A simplified BBGKY hierarchy for correlated fermions from a stochastic mean-field approach
Lacroix, Denis; Tanimura, Yusuke; Ayik, Sakir; Yilmaz, Bulent
2016-04-01
The stochastic mean-field (SMF) approach allows to treat correlations beyond mean-field using a set of independent mean-field trajectories with appropriate choice of fluctuating initial conditions. We show here that this approach is equivalent to a simplified version of the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy between one-, two-, ..., N -body degrees of freedom. In this simplified version, one-body degrees of freedom are coupled to fluctuations to all orders while retaining only specific terms of the general BBGKY hierarchy. The use of the simplified BBGKY is illustrated with the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We show that a truncated version of this hierarchy can be useful, as an alternative to the SMF, especially in the weak coupling regime to get physical insight in the effect beyond mean-field. In particular, it leads to approximate analytical expressions for the quantum fluctuations both in the weak and strong coupling regime. In the strong coupling regime, it can only be used for short time evolution. In that case, it gives information on the evolution time-scale close to a saddle point associated to a quantum phase-transition. For long time evolution and strong coupling, we observed that the simplified BBGKY hierarchy cannot be truncated and only the full SMF with initial sampling leads to reasonable results.
A simplified BBGKY hierarchy for correlated fermionic systems from a Stochastic Mean-Field approach
Lacroix, Denis; Ayik, Sakir; Yilmaz, Bulent
2015-01-01
The stochastic mean-field (SMF) approach allows to treat correlations beyond mean-field using a set of independent mean-field trajectories with appropriate choice of fluctuating initial conditions. We show here, that this approach is equivalent to a simplified version of the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy between one-, two-, ..., N-body degrees of freedom. In this simplified version, one-body degrees of freedom are coupled to fluctuations to all orders while retaining only specific terms of the general BBGKY hierarchy. The use of the simplified BBGKY is illustrated with the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We show that a truncated version of this hierarchy can be useful, as an alternative to the SMF, especially in the weak coupling regime to get physical insight in the effect beyond mean-field. In particular, it leads to approximate analytical expressions for the quantum fluctuations both in the weak and strong coupling regime. In the strong coupling regime, it can only be used for sho...
Kinetic hierarchy and propagation of chaos in biological swarm models
Carlen, Eric; Chatelin, Robin; Degond, Pierre; Wennberg, Bernt
2011-01-01
We consider two models of biological swarm behavior. In these models, pairs of particles interact to adjust their velocities one to each other. In the first process, called 'BDG', they join their average velocity up to some noise. In the second process, called 'CL', one of the two particles tries to join the other one's velocity. This paper establishes the master equations and BBGKY hierarchies of these two processes. It investigates the infinite particle limit of the hierarchies at large tim...
Mean field propagation of Wigner measures and BBGKY hierarchies for general bosonic states
AMMARI, Zied; Nier, Francis
2011-01-01
International audience Contrary to the finite dimensional case, Weyl and Wick quantizations are no more asymptotically equivalent in the infinite dimensional bosonic second quantization. Moreover neither the Weyl calculus defined for cylindrical symbols nor the Wick calculus defined for polynomials are preserved by the action of a nonlinear flow. Nevertheless taking advantage carefully of the information brought by these two calculuses in the mean field asymptotics, the propagation of Wign...
Mean field propagation of Wigner measures and BBGKY hierarchies for general bosonic states
Ammari, Zied
2010-01-01
Contrary to the finite dimensional case, Weyl and Wick quantizations are no more asymptotically equivalent in the infinite dimensional bosonic second quantization. Moreover neither the Weyl calculus defined for cylindrical symbols nor the Wick calculus defined for polynomials are preserved by the action of a nonlinear flow. Nevertheless taking advantage carefully of the information brought by these two calculuses in the mean field asymptotics, the propagation of Wigner measures for general states can be proved, extending to the infinite dimensional case a standard result of semiclassical analysis.
Stationary solutions of the Bogoliubov hierarchy equations in classical statistical mechanics. Pt. 1
This paper is the first part of the work whose subject is to investigate the set of stationary solutions of B-B-G-K-Y hierarchy. We state that under some conditions on the interaction any stationary solution obeying certain restrictions of a general type corresponds to an equilibrium state. (orig.)
Kinetic hierarchy and propagation of chaos in biological swarm models
Carlen, Eric; Degond, Pierre; Wennberg, Bernt
2011-01-01
We consider two models of biological swarm behavior. In these models, pairs of particles interact to adjust their velocities one to each other. In the first process, called 'BDG', they join their average velocity up to some noise. In the second process, called 'CL', one of the two particles tries to join the other one's velocity. This paper establishes the master equations and BBGKY hierarchies of these two processes. It investigates the infinite particle limit of the hierarchies at large time-scale. It shows that the resulting kinetic hierarchy for the CL process does not satisfy propagation of chaos. Numerical simulations indicate that the BDG process has similar behavior to the CL process.
Myhaylo O. Stashenko
2004-01-01
Full Text Available It is proved convergence of solution in cumulant expansions of the initial value problem for BBGKY chain of equations of non-symmetrical one-dimensional system of particles which interact via a short-range potential in the space \\(E_{\\xi}\\ of the sequences of continuous bounded functions.
Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen
2016-01-01
is to show that a participatory approach can unintentionally create new hierarchies or reinforce existing ones, thus leading to the exclusion of certain employees (or action researchers) in terms of voice and/or choice. Second, the theoretical purpose is to show how participation in OAR projects can...
New hierarchy for the Liouville equation, irreversibility and Fokker-Planck-like structures
The issue of irreversibility is revisited for a closed system formed by N classical non-relativistic particles inside a volume Ω, interacting through two-body potentials, for large N and Ω. The classical phase-space distribution function f, multiplied by suitable Hermite polynomials and integrated over all momenta, yields new moments. The Liouville equation and the initial distribution fin imply a new non-equilibrium linear infinite hierarchy for the moments. That hierarchy differs from the BBGKY one for distribution functions and displays some suggestive Fokker-Planck-like structures. A physically motivated ansatz for fin (which introduces statistical assumptions), used by previous authors, is chosen. All moments of order n ≥ n0 are expressed in terms of those of order n0 - 1 and of fin. The properties of the Fokker-Planck-like structures (hermiticity, non-negative eigenvalues) allow for implementing a natural long-time approximation in the hierarchy, so as to introduce relaxation to equilibrium and irreversibility, consistently with the hydrodynamical balance equations. Further (more restrictive) assumptions and approximations lead to new irreversible models, generalizing non-trivially the Fokker-Planck equation. They are described through a truncated hierarchy of linear equations for moments of order n ≤ n0 - 1 (n0 being finite). The connections with Brownian particle dynamics and Fluid Dynamics are analyzed, for consistency. (orig.)
Ernst, Erik
2003-01-01
This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must...... be possible to create hierarchies incrementally based on existing hierarchies, such that commonalities are expressed via reuse, not duplication. Second, the hierarchies must themselves be organized into hierarchies, such that their relationships are made explicit and can be exploited in a type safe manner....... Finally, it must be possible to write generic code that works on every hierarchy derived from the hierarchy for which it was written. This paper presents a language design that supports such a notion of higher-order hierarchies. It has been implemented in context of a full-fledged, statically typed...
By generalizing Bogolyubov’s reduced description method, we suggest a formalism to derive kinetic equations for many-body dissipative systems in external stochastic field. As a starting point, we use a stochastic Liouville equation obtained from Hamilton’s equations taking dissipation and stochastic perturbations into account. The Liouville equation is then averaged over realizations of the stochastic field by an extension of the Furutsu-Novikov formula to the case of a non-Gaussian field. As the result, a generalization of the classical Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy is derived. In order to get a kinetic equation for the single-particle distribution function, we use a regular cutoff procedure of the BBGKY hierarchy by assuming weak interaction between the particles and weak intensity of the field. Within this approximation, we get the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation for the system in a non-Gaussian stochastic field. Two particular cases are discussed by assuming either Gaussian statistics of external perturbation or homogeneity of the system
Landmark hierarchies in context
Stephan Winter; Martin Tomko; Birgit Elias; Monika Sester
2008-01-01
We are interested in the generation of distinguishing place or route descriptions for urban environments. Such descriptions require a hierarchical model of the discourse, the elements of the city. We postulate that cognitive hierarchies, as used in human communication, can be sufficiently reflected in machine-generated hierarchies. In this paper we (a) propose a computational model for the generation of a hierarchy of one of these elements of the city—landmarks—and (b) demonstrate that a set ...
The Analytical Hierarchy Process
Barfod, Michael Bruhn
2007-01-01
The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....
Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies
Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.;
2001-01-01
Complex, robust functionalities can be generated naturally in at least two ways: by the assembly of structures and by the evolution of structures. This work is concerned with spontaneous formation of structures. We define the notion of dynamical hierarchies in natural systems and show the...... importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship......, which is necessary to understand the nature of dynamical hierarchies. Our framework is then applied to a concrete and very simple formal, physicochemical, dynamical hierarchy involving water and monomers at level one, polymers and water at level two, and micelles (polymer aggregates) and water at level...
Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely
2013-01-01
Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover
Gergely Tibély
Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of
Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely
2013-01-01
Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based o...
Cereals, Appropriability and Hierarchy
Mayshar, Joram; Moav, Omer; Neeman, Zvika; Pascali, Luigi
2015-01-01
We propose that the development of social hierarchy following the Neolithic Revolution was an outcome of the ability of the emergent elite to appropriate cereal crops from farmers and not a result of land productivity, as argued by conventional theory. We argue that cereals are easier to appropriate than roots and tubers, and that regional differences in the suitability of land for different crops explain therefore differences in the formation of hierarchy and states. A simple model illustrat...
Rethinking the waste hierarchy
Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)
2005-03-01
There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)
Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies
Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.; Nilsson, M.; Olesen, Michael Wiinberg
2001-01-01
, which is necessary to understand the nature of dynamical hierarchies. Our framework is then applied to a concrete and very simple formal, physicochemical, dynamical hierarchy involving water and monomers at level one, polymers and water at level two, and micelles (polymer aggregates) and water at level...... importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship...... three. Formulating this system as a simple two-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) lattice gas allows us within one dynamical system to demonstrate the successive emergence of two higher levels (three levels all together) of robust structures with associated properties. Second, we demonstrate how the...
Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely
2014-01-01
Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...
Güntert, Manuel
2008-01-01
This is a research about hierarchies in student groups. It shows how they are built und what sense they have. The position of a student in his student peer group is evaluated. The influence of the look, the style, the behaviour of the other sex, the gender, the origin, the prehistory, the appearance, achievement and their effect on hierarchies is analysed and the impact of charisma and organisation are compared. The meaning of this research is to indicate how a student must be to get the lead...
Integrable hierarchies and dispersionless limit
Takasaki, K; Kanehisa Takasaki; Takashi Takebe
1994-01-01
Analogues of the KP and the Toda lattice hierarchy called dispersionless KP and Toda hierarchy are studied. Dressing operations in the dispersionless hierarchies are introduced as a canonical transformation, quantization of which is dressing operators of the ordinary KP and Toda hierarchy. An alternative construction of general solutions of the ordinary KP and Toda hierarchy is given as twistor construction which is quatization of the similar construction of solutions of dispersionless hierarchies. These results as well as those obtained in previous papers are presented with proofs and necessary technical details.
Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets
Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.
1991-01-01
The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...
Neutrino Oscillations: Hierarchy Question
Ernst, D J; Burroughs, H R; Escamilla-Roa, J; Latimer, D C
2013-01-01
The only experimentally observed phenomenon that lies outside the standard model of the electroweak interaction is neutrino oscillations. A way to try to unify the extensive neutrino oscillation data is to add a phenomenological mass term to the Lagrangian that is not diagonal in the flavor basis. The goal is then to understand the world's data in terms of the parameters of the mixing matrix and the differences between the squares of the masses of the neutrinos. An outstanding question is what is the correct ordering of the masses, the hierarchy question. We point out a broken symmetry relevant to this question, the symmetry of the simultaneous interchange of hierarchy and the sign of $\\theta_{13}$. We first present the results of an analysis of data that well determine the phenomenological parameters but are not sensitive to the hierarchy. We find $\\theta_{13} = 0.152\\pm 0.014$, $\\theta_{23} = 0.25^{+0.03}_{-0.05} \\pi$ and $\\Delta_{32} = 2.45\\pm 0.14 \\times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2$, results consistent with others. We...
Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Karim, Samina
2015-01-01
We investigate trade-offs associated with delegating authority over multiple interrelated decisions in a complex task structure. The empirical setting is a business process of a global Fortune 50 firm. The firm decentralized its organization and redefined decision authority across organizational......-relevant knowledge, the matching of required knowledge and managers’ expertise, and information processing intensity affect (a) the occurrence of delegation and, (b) if delegation occurs, how far down the organizational hierarchy authority is delegated. We discuss how these findings complement existing theories on...
Models of random graph hierarchies
Paluch, Robert; Holyst, Janusz
2015-01-01
We introduce two models of inclusion hierarchies: Random Graph Hierarchy (RGH) and Limited Random Graph Hierarchy (LRGH). In both models a set of nodes at a given hierarchy level is connected randomly, as in the Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi random graph, with a fixed average degree equal to a system parameter $c$. Clusters of the resulting network are treated as nodes at the next hierarchy level and they are connected again at this level and so on, until the process cannot continue. In the RGH model we use all clusters, including those of size $1$, when building the next hierarchy level, while in the LRGH model clusters of size $1$ stop participating in further steps. We find that in both models the number of nodes at a given hierarchy level $h$ decreases approximately exponentially with $h$. The height of the hierarchy $H$, i.e. the number of all hierarchy levels, increases logarithmically with the system size $N$, i.e. with the number of nodes at the first level. The height $H$ decreases monotonically with the conne...
Models of random graph hierarchies
Paluch, Robert; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Hołyst, Janusz A.
2015-10-01
We introduce two models of inclusion hierarchies: random graph hierarchy (RGH) and limited random graph hierarchy (LRGH). In both models a set of nodes at a given hierarchy level is connected randomly, as in the Erdős-Rényi random graph, with a fixed average degree equal to a system parameter c. Clusters of the resulting network are treated as nodes at the next hierarchy level and they are connected again at this level and so on, until the process cannot continue. In the RGH model we use all clusters, including those of size 1, when building the next hierarchy level, while in the LRGH model clusters of size 1 stop participating in further steps. We find that in both models the number of nodes at a given hierarchy level h decreases approximately exponentially with h. The height of the hierarchy H, i.e. the number of all hierarchy levels, increases logarithmically with the system size N, i.e. with the number of nodes at the first level. The height H decreases monotonically with the connectivity parameter c in the RGH model and it reaches a maximum for a certain c max in the LRGH model. The distribution of separate cluster sizes in the LRGH model is a power law with an exponent about - 1.25. The above results follow from approximate analytical calculations and have been confirmed by numerical simulations.
Tegmark, Max
2009-01-01
I survey physics theories involving parallel universes, arguing that they form a natural four-level hierarchy of multiverses allowing progressively greater diversity. Level I: A generic prediction of inflation is an infinite ergodic universe, which contains Hubble volumes realizing all initial conditions -- including an identical copy of you about 10^(10^29)m away. Level II: In chaotic inflation, other thermalized regions may have different physical constants, dimensionality and particle content. Level III: In unitary quantum mechanics, other branches of the wavefunction add nothing qualitatively new, which is ironic given that this level has historically been the most controversial. Level IV: Other mathematical structures give different fundamental equations of physics. The key question is not whether parallel universes exist (Level I is the uncontroversial cosmological concordance model), but how many levels there are. I discuss how multiverse models can be falsified and argue that there is a severe "measur...
Bonabeau hierarchy models revisited
Lacasa, L; Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Bartolo
2005-01-01
What basic processes generate hierarchy in a collective? The Bonabeau model provides us a simple mechanism based on randomness which develops self-organization through both winner/looser effects and relaxation process. A phase transition between egalitarian and hierarchic states has been found both analytically and numerically in previous works. In this paper we present a different approach: by means of a discrete scheme we develop a mean field approximation that not only reproduces the phase transition but also allows us to characterize the complexity of hierarchic phase. In the same philosophy, we study a new version of the Bonabeau model, developed by Stauffer et al. Several previous works described numerically the presence of a similar phase transition in this later version. We find surprising results in this model that can be interpreted properly as the non-existence of phase transition in this version of Bonabeau model, but a changing in fixed point structure.
Bonabeau hierarchy models revisited
Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Bartolo
2006-07-01
What basic processes generate hierarchy in a collective? The Bonabeau model provides us a simple mechanism based on randomness which develops self-organization through both winner/looser effects and relaxation process. A phase transition between egalitarian and hierarchic states has been found both analytically and numerically in previous works. In this paper we present a different approach: by means of a discrete scheme we develop a mean field approximation that not only reproduces the phase transition but also allows us to characterize the complexity of hierarchic phase. In the same philosophy, we study a new version of the Bonabeau model, developed by Stauffer et al. Several previous works described numerically the presence of a similar phase transition in this later version. We find surprising results in this model that can be interpreted properly as the non-existence of phase transition in this version of Bonabeau model, but a changing in fixed point structure.
Haba, Naoyuki; Murayama, Hitoshi
2000-09-14
We advocate a new approach to study models of fermion massesand mixings, namely anarchy proposed in hep-ph/9911341. In this approach,we scan the O(1) coefficients randomly. We argue that this is the correctapproach when the fundamental theory is sufficiently complicated.Assuming there is no physical distinction among three generations ofneutrinos, the probability distributions in MNS mixing angles can bepredicted independent of the choice of the measure. This is because themixing angles are distributed according to the Haar measure of the Liegroups whose elements diagonalize the mass matrices. The near-maximalmixings, as observed in the atmospheric neutrino data and as required inthe LMA solution to the solar neutrino problem, are highly probable. Asmall hierarchy between the Delta m2 for the atmospheric and the solarneutrinos is obtained very easily; the complex seesaw case gives ahierarchy of a factor of 20 as the most probable one, even though thisconclusion is more measure-dependent. U_e3 has to be just below thecurrent limit from the CHOOZ experiment. The CP-violating parameter sindelta is preferred to be maximal. We present a simple SU(5)-likeextension of anarchy to the charged-lepton and quark sectors which workswell phenomenologically.
Determination of mass hierarchy with $\
Rashed, Ahmed
2016-01-01
Crucial developments in neutrino physics would be the determination of the mass hierarchy (MH) and measurement of the CP phase in the leptonic sector. The patterns of the transition probabilities $P(\
Mass hierarchies in supersymmetric theories
It is argued that large gauge hierarchies occur naturally in some theories with supersymmetry spontaneously broken at the tree level. Such theories may also lead to time-dependent values of the natural ''constants''. (author)
Recommended HSE-7 documents hierarchy
This report recommends a hierarchy of waste management documents at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or ''Laboratory''). The hierarchy addresses documents that are required to plan, implement, and document waste management programs at Los Alamos. These documents will enable the waste management group and the six sections contained within that group to satisfy requirements that are imposed upon them by the US Department of Energy (DOE), DOE Albuquerque Operations, US Environmental Protection Agency, various State of New Mexico agencies, and Laboratory management
Quantify entanglement by concurrence hierarchy
Fan, Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi
2002-01-01
We define the concurrence hierarchy as d-1 independent invariants under local unitary transformations in d-level quantum system. The first one is the original concurrence defined by Wootters et al in 2-level quantum system and generalized to d-level pure quantum states case. We propose to use this concurrence hierarchy as measurement of entanglement. This measurement does not increase under local quantum operations and classical communication.
Recursion Operators for Dispersionless KP Hierarchy
Based on the corresponding theorem between dispersionless KP (dKP) hierarchy and ħ-dependent KP (ħKP) hierarchy, a general formal representation of the recursion operators for dKP hierarchy under n-reduction is given in a systematical way from the corresponding ħKP hierarchy. To illustrate this method, the recursion operators for dKP hierarchy under 2-reduction and 3-reduction are calculated in detail.
Information slows down hierarchy growth
Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Minano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Holyst, Janusz A
2013-01-01
We consider models of a growing tree with the growth process driven by the rules of tournament selection, where a new node is attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (closest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information about the network topology that is available for new nodes. Two cases are considered: the constant tournament (CT) model where the number of tournament participants is constant throughout the tree evolution, and the proportional tournament (PT) model where it is grows proportionally to the actual tree size. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge in the tree but the birth time of the hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster with level number. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level (just below the root) grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi log-periodical...
Quantify entanglement by concurrence hierarchy
We define the concurrence hierarchy as d - 1 independent invariants under local unitary transformations in d-level quantum system. The first one is the original concurrence defined by Wootters (1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 2245) and Hill and Wootters (1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 5022) in a two-level quantum system and generalized to the d-level pure quantum state case. We propose to use this concurrence hierarchy as a measurement of entanglement. This measurement does not increase under local quantum operations and classical communication
Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings
Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.
2016-01-01
The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra.
Poisson Hierarchy of Discrete Strings
Ioannidou, Theodora
2015-01-01
The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equa- tion is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra.
The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.
Mengistu, Henok; Huizinga, Joost; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff
2016-06-01
Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics. PMID:27280881
Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.
Brookman, David M.
1989-01-01
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…
Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies
We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: the SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. In all three cases we find that the algebra of symmetries is isomorphic to the algebra of superdifferential operators, or equivalently SW1+∞. These results seem to suggest that despite their realization depending on the dynamics, the additional symmetries are kinematical in nature. (orig.)
Light fermion mass hierarchies in supersymmetric models
We discuss radiative fermion mass hierarchies in grand unified supersymmetric models. There are arguments in the literature that these cannot arise. It is shown that these arguments only apply to a certain type of radiative hierarchy. Another type of radiative hierarchy can arise in simple SUSY-GUTs. We discuss examples. 15 references, 5 figures
Generalized Miura transformations, two-bosons KP hierarchies and their reduction to KdV hierarchies
Bracket preserving gauge equivalence is established between several two-boson generated KP type of hierarchies. These KP hierarchies reduce under symplectic reduction (via Dirac constraints) to KdV and Schwarzian KdV hierarchies. Under this reduction the gauge equivalence is taking form of the conventional Miura maps between the above KdV type of hierarchies. (author). 16 refs
The evolutionary origins of hierarchy
Mengistu, Henok; Huizinga, Joost; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff
2015-01-01
Hierarchical organization -- the recursive composition of sub-modules -- is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been s...
Hierarchy measure for complex networks.
Enys Mones
Full Text Available Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people. Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes together with their relations (edges. Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks and, as we demonstrate, is capable of capturing the essential features of the structure and the degree of hierarchy in a complex network. The measure we introduce is based on a generalization of the m-reach centrality, which we first extend to directed/partially directed graphs. Then, we define the global reaching centrality (GRC, which is the difference between the maximum and the average value of the generalized reach centralities over the network. We investigate the behavior of the GRC considering both a synthetic model with an adjustable level of hierarchy and real networks. Results for real networks show that our hierarchy measure is related to the controllability of the given system. We also propose a visualization procedure for large complex networks that can be used to obtain an overall qualitative picture about the nature of their hierarchical structure.
A hierarchy of Poisson brackets
Pavelka, Michal; Klika, Vaclav; Esen, Ogul; Grmela, Miroslav
2015-01-01
The vector field generating reversible time evolution of macroscopic systems involves two ingredients: gradient of a potential (a covector) and a degenerate Poisson structure transforming the covector into a vector. The Poisson structure is conveniently expressed in Poisson brackets, its degeneracy in their Casimirs (i.e. potentials whose gradients produce no vector field). In this paper we investigate in detail hierarchies of Poisson brackets, together with their Casimirs, that arise in pass...
2008-01-01
An intelligent geographic information system (GIS) has to handle various types and huge volumes of geoscience-related knowledge as well as enormous amounts of data and information. More recent attention concentrates on collection,represen-tation,management,and usage of knowledge. This article presents a three-tier hi-erarchy for geoscience knowledge in a GIS. The first tier is for knowledge of data. It includes knowledge of feature objects definition,data structure,data model,and relations among data as well as rules,restrictions,and regulations about data. The second tier is for knowledge of processing. It describes analysis models,data processing procedures,workflows,and conditions. The third tier contains knowl-edge of a GIS for the public sector. This tier provides knowledge to people on how to access this GIS and what the GIS can do. The three-tier hierarchy of knowledge in a GIS provides an understandable and practical category frame to handle geo-science knowledge. One of the advantages of this hierarchy is that it separates system resource consumption into different stages so it can avoid exhausting the system at peak times when the GIS handles a complex,large task.
Solving the Wrong Hierarchy Problem
Blinov, Nikita
2016-01-01
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop thi...
Unfolding the Hierarchy of Voids
Aragon-Calvo, M A; Araya-Melo, P; Platen, E; Szalay, A S
2010-01-01
We present a framework for the hierarchical identification and characterization of voids based on the Watershed Void Finder. The Hierarchical Void Finder is based on a generalization of the scale space of a density field invoked in order to trace the hierarchical nature and structure of cosmological voids. At each level of the hierarchy, the watershed transform is used to identify the voids at that particular scale. By identifying the overlapping regions between watershed basins in adjacent levels, the hierarchical void tree is constructed. Applications on a hierarchical Voronoi model and on a set of cosmological simulations illustrate its potential.
Balasubramonian, Rajeev
2011-01-01
A key determinant of overall system performance and power dissipation is the cache hierarchy since access to off-chip memory consumes many more cycles and energy than on-chip accesses. In addition, multi-core processors are expected to place ever higher bandwidth demands on the memory system. All these issues make it important to avoid off-chip memory access by improving the efficiency of the on-chip cache. Future multi-core processors will have many large cache banks connected by a network and shared by many cores. Hence, many important problems must be solved: cache resources must be allocat
Risk-Taking and Gender in Hierarchies
Scotchmer, suzanne
2008-01-01
In a labor market hierarchy, promotions are affected by the noisiness of information about the candidates. I study the hypothesis that males are more risk taking than females, and its implications for rates of promotion and abilities of survivors. I deâ€¦fine promotion hierarchies with and without memory, where memory means that promotion depends on the entire history of success. In both types of hierarchies, the surviving risk takers will have lower average ability whenever they have a highe...
Two New Multi-component BKP Hierarchies
We firstly propose two kinds of new multi-component BKP (mcBKP) hierarchy based on the eigenfunction symmetry reduction and nonstandard reduction, respectively. The first one contains two types of BKP equation with self-consistent sources whose Lax representations are presented. The two mcBKP hierarchies both admit reductions to the k-constrained BKP hierarchy and to integrable (1+1)-dimensional hierarchy with self-consistent sources, which include two types of SK equation with self-consistent sources and of bi-directional SK equations with self-consistent sources.
Sensitivity to the Neutrino Mass Hierarchy
Ciuffoli, Emilio; Evslin, Jarah; Zhang, Xinmin
2013-01-01
In the next decade, a number of experiments will attempt to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. Feasibility studies for such experiments generally determine the expected value of Delta chi^2. As the hierarchy is a discrete choice, Delta chi^2 does not obey a one degree of freedom chi^2 distribution and so the number of sigmas of confidence of the hierarchy determination is not the square root of the expected Delta chi^2. We present a simple formula for the sensitivity to the hierarchy that...
Confidence in a neutrino mass hierarchy determination
In the next decade, a number of experiments will attempt to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. Feasibility studies for such experiments generally determine the statistic (Δχ2)-bar . As the hierarchy is a discrete choice, Δχ2 does not obey a one degree of freedom χ2 distribution and so the number of σ’s of sensitivity to the hierarchy is not the square root of (Δχ2)-bar . We present a simple Bayesian formula for the sensitivity to the hierarchy determination that can be expected from the median experiment as a function of (Δχ2)-bar
Calibrating Determinacy Strength in Borel Hierarchies
Hachtman, Sherwood J.
2015-01-01
We study the strength of determinacy hypotheses in levels of two hierarchies of subsets of Baire space: the standard Borel hierarchy, and the hierarchy of sets in the Borel sigma-algebra generated by coanalytic sets.We begin with the third level of this hierarchy, the lowest level at which the strength of determinacy had not yet been characterized in terms of a natural theory. Building on work of Philip Welch, we show that this determinacy is equivalent to the existence of a wellfounded set ...
The Appropriateness of Hierarchies (Editorial
Denise Koufogiannakis
2010-09-01
Full Text Available In the early days of EBLIP, then referred to as evidence based librarianship (EBL, there were calls to strengthen our research base with "better" forms of evidence. These proposed better quality research methods were all quantitative and I admit myself to saying that ‚librarianship tends to reflect more qualitative, social sciences/humanities in its research methods and study types which tend to be less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ (Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, p.61. Although this was not meant to be a slight to qualitative research, I can see how it came across as one. Now, I would not put ‚less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ in that sentence, although the first half of the statement certainly still holds true. In our 2002 article, the general point that Ellen Crumley and I were trying to make is that a medical style research hierarchy is not a good fit for librarianship, where qualitative methods are generally more appropriate. At that time, we proposed a ‚core-centred approach to librarianship research‛ (p.68 rather than a hierarchical one, although this did not gain much traction within the EBLIP literature. We noted: ‚rather than relying on an evidence hierarchy, which is an artificial concept for librarians, Fig.3 suggests a core-centred approach. The types of studies that are likely to be conducted by librarians are placed near the centre, moving from a hierarchical to an encompassing model. … *This+ presents a more equitable view of a model for research in the profession‛ (p.67.Today I am even more resolved that it is time to remove the concept of a hierarchy of evidence from EBLIP. This concept is tied very closely to the medical model of evidence based medicine (EBM and is solely focused on quantitative research. Library and information studies (LIS is a social sciences discipline and as such is concerned mostly with questions of why we do things and how people function in the world. The actions of people
Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales
Panico, Giuliano
2016-01-01
One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, $\\bar ff$. This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in $\\Delta F=2$ and $\\Delta F=1$ flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.
Hierarchy of Modular Graph Identities
D'Hoker, Eric
2016-01-01
The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analy...
A hierarchy of Poisson brackets
Pavelka, Michal; Esen, Ogul; Grmela, Miroslav
2015-01-01
The vector field generating reversible time evolution of macroscopic systems involves two ingredients: gradient of a potential (a covector) and a degenerate Poisson structure transforming the covector into a vector. The Poisson structure is conveniently expressed in Poisson brackets, its degeneracy in their Casimirs (i.e. potentials whose gradients produce no vector field). In this paper we investigate in detail hierarchies of Poisson brackets, together with their Casimirs, that arise in passages from more to less detailed (i.e. more macroscopic) descriptions. In particular, we investigate the passage from mechanics of particles (in its Liouville representation) to the reversible kinetic theory and the passage from the reversible kinetic theory to the reversible fluid mechanics. From the physical point of view, the investigation includes binary mixtures and two-point formulations suitable for describing turbulent flows. From the mathematical point of view, we reveal the Lie algebra structure involved in the p...
Coupling Integrable Couplings of an Equation Hierarchy
Based on a kind of Lie algebra G proposed by Zhang, one isospectral problem is designed. Under the framework of zero curvature equation, a new kind of integrable coupling of an equation hierarchy is generated using the methods proposed by Ma and Gao. With the help of variational identity, we get the Hamiltonian structure of the hierarchy. (general)
PINGU Sensitivity to the Neutrino Mass Hierarchy
IceCube, The
2013-01-01
The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the few remaining unknown parameters in the neutrino sector and hence a primary focus of the experimental community. The Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU) experiment, to be co-located with the IceCube DeepCore detector in the deep Antarctic glacier, is being designed to provide a first definitive measurement of the mass hierarchy. We have conducted feasibility studies for the detector design that demonstrate a statistically-limited sensitivity to the hierarchy of 2.1 sigma to 3.4 sigma per year is possible, depending on the detector geometry (20 to 40 strings) and analysis efficiencies. First studies of the effects of systematic and theoretical uncertainties show limited impact on the overall sensitivity to the hierarchy. Assuming deployment of the first array elements in the 2016/17 austral summer season a 3 sigma measurement of the hierarchy is anticipated with PINGU in 2020.
Detectability of ranking hierarchies in directed networks
Letizia, Elisa; Lillo, Fabrizio
2016-01-01
Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimizes a score function, termed agony. This function penalizes the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the detectability of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Hierarchical Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterize the detectability threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit.
The Polynomially Exponential Time Restrained Analytical Hierarchy
眭跃飞
1991-01-01
A polynomially exponential time restrained analytical hierarchy is introduced with the basic properties of the hierarchy followed.And it will be shown that there is a recursive set A such that A does not belong to any level of the p-arithmetical hierarchies.Then we shall prove that there are recursive sets A and B such that the different levels of the analytical hierarchy relative to A are different and for some n every level higher than n of the analytical hierarchy relative to B is the same as the n-th level.And whether the higher levels are collapsed into some lower level is neither provable nor disprovable in set theory and several other results.
Deep Hierarchies in the Primate Visual Cortex
Krüger, Norbert; Jannsen, Per; Kalkan, S.;
2013-01-01
processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchal processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (in the order of ten) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat...... vision architectures predominantly used in today's mainstream computer vision. We hope that the functional description of the deep hierarchies realized in the primate visual system provides valuable insights for the design of computer vision algorithms, fostering increasingly productive interaction...
On the combinatorics of several integrable hierarchies
We demonstrate that statistics of certain classes of set partitions are described by generating functions related to the Burgers, Ibragimov–Shabat and Korteweg–de Vries integrable hierarchies. (paper)
Hierarchies of belief and interim rationalizability
Jeffrey C. Ely
2006-03-01
Full Text Available In games with incomplete information, conventional hierarchies of belief are incomplete as descriptions of the players' information for the purposes of determining a player's behavior. We show by example that this is true for a variety of solution concepts. We then investigate what is essential about a player's information to identify behavior. We specialize to two player games and the solution concept of interim rationalizability. We construct the universal type space for rationalizability and characterize the types in terms of their beliefs. Infinite hierarchies of beliefs over conditional beliefs, which we call Delta-hierarchies, are what turn out to matter. We show that any two types in any two type spaces have the same rationalizable sets in all games if and only if they have the same Delta-hierarchies.
The extended Z N -Toda hierarchy
Li, Chuanzhong; He, Jingsong
2015-11-01
We construct the extended flow equations of a new Z N -Toda hierarchy taking values in a commutative subalgebra Z N of gl( N, C). We give the Hirota bilinear equations and tau function of this new extended Z N -Toda hierarchy. Taking the presence of logarithmic terms into account, we construct some extended vertex operators in generalized Hirota bilinear equations, which might be useful in topological field theory and the Gromov-Witten theory. We present the Darboux transformations and bi-Hamiltonian structure of this hierarchy. Using Hamiltonian tau-symmetry, we obtain another tau function of this hierarchy with some unknown mysterious relation to the tau function derived using the Sato theory.
A hierarchy of needs in international relations
Hayden, Casey P.
2009-01-01
Characterizing U.S.-Russian relations as a new Cold War is nostalgic for many, but it does not accurately describe Russian motivation behind its current behavior. Abraham Maslow, a prominent behavioral psychologist, investigated motivation behind human behavior and concluded that human motivation centers on satisfying five basic "needs." It is plausible to modify his hierarchy of basic human needs and develop a similar hierarchy of basic state needs. A single case study examining Soviet regre...
A Hierarchy of Totally Ordered Multicasts
Wilhelm, U. G.; Schiper, A
1995-01-01
The increased interest in protocols that provide a total order on message delivery has led to several different definitions of total order. In this paper we investigate these different definitions and propose a hierarchy that helps to better understand the implications of the different possibilities in terms of guarantees and communication cost. We identify two definitions: {\\em weak total order} and {\\em strong total order}, which are at the extremes of the proposed hierarchy, and incorpor...
The mammary cellular hierarchy and breast cancer
Oakes, Samantha R.; Gallego-Ortega, David; Ormandy, Christopher J.
2014-01-01
Advances in the study of hematopoietic cell maturation have paved the way to a deeper understanding the stem and progenitor cellular hierarchy in the mammary gland. The mammary epithelium, unlike the hematopoietic cellular hierarchy, sits in a complex niche where communication between epithelial cells and signals from the systemic hormonal milieu, as well as from extra-cellular matrix, influence cell fate decisions and contribute to tissue homeostasis. We review the discovery, definition and ...
Social Hierarchies with AN Attractive Site Distribution
Naumis, G. G.; Del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Pérez, L. A.; Vázquez, G. J.
We reinvestigate the model of Bonabeau et al.1 of self-organizing social hierarchies by including a distribution of attractive sites. Agents move randomly except in the case where an attractive site is located in its neighborhood. We find that the transition between an egalitarian society at low population density and a hierarchical one at high population density strongly depends on the distribution and percolation of the valuable sites. We also show how agent diffusivity is closely related to social hierarchy.
Rosochatius Deformed Soliton Hierarchy with Self-Consistent Sources
Integrable Rosochatius deformations of finite-dimensional integrable systems are generalized to the soliton hierarchy with self-consistent sources. The integrable Rosochatius deformations of the Kaup-Newell hierarchy with self-consistent sources, of the TD hierarchy with self-consistent sources, and of the Jaulent-Miodek hierarchy with self-consistent sources, together with their Lax representations are presented. (general)
Hierarchy, Dominance, and Deliberation: Egalitarian Values Require Mental Effort.
Van Berkel, Laura; Crandall, Christian S; Eidelman, Scott; Blanchar, John C
2015-09-01
Hierarchy and dominance are ubiquitous. Because social hierarchy is early learned and highly rehearsed, the value of hierarchy enjoys relative ease over competing egalitarian values. In six studies, we interfere with deliberate thinking and measure endorsement of hierarchy and egalitarianism. In Study 1, bar patrons' blood alcohol content was correlated with hierarchy preference. In Study 2, cognitive load increased the authority/hierarchy moral foundation. In Study 3, low-effort thought instructions increased hierarchy endorsement and reduced equality endorsement. In Study 4, ego depletion increased hierarchy endorsement and caused a trend toward reduced equality endorsement. In Study 5, low-effort thought instructions increased endorsement of hierarchical attitudes among those with a sense of low personal power. In Study 6, participants' thinking quickly allocated more resources to high-status groups. Across five operationalizations of impaired deliberative thought, hierarchy endorsement increased and egalitarianism receded. These data suggest hierarchy may persist in part because it has a psychological advantage. PMID:26133375
Constraints and Soliton Solutions for KdV Hierarchy and AKNS Hierarchy
It is well-known that the finite-gap solutions of the KdV equation can be generated by its recursion operator. We generalize the result to a special form of Lax pair, from which a method to constrain the integrable system to a lower-dimensional or fewer variable integrable system is proposed. A direct result is that the n-soliton solutions of the KdV hierarchy can be completely depicted by a series of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which may be gotten by a simple but unfamiliar Lax pair. Furthermore the AKNS hierarchy is constrained to a series of univariate integrable hierarchies. The key is a special form of Lax pair for the AKNS hierarchy. It is proved that under the constraints all equations of the AKNS hierarchy are linearizable. (general)
Bureaucratic Hierarchy vs. Feudal Hierarchy: A Study on the Organizational Culture of China’s SOEs
Tianyuan Yu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Bureaucratic Hierarchy and Feudal Hierarchy are two confusing concepts in organization literature, especially inthe study of the organizational culture of enterprises in China. This article clarifies the two concepts in the firstplace. Ralston et al. (2006 and Tsui et al. (2006 suggested that the dominant organizational culture of China’sstate-owned enterprises (SOEs was Bureaucratic Hierarchy, consistent with Quinn and Cameron (1983’s “lifecycles - criteria of effectiveness model”. However, according to Boisot and Child (1996’s “Chinese and Westernpaths to modernization” model, China’s SOEs are dominated by Feudal Hierarchy culture. This article proposesthat the dominant organizational culture of SOEs remains to be Feudal Hierarchy, and then critically examinesthe literature to support this proposition. Finally, it points to key obstacles in the codification/modernizationprocess of China.
Optimal hierarchies for fuzzy object models
Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Udupa, Jayaram K.
2013-03-01
In radiologic clinical practice, the analysis underlying image examinations are qualitative, descriptive, and to some extent subjective. Quantitative radiology (QR) is valuable in clinical radiology. Computerized automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) is an essential step toward that goal. AAR is a body-wide organ recognition strategy. The AAR framework is based on fuzzy object models (FOMs) wherein the models for the different objects are encoded in a hierarchy. We investigated ways of optimally designing the hierarchy tree while building the models. The hierarchy among the objects is a core concept of AAR. The parent-offspring relationships have two main purposes in this context: (i) to bring into AAR more understanding and knowledge about the form, geography, and relationships among objects, and (ii) to foster guidance to object recognition and object delineation. In this approach, the relationship among objects is represented by a graph, where the vertices are the objects (organs) and the edges connect all pairs of vertices into a complete graph. Each pair of objects is assigned a weight described by the spatial distance between them, their intensity profile differences, and their correlation in size, all estimated over a population. The optimal hierarchy tree is obtained by the shortest-path algorithm as an optimal spanning tree. To evaluate the optimal hierarchies, we have performed some preliminary tests involving the subsequent recognition step. The body region used for initial investigation was the thorax.
Hierarchy modeling of subsurface palaeochannel reservoir architecture
2008-01-01
The studies on fluvial reservoir architecture are mainly aimed at outcrop and modern deposition,but rarely at the subsurface reservoir,so there are few effective methods to predict the distribution of subsurface reservoir architectures. In this paper,taking the meandering river reservoir of Guantao formation Gudao Oilfield,Jiyang depression,Baohai Gulf Basin,East China as an example,the archi-tectural modeling method of complex meandering belt reservoir is proposed,that is hierarchy con-straint,pattern fitting and multi-dimensional interaction. Architectures of meandering river reservoir can be divided into three hierarchies: meandering channel sandbody,point bar and lateral accretion body. Different hierarchies of the quantitative architecture pattern are fitted to subsurface well data (including dynamic monitoring data) in different hierarchies through one-dimensional hole,2D profiles and plane and 3D space,which are verified by each other. And then 3D model in different hierarchies is established. At the same time,the quantificational relationship between width of active river and the scale of point bar is set up,and the scale of lateral accretion sand body and shale beddings is con-firmed with horizontal well data. The study not only has significant meaning on the development of geology,but also can improve the oilfield exploitation greatly.
Gravitational relaxation of electroweak hierarchy problem
Matsui, Hiroki
2016-01-01
The current status of the LHC experiments has aggravated the electroweak hierarchy problem as severe as the cosmological constant problem. Therefore, recently, theoretically different approaches to the electroweak hierarchy problem have been explored. In the present paper, we formulate several gravitational relaxation scenarios for the electroweak hierarchy problem. These scenarios assume that the frame of the the high-energy theory is essentially different from the frame of the Standard Model and the dimensional parameters as the Higgs boson mass or the cosmological constant depend on the parameter of the conformal transformation. Therefore, the Higgs boson mass and the cosmological constant of the ultraviolet (UV) cut-off scale order are sufficiently suppressed and sequestered via the conformal transformation. In these scenarios, the electroweak scale becomes natural without invoking supersymmetry or any other new physics at the low-energy scale by requiring modification of the gravitational sector.
Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families
Clarissa De Antoni
2009-06-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.
A hierarchy of topological tensor network states
We present a hierarchy of quantum many-body states among which many examples of topological order can be identified by construction. We define these states in terms of a general, basis-independent framework of tensor networks based on the algebraic setting of finite-dimensional Hopf C*-algebras. At the top of the hierarchy we identify ground states of new topological lattice models extending Kitaev's quantum double models [Ann. Phys. 303, 2 (2003)]. For these states we exhibit the mechanism responsible for their non-zero topological entanglement entropy by constructing an entanglement renormalization flow. Furthermore, we argue that the hierarchy states are related to each other by the condensation of topological charges.
Program information architecture/document hierarchy
The Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS) Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) (DOE 1990) requires that the information within the computer program and information management system be ordered into a precedence hierarchy for consistency. Therefore, the US Department of Energy (DOE). Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) requested Westinghouse Hanford Company to develop a plan for NWMS program information which the MSIS calls a document hierarchy. This report provides the results of that effort and describes the management system as a ''program information architecture.'' 3 refs., 3 figs
Toda lattice hierarchy and generalized string equations
String equations of the pth generalized Kontsevich model and the compactified c = 1 string theory are re-examined in the language of the Toda lattice hierarchy. As opposed to a hypothesis postulated in the literature, the generalized Kontsevich model at p = -1 does not coincide with the c = 1 string theory at self-dual radius. A broader family of solutions of the Toda lattice hierarchy including these models is constructed, and shown to satisfy generalized string equations. The status of a variety of c ≤ 1 string models is discussed in this new framework. (orig.)
An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy
Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe
We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining a...
An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy
Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe
1999-01-01
We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining a...
Contrastive hierarchies, privative features, and Portuguese vowels
Joaquim Brandão de Carvalho
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Dresher’s (2009 Contrastive hierarchy theory (CHT is intended to provide a unified account of both sides of phonological primes: contrastivity and behaviour. This article explores the point and the possibility of extending CHT, which is based on binary features, to a system of monovalent elements that is much indebted to Schane’s (1984 Particle Phonology. It shows how several aspects of the phonology of European Portuguese nuclei that seem prima facie independent from one another – such as reduction patterns and the inventory of diphthongs and nasal vowels – are constrained by element hierarchy, and, thus, receive a unitary account.
The FO^2 alternation hierarchy is decidable
Kufleitner, Manfred
2012-01-01
We consider the two-variable fragment FO^2[<] of first-order logic over finite words. Numerous characterizations of this class are known. Th\\'erien and Wilke have shown that it is decidable whether a given regular language is definable in FO^2[<]. From a practical point of view, as shown by Weis, FO^2[<] is interesting since its satisfiability problem is in NP. Restricting the number of quantifier alternations yields an infinite hierarchy inside the class of FO^2[<]-definable languages. We show that each level of this hierarchy is decidable. For this purpose, we relate each level of the hierarchy with a decidable variety of finite monoids. Our result implies that there are many different ways of climbing up the FO^2[<]-quantifier alternation hierarchy: deterministic and co-deterministic products, Mal'cev products with definite and reverse definite semigroups, iterated block products with J-trivial monoids, and some inductively defined omega-term identities. A combinatorial tool in the process o...
A note on the substructural hierarchy
Jeřábek, Emil
2016-01-01
Roč. 62, 1-2 (2016), s. 102-110. ISSN 0942-5616 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : substructural hierarchy * full Lambek calculus * extension variables Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/malq.201500066
Lepton Mass Hierarchy and Neutrino Mixing
Fritzsch, Harald; Xing, Zhi-zhong
2006-01-01
We speculate that the mass spectrum of three neutrinos might have a normal hierarchy as that of three charged leptons or that of three up-type (or down-type) quarks. In this spirit, we propose a novel parametrization of the $3\\times 3$ lepton flavor mixing matrix. Its mixing angles $\\theta_l$ and $\\theta_\
Self-organization of divided hierarchy
Odagaki, Takashi; Kitada, Keigo; Omizo, Kenta; Fujie, Ryo
2015-03-01
There are two types of extreme form of hierarchy, one is the plutonomy where small fraction of winners and losers and many people in the middle class appear and the other a divided hierarchy where half of population become winners and the remaining half become losers. We study the emergence of the divided hierarchy in a model society which consists of bellicose individuals who always try to fight and fight with the strongest neighbor and pacific individuals who always try not to fight and when necessary fight with the weakest neighbor. In our model society, (1) individuals make random walk on a square lattice, (2) when two individuals encounter they fight each other and (3) the winner deprives wealth from the loser. By a Monte Carlo simulation, we show that there are two transitions when the population density is increased; one is a transition from the egalitarian society to a hierarchical society I where winners, losers and middle classes coexist and the other is a transition from the hierarchical society I to a hierarchical society II where winners and losers exist but no middle classes exist, that is the divided hierarchy. We also show that clusters consisting mostly of bellicose individuals appear in the hierarchical society I.
Phase Transition in Hierarchy Model of Bonabeau
Stauffer, Dietrich
The model of Bonabeau explains the emergence of social hierarchies from the memory of fights in an initially egalitarian society. Introducing a feedback from the social inequality into the probability to win a fight, we find a sharp transition between an egalitarian society at low population density and a hierarchical society at high population density.
Static Multiresolution Grids with Inline Hierarchy Information
Müller, Gero
2015-01-01
For numerical simulations of cosmic-ray propagation fast access to static magnetic field data is required. We present a data structure for multiresolution vector grids, which are optimized for fast access, low overhead and shared memory use. The hierarchy information is encoded into the grid itself, reducing the memory overhead.
Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy III
Hájek, Petr
2001-01-01
Roč. 68, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-142. ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * basic fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Godel logic * product logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy IV
Hájek, Petr
Berlin : Logos Verlag, 2004 - ( Hendricks , V.; Neuhaus, F.; Pedersen, S.; Scheffler, U.; Wansing, H.), s. 107-115 ISBN 3-8325-0475-3 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development
Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...
Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy
María I Cordero
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1 by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2 by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.
The mKdV and NLS hierarchies revisited
Molnar, Jan-Cornelius; Widmer, Yannick
2016-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to express the entire hierarchy of mKdV vector fields as restrictions of vector fields in the NLS hierarchy. The result is proved using the normal form theory of the two equations.
A review of Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
Babatunde, Olabenjo; Mbarouk, Salim
2014-01-01
With the advancement in telecommunications, packet traffic is rapidly becoming the mainstream of data traffic. The use and deployment of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) networks for interconnection has gained traction worldwide due to its flexibility and standard for interconnecting multiple vendors, low operating cost and the high quality of service it provides. Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) on the other hand has been used before the introduction of the SDH standard and it also ...
A note on fractional KdV hierarchies
Casati, P; Magri, F; Pedroni, M; Casati, Paolo; Falqui, Gregorio; Magri, Franco; Pedroni, Marco
1996-01-01
We introduce a hierarchy of mutually commuting dynamical systems on a finite number of Laurent series. This hierarchy can be seen as a prolongation of the KP hierarchy, or a ``reduction'' in which the space coordinate is identified with an arbitrarily chosen time of a bigger dynamical system. Fractional KdV hierarchies are gotten by means of further reductions, obtained by constraining the Laurent series. The case of \\fraksl_3^{(2)} and its bihamiltonian structure are discussed in detail.
Vector Loop Algebra and Its Applications to Tu Hierarchy
A vector loop algebra and its extended loop algebra are proposed, which are devoted to obtaining the Tu hierarchy. By making use of the extended trace identity, the Hamiltonian structure of the Tu hierarchy is constructed. Furthermore, we apply the quadratic-form identity to the integrable coupling system of the Tu hierarchy.
Optimality Conditions and Finite Convergence of Lasserre's Hierarchy
Nie, Jiawang
2012-01-01
Lasserre's hierarchy is a sequence of semidefinite relaxations for solving polynomial optimization problems globally. This paper studies the relationship between optimality conditions in nonlinear programming theory and finite convergence of Lasserre's hierarchy. Our main results are: i) Lasserre's hierarchy has finite convergence when the constraint qualification, strict complementarity and second order sufficiency conditions hold at every global minimizer, under the standard archimedean ass...
Two hierarchies of new nonlinear differential-difference equations with one continuous variable and one discrete variable are constructed from the Darboux transformations of the Kaup—Newell hierarchy of equations. Their integrable properties such as recursion operator, zero-curvature representations, and bi-Hamiltonian structures are studied. In addition, the hierarchy of equations obtained by Wu and Geng is identified with the hierarchy of two-component modified Volterra lattice equations. (general)
Colloquium: Hierarchy of scales in language dynamics
Blythe, Richard A.
2015-11-01
Methods and insights from statistical physics are finding an increasing variety of applications where one seeks to understand the emergent properties of a complex interacting system. One such area concerns the dynamics of language at a variety of levels of description, from the behaviour of individual agents learning simple artificial languages from each other, up to changes in the structure of languages shared by large groups of speakers over historical timescales. In this Colloquium, we survey a hierarchy of scales at which language and linguistic behaviour can be described, along with the main progress in understanding that has been made at each of them - much of which has come from the statistical physics community. We argue that future developments may arise by linking the different levels of the hierarchy together in a more coherent fashion, in particular where this allows more effective use of rich empirical data sets.
Generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy
The importance in studying the completely integrable models have became evident in the last years due to the fact that those models present an algebraic structure extremely rich, providing the natural scenery for solitons description. Those models can be described through non-linear differential equations, pseudo-linear operators (Lax formulation), or a matrix formulation. The integrability implies in the existence of a conservation law associated to each of degree of freedom. Each conserved charge Qi can be associated to a Hamiltonian, defining a time evolution related to to a time ti through the Hamilton equation ∂A/∂ti=[A,Qi]. Particularly, for a two-dimensions field theory, infinite degree of freedom exist, and consequently infinite conservation laws describing the time evolution in space of infinite times. The Hamilton equation defines a hierarchy of models which present a infinite set of conservation laws. This paper studies the generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy
Risk prioritisation using the analytic hierarchy process
Sum, Rabihah Md.
2015-12-01
This study demonstrated how to use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to prioritise risks of an insurance company. AHP is a technique to structure complex problems by arranging elements of the problems in a hierarchy, assigning numerical values to subjective judgements on the relative importance of the elements and synthesizing the judgements to determine which elements have the highest priority. The study is motivated by wide application of AHP as a prioritisation technique in complex problems. It aims to show AHP is able to minimise some limitations of risk assessment technique using likelihood and impact. The study shows AHP is able to provide consistency check on subjective judgements, organise a large number of risks into a structured framework, assist risk managers to make explicit risk trade-offs, and provide an easy to understand and systematic risk assessment process.
Hierarchy of Scales in Language Dynamics
Blythe, Richard A
2015-01-01
Methods and insights from statistical physics are finding an increasing variety of applications where one seeks to understand the emergent properties of a complex interacting system. One such area concerns the dynamics of language at a variety of levels of description, from the behaviour of individual agents learning simple artificial languages from each other, up to changes in the structure of languages shared by large groups of speakers over historical timescales. In this Colloquium, we survey a hierarchy of scales at which language and linguistic behaviour can be described, along with the main progress in understanding that has been made at each of them---much of which has come from the statistical physics community. We argue that future developments may arise by linking the different levels of the hierarchy together in a more coherent fashion, in particular where this allows more effective use of rich empirical data sets.
Gauge hierarchy and long range forces
With the aid of simple examples, we show how a long range attractive force can arise in a gauge theory with a hierarchy. The force is due to the exchange of a Higgs boson whose mass and matter couplings are both naturally suppressed by the hierarchical mass ratio. Such bosons appear if there is an accidental global symmetry in the low-energy renormalizable Lagrangian after the high energy symmetry breaking. 6 refs
Hamiltonian hierarchy and the Hulthen potential
Gönül, B
2000-01-01
We deal with the Hamiltonian hierarchy problem of the Hulth\\'{e}n potential within the frame of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics and find that the associated superymmetric partner potentials simulate the effect of the centrifugal barrier. Incorporating the supersymmetric solutions and using the first-order perturbation theory we obtain an expression for the energy levels of theHulth\\'{e}n potential which gives satisfactory values for the non-zero angular momentum states.
Cancer Stem Cell Hierarchy in Glioblastoma Multiforme
Bradshaw, Amy; Wickremsekera, Agadha; Tan, Swee T.; Peng, Lifeng; Davis, Paul F.; Itinteang, Tinte
2016-01-01
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive tumor that typically exhibits treatment failure with high mortality rates, is associated with the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. CSCs possess the ability for perpetual self-renewal and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells that drive tumor growth. Studies of many cancer types have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This is ...
Emergent Geometry of KP Hierarchy. II
Zhou, Jian
2015-01-01
We elaborate on a construction of quantum LG superpotential associated to a tau-function of the KP hierarchy in the case that resulting quantum spectral curve lies in the quantum two-torus. This construction is applied to Hurwitz numbers, one-legged topological vertex and resolved conifold with external D-brane to give a natural explanation of some earlier work on the relevant quantum curves.
Supersymmetric Tensor Hierarchies from Superspace Cohomology
Randall, Stephen
2016-01-01
In this set of lectures we give a pedagogical introduction to the way in which the nilpotency of a super-de Rham operator can be exploited for the construction of gauge theories in superspace. We begin with a discussion of how the super-geometric closure conditions can be solved by simply computing the cocycles of the super-algebra. The next couple lectures are then devoted to applying this idea to extensions of the standard super-de Rham complex. This eventually results in a geometric "trivialization" of the consistency conditions required for non-abelian tensor hierarchies. Although this is a general conclusion, we focus specifically on the hierarchy obtained by compactifying the 3-form gauge field of 11D supergravity to 4D, $N = 1$ superspace. In the final lecture, we use the cohomological arguments developed herein to provide a geometric construction of the non-trivial Chern-Simons-type invariant in that tensor hierarchy and comment on generalizations. These lectures are based on a series of talks given a...
Context-dependent hierarchies in pigeons.
Nagy, Máté; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Pettit, Benjamin; Roberts-Mariani, Isabella; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora
2013-08-01
Hierarchical organization is widespread in the societies of humans and other animals, both in social structure and in decision-making contexts. In the case of collective motion, the majority of case studies report that dominant individuals lead group movements, in agreement with the common conflation of the terms "dominance" and "leadership." From a theoretical perspective, if social relationships influence interactions during collective motion, then social structure could also affect leadership in large, swarm-like groups, such as fish shoals and bird flocks. Here we use computer-vision-based methods and miniature GPS tracking to study, respectively, social dominance and in-flight leader-follower relations in pigeons. In both types of behavior we find hierarchically structured networks of directed interactions. However, instead of being conflated, dominance and leadership hierarchies are completely independent of each other. Although dominance is an important aspect of variation among pigeons, correlated with aggression and access to food, our results imply that the stable leadership hierarchies in the air must be based on a different set of individual competences. In addition to confirming the existence of independent and context-specific hierarchies in pigeons, we succeed in setting out a robust, scalable method for the automated analysis of dominance relationships, and thus of social structure, applicable to many species. Our results, as well as our methods, will help to incorporate the broader context of animal social organization into the study of collective behavior. PMID:23878247
Vanishing point: Scale independence in geomorphological hierarchies
Phillips, Jonathan D.
2016-08-01
Scale linkage problems in geosciences are often associated with a hierarchy of components. Both dynamical systems perspectives and intuition suggest that processes or relationships operating at fundamentally different scales are independent with respect to influences on system dynamics. But how far apart is "fundamentally different"-that is, what is the "vanishing point" at which scales are no longer interdependent? And how do we reconcile that with the idea (again, supported by both theory and intuition) that we can work our way along scale hierarchies from microscale to planetary (and vice-versa)? Graph and network theory are employed here to address these questions. Analysis of two archetypal hierarchical networks shows low algebraic connectivity, indicating low levels of inferential synchronization. This explains the apparent paradox between scale independence and hierarchical linkages. Incorporating more hierarchical levels results in an increase in complexity or entropy of the network as a whole, but at a nonlinear rate. Complexity increases as a power α of the number of levels in the hierarchy, with α network from other level decays rapidly as more levels are added. Relatedness among system components decreases with differences in scale or resolution, analogous to distance decay in the spatial domain. These findings suggest a strategy of identifying and focusing on the most important or interesting scale levels, rather than attempting to identify the smallest or largest scale levels and work top-down or bottom-up from there. Examples are given from soil geomorphology and karst flow networks.
Ditransitive Alignment and Referential Hierarchies in Araki
Alexandre François
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Since Bossong (1985, referential hierarchies have proven useful in accounting for patterns of differential object marking (DOM in mono‑transitive clauses. More recent studies (Siewierska 1998; Haspelmath 2005; Bickel 2008; papers in this volume have also shown the relevance of such hierarchies in explaining the alignment patterns of ditransitive verbs – that is, how languages treat formally the Theme and the recipient or Goal. Araki, a highly endangered Oceanic language of Vanuatu, not only shows DOM with its transitive verbs, but is also sensitive to referential properties of arguments in its handling of ditransitive alignment. On a hierarchy defined by the features [±local] (i.e. speech-act participant and [±human], the higher-ranking participant receives the status of object, while the other one is demoted to a peripheral role. The result is a pattern of regular alternation between indirective and secundative alignment, depending on the relative properties of the Theme and the Goal. The present article will describe these patterns, and discuss cases of variation. Ultimately, rules of ditransitive alignment in Araki can be explained functionally as a competition between non-agent participants on a scale of affectedness.
Affine Lie algebraic origin of constrained KP hierarchies
It is presented an affine sl(n+1) algebraic construction of the basic constrained KP hierarchy. This hierarchy is analyzed using two approaches, namely linear matrix eigenvalue problem on hermitian symmetric space and constrained KP Lax formulation and we show that these approaches are equivalent. The model is recognized to be generalized non-linear Schroedinger (GNLS) hierarchy and it is used as a building block for a new class of constrained KP hierarchies. These constrained KP hierarchies are connected via similarity-Backlund transformations and interpolate between GNLS and multi-boson KP-Toda hierarchies. The construction uncovers origin of the Toda lattice structure behind the latter hierarchy. (author). 23 refs
Physical interpretation of the combinatorial hierarchy
The combinatorial hierarchy model for base particle processes is compared and contrasted with the Ur-theory as developed at the Tutzing Conferences. It agrees with Ur-theory about a finite basis, the ''fixed past--uncertain future'' aspects of physics, and the necessity of dropping Bohr's requirement of reduction to the haptic language of commonsense and classical physics. However, it retains a constructive, hierarchial approach with can yield only an approximate and discrete ''space time'', and introduces the observation metaphysic at the start. Concrete interpretation of the four levels of the hierarchy (with cardinals 3, 7, 127, 2127-1 approx. =1038) associates the three levels which map up and down with three absolute conservation laws (charge, baryon number, lepton number) and the spin dichotomy. The first level represents +, -, and +- unit charge. The second has the quantum nubmers of a baryon--antibaryon pair and associated charged meson (e.g., n anti n, p anti n, p anti p, n anti p, π+, π0, π-). The third level associates this pair, now including four spin states as well as four charge states, with a neutral lepton--antilepton pair (e anti e or ν anti ν) in four spin states (total, 64 states): three charged spinless, three charged spin-1, and neutral spin-1 mesons (15 states), and a neutral vector boson associated with the leptons; this gives 3 + 15 + 3 x 15 = 63 possible boson states, so a total correct count of 63 + 64 = 127 states. Something like SU2 X SU3 and other indications of quark quantum numbers can occur as substructures at the fourth (unstable) level. A slight extension gives the usual static approximation to the building energy of the hydrogen atom, α2m/sub e/c2. Cosmological implications of the theory are in accord with current experience. A beginning in the physical interpretation of a theory which could eventually encompass all branches of physics was made. 3 figures, 6 tables
Vanishing point: Scale independence in geomorphological hierarchies
Phillips, Jonathan D.
2016-08-01
Scale linkage problems in geosciences are often associated with a hierarchy of components. Both dynamical systems perspectives and intuition suggest that processes or relationships operating at fundamentally different scales are independent with respect to influences on system dynamics. But how far apart is "fundamentally different"-that is, what is the "vanishing point" at which scales are no longer interdependent? And how do we reconcile that with the idea (again, supported by both theory and intuition) that we can work our way along scale hierarchies from microscale to planetary (and vice-versa)? Graph and network theory are employed here to address these questions. Analysis of two archetypal hierarchical networks shows low algebraic connectivity, indicating low levels of inferential synchronization. This explains the apparent paradox between scale independence and hierarchical linkages. Incorporating more hierarchical levels results in an increase in complexity or entropy of the network as a whole, but at a nonlinear rate. Complexity increases as a power α of the number of levels in the hierarchy, with α < 1 and usually ≤ 0.6. However, algebraic connectivity decreases at a more rapid rate. Thus, the ability to infer one part of the hierarchical network from other level decays rapidly as more levels are added. Relatedness among system components decreases with differences in scale or resolution, analogous to distance decay in the spatial domain. These findings suggest a strategy of identifying and focusing on the most important or interesting scale levels, rather than attempting to identify the smallest or largest scale levels and work top-down or bottom-up from there. Examples are given from soil geomorphology and karst flow networks.
An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products
Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche
constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...... notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants....
Toda hierarchy, Hurwitz numbers and conformal dynamics
Natanzon, S M
2013-01-01
We explicitly construct the series expansion for a certain class of solutions to the 2D Toda hierarchy in the zero dispersion limit, which we call symmetric solutions. We express the Taylor coefficients through some universal combinatorial constants and find recurrence relations for them. These results are used to obtain new formulas for the genus 0 double Hurwitz numbers. They can also serve as a starting point for a constructive approach to the Riemann mapping problem and the inverse potential problem in 2D.
Revaluing the hierarchy of paper recycling
This article revalues the hierarchy of paper waste management policies in a dynamic general equilibrium model. Incineration, material recycling and the distinction between non-renewable fossil fuels and renewable forest assets are incorporated. By comparing the first order conditions from the command optimum with the conditions from the market model, it is discovered that the unregulated market fails to create an optimal resource allocation. To see how the market behaves, in absence of environmental policy, compared to the first best solution a numerical model is used. Pigouvian taxes and subsidies are derived to correct for the externalities
Three New Integrable Hierarchies of Equations
A general Lie algebra Vs and the corresponding loop algebra V-tildes are constructed, from which the linear isospectral Lax pairs are established, whose compatibility presents the zero curvature equation. As its application, a new Lax integrable hierarchy containing two parameters is worked out. It is not Liouville-integrable, however, its two reduced systems are Liouville-integrable, whose Hamiltonian structures are derived by making use of the quadratic-form identity and the γ formula (i.e. the computational formula on the constant γ appeared in the trace identity and the quadratic-form identity).
Monitoring Subcontracting in a Suppliers' Hierarchy
M. Cella
2009-01-01
In this paper we study the delegation of a production process in a three-tier hierarchy. The principal contracts directly only with the supplier that produces the ?rst input leaving him in charge of the contract for the production of the second input. We allow the principal to costlessly monitor the communication between the agents at the subcontracting stage in an attempt to save on informa- tional rents and improve productive e¢ ciency. We show that, if the contractor is free to choose the ...
Three New Integrable Hierarchies of Equations
无
2007-01-01
A general Lie algebra Vs and the corresponding loop algebra ～Vs are constructed, from which the linear isospectral Lax pairs are established, whose compatibility presents the zero curvature equation. As its application, a new Lax integrable hierarchy containing two parameters is worked out. It is not Liouville-integrable, however, its two reduced systems are Liouville-integrable, whose Hamiltonian structures are derived by making use of the quadratic-form identity and the γ formula (i.e. the computational formula on the constant γ appeared in the trace identity and the quadratic-form identity).
Inverting Onto Functions and Polynomial Hierarchy
Buhrman, H.; Fortnow, L.; Koucký, Michal; Rogers, J.D.; Vereshchagin, N.K.
Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 2007 - (Diekert, V.; Volkov, M.; Voronkov, A.), s. 92-103 ISBN 978-3-540-74509-9. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 4649). [International Computer Science Symposium in Russia, CSR 2007. Jekaterinburg (RU), 03.09.2007-07.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/0124; GA ČR GP201/07/P276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : one-way functions * polynomial hierarchy * Kolmogorov generic oracle s Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Integrable nonlinear differential-difference hierarchy and Darboux transformation
In this paper, with a free function embedded into a discrete zero-curvature equation, an integrable nonlinear differential-difference hierarchy is derived via the extension of original hierarchy with symbolic computation. Based on the Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws and Darboux transformations are constructed for the first nonlinear differential-difference equations in the hierarchy. As an application of the Darboux transformation, some explicit solutions of those sample equations are given.
Collapsing Hierarchies in PCGSs with Communication by Commands
L. Ilie
2012-01-01
We investigate here, mainly from the point of view of the hierarchies generated by different classes of systems, two variants of the parallel communicating grammar systems (PCGS) with communication by command: the multiple and, respectively, the single communication case. We show that the hierarchies for regular and linear components collapse in the single communication case and the hierarchy for context-sensitive components collapses in both multiple and single communication cases. By ...
A hierarchy of languages, logics, and mathematical theories
Kastner, Charles W.
2003-01-01
We present mathematics from a foundational perspective as a hierarchy in which each tier consists of a language, a logic, and a mathematical theory. Each tier in the hierarchy subsumes all preceding tiers in the sense that its language, logic, and mathematical theory generalize all preceding languages, logics, and mathematical theories. Starting from the root tier, the mathematical theories in this hierarchy are: combinatory logic restricted to the identity I, combinatory logic, ZFC set the...
AN INTEGRABLE HIERARCHY AND ITS EXPANDING LAX INTEGRABLE MODEL
张玉峰; 闫庆友; 许曰才
2004-01-01
In general, Liouville integrable hierarchies of evolution equations were obtained by choosing proper U in zero curvature frame Ut - Vx + [U, V] = 0 first. But in the present paper, a new Liouville integrable hierarchy possessing bi-Hamiltonian structure is obtained by choosing V with derivatives in x and spectral potentials. Then integrable coupling, i.e. expanding Lax integrable model of the hierarchy obtained is presented by constructing a subalgebra of loop algebra A2.
Know Your Place: Neural Processing of Social Hierarchy in Humans
Zink, Caroline F.; Tong, Yunxia; Chen, Qiang; Bassett, Danielle S; Stein, Jason L; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
2008-01-01
Social hierarchies guide behavior in many species, including humans, where status also has an enormous impact on motivation and health. However, little is known about the underlying neural representation of social hierarchies in humans. In the present study, we identify dissociable neural responses to perceived social rank using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in an interactive simulated social context. In both stable and unstable social hierarchies, viewing a superior individual...
Rescaling Symmetry Flow of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Hierarchy
WANG Ning
2004-01-01
@@ We present a new symmetry flow of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy, which origins from the rescaling of whole "multi-time" valuables. This flow describes the deformation of solutions of the KP hierarchy with respect to a noncommutative parameter. It is shown that the introduced rescaling symmetry flow does not commute with the ordinary evolution flows of the KP hierarchy, but commutes with the evolution flows with respect to slow- variables.
Infinite Conservation Laws for Nonlinear Integrable Couplings of Toda Hierarchy
We construct nonlinear integrable couplings of discrete soliton hierarchy, then the infinite conservation laws for the nonlinear integrable couplings of the lattice hierarchy are established. For explicit application of the method proposed, the infinite conservation laws of nonlinear integrable couplings of the Toda lattice hierarchy are presented. The obtained integrable couplings of the Toda lattice equations and conservation laws can be used to describe the possible formation mechanisms for hydrodynamics, solid state physics and plasma physics, respectively
Neutrino Hierarchies from a Gauge Symmetry
Heeck, Julian
2012-01-01
We consider the phenomenology of the gauged abelian symmetry B + 3 (L_e - L_mu - L_tau). Right-handed neutrinos necessary to cancel triangle anomalies are used in a type-I seesaw scheme to create active neutrino masses. Breaking the B + 3 (L_e - L_mu - L_tau) symmetry spontaneously below the seesaw scale generates low energy neutrino mass matrices with the approximate symmetries L_e (leading to normal hierarchy) or L_e - L_mu - L_tau (inverted hierarchy). For the latter we need to introduce a Z_2 symmetry which decouples one of the right-handed neutrinos. Accidently, the Z_2 makes it a dark matter candidate that interacts with the Standard Model via the Z' and a scalar s originating from spontaneous breaking of the new symmetry. The measured relic abundance of the Majorana dark matter particle can be obtained around the scalar and Z' resonances, while direct detection experiments are mainly sensitive to scalar exchange, which is induced by mass mixing of s with the standard Higgs.
Probing Neutrino Hierarchy and Chirality via Wakes.
Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Inman, Derek
2016-04-01
The relic neutrinos are expected to acquire a bulk relative velocity with respect to the dark matter at low redshifts, and neutrino wakes are expected to develop downstream of the dark matter halos. We propose a method of measuring the neutrino mass based on this mechanism. This neutrino wake will cause a dipole distortion of the galaxy-galaxy lensing pattern. This effect could be detected by combining upcoming lensing surveys with a low redshift galaxy survey or a 21 cm intensity mapping survey, which can map the neutrino flow field. The data obtained with LSST and Euclid should enable us to make a positive detection if the three neutrino masses are quasidegenerate with each neutrino mass of ∼0.1 eV, and a future high precision 21 cm lensing survey would allow the normal hierarchy and inverted hierarchy cases to be distinguished, and even the right-handed Dirac neutrinos may be detectable. PMID:27104695
Neutrino flavor pendulum in both mass hierarchies
Raffelt, Georg
2013-01-01
We construct a simple example for self-induced flavor conversion in dense neutrino gases showing new solutions that violate the symmetries of initial conditions. Our system consists of two opposite momentum modes 1 and 2, each initially occupied with equal densities of nu_e and anti-nu_e. Restricting solutions to symmetry under 1 2 allows for the usual bimodal instability ("flavor pendulum") in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy (IH) and stability (no self-induced flavor conversion) in the normal hierarchy (NH). Lifting this symmetry restriction allows for a second pendulum-like solution that occurs in NH where the modes 1 and 2 swing in opposite directions in flavor space. Any small deviation from 1-2 symmetry in the initial condition triggers the new instability in NH. This effect corresponds to the recently identified multi-azimuth angle (MAA) instability of supernova neutrino fluxes. Both cases show explicitly that solutions of the equations of collective flavor oscillations need not inherit the symmet...
Neutrino flavor pendulum in both mass hierarchies
Raffelt, Georg; Seixas, David de Sousa
2013-08-01
We construct a simple example for self-induced flavor conversion in dense neutrino gases, showing new solutions that violate the symmetries of initial conditions. Our system consists of two opposite momentum modes 1 and 2, each initially occupied with equal densities of νe and ν¯e. Restricting solutions to symmetry under 1↔2 allows for the usual bimodal instability (“flavor pendulum”) in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy and stability (no self-induced flavor conversion) in the normal hierarchy (NH). Lifting this symmetry restriction allows for a second pendulumlike solution that occurs in NH, where the modes 1 and 2 swing in opposite directions in flavor space. Any small deviation from 1-2 symmetry in the initial condition triggers the new instability in NH. This effect corresponds to the recently identified multi-azimuth angle instability of supernova neutrino fluxes. Both cases show explicitly that solutions of the equations of collective flavor oscillations need not inherit the symmetries of initial conditions, although this has been universally assumed.
Hierarchies Without Symmetries from Extra Dimensions
It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the Standard Model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ''stuck'' at different points in the wall. Couplings between them are then suppressed due to the exponentially small overlaps of their wave functions. This provides a framework for understanding both the fermion mass hierarchy and proton stability without imposing symmetries, but rather in terms of higher dimensional geography. A model independent prediction of this scenario is non-universal couplings of the Standard Model fermions to the ''Kaluza-Klein'' excitations of the gauge fields. This allows a measurement of the fermion locations in the extra dimensions at the LHC or NLC if the wall thickness is close to the TeV scale
Hierarchies without symmetries from extra dimensions
It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the standard model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ''stuck'' at different points in the wall. Couplings between them are then suppressed due to the exponentially small overlaps of their wave functions. This provides a framework for understanding both the fermion mass hierarchy and proton stability without imposing symmetries, but rather in terms of higher dimensional geography. A model independent prediction of this scenario is non-universal couplings of the standard model fermions to the ''Kaluza-Klein'' excitations of the gauge fields. This allows a measurement of the fermion locations in the extra dimensions at the CERN LHC or NLC if the wall thickness is close to the TeV scale. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
OPTIMAL HIERARCHY STRUCTURES FOR MULTI-ATTRIBUTE-CRITERIA DECISIONS
Stan LIPOVETSKY
2009-01-01
A problem of a hierarchy structure optimization is considered. Hierarchical structures are widely used in the Analytic Hierarchy Process, conjoint analysis, and various other methods of multiple criteria decision making. The problem consists in finding a structure that needs a minimum number of pair comparisons for a given total number of the alternatives. For an optimal hierarchy, the minimum efforts are needed for eliciting data and synthesizing the local References across the hierarchy to get the global priorities or utilities. Special estimation techniques are developed and numerical simulations performed. Analytical and numerical results suggest optimal ways of priority evaluations for practical managerial decisions in a complex environment.
The analytic hierarchy process as a support for decision making
Filipović Milanka
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The first part of this text deals with a convention site selection as one of the most lucrative areas in the tourism industry. The second part gives a further description of a method for decision making - the analytic hierarchy process. The basic characteristics: hierarchy constructions and pair wise comparison on the given level of the hierarchy are allured. The third part offers an example of application. This example is solved using the Super - Decision software, which is developed as a computer support for the analytic hierarchy process. This indicates that the AHP approach is a useful tool to help support a decision of convention site selection. .
Efficient Algorithms for Membership in Boolean Hierarchies of Regular Languages
Glasser, Christian; Selivanov, Victor
2008-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to provide efficient algorithms that decide membership for classes of several Boolean hierarchies for which efficiency (or even decidability) were previously not known. We develop new forbidden-chain characterizations for the single levels of these hierarchies and obtain the following results: - The classes of the Boolean hierarchy over level $\\Sigma_1$ of the dot-depth hierarchy are decidable in $NL$ (previously only the decidability was known). The same remains true if predicates mod $d$ for fixed $d$ are allowed. - If modular predicates for arbitrary $d$ are allowed, then the classes of the Boolean hierarchy over level $\\Sigma_1$ are decidable. - For the restricted case of a two-letter alphabet, the classes of the Boolean hierarchy over level $\\Sigma_2$ of the Straubing-Th\\'erien hierarchy are decidable in $NL$. This is the first decidability result for this hierarchy. - The membership problems for all mentioned Boolean-hierarchy classes are logspace many-one hard for $NL$. - T...
On the Extended Multi-component Toda Hierarchy
Li, Chuanzhong, E-mail: lichuanzhong@nbu.edu.cn; He, Jingsong, E-mail: hejingsong@nbu.edu.cn [Ningbo University, Department of Mathematics (China)
2014-12-15
The extended flow equations of the multi-component Toda hierarchy are constructed. We give the Hirota bilinear equations and tau function of this new extended multi-component Toda hierarchy(EMTH). Because of logarithmic terms, some extended Vertex operators are constructed in generalized Hirota bilinear equations which might be useful in topological field theory and Gromov-Witten theory. Meanwhile the Darboux transformation and bi-hamiltonian structure of this hierarchy are given. From the hamiltonian tau symmetry, we give another different tau function of this hierarchy with some unknown mysterious connections with the one defined from the point of wave functions.
Gauge transformation and symmetries of the commutative multicomponent BKP hierarchy
Li, Chuanzhong
2016-01-01
In this paper, we defined a new multi-component B type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (BKP) hierarchy that takes values in a commutative subalgebra of {gl}(N,{{C}}). After this, we give the gauge transformation of this commutative multicomponent BKP (CMBKP) hierarchy. Meanwhile, we construct a new constrained CMBKP hierarchy that contains some new integrable systems, including coupled KdV equations under a certain reduction. After this, the quantum torus symmetry and quantum torus constraint on the tau function of the commutative multi-component BKP hierarchy will be constructed.
Advanced Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy
Ezzati Abdellah,
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is anticipated to bring enormous changes in data gathering, processing and dissemination for different environments and applications. However, a WSN is a power constrained system, since nodes run on limited power batteries which shorten its lifespan. Prolonging the network lifetime depends on efficient management of sensing node energy resource. Hierarchicalrouting protocols are best known in regard to energy efficiency. By using a clustering technique hierarchical routing protocols greatly minimize energy consumed in collecting and disseminating data. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH is one of the undamental protocols in this class. In this paper we propose Advanced LEACH (A-LEACH, a heterogeneous-energy protocol to decrease probability of failure nodes and to prolong the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period and increasing the lifetime in heterogeneous WSNs, which is crucial for many applications.
Lax operator algebras and Hamiltonian integrable hierarchies
Sheinman, Oleg K
2009-01-01
We consider the theory of Lax equations in complex simple and reductive classical Lie algebras with the spectral parameter on a Riemann surface of finite genus. Our approach is based on the new objects -- the Lax operator algebras, and develops the approach of I.Krichever treating the $\\gl(n)$ case. For every Lax operator considered as the mapping sending a point of the cotangent bundle on the space of extended Tyrin data to an element of the corresponding Lax operator algebra we construct the hierarchy of mutually commuting flows given by Lax equations and prove that those are Hamiltonian with respect to the Krichever-Phong symplectic structure. The corresponding Hamiltonians give integrable finite-dimensional Hitchin-type systems. For example we derive elliptic $A_n$, $C_n$, $D_n$ Calogero-Moser systems in frame of our approach.
Cancer Stem Cell Hierarchy in Glioblastoma Multiforme.
Bradshaw, Amy; Wickremsekera, Agadha; Tan, Swee T; Peng, Lifeng; Davis, Paul F; Itinteang, Tinte
2016-01-01
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive tumor that typically exhibits treatment failure with high mortality rates, is associated with the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. CSCs possess the ability for perpetual self-renewal and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells that drive tumor growth. Studies of many cancer types have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This is compounded further by the presence of multiple GBM and glioblastoma cancer stem cell subtypes, making investigation and establishment of a universal treatment difficult. This review examines the current knowledge on the CSC markers SALL4, OCT-4, SOX2, STAT3, NANOG, c-Myc, KLF4, CD133, CD44, nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, specifically focusing on their use and validity in GBM research and how they may be utilized for investigations into GBM's cancer biology. PMID:27148537
Cancer Stem Cell Hierarchy in Glioblastoma Multiforme
Bradshaw, Amy; Wickremsekera, Agadha; Tan, Swee T.; Peng, Lifeng; Davis, Paul F.; Itinteang, Tinte
2016-01-01
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive tumor that typically exhibits treatment failure with high mortality rates, is associated with the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. CSCs possess the ability for perpetual self-renewal and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells that drive tumor growth. Studies of many cancer types have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This is compounded further by the presence of multiple GBM and glioblastoma cancer stem cell subtypes, making investigation and establishment of a universal treatment difficult. This review examines the current knowledge on the CSC markers SALL4, OCT-4, SOX2, STAT3, NANOG, c-Myc, KLF4, CD133, CD44, nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, specifically focusing on their use and validity in GBM research and how they may be utilized for investigations into GBM’s cancer biology.
What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?
Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach
Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. Here, data streams have been viewed as a flow of low-level data items, e.g., sensor readings or IP packet data. Stream query languages have mostly been SQL-based, with the STREAM and Telegraph......CQ languages as examples. However, there has been little work on supporting OLAP-like queries that provide multi-dimensional and summarized views of stream data. In this paper, we introduce a multidimensional stream query language and its formal semantics. Our approach enables powerful OLAP queries against...... data streams with dimension hierarchies, thus turning low-level data streams into informative high-level aggregates. A comparison with STREAM shows that our approach is more flexible and powerful for high-level OLAP queries, as well as far more compact and concise....
Scale-Independent Inflation and Hierarchy Generation
Ferreira, Pedro G. [Oxford U.; Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab; Ross, Graham G. [Oxford U., Theor. Phys.
2016-03-18
We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through $-\\frac{1}{12}\\varsigma \\phi^2 R$ couplings where $\\varsigma$ departs from the special conformal value of $1$; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two--scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.
Soft QCD path to the mass hierarchy
Todorova-Nova, Sarka
2014-01-01
The study of the quantization of the QCD string with the helix structure is put into the context of a decades-long discussion opposing the probabilistic and the deterministic interpretations of the quantum theory. The recent evolution of the string fragmentation model (to a large extent driven and confirmed by the empirical evidence), towards the deterministic point of view is recounted: the notion of causality not only paves a way to the study of mass hierarchy, it also resolves a long-standing ambiguity about the nature of the so-called Bose-Einstein correlations. Two directions for the further development of the model are outlined: 1/ the relation between the ordered emission of field quanta and the spin of the emitting particle, 2/ the relation between the topological properties of the QCD string and the emergence of new particle types (quantum numbers).
Scale-Independent Inflation and Hierarchy Generation
Ferreira, Pedro G; Ross, Graham G
2016-01-01
We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through $-\\frac{1}{12}\\varsigma \\phi^2 R$ couplings where $\\varsigma$ departs from the special conformal value of $1$; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two--scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.
Optimal Organizational Hierarchies: Source Coding: Disaster Relief
Murthy, G Rama
2011-01-01
ulticasting is an important communication paradigm for enabling the dissemination of information selectively. This paper considers the problem of optimal secure multicasting in a communication network captured through a graph (optimal is in an interesting sense) and provides a doubly optimal solution using results from source coding. It is realized that the solution leads to optimal design (in a well defined optimality sense) of organizational hierarchies captured through a graph. In this effort two novel concepts : prefix free path, graph entropy are introduced. Some results of graph entropy are provided. Also some results on Kraft inequality are discussed. As an application Hierarchical Hybrid Communication Network is utilized as a model of structured Mobile Adhoc network for utility in Disaster Management. Several new research problems that naturally emanate from this research are summarized.
Predictability and hierarchy in Drosophila behavior
Berman, Gordon J; Shaevitz, Joshua W
2016-01-01
Even the simplest of animals exhibit behavioral sequences with complex temporal dynamics. Prominent amongst the proposed organizing principles for these dynamics has been the idea of a hierarchy, wherein the movements an animal makes can be understood as a set of nested sub-clusters. Although this type of organization holds potential advantages in terms of motion control and neural circuitry, measurements demonstrating this for an animal's entire behavioral repertoire have been limited in scope and temporal complexity. Here, we use a recently developed unsupervised technique to discover and track the occurrence of all stereotyped behaviors performed by fruit flies moving in a shallow arena. Calculating the optimally predictive representation of the fly's future behaviors, we show that fly behavior exhibits multiple time scales and is organized into a hierarchical structure that is indicative of its underlying behavioral programs and its changing internal states.
Criteria for optimizing cortical hierarchies with continuous ranges
Andrew T Reid
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In a recent paper (Reid et al.; 2009, NeuroImage we introduced a method to calculate optimal hierarchies in the visual network that utilizes continuous, rather than discrete, hierarchical levels, and permits a range of acceptable values rather than attempting to fit fixed hierarchical distances. There, to obtain a hierarchy, the sum of deviations from the constraints that define the hierarchy was minimized using linear optimization. In the short time since publication of that paper we noticed that many colleagues misinterpreted the meaning of the term "optimal hierarchy". In particular, a majority of them were under the impression that there was perhaps only one optimal hierarchy, but a substantial difficulty in finding that one. However, there is not only more than one optimal hierarchy but also more than one option for defining optimality. Continuing the line of this work we look at additional options for optimizing the visual hierarchy: minimizing the number of violated constraints and minimizing the maximal size of a constraint violation using linear optimization and mixed integer programming. The implementation of both optimization criteria is explained in detail. In addition, using constraint sets based on the data from Felleman and Van Essen, optimal hierarchies for the visual network are calculated for both optimization methods.
Inequality Matters : Classroom Status Hierarchy and Adolescents' Bullying
Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina
2014-01-01
The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy (d
On Symmetry Flows of Noncommutative Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Hierarchy
We discuss symmetry flows of noncommutative Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (NCKP) hierarchy. An operator-based formulation, alternative to the star-product approach of extended symmetry flows is presented. Noncommutative additional symmetry flows of the NCKP hierarchy are formulated. A rescaling symmetry flow which is associated with the rescaling of whole coordinates is introduced.
Hamiltonian Tri-Integrable Couplings of the AKNS Hierarchy
We propose a systematic approach for generating Hamiltonian tri-integrable couplings of soliton hierarchies. The resulting approach is based on semi-direct sums of matrix Lie algebras consisting of 4×4 block matrix Lie algebras. We apply the approach to the AKNS soliton hierarchy, and Hamiltonian structures of the obtained tri-integrable couplings are constructed by the variational identity. (general)
Super-KN Hierarchy and Its Super-Hamiltonian Structure
Based on the basis of the constructed Lie super algebra, the super-isospectral problem of KN hierarchy is considered. Under the frame of the zero curvature equation, the super-KN hierarchy is obtained. Furthermore, its super-Hamiltonian structure is presented by using super-trace identity and it has super-bi-Hamiltonian structure. (general)
ON GENERATING EQUATIONS FOR THE KAUP-NEWELL HIERARCHY
无
2007-01-01
It is shown that the Kaup-Newell hierarchy can be derived from the so-called generating equations which are Lax integrable. Positive and negative flows in the hierarchy are derived simultaneously. The generating equations and mutual commutativity of these flows enable us to construct new Lax integrable equations.
On Symmetry Flows of Noncommutative Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Hierarchy
无
2005-01-01
We discuss symmetry flows of noncommutative Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (NCKP) hierarchy. An operatorbased formulation, alternative to the star-product approach of extended symmetry flows is presented. Noncommutative additional symmetry flows of the NCKP hierarchy are formulated. A rescaling symmetry flow which is associated with the rescaling of whole coordinates is introduced.
The Diversity Education Dilemma: Exposing Status Hierarchies without Reinforcing Them
Amoroso, Lisa M.; Loyd, Denise Lewin; Hoobler, Jenny M.
2010-01-01
A "diversity education dilemma" occurs when exposure to information concerning status hierarchies, related to demographic and other socially salient identity groups, reinforces those hierarchies in the classroom. Discussions of diversity-related issues in a variety of management courses (e.g., immigrant issues in labor relations, the composition…
A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.
Clay, Rex J.
A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…
Phase model expectation values and the 2-Toda hierarchy
We show that the scalar product of the phase model on a finite rectangular lattice is a (restricted) τ function of the 2-Toda hierarchy. Using this equivalence we then show that the wavefunctions of the hierarchy correspond to certain classes of boundary correlation functions of the model
Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy
Xiuzhi Xing
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.
Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, Rene
2013-01-01
The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys ("N" = 1,665) and girls ("N" = 1,637) ("M" age = 13.60). In line with the…
Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René
2013-01-01
The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line
Dispersionless Hirota Equations of Two-Component BKP Hierarchy
Kanehisa Takasaki
2006-05-01
Full Text Available The BKP hierarchy has a two-component analogue (the 2-BKP hierarchy. Dispersionless limit of this multi-component hierarchy is considered on the level of the τ-function. The so called dispersionless Hirota equations are obtained from the Hirota equations of the τ-function. These dispersionless Hirota equations turn out to be equivalent to a system of Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Other relevant equations, in particular, dispersionless Lax equations, can be derived from these fundamental equations. For comparison, another approach based on auxiliary linear equations is also presented.
The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior
Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias;
2015-01-01
With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether and...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...
6D RG Flows and Nilpotent Hierarchies
Heckman, Jonathan J; Tomasiello, Alessandro
2016-01-01
With the eventual aim of classifying renormalization group flows between 6D superconformal field theories (SCFTs), we study flows generated by the vevs of "conformal matter," a generalization of conventional hypermultiplets which naturally appear in the F-theory classification of 6D SCFTs. We consider flows in which the parent UV theory is (on its partial tensor branch) a linear chain of gauge groups connected by conformal matter, with one flavor group G at each end of the chain, and in which the symmetry breaking of the conformal matter at each end is parameterized by the orbit of a nilpotent element, i.e. T-brane data, of one of these flavor symmetries. Such nilpotent orbits admit a partial ordering, which is reflected in a hierarchy of IR fixed points. For each such nilpotent orbit, we determine the corresponding tensor branch for the resulting SCFT. An important feature of this algebraic approach is that it also allows us to systematically compute the unbroken flavor symmetries inherited from the parent U...
Kinetic mixing and the supersymmetric gauge hierarchy
The most general Lagrangian for a model with two U(1) gauge symmetries contains a renormalizable operator which mixes their gauge kinetic terms. Such kinetic mixing can be generated at arbitrarily high scales but will not be suppressed by large masses. In models whose supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking hidden sectors contain U(1) gauge factors, we show that such terms will generically arise and communicate SUSY breaking to the visible sector through mixing with hypercharge. In the context of the usual supergravity- or gauge-mediated communication scenarios with D-terms of order the fundamental scale of SUSY breaking, this effect can destabilize the gauge hierarchy. Even in models for which kinetic mixing is suppressed or the D-terms are arranged to be small, this effect is a potentially large correction to the soft scalar masses and therefore introduces a new measurable low-energy parameter. We calculate the size of kinetic mixing both in field theory and in string theory, and argue that appreciable kinetic mixing is a generic feature of string models. We conclude that the possibility of kinetic mixing effects cannot be ignored in model building and in phenomenological studies of the low-energy SUSY spectra. (orig.)
Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation
Bizet, Nana Cabo; Zavala, Ivonne
2016-01-01
We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in P4. We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton {\\tau} and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in [1, 2]. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential ...
How transportation hierarchy shapes human mobility
Gallotti, Riccardo; Rambaldi, Sandro; Barthelemy, Marc
2015-01-01
The recent availability of data allowing to monitor the position of individuals triggered a wealth of quantitative studies on human mobility. In particular, it is now believed that displacements can be described by a L\\'evy type of walk, characterized by many small movements and some rare long jumps. We show here that this view is not correct and that effective movements in urban and inter-urban areas are much simpler. We use a database containing the trajectories of $780,000$ private vehicles in Italy and an open dataset describing the temporal characteristics of the entire public transportation system in Great Britain. We observe that trips for both private and public transportation are on average accelerated as a consequence of the multilayer hierarchy of transportation infrastructures. In other terms, the speed depends on the duration of the trip, with larger speed for longer trips. This sole ingredient leads, starting from the observed exponential distribution of travel-times and velocities, to a distrib...
About Fermion Hierarchies from Warped Extra Dimensions
Lawrance, Robert
2014-01-01
We consider fermions propagating in the bulk of the geometry found by deforming AdS, in 5 dimensions, via the back reaction of a scalar field upon the metric. This space is AdS for r asymptotically large (in the UV) but goes through a transition at a point, into another AdS space with different curvature in the IR. Masses are generated for these fermions via electroweak symmetry breaking, by coupling them to a VEV on the IR boundary. We calculate the mass spectrum in four dimensions, comparing approximate results and results found by solving the full system of bulk equations and boundary conditions. We consider the effect on the mass of the light modes of various parameters, including the curvature of the space in the IR. This information is then used to reproduce the mass hierarchy between the top and bottom. By assuming universality of the gauge coupling, we find bounds on the allowed bulk masses of the right--handed fermion fields. We look for solutions that satisfy these bounds in a number of different sc...
Modeling Leadership Hierarchy in Multilevel Animal Societies
Ozogány, Katalin
2014-01-01
A typical feature of many natural and social networks is the presence of communities giving rise to multiple levels of organization. We investigate the decision-making process of a group combining self organization and social dynamics, and reproduce the simultaneous emergence of a hierarchical and modular leadership network. All individuals in the model try, with varying degrees of ability, to find a direction of movement, with the result that leader-follower relationships evolve between them, since they tend to follow the more successful ones. The harem-forming ambitions of male individuals inspired by an observed Przewalski horse herd (Hortob\\'agy, Hungary) leads to modular structure. In this approach we find that the harem-leader to harem-member ratio observed in horses corresponds to an optimal network regarding common success, and that modularly structured hierarchy is more benefical than a non-modular one, in the sense that common success is higher, and the underlying network is more hierarchical. We al...
Bidifferential Calculus Approach to AKNS Hierarchies and Their Solutions
Aristophanes Dimakis
2010-07-01
Full Text Available We express AKNS hierarchies, admitting reductions to matrix NLS and matrix mKdV hierarchies, in terms of a bidifferential graded algebra. Application of a universal result in this framework quickly generates an infinite family of exact solutions, including e.g. the matrix solitons in the focusing NLS case. Exploiting a general Miura transformation, we recover the generalized Heisenberg magnet hierarchy and establish a corresponding solution formula for it. Simply by exchanging the roles of the two derivations of the bidifferential graded algebra, we recover ''negative flows'', leading to an extension of the respective hierarchy. In this way we also meet a matrix and vector version of the short pulse equation and also the sine-Gordon equation. For these equations corresponding solution formulas are also derived. In all these cases the solutions are parametrized in terms of matrix data that have to satisfy a certain Sylvester equation.
INTEGRABLE COUPLINGS OF THE TB HIERARCHY AND ITS HAMILTONIAN STRUCTURE
无
2008-01-01
In this paper,we obtain integrable couplings of the TB hierarchy using the new subalgebra of the loop algebra A_3.Then the Hamiltonian structure of the above system is given by the quadratic-form identity.
A polynomial bracket for the Dubrovin--Zhang hierarchies
Buryak, A; Shadrin, S
2010-01-01
We define a hierarchy of Hamiltonian PDEs associated to an arbitrary tau-function in the semi-simple orbit of the Givental group action on genus expansions of Frobenius manifolds. We prove that the equations, the Hamiltonians, and the bracket are weighted-homogeneous polynomials in the derivatives of the dependent variables with respect to the space variable. In the particular case of a conformal (homogeneous) Frobenius structure, our hierarchy coincides with the Dubrovin-Zhang hierarchy that is canonically associated to the underlying Frobenius structure. Therefore, our approach allows to prove the polynomiality of the equations, Hamiltonians and one of the Poisson brackets of these hierarchies, as conjectured by Dubrovin and Zhang.
Phase model expectation values and the 2-Toda hierarchy
Zuparic, M
2009-01-01
We show that the scalar product of the phase model is a (restricted) 2-Toda tau-function. Additionally, we highlight a correspondence between the boundary correlation functions of the model and the wave-functions of the hierarchy.
Integrable Coupling of KN Hierarchy and Its Hamiltonian Structure
The Hamiltonian structure of the integrable couplings obtained by our method has not been solved. In this paper, the Hamiltonian structure of the KN hierarchy is obtained by making use of the quadratic-form identity.
Two-reduction of the super-KP hierarchy
Recursion relations are established for the residues of fractional powers of a two-reduced super-KP operator making use of the Baker-Akhiezer function. These show the integrability of the two-reduced even (or bosonic) flows of the super-KP hierarchy. Similar recursion relations are also proven for the residues of operators associated with the odd (or fermionic) flows of the Mulase-Rabin super-KP hierarchy. Due to the presence of a spectral parameter and itts fermionic partner in the Baker-Akhiezer function, these recursion relations should be relevant to any attempt to prove or disprove a recent proposal that the integrable hierarchy underlying two-dimensional quantum supergravity is the Mulase-Rabin super-KP hierarchy. (orig.)
Neutrino mass hierarchy determination at reactor antineutrino experiments
Yang, Guang
2015-01-01
After the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ has been precisely measured by the reactor antineutrino experiments, one of the most important open questions left in neutrino physics is the neutrino mass hierarchy. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) without exploring the matter effect. The JUNO site location is optimized to have the best sensitivity for the mass hierarchy determination. JUNO will employ a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector located in a laboratory 700 meters underground. The excellent energy resolution and PMT coverage will give us an unprecedented opportunity to reach a 3-4 $\\sigma$ precision. In this paper, the JUNO detector design and simulation work will be presented. Also, RENO-50, another medium distance reactor antineutrino experiment, will do a similar measurement. With the efforts of these experiments, it is very likely that the neutrino mass hierarchy will be determined in the next 10 years.
Improving the hierarchy sensitivity of ICAL using neural network
Ajmi, Ali; Nizam, Mohammad; Nayak, Nitish; Sankar, S Uma
2015-01-01
Atmospheric neutrino experiments can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy for any value of $\\delta_{CP}$. The Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory can distinguish between the charged current interactions of $\
Self-organizing social hierarchies in a timid society
Odagaki, Takashi; Tsujiguchi, Masaru
2006-07-01
Emergence of hierarchies is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in a timid society where all individuals are pacifist. The self-organization of hierarchies is shown to occur in two steps as the population is increased, i.e. there are three states, one egalitarian and two hierarchical states; the transition from the egalitarian to the first hierarchical state is continuous and the transition from the first hierarchical state to the second one is discontinuous. In the first hierarchical society, all individuals belong to either middle class or losers and no winners appear. In the second hierarchical society, many winners emerge and the population of the middle class is reduced. The hierarchy in the second hierarchical society is stronger than the hierarchy in a no-preference society studied by Bonabeau et al. [Physica A 217 (1995) 373].
A lecture of the hierarchy problem and gravity
In this lecture we shall briefly review some motivations for physics beyond the Standard Model. We focus our attention on the hierarchy problem and discuss the role of gravity in defining and solving this problem. (author)
Recent developments in ecological theory: hierarchy and scale
O`Neill, R.V.
1995-12-31
Over the past decade, hierarchy and scale have been adopted as an ecological paradigm. Beyond this new awareness, however, a number of studies have attempted to test the underlying hierarchy theory and developed new analytical applications. The purpose of the present paper is to review these recent developments. Tests of the theory have focused on the prediction that ecological systems should not be uniformly distributed across scale, but grouped or lumped into discrete levels. The predicted breaks in spatial distribution have been found in vegetation transects. Vertebrate weight distributions are also distinctly aggregated, corresponding to the spatial scale at which each species operates. An important development of hierarchy theory has considered extrapolating information upscale. Simply stated, the dynamics of the higher level cannot be represented by the same functional form as its components. One cannot insert the mean parameter value for the components and predict higher level effects. Analytical methods, derived from hierarchy theory, have been developed deal with the problem.
Generalized Ablowitz–Ladik hierarchy in topological string theory
This paper addresses the issue of integrable structures in topological string theory on generalized conifolds. Open string amplitudes of this theory can be expressed as the matrix elements of an operator on the Fock space of 2D charged free fermion fields. The generating function of these amplitudes with respect to the product of two independent Schur functions becomes a tau function of the 2D Toda hierarchy. The associated Lax operators turn out to have a particular factorized form. This factorized form of the Lax operators characterizes a generalization of the Ablowitz–Ladik hierarchy embedded in the 2D Toda hierarchy. The generalized Ablowitz–Ladik hierarchy is thus identified as a fundamental integrable structure of topological string theory on the generalized conifolds. (paper)
An Improved Functional Hierarchy Frame Model for System Maintainability
CHEN Dai-Lin; CHEN Dong-lin; WANG Ru-gen; ZHU Xue-ping
2003-01-01
By means of analogy, this paper analyses the present functional hierarchy frame model for system maintainability, and presents an improved model. Practical application indicates that the improved model is visualized, more convenient and perfected over the pervious models.
Hierarchy of stochastic pure states for open quantum system dynamics
Süß, D.; Eisfeld, A.; Strunz, W. T.
2014-01-01
We derive a hierarchy of stochastic evolution equations for pure states (quantum trajectories) to efficiently solve open quantum system dynamics with non-Markovian structured environments. From this hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) the exact reduced density operator is obtained as an ensemble average. We demonstrate the power of HOPS by applying it to the Spin-Boson model, the calculation of absorption spectra of molecular aggregates and energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein comp...
An Analytical hierarchy process model for the evaluation of college
Yin, Qingli
2013-01-01
Taking into account the characteristcs of college experimental teaching, through investgaton and analysis, evaluaton indices and an Analytcal Hierarchy Process (AHP) model of experimental teaching quality have been established following the analytcal hierarchy process method, and the evaluaton indices have been given reasonable weights. An example is given, and the evaluaton results show that the evaluaton indices proposed in this paper are capable of refectng objectvely, exactly ...
Supersymmetry Hierarchy Problems and Anomalous Horizontal U(1) Symmetry
Choi, Kiwoon; Chun, Eung Jin; Kim, Hyungdo
1996-01-01
It is suggested that various hierarchy problems in supersymmetric standard model, i.e. the Yukawa hierarchies, the \\mu problem, and the suppression of dangerous baryon and/or lepton number (B/L) violating couplings, are resolved altogether in the framework of horizontal U(1) symmetry whose spontaneous breaking results in the appearance of one expansion parameter (the Cabibbo angle). Within a reasonable range of U(1) charges, there exist a few models compatible with experiments. The specific s...
Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings and the gauge hierarchy
The gauge hierarchy problem is reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 39 refs
Squared Eigenfunction Symmetries for the BTL and CTL Hierarchies
In this paper, the squared eigenfunction symmetries for the BTL and CTL hierarchies are explicitly constructed with the suitable modification of the ones for the TL hierarchy, by considering the BTL and CTL constraints. Also the connections with the corresponding additional symmetries are investigated: the squared eigenfunction symmetry generated by the wave function can be viewed as the generating function for the additional symmetries. (general)
Reductions to Korteweg-de Vries Soliton Hierarchy
Based on the nonlinearization of Lax pairs, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton hierarchy is decomposed into a family of finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems, whose Liouville integrability is proved by means of the elliptic coordinates. By applying the Abel-Jacobi coordinates on a Riemann surface of hyperelliptic curve, the resulting Hamiltonian flows as well as the KdV soliton hierarchy are ultimately reduced into linear superpositions, expressed by the Abel-Jacobi variables.
Dispersionless DKP hierarchy and the elliptic Löwner equation
We show that the dispersionless DKP hierarchy (the dispersionless limit of the Pfaff lattice) admits a suggestive reformulation through elliptic functions. We also consider one-variable reductions of the dispersionless DKP hierarchy and show that they are described by an elliptic version of the Löwner equation. With a particular choice of the driving function, the latter appears to be closely related to the Painlevé VI equation with a special choice of parameters. (fast track communication)
Why hierarchy? Communication and information acquisition in organizations
Ishida, Junichiro
2009-01-01
In most firms, if not all, workers are divided asymmetrically in terms of authority and responsibility. In this paper, we view the asymmetric allocations of authority and responsibility as essential features of hierarchy and examine why hierarchies often prevail in organizations from that perspective. The focus of attention is on the tradeoff between costly information acquisition and costless communication. When the agency problem concerning information acquisition is sufficiently severe, th...
THE SOCIOCOMMUNICATIVE TEXT ACTANTS HIERARCHY: THE COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS ASPECT
Karpukhina Viktoriya Nikolaevna
2012-01-01
The article deals with the axiological strategy of construing the sociocommunicative text actants hierarchy. The object under consideration is a fiction text. The subject analyzed is the text interpretation axiological strategies used in the social situations of intralingual and interlingual communication. The article aims in defining the sociocommunicative text actants hierarchy. The article’s novelty considers the translator’s lexical and grammar transformations in the situation of interlin...
Visual Hierarchy and Mind Motion in Advertising Design
Doaa Farouk Badawy Eldesouky
2013-01-01
Visual hierarchy is a significant concept in the field of advertising, a field that is dominated by effective communication, visual recognition and motion. Designers of advertisements have always been trying to organize the visual hierarchy throughout their advertising designs to aid the eye to recognize information in the desired order, to achieve the ultimate goals of clear perception and effectively delivering the advertising messages. However many assumptions and questions usually rise on...
The Shadow of Hierarchy and New Modes of Governance
Héritier, Adrienne; Lehmkuhl, Dirk
2008-01-01
This special issue about sectoral governance in the shadow of hierarchy focuses on two sets of questions. Firstly, do new modes of sectoral governance in themselves contribute to the efficacy of policymaking or do they require the shadow of hierarchy, i.e. legislative and executive decisions, in order to deal effectively with the problems they are supposed to solve? And, secondly, what are the institutional links between sectoral governance and territorially bounded democratic governments? Ho...
Hierarchies versus committees: Communication and information acquisition in organizations
Ishida, Junichiro
2014-01-01
In most firms, if not all, workers are divided asymmetrically in terms of authority and responsibility. In this paper, we view the asymmetric allocations of authority and responsibility as essential features of hierarchy and examine why hierarchies often prevail in organizations from that perspective. A key departure is that we consider a case where the authority relationship is defined only by the allocation of responsibility via contingent contracts. Within this framework, we show that the ...
Scalable distributed computing hierarchy: cloud, fog and dew computing
Skala, Karolj; Davidović, Davor; Afgan, Enis; Sović, Ivan; Šojat, Zorislav
2015-01-01
The paper considers the conceptual approach for organization of the vertical hierarchical links between the scalable distributed computing paradigms: Cloud Computing, Fog Computing and Dew Computing. In this paper, the Dew Computing is described and recognized as a new structural layer in the existing distributed computing hierarchy. In the existing computing hierarchy, the Dew computing is positioned as the ground level for the Cloud and Fog computing paradigms. Vertical, complementary, hier...
First demonstration of collisionless driven reconnection in a multi-hierarchy simulation
A multi-hierarchy simulation model for magnetic reconnection studies is developed in which macroscopic and microscopic physics are expressed consistently and simultaneously. We are the first to have successfully demonstrated collisionless driven reconnection in the framework of a multi-hierarchy model. Magnetic reconnection is found to occur in a micro-hierarchy upon plasma injection from a macro-hierarchy. (author)
The quadratic-form identity for constructing Hamiltonian structures of the Guo hierarchy
Dong Huan-He; Zhang Ning
2006-01-01
The trace identity is extended to the quadratic-form identity. The Hamiltonian structures of the multi-component Guo hierarchy, integrable coupling of Guo hierarchy and (2+1)-dimensional Guo hierarchy are obtained by the quadraticform identity. The method can be used to produce the Hamiltonian structures of the other integrable couplings or multi-component hierarchies.
Links between (γn,σk-KP Hierarchy, (γn,σk-mKP Hierarchy, and (2+1-(γn,σk-Harry Dym Hierarchy
Yehui Huang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The new (2+1-(γn,σk-Harry Dym hierarchy and (γn,σk-mKP hierarchy with two new time series γn and σk, which consist of γn-flow, σk-flow, and mixed γn and σk evolution equations of eigenfunctions, are proposed. Gauge transformations and reciprocal transformations between (γn,σk-KP hierarchy, (γn,σk-mKP hierarchy, and (2+1-(γn,σk-Harry Dym hierarchy are studied. Their soliton solutions are presented.
The trace identity is extended to the quadratic-form identity. The Hamiltonian structures of the NLS-MKdV hierarchy, and integrable coupling of multi-component Levi hierarchy are obtained by the quadratic-form identity. The method can be used to produce the Hamiltonian structures of the other integrable couplings or multi-component hierarchies
Threat assessment using visual hierarchy and conceptual firearms ontology
Arslan, Abdullah N.; Hempelmann, Christian F.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady Price; Sirakov, Nikolay Metodiev
2015-05-01
The work that established and explored the links between visual hierarchy and conceptual ontology of firearms for the purpose of threat assessment is continued. The previous study used geometrical information to find a target in the visual hierarchy and through the links with the conceptual ontology to derive high-level information that was used to assess a potential threat. Multiple improvements and new contributions are reported. The theoretical basis of the geometric feature extraction method was improved in terms of accuracy. The sample space used for validations is expanded from 31 to 153 firearms. Thus, a new larger and more accurate sequence of visual hierarchies was generated using a modified Gonzalez' clustering algorithm. The conceptual ontology is elaborated as well and more links were created between the two kinds of hierarchies (visual and conceptual). The threat assessment equation is refined around ammunition-related properties and uses high-level information from the conceptual hierarchy. The experiments performed on weapons identification and threat assessment showed that our system recognized 100% of the cases if a weapon already belongs to the ontology and in 90.8% of the cases, determined the correct third ancestor (level concept) if the weapon is unknown to the ontology. To validate the accuracy of identification for a very large data set, we calculated the intervals of confidence for our system.
Visual Hierarchy and Mind Motion in Advertising Design
Doaa Farouk Badawy Eldesouky
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Visual hierarchy is a significant concept in the field of advertising, a field that is dominated by effective communication, visual recognition and motion. Designers of advertisements have always been trying to organize the visual hierarchy throughout their advertising designs to aid the eye to recognize information in the desired order, to achieve the ultimate goals of clear perception and effectively delivering the advertising messages. However many assumptions and questions usually rise on how to create effective hierarchy throughout advertising designs and lead the eye and mind of the viewer in the most favorable way. This paper attempts to study visual hierarchy and mind motion in advertising designs and why it is important to develop visual paths when designing an advertisement. It explores the theory behind it, and how the very principles can be used to put these concepts into practice. The paper demonstrates some advertising samples applying visual hierarchy and mind motion in a representation of applying the basics and discussing the results.
Interacting with image hierarchies for fast and accurate object segmentation
Beard, David V.; Eberly, David H.; Hemminger, Bradley M.; Pizer, Stephen M.; Faith, R. E.; Kurak, Charles; Livingston, Mark
1994-05-01
Object definition is an increasingly important area of medical image research. Accurate and fairly rapid object definition is essential for measuring the size and, perhaps more importantly, the change in size of anatomical objects such as kidneys and tumors. Rapid and fairly accurate object definition is essential for 3D real-time visualization including both surgery planning and Radiation oncology treatment planning. One approach to object definition involves the use of 3D image hierarchies, such as Eberly's Ridge Flow. However, the image hierarchy segmentation approach requires user interaction in selecting regions and subtrees. Further, visualizing and comprehending the anatomy and the selected portions of the hierarchy can be problematic. In this paper we will describe the Magic Crayon tool which allows a user to define rapidly and accurately various anatomical objects by interacting with image hierarchies such as those generated with Eberly's Ridge Flow algorithm as well as other 3D image hierarchies. Preliminary results suggest that fairly complex anatomical objects can be segmented in under a minute with sufficient accuracy for 3D surgery planning, 3D radiation oncology treatment planning, and similar applications. Potential modifications to the approach for improved accuracy are summarized.
Visual Hierarchy and Mind Motion in Advertising Design
Doaa Farouk Badawy Eldesouky
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Visual hierarchy is a significant concept in the field of advertising, a field that is dominated by effective communication, visual recognition and motion. Designers of advertisements have always been trying to organize the visual hierarchy throughout their advertising designs to aid the eye to recognize information in the desired order, to achieve the ultimate goals of clear perception and effectively delivering the advertising messages. However many assumptions and questions usually rise on how to create effective hierarchy throughout advertising designs and lead the eye and mind of the viewer in the most favorable way. This paper attempts to study visual hierarchy and mind motion in advertising designs and why it is important to develop visual paths when designing an advertisement. It explores the theory behind it, and how the very principles can be used to put these concepts into practice. The paper demonstrates some advertising samples applying visual hierarchy and mind motion in a representation of applying the basics and discussing the results.
Organising evidence for environmental management decisions: a '4S' hierarchy.
Dicks, Lynn V; Walsh, Jessica C; Sutherland, William J
2014-11-01
Making decisions informed by the best-available science is an objective for many organisations managing the environment or natural resources. Yet, available science is still not widely used in environmental policy and practice. We describe a '4S' hierarchy for organising relevant science to inform decisions. This hierarchy has already revolutionised clinical practice. It is beginning to emerge for environmental management, although all four levels need substantial development before environmental decision-makers can reliably and efficiently find the evidence they need. We expose common bypass routes that currently lead to poor or biased representation of scientific knowledge. We argue that the least developed level of the hierarchy is that closest to decision-makers, placing synthesised scientific knowledge into environmental decision support systems. PMID:25280588
Dispersionless Toda hierarchy and two-dimensional string theory
The dispersionless Toda hierarchy turns out to lie in the heart of a recently proposed Landau-Ginzburg formulation of two-dimensional string theory at self-dual compactification radius. The dynamics of massless tachyons with discrete momenta is shown to be encoded into the structure of a special solution of this integrable hierarchy. This solution is obtained by solving a Riemann-Hilbert problem. Equivalence to the tachyon dynamics is proven by deriving recursion relations of tachyon correlation functions in the machinery of the dispersionless Toda hierarchy. Fundamental ingredients of the Landau-Ginzburg formulation, such as Landau-Ginzburg potentials and tachyon Landau-Ginzburg fields, are translated into the language of the Lax formalism. Furthermore, a wedge algebra is pointed out to exist behind the Riemann-Hilbert problem, and speculations on its possible role as generators of ''extra'' states and fields are presented. (orig.)
Self-organizing social hierarchies in a timid society
Odagaki, T; Odagaki, Takashi; Tsujiguchi, Masaru
2005-01-01
Emergence of hierarchies is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in a timid society where all individuals are pacifist. The self-organiztion of hierarchies is shown to occur in two steps as the population is increased, i.e. there are three states, one egalitarian and two hierarchical states;the transition from the egalitarian to the first hierarchical state is continuous and the transition from the first hierachical state to the second one is discontinuous. In the first hierarchical society, all individuals belong to either middle class or losers and no winners appear. In the second hierarchical society, many winners emerge and the population of the middle class is reduced. The hierarchy in the second hierarchical society is stronger than the hierachy in a no-preference society studied by Bonabeau et al [ Physica A{\\bf 217}, 373 (1995)
Learning Concept Hierarchies from Text Corpora using Formal Concept Analysis
Cimiano, P; Staab, S; 10.1613/jair.1648
2011-01-01
We present a novel approach to the automatic acquisition of taxonomies or concept hierarchies from a text corpus. The approach is based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), a method mainly used for the analysis of data, i.e. for investigating and processing explicitly given information. We follow Harris distributional hypothesis and model the context of a certain term as a vector representing syntactic dependencies which are automatically acquired from the text corpus with a linguistic parser. On the basis of this context information, FCA produces a lattice that we convert into a special kind of partial order constituting a concept hierarchy. The approach is evaluated by comparing the resulting concept hierarchies with hand-crafted taxonomies for two domains: tourism and finance. We also directly compare our approach with hierarchical agglomerative clustering as well as with Bi-Section-KMeans as an instance of a divisive clustering algorithm. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of using different measures wei...
Hierarchy-Direction Selective Approach for Locally Adaptive Sparse Grids
Stoyanov, Miroslav K [ORNL
2013-09-01
We consider the problem of multidimensional adaptive hierarchical interpolation. We use sparse grids points and functions that are induced from a one dimensional hierarchical rule via tensor products. The classical locally adaptive sparse grid algorithm uses an isotropic refinement from the coarser to the denser levels of the hierarchy. However, the multidimensional hierarchy provides a more complex structure that allows for various anisotropic and hierarchy selective refinement techniques. We consider the more advanced refinement techniques and apply them to a number of simple test functions chosen to demonstrate the various advantages and disadvantages of each method. While there is no refinement scheme that is optimal for all functions, the fully adaptive family-direction-selective technique is usually more stable and requires fewer samples.
Solving negative and mixed Toda hierarchies by Jacobi inversion problems
Yang, Xiao, E-mail: yx@zzu.edu.cn; Du, Dianlou, E-mail: ddl@zzu.edu.cn
2015-03-20
The Jacobi inversion problems of negative and mixed Toda hierarchies are investigated through a symplectic map and some finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. Each negative equation is decomposed into the symplectic flow and a negative Hamiltonian flow, each mixed equation is decomposed into the symplectic flow and a mixed Hamiltonian flow. The separated variables are introduced to study these Hamiltonian systems. Based on the Hamilton–Jacobi theory, the relationship between the action-angle coordinates and the Jacobi-inversion problems is established. - Highlights: • Negative and mixed Toda hierarchies are presented. • They are proved to be integrable Hamiltonian systems. • The Jacobi inversion problems for the Hamiltonian systems are given.
Specific Read Only Data Management for Memory Hierarchy Optimization
Vaumourin, Gregory; Thomas, Dombek; Alexandre, Guerre; Barthou, Denis
2014-01-01
The multiplication of the number of cores inside embedded systems has raised the pressure on the memory hierarchy. The cost of coherence protocol and the scalability problem of the memory hierarchy is nowadays a major issue. In this paper, a specific data management for read-only data is in-vestigated because these data can be duplicated in several memories without being tracked. Based on analysis of stan-dard benchmarks for embedded systems, we show that read-only data represent 62% of all t...
A New Lie Algebra and Its Related Liouville Integrable Hierarchies
A new Lie algebra G and its two types of loop algebras G-tilde1 and G-tilde2 are constructed. Basing on G-tilde1 and G-tilde2, two different isospectral problems are designed, furthermore, two Liouville integrable soliton hierarchies are obtained respectively under the framework of zero curvature equation, which is derived from the compatibility of the isospectral problems expressed by Hirota operators. At the same time, we obtain the Hamiltonian structure of the first hierarchy and the bi-Hamiltonian structure of the second one with the help of the quadratic-form identity. (general)
Exploring memory hierarchy design with emerging memory technologies
Sun, Guangyu
2013-01-01
This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc.Â The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the ""memory wall.""Â The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification;Â hybrid memory structure is intro
Headwater biodiversity among different levels of stream habitat hierarchy
Göthe, Emma; Friberg, Nikolai; Kahlert, Maria;
2014-01-01
of a- and b-diversity to y-diversity between two levels of stream habitat hierarchy (catchment and region level). The relationship between species community structure and local environmental factors was also assessed. Our results show that both a- and b-diversity made a significant contribution to y......-diversity. b-diversity remained relatively constant between the two levels of habitat hierarchy even though local environmental control of the biota decreased from the catchment to the region level. To capture most of headwater y-diversity, management should therefore target sites that are locally diverse...
Solving negative and mixed Toda hierarchies by Jacobi inversion problems
The Jacobi inversion problems of negative and mixed Toda hierarchies are investigated through a symplectic map and some finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. Each negative equation is decomposed into the symplectic flow and a negative Hamiltonian flow, each mixed equation is decomposed into the symplectic flow and a mixed Hamiltonian flow. The separated variables are introduced to study these Hamiltonian systems. Based on the Hamilton–Jacobi theory, the relationship between the action-angle coordinates and the Jacobi-inversion problems is established. - Highlights: • Negative and mixed Toda hierarchies are presented. • They are proved to be integrable Hamiltonian systems. • The Jacobi inversion problems for the Hamiltonian systems are given
Addendum: Neutrino Mass Hierarchy Determination Using Reactor Antineutrinos
Ghoshal, Pomita
2012-01-01
We update our study of neutrino mass hierarchy determination using a high statistics reactor electron anti-neutrino experiment in the light of the recent evidences of a relatively large non-zero value of \\theta_{13} from the Daya Bay and RENO experiments. We find that there are noticeable modifications in the results, which allow a relaxation in the detector's characteristics, such as the energy resolution and exposure, required to obtain a significant sensitivity to, or to determine, the neutrino mass hierarchy in such a reactor experiment.
Open intersection numbers, matrix models and MKP hierarchy
Alexandrov, A
2014-01-01
In this paper we claim that the generating function of the intersection numbers on the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with boundary, constructed recently by R. Pandharipande, J. Solomon and R. Tessler and extended by A. Buryak, is a tau-function of the KP integrable hierarchy. Moreover, it is given by a simple modification of the Kontsevich matrix integral so that the generating functions of open and closed intersection numbers are described by the MKP integrable hierarchy. Virasoro constraints for the open intersection numbers naturally follow from the matrix integral representation.
An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy
Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
We present an abstract machine and a reduction semantics for the lambda-calculus extended with control operators that give access to delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy. The abstract machine is derived from an evaluator in continuation-passing style (CPS); the reduction semantics (i.e., a...... small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes and...
An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy
Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2005-01-01
We present an abstract machine and a reduction semantics for the lambda-calculus extended with control operators that give access to delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy. The abstract machine is derived from an evaluator in continuation-passing style (CPS); the reduction semantics (i.e., a...... small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes and...
A radiative model with a naturally mild neutrino mass hierarchy
Many neutrino mass models postulate the existence of at least two extra fermions in order to account for the measured solar and atmospheric mass splittings. In these models, however, the predicted hierarchy between the two mass splittings is generically much larger than the observed one, unless extra flavor symmetries are introduced. We present in this Letter a radiative neutrino mass model consisting of the Standard Model extended by one heavy fermionic singlet and two scalars which predicts, under very general conditions, a neutrino mass hierarchy in qualitative agreement with the experimental value.
Fractal structure of data reference applications to the memory hierarchy
McNutt, Bruce
2000-01-01
The architectural concept of a memory hierarchy has been immensely successful, making possible today's spectacular pace of technology evolution in both the volume of data and the speed of data access. Its success is difficult to understand, however, when examined within the traditional 'memoryless' framework of performance analysis. The 'memoryless' framework cannot properly reflect a memory hierarchy's ability to take advantage of patterns of data use that are transient. This work both introduces, and justifies empirically, an alternative modelling framework in which arrivals are driven by a
Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice equations are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rational type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws about the positive hierarchy.
LI Xin-Yue; ZHAO Qiu-Lan
2009-01-01
Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice equations are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rationed type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws about the positive hierarchy.
Principles of Organization in Young Children's Natural Language Hierarchies.
Callanan, Maureen A.; Markman, Ellen M.
1982-01-01
When preschool children think of objects as organized into collections (e.g., forest, army) they solve certain problems better than when they think of the same objects as organized into classes (e.g., trees, soldiers). Present studies indicate preschool children occasionally distort natural language inclusion hierarchies (e.g., oak, tree) into the…
Tau Functions and Virasoro Actions for soliton Hierarchies
Terng, Chuu-Lian; Uhlenbeck, Karen
2016-02-01
There is a general method for constructing a soliton hierarchy from a splitting {{L_{±}}} of a loop group as positive and negative sub-groups together with a commuting linearly independent sequence in the positive Lie algebra {{L}+}. Many known soliton hierarchies can be constructed this way. The formal inverse scattering associates to each f in the negative subgroup {L_-} a solution {uf} of the hierarchy. When there is a 2 co-cycle of the Lie algebra that vanishes on both sub-algebras, Wilson constructed a tau function {τf} for each element {f in L_-}. In this paper, we give integral formulas for variations of {lnτf} and second partials of {lnτf}, discuss whether we can recover solutions {uf} from {τf}, and give a general construction of actions of the positive half of the Virasoro algebra on tau functions. We write down formulas relating tau functions and formal inverse scattering solutions and the Virasoro vector fields for the {GL(n,{C})}-hierarchy.
Factorization and resummation for generic hierarchies between Jets
Pietrulewicz, Piotr; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.
2016-08-01
Jets are an important probe to identify the hard interaction of interest at the LHC. They are routinely used in Standard Model precision measurements as well as in searches for new heavy particles, including jet substructure methods. In processes with several jets, one typically encounters hierarchies in the jet transverse momenta and/or dijet invariant masses. Large logarithms of the ratios of these kinematic jet scales in the cross section are at present primarily described by parton showers. We present a general factorization framework called SCET+, which is an extension of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and allows for a systematic higher-order resummation of such kinematic logarithms for generic jet hierarchies. In SCET+ additional intermediate soft/collinear modes are used to resolve jets arising from additional soft and/or collinear QCD emissions. The resulting factorized cross sections utilize collinear splitting amplitudes and soft gluon currents and fully capture spin and color correlations. We discuss how to systematically combine the different kinematic regimes to obtain a complete description of the jet phase space. To present its application in a simple context, we use the case of e + e - → 3 jets. We then discuss in detail the application to N -jet processes at hadron colliders, considering representative classes of hierarchies from which the general case can be built. This includes in particular multiple hierarchies that are either strongly ordered in angle or energy or not.
Object class hierarchy for an incremental hypertext editor
A. Colesnicov
1995-02-01
Full Text Available The object class hierarchy design is considered due to a hypertext editor implementation. The following basic classes were selected: the editor's coordinate system, the memory manager, the text buffer executing basic editing operations, the inherited hypertext buffer, the edit window, the multi-window shell. Special hypertext editing features, the incremental hypertext creation support and further generalizations are discussed.
An M theory solution to the hierarchy problem
An old idea for explaining the hierarchy is strong gauge dynamics. We show that such dynamics also stabilises the moduli in M theory compactifications on manifolds of G2-holonomy without fluxes. This gives stable vacua with softly broken susy, grand unification and a distinctive spectrum of TeV and sub-TeV sparticle masses. (author)
Graph-theoretic algorithm for hierarchial decomposition of dynamic systems
Pichai, V.; Sezer, M.E.; Siljak, D.D.
1982-03-24
A graph-theoretic scheme is proposed for partitioning of dynamic systems into hierarchially ordered subsystems having independent inputs and outputs. The resulting subsystems are input-output reachable as well as structurally controllable and observable, so that a piece-by-piece design of estimators and controllers can be accomplished for systems with large dimensions without excessive computer requirements.
A Super Extension of Kaup-Newell Hierarchy
With the help of the zero-curvature equation and the super trace identity, we derive a super extension of the Kaup-Newell hierarchy associated with a 3 x 3 matrix spectral problem and establish its super bi-Hamiltonian structures. Furthermore, infinite conservation laws of the super Kaup-Newell equation are obtained by using spectral parameter expansions. (general)
A formula relating infinitesimal Backlund transformations to hierarchy generating operators
Let u'=Bsub(eta)u and l be, respectively, the elementary Backlund transformation and hierarchy generating operators for the AKNS equations. It is shown that (dB/d eta)(Bsub(eta))-1=σ3/(l-eta). A similar formula relating to the general NxN matrix spectral problem is also derived. (author)
Factorization and resummation for generic hierarchies between jets
Jets are an important probe to identify the hard interaction of interest at the LHC. They are routinely used in Standard Model precision measurements as well as in searches for new heavy particles, including jet substructure methods. In processes with several jets, one typically encounters hierarchies in the jet transverse momenta and/or dijet invariant masses. Large logarithms of the ratios of these kinematic jet scales in the cross section are at present primarily described by parton showers. We present a general factorization framework called SCET+, which is an extension of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and allows for a systematic higher-order resummation of such kinematic logarithms for generic jet hierarchies. In SCET+ additional intermediate soft/collinear modes are used to resolve jets arising from additional soft and/or collinear QCD emissions. The resulting factorized cross sections utilize collinear splitting amplitudes and soft gluon currents and fully capture spin and color correlations. We discuss how to systematically combine the different kinematic regimes to obtain a complete description of the jet phase space. To present its application in a simple context, we use the case of e+e- → 3 jets. We then discuss in detail the application to N-jet processes at hadron colliders, considering representative classes of hierarchies from which the most general case can be built. This includes in particular multiple hierarchies that are either strongly ordered in angle or energy or not.
Shifting and Narrowing Masculinity Hierarchies in Physical Education: Status Matters
Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine boys' perceptions of masculinity hierarchies in adventure physical education in relation to past experiences in sport-based physical education and their evolving views about physical activity in their lives. Theoretical principles of masculinity guided this study. Data were collected with 55 male high…
Phase transition in hierarchy model of Bonabeau et al
Stauffer, Dietrich
2002-01-01
The model of Bonabeau explains the emergence of social hierarchies from the memory of fights in an initially egalitarian society. Introducing a feedback from the social inequality into the probability to win a fight, we find a sharp transition between egalitarian society at low population density and hierarchical society at high population density.
A Predicative Harmonization of the Time and Provable Hierarchies
Caporaso, Salvatore
2006-01-01
A decidable transfinite hierarchy is defined by assigning ordinals to the programs of an imperative language. It singles out: the classes TIMEF(n^c) and TIMEF(n_c); the finite Grzegorczyk classes at and above the elementary level, and the \\Sigma_k-IND fragments of PA. Limited operators, diagonalization, and majorization functions are not used.
Restructuring Large Data Hierarchies for Scientific Query Tools
Thomas, M
2005-02-08
Today's large-scale scientific simulations produce data sets tens to hundreds of terabytes in size. The DataFoundry project is developing querying and analysis tools for these data sets. The Approximate Ad-Hoc Query Engine for Simulation Data (AQSIM) uses a multi-resolution, tree-shaped data structure that allows users to place runtime limits on queries over scientific simulation data. In this AQSIM data hierarchy, each node in the tree contains an abstract model describing all of the information contained in the subtree below that node. AQSIM is able to create the data hierarchy in a single pass. However, the nodes in the hierarchy frequently have low node fanout, which leads to inefficient I/O behavior during query processing. Low node fanout is a common problem in tree-shaped indices. This paper presents a set of one-pass tree ''pruning'' algorithms that efficiently restructure the data hierarchy by removing inner nodes, thereby increasing node fanout. As our experimental results show, the best approach is a combination of two algorithms, one that focuses on increasing node fanout and one that attempts to reduce the maximum tree height.
Goal hierarchy: Improving asset data quality by improving motivation
Many have recognized the need for high quality data on assets and the problems in obtaining them, particularly when there is a need for human observation and manual recording. Yet very few have looked at the role of the data collectors themselves in the data quality process. This paper argues that there are benefits to more fully understanding the psychological factors that lay behind data collection and we use goal hierarchy theory to understand these factors. Given the myriad of potential reasons for poor-quality data it has previously proven difficult to identify and successfully deploy employee-driven interventions; however, the goal hierarchy approach looks at all of the goals that an individual has in their life and the connections between them. For instance, does collecting data relate to whether or not they get a promotion? Stay safe? Get a new job? and so on. By eliciting these goals and their connections we can identify commonalities across different groups, sites or organizations that can influence the quality of data collection. Thus, rather than assuming what the data collectors want, a goal hierarchy approach determines that empirically. Practically, this supports the development of customized interventions that will be much more effective and sustainable than previous efforts. - Highlights: → We need to consider psychological aspects of data collectors to improve data quality. → We show how goal hierarchy theory furthers understanding. → Looks at the multiple goals of each individual to determine their behavior.
Ways to remember disasters - inclusions, exclusions and hierarchies
Andersen, Nina Blom
2009-01-01
Title: Ways to remember disasters ? inclusions, exclusions and hierarchies Abstract: Some disasters are given much attention and get their own place in history. But how are these events remembered in society and why is it that some disasters are forgotten right away? These are the questions...
Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies
Visvader, Jane E; Clevers, Hans
2016-01-01
Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in quiesc
The polynomial and linear time hierarchies in V-0
Kolodziejczyk, L.. A.; Thapen, Neil
2009-01-01
Roč. 55, č. 5 (2009), s. 509-514. ISSN 0942-5616 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Prefix parity * linear hierarchy * bounded arithmetic * bounded depth circuits Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.523, year: 2009
Reactions to Crime as a Hierarchy Regulating Strategy:
Green, Eva G. T.; Thomsen, Lotte; Sidanius, Jim;
2009-01-01
differential judgments of national ingroup and immigrant outgroup offenders reflect hierarchy regulating strategies. Study 1 (N = 94) revealed that egalitarians (low on SDO) were more lenient toward outgroup offenders and their ethnic group (Arab immigrants) when compared to ingroup offenders and their...
Knowledge-Based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy
Garicano, Luis; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban
2015-01-01
Incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues such as the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms,…
Supersymmetry : the ultimate hierarchy of matter? Exhibition LEPFest 2000
2000-01-01
The concept of "Supersymmetry", SUSY for short, promises a solution to the 'hierarchy' problem: the mystery of the enormous ratio between the electroweak scale (at 100-300 GeV), defined by the masses of the W and Z particles, and possibly the Higgs particle, and the Planck scale (10 19 GeV), when gravitational effects become comparable to the other forces.
Social hierarchy and depression: the role of emotion suppression.
Langner, Carrie A; Epel, Elissa S; Matthews, Karen A; Moskowitz, Judith T; Adler, Nancy E
2012-01-01
Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of women. Low social power was related to greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by emotion suppression. Study 2 examined education as a proxy for social hierarchy position, anger suppression, and depressive symptoms in a national, longitudinal cohort study (The coronary artery risk development in young adults [CARDIA] study; Cutter et al., 1991). Much as in study 1, low education levels were correlated with greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by anger suppression. Further, suppression mediated the relationship between low education and subsequent depression up to 15 years later. These findings support the theory that social hierarchy affects mental health in part through a process of emotion suppression. PMID:22808688