Kasso, Mohammed; Balakrishnan, Mundanthra
Order Chiroptera is the second most diverse and abundant order of mammals with great physiological and ecological diversity. They play important ecological roles as prey and predator, arthropod suppression, seed dispersal, pollination, material and nutrient distribution, and recycle. They have great advantage and disadvantage in economic terms. The economic benefits obtained from bats include biological pest control, plant pollination, seed dispersal, guano mining, bush meat and medicine, aes...
M. Brock Fenton
Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.
Khwanmunee, Jiraporn; Leelawatwattana, Ladda; Prapunpoj, Porntip
Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. Although many extensive morphologic and molecular genetics analyses have been attempted, phylogenetic relationships of bats has not been completely resolved. The paraphyly of microbats is of particular controversy that needs to be confirmed. In this study, we attempted to use the nucleotide sequence of transthyretin (TTR) intron 1 to resolve the relationship among bats. To explore its utility, the complete sequences of TTR gene and intron 1 region of bats in Vespertilionidae: genus Eptesicus (Eptesicus fuscus) and genus Myotis (Myotis brandtii, Myotis davidii, and Myotis lucifugus), and Pteropodidae (Pteropus alecto and Pteropus vampyrus) were extracted from the retrieved sequences, whereas those of Rhinoluphus affinis and Scotophilus kuhlii were amplified and sequenced. The derived overall amino sequences of bat TTRs were found to be very similar to those in other eutherians but differed from those in other classes of vertebrates. However, missing of amino acids from N-terminal or C-terminal region was observed. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences suggested bat and other eutherian TTRs lineal descent from a single most recent common ancestor which differed from those of non-placental mammals and the other classes of vertebrates. The splicing of bat TTR precursor mRNAs was similar to those of other eutherian but different from those of marsupial, bird, reptile and amphibian. Based on TTR intron 1 sequence, the inferred evolutionary relationship within Chiroptera revealed more closely relatedness of R. affinis to megabats than to microbats. Accordingly, the paraphyly of microbats was suggested. PMID:26681450
Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.
A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During seve...
Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo
Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature a
Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania
The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America. PMID:24912354
Fang, Lu; Shen, Bin; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi
Glycogen synthase, which catalyzes the synthesis of glycogen, is especially important for Old World (Pteropodidae) and New World (Phyllostomidae) fruit bats that ingest high-carbohydrate diets. Glycogen synthase 1, encoded by the Gys1 gene, is the glycogen synthase isozyme that functions in muscles. To determine whether Gys1 has undergone adaptive evolution in bats with carbohydrate-rich diets, in comparison to insect-eating sister bat taxa, we sequenced the coding region of the Gys1 gene from 10 species of bats, including two Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and a New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our results show no evidence for positive selection in the Gys1 coding sequence on the ancestral Old World and the New World Artibeus lituratus branches. Tests for convergent evolution indicated convergence of the sequences and one parallel amino acid substitution (T395A) was detected on these branches, which was likely driven by natural selection. PMID:25001420
Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Park, Jongbin; Lee, Sang-Goo; Kim, Eun Bae
Complete mitochondria genome sequences of myotis petax (Chiroptera; Microchiroptera; Vespertilionidae) were first identified in the present study. The sequences were obtained from the four individuals and composition of nucleotide AT and GC was about 64.58% and 35.42%, respectively. The lengths of mitogenomes were ranged from 17 296 to 17 299 bp. Total 51 variable sites were observed in the four mitogenomes and 38 sites were singleton polymorphic sites. Phylogenic study revealed that the species would have relatively closed evolutionary distance with m. macrodactylus rather than other species in the genus, myotis. Present study will provide important genomic materials supporting confirmation of taxon of species called bats, which is included in one of the largest orders among the mammals. PMID:26332748
Gustavo Graciolli; Alexsander Araújo Azevedo
Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae). Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934), Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographic...
Benda, P.; Faizolahi, K.; Andreas, M.; Obuch, J.; Reiter, A.; Ševčík, M.; Uhrin, M.; Vallo, Peter; Ashrafi, S.
Roč. 76, 3-4 (2012), s. 163-562. ISSN 1211-376X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : distribution * ecology * echolocation * ectoparasites * Chiroptera * Iran * Middle East * Palaearctic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B
Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2 %) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal. PMID:26912332
Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Volleth, Marianne; Gollahon, Lauren S; Fu, Beiyuan; Cheng, William; Ng, Bee L.; Yang, Fengtang; Baker, Robert J.
Background New World leaf-nosed bats, Phyllostomidae, represent a lineage of Chiroptera marked by unprecedented morphological/ecological diversity and extensive intergeneric chromosomal reorganization. There are still disagreements regarding their systematic relationships due to morphological convergence among some groups. Their history of karyotypic evolution also remains to be documented. Results To better understand the evolutionary relationships within Phyllostomidae, we developed chromos...
Benda, P.; Červený, J.; Konečný, Adam; Reiter, A.; Ševčík, M.; Uhrin, M.; Vallo, Peter
Roč. 41, - (2010), s. 151-166. ISSN 0024-7774 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * North Africa * Western Sahara * distribution * echolocation * Maghreb Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Smith, Thierry; Rana, Rajendra S.; Missiaen, Pieter; Rose, Kenneth D.; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Hukam; Singh, Lachham
The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the Middle Eocene. In this paper, we report the discovery of the oldest bat fauna of Asia dating from the Early Eocene of the Cambay Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine in Western India. The fossil taxa are described on the basis of well-preserved fragments of dentaries and lower teeth. The fauna is highly diversified and is represented by seven species belonging to seven genera and at least four families. Two genera and five species are new. Three species exhibit very primitive dental characters, whereas four others indicate more advanced states. Unexpectedly, this fauna presents strong affinities with the European faunas from the French Paris Basin and the German Messel locality. This could result from the limited fossil record of bats in Asia, but could also suggest new palaeobiogeographic scenarios involving the relative position of India during the Early Eocene.
Ao, Lei; Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Gu, Xiaoming; Feng, Qing; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang
Bats are a unique but enigmatic group of mammals and have a world-wide distribution. The phylogenetic relationships of extant bats are far from being resolved. Here, we investigated the karyotypic relationships of representative species from four families of the order Chiroptera by comparative chromosome painting and banding. A complete set of painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of Myotis myotis (family Vespertilionidae) were hybridized onto metaphases of Cynopterus sphinx (2n = 34, family Pteropodidae), Rhinolophus sinicus (2n=36, family Rhinolophidae) and Aselliscus stoliczkanus (2n=30, family Hipposideridae) and delimited 27, 30 and 25 conserved chromosomal segments in the three genomes, respectively. The results substantiate that Robertsonian translocation is the main mode of chromosome evolution in the order Chiroptera, with extensive conservation of whole chromosomal arms. The use of M. myotis (2n=44) probes has enabled the integration of C. sphinx, R. sinicus and A. stoliczkanus chromosomes into the previously established comparative maps between human and Eonycteris spelaea (2n=36), Rhinolophus mehelyi (2n=58), Hipposideros larvatus (2n=32), and M. myotis. Our results provide the first cytogenetic signature rearrangement that supports the grouping of Pteropodidae and Rhinolophoidea in a common clade (i.e. Pteropodiformes or Yinpterochiroptera) and thus improve our understanding on the karyotypic relationships and genome phylogeny of these bat species. PMID:17310301
Dolinay, M.; Martínková, Natália
Brno: Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2013 - (Bryja, J.; Řehák, Z.; Zukal, J.). s. 56-57 ISBN 978-80-87189-14-6. [Zoologické dny. 07.02.2013-08.02.2013, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
C. Srinivasulu; Racey, Paul A.; Shahroukh Mistry
A checklist and dichotomous key to 128 species of bats known from South Asia including Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives is provided. Character matrices for families, genera and species are also included. This article also briefly reviews their distribution (both physiographic and country-wise), status and main identification characters
Full Text Available A checklist and dichotomous key to 128 species of bats known from South Asia including Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives is provided. Character matrices for families, genera and species are also included. This article also briefly reviews their distribution (both physiographic and country-wise, status and main identification characters
Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.
Rojas, Danny; Warsi, Omar M; Dávalos, Liliana M
The mechanisms underlying the high extant biodiversity in the Neotropics have been controversial since the 19th century. Support for the influence of period-specific changes on diversification often rests on detecting more speciation events during a particular period. The timing of speciation events may reflect the influence of incomplete taxon sampling, protracted speciation, and null processes of lineage accumulation. Here we assess the influence of these factors on the timing of speciation with new multilocus data for New World noctilionoid bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea). Biogeographic analyses revealed the importance of the Neotropics in noctilionoid diversification, and the critical role of dispersal. We detected no shift in speciation rate associated with the Quaternary or pre-Quaternary periods, and instead found an increase in speciation linked to the evolution of the subfamily Stenodermatinae (∼18 Ma). Simulations modeling constant speciation and extinction rates for the phylogeny systematically showed more speciation events in the Quaternary. Since recording more divergence events in the Quaternary can result from lineage accumulation, the age of extant sister species cannot be interpreted as supporting higher speciation rates during this period. Instead, analyzing the factors that influence speciation requires modeling lineage-specific traits and environmental, spatial, and ecological drivers of speciation. PMID:26865275
Yoon, Gwang Bae; Park, Yung Chul
The complete mitogenome of the Korean greater tube-nosed bat Murina leucogaster (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) was determined. The mitogenome of M. leucogaster is 16,723 bp in length with a total base composition of 32.8% A, 27.5% T, 25.3% C and 14.4% G. All the protein-coding genes (total length of 11,404 bp) were encoded in H-strand except for ND6 in L-strand. Total length of 22 tRNA genes was 1508 bp varying from 62 bp (tRNA(Ser(AGY))) to 74 bp (tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and tRNA(Gln)). The 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes were 972 and 1558 bp in length, respectively. The D-loop region was 1383 bp in length and included 54 copies of 6 bp tandem repeat (ACGCAT). PMID:25423531
Marco A. R. Mello
Full Text Available Some bat species seem to be lunar phobic, i.e., they avoid flying in bright areas or during bright periods of the night; however, the evidence is still controversial. We think that part of this controversy comes from pooling data on bat captures and moonlight intensity according to broad categories, such as moon phases, which conceal the high variability among nights. Therefore, we used detailed, long-term field data on three phyllostomid bat species, in order to test the hypothesis of lunar phobia at two different time scales: 1 among nights, by pooling data of different nights according to moon phases and testing for differences in the distribution of captures; and 2 within a night, by analyzing the relationship between capturability and moonlight intensity (measured as illuminance in one-hour intervals for 29 individual nights. Although most captures of the studied bat species occurred in the first half of the night, their activity pattern varied largely among nights, and was not always unimodal as commonly assumed. At the larger time scale, all studied bat species showed evidence of lunar phobia, as they were more frequently captured on dark moon phases. Nevertheless, at the smaller time scale, only Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 was less frequently captured on brighter periods of the night. We propose that the unimodal activity pattern assumed for frugivorous phyllostomid bats may be an artifact of data organization, and that activity and lunar phobia are much more variable than previously assumed.
Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.Ectoparasitos de morcegos (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, com a descrição de uma nova espécie de Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae do Brasil. Os poucos dados sobre ectoparasitismo em morcegos furipterídeos são restritos a moscas (Streblidae. Somente três espécies de estreblídeos eram conhecidas antes desse trabalho: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. Outra espécie de Synthesiostrebla é descrita aqui aumentando a distribuição geográfica do gênero para o lado leste dos Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. foi encontrada sobre Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 no sudeste do Brasil. Região anterior do corpo, asa, tergito 7, epiprocto e genitália masculina são ilustrados e uma chave de identificação para fêmeas também é apresentada.
von Helversen Otto; Datzmann Thomas; Mayer Frieder
Abstract Background Bats of the family Phyllostomidae show a unique diversity in feeding specializations. This taxon includes species that are highly specialized on insects, blood, small vertebrates, fruits or nectar, and pollen. Feeding specialization is accompanied by morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations. Several attempts were made to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this family in order to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions accompanied by nutritional ...
Velazco, Paúl M; Lim, Burton K
A new species of broad-nosed bat Platyrrhinus Saussure, 1860 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) from the Guianan Shield is described based on molecular and morphological data. Previously confused with P. helleri and P. recifinus, the new taxon is currently known from only Guyana and Suriname and is most closely related to P. recifinus from eastern Brazil and not to the two sympatric species (P. fusciventris and P. incarum) also recently recognized as distinct from P. helleri. Morphometrically the new taxon overlaps with the smaller species of the genus (P. angustirostris, P. brachycephalus, P. fusciventris, P. helleri, P. incarum, and P. matapalensis), but forms a different cluster from the larger P. recifinus. Morphologically the new taxon is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of external and craniodental characteristics. Platyrrhinus now includes 21 species making it the most speciose genus in the Neotropical family Phyllostomidae. PMID:24870671
Paul Velazco; Bruce Patterson
Abstract Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats Sturnira Gray, 1842 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Central America and western South America are described using molecular and morphological data. The two new species, which occur in Costa Rica and Panama and in western Ecuador, were previously confused with S. ludovici, and S. lilium and S. luisi, respectively. Sturnira now includes 22 described species, making it the most speciose genus in the Neotropical family Phyllostomidae.
Kwang Bae Yoon; Yung Chul Park
The complete mitogenome (NC_021119) of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119). Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.
Kwang Bae Yoon
Full Text Available The complete mitogenome (NC_021119 of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119. Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.
von Helversen Otto
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bats of the family Phyllostomidae show a unique diversity in feeding specializations. This taxon includes species that are highly specialized on insects, blood, small vertebrates, fruits or nectar, and pollen. Feeding specialization is accompanied by morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations. Several attempts were made to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this family in order to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions accompanied by nutritional specialization. Nevertheless, the evolution of nectarivory remained equivocal. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on a concatenated nuclear-and mitochondrial data set, revealed a paraphyletic relationship of nectarivorous phyllostomid bats. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the nectarivorous genera Lonchophylla and Lionycteris are closer related to mainly frugivorous phyllostomids of the subfamilies Rhinophyllinae, Stenodermatinae, Carolliinae, and the insectivorous Glyphonycterinae rather than to nectarivorous bats of the Glossophaginae. This suggests an independent origin of morphological adaptations to a nectarivorous lifestyle within Lonchophyllinae and Glossophaginae. Molecular clock analysis revealed a relatively short time frame of about ten million years for the divergence of subfamilies. Conclusions Our study provides strong support for diphyly of nectarivorous phyllostomids. This is remarkable, since their morphological adaptations to nutrition, like elongated rostrums and tongues, reduced teeth and the ability to use hovering flight while ingestion, closely resemble each other. However, more precise examinations of their tongues (e.g. type and structure of papillae and muscular innervation revealed levels of difference in line with an independent evolution of nectarivory in these bats.
Tereba, A.; Čížková, Dagmar; Sundari, A. A.; Rajan, K. E.; Bogdanowicz, W.
Roč. 3, č. 4 (2011), s. 749-751. ISSN 1877-7252 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Chiroptera * Megaderma lyra * Microsatellites * Polymorphism Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.485, year: 2011
Full Text Available Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto Prima segnalazione di Rinolofo minore Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera in Siria La specie è stata rinvenuta nel 2005-06 con il ritrovamento di due esemplari solitari ibernanti (un maschio e una femmina, rispettivamente in una grotta presso il paese di Basofan, NO di Aleppo e in Al Marqab, Banyas. Per entrambi gli esemplari sono riportate le misure craniali e esterne. Con il ritrovamento del Rinolofo minore la chirotterofauna della Siria è attualmente rappresentata da 17 specie.
Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Ao, Lei; Feng, Qing; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang
Rhinolophus (Rhinolophidae) is the second most speciose genus in Chiroptera and has extensively diversified diploid chromosome numbers (from 2n = 28 to 62). In spite of many attempts to explore the karyotypic evolution of this genus, most studies have been based on conventional Giemsa staining rather than G-banding. Here we have made a whole set of chromosome-specific painting probes from flow-sorted chromosomes of Aselliscus stoliczkanus (Hipposideridae). These probes have been utilized to establish the first genome-wide homology maps among six Rhinolophus species with four different diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 36, 44, 58, and 62) and three species from other families: Rousettus leschenaulti (2n = 36, Pteropodidae), Hipposideros larvatus (2n = 32, Hipposideridae), and Myotis altarium (2n = 44, Vespertilionidae) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. To facilitate integration with published maps, human paints were also hybridized to A. stoliczkanus chromosomes. Our painting results substantiate the wide occurrence of whole-chromosome arm conservation in Rhinolophus bats and suggest that Robertsonian translocations of different combinations account for their karyotype differences. Parsimony analysis using chromosomal characters has provided some new insights into the Rhinolophus ancestral karyotype and phylogenetic relationships among these Rhinolophus species so far studied. In addition to Robertsonian translocations, our results suggest that whole-arm (reciprocal) translocations involving multiple non-homologous chromosomes as well could have been involved in the karyotypic evolution within Rhinolophus, in particular those bats with low and medium diploid numbers. PMID:17899409
Wu, Yi; MOTOKAWA, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi
A new species of the Rhinolophus philippinensis group (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) is described from Guangdong, Guangxi, and Jiangxi Provinces in China. Rhinolophus huananus n. sp. is characterized by the horseshoe, as well as by external and cranial characteristics that separate it at the species level from the other members of the philippinensis group. One of the small species of the philippinensis group, R. huananus is intermediate in size between smaller R. siamensis and larger R. macrotis.
Marília A. S. Barros
Full Text Available In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230 and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min. The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min. Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min, spring (0.26 bat passes/min, and summer (0.29 bat passes/min. Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.
Background New World leaf-nosed bats, Phyllostomidae, represent a lineage of Chiroptera marked by unprecedented morphological/ecological diversity and extensive intergeneric chromosomal reorganization. There are still disagreements regarding their systematic relationships due to morphological convergence among some groups. Their history of karyotypic evolution also remains to be documented. Results To better understand the evolutionary relationships within Phyllostomidae, we developed chromosome paints from the bat species Macrotus californicus. We tested the potential of these paints as phylogenetic tools by looking for chromosomal signatures in two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids whose independent origins have been statistically supported by molecular phylogenies. By examining the chromosomal homologies defined by chromosome painting among two representatives of the subfamily Glossophaginae (Glossophaga soricina and Anoura cultrata) and one species from the subfamily Lonchophyllinae (Lonchophylla concava), we found chromosomal correspondence in regions not previously detected by other comparative cytogenetic techniques. We proposed the corresponding human chromosomal segments for chromosomes of the investigated species and found two syntenic associations shared by G. soricina and A. cultrata. Conclusion Comparative painting with whole chromosome-specific paints of M. californicus demonstrates an extensive chromosomal reorganization within the two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids, with a large number of chromosomes shared between M. californicus and G. soricina. We show that the evolution of nectar-feeding bats occurs mainly by reshuffling of chiropteran Evolutionarily Conserved Units (ECUs). Robertsonian fusions/fissions and inversions seem to be important modifiers of phyllostomid karyotypes, and autapomorphic character states are common within species. Macrotus californicus chromosome paints will be a valuable tool for documenting the pattern of
Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar
Full Text Available We studied the ectoparasitic bat flies of three phyllostomid vampire bat species. Bats were collected monthly from April 2004-March 2005 in caves within the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area in the Federal District of Brazil. A total of 1,259 specimens from six species in the Streblidae family were collected from 332 bats. High host affinity from the sampled bat fly species and high prevalence of bat flies confirms the primary fly-host associations (Strebla wiedemanni, Trichobius parasiticus and Trichobius furmani with Desmodus, Trichobius diaemi and Strebla diaemi with Diaemus and T. furmani with Diphylla. Male flies outnumbered females in several associations. Some of the observed associations (e.g., Strebla mirabilis with Desmodus and S. mirabilis, Trichobius uniformis and S. wiedemanni with Diphylla were inconclusive and the causes of the associations were unclear. There are several explanations for these associations, including (i accidental contamination during sampling, (ii simultaneous capture of several host species in the same net or (iii genuine, but rare, ecological associations. Although various species of vampire bats share roosts, have similar feeding habits and are close phylogenetic relatives, they generally do not share ectoparasitic streblid bat flies. T. diaemi and S. diaemi associations with Diaemus youngi have not been previously reported in this region.
Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi
Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet. PMID:24824435
Full Text Available Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.
Albinism in the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffrey, 1810) was already reported for seven individuals, six of them did in Brazil. Although this species is relatively easy to keep in captivity and many studies with normally pigmented bats were did under laboratory conditions, no reports on detailed observations of captive albino vampire bats were found in literature. This paper reports some behavioral observation of a single albino female D. rotundus kept in captivity in Brazil b...
Silveira, Maurício; Trevelin, Leonardo; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Godoi, Simone; Mandetta, Elizabeth Neuenhaus; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P.
We studied the potential contribution of frugivorous bats to the reestablishment of vegetational diversity in a restored area. We analysed the diets of the bat species and the differences between them in the consumption of fruits of autochtonous and allochthonous species. Planted (autochtonous) species were the basis of diets, especially Solanum mauritianum and Cecropia pachystachya, whereas for allochthonous species we found that Piperaceae to be of particular importance. Carollia perspicillata was the main seed disperser for allochthonous species, and potentially the most important bat in the promotion of vegetation diversity in the study area. Our results suggest that frugivorous bats are especially important in the reestablishment of vegetation in disturbed areas, and that restorarion efforts should focus on the planting of different zoochorous species that would guarantee a high year-round fruit production, thereby facilitating natural plant reestablishment by frugivorous bats in regenerating areas.
Ribeiro Mello, Marco Aurelio
In the present study, I described the organization of a Neotropical bat assemblage, and tested whether this organization was variable in time. In an Atlantic Forest reserve in southeastern Brazil bats were captured monthly with mist nets over 4 years, and individuals were classified into guilds. I analyzed only leaf-nosed bats, and observed that guilds of fruit-eating bats dominated the assemblage. This pattern was repeated across months and years. However, among frugivores, canopy and understory guilds peaked during different months, but in both cases during the rainy season, while variation among habitat-opportunistic species was not explained by rainfall. The most reliable ecological service delivered by phyllostomid bats in the area is seed dispersal, although other services may be also important in particular seasons. My results suggest that the observed patterns of temporal species turnover are related to the abundance of preferred food items.
Wiles, G.J.; Jonhson, N.C.
Based on count results, we estimated the population of Mariana fruit bats (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands, to number 150-200 bats in 1999, 185-235 bats in 2000, and about 300-400 bats in 2001. Our results, plus those of two previous surveys, indicate that bat abundance on the island probably remained relatively stable at about 125-235 animals during much of the period from 1983 to 2000, then increased suddenly in 2001, most likely due to immigration from a neighboring island. Sarigan's population differs from those of larger islands in the archipelago by usually having smaller roost sizes, typically 3-75 bats, and large numbers of solitary bats that at times comprise up to half of the population. Colonies and smaller aggregations were composed primarily of harems with multiple females, whereas a nearly equal sex ratio occurred among solitary animals. Colonies roosted in isolated coconut trees in open grasslands and in native forest stands of various sizes, but avoided dense coconut forest. An estimated 30-50% of harem and solitary females possessed young in July 1999. Bats were recorded feeding on just six species of plants, which partly reflects the island's impoverished flora. We speculate that fruit bat abundance on Sarigan is limited primarily by food availability rather than hunting losses, in contrast to some other islands in the Marianas. Our study supports the contention that populations of P. mariannus in the northern Marianas are usually sedentary, but that interisland movements of larger numbers of bats may occur rarely. ?? 2004 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.
Enders, A C; Jones, C J P; Taylor, P J;
Bats are a highly successful, widely distributed group, with considerable variation in placental structure. The Egyptian slit-faced bat Nycteris thebaica is a member of one of the few families with previously undescribed placentation. It was found that, although the interhemal type of the Nycteris...... placenta is endotheliochorial with a single layer of cytotrophoblast, the arborizing pattern of the maternal vessels and especially the extraordinary major placental artery differs from the placenta of the emballonurid bats to which this family is considered to be most closely related. The major placental...... other bat species. The paraplacenta is extensive with abundant fetal vessels underlying cytotrophoblast and syncytial trophoblast layers, fronting on an endometrium that largely lacks uterine epithelial cells but has large decidual cells and is poorly vascularized. The placenta of Nycteris lacks a...
José Luís García-García; Antonio Santos-Moreno; Arisbe Rodríguez-Alamilla
The fruit-eating bat, Dermanura tolteca, has a broad geographic distribution in Mexico and it is a very important seed dispersal of Neotropical plants. Nonetheless, information on the biology of this bat species is scarce, especially with regard to demography. We studied some ecological aspects and population dynamics of D. tolteca from Southeastern Mexican State of Oaxaca. The study was conducted in a perennial tropical forest, over a period of 80 nights, a sampling effort of 73 200 mist-net...
Full Text Available Descriptive and comparative studies on tongue of nineteen Molossidae, one Mystacinidae, and four Vespertilionidae bats species were carried out. Analysis was restricted to the external morphology, covering general shape of the tongue and its papillae. Types of papillae and their distribution presented considerable intergeneric variation, considering the strictly insectivorous feeding habits of these bats. Distribution of the data of tongue morphology is analyzed and compared with the phylogenetic schemes proposed previously and comments about evolutionary relationships among taxa were done.
Kanagaraj, C; Marimuthu, G.; Emmanuvel Rajan, K.
In mitochondrial DNA, variations in the sequence of 16S rRNA region were analyzed to infer the genetic relationship and population history of three sympatric hipposiderid bats, Hipposideros speoris, H. fulvus and H. ater. Based on the DNA sequence data, we observed relatively lower haplotype and higher nucleotide diversity in H. speoris than in the other two species. The pairwise comparisons of the genetic divergence inferred a genetic relationship between the three hipposiderid bats. We used...
Descriptive and comparative studies on tongue of nineteen Molossidae, one Mystacinidae, and four Vespertilionidae bats species were carried out. Analysis was restricted to the external morphology, covering general shape of the tongue and its papillae. Types of papillae and their distribution presented considerable intergeneric variation, considering the strictly insectivorous feeding habits of these bats. Distribution of the data of tongue morphology is analyzed and compared with the phylogen...
ALBAYRAK, İrfan; AŞAN, Nursel; YORULMAZ, Tarkan
Aspects of the ecology, karyology, and taxonomic status of the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, in the Mediterranean region of Turkey were investigated based on 41 specimens obtained between 1977 and 2003. Distribution, external and cranial morphometrics, pelage coloration, baculum morphology, karyology, colony size, roosting and feeding ecology, and conservation and management issues were recorded. The fruit bat in Turkey is represented by the nominate subspecies, R. a. aegyptiacus...
The diet, activity and reproductive patterns of several species of bats were investigated in primary forests of Central Amazon. Between August 1996 and August 1997, using mist nets set both at canopy and understorey levels, 936 bats, belonging to 51 species, 31 genera and 6 families were captured. Fecal samples from 35 species were examined, with four food categories and 25 food items identified. Time of captures indicate a wide variation, but the major part of the species presented a peak of...
Krizler C. Tanalgo
Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves. In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored. We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines. A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves. Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade. Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community.
Benda, P.; Lučan, R. K.; Obuch, J.; Reiter, A.; Andreas, M.; Bačkor, P.; Bohnenstengel, T.; Eid, E. K.; Ševčík, M.; Vallo, Peter; Amr, Z. S.
Roč. 74, 3-4 (2010), s. 185-353. ISSN 1211-376X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * distribution * ecology * echolocation * ectoparasites * Middle East * Jordan * Arabia * Palaearctic Region Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Júlia Lins Luz
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and intensity of Hectopsylla pulex infection in Molossus rufus and Molossus molossus, the parasite's choice of attachment site, and whether this host-parasite system varies with host size. Twenty-four bats were captured by hand from the roof of a house in Southeastern Brazil. M. rufus exhibited a prevalence of 71.4% and the mean intensity averaged 5 ectoparasites per bat. M. molossus exhibited a prevalence of 90%, and the average mean intensity was 2.11 ectoparasites. The attachment sites were: ear, tragus, shoulder blade and tibia, anus, wing, axilla, mouth and dactylopatagium. A positive correlation was observed between the bats' weight and the number of fleas.
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Lee, Jin Hong; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul
The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Asian particolored bat, Vespertilio sinensis, was determined. The genome organization, gene contents, and codon usage conformed to those of other bat mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitogenome of Vespertilio sinensis is 16,971 bp with a total base composition of 32.6% A, 29.6% T, 23.7% C and 14.0% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. PMID:24660937
Roberta Chirichella; Sabrina Mattiroli; Mosè Nodari; Damiano Preatoni; Lucas Wauters; Guido Tosi; Adriano Martinoli
Abstract Bats were censused in the Adamello-Brenta Natural Park (Trentino, central Italian Alps) in May-September 1999 and 2000, by mist-netting and roost surveys. In all, 90 sites (19 caves, 50 buildings and 21 foraging sites), over an area of about 618 km², were checked. The bat species distribution in both the Park and the surrounding areas was obtained by using field data, museum records and literature information. A total of 19 species was recorded:...
Nélio R. dos Reis
Full Text Available A survey of bats species from Monte Alegre Farm is presented. One hundred and two bats of 14 species belonging to Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae were colected. Remarks about reproduction and feeding habits are included.
Nélio R. dos Reis; Adriano L. Peracchi; Margareth L. Sekiama
A survey of bats species from Monte Alegre Farm is presented. One hundred and two bats of 14 species belonging to Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae were colected. Remarks about reproduction and feeding habits are included.
Sylvia Ceppas Teixeira; Adriano L. Peracchi
A preliminary survey of bats species from the Serra da Tiririca State Park is presented. Two hundred and seventy two bats of 20 species were collected. Comments about reproduction and feeding habits of the captured species are included.
van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.; Leirs, Herwig
The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet...
Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Todd, Christopher M.; Miles, Adam C.; Gorresen, P. Marcos
We documented nightly movements of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) on the island of Hawai’i. Based on data from 28 radiotagged individuals mean foraging range (FR) was 230.7±72.3 ha, core-use area (CUA) was 25.5±6.9 ha (or 11.1% of mean FR), and the mean long axis (LAX) across the FR was 3,390.8±754.3 m. There was almost no overlap in CUAs among 4 adult males having overlapping foraging areas and tracked simultaneously or within a 90-day window of each other. CUAs of subadults partially overlapped with multiple adult males or with one other subadult. High variance in FRs, cores use areas, and LAX across the FR perhaps reflect localized stochastic variables such as weather, habitat, and food resources. Hawaiian hoary bats use moderately large FRs among insectivorous bats studied with comparable methodologies; however, foraging activity indicated by documentation of acoustic feeding buzzes is concentrated within one or a few disjunct areas cumulatively forming the 50% fixed kernel of CUA. The concentration of feeding activity, low values of individual overlap, and agonistic chasing behavior within CUAs all demonstrate a structured use of individual space by Hawaiian hoary bats.
Wagner A. Pedro
Full Text Available Data about activity patterns, hourly and monthly, on five phyllostomid bats, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Camilla perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroyi, 1810, studied over a one year period at the Panga Ecological Reserve, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais state, south-eastern Brazil, are reported and discussed.
Wagner A Pedro; Valdir A. Taddei
Data about activity patterns, hourly and monthly, on five phyllostomid bats, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766), Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818), Camilla perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758), Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810) and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroyi, 1810), studied over a one year period at the Panga Ecological Reserve, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais state, south-eastern Brazil, are reported and discussed.
Full Text Available The diet, activity and reproductive patterns of several species of bats were investigated in primary forests of Central Amazon. Between August 1996 and August 1997, using mist nets set both at canopy and understorey levels, 936 bats, belonging to 51 species, 31 genera and 6 families were captured. Fecal samples from 35 species were examined, with four food categories and 25 food items identified. Time of captures indicate a wide variation, but the major part of the species presented a peak of activity around the first hour after sunset. Three reproductive peaks were observed: October-November; January-February; and July-August, but reproductive patterns varied among the families. The structure of the bat fauna in Manaus is similar to other sites in the Amazon and Central America, the main common points being: a a high diversity of bat species, usually more than 40 species representing 6-8 families; b 3-4 very common and geographically widespread species; c most species are represented by a few captures; d frugivorous species dominate the fauna and insectivorous species are less often captured; and e most species cluster in 2-3 guilds, dominated by small (< 12 g species.
França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L
We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort. PMID:24789402
The study was carried out on 89 specimens representing 11 bat species, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, Myotis brandtii, M. bechsteinii, M. myotis, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Nyctalus leisleri, Plecotus auritus and Miniopterus schreibersii. The specimens were collected from the eastern Black Sea region between the 1992 and 1994. Some ecological features of the species and their localities are presented in this study.
Full Text Available In mitochondrial DNA, variations in the sequence of 16S rRNA region were analyzed to infer the genetic relationship and population history of three sympatric hipposiderid bats, Hipposideros speoris, H. fulvus and H. ater. Based on the DNA sequence data, we observed relatively lower haplotype and higher nucleotide diversity in H. speoris than in the other two species. The pairwise comparisons of the genetic divergence inferred a genetic relationship between the three hipposiderid bats. We used haplotype sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analysis generated a tree with similar topology. H. fulvus and H. ater formed one cluster and H. speoris formed another cluster. Analysis of the demographic history of populations using Jajima’s D test revealed past changes in populations. Comparison of the observed distribution of pairwise differences in the nucleotides with expected sudden expansion model accepts for H. fulvus and H. ater but not for H. speoris populations.
Sreepada, K. S.; Koubínová, D.; Konečný, Adam; Koubek, Petr; Ráb, Petr; Rábová, Marie; Zima, Jan
Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 347-357. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : bats * karyotype evolution * chromosome banding Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/4/347-357_MS1427.pdf
BAYDEMİR, Nursel AŞAN; ALBAYRAK, İrfan
This study is based on the records of gestation and lactation periods of 17 bat species (Rousettus aegyptiacus, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, R. blasii, Myotis myotis, M. blythii, M. emarginatus, M. nattereri, M. mystacinus, M. capaccinii, Eptesicus serotinus, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, P. savii, Plecotus auritus, and Miniopterus schreibersii) caught from various localities in Turkey and of the development stages of embryos belonging to Myotis species. It ...
Delgado-Jaramillo, Mariana; Machado, Marjorie; García, Franger J; Ochoa, José
Bats represent a key component in the dynamics of many terrestrial ecosystems, and one of the groups of mammals with the highest levels of diversification in the Neotropics. Here we describe the results of a study of the bat fauna from Yurubí National Park (mountain area in Northern Venezuela), that includes a taxonomic list and the characterization of some community attributes in forested areas. Data was collected from zoological collections and diversified sampling methods from February to July of 2009 in an altitudinal gradient (100-1 500m), with three principal ecological units: semideciduous, evergreen and cloud forests. We recorded 64 species grouped in five families (63% of the bats known from La Cordillera de la Costa), of which Phyllostomidae was the dominant taxa (42 species; 66% of total), followed by Vespertilionidae, Molossidae, Emballonuridae and Mormoopidae. The community with the highest taxonomic diversification was found in the lowest elevation range, while the lowest number of species was found at the highest range. Eleven trophic guilds were identified; the insectivorous guild was the richest, whereas the frugivorous was the most abundant. Our results allow us to indicate these forest ecosystems have an appropriate conservation status, taking into account the presence of a relatively high proportion of species from the subfamily Phyllostominae, as well as the presence of other species with conservation priorities. All these aspects, and the fact that this represents a reservoir of the biological diversity of the forest ecosystems of La Cordillera de la Costa, make this protected area of an essential conservation value, in a highly endangered bioregion by neighboring socio-economic growth. PMID:22208091
Several ecomorphological aspects in the European horseshoe bats were studied. The analysis of the data allows to draw some conclusions about possible niche separating parameters. The thesis consists of seven parts, details can be found in the abstracts of each chapter. Verschiedene ökomorphologische Aspekte der europäischen Hufeisennasen-Fledermäuse wurden untersucht. Die Auswertung der Daten erlaubt Rückschlüsse auf mögliche Parameter, die eine Nischentrennung ermöglichen. Die Arbeit best...
Sun, Haijian; Dong, Ji; Shi, Huizhen; Ren, Min; Hua, Panyu
There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus sinicus currently recognized in China. In this study, using next generation sequencing approaches, the complete mitochondrial genome of one subspecies R. s. sinicus was obtained. The total length of the genome sequence is 16,898 bp. The arrangement and contents of R. s. sinicus mitochondrial genes exhibit high similarity with other bats of family Rhinolophida. Phylogenetic reconstructions support the sister relationship of the two subspecies and confirm the subspecies status of our specimen. PMID:25740216
Pierangelo Crucitti; Marco Andreini; Roberto Morelli; Giovanni Rotella
Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys) in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy) from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abu...
Romero-Nava, Claudia; León-Paniagua, Livia; Ortega, Jorge
A limited number of studies have focused on the population genetic structure of vampire bats (Desmous rotundus) in America. This medium-sized bat is distributed in tropical areas of the continent with high prevalence in forested livestock areas. The aim of this work was to characterize the vampire population structure and their genetic differentiation. For this, we followed standard methods by which live vampires (caught by mist-netting) and preserved material from scientific collections, were obtained for a total of 15 different locations, ranging from Chihuahua (North) to Quintana Roo (Southeast). Tissue samples were obtained from both live and collected animals, and the genetic differentiation, within and among localities, was assessed by the use of seven microsatellite loci. Our results showed that all loci were polymorphic and no private alleles were detected. High levels of heterozygosis were detected when the proportion of alleles in each locus were compared. Pairwise (ST) and R(ST) detected significant genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. Our population structure results indicate the presence of eleven clusters, with a high percentage of assigned individuals to some specific collecting site. PMID:25102648
von Busse, Rhea; Swartz, Sharon M; Voigt, Christian C
Aerodynamic theory predicts that flight for fixed-wing aircraft requires more energy at low and high speeds compared with intermediate speeds, and this theory has often been extended to predict speed-dependent metabolic rates and optimal flight speeds for flying animals. However, the theoretical U-shaped flight power curve has not been robustly tested for Chiroptera, the only mammals capable of flapping flight. We examined the metabolic rate of seven Seba's short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) during unrestrained flight in a wind tunnel at air speeds from 1 to 7 m s(-1). Following intra-peritoneal administration of (13)C-labeled Na-bicarbonate, we measured the enrichment in (13)C of exhaled breath before and after flight. We converted fractional turnover of (13)C into metabolic rate and power, based on the assumption that bats oxidized glycogen during short flights. Power requirements of flight varied with air speed in a U-shaped manner in five out of seven individuals, whereas energy turnover was not related to air speed in two individuals. Power requirements of flight were close to values predicted by Pennycuick's aerodynamic model for minimum power speed, but differed for maximum range speed. The results of our experiment support the theoretical expectation of a U-shaped power curve for flight metabolism in a bat. PMID:23430989
Sylvia Ceppas Teixeira
Full Text Available A preliminary survey of bats species from the Serra da Tiririca State Park is presented. Two hundred and seventy two bats of 20 species were collected. Comments about reproduction and feeding habits of the captured species are included.
Camacho, M Alejandra; Chávez, Daniel; Burneo, Santiago F
The Yasuni Round-eared bat, Lophostoma yasuni, was described in 2004 by morphological analysis of the holotype, the only specimen attributed to this taxon to date. A molecular analysis using cytochrome-b sequences and a new morpholo-gical analysis that includes the holotype of L. yasuni and two specimens of L. carrikeri from near the type locality of L. yasuni were carried out. The new molecular and morphological evidence places L. yasuni within the clade of L. carrikeri. We propose that L. yasuni should therefore be considered as a synonym of L. carrikeri. An emended diagnosis for L. carrikeri extending ranges of craniodental measurements for this species is presented. PMID:27395128
Full Text Available The activity time of the lesser bamboo bat, Tylonycteris pachypus (Temminck, 1840, was investigated at two observation locations in southern China: Longzhou and Guiping. Two bouts of activity (post dusk and predawn, with an intervening period of night roosting at diurnal roosts, were identified. The period of activity within each bout was usually less than 30 minutes. The activity periods of individuals belonging to the Longzhou population right after dusk and just before dawn lasted longer than those of the the Guiping population. We also found that the nocturnal emergence time of T. pachypus from the Longzhou population happened earlier than in the Guiping population. These findings indicate that the activity time of T. pachypus was quite short at night, and that different locations may affect the nocturnal activity rhythm of this species.
Kovalyova I. M.
The heterogeneity of formation of different areas in the wing membrane of Chiroptera and Dermoptera was established. The web between metacarpals and digits (chiropatagium) was formed by the mesenchyme which initially formed the forelimb rudiment. The plagiopatagium and propatagium were formed by proliferation of the trunk mesenchymal cells.
Full Text Available Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abundant species. Population dynamics of both species as well as that of Rhinoluphus hipposideros show higher levels of abundance between December and February of each semester. In mid-winter, large and sometimes mixed aggregations of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rhinolophus euryale in deep hypothermia occur. A small number of Rhinolophus hipposideros, mainly adult males, was observed. The paper compares the structure of this community to the structure of another community of the same district which has been previously analyzed, in which Vespertilionidae, especially Miniopterus schreibersi, are much more abundant. Despite the difference in species composition, body size was found to be a significant and common feature (as highlighted by forearm length, of the dominant species in both communities, Rhinolophus euryale and Miniopterus schreibersi respectively.
Full Text Available Abstract Bats were censused in the Adamello-Brenta Natural Park (Trentino, central Italian Alps in May-September 1999 and 2000, by mist-netting and roost surveys. In all, 90 sites (19 caves, 50 buildings and 21 foraging sites, over an area of about 618 km², were checked. The bat species distribution in both the Park and the surrounding areas was obtained by using field data, museum records and literature information. A total of 19 species was recorded: of these, one (Myotis bechsteinii was known from a museum collection and 18 were recorded in the field (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, Myotis blythii, M. daubentonii, M. emarginatus, M. mystacinus, M. nattereri, Pipistrellus kuhlii, P. nathusii, P. pipistrellus, Nyctalus leisleri, Hypsugo savii, Eptesicus nilssonii, E. serotinus, Vespertilio murinus, Barbastella barbastellus, Plecotus alpinus, P. auritus. Local distribution, habitat use and body size parameters of the species were studied, and selection of roosts and foraging sites by the bat community was analysed with logistic regression. The conservation status of the bat community is also discussed. We document the third record of breeding by Pipistrellus nathusii and the fourth Eptesicus (Amblyotus nilssonii nursery in Italy, as well as the first roosting sites of the recently described Plecotus alpinus. Riassunto Comunità di Chirotteri e status delle popolazioni nel Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (Trentino-Alto Adige Vengono presentati i risultati di una serie di monitoraggi, effettuati con tecniche differenti (principalmente catture con reti mist-net ed esplorazione dei siti di rifugio dal 1999 al 2000. Tali indagini hanno permesso di raccogliere dati originali
Fernando C. Passos; Wesley R. Silva; Wagner A. Pedro; Marcela R. Bonin
This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2%) were frugivorous. The total number of ...
Mário Pinzan Scatena
Full Text Available To establish a technique which minimized the effects of fixation on the extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed tissues preserved in scientific collections we extracted DNA samples from fixed tissues using different methods and evaluated the effect of the different procedures on PCR and sequencing analysis. We investigated muscle and liver tissues from museum specimens of five species of fruit-eating (frugivorous bats of the Neotropical genus Artibeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae: A. fimbriatus, A. lituratus, A. jamaicensis, A. obscurus, and A. planirostris. The results indicated that treatment of tissues in buffered solutions at neutral pH and about 37 °C for at least four days improves the quality and quantity of extracted DNA and the quality of the amplification and sequencing products. However, the comparison between the performance of DNA obtained from fixed and fresh tissues showed that, in spite of the fact that both types of tissue generate reliable sequences for use in phylogenetic analyses, DNA samples from fixed tissues presented a larger rate of errors in the different stages of the study. These results suggest that DNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissue can be used in molecular studies of Neotropical Artibeus bats and that our methodology may be applicable to other animal groups.
Despite its enormous area, diversity of habitat, and bat species, studies in the Brazilian Amazon represent just a small portion of the bat research in the South América. Consequently, the distribution of the major part of the bat species in the Brazilian Amazon remains incompletely documented. Conservation strategies involving bat species in the Brazilian Amazon may be difficult without more information about geographic distribution, status, roost, food preferences, and reproduction of the s...
Marcelo R. Nogueira
Full Text Available Saccopteryx leptura (Schreber, 1774 is reported from two new localities in southeastern Brazil, both in Atlantic forest remains in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Analysisof food material showed that individuals from both localities had preyedon insects in the order Hymenoptera. Cheek contents were available from one specimen, and in this case identification of the food item (flying ants achieved generic level (Pheidole Westwood, 1841. Aspects in the social behavior observed in a colony suggest that the same traits documented in Central American populations (small colonies, monogamic mating system, and retention of young for up to a year in the parental unit may also characterize this species in the southern most part of its range. In both external and craniodental selected measurements, specimens from Rio de Janeiro were close to the upper limits of the ranges known for the species.
Fernando C. Passos
Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2% were frugivorous. The total number of fecal samples with seeds and/or pulp was 121. Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was the most abundant species in the study area (n = 157 captures and Solanaceae fruits accounted for 78.5% of the fecal samples with seeds (n = 56. Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (n = 21 samples fed mostly on Cecropiaceae (38% and Moraceae fruits (24%, and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (n = 7 samples on Cecropiaceae (57% and Moraceae (29%. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 16 samples fed mostly on Piperaceae fruits (56,3%, but Solanaceae (31,3% and Rosaceae seeds (12,5% were also found in feces. Overall, seeds found in bat feces belong to eight plant families: Solanaceae (n = 67 samples; Cecropiaceae (n = 14; Piperaceae (n = 14; Moraceae (n = 8; Rosaceae (n = 3; Cucurbitaceae (n = 3; Cluseaceae (n = 1, and Araceae (n = 1. The close association of different bat species with fruits of certain plant families and genus may be related to a possible mechanism of resource partitioning that shapes the structure of the community.
Nélio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.
Witkowski, P. T.; Drexler, J. F.; Kallies, R.; Lickova, M; Bokorova, S.; Mananga, G. D.; Szemes, T.; Leroy, Eric; Kruger, D H; Drosten, C.; Klempa, B.
Until recently, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) were believed to originate from rodent reservoirs. However, genetically distinct hantaviruses were lately found in shrews and moles, as well as in bats from Africa and Asia. Bats (order Chiroptera) are considered important reservoir hosts for emerging human pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a novel hantavirus, provisionally named Makokou virus (MAKV), in Noack's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros ruber) in Gabon, Central Africa. Ph...
Nelio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available The bay of the Tibagi river, a place which goes through quick environmental alterations, has three forest fragments: the "Floresta Nacional do Irati" (3.572 ha, the "Reserva Biológica da Klabin" (11.116 ha and the "Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy" (680 ha. Here, Myotis ruber (E. Geoffroy, 1806 and Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891 can be found, these are threatened bats, and three species, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866, which are presumably threatened. Using the same effort of capture in the three places, it was stated that the "Floresta Nacional do Irati" with low vegetation diversity, showed nine species of bats. The "Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy", although it's five times smaller, fifteen species. We came to the conclusion that a big reserve, without good conditions would house a lower number of species. A small reserve with adequate resources and great vegetation diversity presents a higher number of niches, housing a higher number of species.
Hornok, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Estók, Péter; Tu, Vuong Tan; Kontschán, Jenő
Background In a recent study on ixodid bat ticks from Eurasia, a high genetic difference was found between Ixodes vespertilionis from Europe and Vietnam. Accordingly, it was proposed that I. vespertilionis is a species complex, with at least one additional, hitherto undescribed species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphology of bat ticks from Vietnam and to assess their taxonomic status in comparison with those collected in Europe. Findings Ixodid bat ticks (two female...
Ana C. M. Martins; Enrico Bernard; Renato Gregorin; Wanuyze A. S. da Silva
Brazil is the second most bat species-rich country in the world, but the information on its species diversity, occurrence and distribution is still heterogeneous and fragmented. None of the Brazilian biomes are well surveyed for bats, but this situation is more critical in Amazonia, an area covering nearly 2/3 of the country. Here we provide updated information on the bats of Amapá, once a data gap in the diversity and distribution of bats in the easternmost Amazonia, and the Guiana Shield as...
Existing information on the activity of bats in the aerosphere is restricted almost exclusively to altitudes that are within a few tens of meters above the ground. We report a total of 50.2 hrs of ultrasonic recordings made using radiomicrophone bat detectors suspended from free-floating helium bal...
Full Text Available Despite its enormous area, diversity of habitat, and bat species, studies in the Brazilian Amazon represent just a small portion of the bat research in the South América. Consequently, the distribution of the major part of the bat species in the Brazilian Amazon remains incompletely documented. Conservation strategies involving bat species in the Brazilian Amazon may be difficult without more information about geographic distribution, status, roost, food preferences, and reproduction of the species. Here is presented an updated list of species of bats of Alter do Chão, and complete this list with data from the nearby Amazon National Park, providing a list of bats in the Santarém area. This list includes at least 55 species of bats, representing 34 genera, and 7 families. The higher taxonomic composition of bat fauna of Santarérn area is similar to other areas sampled in the Brazilian Amazon, with a high proportion of frugivores, but the number of aerial insectivores is lower, probably due the use of mist nets as the principal sampling method.
Full Text Available Riassunto Ritrovamento del Vespertilio di Brandt Myotis brandtii (Eversmann, 1845 in Piemonte (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae Viene riportata la cattura con mist-net di 5 maschi adulti di Vespertilio di Brandt Myotis brandtii, nell’agosto 2005, nei pressi dell’abitato di Devero (Baceno, VB, a 1827 metri d’altitudine, nel Parco Naturale Alpe Veglia e Alpe Devero. Tale dato rappresenta la prima segnalazione certa della specie in Piemonte. L’identificazione è stata effettuata sulla base delle caratteristiche dentarie e del pene. Sono fornite indicazioni sulle caratteristiche dei segnali di ecolocalizzazione ottenuti dopo il rilascio degli individui.
de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues
A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil. PMID:26982558
Adwan Shehab; Inrahim Mamkhair; Zuhair Amr
Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female) were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto&l...
Ana C. M. Martins
Full Text Available Brazil is the second most bat species-rich country in the world, but the information on its species diversity, occurrence and distribution is still heterogeneous and fragmented. None of the Brazilian biomes are well surveyed for bats, but this situation is more critical in Amazonia, an area covering nearly 2/3 of the country. Here we provide updated information on the bats of Amapá, once a data gap in the diversity and distribution of bats in the easternmost Amazonia, and the Guiana Shield as well. Rapid biological assessments (5,551 mistnet.hours were conducted in conservation units and areas of concern, resulting in 1,695 captures, 59 species, 36 genera and six families for the State. New records for the state and for the Guiana Shield area are reported. With our records, 82 species of bats are currently known in Amapá, filling a gap in the knowledge of bat fauna in the Amazon River's delta region.
Carlos E.L. Esbérard
Full Text Available Some bat species are able to adapt to urban areas, where they find food and roosts. Despite the high number of parks in Brazilian cities, they did not yet raise the interest of most zoologists, except for some surveys of birds and butterflies. The objectives of the present study were: (i to inventory the bat species of Quinta da Boa Vista (QBV, a large (25 ha urban park centrally located in densely populated Rio de Janeiro, which is Brazil's second largest metropolis; (ii to compare the species richness observed in roosts with the richness recorded through mist netting in flight routes and near fruiting fig trees; and (iii to analyze recaptures of bats marked in this park and recaptured in other sites and vice-versa. Sampling totaled 104 sampling nights resulting in 3,256 captures (including 133 recaptures between April 1989 and December 2004. We also sampled roosts and received some specimens from park visitors and city workers. We documented 21 bat species, predominantly large frugivores. The number of expected species for this park was 24.0 ± 4.6, and the total sampled represented 87.5% of the expected. The recapture of bats marked in surrounding forest fragments and in QBV shows the importance of urban parks for the maintenance of bat diversity. Inspection of roosts produced two species that had not been captured with other methods. Sampling near fruiting fig trees did not differ in terms of richness from sampling carried out far from these trees or during their non-fruiting periods.
Kapfer, Géraldine; Rigot, Thibaud; Holsbeek, Ludovic; Aron, Serge
We investigated roosting and hunting site fidelity of Daubenton's bats Myotis daubentonii (Kuhl, 1817) in the Forêt de Soignes, an old-stand forest dominated by 150-200-year-old beeches, during the summers of 2003 and 2004. Roosting behaviour and hunting activity over ponds of adult females and juveniles were monitored using radio-telemetry. Eighteen roosts were located, all in natural cavities. The bats occupied a limited number of trees located in a specific and small roosting area. This ro...
Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)
A. S. Dias
Full Text Available Vampire bats are important agents in the field and currently regarded as the main reservoir in Latin America in the transmission of rabies of herbivores, thus, these animals are monitored by researchers and animal health protection services and suffer from populational control to minimize the impact of the occurrence of cases of rabies in domestic animals. Rabies is a zoonosis of 100% lethality. The presence of haematofagous flies have been observed in these animals. There of is to highlight the importance of these agents that are restricted parasites of bats and could be responsible for transmission of the rabies virus between them. It is also worth emphasizing the importance of assessing the distribution of these parasites of bats according to the climatic conditions of a given site, because these elements are essential to limit the distribution of these parasites. The presence of parasites in animals presents itself as an important element for understanding the mechanisms that are configured in the control of population of a given agent. The present study aimed to record the occurrence of flies in vampire bats in the Forest of Minas Gerais State.
Šrámek, J.; Gvoždík, Václav; Benda, P.
Roč. 167, č. 1 (2013), s. 165-190. ISSN 0024-4082 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/0888 Keywords : Arabia * bent-winged bats * cryptic species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.658, year: 2013
Patrícia Beloto Bertola
Full Text Available A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil, between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae, Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae, Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis, Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae, A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima, A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus, Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus, M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp., M. levis (A. passosi, M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni, and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea. Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.
Csorba, Gábor; Görföl, Tamás; Wiantoro, Sigit; Kingston, Tigga; Bates, Paul J J; Huang, Joe Chun-Chia
To date, three species of the genus Glischropus are recognized from the Indomalayan zoogeographic region-G. bucephalus from the Indochinese subregion, G. tylopus from the Sundaic subregion (Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra, Moluccas) and G. javanus, restricted to Java. The investigation of the holotype and three topotype specimens of G. batjanus supported the view that the name was previously correctly regarded as the junior subjective synonym of G. tylopus. During review of material recently collected in southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia, one specimen of a yet undescribed species of Thick-thumbed bat was identified. G. aquilus n. sp. markedly differs from its congeners by its dark brown pelage, nearly black ear and tragus, and in skull proportions. The phylogenetic analysis based on cytb sequences also supports the specific distinctness of G. aquilus n. sp. Its discovery brings the count to 88 species of bats known from Sumatra. PMID:26249952
A. S. Dias; L. H. P. Pulga; J. V. Araujo; Ferreira, W. S.
Vampire bats are important agents in the field and currently regarded as the main reservoir in Latin America in the transmission of rabies of herbivores, thus, these animals are monitored by researchers and animal health protection services and suffer from populational control to minimize the impact of the occurrence of cases of rabies in domestic animals. Rabies is a zoonosis of 100% lethality. The presence of haematofagous flies have been observed in these animals. There of is to highlight ...
Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. B. barbastellus shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of B. barbastellus from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult B. barbastellus (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead Fagus sylvatica trees; conversely, living F. sylvatica dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, P <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (P <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The
Bats (order Chiroptera) form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 M...
Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang
Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus. PMID:26809101
Falcão Fábio de C.
Full Text Available The Serra do Caraça Reserve is situated in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, and contains areas of "campos de altitude", "cerrado" and atlantic forest. This study had as its objective the registering of the bats species that occur in the reserve. The data collection was carried out in one year through monthly samplings, using mist nets set on trails, and also through hand capture. A total of 246 individuals were collected (0.72 bats/net-hour, distributed across 15 species, belonging to the families Phyllostomidae (83.0%; nine species, Vespertilionidae (12.5%; three species and Molossidae (4.5%; three species. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 121, 60.5%, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (n = 21, 10.5% and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 10, 5.0%, and less represented were Lasiurus blossevilli (Lesson y Garnot, 1826 (n = 2, 1.0%, Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821 (n = 2, 1.0% e Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843 (n = 1, 0.5%. The richness of species found and the non-occurrence of phyllostomines in the reserve could be indicative of some level of forest disturbance.
Volleth, M; Biedermann, M; Schorcht, W; Heller, K-G
Three different diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 54, 56 and 58) have been reported in the lesser horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros. Asia Minor and the Middle East are inhabited by R. hipposideros specimens with 58 chromosomes. In Europe, specimens with 56 chromosomes have been recorded from several localities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Italy and Greece. Up to now, specimens with 54 chromosomes have been reported only from Spain and possibly from Switzerland. With the record of 54 chromosomes in specimens from Germany presented here, the distributional area of this variant is expanded into Central Europe. According to the cytogenetic data presently available, we presume that the European R. hipposideros population is divided into a western form (from Spain to Germany) with a 2n = 54 karyotype and an eastern form (from the Czech Republic to Greece) with a 2n = 56 karyotype. This study presents banded karyotypes for the 2n = 54 and 2n = 56 variants for the first time. In addition, chromosomal arm homology to the vespertilionid bat species Myotis myotis revealed by chromosome painting is reported. Whether the variants could represent separate species is also discussed. PMID:23635426
Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N
Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human
The twelve recognized species of nectar-feeding bats of the genus Lonchophylla occur in low- and middle-elevation, humid, Neotropical forests. Morphological and morphometrical analyses of specimens formerly lumped with Lonchophylla mordax O. Thomas (1903) support recognition of Lonchophylla concava Goldman (1914) as a separate species and reveal a third species from the western Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador that I describe herein as Lonchophylla jornicata. This new species is morphologically similar to Lonchophylla concava but is distinctively larger than that species. Tests for sexual dimorphism within these and other species of Lonchophyllini suggest a tendency for females to have slightly longer, narrower skulls, higher coronoid processes of the mandible, and longer forearms than males.
.... 65619 (October 25, 2011), 76 FR 67238 (October 31, 2011) (order approving proposed rule change by BATS...\\ \\7\\ See Notice supra note 3, at 76 FR 75460. \\8\\ BATS Rule 11.23(a)(23) defines ``Volume Based Tie....\\23\\ \\22\\ See Notice supra note 3, at 77 FR at 75460. BATS Rule 11.23(a)(22) defines a RHO order as...
Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva
Full Text Available A preliminary survey of bats species from the Ubajara National Park is presented. One hundred sixty two bats from 14 species were collected. Comments about reproduction of the captured species are included.
Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva; Patrícia Gonçalves Guedes; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi
A preliminary survey of bats species from the Ubajara National Park is presented. One hundred sixty two bats from 14 species were collected. Comments about reproduction of the captured species are included.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Various mechanisms such as geographic barriers and glacial episodes have been proposed as determinants of intra-specific and inter-specific differentiation of populations, and the distribution of their genetic diversity. More recently, habitat and climate differences, and corresponding adaptations have been shown to be forces influencing the phylogeographic evolution of some vertebrates. In this study, we examined the contribution of these various factors on the genetic differentiation of the bent-winged bat, Miniopterus schreibersii, in southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Results and conclusion Our results showed differentiation in mitochondrial DNA coupled with weaker nuclear differentiation. We found evidence for restriction of lineages to geographical areas for hundreds of generations. The results showed that the most likely ancestral haplotype was restricted to the same geographic area (the Balkans for at least 6,000 years. We were able to delineate the migration routes during the population expansion process, which followed the coasts and the inland for different nested mitochondrial clades. Hence, we were able to describe a scenario showing how multiple biotic and abiotic events including glacial periods, climate and historical dispersal patterns complemented each other in causing regional and local differentiation within a species.
Dool, Serena E; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Allegrini, Benjamin; Bastian, Anna; Mutumi, Gregory L; Maluleke, Tinyiko G; Odendaal, Lizelle J; Teeling, Emma C; Jacobs, David S
Despite many studies illustrating the perils of utilising mitochondrial DNA in phylogenetic studies, it remains one of the most widely used genetic markers for this purpose. Over the last decade, nuclear introns have been proposed as alternative markers for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, the resolution capabilities of mtDNA and nuclear introns have rarely been quantified and compared. In the current study we generated a novel ∼5kb dataset comprising six nuclear introns and a mtDNA fragment. We assessed the relative resolution capabilities of the six intronic fragments with respect to each other, when used in various combinations together, and when compared to the traditionally used mtDNA. We focused on a major clade in the horseshoe bat family (Afro-Palaearctic clade; Rhinolophidae) as our case study. This old, widely distributed and speciose group contains a high level of conserved morphology. This morphological stasis renders the reconstruction of the phylogeny of this group with traditional morphological characters complex. We sampled multiple individuals per species to represent their geographic distributions as best as possible (122 individuals, 24 species, 68 localities). We reconstructed the species phylogeny using several complementary methods (partitioned Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian and Bayesian multispecies-coalescent) and made inferences based on consensus across these methods. We computed pairwise comparisons based on Robinson-Foulds tree distance metric between all Bayesian topologies generated (27,000) for every gene(s) and visualised the tree space using multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots. Using our supported species phylogeny we estimated the ancestral state of key traits of interest within this group, e.g. echolocation peak frequency which has been implicated in speciation. Our results revealed many potential cryptic species within this group, even in taxa where this was not suspected a priori and also found evidence for mt
作为哺乳动物第二大目的翼手目(Chiroptera；俗称蝙蝠)在飞行能力、回声定位与听觉系统、食性、冬眠、免疫防御等诸多方面表现出显著而独特的适应性进化，是研究生物对环境适应性进化分子机制的热点模型之一。文章综述了翼手目适应性进化分子机制的研究进展，特别是近年来在基因组水平上开展的相关研究，显示出更为复杂的分子进化模式和功能分化。随着越来越多的翼手目物种基因组数据的产生，将有望揭示新的进化机制，并为后续的功能实验奠定基础，促进人们对翼手目这一类群的认识和了解，同时也为系统认识动物适应性进化分子机制做出贡献。%As the second biggest animal group in mammals, Chiroptera (bats) demonstrates many unique adaptive features in terms of flight, echolocation, auditory acuity, feeding habit, hibernation and immune defense, providing an excellent system for understanding the molecular basis of how organisms adapt to the living environments encoun-tered. In this review, we summarize the researches on the molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chirop-tera, especially the recent researches at the genome levels, suggesting a far more complex evolutionary pattern and functional diversity than previously thought. In the future, along with the increasing numbers of Chiroptera species genomes available, new evolutionary patterns and functional divergence will be revealed, which can promote the further understanding of this animal group and the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution.
Yin, Qiuyuan; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Di; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan
Mammals developed antioxidant systems to defend against oxidative damage in their daily life. Enzymatic antioxidants and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWAs) constitute major parts of the antioxidant systems. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, encoded by the Nrf2 gene) is a central transcriptional regulator, regulating transcription, of many antioxidant enzymes. Frugivorous bats eat large amounts of fruits that contain high levels of LMWAs such as vitamin C, thus, a reliance on LMWAs might greatly reduce the need for antioxidant enzymes in comparison to insectivorous bats. Therefore, it is possible that frugivorous bats have a reduced need for Nrf2 function due to their substantial intake of diet-antioxidants. To test whether the Nrf2 gene has undergone relaxed evolution in fruit-eating bats, we obtained Nrf2 sequences from 16 species of bats, including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and one New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our molecular evolutionary analyses revealed changes in the selection pressure acting on Nrf2 gene and identified seven specific amino acid substitutions that occurred on the ancestral lineage leading to Old World fruit bats. Biochemical experiments were conducted to examine Nrf2 in Old World fruit bats and showed that the amount of catalase, which is regulated by Nrf2, was significantly lower in the brain, heart and liver of Old World fruit bats despite higher levels of Nrf2 protein in Old World fruit bats. Computational predictions suggest that three of these seven amino acid replacements might be deleterious to Nrf2 function. Therefore, the results suggest that Nrf2 gene might have experienced relaxed constraint in Old World fruit bats, however, we cannot rule out the possibility of positive selection. Our study provides the first data on the molecular adaptation of Nrf2 gene in frugivorous bats in compensation to the increased levels of LWMAs from their fruit-diet. PMID:26735303
A new species of Parichoronyssus (Acari: Dermanyssoidea: Macronyssidae) from bats of the genus Phyllostomus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Peru and Venezuela, with keys to the species of Parichoronyssus.
Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Guerrero, Ricardo
Parichoronyssus bakeri new species was found on two phyllostomid bats species, the greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas), and the lesser spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus elongatus (E. Geoffroy), in Pakitza, National Park Manu, Madre de Dios, Peru, including additional material examined from Venezuela. The female, male, deutonymph, and protonymph are described and illustrated. A key to the seven species of Parichoronyssus is provided. PMID:17294915
Observação da visita de morcegos (Chiroptera às flores de Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav. A. Robyns Observation of visit of bats (Chiroptera to the flowers of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav. A. Robyns
Shirley S. Pereira da Silva
Full Text Available The visit of two species of bats to the flowers of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav. A. Robyns was observed in the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro during the period of may and july of 1989. The flowers of this vegetal species present attributions in accordance to the Syndrome of Chiropterophily and receive the visit of Glossophaga soricina (Pallas. 1766 and Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas. 1767. Glossophaga soricina has morfological caracteristes for nectarivory, Phyllostomus hastatus is omnivorous and starts its visils soon after the anthesis. That bats present landing behaviour during the visit.
Full Text Available Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae, two to Vespertilionidae and Mormoopidae and one to Furipteridae and Emballonuridae. In this study, 17 species were characterized as Distrito Federal cave dwellers. The most prevalent were Desmodus rotundus, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata. The least prevalent were Lonchorhina aurita, Pteronotus gymnonotus and Phylloderma stenops. Since some Anoura caudifer, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Myotis nigricans, Micronycteris minuta, and Eptesicus brasiliensis individuals were captured only while going into the caves early in the night, they were not considered cave dwellers. Even though, they probably use the caves as a daytime roosting place. Surprisingly, Lonchophylla dekeyseri, considered to be the only endemic bat species in the Cerrado ecosystem, was observed in three of the surveyed caves. Further biological studies are necessary to determine the biology of L. dekeyseri and the necessity of its conservation. The bat colonies observed were usually of a small size. Few colonies of D. rotundus and Anoura geoffroyi contained more than 300 individuals of both sexes. Only a inale group of L. aurita was observed in the Distrito Federal area. Twelve of the surveyed caves were hard to access and therefore well protected. Four of the caves received some public visitation, two were located near limestone mines, one was located near an urban area. and one had both public visitation and deforestation near its entrance. In this latter cave, no bats were observed
... (May 12, 2011); 76 FR 28830 (``Notice''). II. Description First, the Exchange proposes to change its... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rule 11.9, Entitled ``Orders and Modifiers'' and BATS Rule 11.13, Entitled ``Order...
Full Text Available While scoring strategies and player performance in cricket have been studied, there has been little published work about the influence of batting order with respect to One-Day cricket. We apply a mathematical modelling approach to compute efficiently the expected performance (runs distribution of a cricket batting order in an innings. Among other applications, our method enables one to solve for the probability of one team beating another or to find the optimal batting order for a set of 11 players. The influence of defence and bowling ability can be taken into account in a straightforward manner. In this presentation, we outline how we develop our Markov Chain approach to studying the progress of runs for a batting order of non- identical players along the lines of work in baseball modelling by Bukiet et al., 1997. We describe the issues that arise in applying such methods to cricket, discuss ideas for addressing these difficulties and note limitations on modelling batting order for One-Day cricket. By performing our analysis on a selected subset of the possible batting orders, we apply the model to quantify the influence of batting order in a game of One Day cricket using available real-world data for current players
Cibele M. V. Zanon
Full Text Available The diet, reproduction and activity time of bat species found in Ponta Grossa county, Campos Gerais region, were studied. Collections were conducted in four forest fragments, during 272 hours, on 48 m² of nets and roosting sites; the total capture effort was 1.52.10³ h.m². Eight species (247 individuals were registered: Artibeuslituratus (Olfers, 1818, Sturniralilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Desmodusrotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Phyllostomidae; Tadaridabrasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, Eumopsauripendulus (Shaw, 1800 (Molossidae; Eptesicusbrasiliensis (Shaw, 1800, Myotisnigricans (Schinz, 1821, and Histiotusvelatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 (Vespertilionidae. The Phyllostomidae family was the most frequently captured. Solanaceae, Moraceae, Piperaceae, and Rosaceae were found in the diet of frugivores; six orders of insects and the class Arachnida were found in the diets of insectivores. Pregnant females were found in September and October and lactating ones in November and December. The collection peak was reached in the second hour-and-a-half. Preservation of the regional forested and altered areas is required for survival of the local chiropterofauna.Estudou-se as espécies de morcegos presentes em Ponta Grossa, na região dos Campos Gerais, Paraná, com o objetivo de conhecer seus aspectos ecológicos básicos (dieta, reprodução e horário de atividade. Realizou-se coletas em quatro fragmentos florestais, onde foram empregadas 272 horas de esforço com 48 m² de redes, e em locais de repouso, totalizando um esforço de captura de 1,52.10³ h.m². Registrou-se 247 indivíduos, de oito espécies: Artibeuslituratus (Olfers, 1818, Sturniralilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Desmodusrotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Phyllostomidae; Tadaridabrasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, Eumopsauripendulus (Shaw, 1800 (Molossidae; Eptesicusbrasiliensis(Shaw, 1800, Myotisnigricans (Schinz, 1821, Histiotusvelatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 (Vespertilionidae. Phyllostomidae foi a família mais
With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to
Novo registros de moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera do Amazonas e Pará, Brasil Newrecords of batflies (Diptera, Streblidae and Nycteribiidae on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera from Amazonas and Pará States, Brazil
Full Text Available Species of batflies of bats from Amazonas and Pará, Brazil are reported. Eleven species of Streblidae and three of Nycteribiidae were found on nine species of bats, belonging to seven genera. Pseudostrebla greenwelli Wenzel, 1996, Trichobius affinis Wenzel, 1976, Trichobius silvicolae Wenzel, 1976, and Hershkovitzia inaequalis Theodor, 1967 were collected for the first time in Brazil. Strebla consocia Wenzel, 1966, Strebla galindoi Wenzel, 1966, Trichobius dugesioides phyllostomus Guerrero, 1998, and Trichobius joblingi Wenzel, 1966 are new records for state of Amazonas. Noctiliostrebla maai Wenzel, 1966, Basilia dubia Guimarães & D'Andretta, 1956, and Basilia ferruginea Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 are new records for state of Pará.
Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea em morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Sreblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea on bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Full Text Available A survey of the Streblidae batflies on the phyllostomid bats was conducted in the northeastern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, during 1997. Hundred thirty three streblids were collected on 44 parasited hosts. Eleven species of batflies (Trichobius dugesii Townsend, 1891, T. tiptoni Wenzel, 1976, Trichobius sp., Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, M. proxima (Séguy, 1926, Exastinion clovisi (Pessoa & Guimarães, 1936, Paraeuctenodes longipes Pessoa & Guimarães, 1936, Anastrebla modestini Wenzel, 1966, A. caudiferae Wenzel, 1976 and Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907 were found on six species of phyllostomid bats (Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818 and A. geoffroyi Gray, 1838. All records are new for the Rio Grande do Sul and Anastrebla caudiferae is firstly recorded in Brazil. Differences in the batflies community composition in Artibeus fimbriatus and A. lituratus are discussed.
Angelika Bredt; Wilson Uieda; Edvard Dias Magalhães
Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae...
Cibele M. V. Zanon; Nélio R. dos Reis
The diet, reproduction and activity time of bat species found in Ponta Grossa county, Campos Gerais region, were studied. Collections were conducted in four forest fragments, during 272 hours, on 48 m² of nets and roosting sites; the total capture effort was 1.52.10³ h.m². Eight species (247 individuals) were registered: Artibeuslituratus (Olfers, 1818), Sturniralilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810), Desmodusrotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810) (Phyllostomidae); Tadaridabrasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819), Eumopsaur...
Observação da visita de morcegos (Chiroptera) às flores de Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav.) A. Robyns Observation of visit of bats (Chiroptera) to the flowers of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav.) A. Robyns
Shirley S. Pereira da Silva; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi
The visit of two species of bats to the flowers of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav.) A. Robyns was observed in the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro during the period of may and july of 1989. The flowers of this vegetal species present attributions in accordance to the Syndrome of Chiropterophily and receive the visit of Glossophaga soricina (Pallas. 1766) and Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas. 1767). Glossophaga soricina has morfological caracteristes for nectarivory, Phyllostomus hastat...
First record of the ghost bat Diclidurus scutatus Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Emballonuridae in São Paulo city, Brazil Primeiro relato do morcego-fantasma Diclidurus scutatus Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Emballonuridae na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil
Miriam M. Sodré
Full Text Available Because of their habits (fly high and harbor on palm leaves, there are few records of the ghost bat Diclidurus scutatus Peters, 1869. In Brazil, this species is known only from Northern region and this paper describes its first occurrence in Southeastern region. The ghost bat was found died on the window sill of a 9th floor apartment of a residential building in the urban area in the city of São Paulo, São Paulo State. Probably this bat must live at Serra da Cantareira, one of the Atlantic forest fragment nearby São Paulo city.Devido aos seus hábitos de voar alto e se abrigar em folhas de palmeiras, há poucos registros na literatura sobre o morcego Diclidurus scutatus Peters, 1869. No Brasil, essa espécie é conhecida somente na região Norte e o presente estudo descreve sua primeira ocorrência na região Sudeste. O morcego foi encontrado morto no parapeito da janela de um apartamento do nono andar, em um edifício residencial, na área urbana da cidade de São Paulo, estado de São Paulo. Provavelmente esse morcego devia viver na Serra da Cantareira, um fragmento da mata Atlântica, próximo da cidade de São Paulo.
Marcelo O. Bordignon
Full Text Available Realizou-se um inventário da fauna de morcegos entre abril e novembro de 2004 no norte de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (Projeto Jauru/MMA. Oito pontos de coleta foram amostrados com redes-neblina em um ambiente de cerrado, sendo capturados 146 indivíduos de 28 espécies, distribuídos em seis famílias. O total de espécies neste estudo, representa apenas 30% da fauna de morcegos do cerrado. A família mais capturada foi a Phyllostomidae, representada por Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Algumas espécies raras foram capturadas: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 e Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. O local de maior abundância (0,032 indivíduos/m²/h mostrou um índice de Simpson de D = 3.86 e o de menor abundância (0,003 indivíduos/m²/h um índice de Simpson de D = 3.03. A preservação dos mananciais de água e a cobertura florestal nestes pontos são discutidas.From April to November 2004 was made a bat fauna inventory in Northern of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Jauru's Project/MMA. Eight points was sampled with mist-nets in a cerrado's ecosystem and was caught 146 individuals de 28 species, distributed into six bat families. The total of species in this study just represents 30% of cerrado's bat fauna. The more caught family was Phyllostomidae represented by Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Some rare species were caught: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 and Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. The more abundant point sampled (0.032 bat/m²/h shown a Simpson index of D = 3.86 and the low abundant point sampled (0.003 bat/m²/h was D = 3.03. The preservation of water springs and forest cover in study sites are discussed.
We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species) cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one spe...
Harpreet Kaur; Srinivasulu Chelmala; Bhargavi Srinivasulu; Tariq Shah; Gundena Devender; Aditya Srinivasulu
Abstract Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros durgadasi Khajuria, 1970 is endemic to India, and was known only from Katanga, Katangi, and Richhai villages, in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh. During surveys conducted in Kolar district, Karnataka, India, we successfully mist-netted a few individuals belonging to the bicolor species group which, upon detailed external, craniodental and bacular studies were identified as Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat. This paper reports the presence of this sp...
Crasso Paulo Bosco Breviglieri
Worldwide, there are descriptions of cases in which bats are found dead due to human actions. The main records are related to the influence of barbed-wire fences, electrical nets, pesticides, and wind turbines. In Brazil, these data are poorly explored and deserve more attention from researchers and government agencies. This note aims to describe two records of bats (Molossus molossus and Molossus rufus) found dead in barbed-wire fences, in the northwestern São Paulo state, Brazil. Furthermor...
Motte, G.; Libois, Roland
The aim of this study was to determine the habitat use of the last important Belgian colony of Rhinolophus hipposideros, Bechstein, 1800, one of the most endangered bat species in Europe. During 71 evenings from April to August 1998, ultrasound detection was performed and, in late August, a female horseshoe bat was caught and fitted with a radio transmitter. The results showed that hedgerows and woodlands with bushes and coppice are key foraging habitats. They also highlight the importance of...
Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford;
Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.
Full Text Available Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera. While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used Discriminant Function Analysis to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.
First record of Parakosa flexipes (Acari: Chirodiscidae parasitizing a free-tailed bat (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Brazil Primeiro registro de Parakosa flexipes (Acari: Chirodiscidae parasitando um morcego-de-cauda-livre (Chiroptera: Molossidae no Brasil
Luiz Antonio Costa Gomes
Full Text Available The present study reports the occurrence of Parakosa flexipes (Pinichpongse (Chirodiscidae for the first time in Brazil, along with its infection sites on Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy. Thirty-eight bats were caught using mist nets that were placed near a house at the Mars Center for Cocoa Science in the state of Bahia, of which 14 (37% were parasitized by P. flexipes. Parakosa flexipes was observed parasitizing M. rufus on hairs that were evidently longer than others distributed over the bat's body, where up to three parasites could be spotted on a single hair.O presente estudo registra a ocorrência de Parakosa flexipes (Pinichpongse pela primeira vez no Brasil, bem como seus sítios de infecção em Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy. Foram capturados 38 morcegos com redes-de-neblina, dispostas próximas a uma residência da "Mars Center for Cocoa Science" no Sul da Bahia, dos quais 14 (37% estavam parasitados por P. flexipes. Parakosa flexipes foi observada parasitando M. rufus em pelos evidentemente maiores que os demais distribuídos pelo corpo do morcego, onde se pôde observar até três parasitos em um único pelo.
Carter, Anthony M; Mess, Andrea
Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics indicate that the order Chiroptera is monophyletic and that one of four lineages of microbats (Rhinolophoidea) shares a common origin with megabats. Against this background we undertook a comprehensive analysis of placental evolution in bats. We defined a...... range of characters and character states associated with female reproduction, early development, placentation and the neonate. These were then mapped on a pre-existing hypothesis of bat relationships that represents the current view from molecular studies. Our purpose was threefold. First, on the...... assumption of bat monophyly, we wished to establish the stem species pattern of extant chiropterans. Secondly, we asked whether there are derived character conditions in support of a common origin for Rhinolophoidea and the megabats. Thirdly, we looked for evolutionary character transformations that...
Full Text Available Otomops wroughtoni is an extremely rare molossid bat, known so far by a single breeding colony in southwestern India and two single individuals recorded in Meghalaya and Cambodia. We report here the discovery of three new roosts located in large karstic caves of the Jaintia Hills, in southeastern Meghalaya. Visual counts indicate that at least 90 individuals occupied these new roosts in February 2014, which doubles the known world population of this species. The new populations of Wroughton’s Free-tailed Bats from the Jaintia Hills have considerable value for the conservation of this elusive species. Although these bats are protected under national laws, their cave roosts and hunting habitats are subjected to severe and ongoing degradation. A protection plan that would include more extensive surveys and a strict conservation of these caves should be implemented rapidly to mitigate these threats.
Partição de recursos alimentares entre quatro espécies de morcegos frugívoros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Partition of food resources among four species of frugivorous bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Marília Feleciano Muller
Full Text Available This study was carried out in the region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil in three different areas: a primary forest, a disturbed primary forest and an open area. Within 207 hours of capture, 990 individuals were collected, 939 of them being fruit-eating bats. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 were the four most collected species in a total of 899 individuals. A. lituratus was found in greater number in all the areas, showing significant variation in relation to the size of the forests. The partition of food resources among the four most collected species was known through the analysis of their feces. The coexixtence of these species can be explained by their investing in different foods or their diverging time activity.
Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil
Marcelo O. Bordignon
Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.
Woodman, N.; Timm, R.M.
The Neotropical Lonchophyllini (Chiropter: Phyllostomidae) currently comprise four genera and thirteen species of nectar-feeding bats. These species often are separated into larger-bodied (eight species) and smaller-bodied (five species) forms to aid in identification. Our morphological and morphometrical analyses of the smaller Lonchophyllini revealed the existence of two distinctive, previously undescribed species of bats of the genus Lonchophylla from western South America. We describe a new form from Amazonian Peru as Lonchophylla pattoni and one from western Colombia as Lonchophylla cadenai. Phyllogenetic analysis of the Lonchophyllini based primarily on morphological characters indicates that these two new species are closely related to Lonchophylla thomasi.
Crasso Paulo Bosco Breviglieri
Full Text Available Worldwide, there are descriptions of cases in which bats are found dead due to human actions. The main records are related to the influence of barbed-wire fences, electrical nets, pesticides, and wind turbines. In Brazil, these data are poorly explored and deserve more attention from researchers and government agencies. This note aims to describe two records of bats (Molossus molossus and Molossus rufus found dead in barbed-wire fences, in the northwestern São Paulo state, Brazil. Furthermore, it briefly discusses the possible relation between this kind of accident and closeness of barbed-wire fences to foraging or shelter areas for these species.
Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.
The type collection of Recent Mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 820 specimens bearing names of 809 species-group taxa of Didelphimorphia through Chiroptera, excluding Rodentia, as of June 2014. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 788 holotypes, 26 lectotypes, 11 syntypes (22 specimens), and 4 neotypes. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and twenty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Poole and Schantz (1942). Five specimens reported in Poole and Schantz (1942) were subsequently sent to the Vertebrate Paleontology collection and are not included here. Orders and families are ordered as in Wilson and Reeder (2005); within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.
Vallo, Peter; Benda, P.; Uhrin, M.; Srinivasulu, C.; Reiter, A.; Červený, J.; Koubek, Petr
Brno: Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2014 - (Bryja, J.; Drozd, P.). s. 212-213 ISBN 978-80-87189-16-0. [Zoologické dny. 06.02.2014-07.02.2014, Ostrava] R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.35.0026 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bats Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Quirópteros da Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Mammalia: Chiroptera Bats from Tinguá Biological Reserve, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Mammalia: Chiroptera
Full Text Available O presente trabalho reúne os resultados de um levantamento de quirópteros conduzido na Reserva Biológica (REBIO do Tinguá, Nova Iguaçu, estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Foram realizadas 31 noites de coletas, em 14 sítios situados em altitudes de 65 a 1270 m. As coletas foram realizadas com redes "mist-nets", armadas ao nível do solo, em trilhas ou clareiras, em frente a plantas em floração ou frutificação, próximo a construções e cavidades naturais, sobre riachos e corpos d'água ou perto desses. Um total de 655 indivíduos foi capturado. Vinte e oito espécies de morcegos, distribuídas em quatro famílias, Emballonuridae (duas espécies, Phyllostomidae (19 espécies, Vespertilionidae (cinco espécies e Molossidae (duas espécies são assinaladas para a Reserva. Destacam-se os registros de Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978, Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901 e Myotis ruber (E. Geoffroy, 1806, que constam como vulneráveis na "Lista das Espécies Brasileiras Ameaçadas de Extinção". Para cada espécie, uma medida externa (comprimento de antebraço e 13 medidas cranianas foram estudadas. As medidas de machos e fêmeas são tratadas separadamente. Comentários taxonômicos são fornecidos para todas as espécies.Here we describe the bat community found at the Tinguá Biological Reserve, Nova Iguaçu County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Captures at 14 sites included a total of 31 nights at altitudes from 65 to 1270 m. Bats were captured in nets at ground level in forest trails and clearings, near flowering and fruiting trees, buildings, natural cavities and over streams. The reserve is species rich, with 28 species in 655 captures. Four families were found: Emballonuridae (two species, Phyllostomidae (19, Vespertilionidae (five and Molossidae (two. Three species are especially important for being considered vulnerable in the Brazilian Threatened Species List: Lonchophylla
Predação de morcegos por Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera no pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat predation by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera in pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Marcelo Oscar Bordignon
Full Text Available Foi registrada a predação de Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 e Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 por Chrotopterus autitus (Peters, 1856 em uma caverna na morraria do Urucum em Corumbá, centro-oeste do Brasil. Os fragmentos de asas e um crânio encontrados sob o local de pouso de C. auritus junto às fezes, após comparados com material de coleção, mostraram que este morcego alimenta-se oportunamente de outras espécies de morcegos ocupantes do mesmo abrigo.The predation of Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856 was registered in a cave at Urucum's mountains of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The wing fragments and cranium finded under feces deposites, in replace point of C. auritus, were comparated with colection reference material and revealed that C. auritus can eat occasionaly other bat species that inhabit in same roost.
Full Text Available El murciélago Centurio senex es una especie con distribución geográfica amplia, pero su abundancia es típicamente baja en los sitios donde se le ha registrado, por lo que se le considera una especie rara, y muchos de sus aspectos ecológicos y reproductivos derivan de observaciones ocasionales. En este estudio se documentan la proporción de sexos, la estructura de edades, el patrón reproductivo y su relación con el régimen de lluvias, los patrones de actividad diaria y la variación sexual secundaria en peso y longitud del antebrazo de una población de C. senex estudiada por 16 meses en un paisaje heterogéneo en la sierra Juárez de Oaxaca, México.Wrinke-faced bat Centurio senex is a species with wide geographical distribution, but in those places where it has been recorded, its abundance is typically low, therefore it is considered a rare species and many ecological and reproductive aspects are anecdotic or derived from casual observations. In this study, we report some ecological data, such as sex ratio, age structure, reproductive pattern and its relation with rainfall, patterns of daily activity, as well as secondary sexual variation in weight and length of forearm of a population of C. senex studied for 16 months in a heterogeneous landscape in the Sierra Juárez of Oaxaca, Mexico.
Full Text Available We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one species from the following genera: Paratrichobius Miranda-Ribeiro, Megistopoda Macquart, Megistapophysys Dick & Wenzel, Neotrichobius Wenzel & Aitken, Speiseria Kessel and Strebla Wiedemann. The cladogram was rooted with a species of Strebla in the subfamily Streblinae. One cladogram was obtained and which found Trichobius to be polyphyletic. The phylogenetic hypothesis as follows: (Paratrichobius, (Neotrichobius, (Megistopoda, Megistapophysis is the sister-group of the phyllostomae group and the following relationships within the ingroup, (((T. vampyropis Wenzel, Trichobius sp. 2 ((T. hispidus Wenzel, T. petersoni Wenzel ((Trichobius sp. 1 (T. phyllostomae, T. brennani Wenzel. When we compared phylogenies through historical association analyses, cospeciation was uncommon, while host-switching was more common and better explained the association between the phyllostomae group and their bat hosts.
Diversidad de frutos que consumen tres especies de murciélagos (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae en la selva lacandona, Chiapas, México Diversity of fruits consumed by three species of bats (Chiroptera:Phyllostomidae in the Lacandona rainforest, Chiapas, Mexico
Full Text Available Este estudio amplía el conocimiento de los hábitos alimentarios de 3 especies de murciélagos frugívoros como dispersores de semillas en 2 localidades de la selva alta perennifolia en la zona sur de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Montes Azules (REBIMA, y dentro del Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. Se estimó la abundancia relativa de Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata y Sturnira lilium, así como la diversidad y categoría sucesional de los frutos que consumen estas 3 especies en ambas localidades, mediante la identificación de semillas en las excretas. La división de especies vegetales por categoría sucesional mostró que A. lituratus y C. perspicillata consumen frutos tanto de especies pioneras como de especies persistentes, mientras que S. lilium únicamente se alimenta de especies pioneras. Durante la época seca A. lituratus y C. perspicillata presentaron una mayor diversidad y riqueza de especies consumidas dentro de la REBIMA, en tanto que en la época de lluvia mostraron mayor diversidad y riqueza dentro de PDLG; es decir, la diversidad de semillas colectadas por ambos dispersores responde a la época anual. S. lilium presentó mayor riqueza y diversidad dentro de PDLG a lo largo del muestreo indicando preferencia por frutos establecidos en estadios tempranos en la sucesión vegetal.This study examined the feeding habits of three species of frugivorous bats in relation to their role as seed dispersers in two localities, one in a Neotropical rainforest area in the southern part of the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve (REBIMA, and the other in Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. We estimated the relative abundance of Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Sturnira lilium. We determined the diversity and the successional category of fruits consumed by these species in both localities through the identification of seeds in their feces. The plant species diversity based on successional category showed that A. lituratus and C
Lei, Ming; Dong, Dong
Bats, order Chiroptera, are one of the largest monophyletic clades in mammals. Based on morphology and behaviour bats were once differentiated into two suborders Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera Recently, researchers proposed alternative views of chiropteran classification (suborders Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera) based on morphological, molecular and fossil evidence. Since genome-scale data can significantly increase the number of informative characters for analysis, transcriptome RNA-seq data for 12 bat taxa were generated in an attempt to resolve bat subordinal relationships at the genome level. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 1470 orthologous genes and 634,288 aligned sites. We found strong support for the Yinpterochiroptera-Yangochiroptera classification. Next, we built expression distance matrices for each species and reconstructed gene expression trees. The tree is highly consistent with sequence-based phylogeny. We also examined the influence of taxa sampling on the performance of phylogenetic methods, and found that the topology is robust to sampling. Relaxed molecular clock estimates the divergence between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera around 63 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of Yinpterochiroptera, corresponding to the split between Rhinolophoidea and Pteropodidae (Old World Fruit bats), is estimated to have occurred 60 million years ago. Our work provided a valuable resource to further explore the evolutionary relationship within bats. PMID:27291671
Full Text Available The Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhat, 1994, endemic to Kolar District, Karnataka, India was listed as ‘Endangered’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to its restricted distribution and continuing decline in the quality of its habitat. The species has not been sighted or collected since its initial collection in the years 1983 and 1985 wherein eight individuals were collected from Therahalli and 41 individuals were collected from Hanumanhalli, respectively. Based on recent observations and collections from the type locality, we provide information about its distribution, threats, phylogenetic position and conservation status. We also provide an updated conservation assessment of this species following the IUCN Red List categories.
There have been different ideas over whether or not the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges are part of the dividing line in Central China between the Palaearctic realm and the Oriental realm in the zoogeographical distribution of animals. Our predecessors have tried to prove this hypothesis from the perspectives of different disciplines by conducting surveys of birds, fishes, amphibians, reptiles and some mammals. The authors have carried out 3 major collections of bat ( CHIROPTERA) specimens in the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges since 1964. Over 2 000 obtained specimens were I-dentified and classified as 32 species belonging to 4 families and 4 subfamilies. The analytical results indicate that 23 species belong to the Oriental realm, accounting for 71. 8% of the total, and 9 belong to the Palaearctic realm, accounting for 28. 2%. These species are all seen in every Chinese zoogeographic region and their frequencies range as follows: Central China region, Southwest China region, South China region, North China region, Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang region, and Qinghai-Xizang region. Some of China' s endemic genera and species, including monotypic ones, also are distributed in the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges. The authors believe that bats are a class affected by climate, topography, and vegetation , and their geographic distribution is relatively sensitive and therefore restricted. According to the regional composition and distribution characteristics of bats in the Qinling and Daba ranges, the Oriental realm is limited to the northern slopes of Qinling range while the Palaearctic realm gradually declines in number from the southern slopes of Qinling range to the northern slopes of Daba range. There is a gradual transition for bats between the two realms in the southern slopes of the Qinling range and the northern slopes of Daba range, demonstrating that this is a transitional region for bats. All this further proves that the view is correct to consider the Qinling
... (December 30, 2009), 75 FR 1109 (``Notice''). \\5\\ In Amendment No. 1, the Exchange replaced the bracketed... Release No. 59039 (December 2, 2008), 73 FR 74770 (December 9, 2008) (SR-NYSEArca-2006-21). It is... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change,...
Mateus R Beguelini
Full Text Available Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid, conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa.
对采集于广东的4科7种蝙蝠进行了核型分析,它们的核型分别是:犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx) 2n=34, FN=58;印度假吸血蝠(Megaderma lyra)2n=54, FN=104;大耳双色蹄蝠(Hipposideros pomona)2n=32, FN=60; 中蹄蝠(H.larvatus) 2n=32, FN=60;大卫鼠耳蝠(Myotis davidii) 2n=46, FN=52;大黄蝠(Scotophilus heathi) 2n=36, FN=54;南长翼蝠(Miniopterus australis)2n=46, FN=50.其中大耳双色蹄蝠和大卫鼠耳蝠的核型为首次报道,犬蝠、印度假吸血蝠、中蹄蝠、大黄蝠和南长翼蝠的核型为中国第一次报道.%Karyotypes and chromosomal data were presented for 7 species of bats that represent 4 families collected during field studies in Guangdong, China. The species investigated here were Cynopterus sphinx (2n=34, FN=58), Megaderma lyra (2n=54, FN=104), Hipposideros pomona (2n=32, FN=60), H.larvatus (2n=32, FN=60), Myotis davidii (2n=46, FN=52), Scotophilus heathi (2n=36, FN=54), Miniopterus australis (2n=46, FN=50). Hipposideros pomona and Myotis davidii were karyotyped for the first time. In addition, karyotypes of Cynopterus sphinx, Megaderma lyra, Hipposideros larvatus, Scotophilus heathi, and Miniopterus australis had not been previously reported in China.
吴毅; 原田正史; 石红艳; 刘昊
报道了含中国特有种大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti)在内的、四川地区6种蝙蝠的核型.菊头蝠科2种,即大耳菊头蝠(Rhinolophus macrotis),核型为2n=62,FN=60;云南菊头蝠(R.yunanensis),核型较为特殊,2n=46,FN=60.蹄蝠科1种,即普氏蹄蝠(Hipposideros pratti),核型为2n=32,FN=60;蝙蝠科鼠耳蝠属3种,即中华鼠耳蝠(Myotis chinensis),核型为2n=44,FN=50;大足鼠耳蝠为2n=44,FN=52;西南鼠耳蝠(M.altarium)为2n=44,FN=50.其中大耳菊头蝠的核型为首次报道,云南菊头蝠的核型为中国第1次报道.%Karyotypes and chromosomal data were presented for 6 species of bats that represent 3 families collected in Sichuan, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus macrotis (2n = 62, FN =60), R. yunanensis (2n =46, FN =60), Hipposideros pratti (2n =32, FN =60), Myotis chinensis (2n =44, FN =50), M. ricketti (2n =44, FN =52) and M. altarium (2n =44, FN =50). R.macrotis was karyotyped for the first time, and karyotype of R. yunanensis had not been previously reported in China.
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..., 2012), 77 FR 15153 (``Notice''). II. Background BATS Trading is a broker-dealer that is a member of the... Exchange Act Release No. 62901 (September 13, 2010), 75 FR 57097 (September 17, 2010) (SR-BATS-2010-024.... 62716 (August 13, 2010), 75 FR 51295 (August 19, 2010) (File No. 10-198) (Order granting the...
Full Text Available Bats (order Chiroptera form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 May 2011 a survey of 21 caves was undertaken on Panay, along the central section of the west coast of the island and within the southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula. Survey methods included visual observations, emergence counts and the recording of echolocation calls. Of the caves surveyed, 19 were found to support bats or show signs of their use, and at least 12 different species were observed. Three large maternity colonies of the Common Rousette Rousettus amplexicaudatus and two of the Dusky Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros ater were noted as having particular significance in terms of their conservation value for local populations. Potential maternity colonies of Asian Lesser False Vampire Megaderma spasma, Black-bearded Tomb Bat Taphozous melanopogon and Diadem Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros diadema were also observed but not confirmed. M. spasma was the most frequently encountered species, occurring in small numbers at five different caves. Other species/genera encountered in small numbers were the Arcuate Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus arcuatus, Common Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus brachyotis, Philippine Sheath-tailed Bat Emballonura alecto, Yellow-faced Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus virgo, Bent-wing (Miniopterus and Myotis bat species, and at least one other Horseshoe (Rhinolophus bat species. Ten of the caves were confirmed to support multiple bat species. An indication of current threats and recommendations for further survey and management priorities are
Witkowski, Peter T; Drexler, Jan F; Kallies, René; Ličková, Martina; Bokorová, Silvia; Mananga, Gael D; Szemes, Tomáš; Leroy, Eric M; Krüger, Detlev H; Drosten, Christian; Klempa, Boris
Until recently, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) were believed to originate from rodent reservoirs. However, genetically distinct hantaviruses were lately found in shrews and moles, as well as in bats from Africa and Asia. Bats (order Chiroptera) are considered important reservoir hosts for emerging human pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a novel hantavirus, provisionally named Makokou virus (MAKV), in Noack's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros ruber) in Gabon, Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomic l-segment showed that MAKV was the most closely related to other bat-borne hantaviruses and shared a most recent common ancestor with the Asian hantaviruses Xuan Son and Laibin. Breakdown of the virus load in a bat animal showed that MAKV resembles rodent-borne hantaviruses in its organ distribution in that it predominantly occurred in the spleen and kidney; this provides a first insight into the infection pattern of bat-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral state reconstruction based on a tree of l gene sequences of all relevant hantavirus lineages was combined with phylogenetic fossil host hypothesis testing, leading to a statistically significant rejection of the mammalian superorder Euarchontoglires (including rodents) but not the superorder Laurasiatheria (including shrews, moles, and bats) as potential hosts of ancestral hantaviruses at most basal tree nodes. Our data supports the emerging concept of bats as previously overlooked hantavirus reservoir hosts. PMID:27051047
Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar; Yasmine Antonini
We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821) and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847) by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence), Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7), Diptera, Hemip...
Anomalias e variações na fórmula dentária em morcegos do gênero Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Anomalies and variation in the dental formula of bats of the genus Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Ana Maria Rui
Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência e analisa-se as causas de anomalias dentárias em Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae provenientes de populações do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. São discutidas, com base no material examinado e em ampla revisão da literatura, as variações quanto à presença dos terceiros molares superior e inferior entre diferentes espécies de Artibeus Leach, 1821. Foram analisados 104 crânios de A. lituratus e 44 de A. fimbriatus quanto à fórmula dentária. Em A. lituratus ocorreram dois casos de dentes extranumerários, um incisivo superior e um terceiro molar superior direito, e um de agênese dentária dos terceiros molares inferiores. Em A. fimbriatus constatou-se a ocorrência de um segundo pré-molar superior direito extranumerário. As ocorrências do terceiro molar superior em A. lituratus e do segundo pré-molar superior em A. fimbriatus são casos de atavismos. Em Artibeus (Artibeus ocorrem variações quanto à presença do terceiro molar superior, de maior ou menor intensidade, em praticamente todas as espécies. Estas variações ocorrem tanto a nível intrapopulacional quanto geográfico. Já o terceiro molar inferior está ausente em baixa freqüência em várias populações de diferentes espécies. Os terceiros molares superiores e inferiores estão em processo de desaparecimento na linhagem dos Artibeus (Artibeus. O fato destes dentes já não ocorrerem em algumas espécies, terem ocorrência variável em outras e serem sempre estruturas reduzidas e simplificadas, sem função na mastigação, são indicativos deste processo evolutivo. A variação intensa observada quanto à ocorrência do terceiro molar superior inviabiliza o seu uso como caráter útil na identificação de espécies.This paper describes and analyzes the causes of dental formula anomalies in the bats Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838
Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar
Full Text Available We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera and Homoptera (1/7. The diet of M. nigricans included all the main orders consumed by E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively and one other order: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera and Orthoptera were collected only in bats captured in gallery forest. There is 80% of overlap in the diet of these two species. Predation on species of Scarabeidae, Hesperiidae, Sphingidae and Saturniidae families confirms bats potential as biological control agents of pests in agricultural ecosystems.Foi examinado o hábito alimentar das espécies de Vespertilionidae Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 por meio de análise de amostras fecais coletadas em animais capturados em área de cerrado sensu stricto e matas de galeria, na APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Um total de 20 amostras fecais foi analisado, sendo sete de E. furinalis e 13 de M. nigricans. A dieta de E. furinalis incluiu seis ordens de insetos: Coleoptera (5/7 (presença na amostra total, Lepidoptera e Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera e Homoptera (1/7. A dieta de M. nigricans incluiu todas as ordens consumidas por E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively e uma ordem a mais: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera e Orthoptera só foram amostrados para morcegos capturados em mata de galeria. Há 80% de sobreposição na dieta destas duas espécies. A predação sobre espécies das fam
Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Vanderelst, Dieter
Overskrift: ChiRoPing (Chiroptera, Robots, and Sonar) is an EU-funded research project aimed at understanding how bats use their echolocation perception ability and apply this knowledge to the design of new robotic senses. Four species of bats are selected for the study and models of their heads...
Inventários biológicos rápidos de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em três unidades de conservação do Amapá, Brasil Rapid biological surveys of bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera in three conservation units in Amapá, Brazil
Ana C. M. Martins
Full Text Available Com alta diversidade biológica e elevado grau de preservação, a porção norte da Bacia Amazônica, e em especial o Estado do Amapá, são ainda relativamente pouco conhecidos em relação à sua fauna e flora. Estudos apontam que o Amapá possui regiões classificadas como de alta ou muito alta importância para a realização de inventários de fauna na Amazônia Brasileira, havendo ainda grandes lacunas na realização destas amostragens. De forma a suprir parte destas necessidades, três das principais unidades de conservação do Estado, o Parque Nacional Montanhas do Tumucumaque, a Floresta Nacional do Amapá, e a Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável do Rio Iratapuru, foram recentemente amostrados para diferentes grupos biológicos. São apresentados aqui os resultados de inventários de morcegos provenientes de quatro expedições a estas unidades. Após um esforço de 1730,5 rede.horas, quatro inventários registraram 858 capturas, de 51 espécies pertencentes a 36 gêneros e seis famílias. Destas, 25 espécies representam primeiras ocorrências para o Estado, elevando-se para 73 o número de espécies de morcegos registradas no Amapá.With a high biological diversity and good status of preservation, the northern part of the Amazon Basin, and specially the State of Amapá, have their fauna and flora poorly studied. Studies pointed that Amapá has several areas classified as highest priority for faunal inventories in the Amazon Basin, but even that few studies have been conducted. In order to fulfill part of these knowledge gaps, three of the most important conservation units in the State, namely the Tumucumaque Mountains National Park, the Amapá National Forest and the Rio Iratapuru Sustainable Development Reserve, were studied for different biological groups. The results of four bat surveys in these conservation units are presented here. With a sampling effort of 1730.5 mistnet.hours, 858 bats were recorded, belonging to 51
Sevilla, Paloma; López Martínez, Nieves
Diagnostic characters in biosystematics have low variability and congruent distribution. In mammals they are mainly external and skeletal features. The distribution of diagnostic and non-diagnostic characters often shows a poor degree of congruence. Dental characters of isolated teeth of 21 recent species of bats (Chiroptera) have been chosen and ¡malyzed to compare with the distribution of external and ske1etal diagnostic characters. The degree of congruence of these ...
Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea sobre morcegos filostomídeos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em cavernas do Distrito Federal Brasil Streblid batflies (Diptera, Streblidae on phyllostomid bats from eaves in Distrito Federal Brazil
Full Text Available A survey of streblid batflies on phyllostomid bats was carried out from caves in Distrito Federal, Brazil during 1997 and 1998. Thirteen species were found on eight species of bats. Two species of batflies, Trichobius lonchophyllae Wenzel, 1966 and T. propinquus Wenzel, 1976, are new records for Brazil.
Hance, P; Garnotel, E; Morillon, M
Zoonosis is the cause of the vast majority of emerging diseases. Bats that occupy the second place in the mammal class play an important role. Whether they belong to the microchiroptera suborder or to the megachiroptera suborder, bats on all five continents have been implicated in transmission of numerous pathogens including not only viruses such as Lyssavirus (e.g. rabies), Hepanivirus (e.g. Hendra and Nipah virus) and recently coronavirus (e.g. SARS-like coronavirus and Ebola virus) but also fungus such as histoplasmosis. By modifying environmental conditions and encroaching on their biotope, human intervention has probably contributed to the introduction of chiropteras into an epidemiologic chain in which they previously had no place, thus promoting the emergence of new pathogens. PMID:16775933
Full Text Available Abstract Myotis mystacinus (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae new species for Calabria region, southern Italy A young male of whiskered bat Myotis mystacinus, dead the 13 July of 1995 in the building of Ecology Department, University of Calabria, in Rende (Cosenza, was found during the taxonomic revision of the bats in the Theriological Collection of "Museo di Storia Naturale della Calabria ed Orto Botanico" of the University of Calabria. This is the southern most sighting of the species in Italy. The bat checklist of the Calabria region includes now 21 species.
Vidovszky, Márton; Kohl, Claudia; Boldogh, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Harrach, Balázs
From over 1250 extant species of the order Chiroptera, 25 and 28 are known to occur in Germany and Hungary, respectively. Close to 350 samples originating from 28 bat species (17 from Germany, 27 from Hungary) were screened for the presence of adenoviruses (AdVs) using a nested PCR that targets the DNA polymerase gene of AdVs. An additional PCR was designed and applied to amplify a fragment from the gene encoding the IVa2 protein of mastadenoviruses. All German samples originated from organs of bats found moribund or dead. The Hungarian samples were excrements collected from colonies of known bat species, throat or rectal swab samples, taken from live individuals that had been captured for faunistic surveys and migration studies, as well as internal organs of dead specimens. Overall, 51 samples (14.73%) were found positive. We detected 28 seemingly novel and six previously described bat AdVs by sequencing the PCR products. The positivity rate was the highest among the guano samples of bat colonies. In phylogeny reconstructions, the AdVs detected in bats clustered roughly, but not perfectly, according to the hosts' families (Vespertilionidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, Phyllostomidae and Pteropodidae). In a few cases, identical sequences were derived from animals of closely related species. On the other hand, some bat species proved to harbour more than one type of AdV. The high prevalence of infection and the large number of chiropteran species worldwide make us hypothesise that hundreds of different yet unknown AdV types might circulate in bats. PMID:26599097
Colleen T Downs
Full Text Available The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed. Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%, compared with summer (15.6%. In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios.
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... Release No. 61960 (April 22, 2010), 75 FR 22668. \\4\\ See letter from Joan C. Conley, Senior Vice President... proposes a technical amendment to BATS Rule 17.2(g)(4) to eliminate language that will become unnecessary... language from BATS Rule 17.2(g)(4) that states that an options principal is subject to continuing...
Kumar, A.; Divoll, T.
Miners in many countries use mercury as an amalgam to separate gold from river sediments. In the last twenty years the price of gold has risen and the number of small-scale, artisanal gold mining operations in the Amazon basin have also increased. The influx of mercury into natural river systems has detrimental consequences for the surrounding ecosystem and for organisms, particularly those at higher trophic levels. Toxic mercury levels have been shown to impair reproductive, neurological and behavioral functioning of organisms. I used bats (Chiroptera) as a mammalian model system to study mercury contamination and accumulation due to gold mining from field caught and museum collection specimens in Amazonian Perú and showed that: (1) Total mercury concentrations in Amazonian bat species have increased over time since the 1920's; (2) Bat species from sites with current active mining have higher concentrations of mercury than non-mining sites, with some species having levels exceeding those considered toxic for mammals; (3) Higher trophic levels of bats (piscivores and insectivores) bioaccumulate more mercury than bats of lower trophic levels (frugivores); (4) Bats located in present day uncontaminated sites have the same mercury levels as bats collected in the 1920's from the Amazon basin. The variety of bat feeding guilds allowed for a comparison of how mercury accumulation is affected by diet within one taxonomic order. The novel use of museum specimens allowed for a look back into the historical timeline of mercury contamination in the Amazon basin. Bats represent a new and exciting study system since, like humans, they are mammals and should therefore show similar neurochemical and behavioral responses to this toxic element.
O que é melhor para manter a riqueza de espécies de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera: um fragmento florestal grande ou vários fragmentos de pequeno tamanho? What is better for maintaining the richness of bat (Mammalia, Chiroptera species: a large forest fragment or many small fragments?
Nelio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the size of forest fragments affects the diversity of bat species. In order to do that, seven fragments were studied in Londrina, Paraná: five small fragments, whose areas varied between 1 and 10 ha; a fragment which is considered medium-sized (Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas - 85,47 ha.; and a large fragment (Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy - 680 ha.. Thirty three species were collected. Ten species were common to all three types of fragments: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843, Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. Eight species were only found in the large fragment: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Uroderma bilobatum Peters, 1866, Diaemus youngi (Jentink,1893, Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823, Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847, Histiotus velatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Five were only found in the small fragments: Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843, Chiroderma villosum Peters, 1860, Eptesicus sp. e Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866. Chiroderma doriae, which is threatened by extinction, was captured in the large fragment and in one of the small fragments; M. ruber, also threatened by extinction, was captured in the medium-sized and large fragments. We believe that the major cause for the loss of organic diversity is not rational exploitation, but the destruction of habitats, a result of the expansion of irrational human activities.
.... 66034 (December 22, 2011), 76 FR 82011 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposal BATS proposes to... member's customer, research and investment banking business. \\5\\ See Exchange Rules 11.5-11.8. To...
Moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no sul do Brasil: associações hospedeiros-parasitos e taxas de infestação Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in southern Brazil: hosts-parasites associations and infestation rates
Ana M. Rui
Full Text Available As associações hospedeiros-parasitos e as taxas de infestação de dípteros ectoparasitos da família Streblidae foram estudadas em morcegos da família Phyllostomidae na Floresta Atlântica no extremo sul do Brasil. Para as espécies mais abundantes de filostomídeos, foi examinado se há diferenças nos valores de prevalência e intensidade média dos ectoparasitos nas diferentes estações do ano e conforme sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Em quatro espécies de filostomídeos (Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Sturnira lilium E. Geoffroy, 1810 foram coletados 118 indivíduos de sete espécies de Streblidae (Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, 1976, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926, Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907, Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 e Trichobius tiptoni Wenzel, 1976. Para A. lituratus, A. fimbriatus e S. lilium, as taxas de infestação foram baixas e houve uma tendência à infestação ser maior no verão e outono, fato provavelmente relacionado à sazonalidade de temperatura na região, que afeta as taxas reprodutivas e a mortalidade dos ectoparasitos. A infestação por P. longicrus em A. lituratus não foi afetada pelo sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Para S. lilium, a infestação por M. proxima não foi afetada por sexo e idade do hospedeiro, com exceção da maior prevalência de ectoparasitos em indivíduos jovens. Os dados indicam que não existem diferenças comportamentais ligadas a sexo e idade do hospedeiro que favoreçam ou comprometam a infestação por Streblidae nestas espécies de morcegos filostomídeos.Hosts-parasites associations, including infestation rates, between ectoparasitic bat flies of the family Streblidae and bats of the family Phyllostomidae were studied in Atlantic Forest habitats in southern Brazil. For the more abundant phyllostomid bats
A dieta dos morcegos frugívoros (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) de um pequeno remanescente de Floresta Estacionai Semidecidual do sul do Brasil The diet of fruit-eating bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in a small Semideciduous Seasonal Forest remnant in south Brazil
Sandra Bos Mikich
The diet of some leaf-nosed frugivorous bats - Artibeus Leach, 1821, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sturnira lilium (e. Geoffroy, 1810) - was studied for nine consecutive months through faecal analysis of individuais captured with mist-nets in a small forest remnant of Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis revealed that Artibeus spp. exhibited preference for fruits of Ficus spp. and Carollia perspicillata for those of Piper spp., which is in accordance with the results of previous s...
Yu, Danna; Qian, Kenan; Storey, Kenneth B; Hu, Yizhong; Zhang, Jiayong
The mitochondrial genome of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), is a circular molecule of 17,038 bp in length, containing 22 transfer RNAs genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, and one D-loop region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of the H-strand is 63.2% with individual nucleotides comprising T 29.8%, C 23.4%, A 33.3%, and G 13.5%. In BI and ML trees, we found M. lucifugus is a sister clade to M. brandtii, Myotis is a sister clade to Murina, and Pipistrellus is a sister clade to (Chalinolobus + (Eptesicus + Vespertilio)) (1.00 in BI, >100% in ML). The monophyly of Myotis, Murina, and Plecotus is well supported (1.00 in BI, 100% in ML). PMID:26057009
... (March 7, 2013), 78 FR 15757 (March 12, 2013) (Third Amendment to Limit Up-Limit Down Plan by BATS...), 78 FR 15773. II. Background On May 6, 2010, the U.S. equity markets experienced a severe disruption..., 2012), 77 FR 33498 (June 6, 2012) (``Limit Up-Limit Down Plan'' or ``Plan''). \\7\\ See...
A dieta dos morcegos frugívoros (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae de um pequeno remanescente de Floresta Estacionai Semidecidual do sul do Brasil The diet of fruit-eating bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in a small Semideciduous Seasonal Forest remnant in south Brazil
Sandra Bos Mikich
Full Text Available The diet of some leaf-nosed frugivorous bats - Artibeus Leach, 1821, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Sturnira lilium (e. Geoffroy, 1810 - was studied for nine consecutive months through faecal analysis of individuais captured with mist-nets in a small forest remnant of Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis revealed that Artibeus spp. exhibited preference for fruits of Ficus spp. and Carollia perspicillata for those of Piper spp., which is in accordance with the results of previous studies. But contrary to what was expected, fruit of Solanum spp. were not found for the diet of Sturnira lilium in spite of their high availabilily (16 species in the study area and their known relationship with this bat genus. The species of consumed fruit belonged to several plant life forms (trees, bushes, and lianas and occurred in several habitais. This result emphasizes the importance of keeping habitat diversity, especially in small isolated reserves. Most consumed fruits were green, in agreement with the chiropterochoric syndrome, but ali seeds were small due to limitations of the sampling method. Fruit species abundance in the study area did not seem to have influenced their consumption, but intra-specific fruit availability did so, since most fruits were consumed within their intra-annual peak of availability.
Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil
Marcelo O. Bordignon
Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in
As wind power development intensifies around the world, concerns are being raised regarding the impact on birds and chiroptera. Studies have been conducted to explore the possible causes of bat morality associated with wind power development in Quebec and to determine possible mitigation strategies. It is expected that wind energy development will increase in the province from 100 MW in 2003 to more than 3,500 MW by 2013. The regions that have high potential for wind energy development in Quebec include the Appalachian corridor, the Lower North Shore, the Magdelaine Islands, Anticosti Island, the Gaspe Peninsula and northern Quebec. The migration patterns of bats have been examined through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season as well as in the autumn. Possible causes for bat mortality by wind turbines include seasonal migration routes, light, food and ultrasonic attraction. It was concluded that it is imperative to understand the causes of bat mortality in order to develop possible mitigation measures. 40 refs.
Se Hun Gu
Full Text Available The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera, captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981–2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona (family Hipposideridae, captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus (family Vespertilionidae, captured in Côte d’Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins.
Morcegos da região sul do Brasil: análise comparativa da riqueza de espécies, novos registros e atualizações nomenclaturais (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from southern Brazil: comparative analysis of species richness, new records and nomenclatural update (Mammalia, Chiroptera
Fernando C. Passos
Full Text Available Uma análise comparativa da riqueza de espécies de morcegos da Região Sul do Brasil é apresentada, assim como análises de similaridades entre estados. O estado do Paraná apresentou a maior riqueza de espécies de morcegos, com 64 espécies, seguido por Santa Catarina com 46 e pelo Rio Grande do Sul com 40. A família Phyllostomidae influencia fortemente este padrão de riqueza. As distribuições geográficas de Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, Artibeus cinereus (Gervais, 1851 e Thyroptera tricolor Spix, 1823 são ampliadas até o Paraná, estabelecendo um novo limite sul de distribuição dessas espécies e da família Thyropteridae. Além disso, Myotis dinellii Thomas, 1902 foi registrado pela primeira vez no Brasil, em Santa Catarina e no Rio Grande do Sul, estabelecendo um novo limite leste para sua distribuição. Ainda, é ampliada a distribuição de Eptesicus taddeii Miranda, Bernardi & Passos, 2006 a partir de seu primeiro registro no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Uma lista atualizada dos morcegos dos estados sul-brasileiros é apresentada bem como algumas adequações nomenclaturais. É enfatizada a importância do emprego de maiores esforços de campo para levantamentos da quiropterofauna, que assim podem contribuir para medidas de conservação embasadas em inventariamentos e coleções científicas representativas.A comparative analysis of the patterns of bat species richness in southern Brazil is presented, as well as similarity analyses among states. The highest richness of bat species is found in the state of Paraná, with 64 species, followed by Santa Catarina with 46, and Rio Grande do Sul, with 40. The family Phyllostomidae plays an important role in determining this pattern. The geographical distributions of Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, Artibeus cinereus (Gervais, 1851 and Thyroptera tricolor Spix, 1823 are expanded to the state of Paraná, establishing a new southern limit for these species and for Thyropteridae. In
Santos, CP; Gibson, DI
Copyright © 2001-2015 Magnolia Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The attached file is the published version of the article. Although the Chiroptera represents a significant proportion (c.20%) of the mammalian fauna and South America has the highest diversity of bat species, only a...
The study of fossil bat material collected in Quaternary localities in Spain has yielded interesting information on the characteristics of this fauna during the Pleistocene and Holocene in Spain. Out of the 25 species of Chiroptera actually living in Spain, 15 have been detected from the Middle Pleistocene onwards: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. euryale, R. mehelyi, R. hipposideros, Myotis myotis, M. bechsteini, M. nattereri, M. emarginatus, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus ser...
胡开良; 韦力; 朱滕滕; 王绪中; 张礼标
在普通长翼蝠(Miniopterus fuliginosus)的捕食区内用灯诱法和网捕法调查潜在食物(昆虫)种类; 用粪便分析法鉴定普通长翼蝠的食物组成,发现其主要捕食体型较大的鳞翅目和鞘翅目昆虫,体积百分比分别为55%和38%.普通长翼蝠具有相对狭长的翼,翼展比为6.94 ± 0.13;翼载为(9.85 ± 0.83)N/m2,相对较大.飞行状态下普通长翼蝠的回声定位叫声为调频下扫型,声脉冲时程为(1.45 ± 0.06)ms,脉冲间隔为(63.08 ± 21.55)ms,主频较低,为(44.50 ± 2.26)kHz.研究表明,普通长翼蝠的形态特征和回声定位特征与其捕食行为有着密切的联系.%We investigated food (insect) availability in foraging areas utilized by the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus using light traps, fish netting and fecal analysis. The dominant preys of M. fuliginosus were Lepidoptera (55％,by volume percent) and Coleoptera (38％) of a relatively large body size. M. fuliginosus has relatively long, narrow wings and a wing span of 6.58 ± 0.12 and high wing loading of 9.85 ± 0.83 N/m2. The echolocation calls of free flying M.fuliginosus were FM signals, with a pulse duration of 1.45 ± 0.06 ms, interpulse interval of 63.08 ± 21.55 ms, and low dominant frequency of 44.50 ± 2.26 kHz. This study shows that the morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of long-fingered bats are closely linked to their predatory behavior.
Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil
Isai Jorge de Castro
Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.
Elizabeth L Clare
Full Text Available DNA barcoding using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI is frequently employed as an efficient method of species identification in animal life and may also be used to estimate species richness, particularly in understudied faunas. Despite numerous past demonstrations of the efficiency of this technique, few studies have attempted to employ DNA barcoding methodologies on a large geographic scale, particularly within tropical regions. In this study we survey current and potential species diversity using DNA barcodes with a collection of more than 9000 individuals from 163 species of Neotropical bats (order Chiroptera. This represents one of the largest surveys to employ this strategy on any animal group and is certainly the largest to date for land vertebrates. Our analysis documents the utility of this tool over great geographic distances and across extraordinarily diverse habitats. Among the 163 included species 98.8% possessed distinct sets of COI haplotypes making them easily recognizable at this locus. We detected only a single case of shared haplotypes. Intraspecific diversity in the region was high among currently recognized species (mean of 1.38%, range 0-11.79% with respect to birds, though comparable to other bat assemblages. In 44 of 163 cases, well-supported, distinct intraspecific lineages were identified which may suggest the presence of cryptic species though mean and maximum intraspecific divergence were not good predictors of their presence. In all cases, intraspecific lineages require additional investigation using complementary molecular techniques and additional characters such as morphology and acoustic data. Our analysis provides strong support for the continued assembly of DNA barcoding libraries and ongoing taxonomic investigation of bats.
Castonguay, M. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)
Environmental monitoring at wind turbine arrays is needed before, during and after project development. Pesca Environmental evaluates the impact of proposed wind turbine arrays on birds and chiroptera by examining their migration patterns through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season as well as in the autumn. In order to complete a feasibility study, spring migration patterns of birds and chiroptera must be documented and characterized. In addition to building an inventory of birds and chiroptera, Pesca examines bird behaviour and flight patterns and nesting locations. figs.
Dechmann, D K N; Kalko, E. K. V.; Kerth, G.
The ability to create shelters that provide protection from the environment is widespread among animals. However, in spite of the central role roosts play in the life of bats (Chiroptera), only a few species have developed the ability to make their own refuges, one of them being the Neotropical Lophostoma silvicolum. This bat creates and inhabits cavities in active arboreal nests of the termite Nasutitermes corniger. We measured temperature in cavities inside active and dead termite nests, an...
Ferri, M.; Ferraresi, M.; Gelati, A.; Zannetti, G.; Domenichini, A.; Ravizza, L.; Cadignani, R.
The problem of the excessive abundance of the urban pigeon Columba livia population in the city of Modena has been solved thanks to the cooperation between the Modena Municipal authority and the Local Veterinary Service (AUSL). They have followed an integrated program that contains the following points: use of an oral veterinary licensed drug (Ovistop®, ACME, 1997-2002) in order to limit the pigeons fertility; use of architectural devices in order to limit the access of the pigeons in private...
Ravel, Anthony; Marivaux, Laurent; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Adaci, Mohammed; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Bensalah, Mustapha
The Afro-Arabian Paleogene fossil record of Chiroptera is very poor. In North Africa and Arabia, this record is limited, thus far, to a few localities mainly in Tunisia (Chambi, late early Eocene), Egypt (Fayum, late Eocene to early Oligocene), and Sultanate of Oman (Taqah, early Oligocene). It consists primarily of isolated teeth or mandible fragments. Interestingly, these African fossil bats document two modern groups (Vespertilionoidea and Rhinolophoidea) from the early Eocene, while the bat fossil record of the same epoch of North America, Eurasia, and Australia principally includes members of the "Eochiroptera." This paraphyletic group contains all primitive microbats excluding modern families. In Algeria, the region of Brezina, southeast of the Atlas Mountains, is famous for the early Eocene El Kohol Formation, which has yielded one of the earliest mammalian faunas of the African landmass. Recent fieldwork in the same area has led to the discovery of a new vertebrate locality, including isolated teeth of Chiroptera. These fossils represent the oldest occurrence of Chiroptera in Africa, thus extending back the record of the group to the middle early Eocene (Ypresian) on that continent. The material consists of an upper molar and two fragments of lower molars. The dental character association matches that of "Eochiroptera." As such, although very fragmentary, the material testifies to the first occurrence of "Eochiroptera" in Algeria, and by extension in Africa. This discovery demonstrates that this basal group of Chiroptera had a worldwide distribution during the early Paleogene.
Turner, G. G.; Meteyer, C. U.; Barton, H.; Gumbs, J. F.; Reeder, D. M.; Overton, B.; Bandouchová, H.; Bartonička, T.; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, J.; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, D. S.
Roč. 50, č. 3 (2014), s. 566-573. ISSN 0090-3558 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * Chiroptera * dermatomycosis * fungal infection * ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence * white-nose syndrome Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2014
Voigt, Christian C; Borrisov, Ivailo M; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L
The evolution of powered flight involved major morphological changes in Chiroptera. Nevertheless, all bats are also capable of crawling on the ground and some are even skilled sprinters. We asked if a highly derived morphology adapted for flapping flight imposes high metabolic requirements on bats when moving on the ground. We measured the metabolic rate during terrestrial locomotion in mastiff bats, Molossus currentium, a species that is both a fast-flying aerial-hawking bat and an agile crawler on the ground. Metabolic rates of bats averaged 8.0±4.0 ml CO(2) min(-1) during a 1-min period of sprinting at 1.3±0.6 km h(-1). With rising average speed, mean metabolic rates increased, reaching peak values that were similar to those of flying conspecifics. Metabolic rates of M. currentium were higher than those of similar-sized rodents that sprinted at similar velocities under steady-state conditions. When M. currentium sprinted at peak velocities, its aerobic metabolic rate was 3-5 times higher than those of rodent species running continuously in steady-state conditions. Costs of transport (J kg(-1) m(-1)) were more than 10 times higher for running than for flying bats. We conclude that at the same speed bats experience higher metabolic rates during short sprints than quadruped mammals during steady-state terrestrial locomotion, yet running bats achieve higher maximal mass-specific aerobic metabolic rates than non-volant mammals such as rodents. PMID:22972883
Koubínová, D.; Sreepada, K. S.; Koubek, Petr; Zima, Jan
Roč. 12, č. 2 (2010), s. 393-400. ISSN 1508-1109 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chromosomal evolution * karyosystematics * Robertsonian translocations Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.012, year: 2010
Shen, Bin; Han, Xiuqun; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Zhang, Shuyi
Myosin VI (encoded by the Myo6 gene) is highly expressed in the inner and outer hair cells of the ear, retina, and polarized epithelial cells such as kidney proximal tubule cells and intestinal enterocytes. The Myo6 gene is thought to be involved in a wide range of physiological functions such as hearing, vision, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Bats (Chiroptera) represent one of the most fascinating mammal groups for molecular evolutionary studies of the Myo6 gene. A diversity of specializ...
Laar, van Vincent; Daan, Serge
On a trip to Greece between the 25th April and the 25th July 1963, the authors collected (on the mainland and some islands in the Aegean) insects, amphibians and reptiles as well as 194 mammals. Among the mammals, mainly rodents and insectivores, there were also 27 bats, belonging to five species. A
Shapiro, Julie Teresa; da Costa Lima Junior, Manoel Sebastião; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; de Oliveira França, Adriana; Cepa Matos, Maria de Fatima; Bordignon, Marcelo Oscar
Leishmaniasis, a zoonotic disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, has expanded beyond its natural range and is becoming increasingly urban. Using PCR and PCR-RFLP, we detected Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in two bats (Chiroptera) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, an endemic area. This is the first record of L. (V.) braziliensis in bats. It is also the first record of any Leishmania sp. in bats in the state. The animals testing positive were found in both a rural site and an urban site. These results indicate the need for further research into the viability of Leishmania in bats and could potentially have implications for public health in Mato Grosso do Sul, given the large populations of urban bats, their mobility, and their ability to roost at close proximity to humans within residences and other buildings. PMID:23886850
Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David
The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…
Phillips, Amanda J.; Scott, Catherine; Matthews, Catherine E.
This article describes a lesson on bats developed for kindergartners, which uses models of bats to teach about their physiology, diet, and habitat. The lesson uses craft sticks, wax paper, and colored construction paper that kindergarten teachers can use to help their students compare the features of 4 different kinds of bats. The use of online…
Records of Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903) (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae) on Myotis nigricans Schinz, 1821 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae), from the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil
Márcia Arzua; Pedro Marcos Linardi; Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti
The flea, Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903), had been recorded for the first time in the State of Paraná in 1940, on the bat, Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824). Previously, this species of flea had only been recorded on Myotis nigricans, in the Amazonian region. This is the second record of M. w. wolffsohni on M. nigricans in Brazil, and the first in the State of Paraná. Although this flea has been found on undetermined Chiroptera in the State of Santa Catarina, the present ...
Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.
The Neotropical bat genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) currently comprises 15 species. Our morphological and morphometric analysis of large and medium-sized Platyrrhinus revealed a distinctive Undescribed species from western South America. We also recognize P. aquilus (Handley & Ferris 1972) and P. umbratus (Lyon 1902) as valid species. We describe P. nitelinea sp. nov. from western Colombia and Ecuador and provide emended diagnoses along with descriptions of P. aquilus, P.. dorsalis, and P. umbratus. Phylogenetic analysis of Platyrrhinus based on morphological characters indicates that P. aquilus is closely related to P. aurarius and P. nigellus, P. umbratus to P. chocoensis, and P. nitelinea to P. vittatus.
Full Text Available The flea, Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903, had been recorded for the first time in the State of Paraná in 1940, on the bat, Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Previously, this species of flea had only been recorded on Myotis nigricans, in the Amazonian region. This is the second record of M. w. wolffsohni on M. nigricans in Brazil, and the first in the State of Paraná. Although this flea has been found on undetermined Chiroptera in the State of Santa Catarina, the present record represents the meridional limit of geographic distribution for the infestation on M. nigricans.
Akbar, Haroon; Pinçon, Claire; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile-Marie; Derouiche, Sandra; Taylor, Maria-Lucia; Pottier, Muriel; Carreto-Binaghi, Laura-Helena; González-González, Antonio E.; Courpon, Aurore; Barriel, Véronique; Guillot, Jacques; Chabé, Magali; Suarez-Alvarez, Roberto O.; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Dei-Cas, Eduardo
Bats belong to a wide variety of species and occupy diversified habitats, from cities to the countryside. Their different diets (i.e., nectarivore, frugivore, insectivore, hematophage) lead Chiroptera to colonize a range of ecological niches. These flying mammals exert an undisputable impact on both ecosystems and circulation of pathogens that they harbor. Pneumocystis species are recognized as major opportunistic fungal pathogens which cause life-threatening pneumonia in severely immunocompr...
Fejtek, M; Delorme, M; Wassersug, R
As part of an ongoing survey of the behavioral responses of vertebrates to abrupt changes in gravity, we report here on the reactions of bats (Carollia perspicillata) exposed to altered gravity during parabolic aircraft flight. In microgravity, mammals typically behave as if they were upside-down and exhibit repetitive righting reflexes, which often lead to long axis rolling. Since bats, however, normally rest upside-down, we hypothesized that they would not roll in microgravity. Only one of three specimens attempted to fly during microgravity. None rolled or performed any righting maneuvers. During periods of microgravity the bats partially extended their forearms but kept their wings folded and parallel to the body. Between parabolas and occasionally during microgravity the bats groomed themselves. Both the extended limbs and autogrooming may be stress responses to the novel stimulus of altered gravity. This is the first behavioral record of Chiroptera in microgravity. PMID:11541842
Poinar George O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both sexes of bat flies in the families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea reside in the hair or on the wing membranes of bats and feed on blood. Members of the Nycteribiidae transmit bat malaria globally however extant streblids have never been implemented as vectors of bat malaria. The present study shows that during the Tertiary, streblids also were vectors of bat malaria. Results A new haemospororidan, Vetufebrus ovatus, n. gen., n. sp., (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae is described from two oocysts attached to the midgut wall and sporozoites in salivary glands and ducts of a fossil bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae in Dominican amber. The new genus is characterized by ovoid oocysts, short, stubby sporozoites with rounded ends and its occurrence in a fossil streblid. This is the first haemosporidian reported from a streblid bat fly and shows that representatives of the Hippoboscoidea were vectoring bat malaria in the New World by the mid-Tertiary. Conclusions This report is the first evidence of an extant or extinct streblid bat fly transmitting malaria. Discovering a mid-tertiary malarial parasite in a fossil streblid that closely resembles members of a malarial genus found in nycteribiid bat flies today shows how little we know about the vector associations of streblids. While no malaria parasites have been found in extant streblids, they probably occur and it is possible that streblids were the earliest lineage of flies that transmitted bat malaria to Chiroptera.
The fine structure of the ears of 62 species of bats from 13 families has been studied by means of serial sections. The bats were caught alive in Britain, West Indies, Panama, Central and North Africa and were intra-vitally perfused with fixative in order to obtain perfect preservation of the intern
Miyamoto, M M; Porter, C A; Goodman, M
The complete protein-coding sequences of the c-myc proto-oncogene were determined for five species of four new orders of eutherian (placental) mammals. These newly obtained sequences were aligned to each other and to other available orthologs for the phylogenetic estimation of eutherian interordinal relationships. Several measures of sequence difference and base composition were first calculated to assess the major evolutionary properties of the three codon positions and two protein-coding exons of the gene. On the basis of these calculations, different parsimony, distance, and maximum likelihood approaches were adopted, with the most sophisticated involving the separate, then combined, likelihood analyses of the third codon positions of exon 2 versus all other sites. These phylogenetic approaches provided clear support for the grouping of Chiroptera (bats) with Artiodactyla (ruminants, camels, and pigs) and Carnivora (cats, dogs, and their allies), an interordinal arrangement that receives strong corroboration from other lines of evidence including complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. In contrast, these analyses failed to provide strong to reasonable support for any other interordinal group. This study concludes with specific recommendations about sampling and other strategies for maximizing the phylogenetic contributions of the c-myc gene to the continued resolution of the eutherian ordinal tree. PMID:12116424
de Araújo, Ramon Everton Ferreira; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; da Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Pieczarka, Julio César
Twelve specimens of the bat Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae: Chiroptera) were collected from four localities in the Brazilian Amazon region and analyzed by classical and molecular cytogenetics. The diploid number and autosomal fundamental number were as previously reported (2n = 22 and FNa = 40, respectively). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rDNA probes and silver nitrate technique demonstrated the presence of two NOR sites and the presence of internal telomeric sequences at pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes with exception of Y. Based on meiotic studies and chromosome banding we suggest that the sex chromosome pair of C. brevirostris was equivocally identified as it appears in the literature. Meiotic analysis demonstrated that at diplotene-diakinesis the cells had a ring conformation involving four chromosome pairs. This suggests the occurrence of multiple reciprocal translocations among these chromosomes, which is a very rare phenomenon in vertebrates, and has never been described in Eutheria. PMID:27300547
徐娜; 付子英; 陈其才
在漫长的生物演化过程中,蝙蝠演化出了能飞行和高度适应生存环境的生物声纳系统和行为.蝙蝠属于哺乳动物纲的翼手目(Chiroptera),是唯一能真正飞行的哺乳动物,其种类超过1000种,位列哺乳类动物的第二大目.根据其体型大小和形态特征将其分成大蝙蝠亚目(Megachiroptera)和小蝙蝠亚目(Microchiroptera).对蝙蝠的研究具有重要的科学意义和实际应用价值,如在听感觉方面与人类共享听觉的某些基本原理,研究结果有助于认识人类听觉.它们发出的回声定位信号规整,便于模拟后用于研究听觉系统对声信号加工的机制,尤其是在听中枢对复杂声信号处理方面,认识其细胞和分子机制才刚开始,它们是极好的模型动物.另外,在仿生学方面也具有极其重要的价值,回声定位蝙蝠的生物声纳系统具有极高的时间和空间分辨率,是极具诱惑力的研究课题.有关恒频-调频蝙蝠听觉结构和功能的研究,已有相当的时日,获得了不少新的认识,窥探到敏锐的听觉与回声定位行为之间的某些适应性的机制,本文对这方面的研究进展做了简要介绍和评述.%The evolution makes bats have abilities of flying,echolocating and highly adaptating to living surroundings.Bats,as the only true flying mammals,belong to the Chiroptera,ranking the second order of the mammals with more than 1000 species.They are classified into Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera according to their size and morphological characteristics of the body.Because bats share some basic principles with human in auditory perception,the researches of bats can provide helpful information to understand the hearing of human.The echolocation signals emitted by bats are regular and can be easily imitated to study the mechanism of the signal processing in the central auditory system,especially in the processing of complex acoustic signals,bats is an excellent model animal
Shen, Bin; Han, Xiuqun; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi
Myosin VI (encoded by the Myo6 gene) is highly expressed in the inner and outer hair cells of the ear, retina, and polarized epithelial cells such as kidney proximal tubule cells and intestinal enterocytes. The Myo6 gene is thought to be involved in a wide range of physiological functions such as hearing, vision, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Bats (Chiroptera) represent one of the most fascinating mammal groups for molecular evolutionary studies of the Myo6 gene. A diversity of specialized adaptations occur among different bat lineages, such as echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing in laryngeal echolocating bats, large eyes and a strong dependence on vision in Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae), and specialized high-carbohydrate but low-nitrogen diets in both Old World and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). To investigate what role(s) the Myo6 gene might fulfill in bats, we sequenced the coding region of the Myo6 gene in 15 bat species and used molecular evolutionary analyses to detect evidence of positive selection in different bat lineages. We also conducted real-time PCR assays to explore the expression levels of Myo6 in a range of tissues from three representative bat species. Molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that the Myo6 gene, which was widely considered as a hearing gene, has undergone adaptive evolution in the Old World fruit bats which lack laryngeal echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing. Real-time PCR showed the highest expression level of the Myo6 gene in the kidney among ten tissues examined in three bat species, indicating an important role for this gene in kidney function. We suggest that Myo6 has undergone adaptive evolution in Old World fruit bats in relation to receptor-mediated endocytosis for the preservation of protein and essential nutrients. PMID:23620821
Primeiro registro de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) no Brasil First record of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in Brazil
Sílvia Gonzalez Monteiro; Geder Paulo Herrmann; Franciele Camila Luchese; Vanessa Daniele Mottin
Descreve-se o parasitismo de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera) no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The parasitism of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) is described in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera) in the county of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Primeiro registro de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae no Brasil First record of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Brazil
Sílvia Gonzalez Monteiro
Full Text Available Descreve-se o parasitismo de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The parasitism of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae is described in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera in the county of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Dittmar, Katharina; Dick, Carl W; Patterson, Bruce D; Whiting, Michael F; Gruwell, Matthew E
We studied the deposition of pupae of the winged bat fly Trichobius sp. (caecus group; Diptera), an ectoparasite of Natalus stramineus (Chiroptera, Natalidae), in a natural cave in Tamaulipas, Mexico. For the first time, we show a strong spatial segregation of populations of a streblid bat fly at different stages of development. Using molecular techniques we were able to match developmental stages to adults. Only 5 pupae were present in the main bat roosts. The overwhelming majority occurred exclusively in the bat flyway passages at a considerable distance from roosting bats. Pupal density corresponded positively with the average flight height of bats in the cave passage. Taken together, observations suggest that these ectoparasites must actively seek out their hosts by moving onto passing or roosting bats. The scarceness of pupae in the main roost may be dictated by environmental constraints for their development. The estimated population of viable pupae far exceeds the population of imagoes on the bats, and predation on adults by spiders is common. PMID:18684039
Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.
Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.
... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 70663 (October 11, 2013), 78 FR 62896 (SR-BYX-2013-036) (``Notice''). II... 1.5(n). \\5\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 63895 (February 11, 2011), 76 FR 9386 (February... same side of the market for its own account at a price that would satisfy the customer order, unless...
Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney
Background: Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases.Methods: This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to under...
...), 75 FR 51295 (August 19, 2010) (order approving application of BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. for registration... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Amend BATS Rule 11.13, Entitled ``Order...
梁子安; 刘冰许; 张曼
In October 2001 and September 2010, the chiropteni in Yunhua Karat Care of Henan Province was investigated. The results showed that chiroptera in this area belong to 4 families, 4 genera and 7 species. Among them, 4 species (57.1%) were Oriental realm spe cies, and 3 species (42.9% ) were cosmopolitan species. According to the present status of chiroptera resources in Yunhua Karat Cave, de tailed countermeasures for bat protection were put forward.%2001年10月和2010年9月,对河南省西峡县云华洞翼手目动物进行了调查.通过标本采集、鉴定分类,初步查明该溶洞分布翼手目动物共7种,隶属4科4属.其中,东洋界种4种,占总数的57.1％；广布种3种,占总数的42.9％.此外,根据蝙蝠资源的现状,提出了具体的保护建议.
Full Text Available Bats (Chiroptera host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3 were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed.
Evelyne Picard-Meyer; Emmanuelle Robardet; Laurent Arthur; Gérald Larcher; Christine Harbusch; Alexandre Servat; Florence Cliquet
Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed p...
McGuiness, F. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON (Canada). Renewable Energy Resources; Stewart, J. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, ON (Canada). Wildlife Section
None of the 8 species of bats in Ontario are considered as species at risk. However, all bats in Ontario are protected under the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) is responsible for identifying significant wildlife habitat for bats, including hibernacula and maternity roosts. The MNR's role in wind development includes environmental assessments (EA) and surveys. The MNR bat guideline includes a summary of Ontario species, a literature review of research related to wind turbines and bats, and a review of methods for assessing and monitoring bats. Guideline development includes a bat working group responsible for obtaining data on risk factors and monitoring requirements. The MNR has determined that site selection is critical for minimizing potential impacts. Wind farm proponents can use MNR data, information, and maps for their site selection process. Information requirements include bat species data; habitat data; and meteorological data. The presence of risk factors results in a sensitivity rating. The MNR is also developing a site sensitivity mapping project in order to assist proponents in making siting decisions. All proposed sites are required to conduct pre-construction site surveys. Acoustic detectors and radar are used to determine bat activity at the site. Monitoring and mitigation strategies include selective wind turbine shutdown during key periods or weather conditions. tabs., figs.
... 13, 2010), 75 FR 51295 (August 19, 2010) (order approving application of BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. for... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt BATS Rule 2.12, Entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound...
GRACLIK, Agnieszka; Wasielewski, Oskar
The diet of greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis) was investigated by analysis of 900 droppings taken from 8 different bat colonies in western Poland. Three taxonomic orders (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera) and representatives of 2 other groups of arthropods (Chilopoda: Lithobiidae and Arachnida: Araneae) were identified in the droppings. Coleoptera was the most abundant prey found in fecal samples in all seasons. Study sites differed significantly in the composition of prey, which p...
Dara N Orbach
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the wild, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats often eat fermenting fruits and nectar, and thus may consume levels of ethanol that could induce inebriation. To understand if consumption of ethanol by bats alters their access to food and general survival requires examination of behavioural responses to its ingestion, as well as assessment of interspecific variation in those responses. We predicted that bats fed ethanol would show impaired flight and echolocation behaviour compared to bats fed control sugar water, and that there would be behavioural differences among species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We fed wild caught Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Carollia sowelli, Glossophaga soricina, and Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae sugar water (44 g of table sugar in 500 ml of water or sugar water with ethanol before challenging them to fly through an obstacle course while we simultaneously recorded their echolocation calls. We used bat saliva, a non-invasive proxy, to measure blood ethanol concentrations ranging from 0 to >0.3% immediately before flight trials. Flight performance and echolocation behaviour were not significantly affected by consumption of ethanol, but species differed in their blood alcohol concentrations after consuming it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The bats we studied display a tolerance for ethanol that could have ramifications for the adaptive radiation of frugivorous and nectarivorous bats by allowing them to use ephemeral food resources over a wide span of time. By sampling across phyllostomid genera, we show that patterns of apparent ethanol tolerance in New World bats are broad, and thus may have been an important early step in the evolution of frugivory and nectarivory in these animals.
... About CDC.gov . Rabies Rabies Homepage Share Compartir Learning about bats and rabies Most bats don t ... Monday-Friday Closed Holidays email@example.com Bats Learning about bats and rabies Coming in contact with ...
Fister, Iztok; Yang, Xin-She; Fister, Dušan
Swarm intelligence is a very powerful technique to be used for optimization purposes. In this paper we present a new swarm intelligence algorithm, based on the bat algorithm. The Bat algorithm is hybridized with differential evolution strategies. Besides showing very promising results of the standard benchmark functions, this hybridization also significantly improves the original bat algorithm.
James A Ellison
Full Text Available Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%. Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus. RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S. The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation.
Ellison, James A; Gilbert, Amy T; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard F; Mendonça, Mary T; Lindblade, Kim A; Rupprecht, Charles E
Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103
Gaël D Maganga
Full Text Available The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa.
Poel, van der W.H.M.; Heide, van der R.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kramps, J.A.
To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and
... FR 51295 (August 19, 2010) (order approving application of BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. for registration as... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rule 11.13, Entitled ``Order Execution'' February 15,...
Complementarity and efficiency of bat capture methods in a lowland tropical dry forest of Yucatán, Mexico Complementariedad y eficiencia de métodos de captura de murciélagos en una selva baja caducifolia de Yucatán, México
Juan M. Pech-Canche
Full Text Available The combined use of different methods for surveying bat assemblages has increased over the last few decades. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of bat inventories by comparing assemblages parameters (species richness, abundance and composition using the 3 most conventional capture methods (ground-level and sub-canopy mist nets and harp traps, in a lowland tropical dry forest in Yucatán, Mexico. In ground mist nets, only phyllostomid species were recorded, principally frugivorous and nectarivorous species, while in harp traps the majority were insectivorous species from other families. Our results indicate that for the order Chiroptera the most efficient combination of capture methods is the simultaneous use of ground mist nets and harp traps. However, an inventory of Phyllostomidae is reliably achieved with only ground mist nets. Also, a combination of ground and sub-canopy mist nets does not provide an efficient sampling strategy.El uso combinado de diferentes métodos de muestreo de ensambles de murciélagos se ha incrementado en las últimas décadas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficiencia de los inventarios de murciélagos comparando los parámetros del ensamble (riqueza de especies, abundancia y composición usando los 3 métodos de captura convencionales (redes de niebla a nivel de sotobosque y sub-dosel, y trampas arpa, en una selva baja caducifolia de Yucatán, México. En las redes de sotobosque se registraron solamente especies de filostómidos, principalmente especies frugívoras y nectarívoras; mientras que en las trampas arpa, la mayoría fueron especies insectívoras de otras familias. Nuestros resultados indican que para el orden Chiroptera la combinación más eficiente de métodos de captura es el uso simultáneo de redes de sotobosque y trampas arpa. Sin embargo, se alcanza un inventario confiable de filostómidos sólo con las redes de sotobosque. Además, una combinación de redes de
Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C
The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of the endotheliomonochorial type. There was a single layer of trophoblast cells. The cells of the maternal endothelium were large and basophilic, contained abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, and rested on an irregular basement membrane. Blunt projections of endometrium extended into the placental disk and clusters of large cells occurred between the endometrial stroma and labyrinth. At the margins of the disk folds of trophoblast occurred and at the cranial end they formed an haemophagous region. The folds lateral to the disk included some peculiar tubular-appearing structures. There was a persistent yolk sac containing large endodermal cells around a largely collapsed lumen. Several features of placentation, such as the interhaemal barrier and the haemophagous region, are consistent with an association of Myzopodidae with Emballonuridae. No support was found for alternative hypotheses that include Myzopodidae in the noctilionoid or vespertilionoid lineages. PMID:18374977
Warner, J.W.; Patton, J.L.; Gardner, A.L.; Baker, R.J.
Examination of 135 specimens representing 21 species from seven genera of the family Molossidae revealed diploid numbers ranging from 34 to 48. Seventeen species from six genera have diploid numbers of 48. Geographic variation and polymorphism were found only in Eumops glaucinus. Chromosomal variation within the family is presumed to be primarily due to changes in diploid number resulting from Robertsonian translocations.
Benda, P.; Vallo, Peter; Hulva, P.; Horáček, I.
Roč. 67, č. 6 (2012), s. 1230-1244. ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rousettus * morphometrics * mtDNA * taxonomy * distribution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012
Vallo, Peter; Benda, P.; Červený, J.; Koubek, Petr
Roč. 79, č. 2 (2015), s. 225-231. ISSN 0025-1461 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P624; GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : cranial morphometrics * cytochrome b * phylogeny * zinc finger protein Y Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2014
Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C
The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of ...
Eptesicus isabellinus was originally described as Vespertilio isabellinus by Temminck (1840, p. 205, pl. 52 figs. 1, 2) from a series of specimens obtained by J. F. H. Clifford Cocq van Breugel in the vicinity of Tripoli, Libya. Unfortunately Temminck's original description did not include any crani
Benda, P.; Vallo, Peter; Reiter, A.
Vilnius: Gamtos tyrimu centras, 2011 - (Hutson, A.; Lina, P.). s. 51-52 ISBN 978-9986-443-55-1. [European Bat Research Symposium /12./. 22.08.2011-26.08.2011, Vilnius] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Rasche, Andrea; Souza, Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez; Drexler, Jan Felix
The origin of primate HBV (family Hepadnaviridae) is unknown. Hepadnaviruses are ancient pathogens and may have been associated with old mammalian lineages like bats for prolonged time. Indeed, the genetic diversity of bat hepadnaviruses exceeds that of extant hepadnaviruses in other host orders, suggesting a long evolution of hepadnaviruses in bats. Strikingly, a recently detected New World bat hepadnavirus is antigenically related to HBV and can infect human hepatocytes. Together with genetically diverse hepadnaviruses from New World rodents and a non-human primate, these viruses argue for a New World origin of ancestral orthohepadnaviruses. Multiple host switches of bat and primate viruses are evident and bats are likely sources of ancestral hepadnaviruses acquired by primates. PMID:26897577
Alejandra Riechers-Pérez; Roberto Vidal-López
Se confirma la presencia del murciélago trompudo mexicano (Choeronycteris mexicana) en Chiapas. Los 5 ejemplares examinados de esta especie fueron capturados en 3 localidades del Parque Nacional Cañón del Sumidero y constituyen los primeros registros verificados que demuestran su presencia en la Depresión Central de Chiapas, lo que evidencia una distribución continua de México hasta Centro América.We confirm the presence of the Mexican long-tongued bat (Choeronycteris mexicana) in Chiapas. Fi...
Full Text Available Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews, before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.
Daniela A Schmieder
Full Text Available External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species--in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera--based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern.
... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rules in Connection With the Elimination of Discretionary Orders for BATS Options January 29, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act...