemic countries. However, BCG vaccination continues in these countries because BCG confers protection against the disseminated form of TB in children. BCG has also shown some protection against leprosy and certain forms of cancers. One reason for such nonspecific protection may be that BCG activates APCs via PAMPS that interacts with TLRs (2, 4 & 8, which initiate the inflammatory cascade thereby recruiting inflammatory cells to the site of infection and providing maturation signals for neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. Such activation may be crucial for restricting the infection at the initial site. Furthermore, activation of the pro-inflammatory cascade also results in expression of adhesion molecules, co-stimulatory molecules as well as MHC class II molecule. MHC class II molecules engage CD4+ cells via the TCR receptor while the adhesion and costimulatory molecules bind to their respective receptors on CD4+ T cells for additional high affinity binding for T cell activation. Although activation of the innate arm may not provide subsequent memory, activation of T cells may introduce a certain level of memory response and therefore, may form a rational basis for BCG immunotherapy. This review, therefore, focuses on the immune activation related to both the innate and adaptive arm of the immune response that has been reported and further explores the utility of BCG immunotherapy related to non TB conditions.
Robinson, M.; Campbell, F.; Powell, P; Sims, D; Thornton, C
AIM—To study the effect of dexamethasone on the routine immunisation of preterm infants with chronic lung disease. METHODS—Serum samples were obtained before and after immunisation from an unselected cohort of 59 preterm infants. Haemophilus influenzae antibodies were measured using an ELISA method and differences in the geometric mean values between the two groups of babies analysed. RESULTS—Sixteen infants received no dexamethasone. Before and after immunisation antibody t...
Sutton, P.; Danon, S; Walker, M.; Thompson, L.; Wilson, J.; Kosaka, T; Lee, A.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Vaccine development is progressing but there is concern that immunisation may exacerbate Helicobacter induced gastritis: prophylactic immunisation followed by challenge with H felis or H pylori can induce a more severe gastritis in mice than seen with infection alone. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between immunity to Helicobacter infection and post-immunisation gastritis. ...
Gaensbauer, J T
In 2007, an outbreak of tuberculosis occurred in a toddler population attending two child care centres in Cork, Ireland. Of 268 children exposed, 18 were eventually diagnosed with active tuberculosis. We present the initial clinical and radiographic characteristics of the active disease group. Mantoux testing was positive in only 66% of cases. All cases were either pulmonary or involved hilar adenopathy on chest radiograph; there were no cases of disseminated disease or meningitis. 24% of the exposed children had been previously vaccinated with BCG, and no case of active disease was found in this group (p = 0.016), suggesting a profound protective effect of BCG in this population. Our experience provides evidence supporting a protective effect of BCG against pulmonary disease in young children.
Great progress on galaxy clusters has been made in the last several years with SZ and optical surveys. Some new puzzles also emerged and one of them is the mismatch between the stacked Planck SZ fluxes and the model expectations for the MaxBCG clusters. While previous studies regarding this puzzle require the calibration of the true mass and the standard pressure template, we bypass the intermediate steps to directly compare the pressure content derived from the X-ray data with the SZ flux, for massive MaxBCG clusters. This proposal requests Chandra data for 3 clusters to complete a sample of 12 most massive MaxBCG clusters observed with either XMM or Chandra. The results will shed light on the mismatch puzzle and constrain the important scaling relations like Y_X - N_200 and Y_X - Y_SZ.
Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; Praygod, George Amani;
While BCG vaccine protects against severe tuberculosis (TB) in children, its effect against adult TB is questionable. Furthermore, it is not known if HIV co-infection modifies the effect of BCG. Among 352 pairs of Tanzanian TB cases and matched controls, the BCG scar was associated with a reduced...
Kumar, D; Srivastava, B S; N. B. Singh; Srivastava, R.
Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strains were compared with Mycobacterium tuberculosis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A 25-kDa protein observed in the BCG strains was absent in M. tuberculosis. Rabbit antibodies specific to the 25-kDa protein uniquely identified this protein in BCG strains but not in M. tuberculosis. It is suggested that the 25-kDa protein and polyclonal antibodies directed against this antigen can be exploited to distinguish BCG strains from M. ...
Gheorghiu, M; Lagranderie, M R; Gicquel, B M; Leclerc, C D
Several recent studies have demonstrated that strong cellular or humoral immune responses can be induced against foreign antigens expressed by recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG. It has therefore been suggested that BCG could represent one of the best candidate vectors for live recombinant vaccines. However, a large percentage of the human population has been immunized by BCG, and this priming could modify the immune response to future recombinant BCG vaccines. In the present study, we have ...
A. A. Minich
Full Text Available Background: Both bacillus Calmette-Gue’rin (BCG and interferon-alpha (IFN-α are active against urinary bladder cancer. In this studywe evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of combined intravesical BCG plus IFN-α for treating non-invasive bladder cancer.Subjects and methods: A total of 149 patients (mean age 63.2 years were enrolled for the study. The inclusion criteria were histologically verifiednon-invasive transitional cell carcinoma with intermediate and high risks of recurrence and progression. After transurethral tumor resection, all thepatients were randomized in three groups. Group 1 (n=60 was treated with a 6-week course of BCG, 125 mg, starting 14 to 21 days after TUR, Group2 (n=60 patients received 6-week instillations of BCG, 125 mg, plus IFN-α, 6 million units, Group 3 patients (n = 29 had 4-month courses ofintravesical IFN-α, 6 million units, twice daily during 3 consecutive days. A response was assessed by cystoscopy every 3 months after treatment.Results: A median follow-up of 30.9 months revealed recurrences in 26 (43.3% patients in the BCG group, 8 (13.3% patients in the BCG + IFN-αgroup and 18 (62.1% patients in the IFN-α group. Progression to muscle invasion occurred in 12% and 7% in Groups 1 and 3, respectively, withno progression in Group 2 patients. Three-year relapse-free survival was higher in the BCG+IFN group (78.5% versus 62.6 and 40.2% in theBCG and IFN-α groups, respectively. There was no significant difference between the BCG groups in relapse-free survival. Monotherapy withIFN-α showed a significantly lower response rate than did BCG therapies (p = 0.007. Adverse reactions were observed in 25, 116, and 6.9% ofpatients from Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Toxicity-related withdrawal and treatment delay were similar in both BCG groups. Comparison ofthe rate of adverse reactions revealed a significant difference between the BCG + IFN-α and BCG groups (p = 0.025. The respective rates ofmoderate
To evaluate the various ultrasonographic manifestations of BCG lymphadenitis complicated by BCG vaccination in infants. Among a total of 59 patients of BCG lymphadenitis, we retrospectively evaluated the ultrasonographic findings of five patients (seven involved areas), who were operated and confirmed by histopathology. Three cases were male and two were female and the age range is from 3 months to 9 months (mean: 5.5 months). Among five cases two had only a single lesion and three had multiple lesions, and two of those had multiple lesions at 2 separate locations. All five cases had ipsilateral supraclavicular lesions with same BCG vaccination site and two also had ipsilaeteral axillary lesions. Ultrasonography showed enlarged lymph nodes and heterogeneous hypoechoic changes suggesting internal necrosis or suppurative changes in three cases, but 1 had cystic necrotic change with fluid-fluid level and another had conglomerated mass with intermingled hyper and hypoechoic areas, which were initially suspected to be a tumorous conditions but revealed conglomerated lymph nodes on follow-up ultrasonography and MRI. BCG lymphadenitis is usually located adjacent to a BCG vaccination site, but ultrasonography can show single or multiple lymph node enlargement and various manifestations from homogeneous lymphadenitis to cystic abscess changes and even a mass-like appearance, demonstrating that the evaluation of ultrasonography should be done very carefully.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportion of Ugandan children who are fully vaccinated has varied over the years. Understanding vaccination behaviour is important for the success of the immunisation programme. This study examined influences on immunisation behaviour using the attitude-social influence-self efficacy model. Methods We conducted nine focus group discussions (FGDs with mothers and fathers. Eight key informant interviews (KIIs were held with those in charge of community mobilisation for immunisation, fathers and mothers. Data was analysed using content analysis. Results Influences on the mother's immunisation behaviour ranged from the non-supportive role of male partners sometimes resulting into intimate partner violence, lack of presentable clothing which made mothers vulnerable to bullying, inconvenient schedules and time constraints, to suspicion against immunisation such as vaccines cause physical disability and/or death. Conclusions Immunisation programmes should position themselves to address social contexts. A community programme that empowers women economically and helps men recognise the role of women in decision making for child health is needed. Increasing male involvement and knowledge of immunisation concepts among caretakers could improve immunisation.
Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were passively immunised against somatostatin-14 (SS-14) using an antibody originating from egg laying chicken (Gallus domesticus). Fish were immunised weekly (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 d) with chicken egg yolk derived immunoglobulin (IgY) against SS-14 (1:25 ...
Parent held child records (PHCR) were introduced in Ireland in 2008. This study investigated the relationship between the PHCR, parental recall and regional Health Service Executive (HSE) records for immunisation uptake. It used the Lifeways cohort study of 1070 singleton children to compare immunisation data from PHCR at one year, parental recall at five years and information from the HSE. When compared to HSE records, full recording of primary immunisations in the PHCR was reported for 695 of 749 (92.8%) children. Parental recall was correct for 520 of 538 (96.7%) children. Of the 307 completed PHCRs, 207 (75.9%) agreed with the HSE records. Agreement between the three sources for primary immunisations was 74-93% but was not statistically significant. Agreement was 91% (p < 0.001) for measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccines between parental recall and HSE records. PHCRs underestimated and parental recall overestimated immunisation status when compared with HSE records.
Krysztopa-Grzybowska, Katarzyna; Brzezińska, Sylwia; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Polak, Maciej; Augustynowicz, Ewa; Lutyńska, Anna
In this study we assessed the genomic stability of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau seed lots used in Poland for BCG vaccine production since 1955 by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). BCG vaccine lots were more closely related the original lot -M. bovis BCG Rio de Janeiro Moreau compared with seeds used before 1980, which is consistent with seed lot distribution recorded in the archives. We confirmed the presence of RD8, RD2, senX3-regX3, RD14, DU2-I, whiB3, trcR, the second copy of IS6110 inserted in the promoter region of phoP, mutation D322G in phoR, ΔRD1, and ΔfadD26-ppsA in M. bovis BCG Moreau used for BCG production in Poland. However, unlike the Rio de Janeiro parent BCG, the BCG Moreau substrain used in Poland does not harbour a deletion in Rv3887c, a region that is involved in the membrane transport protein that is part of the ESX-2 type VII secretion system. Differences in the distribution of BCG Moreau for its subsequent use for manufacturing influenced the microevolution of BCG Moreau used in Brazil and Poland. PMID:22749596
Alexandra G Fraga
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is an emerging infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that can result in extensive necrotizing cutaneous lesions due to the cytotoxic exotoxin mycolactone. There is no specific vaccine against BU but reports show some degree of cross-reactive protection conferred by M. bovis BCG immunization. Alternatively, an M. ulcerans-specific immunization could be a better preventive strategy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we used the mouse model to characterize the histological and cytokine profiles triggered by vaccination with either BCG or mycolactone-negative M. ulcerans, followed by footpad infection with virulent M. ulcerans. We observed that BCG vaccination significantly delayed the onset of M. ulcerans growth and footpad swelling through the induction of an earlier and sustained IFN-γ T cell response in the draining lymph node (DLN. BCG vaccination also resulted in cell-mediated immunity (CMI in M. ulcerans-infected footpads, given the predominance of a chronic mononuclear infiltrate positive for iNOS, as well as increased and sustained levels of IFN-γ and TNF. No significant IL-4, IL-17 or IL-10 responses were detected in the footpad or the DLN, in either infected or vaccinated mice. Despite this protective Th1 response, BCG vaccination did not avoid the later progression of M. ulcerans infection, regardless of challenge dose. Immunization with mycolactone-deficient M. ulcerans also significantly delayed the progression of footpad infection, swelling and ulceration, but ultimately M. ulcerans pathogenic mechanisms prevailed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The delay in the emergence of pathology observed in vaccinated mice emphasizes the relevance of protective Th1 recall responses against M. ulcerans. In future studies it will be important to determine how the transient CMI induced by vaccination is compromised.
A TH2 screwed immune response is known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergy, so, preventing the differentiation of TH cells. The TH2 cells are appeared as a logical therapeutic approach to atopic asthma. The purpose of TH1 study was to determine the possible role of BCG vaccine on asthma and whether a TH1 type immune response elicited by BCG immunization could suppress the allergic sensitization in childhood asthma. Seventy asthmatic patients (50 atopic and 20 non-atopic) and fifty healthy individuals were subjected to TH1 study. Tuberculin test was performed for all groups then subjects with positive tuberculin test were excluded. The BCG vaccine was given for all groups with assessment of TH1 and TH2 cytokine response by measuring total IgE, IL-4 (for TH2 response) and INF-γ (for TH1 response). Significant reduction in IgE and IL-4, and elevation in INF-γ were determined in group I (atopic asthma) following BCG vaccination. There was non-significant change observed in IgE and IL-4 levels of group II while significant reduction in IL-4 and significant increase in INF-γ was observed after BCG vaccine
One dose of 107 viable units of Mycobacterium bovis, strain BCG, protected a significant number of Swiss mice from a primary challenge with 104 thoracic sporozoites of Plasmodium berghei. Immunization with irradiated sporozoites induced greater protection than that observed in BCG-treated animals. Mice treated with BCG and surviving a primary sporozoite challenge were not protected from rechallenge, whereas mice immunized with irradiated sporozoites and surviving initial challenge of sporozoites were solidly immune to further challenge. Immunizing mice with BCG and irradiated sporozoites simulataneously resulted in a synergistic effect of increased protection against a primary challenge of sporozoites only if the two immunogens were administered on the same day and if the mice were challenged 1 to 3 days later. Mice given BCG and irradiated sporozoites and surviving a primary challenge of sporozoites were unable to survive rechallenge. BCG given to mice previously immunized with irradiated sporozoites suppressed their protective immunity against sporozoite challenge
Studies on recombinant BCG (rBCG) which my group carried out so far were reviewed. Recombinant BCG which secreted alpha antigen-fused foreign antigen was constructed and tested for its ability to induce protective immunity. Thus, rBCG secreting merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) of Plasmodium yoelii efficiently protected the infection more than recombinant MSP 1 mixed with artificial adjuvant RAS or IFA did. rBCG which secreted excess amounts of antigen 85 complex A inhibited the multiplication of M. leprae in the footpads of mice. rBCG which secreted alpha antigen-fused IL-2 stimulated peritoneal exudate cells of mice resulting in enhancing killing a bladder cancer cell line in vitro. PMID:10979272
Jan Mikus; Edward Bieleninik
The situational plan of an enterprise in the market can be determined by means of the BCG method. The analysis consists in graphical presentation of the spatial distribution of the enterprise activity conditions. The presentation is made in two dimensional spaces in which horizontal axis represents the relative participation of the strategic units in the market and vertical axis represents the market growth rate. In such a coordinate system, enterprise activity can be visualized by means of t...
Denis, M.; Forget, A; Miailhe, A C; Pelletier, M; Skamene, E
In mice, the early host response to intravenous infection with small doses of dispersed Mycobacterium bovis BCG is controlled by the Bcg gene. After infection with a low dose of M. bovis BCG, Lyt-1+ cells were generated in the spleens of BCG-susceptible mice (Bcgs) in parallel with an increase in the proportion of phagocytic cells. Very few changes occurred in the splenic cell types of BCG-resistant mice (Bcgr).
Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Sodemann, Morten; Jensen, Henrik; Poulsen, Anja; Gustafson, Per; Weise, Christian Frederik; Gomes, Justino; Djana, Queba; Jakobsen, Marianne; Garly, May-Lill; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter
Recent studies have suggested that bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant survival and that the effect may be more pronounced among girls. In a prospective birth cohort, we examine whether a positive tuberculin skin test and BCG scar in...... response to BCG immunization were related to better overall survival in Guinea-Bissau and, if so, whether the effect was sex-specific....
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine against tuberculosis (TB has been available for more than 75 years, one third of the world's population is still infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and approximately 2 million people die of TB every year. To reduce this immense TB burden, a clearer understanding of the functional genes underlying the action of BCG and the development of new vaccines are urgently needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Comparative genomic analysis of 19 M. tuberculosis complex strains showed that BCG strains underwent repeated human manipulation, had higher region of deletion rates than those of natural M. tuberculosis strains, and lost several essential components such as T-cell epitopes. A total of 188 BCG strain T-cell epitopes were lost to various degrees. The non-virulent BCG Tokyo strain, which has the largest number of T-cell epitopes (359, lost 124. Here we propose that BCG strain protection variability results from different epitopes. This study is the first to present BCG as a model organism for genetics research. BCG strains have a very well-documented history and now detailed genome information. Genome comparison revealed the selection process of BCG strains under human manipulation (1908-1966. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed the cause of BCG vaccine strain protection variability at the genome level and supported the hypothesis that the restoration of lost BCG Tokyo epitopes is a useful future vaccine development strategy. Furthermore, these detailed BCG vaccine genome investigation results will be useful in microbial genetics, microbial engineering and other research fields.
Kong, D.; Kunimoto, D Y
The human interleukin 2 (huIL-2) gene was introduced into Mycobacterium bovis BCG by using the integrative vector pMV306. To express and secrete huIL-2 from BCG, two different plasmids, CI and CII, were made. In CI, the huIL-2-encoding region was under the control of the alpha-antigen promoter of BCG; in CII, the expression of huIL-2 was regulated by the heat shock protein 60 promoter. A signal peptide sequence isolated from the naturally secreted alpha-antigen of BCG was inserted between the...
Lukacs, S.; B. Tschobotko; Szabo, N. A.; Andrew Symes
Intravesical Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy is a commonly used treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Although the treatment is well tolerated in 95% of cases, life-threatening side effects including BCG sepsis can occur. This report describes the case of an 82-year-old man with a background of lung disease. He developed septic shock and type two respiratory failure after receiving the sixth installation of intravesical BCG (TICE strain) immunotherapy for recurrent bladder Tra...
Demangel, Caroline; Garnier, Thierry; Rosenkrands, Ida; Cole, Stewart T.
In silico analysis reveals that most protective antigens expressed by the antituberculous vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) are conserved in M. avium, supporting the hypothesis that exposure to environmental mycobacteria generates cross-reactive immune responses blocking BCG activity. We investigated the impact of sensitization with M. avium, M. scrofulaceum, or M. vaccae on the protective efficacy of a recombinant BCG strain expressing RD1 antigens (BCG::RD1), using a mouse model of expe...
Whelan, KT; Pathan, AA; Sander, CR; Fletcher, HA; Poulton, I; Alder, NC; Hill, AV; Mcshane, H.
OBJECTIVES To investigate the safety and immunogenicity of a booster BCG vaccination delivered intradermally in healthy, BCG vaccinated subjects and to compare with a previous clinical trial where BCG vaccinated subjects were boosted with a new TB vaccine, MVA85A. DESIGN Phase I open label observational trial, in the UK. Healthy, HIV-negative, BCG vaccinated adults were recruited and vaccinated with BCG. The primary outcome was safety; the secondary outcome was cellular immune responses ...
Full Text Available Introduction: There is still no consensus on the efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosis. This study therefore addressed the question of the magnitude of immunity afforded by BCG, by studying the effector mechanisms of protection in children. The main objectives were to assess the degree of immunity conferred by BCG vaccine in children and to identify the most immunogenic antigen(s of BCG by conducting in-vitro studies. Materials and methods: Children in the age-group of 1 to 10 years, were categorized: (A normal, and vaccinated with BCG during the first year, n=45, (B normal, without scar and with no evident history of vaccination, n=31: and (C children admitted in the hospital with a confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis, n=31. Fractions of BCG were obtained by lysis, sonication, separation by gel chromatography, HPLC and confirmed by SDS-PAGE. In lymphoproliferative assays PBMC were cultured and stimulated with either Concanavalin-A or Tuberculin or the fractions of BCG. Stimulation indices (SI in lymphoproliferation, CD4/CD8 cells, levels of Interferon-γ (IFN- γ in the culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Results: The vaccinated children displayed significantly high (P< 0.05 mean values of SI in LTT, CD4/CD8 cell ratio against the unfractionated, 67kDa fraction and BCG-CF Ags. While 100% of the vaccinated children had positive lymphoproliferation indices to BCG-CF, only 8.3% of the unvaccinated children were positive. Conclusion: Some of the components of BCG induced a strong Thl cell response in children. These immunogenic antigens were present in the whole cell lysate. The use of BCG vaccine for tuberculosis is worthwhile till a new vaccine is developed.
Full Text Available Reported human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination coverage in England is high, particularly in girls offered routine immunisation at age 12 years. Serological surveillance can be used to validate reported coverage and explore variations within it and changes in serological markers over time.Residual serum specimens collected from females aged 15-19 years in 2010-2011 were tested for anti-HPV16 and HPV18 IgG by ELISA. Based on these results, females were classified as follows: seronegative, probable natural infection, probable vaccine-induced seropositivity, or possible natural infection/possible vaccine-induced seropositivity. The proportion of females with vaccine-induced seropositivity was compared to the reported vaccination coverage.Of 2146 specimens tested, 1380 (64% were seropositive for both types HPV16 and HPV18 and 159 (7.4% positive for only one HPV type. The IgG concentrations were far higher for those positive for both HPV types than those positive for only one HPV type. 1320 (62% females were considered to have probable vaccine-induced seropositivity. Among vaccine-induced seropositives, antibody concentrations declined with increasing age at vaccination and increasing time since vaccination.The proportion of females with vaccine-induced seropositivity was closest to the reported 3-dose coverage in those offered the vaccination at younger ages, with a greater discrepancy in the older females. This suggests either some under-reporting of immunisations of older females and/or that partial vaccination (i.e. one- or two-doses has provided high antibody responses in 13-17 year olds.
Marcotty, T; Chaka, G; Brandt, J; Berkvens, D; Thys, E; Mulumba, M; Mataa, L; Van den Bossche, P
In eastern Zambia, immunisation by 'infection and treatment' is the main method used to control East Coast fever, an acute and lethal cattle disease. This service, which requires a stringent cold chain, used to be free of charge. When a minimal user fee was introduced, attendance dropped drastically. Consequently, this complex immunisation programme was transferred to veterinary paraprofessionals working on their own account, with the aim of boosting a more sustainable distribution of vaccine. Paraprofessionals were provided with a motorbike and the required specific equipment, but fuel and drugs were at their expenses. The paraprofessionals recovered their costs, with a profit margin, by charging the cattle owners for immunisation. The reasons for the successful transfer of immunisation to paraprofessionals (despite the maintenance of a fee) are attributed mainly to the absence of information asymmetry between the paraprofessional and the livestock owner, the appreciable level of effort of the paraprofessionals and the verifiable outcome of the service provided. PMID:19284042
K. M. Figurin
The paper considers the state-of-the-art of BCG vaccine treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. It gives data on the meta-analyses of foreign studies of the efficiency of BCG therapy in this pathology.
Rosati, Yuri; Fabiani, Andrea; Taccari, Tommaso; Ranaldi, Renzo; Mammana, Gabriele; Tubaldi, Alberto
Immunotherapy with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered the most effective adjuvant to endoscopic resection of bladder urothelial carcinoma in the therapeutic management of non-muscle invasive (NMIBC) at intermediate and high risk of recurrence and progression (pTa - pT1 and high-grade carcinoma in situ, CIS). Despite its proven efficacy, this type of treatment can determine local and systemic side effects of moderate or severe gravity, with the histological diagnosis of epithelioid granulomas in different organs, even in the absence of microbiological positivity of BCG. The immunotherapy with BCG is usually well tolerated and the virulence of the attenuated BCG is very low in immuno-competent patients, although only 16% of patients are able to receive all the instillations of the maintenance period (3 years) of treatment provided by the protocols, precisely because of side effects. Minor side effects usually resolve within a few hours or days. They develop in 3-5% of patients and usually consist of local infectious complications. Manifestations of BCG dissemination, such as vascular and ocular complications, are much less common, while BCG-disseminated infections, with granulomatous pneumonia or hepatitis present, are quite rare, representing 0.5-2% of the complications recorded. We present the clinical case of granulomatous lung and possibly liver infection caused by BCG in a patient aged 56 years being treated for several weeks with intravesical BCG for NIMBC pT1 high grade associated with CIS. PMID:26616461
Sotnikova, Evgeniya A; Shitikov, Egor A; Malakhova, Maja V; Kostryukova, Elena S; Ilina, Elena N; Atrasheuskaya, Alena V; Ignatyev, Georgy M; Vinokurova, Nataliya V; Gorbachyov, Vyacheslav Y
Mycobacterium bovisBCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) is a vaccine strain used for protection against tuberculosis. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence ofM. bovisstrain BCG-1 (Russia). Extensive use of this strain necessitates the study of its genome stability by comparative analysis. PMID:27034492
K. M. Figurin
Full Text Available The paper considers the state-of-the-art of BCG vaccine treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. It gives data on the meta-analyses of foreign studies of the efficiency of BCG therapy in this pathology.
Ormerod, L P; Garnett, J M
Two hundred and sixty one of 279 (93.5%) children known to be tuberculin positive shortly after receiving their neonatal BCG vaccination were still tuberculin positive at age 4 years. The results confirm the continuing effectiveness of neonatal BCG at 4 years.
Zhang, Lu; Ru, Huan-Wei; Chen, Fu-Zeng; Jin, Chun-Yan; Sun, Rui-Feng; Fan, Xiao-Yong; Guo, Ming; Mai, Jun-Tao; Xu, Wen-Xi; Lin, Qing-Xia; Liu, Jun
Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the only vaccine available for tuberculosis (TB) control. However, BCG is not an ideal vaccine and has two major limitations: BCG exhibits highly variable effectiveness against the development of TB both in pediatric and adult populations and can cause disseminated BCG disease in immunocompromised individuals. BCG comprises a number of substrains that are genetically distinct. Whether and how these genetic differences affect BCG efficacy remains largely unknown. In this study, we performed comparative analyses of the virulence and efficacy of 13 BCG strains, representing different genetic lineages, in SCID and BALB/c mice. Our results show that BCG strains of the DU2 group IV (BCG-Phipps, BCG-Frappier, BCG-Pasteur, and BCG-Tice) exhibit the highest levels of virulence, and BCG strains of the DU2 group II (BCG-Sweden, BCG-Birkhaug) are among the least virulent group. These distinct levels of virulence may be explained by strain-specific duplications and deletions of genomic DNA. There appears to be a general trend that more virulent BCG strains are also more effective in protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. Our findings have important implications for current BCG vaccine programs and for future TB vaccine development. PMID:26643797
Wamani Henry; Kiguli Juliet; Rutebemberwa Elizeus; Babirye Juliet N; Nuwaha Fred; Engebretsen Ingunn MS
Abstract Background The proportion of Ugandan children who are fully vaccinated has varied over the years. Understanding vaccination behaviour is important for the success of the immunisation programme. This study examined influences on immunisation behaviour using the attitude-social influence-self efficacy model. Methods We conducted nine focus group discussions (FGDs) with mothers and fathers. Eight key informant interviews (KIIs) were held with those in charge of community mobilisation fo...
Luisa Petrocchi-Bartal; Katijah Khoza-Shangase
Background: There exists a need for context-relevant research aimed at facilitating the efficacious provision of early hearing detection and intervention services in South Africa.Objectives: This study aimed to determine the hearing screening procedures and protocols as well as referral protocols in use at maternal child woman’s health (MCWH) immunisation clinics in South Africa.Method: Thirty primary health care immunisation clinic managers or acting managers were interviewed in two South Af...
Embedded in the study of interactions between global health initiatives and country health systems, this paper analyses the impact of the Polio Eradication Initiative’s (PEI) on the routine immunisation programme in Uttar Pradesh, India. Applying the policy implementation framework and a mixed-method research design to analyse the PEI’s policy to “strengthen routine immunisation,” qualitative analysis demonstrates ambiguous translations of programme policies into operational guidelines. Tr...
MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Pereira, Jennifer A.; Jeffrey C Kwong; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Margaret L Russell; ,
Objective To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Design Descriptive qualitative study. Participants Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age child...
Aaby, P; Samb, B.; Simondon, F.; Seck, A. M.; Knudsen, K; Whittle, H.
OBJECTIVE--To examine whether the reduction in mortality after standard titre measles immunisation in developing countries can be explained simply by the prevention of acute measles and its long term consequences. DESIGN--An analysis of all studies comparing mortality of unimmunised children and children immunised with standard titre measles vaccine in developing countries. STUDIES--10 cohort and two case-control studies from Bangladesh, Benin, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Senegal, and Zair...
Kaden, Volker; Renner, Christiane; Rothe, Anke; Lange, Elke; Hänel, Andreas; Gossger, Klaus
The oral immunisation of wild boar against classical swine fever (CSF) in Baden-Württemberg is described and evaluated. The bait vaccine based on the CSF virus (CSFV) strain "C" proved to be safe in wild boar of all age classes. The modified immunisation procedure consisting of three double vaccinations per year was very effective. CSFV was not detected beyond the second immunisation campaign. The average rate of seropositive wild boar diagnosed over all immunisation periods was 49.2%. The seroprevalence rate increased significantly during the first year of immunisation and reached its maximum after the third vaccination period with 72% antibody positive animals. The higher percentage of seropositive young boars in this field trial compared to the seroprevalence rates in this age class in other field trials in Germany may be attributed to the new vaccination scheme. Factors that may be responsible for the decreased herd immunity after the fourth or sixth immunisation period are discussed. PMID:14526465
Jinesh G, Goodwin; Kamat, Ashish M
Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy results in neutrophil recruitment and subsequent secretion of cytokines to eliminate non-muscle invasive bladder cancer cells. However, bladder cancer cells often resist BCG immunotherapy. Thus, understanding the mechanism of action of BCG, and designing appropriate combination therapies might help to overcome BCG resistance and redirect neutrophils against bladder cancer cells.
Barata, Rita Barradas; Sampaio de Almeida Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos; José Cássio de MORAES; Flannery, Brendan; ,
Background Since 1988, Brazil's Unified Health System has sought to provide universal and equal access to immunisations. Inequalities in immunisation may be examined by contrasting vaccination coverage among children in the highest versus the lowest socioeconomic strata. The authors examined coverage with routine infant immunisations from a survey of Brazilian children according to socioeconomic stratum of residence census tract. Methods The authors conducted a household cluster survey in cen...
Hon, Kam Lun; Tsang, Yin Ching K; Chan, Lawrence C N; Ng, Daniel K K; Miu, Ting Yat; Chan, Johnny Y; Lee, Albert; Leung, Ting Fan
Immunisation is a very important aspect of child health. Invasive pneumococcal and influenza diseases have been major vaccine-available communicable diseases. We surveyed demographics and attitudes of parents of primary school students who received pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) and compared them with those who did not receive pneumococcal vaccination. The survey was carried out in randomly selected primary schools in Hong Kong. Questionnaires were sent to nine primary schools between June and September 2014. Parents of 3,485 children were surveyed, and 3,479 (1,452 PCV immunised, 2,027 un-immunised) valid questionnaires were obtained. Demographic data were generally different between the two groups. PCV-immunised children were more likely to be female (57.0 vs. 52.2%, P=0.005), born in Hong Kong (94.2 vs. 92.3%, P=0.031), have a parent with tertiary education (49.2 vs. 31.8, P<0.0005), from the higher-income group (P=0.005), have suffered upper respiratory infections, pneumonia, otitis media or sinusitis (P=0.019), and have doctor visits in preceding 12 months (P=0.009). They were more likely to have received additional immunisations outside the Hong Kong Childhood Immunization Programme (64.0 vs. 30.6%, P<0.0005) at private practitioner clinics (91.1 vs. 83.5%, P<0.0005). Un-immunised children were more likely to live with senior relatives who had not received PCV. Their parents were less likely to be aware of public education programme on PCV and influenza immunisation, and children were less likely to have received influenza vaccination. The major reasons for PCV immunisations were parent awareness that pneumococcal disease could be severe and vaccines were efficacious in prevention. The major reasons for children not being immunised with PCV were concerns about vaccine side effects, cost, vaccine not efficacious or no recommendation by family doctor or government. In conclusion, PCV unimmunized children were prevalent during the study period
Zhang, Lu; Ru, Huan-wei; Chen, Fu-zeng; Jin, Chun-yan; Sun, Rui-feng; Fan, Xiao-Yong; Guo, Ming; Mai, Jun-tao; Xu, Wen-xi; Lin, Qing-xia; LIU Jun
Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the only vaccine available for tuberculosis (TB) control. However, BCG is not an ideal vaccine and has two major limitations: BCG exhibits highly variable effectiveness against the development of TB both in pediatric and adult populations and can cause disseminated BCG disease in immunocompromised individuals. BCG comprises a number of substrains that are genetically distinct. Whether and how these genetic differen...
Matsumiya, Magali; Satti, Iman; Chomka, Agnieszka; Harris, Stephanie A.; Stockdale, Lisa; Meyer, Joel; Helen A. Fletcher; McShane, Helen
Background. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is the most widely administered vaccine in the world, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. We hypothesize that certain immune pathways are associated with reduced mycobacterial growth following BCG challenge in human volunteers. Methods. We used samples from a mycobacterial challenge in which previously BCG-vaccinated or BCG-naive adults in the United Kingdom were challenged intradermally with a standard dose of BCG. Any remaining B...
Object of dissertation: The influence of different BCG vaccination schedules on the tuberculin reactivity, BCG scarring, specific serology and allergy. 509 children were included in this research, all of them received BCG vaccination with standard or half dosage as newborns or 3-months old. 3 months after BCG vaccination and at one, two, and six years of age they were tested with tuberculin, and examined for BCG scarring. Anti-tuberculosis antibodies were detected in sera and children were ev...
Hedegaard, Chris J; Heegaard, Peter M H
Immunisation by administration of antibodies (immunoglobulins) has been known for more than one hundred years as a very efficient means of obtaining immediate, short-lived protection against infection and/or against the disease-causing effects of toxins from microbial pathogens and from other sources. Thus, due to its rapid action, passive immunisation is often used to treat disease caused by infection and/or toxin exposure. However immunoglobulins may also be administered prior to exposure to infection and/or toxin, although they will not provide long-lasting protection as is seen with active immunisation (vaccination) in which an immunological memory is established by controlled exposure of the host to the pathogen in question. With multi-factorial infectious diseases in production animals, especially those that have proven hard to control by vaccination, the potential of passive immunisation remains big. This review highlights a number of examples on the use of passive immunisation for the control of infectious disease in the modern production of a range of animals, including pigs, cattle, sheep, goat, poultry and fish. Special emphasis is given on the enablement of passive immunisation strategies in these production systems through low cost and ease of use as well as on the sources, composition and purity of immunoglobulin preparations used and their benefits as compared to current measures, including vaccination (also comprising maternal vaccination), antibiotics and feed additives such as spray-dried plasma. It is concluded that provided highly efficient, relatively low-price immunoglobulin products are available, passive immunisation has a clear role in the modern animal production sector as a means of controlling infectious diseases, importantly with a very low risk of causing development of bacterial resistance, thus constituting a real and widely applicable alternative to antibiotics. PMID:27185263
Sidgi; Syed; Anwer; Abdo; Hasson; Juma; Khalifa; Zayid; Al-Busaidi; Talal; Abdulmalek; Sallam
This review focuses on DNA vaccines, denoting the last two decades since the early substantiation of preclinical protection was published in Science in 1993 by Ulmer et al. In spite of being safely administered and easily engineered and manufactured DNA vaccine, it holds the future prospects of immunization by inducing potent cellular immune responses against infectious and non-infectious diseases. It is well documented that injection of DNA plasmid encoding a desired gene of interest can result in the subsequent expression of its products and lead to the induction of an immune response within a host. This is pertinent to prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination approach when the peculiar gene produces a protective epitope from a pathogen. The recent studies demonstrated by a number of research centers showed that these immune responses evoke protective immunity against several infectious diseases and cancers, which provides adequate support for the use of this approach. We attempt in this review to provide an informative and unbiased overview of the general principles and concept of DNA vaccines technology with a summary of a novel approach to the DNA vaccine, present investigations that describe the mechanism(s) of protective immunity provoked by DNA immunization and to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of DNA immunisation.
Following challenge with COPV (canine oral papillomavirus), DNA plasmids encoding COPV L1, E1 or E2 protein were delivered into oral mucosal and cutaneous sites in beagles using particle-mediated immunotherapeutic delivery (PMID). Two weeks post-challenge, a priming dose of 8 μg DNA was delivered followed by a booster dose after a further two weeks. A group of control dogs were vaccinated using plasmid DNA encoding Hepatitis B virus surface (HBVs) gene. All of the control animals developed warts at the vast majority of sites (94%). All of the animals given wild type L1, E1, or E2 developed warts at most sites (88%, 75%, and 88%, respectively). The animals given codon optimised E2 however, were protected from wart growth with only one tiny lesion seen on a single animal that persisted for only a few days. The E1 codon optimised group was also significantly protected with a far lower number of smaller warts (48%) that persisted for a shorter duration. These data suggest that therapeutic immunisation by PMID with papillomavirus early genes is effective and emphasizes the importance of antigen load in the generation of protective responses to papillomavirus proteins
Sidgi Syed Anwer Abdo Hasson
Full Text Available This review focuses on DNA vaccines, denoting the last two decades since the early substantiation of preclinical protection was published in Science in 1993 by Ulmer et al. In spite of being safely administered and easily engineered and manufactured DNA vaccine, it holds the future prospects of immunization by inducing potent cellular immune responses against infectious and non-infectious diseases. It is well documented that injection of DNA plasmid encoding a desired gene of interest can result in the subsequent expression of its products and lead to the induction of an immune response within a host. This is pertinent to prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination approach when the peculiar gene produces a protective epitope from a pathogen. The recent studies demonstrated by a number of research centers showed that these immune responses evoke protective immunity against several infectious diseases and cancers, which provides adequate support for the use of this approach. We attempt in this review to provide an informative and unbiased overview of the general principles and concept of DNA vaccines technology with a summary of a novel approach to the DNA vaccine, present investigations that describe the mechanism(s of protective immunity provoked by DNA immunization and to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of DNA immunisation.
Full Text Available AbstrakTuberkulosis adalah penyakit menular yang disebabkan oleh kuman Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Orang dewasa yang menderita tuberkulosis sangat mudah menularkan kuman TB kepada orang disekitarnya terutama pada anak-anak. Salah satu cara pencegahan penyakit tuberkulosis adalah pemberian imunisasi BCG pada saat bayi baru lahir. Scar vaksin BCG dapat terbentuk setelah penyuntikan, kadang Scar tidak terbentuk setelah penyuntikan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan hubungan antara pembentukan Scar vaksin BCG dan kejadian infeksi tuberkulosis. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain cross sectional dengan jumlah subjek sebanyak 80 orang. Pengambilan data berupa melakukan pengamatan terhadap Scar pada lengan atas serta wawancara kepada responden dengan menggunakan pedoman wawancara. Kemudian data ditabulasi dalam bentuk persentase dan dianalisis dengan uji chi-square . Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa responden yang terbanyak adalah perempuan dan usia yang terbanyak 35-44 tahun. Terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara pembentukan Scar vaksin BCG dengan kejadian infeksi tuberkulosis (p < 0,05. Disimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh antara pembentukan Scar vaksin BCG terhadap kejadian infeksi tuberkulosis.Kata kunci: tuberkulosis, vaksin BCG, Scar. AbstractTuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the number of sufferers tend to increase every years. Adults who suffer tuberculosis is very easy to spread it to around, especially to children. One of the way to prevent tuberculosis is immunization of BCG vaccine which given since infant. The Scar of BCG vaccine can formed after injection or not. The objective of this study was to determine the relation of BCG vaccine Scar formation on the incidence of tuberculosis infection.This research used a cross sectional design with 80 total subjects. The data was collected by observations of the scar on the upper arm while interviewed respondents using interview guide
Fifty patients with inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the bronchus were treated with radical radiotherapy. Afterwards, 16 patients received levamisole on 2 days per week and bacillus calmette guerin (B.C.G.) skin innoculations every two weeks;another 16 received the same dosage of levamisole but B.C.G. every 4 weeks; 18 patients were controls. Survival was better in the first group of patients only during the first two years of study (P = 0.02) but not later: metastases were fewer. Both B.C.G. and levamisole gave little discomfort when the dose was adjusted for each patient
Abubakar Kawu Monguno
Full Text Available Immunisation has been an important strategy for disease prevention globally. Despite proven successes in other settings, child immunisation has continued to be problematic in developing countries including Nigeria. In addressing the problems, policy in Nigeria is largely directed at overcoming socio cultural issues surrounding parents’ rejection of vaccines. However, determinants of immunisation have geographical implications as well. A cross sectional survey was used to select 484 mothers/ caregivers through a multi stage cluster sampling technique from the three senatorial districts of Borno State, Nigeria. Mothers or caregivers of children 12–23 months were interviewed using a structured questionnaire adapted from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2008. Socio cultural factors measured include mother’s education, religion, husband’s permission and sex of child while spatial variables include location i.e. whether rural or urban, and distance measured in terms of physical distance, cost and perception of physical distance. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the results. Data indicate that only 10.5% of children were fully immunised. Though immunisation uptake differed between the senatorial districts, this was not significant (P=0.1. In the bivariate analysis, mothers living in urban areas, <1 km to immunisation centre, their perception of travel distance and travel cost were the spatial predictors of immunisation while literacy and husband’s permission were the socio-cultural factors of significance. However, in the multivariate regression only two geographical factors i.e. living in an urban area [odds ratio (OR 3.42, confidence interval (CI 1.40–8.33] and mothers’ perception of distance (OR 4.52, CI 2.14–9.55 were protective against under immunisation while mother’s education was the only socio cultural variable of significance (OR 0.10, CI 0.03–0.41. It
Madrid, Juan P
New high-resolution r band imaging of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in Abell 85 (Holm 15A) was obtained using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph. These data were taken with the aim of deriving an accurate surface brightness profile of the BCG of Abell 85, in particular its central region. The new Gemini data show clear evidence of a previously unreported nuclear emission that is evident as a distinct light excess in the central kiloparsec of the surface brightness profile. We find that the light profile is never flat nor does it present a downward trend towards the center of the galaxy. That is, the new Gemini data show a different physical reality from the featureless, "evacuated core" recently claimed for the Abell 85 BCG. After trying different models, we find that the surface brightness profile of the BCG of Abell 85 is best fit by a double Sersic model.
Madrid, Juan P.; Donzelli, Carlos J.
New high-resolution r-band imaging of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in Abell 85 (Holm 15A) was obtained using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph. These data were taken with the aim of deriving an accurate surface brightness profile of the BCG of Abell 85, in particular, its central region. The new Gemini data show clear evidence of a previously unreported nuclear emission that is evident as a distinct light excess in the central kiloparsec of the surface brightness profile. We find that the light profile is never flat nor does it present a downward trend toward the center of the galaxy. That is, the new Gemini data show a different physical reality from the featureless, “evacuated core” recently claimed for the Abell 85 BCG. After trying different models, we find that the surface brightness profile of the BCG of Abell 85 is best fit by a double Sérsic model.
Cox, J H; Knight, B. C.; Ivanyi, J.
The capacity of various immunosuppressive agents to cause a recrudescence of the replication of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in the spleens of chronically infected mice was investigated. The actions of three corticosteroid preparations, cyclosporin A, and anti-T-cell subset monoclonal antibodies were compared. Treatment of mice with hydrocortisone acetate, which depressed the number of splenic lymphocytes and suppressed T-cell responses, most effectively exacerbated the stationary BCG counts, at 4...
Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Huajun; Pan, Yuanlong; Liu, Haican; Du, Pengcheng; Wan, Li; LIU Jun; Zhu, Baoli; Zhao, Guoping; Chen, Chen; Wan, Kanglin
Background Although the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) has been available for more than 75 years, one third of the world's population is still infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and approximately 2 million people die of TB every year. To reduce this immense TB burden, a clearer understanding of the functional genes underlying the action of BCG and the development of new vaccines are urgently needed. Methods and Findings Comparative genomic analysis of 1...
Nyoman Kumara Rai
Full Text Available Vaksinasi cacar dan BCG mulai diberikan secara simultan di Jawa dan Bali pada bulan April 1972 vaksinasi cacar diberikan pada lengan kiri dan BCG pada lengan kanan. Secara berangsur-angsur prograi ini kemudian diperluas kedaerah luar Jawa-Bali, sehingga pada akhir tahun 1973 sudah mencakup seluruh Indonesia. Tenaga yang digunakan adalah para juru cacar yang sudah ada dalam rangka proyek pembasmian penyakit cacar yang dimulai tahun 1968, dan terdapat hampir disemua kecamatan diseluru Indonesia. Ide untuk menggabungkan kedua jenis vaksinasi ini yang kebetulan mempunyai target sam (anak2 0 - 14 thn timbul setelah penderita cacar tidak dilaporkan lagi dibulan September 1971 (ternyata kemudian letusan cacar terakhir adalah dibulan Desember 1971. Sampai saat itu vaksina BCG dilakukan oleh petugas Puskesmas dan tenaga part timer. Ternyata target tidak pernah tercapa hal ini mungkin disebabkan oleh terbatasnya waktu yang tersedia untuk melakukan vaksinasi BCC sehingga para tenaga part timer tsb. hanya mampu mencakup daerah disekitar Puskesmas dan sekolah dasar. Sebelumnya telah diadakan dua trial; yang pertama diadakan di Bandung untuk melihat at tidaknya saling pengaruh mempengaruhi antara kedua jenis vaksin cacar dan BCG bila diberikan pat saat yang bersamaan, sedangkain trial kedua dilakukan untuk menilai kemampuan juru cacar dala melaksanakan vaksinasi BCG serta kesukaran! yang dijumpai dilapangan (masing2 didua kabupaten (Jawa Tengah, Timur dan Yogyakarta. Disamping keuntungan yang diperoleh dari penggabungan kedua jenis vaksinasi ini yakni penghematan tenaga, biaya dan waktu, dijumpai juga beberapa kesukaran antara lain pengumpulan anak2, supply vaksin BCG yang tidak teratur dll. Walaupun demikian, di Jawa dan Bali hasil vaksinasi BCG antara April 1972 sampai dengan April 1973 menunjukkan kenaikan out-put leb dari 4 kali lipat bila dibandingkan dengan out-put sebelum penggabungan, meskipun out-put prin vaksinasi cacar mempunyai tendensi menurun
Disseminated mycobacterial infection after bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) accination is a very rare disorder, occurring mostly in patients with immunologic eficiency. We report a case of disseminated BCG infection in a 16-month-old girl with severe combined immunodeficiency. Plain radiographs showed multiple osteolytic lesions in the femora, tibiae, humerus, and phalanges. Abdominal sonography and CT scanning revealed multiple nodules in the spleen, and portocaval lymphadenopathy
Trevenen, C. L.; Pagtakhan, R. D.
The records of 830 consecutive autopsies at Children's Hospital, Winnipeg revealed that 26 of the 36 infants (34 Canadian Indian, 1 Inuit and 1 Caucasian) given BCG vaccine shortly after birth had tuberculoid granulomas in various sites, including the vaccination site, regional lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lung, bone marrow and salivary gland. Mycobacterium bovis, BCG type, was identified in three of the four cases in which isolation was attempted. The principal causes of death had been sudden...
Full Text Available Telah dikemukakan anggapan-anggapan yang terdapat dewasa ini tentang vaksinasi BCG dan cacar secara simultan. Telah dilakukan vaksinasi BCG dan cacar secara simultan pada 729 neonati dengan freeze dried Smallpox vaccine buatan dari Bio Farma dan freeze dried BCG vaccine Tokyo. Pencacaran dilakukan secara multiple puncture dan bifurcated needle dengan suntikan BCG dengan jarum dan spuit khusus intracutan dengan dosis 0,1 ml. Tuberkulin test dilakukan dengan PPD dari Kopenhagen dengan kekuatan 2 TU 9 minggu setelah vaksinasi. Dari 741 bayi yang diikut sertakan dalam survey, 12 menolak, 3 bayi tidak dapat dilakukan pemeriksaan pertama, 35 bayi belum diperiksa, pemeriksaan pertama telah dilakukan pada 691 bayi. Dari 406 bayi yang seharusnya sudah diperiksa untuk pemeriksaan kedua, 23 dapat dilakukan karena tidak dapat dijumpai atau meninggal. Telah dikemukakan bahwa pencatatan alamat yang jelas dan lengkap serta kesungguhan dalam melakukan home visits sangat penting untuk berhasilnya penyelidikan semacam ini. Dari hasil-hasil yang didapatkan sampai sekarang telah dapat diambil kesimpulan sementara, bahwa vaksinasi BCG dan cacar secara simultan memberikan hasil yang memuaskan, juga bila dibandingkan dengan hasil-hasil penyelidikan diluar negeri take pada pencacaran 99.4 percent, test tuberkulin dengan PPD 2 TU 9 minggu setelah vaksinasi memberikan indurasi lebih dari 5 mm pada 99.75 percent dan tidak menimbulkan komplikasi-komplikasi. Pelaksanaan vaksinasi BCG dan cacar dapat dilakukan oleh tenaga paramedis yang telah mendapat latihan khusus dan diawasi oleh dokter yang kompeten. Dianjurkan untuk melakukan follow up pada bayi-bayi yang diikut sertakan dalam survey ini.
Singh, V K; Srivastava, R; Srivastava, B S
Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated vaccine derived from M. bovis, is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). Despite its protection against TB in children, the protective efficacy in pulmonary TB is variable in adolescents and adults. In spite of the current knowledge of molecular biology, immunology and cell biology, infectious diseases such as TB and HIV/AIDS are still challenges for the scientific community. Genetic manipulation facilitates the construction of recombinant BCG (rBCG) vaccine that can be used as a highly immunogenic vaccine against TB with an improved safety profile, but, still, the manipulation of BCG vaccine to improve efficacy should be carefully considered, as it can bring in both favourable and unfavourable effects. The purpose of this review is not to comprehensively review the interaction between microorganisms and host cells in order to use rBCG expressing M. tuberculosis (Mtb) immunodominant antigens that are available in the public domain, but, rather, to also discuss the limitations of rBCG vaccine, expressing heterologous antigens, during manipulation that pave the way for a promising new vaccine approach. PMID:26810060
da Costa, Adeliane Castro; Nogueira, Sarah Veloso; Kipnis, André; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula
Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG), an attenuated vaccine derived from Mycobacterium bovis, is the current vaccine of choice against tuberculosis (TB). Despite its protection against active TB in children, BCG has failed to protect adults against TB infection and active disease development, especially in developing countries where the disease is endemic. Currently, there is a significant effort toward the development of a new TB vaccine. This review article aims to address publications on recombin...
Degrave Wim M; Castello-Branco Luiz RR; da Silva Renata F; Pereira Melissa P; Gomes Leonardo HF; Correa Paloma R; Kalume Dario E; Berrêdo-Pinho Marcia; Mendonça-Lima Leila
Abstract Background Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is currently the only available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) and comprises a heterogeneous family of sub-strains with genotypic and phenotypic differences. The World Health Organization (WHO) affirms that the characterization of BCG sub-strains, both on genomic and proteomic levels, is crucial for a better comprehension of the vaccine. In addition, these studies can contribute in the development of a more efficient vaccine against TB. Her...
Full Text Available Due to the omnipresent risk of epidemics, insect societies have evolved sophisticated disease defences at the individual and colony level. An intriguing yet little understood phenomenon is that social contact to pathogen-exposed individuals reduces susceptibility of previously naive nestmates to this pathogen. We tested whether such social immunisation in Lasius ants against the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is based on active upregulation of the immune system of nestmates following contact to an infectious individual or passive protection via transfer of immune effectors among group members--that is, active versus passive immunisation. We found no evidence for involvement of passive immunisation via transfer of antimicrobials among colony members. Instead, intensive allogrooming behaviour between naive and pathogen-exposed ants before fungal conidia firmly attached to their cuticle suggested passage of the pathogen from the exposed individuals to their nestmates. By tracing fluorescence-labelled conidia we indeed detected frequent pathogen transfer to the nestmates, where they caused low-level infections as revealed by growth of small numbers of fungal colony forming units from their dissected body content. These infections rarely led to death, but instead promoted an enhanced ability to inhibit fungal growth and an active upregulation of immune genes involved in antifungal defences (defensin and prophenoloxidase, PPO. Contrarily, there was no upregulation of the gene cathepsin L, which is associated with antibacterial and antiviral defences, and we found no increased antibacterial activity of nestmates of fungus-exposed ants. This indicates that social immunisation after fungal exposure is specific, similar to recent findings for individual-level immune priming in invertebrates. Epidemiological modeling further suggests that active social immunisation is adaptive, as it leads to faster elimination of the disease and lower
Full Text Available Intravesical Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunotherapy is a commonly used treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Although the treatment is well tolerated in 95% of cases, life-threatening side effects including BCG sepsis can occur. This report describes the case of an 82-year-old man with a background of lung disease. He developed septic shock and type two respiratory failure after receiving the sixth installation of intravesical BCG (TICE strain immunotherapy for recurrent bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma in situ. Despite the early initiation of broad spectrum antibiotics (tazocin and gentamicin, he remained pyrexial. There was a rapid deterioration, and on the second day of his admission, he developed type two respiratory failure secondary to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS prompting transfer to Intensive Care for Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP Ventilation. The blood cultures taken before the induction of antibiotics results were negative. Increasing clinical suspicion of systemic BCG-osis prompted the initiation of antituberculosis therapy (ethambutol, isoniazid rifampicin and steroids. Following six days of BiPAP and anti-tuberculosis therapy in ITU, his condition started to improve. Following a prolonged hospital stay he was discharged on long term ethambutol therapy. BCG-osis is a well-known though rare side effect of intravesical BCG therapy. We would like to highlight the importance of having a low threshold for starting anti-TB treatment.
Lukacs, S; Tschobotko, B; Szabo, N A; Symes, Andrew
Intravesical Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy is a commonly used treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Although the treatment is well tolerated in 95% of cases, life-threatening side effects including BCG sepsis can occur. This report describes the case of an 82-year-old man with a background of lung disease. He developed septic shock and type two respiratory failure after receiving the sixth installation of intravesical BCG (TICE strain) immunotherapy for recurrent bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma in situ. Despite the early initiation of broad spectrum antibiotics (tazocin and gentamicin), he remained pyrexial. There was a rapid deterioration, and on the second day of his admission, he developed type two respiratory failure secondary to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) prompting transfer to Intensive Care for Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) Ventilation. The blood cultures taken before the induction of antibiotics results were negative. Increasing clinical suspicion of systemic BCG-osis prompted the initiation of antituberculosis therapy (ethambutol, isoniazid rifampicin) and steroids. Following six days of BiPAP and anti-tuberculosis therapy in ITU, his condition started to improve. Following a prolonged hospital stay he was discharged on long term ethambutol therapy. BCG-osis is a well-known though rare side effect of intravesical BCG therapy. We would like to highlight the importance of having a low threshold for starting anti-TB treatment. PMID:23844314
Koelewijn, JM; de Haas, M.; Vrijkotte, TGM; van der Schoot, CE; Bonsel, GJ
Objective To identify risk factors for Rhesus D (RhD) immunisation in pregnancy, despite adequate antenatal and postnatal anti-D prophylaxis in the previous pregnancy. To generate evidence for improved primary prevention by extra administration of anti-D Ig in the presence of a risk factor. Design Case–control study. Setting Nation-wide evaluation of the Dutch antenatal anti-D-prophylaxis programme. Population Cases: 42 RhD-immunised parae-1, recognised by first-trimester routine red cell ant...
Lee, Hyejon; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Kim, Deok Ryun; FLOYD, Sian; Oh, Sue Yeon; Lee, Jin Bum; Kim, Hee Jin
Background Delivery of Bacille Calmette-Guréin (BCG) Tokyo vaccine, with the multipuncture device, has been much preferred over BCG Pasteur, with the intradermal method, possibly due to the easier manner of administration, a desire to avoid any trouble with scars, as well as side effects and higher profits to providers in South Korea. Methods To determine BCG scar status in 0~6 year old children vaccinated with two BCG vaccines (Pasteur BCG vaccine with intradermal method and BCG Tokyo vaccin...
Dagg, Belinda; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Ho, Mei M.
As the latest addition to the sub-strain specific WHO Reference Reagents of BCG vaccine, an international collaborative study was completed to evaluate the suitability of a candidate BCG Moreau-RJ sub-strain as a WHO Reference Reagent of BCG vaccine. This follows the recent replacement of the WHO 1st International Reference Preparation for BCG vaccine, by three sub-strain specific WHO Reference Reagents of BCG vaccine (Danish 1331, Tokyo 172-1 and Russian BCG-I) in order to complete the cover...
Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Gustafson, Per; Nhaga, Alexandro;
Recent studies have suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on infant survival and that a BCG scar may be associated with lower child mortality. No study has previously examined the influence of BCG vaccination on cause of death.......Recent studies have suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on infant survival and that a BCG scar may be associated with lower child mortality. No study has previously examined the influence of BCG vaccination on cause of death....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although BCG vaccination is recommended in most countries of the world, little is known of the persistence of BCG-induced immune responses. As novel TB vaccines may be given to boost the immunity induced by neonatal BCG vaccination, evidence concerning the persistence of the BCG vaccine-induced response would help inform decisions about when such boosting would be most effective. Methods A randomised control study of UK adolescents was carried out to investigate persistence of BCG immune responses. Adolescents were tested for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (M.tb PPD in a whole blood assay before, 3 months, 12 months (n = 148 and 3 years (n = 19 after receiving teenage BCG vaccination or 14 years after receiving infant BCG vaccination (n = 16. Results A gradual reduction in magnitude of response was evident from 3 months to 1 year and from 1 year to 3 years following teenage vaccination, but responses 3 years after vaccination were still on average 6 times higher than before vaccination among vaccinees. Some individuals (11/86; 13% failed to make a detectable antigen-specific response three months after vaccination, or lost the response after 1 (11/86; 13% or 3 (3/19; 16% years. IFN-γ response to Ag85 was measured in a subgroup of adolescents and appeared to be better maintained with no decline from 3 to 12 months. A smaller group of adolescents were tested 14 years after receiving infant BCG vaccination and 13/16 (81% made a detectable IFN-γ response to M.tb PPD 14 years after infant vaccination as compared to 6/16 (38% matched unvaccinated controls (p = 0.012; teenagers vaccinated in infancy were 19 times more likely to make an IFN-γ response of > 500 pg/ml than unvaccinated teenagers. Conclusion BCG vaccination in infancy and adolescence induces immunological memory to mycobacterial antigens that is still present and measurable for at least 14 years in the
Chun Wang; Ruiling Fu; Xionglin Fan; Chunwei Shi; Jia Lu; Xindong Teng; Lingxia Chen; Kun Tan; Zhenhua Chen
Recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (rBCG) strain is the promising vaccine candidate for tuberculosis (TB) prevention, which aims at providing more enduring and enhanced protection than the parental BCG vaccine. In this study, three rBCG strains overexpressing immunodominant antigens Ag85B (rBCG::85B), Ag85A (rBCG::85A), or both (rBCG::AB) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were constructed, respectively. rBCG strains showed higher level of overexpression of Ag85A and/or Ag85B proteins than BCG c...
Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Cavusoglu, Cengiz; Dortkardesler, Merve; Sozeri, Betul
Biologic therapies, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) blockers, are commonly used to treat rheumatological diseases in childhood. Screening patients for tuberculosis (TB) is highly recommended before starting therapy with TNF-α blockers. Despite appropriate screening, TB still remains a problem in patients receiving anti-TNF therapy in countries where TB is not endemic. TB in anti-TNF-treated patients is often diagnosed late due to altered presentation, and this delay results in high morbidity and mortality with a high proportion of extrapulmonary and disseminated disease. The aim of this study is to show the course of TB disease in children who are on biologic therapy, in an era where many of the children are BCG-vaccinated and TB is intermediately endemic. We recruited 71 patients with several types of inflammatory diseases. Six of them had a positive test result during TB screening and began taking isoniazid (INH) prophylactically. During the 3 years of follow-up, none of these patients developed TB disease. Biologic agents can be safely used in a BCG-vaccinated pediatric population, as long as patients are closely monitored to ensure that any cases of TB will be detected early. PMID:25515621
BCG is the only licensed human vaccine currently available against TB. Derived from a virulent strain of M. bovis, the vaccine was thought to have struck a balance between reduced virulence and preserved immunogenicity. Nowadays, BCG vaccine strains used in different countries and vaccination programs show clear variations in their genomes and immune protective properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteomic profile on Mycobacterium bovis and five BCG strains Pasteur, Tokyo, Danish, Phipps and Birkhaug by Tandem Mass Tag® (TMT®)-labeling quantitative proteomic approach. In total, 420 proteins were identified and 377 of them were quantitated for their relative abundance. We reported the number and relationship of differential expressed proteins in BCG strains compared to M. bovis and investigated their functions by bioinformatics analysis. Several interesting up-regulated and down-regulated protein targets were found. The identified proteins and their quantitative expression profiles provide a basis for further understanding of the cellular biology of M. bovis and BCG vaccine strains, and hopefully would assist in the design of better anti-TB vaccine and drugs.
To test the effectiveness of irradiating the upper air of a room with ultraviolet light at reducing the concentration of airborne tubercle bacilli, the susceptibility to the germicidal effects of ultraviolet light, Z, was determined for various mycobacteria. Virulent tubercle bacilli and bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) were susceptible to ultraviolet radiation, whereas Mycobacterium phlei had 10 times their resistance (Z, approximately one-tenth that for M. tuberculosis). The effectiveness against BCG of upper air ultraviolet irradiation in a room was tested directly by nebulizing BCG into the air of the room and monitoring its rate of disappearance. With one 17-watt fixture operating, the rate of disappearance increased 6-fold; with 2 fixtures operating (46 watts total), the rate of disappearance increased 9-fold. This implies that under steady-state conditions, the concentrations of airborne organisms with ultraviolet light(s) on would have been one-sixth and one-ninth, respectively. The increase in rate of decay of the airborne organism using 1 fixture was equivalent to 10 air changes per hour, whereas that using 2 fixtures was approximately 25 air changes per hour (range: 18 to 33 air changes per hour). These increments are less than those reported previously for Serratia marcescens, because the Z value for BCG is approximately one-seventh that for serratia. These findings with BCG are believed to be directly applicable to virulent tubercle bacilli
J.M. Koelewijn; M. de Haas; T.G.M. Vrijkotte; C.E. van der Schoot; G.J. Bonsel
Objective To identify risk factors for Rhesus D (RhD) immunisation in pregnancy, despite adequate antenatal and postnatal anti-D prophylaxis in the previous pregnancy. To generate evidence for improved primary prevention by extra administration of anti-D Ig in the presence of a risk factor. Design C
Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Heegaard, Peter M. H.
Immunisation by administration of antibodies (immunoglobulins) has been known for more than one hundred years as a very efficient means of obtaining immediate, short-lived protection against infection and/or against the disease-causing effects of toxins from microbial pathogens and from other...
Melker, de H.
In view of the evaluation of the National Immunisation Programme in the Netherlands the main objectives were to obtain insight into the immunity to diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis, into the occurrence of pertussis and to improve serodiagnosis of pertussis.In a population-based nationwide sampl
Martins, S Babo; Di Giulio, G; Lynen, G; Peters, A; Rushton, J
A field trial was carried out in a Maasai homestead to assess the impact of East Coast Fever (ECF) immunisation by the infection and treatment method (ITM) with the Muguga Cocktail on the occurrence of this disease in Tanzanian pastoralist systems. These data were further used in partial budgeting and decision analysis to evaluate and compare the value of the control strategy. Overall, ITM was shown to be a cost-effective control option. While one ECF case was registered in the immunised group, 24 cases occurred amongst non-immunised calves. A significant negative association between immunisation and ECF cases occurrence was observed (p≤0.001). ECF mortality rate was also lower in the immunised group. However, as anti-theilerial treatment was given to all diseased calves, no significant negative association between immunisation and ECF mortality was found. Both groups showed an overall similar immunological pattern with high and increasing percentages of seropositive calves throughout the study. This, combined with the temporal distribution of cases in the non-immunised group, suggested the establishment of endemic stability. Furthermore, the economic analysis showed that ITM generated a profit estimated to be 7250 TZS (1 USD=1300 TZS) per vaccinated calf, and demonstrated that it was a better control measure than natural infection and subsequent treatment. PMID:20974501
Tobiume, Makoto; Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kuno, Takahira; Mukai, Shinji; Naruse, Keishi; Hatakeyama, Nobuo; OGUSHI, FUMITAKA
Background Pneumonitis is a rare complication of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy seen in patients with urothelial cancer following the repeated administration of BCG. However, no case of BCG-induced pleurisy has been reported. Case presentation We here report the first case of pneumonitis with lymphocytic pleurisy following bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy. Although marked T helper cell alveolitis was found by bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies, no aci...
Panas, Michael W.; Letvin, Norman L.
Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attractive target for development as a live vaccine vector delivering transgenic antigens from HIV and other pathogens. Most studies aimed at defining the clearance of BCG have been performed at doses between 102 and 104 CFU. Interestingly, however, recombinant BCG (rBCG) administered at doses of >106 CFU effectively generates antigen-specific T-cell responses and primes for heterologous boost responses. Thus, defining clearance at high...
Lagranderie, M R; Balazuc, A M; Deriaud, E; Leclerc, C D; Gheorghiu, M
Among the various parameters which may contribute to Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination efficiency, the choice of the vaccine strain may play an important role. In the present study, we therefore compared the immunogenicity of five different BCG strains that are commonly used for BCG vaccine production (Glaxo 1077, Japanese 172, Pasteur 1173P2, Prague, and Russian strains). The comparison of the growth capacity of these BCG strains in BALB/c and C3H mice demonstrated that a great difference ...
Gao George; Alexander David C; Yu Xuping; Wu Zuowei; Tran Vanessa; Leung Andrea S; Zhu Baoli; Liu Jun
Abstract Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis currently used as a vaccine against tuberculosis. Global distribution and propagation of BCG has contributed to the in vitro evolution of the vaccine strain and is thought to partially account for the different outcomes of BCG vaccine trials. Previous efforts by several molecular techniques effectively identified large sequence polymorphisms among BCG daughter strains, but lacked the resolution to identify s...
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a vacinação com uma única dose de BCG intradérmica com a vacinação com múltiplas doses, uma das quais pela técnica de multipuntura, em relação ao efeito protetor contra o aparecimento posterior de asma. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo com 2.311 pessoas vacinadas com BCG. Os indivíduos foram classificados de acordo com o número de doses de vacina BCG recebidas (uma dose, duas doses e três ou mais doses. O tempo mínimo de acompanhamento para verificar se houve algum efeito protetor da vacina BCG em relação ao diagnóstico de asma foi de 10 anos. RESULTADOS: A amostra incluiu 1.317 pessoas (56,99% que receberam apenas uma dose do BCG, 644 (27,87% que receberam duas doses e 350 (15,14% com três ou mais doses. O número de pacientes diagnosticados com asma entre aqueles que receberam uma dose de BCG, duas doses e três ou mais doses foi, respectivamente, 216 (16,40%, 107 (16,61% e 50 (14,28%. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: Na amostra estudada, não foi observada uma redução na prevalência de diagnóstico de asma com a revacinação ou com o uso de múltiplas doses da vacina BCG.OBJECTIVE: To compare BCG vaccination involving a single intradermal dose and that involving multiple doses, one given with the multiple puncture technique, in terms of the protective effect against the subsequent onset of asthma. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study involving 2,311 individuals having received the BCG vaccine. The patients were classified according to the number of doses of BCG vaccine administered (one; two; or three or more. The minimum follow-up period in order to determine whether there was any protective effect of BCG vaccination regarding the diagnosis of asthma was 10 years. RESULTS: The sample included 1,317 individuals (56.99% who had received only one BCG dose, 644 (27.87% who had received two doses, and 350 (15.14% who had received three or more doses. The number
Kátia da Silva Calabrese
Full Text Available Different patterns of cutaneous leishmaniasis can be induced when a challenge of alike dose of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes in various inbred strains was applied. Two strains of mice, the Balb/c and C57 BL/10J, showed exceptional suscepbility, and 10(elevado a sexta potência amastigotes infective dose lead, to ulcerative progressive lesions with cutaneous metastasis and loss by necrosis of leg on wich the footpad primary lesion occured. Lesions were also progressive but in a lower degree when C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 were infected. Lesions progress slowly in DBA/2 mice presenting lesions wich reach a discreet peack after 12 weeks, do not heal but do not uncerate. DBA/2 mice is, therefore, a good model for immunomodualtion. In attempt to determine the influence of BCG in vaccination schedule using microsomal fraction, DBA/2 became an excellent model, since it is also a non-responder to BCG. Vaccination of DBA/2 mice, receiving the same 10(elevado a sexta potência BCG viable dose and 10 *g or 50 *g of protein content of microsomal fraction, lead to a progressive disease with time course similar to those observed in susceptible non-vaccinated C57BL/10J mice after 6 months of observation. An enhancement of infection in BCG non-responder mice suggests that use of BCG as immunostimulant in humans could be critical for both vaccination and immunoprophylactic strategies.
Siddiqui, K F; Amir, M; Khan, N; Rama Krishna, G; Sheikh, J A; Rajagopal, K; Agrewala, J N
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remains the only available and most widely administered vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), yet it fails to protect vaccinated individuals either from primary infection or reactivation of latent tuberculosis (TB). Despite BCG's variable efficacy against TB, the fact remains that BCG imparts protection in children against the disease, indicating that BCG possesses a wide protective antigenic repertoire. However, its failure to impart protection in adulthood can be linked to its failure to generate long-lived memory response and elicitation of an inadequate immune response against latency-associated antigens. Therefore, to improve the protective efficacy of BCG, a novel vaccination strategy is required. Consequently, in the present study, we have exploited the vaccination potential of liposomized α-crystalline 1 (Acr1L), a latency-associated antigen to induce enduring protective immunity against Mtb in BCG-primed animals. It is noteworthy that an increase in the multi-functional [interferon (IFN)-γ(hi) /tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α(hi) ] CD4 and CD8 T cells were observed in BCG-primed and Acr1L-boosted (BCG-Acr1L) animals, compared to BCG alone. Further, substantial expansion of both central memory (CD44(hi) /CD62L(hi) ) and effector memory (CD44(hi) /CD62L(lo) ) populations of CD4 and CD8 T cells was noted. Importantly, BCG-Acr1L exhibited significantly better protection than BCG, as evidenced by a reduction in the bacterial burden and histopathological data of the lungs. In essence, BCG-Acr1L could be a potent future vaccination strategy to reinvigorate BCG potency. PMID:25845290
Chapman, Rosamund; Chege, Gerald; Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Williamson, Anna-Lise
HIV-1 has resulted in a devastating AIDS pandemic. An effective HIV/AIDS vaccine that can be used to either, prevent HIV infection, control infection or prevent progression of the disease to AIDS is needed. In this review we discuss the use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the tuberculosis vaccine, as a vaccine vector for an HIV vaccine. Numerous features make BCG an attractive vehicle to deliver HIV antigens. It has a good safety profile, elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addition manufacturing costs are affordable, a necessary consideration for developing countries. In this review we discuss the numerous factors that influence generation of a genetically stable recombinant BCG vaccine for HIV. PMID:20353397
Pan, Yuanlong; Yang, Xi; Duan, Jia; Lu, Na; Leung, Andrea S.; Tran, Vanessa; Hu, Yongfei; Wu, Na; Liu, Di; Wang, Zhiming; Yu, Xuping; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wan, Kanglin; LIU Jun
Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis (TB). A number of BCG strains are in use, and they exhibit biochemical and genetic differences. We report the genome sequences of four BCG strains representing different lineages, which will help to design more effective TB vaccines.
Two different fibrosarcomas (MCB-I, MCB-II) were induced by methylcholcholanthrene in syngeneic Balb/C mice were used. The tumor cells irradiated with 5,000 to 30,000 rads did not growth in mice on 30 days after inoculation. The viable tumor cells were challenged intradermally to mice on 7 days after inoculation of the tumor cells irradiated with 5,000 to 30,000 rads. The challenged tumor cells were all rejected at 30 days after inoculation. Mice were challenged with 5 x 105 viable tumor cells on 7 days after inoculation of 103 to 108 irradiated tumor cells. Mice pretreated with 105 or 106 irradiated tumor cells rejected the tumor cells completely. The viable tumor cells were challenged to mice on 7 days after inoculation of BCG-CW emulsion plus 106 irradiated tumor cells. 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mu g of BCG-CW emulsion were mixed in 106 irradiated tumor cells. Optimal dosage of BCG-CW emulsion was 50 or 100 mu g. BCG-CW emulsion plus irradiated tumor cells were injected subcutaneously to the mice after tumor cells inoculation. Three injections of the vaccine significantly suppressed the tumor outgrowth, but not one or two injections in no-treated mice. However, in the mice pretreated with BCG-CW emulsion, the tumor growth was significantly suppressed by one or two injections of the vaccine. Especially, the three injections of the vaccine significantly suppressed the tumor growth and the 25% of the mice were completely cured. The effect of the vaccine was almost the same grade by contralateral or ipsilateral treatment. The irradiated MCB-II tumor cells plus BCG-CW emulsion were not effective to the MCB-1 tumor bearing mice, suggesting the anti-tumor effect of this vaccine was immunologically specific
Mizukuro, Tomoyuki (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))
Two different fibrosarcomas (MCB-I, MCB-II) were induced by methylcholcholanthrene in syngeneic Balb/C mice were used. The tumor cells irradiated with 5,000 to 30,000 rads did not growth in mice on 30 days after inoculation. The viable tumor cells were challenged intradermally to mice on 7 days after inoculation of the tumor cells irradiated with 5,000 to 30,000 rads. The challenged tumor cells were all rejected at 30 days after inoculation. Mice were challenged with 5 x 10/sup 5/ viable tumor cells on 7 days after inoculation of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 8/ irradiated tumor cells. Mice pretreated with 10/sup 5/ or 10/sup 6/ irradiated tumor cells rejected the tumor cells completely. The viable tumor cells were challenged to mice on 7 days after inoculation of BCG-CW emulsion plus 10/sup 6/ irradiated tumor cells. 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mu g of BCG-CW emulsion were mixed in 10/sup 6/ irradiated tumor cells. Optimal dosage of BCG-CW emulsion was 50 or 100 mu g. BCG-CW emulsion plus irradiated tumor cells were injected subcutaneously to the mice after tumor cells inoculation. Three injections of the vaccine significantly suppressed the tumor outgrowth, but not one or two injections in no-treated mice. However, in the mice pretreated with BCG-CW emulsion, the tumor growth was significantly suppressed by one or two injections of the vaccine. Especially, the three injections of the vaccine significantly suppressed the tumor growth and the 25% of the mice were completely cured. The effect of the vaccine was almost the same grade by contralateral or ipsilateral treatment. The irradiated MCB-II tumor cells plus BCG-CW emulsion were not effective to the MCB-1 tumor bearing mice, suggesting the anti-tumor effect of this vaccine was immunologically specific.
Chapman, Rosamund; Chege, Gerald; Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Williamson, Anna-Lise
HIV-1 has resulted in a devastating AIDS pandemic. An effective HIV/AIDS vaccine that can be used to either, prevent HIV infection, control infection or prevent progression of the disease to AIDS is needed. In this review we discuss the use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the tuberculosis vaccine, as a vaccine vector for an HIV vaccine. Numerous features make BCG an attractive vehicle to deliver HIV antigens. It has a good safety profile, elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addi...
Procedures for generating an up-date material library for the BCG code were established. A new library was generated by processing ENDF/B-IV data with the 89-1 version of the LINEAR, RECENT and SIGMA1 programs. The effect of library change in the neutron spectrum and effective multiplication factor of a fast reactor cell was analized. During the course of this study, an error was detected in the BCG code. Although localized in a narrow energy range, the discrepancies in neutron spectrum caused by the error were large enough to yield a difference of about 1% in the effective multiplication factor of the test cell. (author)
Gyldenløve, Mette; Andersen, Ase Bengård; Halkjær, Liselotte Brydensholt
The case report describes a severe local reaction with large cutaneous necrotic ulcer following bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) re-vaccination. This is a very rare adverse event, and only a few reports have been described in the literature.......The case report describes a severe local reaction with large cutaneous necrotic ulcer following bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) re-vaccination. This is a very rare adverse event, and only a few reports have been described in the literature....
Chen, Jeffrey M.; Alexander, David C.; Behr, Marcel A.; LIU Jun
Mycobacterium bovis BCG is the only accepted vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) in humans. BCG is a live vaccine, and induction of immunity to TB requires productive infection of the host by BCG. However, BCG is not a satisfactory vaccine, because it fails to protect against pulmonary TB in adults. In this study, we found that BCG strains cannot utilize many naturally occurring amino acids as the sole nitrogen source for growth. This defect is caused, at least partially, by the l...
Makino, Masahiko; Maeda, Yumi; Inagaki, Katsuya
We previously demonstrated that major membrane protein II (MMP-II) is one of the immunodominant antigens (Ags) of Mycobacterium leprae capable of activating T cells through Toll-like receptor 2. Based on the observation that Mycobacterium bovis BCG secreting a 30-kDa protein offered better protection against tuberculosis, we constructed a recombinant BCG strain (BCG-SM) that secretes MMP-II to improve the potency of BCG against leprosy. The secreted MMP-II protein from BCG-SM stimulated monoc...
Husain, Aliabbas A.; Daginawala, Hatim F.; Singh, Lokendra; Kashyap, Rajpal S
Purpose In the present study, the protective immunological markers in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccinated and unvaccinated children were evaluated after vaccination. Further, PBMCs of children with low protective levels were boosted with BCG, Ag85B, and Ag85B peptides to study their booster effects to increase waning BCG induced immunity. Materials and Methods Fifty children from 1 month to 18 years of age were randomized for the s...
López-Vidal Yolanda; Mendoza-Hernández Guillermo; Hernández-González Ismael L; Arvizu Adriana; Cevallos Miguel A; de León Samuel; Orduña Patricia
Abstract Background Studies of Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains used in different countries and vaccination programs show clear variations in the genomes and immune protective properties of BCG strains. The aim of this study was to characterise the genomic and immune proteomic profile of the BCG 1931 strain used in Mexico. Results BCG Mexico 1931 has a circular chromosome of 4,350,386 bp with a G+C content and numbers of genes and pseudogenes similar to those of BCG Tokyo and BCG Pasteur. BCG ...
Ratliff, T L; Kavoussi, L R; Catalona, W J
Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been demonstrated to be effective both for prophylaxis and treatment of superficial bladder cancer. In order to identify the progression of events that result in BCG-mediated antitumor activity, studies were performed to evaluate the mechanism of binding of BCG within the bladder. Histological and quantitative studies in a mouse model revealed that BCG attached to the bladder wall only in areas of urothelial damage. Preliminary in vitro data showed that BCG attached to surfaces coated with extracellular matrix proteins. Further studies were then performed using purified extracellular matrix proteins to identify the proteins responsible for attachment. BCG were observed to attach to surfaces coated only with purified fibronectin (FN) but not to other purified proteins including laminin, collagen or fibrinogen. The attachment of BCG to purified FN in vitro was dose dependent and was inhibited by anti-FN antibodies. Moreover, BCG attachment in vivo to bladders with damaged urothelial surfaces was inhibited more than 95% by anti-FN antibodies, but binding was not affected by anti-laminin antibodies or preimmune serum. A survey of commercially available BCG vaccines (Pasteur, Tice, Glaxo, Connaught) showed that only Glaxo BCG did not attach to FN-coated surfaces. Glaxo BCG also was shown to express inferior antitumor activity suggesting that the absence of FN binding by Glaxo may have been associated with the absence of antitumor activity of the vaccine. PMID:3276931
Conclusions: Overall, the utilisation of maternal health services and immunisation against maternal and neonatal Tetanus are excellent in the state. The coverage targets for key RMNCH and A, an interventions have been well achieved in the state. Further, sustained efforts with Supportive Supervision are required to achieve 100% universal coverage of immunisation and full utilisation of maternal health care services. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2607-2611
Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.; van de Sande, P.J.M.; Whittle, H.; Fisker, Bent; Roth, A.; Aaby, Peter; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Benn, Christine Stabell
Background: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...... not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. Methods and Findings: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who...... with OPV. Worryingly, the results indicate that the common practice in low-income countries of administering OPV together with BCG at birth may down-regulate the response to BCG vaccine...
Haryadi Sarjono; Engkos Achmad Kuncoro
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui posisi tingkat pertumbuhan pasar pada perguruan tinggi khususnya Sekolah Tinggi berdasarkan market share, menggunakan matriks BCG. Unit analisis adalah semua perguruan tinggi swasta yang termasuk dalam Kopertis Wilayah III DKI Jakarta, yang terdiri dari Universitas, Sekolah Tinggi, Institut, dan Akademi. Objek analisis adalah jumlah penerimaan mahasiswa baru. Metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dalam penulisan ini adalah dengan metode ...
Full Text Available Mycobacteria, specially Mycobacterium tuberculosis are among the micro-organisms that are increasing dramatically the number of infections with death, all over the world. A great number of animal experimental models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the host response against these intracellular parasites. Studies of airway infection in guinea-pigs and rabbits, as well as, in mice intravenously infected with BCG have made an important contribution to our understanding of the virulence, pathogenesis and the immunology of mycobacterial infections. Although, there are few models to study the mechanisms of the initial inflammatory process induced by the first contact with the Mycobacteria, and the relevance of the acute generation of inflammatory mediators, cytokines and leukocyte infiltration to the development of the mycobacterial infection. In this work we reviewed our results obtained with a model of M. bovis BCG-induced pleurisy in mice, describing the mechanisms involved in the leukocyte influx induced by BCG at 24 hr. Different mechanisms appear to be related with the influx of neutrophils, eosinophils and mononuclear cells and distinct inflammatory mediators, cytokines and adhesion molecules are involved in the BCG-induced cell accumulation.
Kleinnijenhuis, J.; Crevel, R. van; Netea, M.G.
A growing body of evidence from epidemiologic and immunologic studies have shown that in addition to target disease-specific effects, vaccines have heterologous effects towards unrelated pathogens. Like some other vaccines, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has shown in observational studies and randomi
Full Text Available Objective: Bacille Calmette-Guَerin (BCG vacination is performed as a part of expanded program of immunization (EPI. Lymphadenitis is the most common complication of BCG vaccination. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and natural course of BCG lymphadenitis vaccinated in Yazd, Iran.Methods: In this analytical prospective follow up study a total of 480 (240 females and 240 males consecutive newborns received 0.05 ml of BCG vaccine intradermally on right arm within the first week of life during April to July 2003. These babies were followed up when 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6 and 9 months old. Findings: A total of 26 (5.8% cases of lymphadenitis were detected. Lymphadenitis occurred as ipsilateral axillary nodes in 24 (92.3% cases, supraclavicular in one (3.8% case, and supraclavicular in association with axillary nodes in one case (3.8%. Infants developed lymphadenitis during 4 wks of life in one (3.84% case, between first and fourth month of life in 14 (53.8% cases, and between fourth and sixth month of life in 11 (42.3% cases. All 26 cases of lymphadenitis were followed up for 9 months. Twenty two (84.6% cases were simple or non-suppurative and 4 (15.4% cases suppurative lymphadenitis. Eleven (42.3% cases of non-suppurative lymphadennitis showed spontanous resolution and eleven (42.3% cases had partial regression without progression or drainage. Four (15.4% cases developed suppuration with one (3.8% case of fistulation and drainage. Conclusion: The greater incidence of lymphadenopathy in our cases can probably be attributed to a more immunogenic vaccine (Pasteur institute, Tehran, young vaccinees (newborn infants, injection in the right arm or improper dilution. Non-suppurative BCG lymphadenitis is a benign condition and regresses spontanously without any treatment.
Van Damme, P; Kane, M.; Meheus, A
Hepatitis B is a major public health problem even though safe and effective vaccines have been available for over 10 years. Because hepatitis B infection is largely asymptomatic with long term complications occurring after many years it has not received the attention it deserves. Strategies to immunise those at high risk have failed to control the disease. Delegates to the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organisation recommended in May 1992 that all countries should integrate hepati...
Wiese-Posselt, Miriam; Hellenbrand, Wiebke
In July 2009, the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) modified its recommendations for varicella and pertussis vaccination, based on newly available data on disease epidemiology, vaccine effectiveness (VE) and safety, and an evaluation of the feasibility of the recommended immunisation strategy. The recommendation for varicella vaccine now includes a routine two-dose schedule with the administration of the first dose at the age of 11 to 14 months and the second dose at t...
This paper conducts an econometric analysis of data for a sample of over 4000 children in India, between the ages of 1-2 years of age, with a view to studying two aspects of the neglect of children: their likelihood of being immunised against disease and their likelihood of receiving a nutritious diet. The starting hypothesis, consistent with an universal interest in gender issues, was that girls were more likely to be neglected than boys. The analysis confirmed this hypothesis. In respect ...
Josefien Cornelie Minthe Bousema
Full Text Available Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD is a severe bacterial infectious disease with high mortality and morbidity rates worldwide. In recent years, industrialised countries have implemented vaccines targeting IMD in their National Immunisation Programmes (NIPs. In 2002, the Netherlands successfully implemented a single dose of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine at the age of 14 months and performed a single catch-up for children ≤18 years of age. Since then the disease disappeared in vaccinated individuals. Furthermore, herd protection was induced, leading to a significant IMD reduction in non-vaccinated individuals. However, previous studies revealed that the current programmatic immunisation strategy was insufficient to protect the population in the foreseeable future. In addition, vaccines that provide protection against additional serogroups are now available. This paper describes to what extent the current strategy to prevent IMD in the Netherlands is still sufficient, taking into account the burden of disease and the latest scientific knowledge related to IMD and its prevention. In particular, primary MenC immunisation seems not to provide long-term protection, indicating a risk for possible recurrence of the disease. This can be combatted by implementing a MenC or MenACWY adolescent booster vaccine. Additional health benefits can be achieved by replacing the primary MenC by a MenACWY vaccine. By implementation of a recently licensed MenB vaccine for infants in the NIP, the greatest burden of disease would be targeted. This paper shows that optimisation of the immunisation strategy targeting IMD in the Netherlands should be considered and contributes to create awareness concerning prevention optimisation in other countries.
McKnight, J.; Holt, D. B.
Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccination rates remain well below herd immunity in regions of many countries despite huge international resources devoted to both financing and access. We draw upon service marketing theory, organisational sociology, development anthropology and cultural......-the-ground problems that mothers face in trying to vaccinate their children, while instead prioritising administrative processes. Our ethnographic analysis of 83 mothers who had not vaccinated their children reveals key barriers to vaccination from a 'customer' perspective. While mothers value vaccination...
Pritchett, R; Minnis, H.; Puckering, C.; Rajendran, G; P. Wilson
Background Infant attachment is a strong predictor of mental health, and current measures involve placing children into a stressful situation in order to observe how the child uses their primary caregiver to assuage their distress. Objectives This study aimed to explore observational correlates of attachment patterns during immunisation. Participants and setting 18 parent–child pairs were included in the study. They were all recruited through a single general medical practice...
Ellis, Catherine; Roland, Damian; Blair, Mitch E
The Healthy Child e-Learning Programme is a modular, educational intervention to support professionals to deliver the Healthy Child Programme (HCP). A group of clinical academics was convened to design an evaluation of the HCP e-Learning Programme. This article presents the findings of the literature review to identify a method of evaluating an educational intervention designed for professionals that improves knowledge. The discussion highlights the complexities of selecting an evaluation method that could be used or adapted for evaluating the HCP e-Learning Programme. The immunisation module was selected for evaluation, offering a number of measurable outcomes, including a secondary outcome measure of any increase in immunisation uptake in the evaluation population. Very few published papers were found evaluating educational interventions that were related to our search criteria, none of these papers evaluated the transfer of learning from the intervention against practice improvement outcomes or evaluated stakeholder perspectives. Evaluating an educational intervention with the aim of attributing improvements in practice solely to that intervention is complex and resulted in the task group mapping all the factors that occurred in the literature that may influence immunisation uptake to construct a conceptual framework to inform our evaluation design. PMID:23821877
Harrington, David; Canales, Mario; de la Fuente, José; de Luna, Carlos; Robinson, Karen; Guy, Jonathan; Sparagano, Olivier
Dermanyssus gallinae has a worldwide distribution and is considered to be the most serious and economically significant ectoparasite affecting egg-laying poultry in Europe. Recombinant Bm86 and subolesin proteins derived from Boophilus microplus ticks and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were used to immunise poultry in an attempt to control D. gallinaein vitro. Immunisation with subolesin and Bm86 stimulated different profiles of IgY response, whilst Bm86 but not subolesin was recognized by IgY on western blots. Orthologues for Bm86 were not found in D. gallinae by PCR, but a 150 bp fragment aligned with mammalian akirin 1 and a 300 bp fragment aligned with Amblyomma hebraeum were amplified by subolesin PCR. D. gallinae mortality after feeding was 35.1% higher (P=0.009) in the Subolesin group and 23% higher (not significant) in the Bm86 compared to the Control group. Thus it can be concluded that immunisation with recombinant subolesin can stimulate a protective response in laying hens against D. gallinae. PMID:19501789
Lamm, D L; Thor, D E; Winters, W D; Stogdill, V D; Radwin, H M
Fifty-one patients with confirmed bladder cancer have enrolled in a prospective evaluation of BCG immunotherapy. Following resection of existing tumors, patients were stratified according to tumor grade and number of previous recurrences and randomly assigned to control or BCG treatment groups. Immunotherapy consisted of six weekly administrations of Pasteur strain BCG using 120 mg intravesically and 5 mg percutaneously. Immunotherapy side effects were minimal and no patient required postponement of BCG treatments. Eleven control (46%) compared with five (22%) BCG-treated patients had tumor recurrence (P = 0.078, chi 2). Prolongation of the disease-free interval with BCG treatment was significantly at the P = 0.016 level by Wilcoxon analysis. Four control and two BCG-treated patients had multiple recurrences. Comparing total episodes of recurrence, nineteen of 79 (24%) control and eight of 85 (7%) BCG group cystoscopic examinations revealed tumor (P = 0.006, chi 2). Immunologic correlates of response to immunotherapy were not statistically significant since only five BCG-treated patients had tumor recurrence. However, four of these five patients evidenced impaired LIF response to PPD at the time of tumor recurrence, and impairment of skin test reactivity and BCG humoral antibody response were more commonly seen in this subgroup of patients. PMID:7016300
Kashif Shahnawaz, Goutam Sarkar, Palash Das, Mausumi Basu, Biman Roy
Full Text Available Introduction: BCG vaccine has shown consistently high efficacy against childhood tubercular meningitis and miliary tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases. It is considered to be a safe vaccine with a low incidence of adverse effects. Efficacy of BCG vaccine found in different clinical trials is variable in different geography. Objectives: Study was done to assess the efficacy of BCG vac-cine. Materials and Methods: All the children who were less than three years of age and were previously BCG vaccinated and not-vaccinated, were included in this study. A total of sixty (60 vaccinated children and sixty non-vaccinated children were selected. These children were followed up prospectively for 24 months, at the end of which, it was seen whether they developed tuberculosis or not. Results: Out of these 60 children in both the cases and control groups, total number of BCG vaccinated children who developed TB were 4 (i.e. 6.6% and total number of Non-BCG vaccinated children who developed TB were 12 (i.e. 20%. Thus, the efficacy of BCG vaccine calculated in our study was 67%. Conclusion: Most studies in different parts of the world have shown that the efficacy of BCG vaccine varies from zero to eigh-ty percent. This study favors the efficacy of BCG vaccine. This vaccination strategy will be favorable for our children. Creation of awareness among the parents and family members for an early administration of BCG vaccine after child birth can be recom-mended.
Heemstra, Karen A; Bossink, Ailko W J; Spermon, Roan; Bouwman, John J M; van der Kieft, Robert; Thijsen, Steven F T
In this case series, we describe four cases in which the use of gamma interferon release assays with purified protein derivative (PPD) as a stimulating antigen was able to demonstrate PPD-specific immune activation. This may help to improve the adequate diagnosis of (systemic) Mycobacterium bovis BCG infections after intravesical BCG instillations for bladder carcinoma. PMID:22461529
Heemstra, Karen A.; Bossink, Ailko W. J.; Spermon, Roan; Bouwman, John J. M.; van der Kieft, Robert; Thijsen, Steven F. T.
In this case series, we describe four cases in which the use of gamma interferon release assays with purified protein derivative (PPD) as a stimulating antigen was able to demonstrate PPD-specific immune activation. This may help to improve the adequate diagnosis of (systemic) Mycobacterium bovis BCG infections after intravesical BCG instillations for bladder carcinoma.
Minimizing the scatter between cluster mass and accessible observables is an important goal for cluster cosmology. In this work, we introduce a new matched filter richness estimator, and test its performance using the maxBCG cluster catalog. Our new estimator significantly reduces the variance in the LX -richness relation, from σlnLx2 = (0.86±0.02)2 to σlnLx2 = (0.69±0.02)2. Relative to the maxBCG richness estimate, it also removes the strong redshift dependence of the LX -richness scaling relations, and is significantly more robust to photometric and redshift errors. These improvements are largely due to the better treatment of galaxy color data. We also demonstrate the scatter in the LX -richness relation depends on the aperture used to estimate cluster richness, and introduce a novel approach for optimizing said aperture which can easily be generalized to other mass tracers.
Kirkitadze, Marina; Remi, Elena; Bhandal, Kamajit; Carpick, Bruce
Bacille Calmette–Guerin, BCG, is a live attenuated bovine tubercle bacillus used for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. In this study, an Electrical Sensing Zone (ESZ) method was developed to measure the particle count and the size of BCG immunotherapeutic (BCG IT), or ImmuCyst® product using a Coulter Counter Multisizer 4® instrument. The focus of this study was to establish a baseline for reconstituted lyophilized BCG IT product using visible and sub-visible particle concentration and size distribution as reportable values. ESZ method was used to assess manufacturing process consistency using 20 production scale lots of BCG IT product. The results demonstrated that ESZ can be used to accumulate product and process knowledge of BCG IT. PMID:27158432
Kirkitadze, Marina; Remi, Elena; Bhandal, Kamajit; Carpick, Bruce
Bacille Calmette-Guerin, BCG, is a live attenuated bovine tubercle bacillus used for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. In this study, an Electrical Sensing Zone (ESZ) method was developed to measure the particle count and the size of BCG immunotherapeutic (BCG IT), or ImmuCyst® product using a Coulter Counter Multisizer 4® instrument. The focus of this study was to establish a baseline for reconstituted lyophilized BCG IT product using visible and sub-visible particle concentration and size distribution as reportable values. ESZ method was used to assess manufacturing process consistency using 20 production scale lots of BCG IT product. The results demonstrated that ESZ can be used to accumulate product and process knowledge of BCG IT. PMID:27158432
Fillastre, C; Guerin, N; Danusantoso, H; Sardadi, S
Two BCG vaccines prepared from the same strain were studied clinically in Indonesia and in France. The concentration in culturable particles was comparable. Observed differences in the Mantoux results are discussed. The French results, based on use in a temperate climate by a specialized team, on well nourished children, appear better than the Indonesian findings. Further steps should be undertaken to improve results in Indonesia. PMID:539694
We briefly discuss the results of a multifrequency study of the blue compact galaxy ESO 400-G43. This galaxy, one of the most luminous BCG:s known, is embedded in a massive HI cloud and shows clear signs of a global burst of star formation. There are substantial evidence that this is the first grand star formation epoch in the history of this galaxy
Osborn, T W
Changes in the Danish BCG strain under certain regimens of subculture have been shown in preceding studies to be associated with selection of a minority population. Three Czechoslovakian BCG strains, all originally derived from the Danish strain but thereafter and in distinction from it maintained on potato media, have now been investigated. Changes in the immunizing potency of two of these strains have been attributed by other workers to employment of the richer potato media in place of Sauton medium as used for maintenance of the parent Danish strain. However, results from the present study suggest rather that selection of a pre-existing minority genotype or of a new mutant occurred. This proposal is supported by the finding that the third strain has maintained characteristics similar to those of the Danish parent despite many previous transfers on potato media.Another BCG strain investigated was the Japanese which, like the three Czechoslovakian strains, had been previously maintained on potato media. This strain has been shown in the present study to resemble the Danish strain in supporting a minority population yielding non-spreading colonies. Czechoslovakian vaccine prepared with seed culture supplied from Tokyo has retained characteristics similar to those of the Japanese parent. Although a majority population yielding spreading colonies appears so far to have been retained in both centres, it is considered that selection of the minority could still occur in the course of routine transfer. PMID:7005326
Full Text Available Unobtrusive heart rate monitoring is a popular research topic in biomedical engineering. The reason is that convential methods, e.g. the clinical gold standard electrocardiography, require conductive contact to the human body. Other methods such as ballistocardiography try to record these vital signs without electrodes that are attached to the body. So far, these systems cannot replace routine procedures. Most systems have some drawbacks that cannot be compensated, such as aging of the sensor materials or movement artifacts. In addition, the signal form differs greatly from an ECG, which is an electrical signal. The ballistocardiogram has a mechanical source, which makes it harder to evaluate. We have developed a new sensor array made of near-IR-LEDs to record BCGs. IR-sensors do not age in relevant time scales. Analog filtering was neccesary, because the signal amplitude was very small. The digitized data was then processed by various algorithms to extract beat-to-beat or breath-to-breath intervals. The redundancy of multiple BCG channels was used to provide a robust estimation of beat-to-beat intervals and heart rate. We installed the system beneath a mattress topper of a hospital bed, but any other bed would have been sufficient. The validation of this measurement system shows that it is well suited for BCG recordings. The use of multiple channels has proven to be superior to relying on a single BCG channel.
The effects of immunotherapy with irradiated tumour cells and BCG were studied in a non-metastasizing variety of the Dunn osteosarcoma transplantable in mice. Experimental animals which had been preimmunized with three injections of 0.7 to 1.4 x 106 irradiated tumour cells each 1 to 3 weeks before administration of 1 x 106 living tumour cells, showed a tumour incidence of 23 per cent. This was significantly (P<0.005) lower than the 92 per cent tumour incidence in the control animals. Non-specific immunotherapy with BCG given subcutaneously at a dose of 1.0 mg of dry-weight bacterial mass three times at 3-weeks intervals was found to have no protective effect against the osteosarcoma. The tumour incidence was 90 per cent for BCG-treated and 94 per cent for control animals. The osteosarcomas were studied light and electron microscopically and also with regard to the histochemical alkaline phosphatase activity. No structural difference was found between the tumours of the various groups. The demonstrated immunotherapeutic response is in contrast o the low degree of immunogenicity of the osteosarcoma, which we will report elsewhere. (author)
MohammadReza Rafati; Bizhan Kouchaki
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is indicated for treatment of primary or relapsing flat urothelial cell carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the urinary bladder. Disseminated infectious complications occasionally occur due to BCG as a vaccine and intravesical therapy. Intramuscular (IM) or Intravenous (IV) administrations of BCG are rare medication errors which are more probable to produce systemic infections. This report presents 13 years old case that several steps medication errors occurred conseque...
Xia, Hongjing; Ruan, Dan; Cohen, Mark S.
In simultaneous EEG/fMRI acquisition, the ballistocardiogram (BCG) artifact presents a major challenge for meaningful EEG signal interpretation and needs to be removed. This is very difficult, especially in continuous studies where BCG cannot be removed with averaging. In this study, we take advantage of a high-density EEG-cap and propose an integrated learning and inference approach to estimate the BCG contribution to the overall noisy recording. In particular, we present a special-designed ...
There is an urgent need for an immunological correlate of protection against tuberculosis (TB) with which to evaluate candidate TB vaccines in clinical trials. Development of a human challenge model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) could facilitate the detection of such correlate(s). Here we propose a novel in vivo Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) challenge model using BCG immunization as a surrogate for M.tb infection. Culture and quantitative PCR methods have been developed to quantify BCG...
Kashif Shahnawaz, Goutam Sarkar, Palash Das, Mausumi Basu, Biman Roy
Introduction: BCG vaccine has shown consistently high efficacy against childhood tubercular meningitis and miliary tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases. It is considered to be a safe vaccine with a low incidence of adverse effects. Efficacy of BCG vaccine found in different clinical trials is variable in different geography. Objectives: Study was done to assess the efficacy of BCG vac-cine. Materials and Methods: All the children who were less than three years of age and were...
Redelman-Sidi, Gil; Iyer, Gopa; Solit, David; Glickman, Michael S.
Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis that is used widely as a vaccine for tuberculosis and is used as an effective treatment for superficial bladder carcinoma. Despite being the most successful cancer biotherapy, its mechanism of action and response determinants remain obscure. Here we establish a model system to analyze BCG interaction with bladder cancer cells, using it to show that these cells vary dramatically in their susceptibility to BCG infectio...
Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M.; Goldberg, Michael F.; Baena, Andres; Chan, John; Jacobs, William R.; Porcelli, Steven A.
The varied rates of protection induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine against tuberculosis has been attributed to many factors such as genetic variability among BCG strains, rapid clearance of BCG in some populations, and different levels of previous exposure of vaccinated populations to environmental mycobacteria. However, the methods and conditions employed to prepare this vaccine for human usage by various manufacturers have not been investigated as potential factors contributing to th...
Freeze-dried Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) of Institut Pasteur was given by intravenous route to mice at 1,2 and 4mg/kg before and after γ irradiation of animals by 1000 rad. B.C.G. 1 mg/kg injected the day or the day after irradiation has a protective effect (mortality reduced from 77% for controls to 58% and 50% for treated mice). B.C.G. given before irradiation in single or double doses increased mortality
Zlotta, Alexandre R.; Fleshner, Neil E.; Jewett, Michael A.
Up to 40% of patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) will fail intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy. There is unfortunately no current gold standard for salvage intravesical therapy after appropriate BCG treatment. Indeed, outcomes are at best suboptimal. The vast majority of low-grade NMIBC are prone to recur but very rarely progress. Failure after intravesical BCG in these patients is usually superficial and low-grade. At the other end of the spectrum, failur...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In early clinical studies, the live tuberculosis vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG exhibited 80% protective efficacy against pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. Although BCG still exhibits reliable protection against TB meningitis and miliary TB in early childhood it has become less reliable in protecting against pulmonary TB. During decades of in vitro cultivation BCG not only lost some genes due to deletions of regions of the chromosome but also underwent gene duplication and other mutations resulting in increased antioxidant production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether microbial antioxidants influence vaccine immunogenicity, we eliminated duplicated alleles encoding the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH in BCG Tice and reduced the activity and secretion of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase. We then used assays of gene expression and flow cytometry with intracellular cytokine staining to compare BCG-specific immune responses in mice after vaccination with BCG Tice or the modified BCG vaccine. Compared to BCG, the modified vaccine induced greater IL-12p40, RANTES, and IL-21 mRNA in the spleens of mice at three days post-immunization, more cytokine-producing CD8+ lymphocytes at the peak of the primary immune response, and more IL-2-producing CD4+ lymphocytes during the memory phase. The modified vaccine also induced stronger secondary CD4+ lymphocyte responses and greater clearance of challenge bacilli. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that antioxidants produced by BCG suppress host immune responses. These findings challenge the hypothesis that the failure of extensively cultivated BCG vaccines to prevent pulmonary tuberculosis is due to over-attenuation and suggest instead a new model in which BCG evolved to produce more immunity-suppressing antioxidants. By targeting these antioxidants it may be possible to restore BCG's ability to protect against pulmonary TB.
Full Text Available Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is a treatment to prevent recurrence of superficial urothelial bladder carcinoma. Complications after bladder instillation of BCG have been reported including locally invasive and systemic infections due to dissemination of Mycobacterium bovis from the bladder. We present an uncommon case and literature review of prosthetic joint infection due to M. bovis after intravesical BCG treatment of bladder cancer.
Tebogo M. Mothiba
Full Text Available Background: Immunisation is the cornerstone of primary healthcare. Apart from the provision of safe water, immunisation remains the most cost-effective public health intervention currently available. Immunisation prevents infectious conditions that are debilitating, fatal and have the potential to cause huge public health burdens, both financially and socially, in South Africa.Aim: To determine the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI at rural clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Setting: The study was conducted in selected primary healthcare clinics of Capricorn District, Limpopo Province.Methods: A qualitative explorative descriptive contextual research design was used to gather data related to the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing EPI at rural clinics in Capricorn District.Results: The findings revealed that professional nurses had knowledge of the programme, but that they experienced several challenges during implementation of EPI that included staff shortages and problems related to maintenance of the vaccines’ potency.Conclusions: The Department of Health as well as the nursing administration should monitor policies and guidelines, and especially maintenance of a cold chain for vaccines, to ensure that they are practised throughout Limpopo Province. The problem of staff shortages also needs to be addressed so that the EPI can achieve its targeted objectives.Keywords: Professional nurse, knowledge, EPI-SA, immunisation
Baker, D. M.; Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S.; Smith, S J
This paper describes a matched case-control study to determine the efficacy of BCG vaccine in preventing the occurrence of leprosy in southern Malaŵi, a previously unstudied area. The BCG immunization rate amongst 145 individuals with leprosy was 44.8%, compared to 62.5% in 290 matched controls. The protective efficacy of BCG vaccine against leprosy in this region was estimated to be 63.6%; smallpox immunization had no effect. These findings support the view that BCG vaccine should be conside...
Sartono, Erliyani; Lisse, Ida M.; Terveer, Elisabeth M.; van de Sande, Paula J. M.; Whittle, Hilton; Fisker, Ane B; ROTH, ADAM; Aaby, Peter; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Benn, Christine S
Background: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. Methods and Findings: We compared the in vitro ...
It was found that spleen cells from mice injected i.v. with large doses of BCG responded to PHA stimulation less intensely than did normal spleen cells. It was shown that nylon wool column purified BCG treated T cells also had a low PHA reactivity. Unfractionated spleen cells, adherent cells or T-enriched populations from BCG treated mice, when added to normal T cells lowered their PHA reactivity. When the same BCG treated cell populations were added to tumor cells in vitro, they inhibited their growth. (author)
Huygen, K.; Abramowicz, D.; Vandenbussche, P; Jacobs, F.; De Bruyn, J; Kentos, A.; Drowart, A; van Vooren, J P; Goldman, M.
Three susceptible mouse strains, i.e., BALB/c (H-2d), C57BL/6 (H-2b), and major histocompatibility complex-congenic BALB.B10 (H-2b), were infected intravenously with 4 x 10(6) CFU of live Mycobacterium bovis BCG and analyzed 4 weeks later for in vitro spleen cell cytokine secretion in response to purified protein derivative (PPD), BCG culture filtrate (CF), BCG cellular extract, total BCG, the purified extracellular 30-32-kDa antigen (the fibronectin-binding antigen 85), or the intracellular ...
Delayed fission is a nuclear process that couples beta decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes beta decay or electron capture and thus populates excited states in the daughter nucleus. This review covers experimental methods for detecting and measuring delayed fission. Experimental results (ECDF activities and beta-DF activities) and theory are presented. The future prospects for study of delayed fission are discussed. 50 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs
Susan M Pereira
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A vacina BCG é utilizada desde 1921, embora ainda apresente controvérsias e aspectos não esclarecidos. O objetivo do artigo foi analisar aspectos relacionados ao efeito protetor da primeira e segunda doses da vacina BCG e as políticas de vacinação adotadas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura publicada em inglês e espanhol, abrangendo o período compreendido entre 1948 e 2006, na base PubMed. Os principais descritores utilizados foram BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG e tuberculosis. Os estudos foram agrupados por tipo de desenho, apresentando-se separadamente os principais resultados de ensaios clínicos, estudos de caso-controle e metanálises. RESULTADOS: O efeito protetor da primeira dose da vacina BCG contra a tuberculose na forma miliar ou na meningite é elevado. No entanto, os resultados são discordantes em relação à forma pulmonar, variando de ausência de efeito a níveis próximos a 80%. Estão sendo conduzidas pesquisas sobre novas vacinas candidatas a substituir a BCG ou serem utilizadas como reforço. CONCLUSÕES: Há evidências de que a segunda dose da BCG não aumenta o seu efeito protetor. Apesar de seus limites e da expectativa futura de nova vacina para tuberculose, a vacina BCG mantém-se como importante instrumento no controle dos efeitos danosos da doença, sobretudo em países com taxas de incidência médias e elevadas.OBJECTIVE: The BCG vaccine has been in use since 1921, but still arouses controversy and uncertainties. The objective was to analyze the protective effect of the BCG vaccine in its first and second doses and the accompanying vaccination policies. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature in both English and Spanish was carried out, covering the period 1948 to 2006, using the PubMed database. The main search terms used included BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG and tuberculosis. The studies were grouped by design, with the main results from the clinic tests, case
Full Text Available Background: There exists a need for context-relevant research aimed at facilitating the efficacious provision of early hearing detection and intervention services in South Africa.Objectives: This study aimed to determine the hearing screening procedures and protocols as well as referral protocols in use at maternal child woman’s health (MCWH immunisation clinics in South Africa.Method: Thirty primary health care immunisation clinic managers or acting managers were interviewed in two South African sample groups. An exploratory, non-experimental,qualitative research design was employed incorporating both quantitative and qualitative information. An interview using a questionnaire was administered with all participants. The questionnaire encompassed areas such as work contexts, hearing screening contexts and information management systems, as well as quality control measures in place at these clinics.Content analysis was then used to code emergent themes into specific categories. Frequency calculations of these themes were calculated and results described qualitatively.Results: No primary health care (PHC clinics placed within the identified sites provided formalised new-born/infant hearing screening and none of these facilities had equipment to do so. Most sites attributed the lack of formalised hearing screening to budgetary and human resource issues, staff training in particular. Non-formalised hearing screening protocols in place demonstrated inconsistencies in application across districts and none complied with Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA clinic guidelines or any international guidelines.Conclusion: Results from the current study have assisted in identifying procedural and logistical assets and barriers to implementation of HPCSA clinic guidelines for early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI at immunisation clinics in South Africa.
Oyo-Ita, Angela; Wiysonge, Charles S; Oringanje, Chioma; Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka E; Oduwole, Olabisi; Meremikwu, Martin M
Background Immunisation is a powerful public health strategy for improving child survival, not only by directly combating key diseases that kill children but also by providing a platform for other health services. However, each year millions of children worldwide, mostly from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), do not receive the full series of vaccines on their national routine immunisation schedule. This is an update of the Cochrane review published in 2011 and focuses on interventions for improving childhood immunisation coverage in LMICs. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies to boost and sustain high childhood immunisation coverage in LMICs. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) 2016, Issue 4, part of The Cochrane Library. www.cochranelibrary.com, including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register (searched 12 May 2016); MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Daily and MEDLINE 1946 to Present, OvidSP (searched 12 May 2016); CINAHL 1981 to present, EbscoHost (searched 12 May 2016); Embase 1980 to 2014 Week 34, OvidSP (searched 2 September 2014); LILACS, VHL (searched 2 September 2014); Sociological Abstracts 1952 - current, ProQuest (searched 2 September 2014). We did a citation search for all included studies in Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, 1975 to present; Emerging Sources Citation Index 2015 to present, ISI Web of Science (searched 2 July 2016). We also searched the two Trials Registries: ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov (searched 5 July 2016) Selection criteria Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-RCTs, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series conducted in LMICs involving children aged from birth to four years, caregivers, and healthcare providers. Data collection and analysis We independently screened the search output, reviewed
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan intracellular parasite, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, and a worldwide zoonosis for which an effective vaccine is needed. Actin is a highly conserved microfilament protein that plays an important role in the invasion of host cells by T. gondii. This study investigated the immune responses elicited by BALB/c mice after nasal immunisation with a recombinant T. gondii actin (rTgACT and the subsequent protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections. We evaluated the systemic response by proliferation, cytokine and antibody measurements, and we assessed the mucosal response by examining the levels of TgACT-specific secretory IgA (SIgA in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes. Parasite load was assessed in the liver and brain, and the survival of mice challenged with a virulent strain was determined. The results showed that the mice immunised with rTgACT developed high levels of specific anti-rTgACT IgG titres and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response with a predominance of IgG2a. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2, Th2 (IL-4 and Treg (IL-10 cytokines, indicating that not only Th1-type response was induced, but also Th2- and Treg-types responses were induced, and the splenocyte stimulation index (SI was increased in the mice immunised with rTgACT. Nasal immunisation with rTgACT led to strong mucosal immune responses, as seen by the increased secretion of SIgA in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes. The vaccinated mice displayed significant protection against lethal infection with the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%, while the mice chronically infected with RH exhibited lower liver and brain parasite loads (60.05% and 49.75%, respectively than the controls. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that actin triggers a strong systemic and mucosal response against T. gondii. Therefore, actin may be a promising vaccine candidate
Harris, Stephanie A.; Meyer, Joel; Satti, Iman; Marsay, Leanne; Poulton, Ian D; Tanner, Rachel; Minassian, Angela M; Helen A. Fletcher; McShane, Helen
Background. A new vaccine is urgently needed to combat tuberculosis. However, without a correlate of protection, selection of the vaccines to take forward into large-scale efficacy trials is difficult. Use of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as a surrogate for human Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge is a novel model that could aid selection. Methods. Healthy adults were assigned to groups A and B (BCG-naive) or groups C and D (BCG-vaccinated). Groups B and D received candidate tuberculosi...
Buddle, Bryce M; Denis, Michel; Aldwell, Frank E; Martin Vordermeier, H; Glyn Hewinson, R; Neil Wedlock, D
Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine delivered to calves by the subcutaneous (s.c.) or by the oral route in a formulated lipid matrix has been previously shown to induce similar levels of protection against bovine tuberculosis. The current study was aimed at determining whether a combination of delivering BCG by s.c. and oral routes would enhance levels of protection, compared to only one route of vaccination. Forty calves were randomly divided into four groups (10/group). Calves were vaccinated with 10(6)colony forming units (CFU) of BCG Pasteur by the s.c. route or orally with 10(9)CFU BCG incorporated into a lipid formulation. One group received a combination of BCG administered by both the s.c. and oral routes and a non-vaccinated group served as a control. The two groups of calves that received s.c. BCG produced strong IFN-gamma responses in whole blood cultures stimulated with bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) 3 weeks after vaccination. Cattle vaccinated just with oral BCG in a lipid matrix produced a strong IFN-gamma response 8 weeks after vaccination, and peaking at 11 weeks after vaccination. All calves were challenged by the intratracheal route with M. bovis 15 weeks after vaccination and were euthanized and necropsied to assess protection at 17 weeks following challenge. BCG given s.c. or orally induced significant and comparable levels of protection against the virulent challenge. Vaccination of cattle by a combination of s.c./oral routes did not enhance protection beyond that achieved by s.c. or oral vaccination alone. We conclude that vaccination of cattle with BCG by a combination of routes has no beneficial additive effects, compared to a single s.c. administration of BCG or BCG given orally in a lipid formulation. PMID:18439875
The absorption and the biological routing of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine following intragastric administration to mice was studied. A harmful action of gastric (GJ) and duodenal juices (DJ) on BCG cells in vitro was found. Treatment with GJ induced a significant decrease of the oxygen uptake and a moderate loss of viability as expressed by the number of colony-forming units (CFU) of BCG. Severe decreases of bacilli respiration and a notable fall of CFU counts were detected during DJ treatment. The biorouting of BCG cells was determined using carbon-14 labelled bacilli. The labelling was accomplished through a metabolic precursor of mycobacterial lipids, sup(14)C-glycerol. The levels of radioactivity recovered at the first day in the organs of mice receiving either gastric instillation of sup(14)C-BCG, sonically disrupted sup(14)-BCG or sup(14)C glycerol were very similar. Subsequently, sonicated sup(14)C-BCG and sup(14)C-glycerol were involved in a biological decay process, while the level of sup(14)C-BCG associated radioactivity remained stable in the organs from 6 to 24 days. Data on the biodecay from the small intestine and liver showed that absorptive events were fast enough to reach the highest level at 24 hours, dropping thereafter according to the complexity of the material given to the mice. In all instances, however, living BCG was not cultured from organs of mice given unlabelled BCG. The preceding data suggest that the great majority of BCG cells that passed the gut barriers were absorbed intact but not alive. (author)
A Comprehensive Survey of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) across Mycobacterium bovis Strains and M. bovis BCG Vaccine Strains Refines the Genealogy and Defines a Minimal Set of SNPs That Separate Virulent M. bovis Strains and M. bovis BCG Strains▿ †
Garcia Pelayo, M. Carmen; Uplekar, Swapna; Keniry, Andrew; Mendoza Lopez, Pablo; Garnier, Thierry; Nunez Garcia, Javier; Boschiroli, Laura; Zhou, Xiangmei; Parkhill, Julian; Smith, Noel; Hewinson, R Glyn; Cole, Stewart T.; Gordon, Stephen V.
To further unravel the mechanisms responsible for attenuation of the tuberculosis vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG, comparative genomics was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that differed between sequenced strains of Mycobacterium bovis and M. bovis BCG. SNPs were assayed in M. bovis isolates from France and the United Kingdom and from different BCG vaccines in order to identify those that arose during the attenuation process which gave rise to BCG. Informative data sets...
Minon, J.M.; Gerard, Christiane; Dricot, J. F.; Neve, C.; Senterre, J. M.; Schaaps, Jean-Pierre; Foidart, Jean-Michel
Despite generalisation of anti-D immunoprophylaxis, RhD allo-immunisation still remains the major cause of severe haemolytic disease of the fetus and of the newborn (HDFN). The routine follow up of pregnant women comprises: the ABO/D, Rh/Kell red cells typing and the search for irregular antibodies. In case of anti-D immunisation, the paternal Rh phenotype, when known, provides useful information regarding the probability for the fetus to have inherited the D antigen and thereby to be exposed...
Mustafa, A. S.; Skeiky, Y A; Al-Attiyah, R.; Alderson, M. R.; Hewinson, R. G.; Vordermeier, H M
The development of novel vaccine strategies supplementing Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) constitutes an urgent research challenge. To identify potential subunit vaccine candidates, we have tested a series of eight recently identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in M. bovis-infected and BCG-vaccinated cattle. These antigens were characterized on the basis of their ability to induce in vitro gamma interferon responses in infected or BCG-vaccinated calves. We were able to establish a hier...
Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L.; Actor, Jeffrey K.
The current vaccine for tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). BCG has proven to be effective in children, however, efficacy wanes in adulthood. Lactoferrin, a natural protein with immunomodulatory properties, is a potential adjuvant candidate to enhance efficacy of BCG. These studies define bovine lactoferrin as an enhancer of the BCG vaccine, functioning in part by modulating macrophage ab...
Choi, Inseon S.; Lin, Xiang-Hua; Koh, Young-Ah; Cui, Yong
Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) induces potent Th1 responses with the help of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 released from dendritic cells (DCs), and suppresses Th2-associated allergic reactions. However, there are still some controversies on therapeutic effects of BCG in asthmatics. This study investigated whether BCG administration to DCs suppresses IL-5 production from T cells in atopic asthmatics. DCs derived from peripheral blood of subjects were cultured with or without BCG and Dermatophag...
Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Berg, Stefan; Chamberlain, Laura; McShane, Helen; Hewinson, R Glyn; Clifford, Derek; Vordermeier, Martin
Vaccination is being considered as part of a sustainable strategy for the control of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the UK. The live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been used experimentally to vaccinate cattle against BTB. However, BCG confers partial protection against BTB and therefore, there is a need to develop improved vaccines. BTB vaccine efficacy experiments require the use of biosafety level 3 facilities which are expensive to maintain, generally oversubscribed and represent a bottle neck for the testing of vaccine candidates. One indicator of the induction of protective responses would be the ability of the host's immune response to control/kill mycobacteria. In this work we have evaluated an intranodal BCG challenge for the selection of vaccine candidates at biosafety level 2 which are capable of inducing mycobactericidal responses. To our knowledge, this is the first such report. Whilst BCG only confers partial protection, it is still the standard against which other vaccines are judged. Therefore we tested the BCG intranodal challenge in BCG (Danish strain) vaccinated cattle and showed that vaccinated cattle had lower BCG cfu counts than naïve cattle at 14 and 21 days after intranodal challenge with BCG (Tokyo strain). This model could help prioritize competing TB vaccine candidates and exploration of primary and secondary immune responses to mycobacteria. PMID:25138291
Khatri, Bhagwati; Whelan, Adam; Clifford, Derek; Petrera, Agnese; Sander, Peter; Vordermeier, H Martin
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) causes major economy and public health problem in numerous countries. In Great Britain, despite the use of a test-and-slaughter strategy, the incidence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle has steadily risen in recent years. One strategy being considered to reduce the burden of bTB in cattle is the development of an efficient vaccine. The only current potentially available vaccine against tuberculosis, live attenuated M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), has demonstrated variable efficacy in both humans and cattle and the development of improved vaccination strategies for cattle is a research priority. In this study we assessed the immunogenicity in cattle of two recombinant BCG strains, namely BCG Pasteur Δzmp1::aph and BCG Danish Δzmp1. By applying a recently defined predictive immune-correlate of protection (T cell memory responses measured by cultured ELISPOT), we have compared these two recombinant BCG with wild-type BCG Danish SSI. Our results demonstrated that both strains induced superior T cell memory responses compared to wild-type BCG. These data provide support for the prioritisation of testing BCG Danish Δzmp1 in vaccination/M. bovis challenge studies to determine its protective efficacy. PMID:24394444
Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.; van de Sande, P.J.M.; Whittle, H.; Fisker, Bent; Roth, A.; Aaby, Peter; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Benn, Christine Stabell
BCG scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012. Conclusions: This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration...
Gomes, Leonardo H. F.; Otto, Thomas D; Vasconcellos, Érico A.; Ferrão, Patrícia M.; Maia, Renata M.; Moreira, Aline S.; Ferreira, Marcelo A.; Castello-Branco, Luiz R. R.; Degrave, Wim M.; Mendonça-Lima, Leila
Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis, and the strains used worldwide represent a family of daughter strains with distinct genotypic characteristics. Here we report the complete genome sequence of M. bovis BCG Moreau, the strain in continuous use in Brazil for vaccine production since the 1920s.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maltose-1-phosphate was detected in Mycobacterium bovis BCG extracts in the 1960's but a maltose-1-phosphate synthetase (maltokinase, Mak was only much later purified from Actinoplanes missouriensis, allowing the identification of the mak gene. Recently, this metabolite was proposed to be the intermediate in a pathway linking trehalose with the synthesis of glycogen in M. smegmatis. Although the M. tuberculosis H37Rv mak gene (Rv0127 was considered essential for growth, no mycobacterial Mak has, to date, been characterized. Results The sequence of the Mak from M. bovis BCG was identical to that from M. tuberculosis strains (99-100% amino acid identity. The enzyme was dependent on maltose and ATP, although GTP and UTP could be used to produce maltose-1-phosphate, which we identified by TLC and characterized by NMR. The Km for maltose was 2.52 ± 0.40 mM and 0.74 ± 0.12 mM for ATP; the Vmax was 21.05 ± 0.89 μmol/min.mg-1. Divalent cations were required for activity and Mg2+ was the best activator. The enzyme was a monomer in solution, had maximal activity at 60°C, between pH 7 and 9 (at 37°C and was unstable on ice and upon freeze/thawing. The addition of 50 mM NaCl markedly enhanced Mak stability. Conclusions The unknown role of maltokinases in mycobacterial metabolism and the lack of biochemical data led us to express the mak gene from M. bovis BCG for biochemical characterization. This is the first mycobacterial Mak to be characterized and its properties represent essential knowledge towards deeper understanding of mycobacterial physiology. Since Mak may be a potential drug target in M. tuberculosis, its high-level production and purification in bioactive form provide important tools for further functional and structural studies.
Westhovens, Ine M; Vanden Abeele, Marie-Elena; Messiaen, Peter E; van der Hilst, Jeroen Ch
BCG is an attenuated live strain of Mycobacterium bovis that is used as an intravesical immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer. Although generally well tolerated, BCG instillation can lead to systemic diseases. We present a case of a 75-year-old man who was treated for recurrent localised transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder with intravesical instillation of BCG in 2006. His medical history included Parkinson's disease. The patient reported worsening of Parkinson symptoms in the preceding month. In addition, he had progressive pancytopaenia and a bone marrow biopsy showed a granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate. Cultures from bone marrow aspiration grew M. bovis He was successfully treated with tuberculostatic drugs and made a full recovery. In addition, there was partial amelioration of the Parkinson symptoms. This case shows that physicians should be aware that BCG instillation for TCC can cause systemic disease even years after treatment. PMID:27170615
A code system BCG has been developed for calculating conveniently and efficiently gamma-ray skyshine doses using the transport calculation codes ANISN and DOT and the point-kernel calculation codes G-33 and SPAN. To simplify the input forms to the system, the forms for these codes are unified, twelve geometric patterns are introduced to give material regions, and standard data are available as a library. To treat complex arrangements of source and shield, it is further possible to use successively the code such that the results from one code may be used as input data to the same or other code. (author)
WANG QiuYue; LI JianHua; ZHANG XiChen; LIU ChengWu; CAO LiLi; REN KeYan; GONG PengTao; CAI YaNan
Chicken coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease with substantial economic burden to the poultry in-dustry. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) tagged recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG), as a fusion protein with coccidian rhomboid antigen was constructed to track rBCG in vivo in chickens in this study. Immunization of chickens with one dose of rBCG pMV361-Rho/EGFP induced humoral immune response. The colonization of rBCG in liver, spleen, lung, kidney and caecum was observed by laser confocal microscopy. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed s rise expression level of rhomboid protein on the 7th day and a peak on the 14th day and disappearance on the 28th day after immunization. These results have significant implications for the development of rBCG vaccines against avian coccidiosis.
Mostaan, Saied; Yazdanpanah, Bahador; Moukhah, Rasool; Hozouri, Hamid Reza; Rostami, Manouchehr; Khorashadizadeh, Mohsen; Zerehsaz, Javad; Mahabadi, Ramin Pirhajati; Saadi, Arya; Khanahmad, Hossein; Pooya, Mohammad
Although in the last two decades the World Health Organization (WHO) has introduced tuberculosis as “a threat to global”, the vaccination with the Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only way for the prevention of this fatal infectious disease. Despite of the efficacy of BCG vaccine especially against infants’ meningitis, it has still some limitations due to a variety of adverse effects. Many studies have evaluated the side effects of different strains of BCG vaccines in different countries. In Iran, some studies have been done so far to evaluate the adverse effects of 1173 P2 strain which is used for BCG vaccination. Each of these studies have used different standardization and sampling methods. This review will survey all studies that have been published about adverse effects of 1173 P2 strain of BCG vaccine in Iran using data mining methods.
Chicken coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease with substantial economic burden to the poultry industry.Enhanced green fluorescent protein(EGFP) tagged recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin(rBCG),as a fusion protein with coccidian rhomboid antigen was constructed to track rBCG in vivo in chickens in this study.Immunization of chickens with one dose of rBCG pMV361-Rho/EGFP induced humoral immune response.The colonization of rBCG in liver,spleen,lung,kidney and caecum was observed by laser confocal microscopy.Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed a rise expression level of rhomboid protein on the 7th day and a peak on the 14th day and disappearance on the 28th day after immunization.These results have significant implications for the development of rBCG vaccines against avian coccidiosis.
Roth, A.E.; Benn, Christine Stabell; Ravn, H.;
inhabitants. Participants 2871 children aged 19 months to 5 years with low or no reactivity to tuberculin and who were not severely sick on the day of enrolment. Intervention BCG vaccination or no vaccination (control). Main outcome measure Hazard ratios for mortality. Results 77 children died during follow......-up. Compared with controls, the BCG revaccinated children had a hazard ratio of 1.20 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.89). Two hundred and fifty children were admitted to hospital for the first time between enrolment and the end of the study, with an incidence rate ratio for BCG revaccinated children versus...... controls of 1.04 (0.81 to 1.33). The trial was stopped prematurely because of a cluster of deaths in the BCG arm of the study. This increase in mortality occurred at a time when many children had received missing vaccinations or vitamin A or iron supplementation; the hazard ratio for BCG revaccinated...
Disertacijos objektas: įvairių BCG skiepijimo režimų įtaka tuberkulino reakcijos išraiškai, vietinei BCG žymei, specifinei serologijai, alergijos klinikai vaikams iki 6 m. Tyrime dalyvavo 509 vaikai, vakcinuoti įprasta arba pusine BCG vakcinos doze naujagimio ar 3 mėn. amžiaus. Jiems 3 mėn. po BCG vakcinacijos, 1, 2 ir 6 m. atliktas tuberkulino mėginys, įvertintas BCG randelis, ištirti specifiniai antikūnai kraujo serume, įvertintos alerginės būklės. Disertacijos išvadose konstatuojama, kad 3...
Lee, Hyun Seung; Seo, Kyung Jin; Kim, Jae Jun
Bacillus-Calmette-Gue´rin (BCG) vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine to prevent tuberculosis by cell mediated immune response and is routinely administered early after birth. Although it is considered to be a very safe vaccine, sometimes a variety of complications may develop. Herein we describe a clinically unusual case of chest wall granuloma considered to be induced by BCG, presenting as hot abscess, and developed 7 months after BCG vaccination in an immunocompetent infant. The diagnosis was made based on the history, histopathology and virological studies. We suggest, although very rare, a BCG disease should be considered as a differential diagnosis in case of chest wall abscess, even if this is presenting as a hot abscess and even in immunocompetent infants if their age is related to BCG vaccination complications. PMID:25887440
Brandt, L.; cunha, jf; olsen, aw; Chilima, B.; Hirsch, P; Appelberg, R; Andersen, P.
The efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine against pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) varies enormously in different populations. The prevailing hypothesis attributes this variation to interactions between the vaccine and mycobacteria common in the environment, but the precise mechanism has so far not been clarified. Our study demonstrates that prior exposure to live environmental mycobacteria can result in a broad immune response that is recalled rapidly after BCG va...
Ramos Kátia L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since successful treatment of superficial bladder cancer with BCG requires proper induction of Th1 immunity, we have developed a rBCG-S1PT strain that induced a stronger cellular immune response than BCG. This preclinical study was designed to compare the modulatory effects of BCG and rBCG-S1PT on bladder TNF-α and IL-10 expression and to evaluate antitumour activity. Methods For Experiment I, the MB49 bladder cancer cell line was used in C57BL/6 mice. Chemical cauterization of the bladder was performed to promote intravesical tumor implantation. Mice were treated by intravesical instillation with BCG, rBCG-S1PT or PBS once a week for four weeks. After 35 days the bladders were removed and weighed. TNF-〈 and IL-10 cytokine responses were measured by qPCR. Experiment II was performed in the same manner as Experiment I, except the animals were not challenged with MB49 tumor cells. Results: rBCG-S1PT immunotherapy resulted in bladder weight reduction, compared to the BCG and control group. There were increases in TNF-α in the BCG-treated group, as well as increases in TNF-α and IL-10 mRNA in the rBCG-S1PT group. Conclusion These data indicate a significant reduction of bladder tumor volume for the rBCG group, compared to the BCG and PBS groups. This suggests that rBCG could be a useful substitute for wild-type BCG and that the potential modulation between TNF-α and IL-10 cytokine productions may have therapeutic value.
Gitti, Myriam; Giovannini, Gabriele; Feretti, Luigina; Liuzzo, Elisabetta
The radio-loud BCG at the center of the cool core cluster RBS 797 is known to exhibit a misalignment of its 5 GHz radio emission observed at different VLA resolutions, with the innermost kpc-scale jets being almost orthogonal to the radio lobes which extends for tens of kpc filling the X-ray cavities seen by Chandra. The different radio directions may be caused by rapid jet reorientation due to interaction with a secondary supermassive black hole (SMBH), or to the presence of two AGN, probably in a merging phase, which are emitting radio jets in different directions. We present the results of new 5 GHz observations performed with the EVN in May 2013. In particular, we detected two compact radio components, with a projected separation of 77 pc. We discuss two possible scenarios for the origin and nature of the EVN double source, showing that both interpretations are consistent with the presence of a SMBH binary system in the BCG of RBS 797.
We perform a maximum likelihood analysis of the cluster abundance measured in the SDSS using the maxBCG cluster finding algorithm. Our analysis is aimed at constraining the power spectrum normalization σ8, and assumes flat cosmologies with a scale invariant spectrum, massless neutrinos, and CMB and supernova priors (Omega)mh2 = 0.128 ± 0.01 and h = 0.72 ± 0.05 respectively. Following the method described in the companion paper Rozo et al. (2007), we derive σ8 = 0.92 ± 0.10 (1σ) after marginalizing over all major systematic uncertainties. We place strong lower limits on the normalization, σ8 > 0.76 (95% CL) (> 0.68 at 99% CL). We also find that our analysis favors relatively low values for the slope of the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD), α = 0.83 ± 0.06. The uncertainties of these determinations will substantially improve upon completion of an ongoing campaign to estimate dynamical, weak lensing, and X-ray cluster masses in the SDSS maxBCG cluster sample
Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play a key-role in the immune response against intracellular bacterial pathogens, including mycobacteria. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs are considered to behave as inflammatory cell populations. Different immunomagnetic methods (positive and negative can be used to purify monocytes before their in vitro differentiation and their culture behavior can be expected to be different. In this study we evaluated the reactivity of two dendritic cell populations towards the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG antigen. Monocytes were obtained from the blood of healthy donors, using positive and negative immunomagnetic separation methods. The expression of DC-SIGN, CD86, CD80, HLA-DR and CD40 on MoDCs was estimated by flow cytometry. The level of IL-12p70, IL-10 and TNF-α was measured by ELISA. Neither of the tested methods affected the surface marker expression of DCs. No significant alteration in immunological response, measured by cytokine production, was noted either. After BCG stimulation, the absence of IL-12, but the IL-23 production was observed in both cell preparations. Positive and negative magnetic separation methods are effective techniques to optimize the preparation of monocytes as the source of MoDCs for potential clinical application.
Chachou, Martel J; Mukinda, Fidele K; Motaze, Villyen; Wiysonge, Charles S
Introduction Worldwide, suboptimal immunisation coverage causes the deaths of more than one million children under five from vaccine-preventable diseases every year. Reasons for suboptimal coverage are multifactorial, and a combination of interventions is needed to improve compliance with immunisation schedules. One intervention relies on reminders, where the health system prompts caregivers to attend immunisation appointments on time or re-engages caregivers who have defaulted on scheduled appointments. We undertake this systematic review to investigate the potential of reminders using emails, phone calls, social media, letters or postcards to improve immunisation coverage in children under five. Methods and analysis We will search for published and unpublished randomised controlled trials and non-randomised controlled trials in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Science Citation Index, WHOLIS, Clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Platform. We will conduct screening of search results, study selection, data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment in duplicate, resolving disagreements by consensus. In addition, we will pool data from clinically homogeneous studies using random-effects meta-analysis; assess heterogeneity of effects using the χ2 test of homogeneity; and quantify any observed heterogeneity using the I2 statistic. Ethics and dissemination This protocol does not need approval by an ethics committee because we will use publicly available data, without directly involving human participants. The results will provide updated evidence on the effects of electronic and postal reminders on immunisation coverage, and we will discuss the applicability of the findings to low and middle-income countries. We plan to disseminate review findings through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presentation at relevant conferences. In addition, we will prepare a policymaker-friendly summary using a validated format (eg, SUPPORT Summary) and
Böttger Erik C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The current tuberculosis vaccine is a live vaccine derived from Mycobacterium bovis and attenuated by serial in vitro passaging. All vaccine substrains in use stem from one source, strain Bacille Calmette-Guérin. However, they differ in regions of genomic deletions, antigen expression levels, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy. Results As a RecA phenotype increases genetic stability and may contribute restricting the ongoing evolution of the various BCG substrains while maintaining their protective efficacy, we aimed to inactivate recA by allelic replacement in BCG vaccine strains representing different phylogenetic lineages (Pasteur, Frappier, Denmark, Russia. Homologous gene replacement was achieved successfully in three out of four strains. However, only illegitimate recombination was observed in BCG substrain Russia. Sequence analyses of recA revealed that a single nucleotide insertion in the 5' part of recA led to a translational frameshift with an early stop codon making BCG Russia a natural recA mutant. At the protein level BCG Russia failed to express RecA. Conclusion According to phylogenetic analyses BCG Russia is an ancient vaccine strain most closely related to the parental M. bovis. We hypothesize that recA inactivation in BCG Russia occurred early and is in part responsible for its high degree of genomic stability, resulting in a substrain that has less genetic alterations than other vaccine substrains with respect to M. bovis AF2122/97 wild-type.