This article explains in simple terms about nuclear energy, nuclear research and power reactor and its operations. It gives the historical background of the presently being constructed Philippine Nuclear Power Plant (PNPP-I) at Napot Point, Bataan. Because of rising opposition to its construction aggravated by the TMI accident, the author tries to explain and convince those against nuclear power that the reactor will be safe within reasonable risk as deduced from testimonies of experts involved in the construction and later in its operation. (author)
The proposed re-commissioning of the mothballed Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) has raised objections that include the perceived unsafe siting of the BNPP on Mt. Natib, a potentially active volcano, in an earthquake-prone region. This concern must be evaluated through thorough seismological, paleo-seismic, volcanological and engineering studies. The BNPP sits on Napot Point on the southwest foot slope of Mt. Natib, an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano just 30 kms south of Mt. Pinatubo. Natib's evolution is poorly known, but involved at least 3 explosive summit eruptions that formed a 6 km-diameter coalescent caldera and a younger 2-km diameter caldera. Pyroclastic flows define the cone surface, and available age dating includes a ±27 ka 14C age for a deposit on the eastern flanks and an 11-18 ka relative dating for suspected pyroclastic deposits in Subic Bay (1). Whether these represent the most recent eruptions is uncertain. A detailed magmatic/eruptive history defining magmatic recharge and eruption recurrence rates, from which probabilities for future eruptive activity can be analyzed, will be necessary for quantifying volcanic risk. Furthermore, Natib,Pinatubo and adjacent Mariveles are part of the Luzon Arc and associated with ongoing subduction along the Manila Trench. Subduction earthquakes are common, but apart from these, seismic risk is also being attributted to tectonic structures inland that include reported on site faults inferred from drilling, basin faults seen in reflection profiles (1), the Subic Bay Fault Zone delineated by magmatic studies (2) and various lineaments inferred from satellite imageries. These, plus seismicity in the region are being argued as indicators of earthquake threat. However, much emphasis is given maximum seismic magnitudes rather than peak ground accelerations (PGAs), epicentral rather than focal sources,and the inference of faults/lineaments rather than paleoseismic evidence of recent faulting. Paleoseismic studies of
This report presents the accomplishment of the National Power Corporation (NPC) for the month of August 1994. The highlights of the report were the following: a) issuance of preservation task orders; b) total expenses for the preservation and maintenance of the plant; c) completion of underwater structures and fabrication of the stop logs; d) repaired of two dry type transformers; e) inventory of excess construction materials; and f) investigations of vehicular accident. Also in this period, delegates from different institutions and organizations and schools were given briefings and tour of the plant facilities as part of public information campaign. ills
Andrew Lou L. Mungcal
Full Text Available This paper addressed the issue of sustainable coastal resource management through a successful Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM Program in the Municipality of Mariveles, province of Bataan in the Philippines. The paper investigated how governance and institutional and legislative framework, and the concept of sustainable development complemented each other to promote good local eco-governance in the management and protection of finite local marine resources. Specifically, it analyzed how the local fisherfolk community of Mariveles utilized efficiently their finite marine resources in the context of eco-governance. It also investigated how the cooperative efforts of various stakeholders: peoples’ organizations (POs, local government unit (LGU, and a non-government organization (NGO in Mariveles, Bataan affected their coastal resources against environmental degradation and exploitation. This paper would benefit POs, LGUs, and NGOs in their quest for sustainable management and conservation of their limited coastal resources. This paper yielded the following findings. First, POs and NGOs engage when NGOs can strengthen the POs’ capacity building through the transfer of skills and technology, when NGOs can enhance the POs’ indigenous knowledge, and when NGOs are more knowledgeable of formal venues of LGU participation. Second, LGUs, NGOs and POs engage when POs and NGOs can complement each other to strengthen their capacity building, and when NGOs can help implement environmental programs that are beneficial to the POs. Third, NGOs and POs engage when POs are threatened by elite power, and when NGOs want their environmental issues on LGU’s legislative agenda. Finally, NGOs and POs engage when they see possible LGU cooperation. Participant observation through focus group discussion (FGD and key informants’ interview of different stakeholders was a primary source of information in formulating the aforementioned conclusions
Andrew Lou L. Mungcal
This paper addressed the issue of sustainable coastal resource management through a successful Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM) Program in the Municipality of Mariveles, province of Bataan in the Philippines. The paper investigated how governance and institutional and legislative framework, and the concept of sustainable development complemented each other to promote good local eco-governance in the management and protection of finite local marine resources. Specifically, ...
The peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomes of the Filipino, the carabao, the goat, and the ricefield rat, four mammalian species found abundant in the environs of the Philippine Nuclear Power Plant (PNPP-I) in Morong, Bataan, were studied to establish their radiosensitivities and to explore their possible use as biological indicator of radiation effects. The four mammalian species were found to be radiosensitive. Chromosome aberration was induced by gamma-irradiation of whole venous blood. By cytogenetic technique the aberrant chromosomes were evaluated. The aberrant chromosomes may be categorized into chromatid and chromosome types. Of the types seen, it was concluded that dicentrics are the most reliable indicator of radiation effects. In the course of this study a suitable medium was formualted and was found competitive with a commercially prepared medium. The radiosensitivity of the four species based on the frequency of dicentrics differs from each other. A calibration curve was constructed to relate exposure to the observed incidence of dicentrics. This curve is very important in the calculation of the dose corresponding to the observed dicentric yield in case of accidental release of radioactivity in the PNPP-I site. (author)
Following an unexpected surge in electricity demand the Philippines has revised its medium term power development programme. The sharp increase in electricity consumption follows three years of slack demand due to civil disturbances before the end of the Macros administration and the election of Corazon Aquino as President in 1986. Originally, the Aquino government's medium term power development plans called for about 500MW of generating capacity to be installed between 1986 and 1992. The three proposed plants were scheduled for commissioning in 1991 and 1992. However, a spurt in power demand growth during the past nine months has caused concern among industrialists that power shortages could occur by the end of the decade. So additional capacity will be installed to prevent an anticipated shortfall in electricity supplies by the early 1990s.
Full text: Prior to the construction of nuclear power plant in 1976, the only safeguarded nuclear materials in the Philippines were the nuclear fuels of the research reactor (PRR-1). The arrival of the nuclear fuels of the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) in 1984 increased the number of safeguarded nuclear materials. Further, the upgrading of the present MTR reactor to a TRIGA type in 1987 necessitated the acquisition of additional nuclear fuels. When the Philippine government decided to mothball the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, the operator (National Power Corporation) made arrangements to sell the nuclear fuels. In 1997 Siemen's Power Corporation bought the fuel assemblies. With the removal of the nuclear fuels, the facility is considered a closed down facility. Nonetheless, the inspectors have to visit the plant to verify the design information according to the new facility attachment. It is hoped that integrated safeguards will be applied to the Bataan Nuclear Plant since there are no more nuclear fuels present at the plant. In line with the U.S initiative to implement its Record of Decision to accept and manage all foreign research reactors uranium fuels of U.S. origin, the Philippines accepted the cost-free shipment of PRR-1 spent fuels to the United States. The spent fuel assemblies of mixed enrichment from the PRR-1 were shipped to the United States last 14 March 1999. The agreement between the Philippines and the IAEA for the application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is provided for in the INFCIRC/216, which was ratified on 16 October 1974. Submission of reports to IAEA is done in hard copy according to Code 10. The Philippines still maintains the six-digit date format. In line with the Agency's effort to strengthen international safeguards, the Philippines signed the Additional Protocol in 1997. Pending its ratification, complementary access is already available to the IAEA inspectors such
This report is the fourth in a series dealing with the geothermal power plants of the world. Here the existing and planned stations in the south Pacific area are surveyed including New Zealand, the Philippines and Indonesia. Details are given for the plants at Wairakei and Kawerau, and for the one proposed at Broadlands in New Zealand; for the plants proposed for Tiwi and Los Banos, and the wellhead units operating at Los Banos and Tongonan in the Philippines; and for the wellhead unit soon to be installed at Kawah Kamojang on Java in Indonesia. The geologic characteristics of the fields are described along with wellflow particulars, energy conversion systems, environmental impacts, economic factors and operating experiences, where available. The geothermal resource utilization efficiency is computed or estimated for the power plants covered. Furthermore, some discussion is devoted to the other sites which may prove exploitable for the production of electricity.
While the ambitious growth in nuclear power generation is expected in China and India, a number of countries in East and South Asia such as Vietnam and Indonesia are planning to construct new nuclear power plants to meet their increasing demands for electricity. In this feature article, eight experts described the state of introduction of nuclear power plants in such countries. These were titled as 'Trends of Deployment of Nuclear Energy in Asia-FNCA Ministerial Level Meeting', 'Vietnam- National Assembly Approval of Pre-feasibility Study and its Implementation', 'Present State of Nuclear Power Introduction in Indonesia-Awaiting the Decision of the President-', 'Present Status of Volcanic Hazard Assessment for Nuclear Facilities and Case of Bataan Nuclear Power Plant in Philippines', 'State of Nuclear Power Introduction in Thailand', 'Slow Start of Nuclear Power Introduction in Malaysia', 'Nuclear Energy Development in China in the View of Asian Market' and 'Is the Rollback in the Asian Market of Japan Group Possible?' It is highly expected Japan's high level of technology and safety with nuclear power generation would lead to promote international activities and cooperation of Japan group in the Asian Market. (T. Tanaka)
Prior to the construction of nuclear power plant in 1976, the only safeguarded nuclear materials in the Philippines were the nuclear fuels of the research reactor (PRR-1). The arrival of the nuclear fuels of the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) in 1984 increased the number of safeguarded nuclear materials. Further, the upgrading of the present MTR reactor to a TRIGA type in 1987 necessitated the acquisition of additional nuclear fuels. With the decision of the Philippine Government to mothball the BNPP in 1986, the operator, the National Power Corporation, made arrangements to sell the nuclear fuel assemblies. In December 1997 Siemens Power Corporation bought the fresh fuel assemblies. On the other hand, the spent fuel assemblies of mixed enrichment from PRR-1 were shipped to the United States on 14 March 1999. This shipment was in line with the U.S. initiative to implement its Record of Decision to accept and manage all foreign research reactors uranium fuels of U.S. origin. The only safeguarded materials left are the TRIGA fuels and the complete reactor assembly of BNPP. (author)
The specific activity of 238U as a technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in feed coal, bottom and fly ash samples from four major coal-fired thermal power plants in the Philippines have been measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy system equipped with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The uranium concentration has been determined from same samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). There was a good correlation between the measured uranium using both methods and has been estimated to be 0.98. Uranium from coal, bottom and fly ash samples were chemically separated and activity ratio (234U/238U) and 235U/238U ratio was measured using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS). The highest concentration of uranium was found in fly ash and lowest was for feed coal. Uranium isotopic composition plays an important role in studying its biogeochemical behavior and is a good tracer on the sources of uranium in the environment. (orig.)
In the Philippines, the number one cause of death are cardiovascular diseases. Diseases linked with inflammation are proliferating. This research aims to identify plant extracts that have potential activity of cholesterol-lowering, anti-hypertension, anti-gout, anti-inflammatory and fat blocker agents. Although there are commercially available drugs to treat the aforementioned illnesses, these medicine have adverse side-effects, aside from the fact that they are expensive. The results of this study will serve as added knowledge to contribute to the development of cheaper, more readily available, and effective alternative medicine. 100 plant extracts from different areas in the Philippines have been tested for potential inhibitory activity against Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA), Lipoxygenase, and Xanthine Oxidase. The plant samples were labeled with codes and distributed to laboratories for blind testing. The effective concentration of the samples tested for Xanthine oxidase is 100 ppm. Samples number 9, 11, 14, 29, 43, 46, and 50 have shown significant inhibitory activity at 78.7%, 78.4%, 70%, 89.2%, 79%, 67.4%, and 67.5% respectively. Samples tested for Lipoxygenase inhibition were set at 33ppm. Samples number 2, 37, 901, 1202, and 1204 have shown significant inhibitory activity at 66, 84.9%, 88.55%, 93.3%, and 84.7% respectively. For HMG-CoA inhibition, the effective concentration of the samples used was 100 ppm. Samples number 1 and 10 showed significant inhibitory activity at 90.1% and 81.8% respectively. (author)
The activity concentration (AC) of TENORM - 238U, 226Ra (238U series), 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th (232Th series) and 40K in feed coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples from four coal-fired thermal power plants C, M, P and S were determined using two techniques: inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. For 232Th and 238U [determined at National Institute for Radiological Sciences (NIRS) by the ICP-MS)], Plant S feed coal (FC) sample that originated from China had the highest AC (15.77 ± 0.32 Bq/kg and 13.67 ± 0.82 Bq/kg, respectively), followed by Plant M FC sample also from China (8.31 ± 0.33 Bq/kg and 5.84 ± 0.12 Bq/kg, respectively), while Plants C and P FC samples that originated from the Philippines and Indonesia had the lowest ACs of 232Th and 238U. Plant S also had the highest bottom ash (BA) AC of 80.86 ± 3.23 Bq/kg and 100.20 ± 4.01 Bq/kg, respectively while Plant P had the highest fly ash (FA) AC of 155.96 ± 6.24 Bq/kg and 268.03 ± 10.72 Bq/kg, respectively. For AC's of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K determined by NIRS HPGe, Plant C had the highest in the FC sample (11.70 ± 1.39 Bq/kg, 13.65 ± 4.99 Bq/kg, 11.35 ± 3.96 Bq/kg ad 80.23 ± 10.91 Bq/kg, respectuvely). For AC's in the BA samples, Plant M had the highest 226Ra (106.73 ± 6.74 Bq/kg) and Plant S had the highest 228Ra and 40K (66.64 ± 8.16 Bq/kg and 400.93 ± 43.06 Bq/kg, respectively For AC's in the FA samples, Plant S had the highest 226Ra and228Ra AC's (131.13 ± 8.09 Bq/kg and 87.70 ± 10.45 Bq/kg, respectively) while Plant C had the highest 40K AC (369.08 ± 40.87 Bq/kg). The highest AC enhancement of 238U, 226Ra (238U series), 232Th,228Ra, 228Th (232Th series) 40K relative to feed coal occurred in Plant P FA sample, with 238U showing the highest enhancement of 93.72 among the radionuclides. When normalized with 40K, 238U in Plant P FA sample also had the highest enrichment factor (EF). Except for Plant C samples, 228Ra, 228Th
The reintroduction of nuclear power in the Philippines is favored by several factors such as : the inclusion of nuclear energy in the energy sector of the science and technology agenda for national development; the large gap between electricity demand and available local supply for the medium-term power development plan; the relatively lower health risks in nuclear power fuel cycle systems compared to the already acceptable power systems; the lower environmental impacts of nuclear power system compared to fossil fuelled systems and the availability of a regulatory framework and trained personnel who could form a core for implementing a nuclear power program. It is estimated that the electricity supply gap of 9600 MW for the period 1993-2005 could be partly supplied by nuclear power. The findings of a recent study are described, as well as the issues that have to be addressed in the reintroduction of nuclear power. 6 refs
Background: The energy sector continues to play a vital role as the Philippines moves ahead in realizing its vision of becoming a newly industrialized economy by the turn of the century. To keep pace with the country's accelerated economic growth towards the fulfilment of the Philippines 2000 vision, the energy sector has firmed up plans and programs based on sound and mandated policies as spelled out clearly under the Department of Energy Act of 1992 or Republic Act 7638. Philippine energy plan, 1996-2025: This paper presents nuclear power as a strategic option in meeting long-term energy requirements of the country under the Philippine energy Plan drawn by the Department of Energy (DOE)
Natural radioactivity measurement in the Philippines aims to establish baseline radioactivity levels in the environment of items essential to man. In this article, results of the environmental surveillance conducted in Bagac, Bataan from 1973 to 1974 are presented. Analyses were made on air parti-culates, sea and fresh water, grass, and soil samples for gross beta-gamma activities. Results obtained showed activity levels below the maximum permissible concentration recommended by the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP)
Paredes, Oona Thommes
As studies of lowland, “Christianized” Philippine culture go, this is easily one of the most insightful works to be published since Ileto’s Pasyon and Revolution. Both works deal to some extent with how people manage power inequalities. Like Ileto’s Pasyon, Cannell’s study shows how lowland Filipinos this time in the Bicol region—have interpreted Christian symbols according to local concepts of power. However, Christian symbolism is only one aspect of Cannell’s work, and because of this, her ...
Content analysis of media coverage of nuclear news provides an estimate of public awareness of nuclear power necessary for decision making. Issues raised suggest the extent of public perception and concern that may influence formation of attitudes towards the use of nuclear energy for power generation. A standard procedure for media content analysis developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is utilized in this study. Releases on nuclear power from major Philippine newspapers were analyzed. The article prominence, amount of reported dissent and consent relative to nuclear power, the tendency of each news item to influence positive or negative public attitudes towards nuclear power and the nuclear issues mentioned in the articles were determined and statistically analyzed. Results provide insights into the importance of the role of mass media in disseminating technical and scientific information primarily towards generating general impressions, and ultimately leading to attitude formation. (author)
This article describes the strategy adopted by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commisssion (PAEC) to gain acceptance for the country's nuclear power program. It explores the various dimensions of Philippine society that affects the attainment of this objective, including cultural obstacles typical of a developing nation. Points of controversy regarding the introduction of nuclear power are identified as are likely change agents in the process of transformation of public reactions of hostility and indifference to general acceptance. The PAEC outreach information program for the nuclear power project has been directed at - the policy makers to persuade them to give maximum support to the project through its integration into the country's development strategy; - the facilitating administrative agencies to provide adequate resources for the project; - the implementing agencies including those in supportive technology, research and training to recognize the top priority ranking of nuclear power for their work plans and programs; and; - the end-users and beneficiaries of an adequate power supply. The time frame for the PAEC information campaign spans three stages of the project: Phase I. Planning (including site selection); Phase II. Construction; and Phase III. Operation. The strategy reaches out to all sectors and involves linkages with educational institutions, scientific societies, technological and civic organizations, and such publics as the studentry, professionals and the community as a whole. It utilizes thought leaders and the mass media, both print and broadcast, in addition to PAEC resources, in the generation of favorable public opinion under a planned and systematic effort at mass appeal. Finally, the article describes in detail the PAEC public information delivery system, its organizational structure, components, linkages and activities within the framework of another PAEC mandated function to regulate nuclear facilities
The article discussed the historical background of the nuclear power plants; how it operates; the government opinion on the operation of the nuclear power plant; the application of power resources to industry; the implementation of PNPP-1 particularly the economic aspects of energy in the near future. (IMA)
This bibliography was compiled by the Scientific Library staff to help in the intensified training program being undertaken by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) for the nuclear power plant personnel of the Philippines' first nuclear power reactor. This bibliography covers the period 1955 - 1976 of the Nuclear Science Abstracts and is composed of 281 entries. Arrangement of these entries is by broad subject category
Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.)
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power...
Wind power plants have practically faded into oblivion in Germany. These wind power plants are systems converting wind power into other usable energy forms, mainly into electric current. The irregularity of wind currents requires storage of the energy produced. The cost situation is calculated for a small wind power plant.
Boehm, Nicklas; Otto, Jonathan
This project focuses on the successful power sharing conflict of Bosnia - Herzegovina and on how the features of the peace agreement can assist the conflict in the Philippines to be as successful. The project suggests that there are several aspects of the new peace agreement and the soon to be ratified Bangsamoro Basic Law that implies the framework of lasting peace.
Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.
This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.
In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented
Bing Baltazar C Brillo
Full Text Available The Anti-Money laundering law (AMLA is a financial regulation enacted mainly because of external demand, as the Financial Action Task Force(FATF called on the Philippine Government to comply with the Anti-Money Laundering (AML regime. The FATF not only summoned the PhilippineGovernment, but also determined the shape and content of the AMLA by requiring the institutional policy actors to conform to the globalstandards. Thus, the FATF exercised direct powers — agenda setting and decision making — in persuading the Philippine Government to enact thelaw. The institutional policy actors were impelled to prioritize the consideration and deliberation of the financial regulation (agenda setting andcompelled to enact and rework the content of the policy to conform to the FATF standard within a time frame (decision-making. The FATF’s use ofdirect powers was made possible and reinforced by the context-shaping power of the prevailing financial structure, specifically, the establishmentof the AML regime. Context-shaping bound the institutional actors to enact the policy because of the prevailing AML regime established by theFATF. As the context-shaping power underscored the exercise of the agenda-setting and decision-making powers, the lawmaking experience thatcreated the AMLA highlights the employment of the different dimensions of power as well as the contemporary dynamics in the global financialstructure vis-à-vis the policymaking process.
Beidler, Peter G.
Efforts made by Leslie Marmon Silko's who took factual raw materials and, through the alchemy of her creative artistry, transformed her novel, "Ceremony" into something new and different is presented. Silko has made certain changes in the Bataan Death March in "Ceremony", and portrayed the Japanese with considerable sympathy.
Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant
The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)
17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)
Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III
This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…
By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and
In this paper, real time nuclear power plant simulator for student education is described. The simulator is composed of a hybrid computer and an operating console. Simulated power plant is a 36 MWt PWR plant, and the average temperature of the primary coolant within the reactor is controlled to be constant. Reactor Kinetics, fuel temperature, primary coolant temperature, temperature and pressure of steam within the steam generator, steam flow, control rod driving system, and feed water controlling system are simulated. The use of the hybrid computer made it possible to simulate a relatively large scale power plant with a comparatively small size computing system. (auth.)
The Philippines has a rich potential for geothermal energy development, according to the assessment of opportunities for U.S. private investment in the sector. Areas covered in detail are the Philippines' geothermal resources, the legal structure of the geothermal industry, conditions acting as stimuli to geothermal power generation, and interest in private geothermal investment. Major finding are as follows. (1) The Philippine geothermal power industry is the world's second largest. (2) Geothermal resources are owned by the Government of the Philippines and a complex legal structure governs their exploitation. (3) Since the Philippines is poor in most energy resources (e.g., coal, oil, and gas), use of geothermal energy is necessary. (4) Despite legal and structural obstacles, various foreign private enterprises are interested in participating in geothermal development. Two possible options for U.S. investors are presented: a joint venture with the National Oil Company, and negotiation of a service contract, either alone or with a Philippine partner, for a concession on land administered by the Office of Energy Affairs
Ministerial Presentation: Philippines. Philippine National Presentation [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009
generation that will result to sustainable and reasonably-priced electricity rates. We are however, confronted with the challenge that, on the average, about 60% of energy sources utilized in the power generation mix come from fossil fuels primarily oil, coal and natural gas. Moreover, the Philippines still has one of the highest power rates in Asia. That is yet another basis as to why we are seriously considering nuclear power since it provides a relatively competitive generation cost with the cheapest power source which is coal. Among power sources with high upfront costs like wind and solar, nuclear power has the cheapest generation cost. As we work to bring about access to affordable and sufficient electricity for every Filipino, we keep in mind that energy utilization must be consistent with the need for the protection and preservation of our planet's fragile ecosystems. Therefore, we are aiming to reduce the country's contribution to carbon dioxide emissions. The Philippines has taken proactive action by laying the groundwork to shift to a renewable energy system. As a signatory to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the subsequent Kyoto Protocol, we are fully committed to doing our part in addressing global warming even though we are not legally bound to impose a national limitation on emissions. In our efforts to ensure that the use of energy must not damage our environment, we have to deal with the fact that renewable energy development is still costly. As such, nuclear power presents an appealing energy option since the complete nuclear power chain emits the least carbon which is about the same as wind and hydropower. For a developing and non oil-producing country like the Philippines, these are the merits we see in utilizing nuclear energy in power generation. We have already undertaken a nuclear power program in the past. Political circumstances then resulted to the mothballing of the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant, our lone nuclear power plant which
The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.)
In this paper the contributions presented at the 18th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in the field of technology and power plants are summarised with reference to the following distinct issues: ITER EDA Design, ITER Technology R and D, Progress Towards Advanced Performance and Steady State, Compact Cu Burning Plasma Experiments and Neutron Sources, Advanced Materials Research, Power Plant Design and Economic Forecasts, and Conclusions
Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)
The proceedings include the following lectures: Facing the challenges - new structures for electricity production. Renewable energies in Europe - chances and challenges. Nuclear outlook in the UK. Sustainable energy for Europe. Requirements of the market and the grid operator at the electricity production companies. Perspectives for the future energy production. Pumped storage plants - status and perspectives. Nuclear power/renewable energies -partners or opponents? New fossil fired power stations in Europe - status and perspectives. Nuclear energy: outlook for new build and lifetime extension in Europe. Biomass in the future European energy market - experiences for dong energy. Meeting the EU 20:20 renewable energy targets: the offshore challenges. DESERTEC: sustainable electricity for Europe, Middle East and North Africa. New power plants in Europe - a challenge for project and quality management. Consideration of safely in new build activities of power plants. Challenges to an integrated development in Maasvlakte, Netherlands. Power enhancement in EnBW power plants. Operational experiences of CCS pilot plants worldwide. Two years of operational experiences with Vattenfall's oxyfuel pilot plant. Pre-conditions for CCS. Storage technologies for a volatile generation. Overview: new generation of gas turbines.
Drilling platforms are rather inefficient when it comes to their own power supply. In view of ecotax and their environmental image, the offshore industry particularly the Norwegians is highly committed to changing this situation. An efficient power plant, specially designed for the offshore industry, might just prove to be the answer to their prayers
The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described
Honey Libertine R. Achanzar
IntroductionIn the course of my dealings with the Tagabawa Bagobos in the Davao district of the island of Mindanao in the Philippines, I noted their reference to the word tolus.Oftentimes, it is used to mean power, but occasionally, it referred to a spirit that guides the artisan in his work. The word tolus was briefly mentioned by Fay-Cooper Cole(Wild Tribes of Davao District ) in his 1913 ethnographic work on the Tagabawa Bagobos. In his account of traditional Bagobo metal working, he indic...
The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs
An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included. (MHR)
Main topics of the meeting: Power economy for the Eastern European countries and their economical growth during overtaking by utilities; climatic change by fossil-fuel power plants; deregulation and competition challenges; cogeneration from fossil fuels and renewable energy sources; research programs for advanced energy systems and problems of certification and regulations; power trade and influence on the operators; air pollution and kyoto protocol and climatic change between policy and engineering tasks. (GL)
This short description of the site and the nuclear power plant with information on the presumable effects on the environment and the general public is to provide some data material to the population in a popular form so that the citizens may in form themselves about the plant. In this description which shall be presented to the safety report, the site, the technical design and the operation mode of the nuclear power plant are described. Some problems of the emission and the effects of radioactive materials as well as other issues related to the plant which are of interest to the public are dealt with. The supposed accidents and their handling are discussed. The description shows that the selected site is suitable for both setting-up and operation of the plant without affecting the safety of the people living there and that in admissible burdens of the environment shall not have to be expected. (orig./HP)
Daniel J. Falvo
Full Text Available Current approaches to biogeography are based on organismic biology. Certain biogeographical phenomena, however, cannot be fully understood using organismic approaches to biogeography. I employed an approach based on molecular biology and biochemistry that I call genotype by environment biogeography in order to provide a more complete understanding of why the dispersal of rice blast disease is less efficient in fields planted with mixtures of rice varieties. In a case study of an upland ricefield in the Philippines, I found that planting varietal mixtures results in a form of effective blast control that I call intrafield gene deployment. I suggest that intrafield gene deployment be used to design more effective methods of blast control in intensive rice agriculture.
The concept of multiplexing for a fusion power core as an option for producing power is explored. Superconducting, as well as normal magnet, coils in either first or second stability regimes are considered. The results show that multiplex plants with superconducting magnets operating in the second stability regime could be competitive with the single-unit plants in some unit sizes. The key issues that impact the expected benefits of multiplexing must be investigated further. These are factory fabrication, economy of scale, the extent of equipment sharing, inherent safety, maintainability, and utility load management
Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.
Randall, George A.
The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)
Sy, Peter A
The just distribution of benefits and burdens of healthcare, at least in the contemporary Philippine context, is an issue that gravitates towards two opposing doctrines of welfarism and 'free enterprise.' Supported largely by popular opinion, welfarism maintains that social welfare and healthcare are primarily the responsibility of the government. Free enterprise (FE) doctrine, on the other hand, maintains that social welfare is basically a market function and that healthcare should be a private industry that operates under competitive conditions with minimal government control. I will examine the ethical implications of these two doctrines as they inform healthcare programmes by business and government, namely: (a) the Devolution of Health Services and (b) the Philippine Health Maintenance Organization (HMO). I will argue that these doctrines and the health programmes they inform are deficient in following respects: (1) equitable access to healthcare, (2) individual needs for premium healthcare, (3) optimal utilisation of health resources, and (4) the equitable assignment of burdens that healthcare entails. These respects, as considerations of justice, are consistent with an operational definition of 'power' proposed here as 'access to and control of resources.' PMID:14959725
The paper deals with a study to assess the market potential of radiation sterilization in the Philippines. A market survey conducted with the technical assistance of an IAEA expert from India shows that most of the pharmaceutical industries engaged in the manufacture of medical products unanimously agree that there is an urgent need for a centralized radiation sterilization plant to meet the demands of sterilization of most of their products and packaging materials. The authorities of the government and some of the private hospitals surveyed are also very keen for the establishment of a sterilization facility since most modern medical products and devices are made of heat-sensitive thermoplastics which cannot be heat or steam sterilized. Availability of sterile products will help improve the public health standards of the population. The scope of the utilization of a radiation-sterilization facility in Diliman Quezon City is also discussed. (author)
Hasnain, Zahid; Matsuda, Yasuhiko
This paper takes advantage of unique intra-country variation in the Philippines power sector to examine under what conditions politicians have an incentive to "capture" an electric utility and use it for the purposes of rent-seeking. The authors hypothesize that the level of capture is determined by the incentives of, and the interactions between, local and national politicians, where the ...
Shively, Gerald E.
Metadata only record This paper assesses the influences of economic policies and agricultural prices on farmers' land use decisions and the environmental consequences. The author applies a stochastic dynamic household model to study the tree planting decisions made by small holder farmers in the Philippines. The simulation results reveal that both the relative prices and the variability of the prices significantly influence tree planting choices. Although low-income farmers are wary of the...
Monzon, R B; Alvior, J P; Luczon, L L; Morales, A S; Mutuc, F E
Five species of Philippine plants, reported in the literature to have insecticidal properties, were selected for investigation, namely: Anona squamosa ("atis" or sugar apple), Eucalyptus globulus ("bagras" or olive gum eucalyptus), Lansium domesticum ("lansones"), Azadirachta indica ("neem") and Codiaeum variegatum ("San Francisco" or croton). These were screened and assayed for their larvicidal potential against Aedes aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) by exposing 3rd-4th instar larvae to seven different concentrations (two-fold dilutions starting from 100 g% up to 1.5625 g%) of the crude aqueous extract derived from fresh leaves. Three trials were performed for each species of mosquito and for each of the five plants to determine the average mortality rate at various concentrations after 24 and 48 hours exposure. Probit analysis using the NCSS program was employed to determine the LD50 and LD90 values in order to compare the larvicidal potency of the five plants and to compare the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts exerted maximum insecticidal activity after 48 hours exposure. Lansones and atis were the most effective against larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Ae. aegypti was more susceptible than Cx. quinquefasciatus with respect to lansones and neem but Cx. quinquefasciatus was more susceptible than Ae. aegyti with respect to eucalyptus, San Francisco and atis. These varying results are probably due to differences in levels of toxicity among the active insecticidal ingredients of each plant and in the physiological characteristics of the two mosquito species. PMID:7667727
The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)
Moreira, António H. J.; Freitas, Ricardo; Esteves, João Sena
This paper describes a miniature thermoelectric power plant made with the boiler and the water pump from an old starch iron. It also uses a computer cooling fan, which serves as electric power generator. The boiler vaporizes the water it receives from the water pump. Then, the steam is injected over the turbine of the fan making it twirl. The voltage generated by the fan is enough to lighten a couple of LEDs. A wooden case with a chimney encloses all the referred devices.
Moreira, António, 1957-; Freitas, Ricardo; Sepúlveda, João; Esteves, João Sena
This paper describes a miniature thermoelectric power plant made with the boiler and the water pump from an old starch iron. It also uses a computer cooling fan, which serves as electric power generator. The boiler vaporizes the water it receives from the water pump. Then, the steam is injected on the turbine of the fan, making it twirl. The voltage generated by the fan is enough to lighten a couple of LEDs. A wooden case with a chimney encloses all the referred devices.
Purpose : To improve the heat cycle balance in a nuclear turbine power plant or the like equipped with a moisture separating and reheating device, by eliminating undesired overcooling of the drains in the pipes of a heat transmission pipe bundle. Constitution : A high pressure turbine is driven by main steams from a steam generator. The steams after driving the high pressure turbine are removed with moistures by way of a moisture separator and then re-heated. Extracted steams from the steam generator or the high pressure turbine are used as a heating source for the reheating. In the nuclear turbine power plant having such a constitution, a vessel for separating the drains and the steams resulted from the heat exchange is provided at the outlet of the reheating device and the steams in the vessel are introduced to the inlet of the moisture separator. (Aizawa, K.)
Purpose: To suppress corrosion at the inner surfaces of equipments and pipeways in nuclear power plants. Constitution: An injection device comprising a chemical injection tank and a plunger type chemical injection pump for injecting hydrazine as an oxygen remover and ammonia as a pH controller is disposed to the downstream of a condensate desalter column for primary coolant circuits. Since dessolved oxygen in circuit water injected with these chemicals is substantially reduced to zero and pH is adjuted to about 10 - 11, occurrence of stress corrosion cracks in carbon steels and stainless steels as main constituent materials for the nuclear power plant and corrosion products are inhibited in high temperature water, and of corrosion products are inhibited from being introduced as they are through leakage to the reactor core, by which the operators' exposure does can be decreased significantly. (Sekiya, K.)
Before the economical adaptability of nuclear power plants was achieved, many ways were tried to technically use nuclear fission. In the course of a selection process, of numerous types of reactors, only a few have remained which are now taking part in the competition. The most important physical fundamentals, the occurence of various reactor concepts and the most important reactor types are the explained. (orig./TK)
The erection of a nuclear power plant covers all the installation operations related to mechanical and electrical equipment in buildings designed for this specific purpose. Some of these operations are described: erection of the nuclear boiler, erection work carried out in the building accomodating the nuclear auxiliary and ancillary equipment and the methods and the organization set up in order to carry out this work satisfactorily are analyzed
Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy
A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.
This paper reports on the Power Plant Design Model (PPDM) which is an interactive FORTRAN/2020 program with over 15,000 lines of code that allows a user to create an engineering model of a grass roots solid fuel-fired facility capable of generating steam for electrical power generation and/or sale. Capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates of the modeled plant are also generated. The model's technical output contains complete material and energy balances of all major streams, parasitic power calculations, boiler operating data and a major equipment list. The economic output consists of a capital cost estimate for the plant in a spreadsheet format detailing the material, labor and indirect costs associated with each piece of equipment. The model was intended for use as a marketing tool to replace engineering feasibility studies which are needed to determine the viability of a project. The model provides preliminary economics at a fraction of time and manpower effort normally associated with this task
The nuclear power public education and information program aims to present the beneficial uses of radiation and nuclear energy. Considering that there are pros and cons to the use of nuclear energy, the program aims to give the public an objective and balanced view of this source of energy. A decision to use or not to use nuclear energy, to be sound,must be based on an adequate and objective knowledge of the atom and nuclear energy. Executive Order 243 created the Nuclear Power Steering committee including subcommittee on Nuclear Power Public Education and Information. This subcommittee is tasked to formulate an effective nuclear power public education and information program. Said program must include training component for science teachers in the high school and college levels and shall also work for the inclusion of nuclear related subjects in all engineering curriculum. It shall coordinate with the University of the Philippines for the revival of the M.S. in Nuclear Engineering Program of the university. This paper will discuss a brief history of nuclear power public education and awareness programs and the present and projected activities of this subcommittee. (author)
Challal, Soura; Buenafe, Olivia E M; Queiroz, Emerson F; Maljevic, Snezana; Marcourt, Laurence; Bock, Merle; Kloeti, Werner; Dayrit, Fabian M; Harvey, Alan L; Lerche, Holger; Esguerra, Camila V; de Witte, Peter A M; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Crawford, Alexander D
Medicinal plants used for the treatment of epilepsy are potentially a valuable source of novel antiepileptic small molecules. To identify anticonvulsant secondary metabolites, we performed an in vivo, zebrafish-based screen of medicinal plants used in Southeast Asia for the treatment of seizures. Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae) was identified as having significant anticonvulsant activity in zebrafish larvae with seizures induced by the GABAA antagonist pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). This finding correlates well with the ethnomedical use of this plant in the Philippines, where a water decoction of S. torvum leaves is used to treat epileptic seizures. HPLC microfractionation of the bioactive crude extract, in combination with the in vivo zebrafish seizure assay, enabled the rapid localization of several bioactive compounds that were partially identified online by UHPLC-TOF-MS as steroid glycosides. Targeted isolation of the active constituents from the methanolic extract enabled the complete de novo structure identification of the six main bioactive compounds that were also present in the traditional preparation. To partially mimic the in vivo metabolism of these triterpene glycosides, their common aglycone was generated by acid hydrolysis. The isolated molecules exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity in zebrafish seizure assays. These results underscore the potential of zebrafish bioassay-guided microfractionation to rapidly identify novel bioactive small molecules of natural origin. PMID:25127088
Samson, Maricar S; Rollon, Rene N
The effort toward restoring lost mangroves in the Philippines has been commendably immense, specifically during the past two decades. In light of such, it is important to evaluate outcomes and, where appropriate, apply the lessons learned to the current strategies in mangrove forest management. This article synthesizes the results from several research projects assessing the performance of planted mangroves across the country. Overall, there is a widespread tendency to plant mangroves in areas that are not the natural habitat of mangroves, converting mudflats, sandflats, and seagrass meadows into often monospecific Rhizophora mangrove forests. In these nonmangrove areas, the Rhizophora seedlings experienced high mortality. Of the few that survived (often through persistent and redundant replanting), the young Rhizophora individuals planted in these nonmangrove and often low intertidal zones had dismally stunted growth relative to the corresponding growth performance of individuals thriving at the high intertidal position and natural mangrove sites. From this evidence, this article argues that a more rational focus of the restoration effort should be the replanting of mangroves in the brackish-water aquaculture pond environments, the original habitat of mangroves. For such, a number of management options can be explored, the implementation of which will ultimately depend on the political will of local and national governments. PMID:18686501
In 1973 the 345 MW pressurized water nuclear power plant at Obrigheim operated on base load, generating approximately 2.63 TWh, approximately 2.5 TWh of which was supplied to the KWO members. The plant availability for the year was 89.9%. Of the 10.1% non-availability, 6.4% (23 d) was caused by refuelling, including inspection, overhaul and repair operations and routine tests carried out in September 1973. 3.3% was due to stoppages for repairs to a steam generator and the two main cooling pumps, while 0.4% resulted from failures in the electrical section of the plant. The plant was shut down seven times in all, including three scrams. The average core burnup at the end of the fourth cycle (1 September 1973) was 18900 MWd/tU, representing an average burnup of approximately 37500 MWd/tU for a fuel element used in all four cycles. The operating performance of the steam generators and the result of the steam generator inspection carried out during refuelling in 1973 suggest no progressive damage. The quantities of radioactive materials released to the environment in 1973 were well below the officially permitted levels. The availability of the plant from the beginning of pilot operation in 1969 to the end of 1973 was 83.7 %
This publication of the Initiative of Austrian Nuclear Power Plant Opponents contains articles on radiactive waste dispoasal in Austria and and discusses safety issues of the nuclear power plant 'Zwentendorf'. (kancsar)
The gross output of the 345MWe pressurized water nuclear power station at Obrigheim, operation on base load, amounted to about 2.57TWh in 1974, the net power fed to the grid being about 2.44TWh. The core was used to its full capacity until 10 May 1974. Thereafter, the reactor was on stretch-out operation with steadily decreasing load until refuelled in August 1974. Plant availability in 1974 amounted to 92.1%. Of the 7.9% non-availability, 7.87% was attributable to the refuelling operation carried out from 16 August to 14 September and to the inspection, overhaul and repair work and the routine tests performed during this period. The plant was in good condition. Only two brief shutdowns occurred in 1974, the total outage time being 21/2 hours. From the beginning of trial operation in March 1969 to the end of 1974, the plant achieved an availability factor of 85.2%. The mean core burnup at the end of the fifth cycle was 19600 MWd/tonne U, with one fuel element that had been used for four cycles achieving a mean burnup of 39000 MWd/tonne U. The sipping test on the fuel elements revealed defective fuel-rods in a prototype plutonium fuel element, a high-efficiency uranium fuel element and a uranium fuel element. The quantities of radioactive substances released to the environment in 1974 were far below the officially permitted values. In july 1974, a reference preparation made up in the nuclear power station in October 1973 was discovered by outsiders on the Obrigheim municipality rubbish tip. The investigations revealed that this reference preparation had very probably been abstracted from the plant in October 1973 and arrived at the rubbish tip in a most irregular manner shortly before its discovery
Full Text Available A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be available. It is assumed that during the Station Black-Out sequence the first pressurizer safety valve fails stuck open after 3 cycles of water release, respectively, 17 cycles in total. During the transient, the water in the fuel channels evaporates first while the moderator tank is still partially full. The moderator tank inventory acts as a temporary heat sink for the decay heat, which is evacuated through conduction and radiation heat transfer, delaying core degradation. This feature, together with the large volume of the steel filler pieces in the lower plenum and a high primary system volume to thermal power ratio, derives in a very slow transient in which RPV failure time is four to five times larger than that of other German PWRs.
During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh
This article examines the legal regime for floating nuclear power plants (FNPs), in view of the absence of specific US legislation and the very limited references to artificial islands in the Law of the Sea Convention. The environmental impacts of FNPs are examined and changes in US regulation following the Three Mile Island accident and recent US court decisions are described. References in the Law of the Sea Convention relevant to FNPs are outlined and the current status of international law on the subject is analysed. (author)
Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.
A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System.
Power plant structures are conspicuously visible and have an impact on our landscape. In the opinion of a critical public, a successful external design can greatly enhance acceptance of an undertaking and its plants. This paper considers the subjects - utilization of by-products, aggregation of series experience in the construction of nuclear power plants, architecture in power plant construction, water works for adequate cooling water supply and also quality assurance in civil engineering and optimum application of electronic data processing. (orig.)
An important aspect of a power plant is its energy balance, i.e. the electrical energy produced by the plant over its overall operation period, compared to the amount of non-renewable energy used to create and build the plant. Tense discussions took place in the past between criticizers and promotors of a given technology, some technologies even being accused of having a negative energy balance. Mostly based on built examples the present study aims at giving objective data for the represented technologies, as follows: a 64 MW hydro power plant in the Alps, with seasonal water storage in a lake; a 60 MW run-of-river high-head hydro power plant in the Alps; two run-of-river low-head hydro power plants in the Swiss Midlands (14 MW and 25 MW respectively); a small 30 kW wind power generator located near the Simplon Pass at 2000 m over sea level, in the Alps; a 3 kW photovoltaic generator in the roof of a single-family house; a 500 kW photovoltaic power plant in the Jura, at 1000 m over sea level; a 0.9 MWel/8.8 MWtherm fossil-fuel co-generation plant near Zuerich; a 200 MW natural-gas-fired gas/vapour turbine power plant; a 300 MW heavy-fuel-fired power plant; a 500 MW coal-fired power plant; and the Leibstadt 990 MW nuclear power plant. The best energy balances are obtained for the hydro power plants, the worst for the Leibstadt nuclear power plant. In between the photovoltaic plants and the fossil-fuel-fired plants are found. The figures differ by more than two orders of magnitude
Again this year, our magazine presents the details of the conference on Spanish nuclear power plant operation held in February and that was devoted to 1996 operating results. The Protocol for Establishment of a New Electrical Sector Regulation that was signed last December will undoubtedly represent a new challenge for the nuclear industry. By clearing stating that current standards of quality and safety should be maintained or even increased if possible, the Protocol will force the Sector to improve its productivity, which is already high as demonstrated by the results of the last few years described during this conference and by recent sectorial economic studies. Generation of a nuclear kWh that can compete with other types of power plants is the new challenge for the Sector's professionals, who do not fear the new liberalization policies and approaching competition. Lower inflation and the resulting lower interest rates, apart from being representative indices of our economy's marked improvement, will be very helpful in facing this challenge. (Author)
Dharmateja Bandlamudi, Sahithi Avirneni
Full Text Available The present paper emphasisesthe society’s movement towards improvement of power sector as a pavement of luxury and on the benighted dark side of it. This produces the reasons for enchanting power plant as a scientific disaster. This paper gives the detailed list of effects caused by the power plants mainly on coal fired, nuclear and hydroelectric power plants, their adverse effects on environment and in turn human life.
Regarding the new directions in constructing combined cycle power plants, in this work an idea of such plant in Skopje with power of 190 MW has been elaborated. This plant will be constructed on the site of the existing TPP 'Energetika', AD ESM. The rates of efficiency for different condition of operation has been estimated. (Author)
In case of re-powering the existing pressurised water nuclear power plants by the proposed HCCPP solution, we can increase the electricity output and efficiency significantly. If we convert a traditional nuclear power plant unit to a HCCPP solution, we can achieve a 3.2-5.5 times increase in electricity output and the achievable gross efficiency falls between 46.8-52% and above, depending on the applied solution. These figures emphasise that we should rethink our power plant technologies and we have to explore a great variety of HCCPP solutions. This may give a new direction in the development of nuclear reactors and power plants as well.(author)
The financial, regulatory and political significance of the estimated high removal costs of nuclear power plants has generated considerable interest in recent years, and the political significance has resulted in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) eliminating the use of conventional depreciation accounting for the decontamination portion of the removal (decommissioning). While nuclear plant licensees are not precluded from utilizing conventional depreciation accounting for the demolition of non-radioactive structures and site restoration, state and federal utility regulators have not been favorably inclined to requests for this distinction. The realization that steam-generating units will be more expensive to remove, relative to their original cost, predates the realization that nuclear units will be expensive. However, the nuclear issues have overshadowed this realization, but are unlikely to continue to do so. Numerous utilities have prepared cost estimates for steam generating units, and this presentation discusses the implications of a number of such estimates that are a matter of public record. The estimates cover nearly 400 gas, oil, coal and lignite generating units. The earliest estimate was made in 1978, and for analysis purposes the author has segregated them between gas and oil units, and coal and lignite units
This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.
This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.
The present invention provides a nuclear power plant which generates thermoelectric power by utilizing heat generated by fission reaction. Namely, a fuel/thermoelectric material is made of a semiconductor material containing fission products or a semimetal material containing fission products. A reactor container contains the fuel/thermoelectric material and a reactor core constituted by the fuel/thermoelectric material. The reactor container comprises coolants for removing heat generated by nuclear reaction of fission products from the reactor core and a high temperature side electrode connected to a central portion of the fuel/thermoelectric material and a low temperature side electrode connected to the outside of the fuel/thermoelectric material. Electromotive force is caused in the fuel/thermoelectric material by temperature difference upon combustion caused at the central portion and the outer surface of the fuel/thermoelectric material. The electromotive force is taken out of the high temperature side electrode and the low temperature side electrode. (I.S.)
The increase of power plant efficiency has always been the aim of power plant manufacturers and operators. Today, after the re-orientation of the worldwide market situation, it is necessary to newly assess the power plant efficiency in the field of competition and environment. The average efficiency of power plants presently ranges worldwide at about 30%, yet the status of available technology in the year 2000 permits efficiencies between 45 an 58% depending on the fuels used. VGB PowerTech has been monitoring the technical development of power generation for 80 years up to now. From our point of view, power plant technology still has a great development potential at its disposal. (orig.)
The article presents a small tunnel drilling machine aimed at using for the construction of small hydroelectric power plants and mentions briefly some advantages economically and environmentally of both the machine and the power production solution
It is rather impossible to establish nuclear power plants against the resistance of the population. To prevail over this resistance, a clarification of the citizens-initiatives motives which led to it will be necessary. This is to say: It is quite impossible for our population to understand what really heappens in nuclear power plants. They cannot identify themselves with nuclear power plants and thus feel very uncomfortable. As the total population feels the same way it is prepared for solidarity with the citizens-initiatives even if they believe in the necessity of nuclear power plants. Only an information-policy making transparent the social-psychological reasons of the population for being against nuclear power plants could be able to prevail over the resistance. More information about the technical procedures is not sufficient at all. (orig.)
The list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of September 1, 1982. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses
Khabrana, Ahmed; Ageeli, Jaber
Abstract This Bachelor thesis has been written at the Blekinge Institute of Technology. The thesis describes electricity production in Shoaiba Steam Power plant in Saudi Arabia. Shoaiba Power Plant is located 100 km South of Jeddah city in Saudi Arabia. Total power production ability reaches 4400 MW. Shoaiba Power Plant has two stages and is constructed with 11 units, each unit produces 400 MW at line voltage 24 kV and line current 16 kA. Main pieces of equipment and their function in the sta...
Alduhov Oleg Aleksandrovich
Full Text Available Investigation of the atmospheric dispersion as part of the process of selection of sites to accommodate nuclear and thermal power plants is performed to identify concentration fields of emissions and to assess the anthropogenic impact produced on the landscape components and human beings. Scattering properties of the atmospheric boundary layer are mainly determined by the turbulence intensity and the wind field. In its turn, the turbulence intensity is associated with the thermal stratification of the boundary layer. Therefore, research of the atmospheric dispersion is reduced to the study of temperature and wind patterns of the boundary layer. Statistical processing and analysis of the upper-air data involves the input of the data collected by upper-air stations. Until recently, the upper-air data covering the standard period between 1961 and 1970 were applied for these purposes, although these data cannot assure sufficient reliability of assessments in terms of the properties of the atmospheric dispersion. However, recent scientific and technological developments make it possible to substantially increase the data coverage by adding the upper-air data collected within the period between 1964 and 2010. The article has a brief overview of BL_PROGS, a specialized software package designated for the processing of the above data. The software package analyzes the principal properties of the atmospheric dispersion. The use of the proposed software package requires preliminary development of a database that has the information collected by an upper-air station. The software package is noteworthy for the absence of any substantial limitations imposed onto the amount of the input data that may go up in proportion to the amount of the upper-air data collected by upper-air stations.
This Guide applies to nuclear power plants for which the total power supply comprises normal power supply (which is electric) and emergency power supply (which may be electric or a combination of electric and non-electric). In its present form the Guide provides general guidance for all types of emergency power systems (EPS) - electric and non-electric, and specific guidance (see Appendix A) on the design principles and the features of the emergency electric power system (EEPS). Future editions will include a second appendix giving specific guidance on non-electric power systems. Section 3 of this Safety Guide covers information on considerations that should be taken into account relative to the electric grid, the transmission lines, the on-site electrical supply system, and other alternative power sources, in order to provide high overall reliability of the power supply to the EPS. Since the nuclear power plant operator does not usually control off-site facilities, the discussion of methods of improving off-site reliability does not include requirements for facilities not under the operator's control. Sections 4 to 11 of this Guide provide information, recommendations and requirements that would apply to any emergency power system, be it electric or non-electric
Patricia Anne G. Nazareno; Inocencio E. Buot Jr.
During several visits to the Cebu City landfill in the Philippines, plants were observed growing within the area, including on top of the garbage piles. Studying the response of these plants is important in assessing which can be used in remediating metal contaminated soils. This study aimed to determine whether the plants in the Cebu City landfill excluded or accumulated cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) in the plant tissues. The flori...
Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri
A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine
The listing indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of August 15, 1977. The list includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of antitrust license conditions and hearings, altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses
Colmac Energy, Inc. is constructing a 47 MW biomass-fired, electrical power generating plant in Mecca, California. Commercial operation is scheduled for April, 1992. Electrical power will be sold to Southern California Edison Company. The plant is unusual in its fuel choice and utilization. The fuel includes both wood chips and a variety of waste agricultural materials. These are processed and blended to provide a stable fuel product for the boiler. a recirculating fluidized bed boiler is used. The use of agricultural waste for fuel provides several benefits. Local truckers benefit by an added need for services. The plant itself, of course, provides employment opportunities and locally-generated electrical power
In this paper, a real time simulator of nuclear power plant for ship propulsion is described. The simulator is composed of a hybrid computer and an operating console. Simulated power plant is a 36 MWt PWR plant. Reactor kinetics, fuel temperature, primary coolant temperature, primary pressure, temperature and pressure of steam in the steam generator, steam flow, rotating speed of the propeller shaft, and various controlling system are simulated. Using this simulator, frequency response functions of the reactor power to the variation of reactivity and load were measured. (author)
The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of December 1, 1979. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and envionmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of antitrust license conditions and hearings, altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified
Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.
Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.
Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of November 1999. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.
Lipana, Catherine H.
In order to face the rising fuel costs that drive high electricity rates in the country, plus the problem of climate change as well as the government’s goal to be self-sufficient in energy supply, the Philippines should invest more in renewable energy. However, for lack of sufficient financial resources as well as advanced R&D and technology in renewable power, the country will rely mostly on foreign firms for these types of investments. This study was geared, therefore, into l...
Uy-Tioco, Cecilia S.
The mobile phone has arguably become the most ubiquitous information communication technology (ICT) in the world, including in the developing world. Introduced in the Philippines in the early 1990s, mobile phone penetration is expected to reach 100 percent in 2013, an interesting phenomenon since a third of the country lives below the poverty…
Requirements for electrical and propulsion power for space are expected to increase dramatically in the 1980s. Nuclear power is probably the only source for some deep space missions and a major competitor for many orbital missions, especially those at geosynchronous orbit. Because of the potential requirements, a technology program on space nuclear power plant components has been initiated by the Department of Energy. The missions that are foreseen, the current power plant concept, the technology program plan, and early key results are described
The guide applies to the nuclear power plant operator licensing procedure referred to the section 128 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. The licensing procedure applies to shift supervisors and those operators of the shift teams of nuclear power plant units who manipulate the controls of nuclear power plants systems in the main control room. The qualification requirements presented in the guide also apply to nuclear safety engineers who work in the main control room and provide support to the shift supervisors, operation engineers who are the immediate superiors of shift supervisors, heads of the operational planning units and simulator instructors. The operator licensing procedure for other nuclear facilities are decided case by case. The requirements for the basic education, work experience and the initial, refresher and complementary training of nuclear power plant operating personnel are presented in the YVL guide 1.7. (2 refs.)
Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)
This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)
Demand for robots in nuclear power plants is increasing of late in order to reduce workers' exposure to radiations. Especially, owing to the progress of microelectronics and robotics, earnest desire is growing for the advent of intellecturized robots that perform indeterminate and complicated security work. Herein represented are the robots recently developed for nuclear power plants and the review of the present status of robotics. (author)
The present invention provides reduction of volumes of buildings and the area of the buildings having a plurality of plants. Namely, a plurality of reactor building areas corresponding to a plurality of plants are disposed in a reactor building. In each of the reactor building areas, apparatuses including reactors of the plants are disposed. In addition, a plurality of reactor wells, spent fuel pools, pools for temporary storing facilities are arranged on an identical line. With such a constitution, since various kinds of facilities in the reactor buildings can be used in common, the volume of buildings and areas for the buildings in the plants as a whole can be reduced. In addition, turbine buildings can be used in common by the same idea. As a result, the number of buildings, the volume of the buildings and the area of the buildings of the plants can be reduced as a whole thereby enabling to reduce the steps, costs and materials required for building construction. (I.S.)
Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others
Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)
This Safety Guide provides detailed guidance on the provisions of the Code on the Safety in Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O(Rev.1) on the maintenance of structures, systems and components. Like the Code, the Guide forms part of the IAEA's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. Effective maintenance is essential for safe operation of a nuclear power plant. It not only ensures that the level of reliability and effectiveness of all plant structures, systems and components having a bearing on safety remains in accordance with design assumptions and intent, but also that the safety status of the plant is not adversely affected after commencement of operation. Nuclear power plant maintenance requires special attention because of: Limitations set by requirements that a minimum number of components remain operable even when the plant is shut down in order to ensure that all necessary safety functions are guaranteed; Difficulty of access to some plant items even when the plant is shut down, due to radiation protection constraints; Potential radiological hazards to site personnel and the public. This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, selecting and training maintenance personnel, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, reviewing, controlling and carrying out plant modifications, and generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records for establishing and
Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit
modern power system with large scale integration wind power. This study presents the investigation of the real-time balance control in a modern Danish power system, where WPPs can actively contribute to active power balance control. New solutions for the automatic generation control (AGC) dealing with...... WPPs are developed and analysed. The main results of this research work show that the WPPs can actively contribute to power balance control through primary and secondary response. The integration of WPPs control into the AGC is of high relevance, particularly in situations when wind power is...... beat risk unless the wind power plants (WPPs) are able to support and participate in power balancing services. The objective of this PhD project is to develop and analyse control strategies which can increase the WPPs capability to provide system services, such as active power balancing control, in a...
This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Nuclear Safety Standards programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants (NPPs). The first edition of the present Safety Guide was developed in the early 1980s. The text has now been brought up-to-date, refined in several details and amended to include non-electrical diverse and independent power sources. This Guide applies to NPP for which the total power supply comprises a normal power supply and an emergency power supply (EPS), which may be electrical or a combination of electrical and non-electrical. The Guide provides general guidance for all types of EPS and specific guidance on the design safety requirements and the features of the electrical and non-electrical portions of the EPS. 9 figs, 2 tabs
Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded.
This paper reviews TVA's nuclear power plant design and construction experience in terms of schedule and capital costs. The completed plant in commercial operation at Browns Ferry and six additional plants currently under construction represent the nation's largest single commitment to nuclear power and an ultimate investment of $12 billion by 1986. The presentation is made in three separate phases. Phase one will recapitulate the status of the nuclear power industry in 1966 and set forth the assumptions used for estimating capital costs and projecting project schedules for the first TVA units. Phase two describes what happened to the program in the hectic early 1979's in terms of expansion of scope (particularly for safety features), the dramatic increase in regulatory requirements, vendor problems, stretchout of project schedules, and unprecedented inflation. Phase three addresses the assumptions used today in estimating schedules and plant costs for the next ten-year period
A modular design for an internal heat exchanger for a power reactor with separate primary and secondary cooling circuits, eg. a PWR, is described. The purpose of the design is to reduce the thermal stresses in the feed water system by a special arrangement of this. (JIW)
Frequently, the cost performance of a specific power plant is measured by comparing the cost with the statistical average cost of plants through the industry. Unless all of the variables have been considered, this comparison may draw a misleading conclusion. The capital cost of a power plant varies with time (year of commercial operation and construction duration) due to the effect of inflation. Examine these cost data in detail revels that the variation in the cost is very wide. For example, published data shows that the ratio between the highest to the lowest cost per KW is more than 4 to 1 for the plants that commenced operation in 1984. The wide variation of the capital costs is explained below in relation to various influencing factors, differing conditions, and scope of work. This paper provides a defined baseline coal-fired plant, an analysis of its capital costs, and a discussion of the reasons for such wide variation
Work "Providing emergency power nuclear power plant" describes how solving their own consumption nuclear power plant, as emergency power supply is designed and how it should be a solution of known states of emergency, having an immediate impact on the power consumption of their own nuclear power plants. The aim of this thesis is to propose options to strengthen its own emergency power consumption of nuclear power plants, one might say-more resistant to harsh extremes, which could lead to loss...
The objective of this report is to provide information on small geothermal project (less than 5 MW) opportunities in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines. This overview of issues facing small geothermal projects is intended especially for those who are not already familiar with small geothermal opportunities. This is a summary of issues and opportunities and serves as a starting point in determining next steps to develop this market.
The objective of this report is to provide information on small geothermal project (less than 5 MW) opportunities in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines. This overview of issues facing small geothermal projects is intended especially for those who are not already familiar with small geothermal opportunities. This is a summary of issues and opportunities and serves as a starting point in determining next steps to develop this market
Biomass is organic matter produced in a renewable and sustainable manner, by plants through the process of photosynthesis. Biomass can be used as an energy resource to produce heat, power and transport fuels. The integration of biomass into a national energy supply mix may confer a number of local and national benefits. These benefits include displacement of imported fossil fuels with concomitant savings in foreign exchange, abatement of greenhouse gas release and possible reductions in levels of air pollution. The present case study evaluates the status of energy development in the Philippines to determine current levels of biomass utilization and the potential to further develop and use indigenous biomass energy resources. The study is based on: (a) Discussions held with representatives of the various agencies involved with biomass production and energy planning and programme implementation, during a brief mission to the Philippines; (b) An evaluation of current conversion technologies and facilities with the potential to fully utilize available biomass resources in domestic, industrial and power generation sectors; (c) An analysis of existing biomass production data, energy policies and plans, and projections for energy supply and consumption supplied by the relevant agencies and government departments of the Philippines. The Department of Energy is responsible for development and management of national energy policy and programmes. They have prepared an energy policy and projections for energy supply and consumption for the period 1996 to 2025. Non-conventional energy resources have been given a high priority, and a separate programme has been developed under the administration of the Non-conventional Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Total energy consumption in 1994 was estimated at 198 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (BFOE). Imported fossil fuels accounted for 58% of the total energy supply in 1994, biomass being the most important
Purpose: To provide a ballast tank, and nuclear power facilities within the containment shell of a pressure resistance structure and a maintenance operator's entrance and a transmission cable cut-off device at the outer part of the containment shell, whereby after the construction, the shell is towed, and installed by self-submerging, and it can be refloated for repairs by its own strength. Constitution: Within a containment shell having a ballast tank and a pressure resisting structure, there are provided nuclear power facilities including a nuclear power generating chamber, a maintenance operator's living room and the like. Furthermore, a maintenance operator's entrance and exit device and a transmission cable cut-off device are provided within the shell, whereby when it is towed to a predetermined a area after the construction, it submerges by its own strength and when any repair inspection is necessary, it can float up by its own strength, and can be towed to a repair dock or the like. (Yoshihara, H.)
The preliminary feasibility study of utilizing ricehulls as fuel for power generation in a communal set-up involving ricemills was completed by PNOC-ERDC for the EC-AIT COGEN Programme. The study assessed the market, evaluated the patterns and level of ricehull availability, and their implications on plant operation characteristics and financial viability. Ten potential areas were studied more closely for their suitability as pilot demonstration sites. (auth.). 8 tabs.; 4 figs.; 1 ref
Within the VGB Powertech conference from 25th to 27th October, 2011, in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures and poster contributions were presented: (1) The revised VGB standard for water-steam-cycle Chemistry; (2) Switchover from neutral operation to oxygen treatment at the power station Stuttgart-Muenster of EnBW Kraftwerke AG; (3) Steam contamination with degradation products of organic matters present in the feedwater of the Lanxess-Rubber cogeneration plant; (4) Laboratory scale on-line noble metal deposition experiments simulating BWR plant conditions; (5) Building a new demin installation for the power plant EPZ in Borssele; (6) Replacement of the cooling tower installations in the nuclear power plant Goesgen-Daenien AG; (7) Aging of IEX resins in demin plants - Cost optimisation by adaptation of regenerants; (8) The largest DOW trademark EDI System at a combined cycled plant in Europe; (9) Upgrading river Main water to boiler feed water - Experiences with ultrafiltration; (10) Experiences with treatment of the water-steam-cycle in the RDF power plant Nehlsen Stavenhagen with film-forming amines; (11) Comparative modelling of the bubbles thermal collapse and cavitations for estimation of bubbles collapse influence; (12) Overcoming the steam quality - issues from an HRSG for the production of process steam; (13) Legionella - new requirements for power plant operation; (14) How the right chemistry in the FGD helps to improve the removal in the waste water treatment plant; (15) High efficiency filtration in dry/semi-dry FGD plants; (16) Expanding the variety of renewable fuels in the biomass power plant Timelkam using the chemical input control; (17) Corrosion, operating experiences and process improvements to increase the availability and operating time of the biomass power plant Timelkam; (18) The influence of temperature on the measurement of the conductivity of highly diluted solutions; (19) A multiparameter instrumentation approach
The plant of the present invention can suppress the amount of clad in feedwater when drains of a moisture content separation heater or a high pressure feedwater heater are recovered. That is, the moisture content separation heater has ferrite or austenite type stainless steel heat transfer pipes. A chromium-enriched layer is formed on the surface of the heat transfer pipe by chromizing treatment or flame spraying. Then, a stainless steel heat transfer pipe having chromium-enriched layer is incorporated to at least one of the moisture content separation heater or the high pressure feedwater heater. During plant operation, the temperature of heated steams is as high as 235 to 282degC. Accordingly, this is a severe corrosion region for ferrite or austenite stainless steel. However, the chromium-enriched layer of excellent corrosion resistance is formed on the surface of the heat transfer pipe. Accordingly, metal ingredients are less leached. As a result, even if the drains are recovered to feedwater, increase of concentration of the clads in the feedwater can be prevented. (I.S.)
Pot experiments to test the effectivity of radiation-processed oligocarrageenans as a plant growth promoter/elicitor have been done on rice, soybean, tomatoes, and corn. Though many data from IAEA RCA and CRP participating countries have proven the efficacy of radiation modified oligomers as bio-stimulants and elicitor, certain R & D gaps need to be addressed in order that these products can reach the commercialization stage. A more integrated and systematic study of each crop with the following components need to be conducted: a) timing of application (plant growth stages such as seedling, active, vegetative, and reproductive stages); b) dosage (concentration of oligomers and volume of spray); c) effect in different seasons of the year (dry or wet); d) efficacy in photosynthetic activities (greening of leaves); and e) induction of resistance to pests and diseases (sturdiness, color of leaves, plant height, enzyme systems etc.). Some R & D work on the effect of radiation processed oligocarrageenans as plant growth promoter/elicitor are discussed. It also discusses R & D gaps that need to be addressed to make these oligomers reach the market. The Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority of the Philippines categorizes plant growth promoters and elicitors as fertilizers, requiring very stringent regulations for its registration. The paper proposes a roadmap towards the commercialization of plant growth promoter/elicitors. (author)
The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan. Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: · selection of critical equipment and components, · defini...
The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies
The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies
Jansson, S.A.; Anderson, L. [ABB Carbon AB, Finspong (Sweden)
The combined experience from almost 75,000 hours of operation on widely different coals in Pressurised Fluidised bed Combined-cycle (PFBC) plants in Sweden, Spain, the US and Japan have demonstrated the viability of ABB`s PFBC technology and the general simplicity of the concept, as well as plant control principles and serviceability. This technology is now commercially offered world-wide and PFBC is being recognized as a competitive solution for power and for combined heat and power applications. The combined-cycle feature makes PFBC highly efficient for power generation. When compared with conventional power plants, and for the same steam conditions, a PFBC plant typically produces at least 10% more electricity from the same amount of coal. There is potential for future additional efficiency increases. The coals used so far in the existing PFBC power plants include bituminous coals with a wide range of sulphur and ash contents, and a sub-bituminous Spanish `black lignite` with extremely high and variable levels of sulphur, ash, and moisture. Brown coal from the eastern parts of Germany will be used as the fuel in a newly ordered PFBC plant in Cottbus, Germany. Oil shale, petcoke, anthracite, and different types of biomass mixed with coal are presently being considered for other PFBC projects under discussion. PFBC is suitable for greenfield plants, but a market also exists for PFBC repowering of older steam plants. Repowering provides an opportunity to convert older, low capacity factor units into assets that lower the system`s production costs as well as improving environmental performance. Ash utilisation also holds promise, elevating the ash from a disposable waste to a valuable resource. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Purpose: To prevent liquid wastes from being discharged out of the system by processing to recover them in the nuclear reactor and reusing them. Constitution: Discharge of liquid wastes to the surrounding atmosphere are completely eliminated by collecting floor drains, a part of processing water for the regeneration of liquid wastes, non-radioactive steam drains and laundry drains conventionally discharged so far out of the system, processing them in a concentrator, a desalter or the like into water of a high purity and extremely low radioactive concentration, storing the water in an exclusive storage tank and supplying it as a steam or supplementing water to each portion in the plant that requires water of such high purity and extremely low radioactivity. (Yoshihara, H.)
Recent versions of the air quality models which are reviewed and approved from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are analysed in favour of their application in simple and complex terrain, different meteorological conditions and modifications in the sources of pollutant emissions. Improvement of the standard methods for analysis of the risks affecting the environment from different energy sources has been carried out. The application of the newly introduced model enabled (lead to performing) risk analysis of the coal power plants compared to other types of energy sources. Detailed investigation of the risk assessment and perception from coal power plants, has been performed and applied to the Macedonian coal power plants. Introducing the concept of 'psychological pollution', a modification of the standard models and programs for risk assessment from various energy sources has been suggested (proposed). The model has been applied to REK Bitola, where statistically relevant differences in relation to the control groups have been obtained. (Original)
In the fall of 1980 on the shores of the Hawaiian Islands, a floating laboratory of the United States was successfully introduced for testing a heat exchanger and pipes for collecting cold water of the OTES with power of 1 MW. The first American OTES N=10-40 MW should start operation in 1985. By the year 2000, ..sigma..N of the U.S. OTES should reach 10 GW. The Japanese OTES N=10-25 MW should start up in 1989. The experimental OTES N=100 KW has been in operation since October 1981 on the Nauru Island. An OTES of 2 MW is under construction. The concern Empain-Schneider is involved in planning the OTES of closed cycle in France, and the concern CGE is planning the OTES of open cycle.
There are a lot of different efficiency photovoltaic cells, which are used in solar power plants. All of these different photovoltaic cells are affected by different environment conditions. Maximum power point tracking is the main way to increase solar power plant efficiency. Mostly systems of maximum power point tracking are slow or inaccurate, that means the system cannot stay in maximum power point in solar power plant. This is the main reason why mostly of solar power plants are working n...
In a condensate cleanup system and a reactor water cleanup system of a BWR-type reactor, in which primary coolants flow, there is disposed a filtering and desalting device using hollow thread membrane filter and ion exchange resin for a condensate cleanup system, and using a high temperature filter made of a metal, a metal oxide or ceramics as a filtering material and a precoat filter made of a powdery ion exchange resin as a filtering material for a reactor water cleanup system. This can completely remove cruds generated in the condensate system. Since the reactor water cleanup system comprises the powdery resin precoat-type filtering and desalting device and the high temperature filter using ceramics, ionic impurities such as radioactive materials can be removed. Accordingly, cruds are not carried into the inside of the reactor, and since the radioactive concentration in the reactor water is reduced, radiation exposure upon periodical inspection can be minimized almost to zero, to attain a clean plant. (T.M.)
The government-owned National Power Corporation (NPC) of the Philippines is in the early stages of a complete privatisation programme. The electric power sector is expected eventually to be structured around a company that will own the major transmission facilities and will serve as a broker of power and energy between generating companies and the existing distribution companies, Rural Electric Co-operations and other power users. NPC's non-transmission assets will probably be spun-off into various corporations including three generating companies, an engineering and services company and a company owning the Calivaya-Botocan-Kalayaan hydro complex. Plans for increased capacity include a real term increase in the hydropower contribution although it will decline as a percentage of the energy mix as coal and gas plants are developed. Details of the privatisation of specific hydropower projects in the Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao grids are described. (U.K.)
Asbestos packings are being replaced in more and more countries with alternative products. This paper discusses modern packing solutions for valves and pumps in power plants. Die-moulded packing rings made of expanded graphite foil are described m detail, with recommendations for correct installation. Application examples for spring-loaded valves and cover lid seals are given. As an alternative for repair and service use, a braided expanded graphite packing reinforced with Inconel wire is described. Proposals for sealing various pump applications in power plants are also made. (Author)
The APROS Simulation Environment has been developed since 1986 by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It provides tools, solution algorithms and process components for use in different simulation systems for design, analysis and training purposes. One of its main nuclear applications is the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (LPA). The Loviisa Plant Analyzer includes all the important plant components both in the primary and in the secondary circuits. In addition, all the main control systems, the protection system and the high voltage electrical systems are included. (orig.)
Current licensing emphasis is different from that existing when older nuclear power plants received their operating licenses. Today, there is increased regulatory focus on utility performance measured through new inspections such as the safety system functional inspection and the safety systems outage modifications inspection; and the use of performance indicators. These programs are intended to identify poorer performing plants and concentrate on improving overall plant performance. This paper discusses how, in an attempt to improve the maintenance performance of the nuclear industry, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission recently began work on a maintenance rule. In addition, the NRC will require partial probabilistic risk evaluations for each plant that will provide new insights as to a plant's risk. Risk information is being used to prioritize inspections
Object: To avoid tripping of a 6.9 kV class bus line and to decrease a large electric current momentarily flown into a start transformer, in despite of the fact that the bus line is not changed over resulted from actuation of a generator lock-out relay. Structure: An atomic power plant comprising a bus line for a two-system plant power supply and a start transformer receiving power from an exterior system, characterized by the provision of a breaker for effecting the change-over of only one system bus line simultaneously with the reactor scrum and a breaker for effecting the change-over of the other bus line before a generator is tripped as a result of actuation of a generator lock-out relay in a predetermined period of time after the reactor scrum, to thereby reduce the momentary large current to the start transformer. (Kamimura, M.)
Abou-Elfotouh, F.; Almassary, M.; Fatmi, H.
It has been shown that the geometric configuration of a central receiver solar electric power plant SEPP can be optimized for the high power density and concentration required for the operation of a thermionic converter. The working period of a TDC constructed on the top of a SEPP in Riyadh area is 5 to 6 hours per day in winter and 6 to 8 hours in summer. At the 25 percent conversion efficiency achieved by a laboratory test model, a reduction in the cost per unit power of 8-12 per cent is expected. The spectral behavior and work functions of the working surface of the thermionic electrodes were investigated
First, the generation of noise at wind power plants and the character of the sound is described. The propagation of the sound and its dependence on the structure of the ground and on wind and temperature is treated next. Models for calculation of the noise emission are reviewed and examples of applications are given. Different means for reducing the disturbances are described
Graphex-CK 23 is a unique sodium fire extinction product. Minimum amounts of powder are required for very fast action. The sodium can be put to use again, when the fire has been extinguished. It can be applied in other industrial branches and with other metals, e.g. sodium/potassium circuits or lithium coolant in power plants.
The German utilities operating nuclear power plants have long concerned themselves with aspects of decommissioning and for this purpose an engineering company was given a contract to study the entire spectrum of decommissioning. The results of this study have been available in autumn 1980 and it is possible to discuss all the aspects of decommissioning on a new basis. Following these results no change in the design concept of LWR nuclear power plants in operation or under construction is necessary because the techniques, necessary for decommissioning, are fully available today. The technical feasibility of decommissioning for power plants of Biblis A and KRB type has been shown in detail. The calculations of the quantity of waste produced during removal of a nuclear power plant could be confirmed and it could be determined with high procedure. The radiation dose to the decommissioning personnel is in the range of the radiation protection regulations and is in the same range as the radiation dose to the personnel within a yearly inservice inspection. (AF)
This report provides the background information for statistics and analysis developed by NUKEM in its monthly Market Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The assessments in this Special Report are based on the continuous review of individual nuclear power plant projects. This Special Report begins with tables summarizing a variety of nuclear power generating capacity statistics for 1990. It continues with a brief review of the year's major events regarding each country's nuclear power program. The standard NUKEM Market Report tables on nuclear plant capacity are given on pages 24 and 25. Owing to space limitations, the first year shown is 1988. Please refer to previous Special Reports for data covering earlier years. Detailed tables for each country list all existing plants as well as those expected by NUKEM to be in commercial operation by the end of 2005. An Appendix containing a list of abbreviations can be found starting on page 56. Only nuclear power plants intended for civilian use are included in this Special Report. Reactor lifetimes are assumed to be 35 years for all light water reactors and 30 years for all other reactor types, unless other data or definite decommissioning dates have been published by the operators. (orig./UA)
Coal-fired and oil-based power plants operated in Philippines are totally 11 and 58 units respectively. The government recognizes the threat of air pollution, because more than one third of the electricity generation is fueled by coal. The Philippines Congress therefore enacted Republic Act 8749 (Clean Air Act of 1999) under which sulfur and nitrogen oxides concentration at the point of emission from stationary sources shall be strictly regulated. Under the UNDP/IAEA regional project on industrial application of radiation, the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in cooperation with the National Power Corporation hosted two national executive management seminars on electron beam treatment of flue gases in 1990 and 1994. The Philippine Smelting and Refining Corporation (PASAR) has interest in this technology of reducing 90% SO2 removal efficiency with EB power of 380 kW. PNRI promotes, through training courses and seminars, the applications of nuclear technology and radiation including EB treatment of flue gases. (S. Ohno)
Price, H. W.; Kistner, R.
The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised i n debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.
The manual presents the fundamentals of thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, the main components of steam power plants, and the power generation process. The following concepts and subjects are discussed at length: steam generator; steam turbines; turbogenerators; condensers; cooling technology; water/steam cycle and water treatment; design data of fossil-fuelled power plants; design and optimisation of nuclear power plant thermodynamics; pipelines and fittings; control systems in steam power plants; connection to the electricity grid and self-supply of thermal power plants; power plant transformer concepts and definitions. (HAG)
The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York have reopened the debate in Germany abut the safety of existing nuclear power plants. On the one hand, it culminated in the demand, made from a prominent political position, to disconnect from the grid prematurely five of the older nuclear power plants because they offered no sufficient protection from terrorist attacks carried out by means of commercial airliners. On the other hand, the competent German Federal Ministry of the Interior to this day has not been able to detect a hazardous situation for Germany which would require nuclear power plants (or other facilities) to be shut down - temporarily -so as to reduce their hazard potential. The legal situation is discussed in detail. It is evident that the debate about the safety of any kind of industrial plants will go on and will be revived by any kind of event. Despite the growing need for public safety, it must not be overlooked in the public debate that an absolute exclusion of risk is impossible and that, consequently, there can be no absolute protection of any legal object. (orig.)
Plants have been used since time immemorial to treat many ailments and speed up healing process. Plant parts and extracts have been traditionally used to heal wounds. Angiogenesis is one of the events associated with wound healing. It is a tightly regulated process of blood vessel formation and an important target for diseases like coronary infarction, ischemia and stroke. Several in vitro and in vivo methods have been developed to assess the angiogenic activity of different compounds. These include the chorio-allantaoic membrane (CAM) assay which uses the egg's gas exchange membrane to assess the angiogenic potential of a substance and the tube formation assay which uses endothelial cells grown in the lab. Aqueous ethanolic extracts of five Philippine medicinal plants associated with wound healing were used in the study. Preliminary phytochemical screening using spray raegents and toxicity test using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii was done. 10% of the computed LC50 value was used to screen the angiogenic potential of the plant extracts using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in an in vitro tube formation assay and in vivo chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Phorbol myristate (PMA) a known pro-angiogenic compound was used as positive control. Initial phytochemical screening showed that the crude enthanolic extracts of the leaves of the five contain flavonoids, steroids, phenols, saponins, alkanoids, coumarins, anthranoids, anthraquinones, sugars and essential oils. Brine shrimp lethality assay revealed that the plants used were not toxic to Artemia salina nauplii at 1000 μg/mL. In vitro tube formation assay revealed the crude ethanolic extracts of the leaves of M. indica showed the greatest angiogenic activity, closely followed by C. pubescens, T. catappa, A. barbadensis and C. odorata. The effect of the crude ethanolic extracts of the plants on blood vessel formation in the in vivo CAM model showed A. barbadensis with the highest
The Electricidade de Moçambique, E.P. (EDM) is the power utility in Mozambique, responsible to generate, transport and distribute electricity all over the country. The company has three gas turbines installed at Maputo Power Plant. All units burn diesel oil and are used only for back up. Currently only the unit #2 is available for operation. The main constraint that EDM faces is the high operation costs due to diesel price. Hence the company is considering converting units #2 and #3 to burn n...
The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident occurred on March 11, 2011, when two natural disasters of unprecedented strengths, an earthquake with magnitude 9 followed one hour later by a powerful tsunami struck northeastern Japan and felled the external power supply and the emergency diesel generators of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, resulting in a loss of coolant accident. There were core meltdowns in three nuclear reactors with the release of radioactivity estimated to be 1/10 of what was released to the environment during the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986. The Fukushima nuclear accident tested the capability of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) and the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) in responding to such radiological emergency as a nuclear power plant accident. The PNRI and NDRRMC activated the RADPLAN for possible radiological emergency. The emergency response was calibrated to the status of the nuclear reactors on site and the environmental monitoring undertaken around the site and off-site, including the marine environment. This orchestrated effort enabled the PNRI and the national agencies concerned to reassure the public that the nuclear accident does not have a significant impact on the Philippines, both on the health and safety of the people and on the safety of the environment. National actions taken during the accident will be presented. The role played by the International Atomic Energy Agency as the central UN agency for nuclear matters will be discussed. (author)
The question of nuclear power plants is analysed in details. The fundamental principles of reactors are described as well as the problems of safety involved with the reactor operation and the quantity and type of radioactive released to the environment. It shows that the amount of radioactive is very long. The reactor accidents has occurred, as three mile island, are also analysed. (M.I.A.)
This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)
Full Text Available In this paper a methodology is presented which allows a quick and simple means of estimating the potential energy that can be obtained from a tidal power plant. The evaluation is made using a normalised nomograph, which is a function of the area of the tidal basin against the electricity installed capacity to thus obtain the potential energy for any location. The results describe two means of operation, one of "flow tide" and the other "flow–ebb tides", with two tidal basin systems operating: single and double reservoir systems. To obtain the normalised nomograph the numerical results for simulations of several tidal power plants under differing operational conditions over a period of one year. These conditions were established by varying the electricity installed capacity, the hydraulic conditions in "flow tide", "ebb tides" or both and with single or double reservoir systems and using sea level information taken every 15 minutes. To validate the model information from the tidal power plant at Rance, France, was used, which includes data concerning production, electricity installed capacity, turbine characteristics and tidal ranges. A very good correlation was found between the results of the numerical model and those reported in various technical reports.
Much is at stake in developing a financial strategy for decommissioning nuclear power plants. Since decommissioning experience is limited to relatively small reactors, will the costs associated with larger reactors be significantly higher. Certainly the decommissioning issue intersects with other critical issues that will help to determine the future of commercial nuclear power in the US. The author examines briefly the basic concepts and terms related to decommissioning expenses, namely: (1) segregated fund; (2) non-segregated fund; (3) external method; and (4) internal method. He concludes that state regulatory commissions have turned increasingly to the external funding method because of increasing costs and related problems associated with nuclear power, changing conditions and uncertainties concerned with utility restructuring, and recent changes in federal tax laws related to decommissioning. Further, this trend is likely to continue if financial assurance remains a primary concern of regulators to protect this public interest
Consumers Power Company (CPCo) has recently completed an ambitious project to replace the non-safety-related plant process computer for the Palisades Nuclear Plant. The replacement computer retains the functions of the old plant computer system with minor exceptions. However, the architecture of the new computer system is vastly improved from the old plant computer. The hardware and software components of the new computer system are the state of the art. The old system consisted of five stand-alone computers, each performing their intended function separately. The new architecture employs a number of computing and data acquisition nodes networked together to gather, share, process, present, and store data more efficiently. For cost efficiency, some of the old hardware, such as the Critical Functions Monitoring System multiplexer, has been retained. The new computer system has a significantly higher availability, and lower maintenance cost. It performs certain functions that were not possible with the old system, such as real-time validation of rod position monitored by the Plant Information Processor and the Secondary Position Indicator. While the new computer system is more capable, more reliable, more user friendly, and easier to maintain, taking it to operability status presented CPCo with some new and challenging issues
In many industrial applications of robots, the objective is to replace human workers with machines that are more productive, efficient, and accurate. But for nuclear applications, the objective is not so much to replace workers as it is to extend their presence - for example, to project their reach into areas of a nuclear plant where the thermal or radiation environment prohibits or limits a human presence. The economic motivation to use robots for nuclear plant inspection and maintenance is centered on their potential for improving plant availability; a by-product is the potential for reducing the occupational radiation exposure of plant personnel. Robotic equipment in nuclear applications may be divided into two broad categories: single-purpose devices with limited ability to perform different operations, and reprogrammable, multi-purpose robots with some degree of computer-based artificial intelligence. Preliminary assessments of the potential for applying robotics in nuclear power plants - mainly at surveillance and inspection tasks - have been carried out. Future developments are considered
This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1997 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1997; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; forecasts; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)
A program for the transients simulation thermohydraulic calculation without loss of coolant (KWU-ENACE development) to evaluate Atucha I nuclear power plant behaviour is used. The program includes systems simulation and nuclear power plants control bonds with real parameters. The calculation results show a good agreement with the output 'protocol' of various transients of the nuclear power plant, keeping the error, in general, lesser than ± 10% from the variation of the nuclear power plant's state variables. (Author)
WU Peng; WEI Shuangying
The coordinating control system is popular used in power plant. This paper describes the advanced coordinating control by control methods and optimal operation, introduces their principals and features by using the examples of power plant operation. It is wealthy for automation application in optimal power plant operation.
Another power plant will be added to the hydroelectric power plant Dobsina. Preparations for the construction of a small hydro power plant have started on the streams Hnilec and Dobsinsky Brook. Dobsina III will extend the portfolio of renewable sources of Slovenske elektrarne. (author)
Reduction in occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is desirable not only in the interest of the health and safety of plant personnel, but also because it enhances the safety and reliability of the plants. This report summarises the current trends of doses to workers at nuclear power plants and the achievements and developments regarding methods for their reduction
This report is the third in a series of reports issued annually that summarize the operating experience of U.S. nuclear power plants in commercial operation. Power generation statistics, plant outages, reportable occurrences, fuel element performance, occupational radiation exposure and radioactive effluents for each plant are presented. Summary highlights of these areas are discussed. The report includes 1976 data from 55 plants--23 boiling water reactor plants and 32 pressurized water reactor plants
Altin, Müfit; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; RODRIGUEZ, Pedro; Iov, Florin; Kjær, Philip C.
Recent developments in wind turbine technology go towards installation of larger Wind Power Plants (WPPs). Therefore, power system operators have been challenged by the WPP penetration impacts in order to maintain reliabillity and stability of the power system. The revised grid codes have concentrated on the WPP connection point and as a result a WPP is considered as a single power plant. Nevertheless, compared to conventional power plants, WPPs have different inherent features such as conver...
Most reliable projections indicate that by the year 2000 approximately 25% of the world's electrical energy and possibly 10% of its process heat for industry will be provided by nuclear power plants. Whilst much of this will come from large nuclear steam raising units-in excess of 900 M.W.(e)-an increasing proportion will be provided from small modular plant, designed for portabiity or mobility. The technical, environmental and economic parameters of such a plant which will usually be of a size around 600 M.W.(e) or less and which in general terms derives its basic design features from nuclear marine propulsion units is reviewed. If suitably standardised, such a nuclear plant, mounted on barges, installed in ships or even airlifted into difficult locations, could provide an attractive solution to the energy problems of developing countries or remote communities. Apart from electrical energy production, the units could operate in a duplex mode to supply steam for central heating, sea-water or bore water distillation or industrial process heat. (Author)
Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes
, and (2) to maximize utilization of existing HRD resources of the member countries. These objectives may be accomplished by networking existing nuclear training and education resources, i.e. training and education programs, nuclear research facilities and experts through active contribution and participation of member countries. For the Philippines HRD program for nuclear power, these are the following recommendations: (a) strategic planning of HRD to meet national nuclear power program; (b) training core personnel in nuclear power technology, nuclear radiation safety, and safety regulation in PNRI abroad; (c) university education on basic nuclear science and technology in the Philippines and abroad; (d) linkage with power companies using fossil fuels to train plant engineers, and (e) using past experiences of BNPP (Bataan Nuclear Power Plant). Author
The criteria of design and safety, applied internationally to systems and components of PWR type reactors, are described. The main criteria of the design analysed are: thermohydraulic optimization; optimized arrangement of buildings and components; low costs of energy generation; high level of standardization; application of specific safety criteria for nuclear power plants. The safety criteria aim to: assure the safe reactor shutdown; remove the residual heat and; avoid the release of radioactive elements for environment. Some exemples of safety criteria are given for Angra-2 and Angra-3 reactors. (M.C.K.)
The development is described of software for the simulator of technological equipment of a WWER-440 nuclear power plant unit, using an SM 4-20 computer operating under DOS RV V2 and using a FORTRAN translator. An asynchronous interrupt system is used for kayboard control. All utilities for I/0 operations are written in the macroassembler. The basic concept of the software is shown schematically as are the relations between the program modules and the instructor and student environment. (J.B.). 1 fig
Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. (authors)
Total diet samples were analyzed for major elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) and some minor trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Al, Sr, Cu, Ba, Yt) using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples analyzed were classified into sex and age groups. Results for some elements (Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn) were compared with values from Bataan dietary survey calculated using the Philippine composition table. Exceot for Na, analytical results were similar to calculated values. Analytical results for Ca and Fe were also compared with the values from Food and Nutrition Research Institute. In general, values obtained in the study were lower than the FNRI values. Comparison of the analytical and calculated results with the Japanese and ICRP data showed that Philippine values were lower than foreign values. (Auth.). 22 refs., 9 tabs
This document reports all the photovoltaic power plants whose installed power is over 1 MWc and that are operating in France or in project. 446 power plants have been reviewed and their cumulated power reaches 2822 MWc. For each plant the following information is listed: the name of the municipality, the operator, the power capacity, the manufacturer of the photovoltaic panels and the type of technology used, the type of installation (on the ground, on the roof, on the facade, as sun protection,...), the yearly power output (kWh), and the date of commissioning. This review shows that 86% of these plants are ground-based. (A.C.)
Purvis, James W.
Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.
Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented
This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2007 highlights; Main characteristics of reactor types; Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2007/01/01; Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2007); Units distributed by countries; Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups; Nuclear power plants under construction on 2007; Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid; First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country; Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2007; Performance indicator of French PWR units; Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type; Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity; Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2007; Status of licence renewal applications in USA; Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2007; Shutdown reactors; Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; Exported nuclear power plants under construction; Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction; Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2007; Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2007; COL (combined licences) applications in the USA; Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences; Mox licence plants projects; Appendix - historical development; Meaning of the used acronyms; Glossary
Several small-scale power plants have been constructed in Finland during the last few years. Fuel oil and natural gas has been used as a fuel in diesel plants, natural gas in gas-turbine plants, and peat and industrial waste wood in solid fuel fired plants. Larger towns have already acquired combined power and heat generation either in their own power plants or in cooperation with industry. A usual mean of cooperation has been buying of district heat from industrial back-pressure power plants. Numerous small district heat loads still rely on separate heat production. The cheap price of electric power, caused by the good water and nuclear power conditions and long-term delivery contracts, has rendered the construction of small-scale power plants. The fuel prices have been stable for the last few years. The most significant changes have been caused by changing of exchange rate of the Finnish mark and the fuel taxation. Two power plant are reviewed in detail: 6/17 MW peat fired steam power plant and 6/6 MW oil fueled diesel power plant. The electricity prices of these two have been compared with coal condensing power and the electricity tariffs. The price comparisons have been made using the present price level. Energia-Ekono has compiled a new simulation program ELMO, operating in PC-WINDOWS environment, for simulation of cogeneration
Ramos, Charmaine G.
This paper examines rent-creating state interventions in Colombia and the Philippines, where the authority to mobilise agricultural levies collected from leading agro-export sectors were delegated to producer associations. It investigates why coffee levies in Colombia are associated with production and welfare-enhancing outcomes, while coconut levies in the Philippines are depicted as non-developmental rent capture. The paper forwards an explanation based on a comparison of the basis in polit...
This study explores effects of Philippines' coconut policies on the performance in the international market. Analysis of the coconut sector found that the Philippine government successfully changed the structure of the coconut industry during the 1970's using a fund collected as coconut levies. Since the Philippines dominated the international trade market of coconut products, it could exercise dominant market power in the world trade, by integrating the domestic sector. However, the industri...
Re powering faith gas turbine means integration of new gas turbine in existing power plant. Such integration yield higher efficiencies lower operating and maintenance costs and reduction in pollution emission. This paper summarizes the results of a feasibility study that inquired the possibilities of such integration in Israel Electric Corporation - IEC's existing steam power plants (oil fired)
The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO2, NO2, ash and soot emmisions with 133Xe and 85Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts. (O.K.)
Thermal Power Plant: Design and Operation deals with various aspects of a thermal power plant, providing a new dimension to the subject, with focus on operating practices and troubleshooting, as well as technology and design. Its author has a 40-long association with thermal power plants in design as well as field engineering, sharing his experience with professional engineers under various training capacities, such as training programs for graduate engineers and operating personnel. Thermal Power Plant presents practical content on coal-, gas-, oil-, peat- and biomass-fueled thermal power
Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and
Future electric power consumption will be depending on the economic development of the Federal Republic of Germany. Thermal power plants are fueled with non-renewable energy sources, i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas or nuclear power. It is therefore important to assess the global coverage of these energy sources and to take stock of the reserves of the Federal Republic of Germany. If the waste heat left from electric power generation was made use of in dual-purpose power plants total energy consumption could be considerably reduced. Large-scale power plants do have to face and cope with the lack of distribution networks to supply the consumer. (DG)
Education and training in nuclear science and technology in the Philippines are obtained from higher education institutions, and from courses offered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), an institute under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), is the sole government agency in charge of matters pertaining to nuclear science and technology, and the regulation of nuclear energy. The PNRI was tasked with fast-tracking nuclear education and information, together with the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), and some other government agencies which constituted the Subcommittee on Nuclear Power Public Education and Information, by virtue of Executive Order 243 enacted by then President Ramos on May 12, 1995. This Executive Order created the Nuclear Power Steering Committee; the Subcommittee on Nuclear Power Public Education and Information was one of the subcommittees under it. The Nuclear Power Steering Committee was created when the government was again considering the feasibility of the nuclear power option; this Committee had since become inactive because the government has not re-embarked on a nuclear power program. The Philippines had a nuclear power program in the 1970's. The first nuclear power plant was nearing completion when Chernobyl and Three Mile Island happened. Due to the change in political climate and strong anti-nuclear sentiment, the first nuclear power plant had been mothballed. However, there is a possibility for the introduction of nuclear power in the country's projected energy sources by the year 2025. The country has one research reactor, a 3 MW Triga reactor, but at the present time it is not operational and is under extended shutdown. In the event that the Philippines will again implement a nuclear power program, there will be a great need for M.S. and Ph.D. holders in nuclear engineering. There are less than five
As an overview of quality assurance programs in nuclear power plants, the energy picture as it appears today is reviewed. Nuclear power plants and their operations are described and an attempt is made to place in proper perspective the alleged ''threats'' inherent in nuclear power. Finally, the quality assurance programs being used in the nuclear industry are described
Purpose: To effectively transfer the operation of a nuclear power plant including a bwr type reactor to single load operation in the station with no increase in the neutron flux and water level in the reactor by the combined use of recycle pump trip and feedwater pump trip. Method: Upon rapid load decrease in a turbine generator, at least one of usually operated feedwater pumps and a recycle pump are tripped and the starting for a stand-by feedwater pump is inhibited. This rapidly decreases the recycling flow rate to thereby lower the neutron flux before generation of pressure increase and also decreases the feedwater flow rate to thereby suppress the increase in the water level due to increase in voids, whereby the operation is smoothly transferred to the single load operation in the station. (Horiuchi, T.)
As scenes of power plants give many influences to environments, the plants that harmonized with the environments are demanded. We developed a landscape simulation system for the plants by using computer graphics technologies. This system has functions to generate realistic images about plant buildings and environments. Since the system contains information of ridge lines in addition to usual terrain data, the terrain shapes are expressed more precisely. Because the system enables users to visualize plant construction plans, the advance evaluations of plant scenes become possible. We regard this system as useful for environmental assessment of power plants. (author)
It is proved that during the lifetime of a power plant, financial resources are produced from depreciation and from the profit for the delivered electrical power in an amount allowing to meet the cost of construction, interests of credits, the corporation taxes, and the means usable by the utility for simple reproduction of the power plant, additional investment, or for the ultimate decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. The considerations are simplified to 1 MW of installed capacity of a WWER-440 nuclear power plant. The breakdown is shown of the profit and the depreciation over the power plant lifetime, the resources of regular payments of credit instalments for the construction and the method of its calculation, and the income for the state budget and for the utility during the plant liofetime. (J.B.). 5 tabs., 5 refs
Mix the complexity of a new construction or major retrofit project with today's 'do more with less', a pinch of 'personnel inexperience,' and a dash of 'unintended consequences', and you have got a recipe for insomnia. Advanced simulation tools, however, can help you wring out your design train your operators before the first wire is terminated and just may be get a good night's rest. The article describes several examples of uses of simulation tools. Esscor recently completed a simulation project for a major US utility exploring the potential for furnace/duct implosion that could result from adding higher volumetric flow induced-draft fans and selective catalytic reduction to a 650-MW coal-fired plant. CAF Electronics Inc. provided a full-scope simulator for Alstom's KA24-1 combined-cycle power plant in Paris, France. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are being used by the Gas Technology Institute to simulate the performance of the next generation of pulverized coal combustors. 5 figs.
The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and
method has less impact of the power system frequency compared to existing control concepts. Another advantage of the proposed inertial response control has the tuning methodology which can be utilized as a generic approach for any power system with high wind power penetration levels. Additionally, an...... maintain sustainable and reliable operation of the power system for these targets, transmission system operators (TSOs) have revised the grid code requirements. Also, the TSOs are planning the future development of the power system with various wind penetration scenarios to integrate more wind power...... according to their grid codes. In these scenarios particularly with high wind power penetration cases, conventional power plants (CPPs) such as old thermal power plants are planned to be replaced with wind power plants (WPPs). Consequently, the power system stability will be affected and the control...
Watanabe, Yuta; Bach, Leu Tho; Van Dinh, Pham; Prudente, Maricar; Aguja, Socorro; Phay, Nyunt; Nakata, Haruhiko
Water samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar were analyzed for artificial sweeteners (ASs) and iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICMs). High concentrations (low micrograms per liter) of ASs, including aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose, were found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents from Vietnam. Three ICMs, iohexol, iopamidol, and iopromide were detected in Vietnamese WWTP influents and effluents, suggesting that these ICMs are frequently used in Vietnam. ASs and ICMs were found in river water from downtown Hanoi at concentrations comparable to or lower than the concentrations in WWTP influents. The ASs and ICMs concentrations in WWTP influents and adjacent surface water significantly correlated (r (2) = 0.99, p < 0.001), suggesting that household wastewater is discharged directly into rivers in Vietnam. Acesulfame was frequently detected in northern Vietnamese groundwater, but the concentrations varied spatially by one order of magnitude even though the sampling points were very close together. This implies that poorly performing domestic septic tanks sporadically leak household wastewater into groundwater. High acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose concentrations were found in surface water from Manila, The Philippines. The sucralose concentrations were one order of magnitude higher in the Manila samples than in the Vietnamese samples, indicating that more sucralose is used in The Philippines than in Vietnam. Acesulfame and cyclamate were found in surface water from Pathein (rural) and Yangon (urban) in Myanmar, but no ICMs were found in the samples. The ASs concentrations were two-three orders of magnitude lower in the samples from Myanmar than in the samples from Vietnam and The Philippines, suggesting that different amounts of ASs are used in these countries. We believe this is the first report of persistent ASs and ICMs having ubiquitous distributions in economically emerging South Asian countries. PMID:26304512
TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plant using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant consists of numbers of sub-systems which had been integrated centering around the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Data Base (PDBMS) and covers all stage of engineering for nuclear power plant from project management, design, manufacturing, construction to operating plant service and preventive maintenance as it were 'Plant Life-Cycle CAE System'. In recent years, TOSHIBA has been devoting to extend the system for integrated intelligent CAE system with state-of-the-art computer technologies such as computer graphics and artificial intelligence. This paper shows the outline of CAE system for nuclear power plant in TOSHIBA. (author)
The consideration of fusion as an alternative energy source will need to demonstrate that Fusion Power Plant (FPP) design, operating and maintenance characteristics meet the electrical market requirements forecast for the second half of this century. Until now, fusion has been developed in the framework of research and development programmes following natural technological trends. To bring a greater sense of realism to commercial viability and to guarantee that technology-driven fusion development responds to the demands of the market, a conceptual study of future commercial FPPs has been performed with a Power Plant Availability (PPA) study aimed at identifying the aspects affecting the availability and generating costs of FPPs. EFET, who has also been involved in the study, can visualise it from two different points of view; that of the industry (ANSALDO, IBERTEF, SIEMENS, NNC) and that of the utilities (BELGATOM, FRAMATOME, FORTUM). The work carried out covered the following points: socio-economic forecasting; safety and licensing; operation and maintenance; waste and decommissioning; availability and reliability. The following are the most relevant findings, conclusions and recommendations for all these aspects: Demonstrate definitively that the physical principles of nuclear fusion have been validated by means of experiments; Establish a European Industrial Group to support the demonstration phases; Create the financial and contracting framework required to construct these installations. Secure the necessary budgets for the European Union's 5th and 6th Research Programmes. Look for supplementary long term financing sources; The existing Regulatory Bodies should combine to form a single Working Group with responsibility for fusion reactor safety and licensing activities, working on the harmonisation of the regulatory processes, developing FPP safety criteria and guidelines and reviewing industry standards; To be competitive, FPPs should have high availability
The proceedings contain 10 papers of which 9 fall under the INIS scope. They all concern the intentions and possibilities of using heat from nuclear power plants, especially from the Temelin power plant. Waste heat will be used for district heating of adjacent conurbations and for agricultural purposes. Various projects are presented using heat from nuclear power plants, such as greenhouse heating, soil heating, cultivation of algae and fish in warmed-up water. The existing experience is described with the use of heat from the Bohunice nuclear power plant. (M.D.). 15 figs., 6 tabs., 17 refs
Two scenarios of power plant ordering required to meet demand in 2000, based on reasonable assumptions of demand growth, plant lifetimes, and construction lead times, are presented. They result in a high and low of 191 and 75GWe per annum respectively. The scenarios are broken down into regions; Europe, North America, Japan, and less developed countries. It is thought that nuclear power is unlikely to gain a substantial share of the total power plant market. (U.K.)
Inertial fusion energy (IFE) is becoming feasible due to the increasing understanding of implosion physics. Reactor technology issues have begun to be developed. Based on the conceptual design of Laser Driven IFE Power Plant, the technical and physical issues have been examined. R and D on key issues that affect the feasibility of power plant have been proceeded taking into account the collaboration in the field of laser driver, fuel pellet, reaction chamber and system design. It is concluded that the technical feasibility of IFE power plant seems to be reasonably high. Coordination and collaboration scheme of reactor technology experts in Japan on Laser Driven IFE Power Plant is being proceeded. (author)
Lester M. Waganer
Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, "Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the "teething" problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated "mature" subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.
Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, 'Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the 'teething' problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated 'mature' subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.
The present invention simplifies power source facilities inside of a nuclear power plant and enables to provide countermeasures for troubles and inspection of one main transformer during plant operation. Namely, power in the plant is supplied to bus in ordinary use from a main power generator by way of a directly-coupled transformer in the plant during plant operation. Simultaneously, the power inside of the plant is supplied to a bus in non-ordinary use by way of a first communication bus. In this case, an onload tap changer of the direct transformer in the plant controls the voltage on the secondary side of the directly-coupled transformer to a lower level. On the other hand, when a load switcher of the power generator is opened under a predetermined condition, and the main power generator is disconnected from the main transformer and the directly-coupled transformer in the plant, power inside of the plant is supplied to the bus in ordinary use from the secondary side of the main transformer. In this case, the onload tap changer of the main transformer controls the voltage of the secondary side of the main transformer to a higher level. (I.S.)
The 88 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the International Federation of Automatic Control Symposium held in Mexico in 1995. The broad areas which they cover are: self tuning control; power plant operations; dynamic stability; fuzzy logic applications; power plants modelling; artificial intelligence applications; power plants simulation; voltage control; control of hydro electric units; state estimation; fault diagnosis and monitoring systems; system expansion and operation planning; security assessment; economic dispatch and optimal load flow; adaptive control; distribution; transient stability and preventive control; modelling and control of nuclear plant; knowledge data bases for automatic learning methods applied to power system dynamic security assessment; control of combined cycle units; power control centres. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers relating to nuclear power plants. (UK)
Staff Editor; Zhu Li
@@ For Chinese power enterprises,investing overseas and actively seeking international cooperation in energy resources for mutual benefit accords with not only the desires of themselves to become bigger and stronger,but also China's energy strategy.Having won the first overseas state-level power-grid operation right,the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) took the lead in carrying out the strategy of "going out."
Daniel J. Falvo
Current approaches to biogeography are based on organismic biology. Certain biogeographical phenomena, however, cannot be fully understood using organismic approaches to biogeography. I employed an approach based on molecular biology and biochemistry that I call genotype by environment biogeography in order to provide a more complete understanding of why the dispersal of rice blast disease is less efficient in fields planted with mixtures of rice varieties. In a case study of an upland ricefi...
Nissen, T.; Midmore, David
Upland farmers have long been cast as key actors of deforestation, but in the wake of timber scarcity brought on by deforestation and logging restrictions, many have adopted a new role--tree planters. Responding to market signals, upland farmers in Mindanao have spontaneously been planting fast-growing timber species on parcels going out of annual crop production. Research was conducted in Bukidnon province to compare the potential returns from trees and annual crops, and determine whether th...
Bullich Massagué, Eduard
The main objective of this master thesis is to design a power plant controller for a photo- voltaic (PV) power plant. In a first stage, the current situation of the status of the electrical grid is analysed. The electrical network structure is moving from a conventional system (with centralized power generation, unidirectional power ows, easy control) to a smart grid system consisting on distributed generation, renewable energies, smart and complex control architecture and ...
Full Text Available The fast increasing installation of technologies to convert renewable energy into power influences the operation of conventional power plants. New requirements on the technology, on the operation and on the economic have to be considered for already running and future power plants. Currently, first experiences with such a production and market situation are available. Technologies are discussed to store power and to reduce CO2 emissions. New compensation models are necessary to enable economic operation of fossil power plants in base load. This article gives a short review about available technologies and future challenges.
The Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine triggered a re-study of the emergency response planning of countries with nuclear power plants as well as those with no plans to put up such plants. As in the Philippines, the proposed early warning system is composed of 1) prompt notification following quidelines established through a bilateral agreement or through an international convention agreed upon by member staes of IAEA, and 2) placement of a continuous radiation monitor in Northern Luzon (Laoag City or Aparri). Early notification network details are given in an illustrated form. The paper also proposes warning classification for the Philippine authorities. (ELC). 3 figs
The basic requirement for profitable generation of power and heat is sufficient and even heat load. The investment required by a plant based on cogeneration is always higher than that of a plant producing only heat, and hence the full time operation of the plant should be ensured since the beginning of the plant operational age. The second requirement for profitable operation of a small-scale power plant is the homogenous heat and power consumption profiles. Because the plants always cause remarkable capital costs and other fixed costs it is important to make an economic survey of the costs before the decision making in the preliminary planning phase. The presentation gives a review of the factors effecting on the economy of small-scale power plant, the distribution of the costs, and the methods used for investigation of the economy are reviewed
The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Developmental trends on nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 1999 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 72 electric companies in 31 nations and regions in the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; location of the plants; the plants in the world; and so forth. And, it also has some survey results on the 'Liberalization of electric power markets and nuclear power generation' such as some 70% of respondents in nuclear power for future option, gas-thermal power seen as power source with most to gain from liberalization, merits on nuclear power generation (environmental considerations and supply stability), most commonly voiced concern about new plant orders in poor economy, and so forth. (G.K.)
Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.
This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1999 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1999; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; grid connection forecasts; world electric power market; electronuclear owners and share holders in EU, capacity and load factor; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; 1999 gross load factor by operator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)
Whitelaw, Robert L.
The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…
Maintenance action of nuclear power plant (NPP) was described. Maintenance of NPP aimed at assurance of required function of NPP's equipment so as to prevent release of radioactive materials into the environment as well as attainment of stable operation of NPP. Philosophy of NPP safety was based on defense-in-depth or multiple barriers requiring specified function for the equipment. Preventive maintenance was essential to NPP's equipment and the scope of maintenance was decided on priority with adequate method and frequency of inspection. Most inspection was conducted during periodic inspection at outage. Repair or improvement works were performed if needed. Periodic inspection period was very long and then capacity factor of NPP was low in Japan compared with foreign data although frequency of unscheduled shutdown was very low. Introduction of reability- centered maintenance was requested based on past experiences of overhaul inspection. Technical evaluation of aged NPP had been conducted on aging phenomena and promotion of advanced maintenance was more needed. (T. Tanaka)
Is Wyhl the beginning of a new citizens' movement against official policies concerning atomic energy or is it the end of citizens' initiatives of latter years. Did democracy pass its test in Wyhl, or was the state's authority undermined. The danger of atomic energy was not the only concern of the citizens of the Rhine valley who demonstrated against the planned nuclear power plant, but also the quality of industrial and energy planning in which the democratic foundations have to be safeguarded. In the meantime, the doubts increase that this source of energy is of a not dangerous nature, and the myth of supposedly cheap atomic energy has been scattered. The dangers in connection with waste transport and storage were made public beyond the boundaries of the places in question, in particular as a result of the demonstrations. The publication documents the course of the demonstration and the site occupation from the beginning of Febuary 1975 onwards. The occupation still continued when the booklet was published despite the decision of the Administrative Court in Freiburg at the end of March (prohibition of commencement of building until the verdict on the principal suit against the overall project has been reached, the final decision to be made by the Higher Administrative Court in Mannheim). The author aims at describing the new quality of citizens' commitments in this booklet. (orig./LN)
Contributors of world-class excellence are brought together in Thermal Power Plant Simulation and Control to illustrate how current areas of research can be applied to power plant operation, leading to enhanced unit performance, asset management andplant competitiveness through intelligent monitoring and control strategies.
The factors related to the licensing procedures of a nuclear power plant (quality assurance and safety analysis) are presented and discussed. The consequences of inadequate attitudes towards these factors are shown and suggestions to assure the safety of nuclear power plants in Brazil are presented. (E.G.)
This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.
In this popular scientific brochure a brief description of construction scheme of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant is presented. Electricity generation in a nuclear power plant is described. Instrumentation and control system as well as nuclear safety principles applied on the NPP are presented
Graphical simulations on computer providing a virtual and reversible experience can now be used for maintenance in nuclear power plants allowing operations to be tested and tools to be optimised. Eventually, operatives will be trained to work in virtual nuclear power plants in complete safety. (authors)
In the third quarter of 1993, all of Finland's four nuclear power plant units were in power operation, with the exception of the annual maintenance outages of the Loviisa units. The load factor average of the plant units was 83.6 %. None of the events which occurred during this annual quarter had any bearing on nuclear or radiation safety. (4 figs., 5 tabs.)
Some figures are presented comparing date on the CO2 emission and oxygen consumption of nuclear, natural gas fired, advanced coal fired and oil fired power plants, for the same amounts of electricity generated. The data were deduced from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. (R.P.)
This book collects papers on nuclear plant risk management. Topics include: basic concepts in risk analysis and decision theory; establishing integrated plant models; core and containment response; and site modeling and consequences
The training of its staff is one of the pillars of the safe and economical operation of a power plant. This is why power plant owners began to systematically train their staff already in the 50s, and why they created central training facilities. Staff members who have undergone this training make an indispensable contribution to the acceptedly high safety and availability of German power plants. The substantial cost of creating training facilities and of schooling plant staff is considered to be an investment for the future. Low labour turnover permits careful observation and development of staff and leads to a high standard of knowledge and experience. (orig./HSCH)
The super-simulator is a conceptual name for future innovative simulators of nuclear power plants which surpass, to a large extent, the capabilities and performances of existing nuclear power plant simulators for operator training, plant analyzers for engineering studies or computer codes for dynamics analysis. Such super-simulators will be realized by employing highly advanced methods of mathematical modeling of the physical chemical and other related processes in the nuclear power plants and innovative methods of numerical computation using rapidly evolving high performance computing systems. (author)
Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.
Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.
Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.
This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants
This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants. (orig.)
Experience shows that German nuclear power plants have always been operated reliably and safely. Over the years, the safety level in these plants has been raised considerably so that they can stand any comparison with other countries. This is confirmed by the two reports published by the Federal Ministry for the Environment on the nuclear safety convention. Behind this, there must obviously stand countless appropriate 'good practices' and a safety management system in nuclear power plants. (orig.)
A multivariable linguistic controller based on fuzzy set theory is discussed and its application to a pressurized water nuclear power plant control is illustrated by computer simulation. The nonlinear power plant simulation model has nine states, two control inputs, one disturbance input, and two outputs. Although relatively simple, the model captures the essential coupled nonlinear plant dynamics and is convenient to use for control system studies. The use of an adaptive version of the controller is also demonstrated by computer simulation
The results achieved within the project of national task 'Program increasing of nuclear power plant safeness' are presented in the document. The project was aimed to extend and deepen activities relating to safety increase of nuclear power units WWER-440 which play significant part in electricity production in the Slovak Republic. The application of advanced foreign calculating programs and calculation of radionuclide spreading in environment and techniques will influence the increase of extent, quality and international acceptance of safety analysis of nuclear power plant blocks WWER-440 and the risk valuation from operating nuclear power plants. Methodic resources for coping in emergency situation in nuclear energetics will be used for support in decision making in real time during radiation emergency on nuclear plant, region and state level. A long-term strategy in dealing with burnt fuel and radioactive substance formatting during nuclear power plant liquidation particularly with waste which is un acceptable in regional dump, has developed into a theoretical and practical preparation of solvable group for operating the converting centre Bohunice and in inactivating the nuclear power plant A-1. The diagnostic activities in nuclear power plants in the Slovak Republic have been elaborated into a project of norm documents in accordance with international norms for diagnostic systems. Presentation of new technologies and materials for repairs and reconstructions of components and nuclear power plant knots qualify increase in their reliability, safety and life. New objective methods and criterions for valuation and monitoring of the residual life and safety of fixed nuclear power plants. Results of problem solving linked with connecting the blocks of nuclear power plants to frequency regulation in electric network in the Slovak Republic are also presented in the document
Nuclear power generation occupying an important position for energy source in Japan and supplying about one third of total electric power usage is now required for further upgrading of its economics under regulation relaxation of electric power business. And, under execution retardation of its new planning plant, it becomes important to operate the already established plants for longer term and to secure their stability. Therefore, technical development in response to the plant life elongation is promoted under cooperation of the Ministry of Economics and Industries, electric power companies, literate, and plant manufacturers. Under such conditions, the Hitachi, Ltd. has progressed some technical developments on check inspection, repairs and maintenance for succession of the already established nuclear power plants for longer term under securing of their safety and reliability. And in future, by proposing the check inspection and maintenance program combined with these technologies, it is planned to exert promotion of maintenance program with minimum total cost from a viewpoint of its plant life. Here were described on technologies exerted in the Hitachi, Ltd. such as construction of plant maintenance program in response to plant life elongation agreeing with actual condition of each plant, yearly change mechanism grasping, life evaluation on instruments and materials necessary for maintenance, adequate check inspection, repairs and exchange, and so forth. (G.K.)
Tatcha Sudtasan; Komsan Suriya
This study evaluates four power plant options in Thailand to suggest whether the country should adopt nuclear power plants. It includes a scenario that nuclear power plants are forced to be shut because of natural disaster like what happened at Fukushima Daiishi nuclear power plant in Japan. The results found that, in terms of net present value both in duration of 30 and 50 years, nuclear power plants is the best choice under certainty of no severe natural disaster that would interrupt the op...
The potable water in the Philippine Nuclear Power Plant is supplied by a network of ten interconnected deepwell turbine pumps. These underground submersible pumps are installed very deep in the ground. The region is hilly and large. Adequate protection of the expensive pumps, a high degree of automation, reliability and flexibility were the overall goals of the control and instrumentation. The advanced instrumentation consisted of: digital control and digital monitoring; a telemetry system for transmission of all signals between the master station and the ten satellite stations; radiofrequency water level measurement in the wells. This paper describes the system in details. It also points out the characteristics of the system which may be considered as unique or uncommon in a Nuclear Power Plant
The VGB Technical Committee 'Nuclear Plant Operation' has been exchanging operating experience about nuclear power plants for more than 30 years. Plant operators from several European countries are participating in the exchange. A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2013, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from Belgium, Germany, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain. (orig.)
Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project
The modelling used for the simulation of the Angra-1 start-up reactor tests, using the RETRAN computer code is presented. Three tests are simulated: a)nuclear power plant trip from 100% of power; b)great power excursions tests and c)'load swing' tests.(E.G.)
This study reports the impact of plasma operating characteristics, engineering options, and technology on the capital cost trends of tokamak power plants. Tokamak power systems are compared to other advanced energy systems and found to be economically competitive. A three-phase strategy for demonstrating commercial feasibility of fusion power, based on a common-site multiple-unit concept, is presented
Nuclear power generation in Japan reached 24.7% of its electric power supply with its capacity and time availability factors of 76.2% and 77.1%, respectively (in the calendar year 1986 - as of December 31, 1986). One of the reasons for such high performance is attributable to high quality of operating and maintenance personnel in the nuclear power plants. Ministry of International Trade and Industry of the Japanese Government has an overall responsibility with relation to the safety regulations and supervises all scope of training, while the Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering Society is authorized to conduct licensing activities to qualify the chief shift supervisor of nuclear power plant operation and individual utility companies are required to train their plant operating and maintenance personnel. General status of training for plant personnel is briefly described in this paper, touching the practical education and training systems of utility companies and operation and maintenance training facilities
Raiko, M. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Hulkkonen, S. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)
Combined heat and power production (CHP) from biomass is a commercially viable alternative when district heat or process steam is needed in small towns or in a process industry. The high nominal investment cost of a small power plant that uses local biomass fuels is compensated by the revenues from the heat. The price of the district heat or the steam generated in the CHP-plant can be valued at the same price level as the heat from a mere steam boiler. Also, the price of heat produced by a small-generation-capacity plant is local and higher, whereas electricity has a more general market price. A typical small Finnish CHP-plant consists of a bubbling fluidized bed boiler and a simplified steam turbine cycle generating 4 to 10 MW of electricity and 10 to 30 MW of district heat or process steam. There are about 10 power plants of this type in commercial operation in Finland. As a whole, biomass, which is used in more than 200 plants, provides about 20% of the primary energy consumption in Finland. Roughly half of these produce only heat but the rest are combined heat and power plants. The majority of the plants is in pulp and paper industry applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) is the biggest energy producer in Finland. IVO builds, owns and operates several biomass-fired power plants and carries out active R and D work to further develop the biomass-fueled small power plant. This paper discusses the experiences of the biomass-fueled power plants. (author)
The design of a 1GW(e) steady state fusion power plant, based on the spherical tokamak concept, has been further iterated towards a fully self-consistent solution taking account of plasma physics, engineering and neutronics constraints. In particular a plausible solution to exhaust handling is proposed and the steam cycle refined to further improve efficiency. The physics design takes full account of confinement, MHD stability and steady state current drive. It is proposed that such a design may offer a fusion power plant which is easy to maintain: an attractive feature for the power plants following ITER. (author)
The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost all the time in the first quarter of 1992. The load factor average was 99.8%. All events which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the Scale. Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site remained well below authorised limits. Only quantities of radioactive material insignificant to radiation exposure, originating from the nuclear power plants, were detected in samples collected in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants
Butterfly valves are increasingly used in nuclear power plants. They are used in CANDU reactors for class 2 and 3 service, to provide emergency and tight shutoff valves for all inlets and outlets of heat exchangers and all calandria penetrations. Guidelines for meeting nuclear power plant valve specifications are set out in ASME Section 3, Nuclear Power Plant Components. Some details of materials of construction, type of actuator, etc., for various classes of nuclear service are tabulated in the present article. The 'fishtail' butterfly valve is an improved design with reduced drag, as is illustrated and explained. (N.D.H.)
The report covers the situation of the nuclear power plant industry in 18 European countries, seven belonging to the COMECON. There are at present 229 nuclear power plant units in operation, producing 168 087 MWe. Sixty-six units are under construction and will add a capacity of 62 355 MWe, and further planned 33 units are designed to supply 32 872 MWe. This results in a total of 328 nuclear power plant units with a capacity of 263 318 MWe. The number of units in operation in West European countries including Yugoslavia was 153 in April 1989, totalling a capacity of 122 809 MWe. (orig./UA)
Sletten, Siri Skyberg
The aim of this master thesis was to conduct a stability analysis of Herand power plant. Herand is a hydropower plant under planning by Herand Kraft, and it is planned to have a generator of 27MVA. The size of the power plant puts it under the requirements in Norway stating that all generators above 10MVA must have frequency regulation and be able to operate in an isolated grid. This paper presents a conducted analysis of Herand that examines whether the plant will be able to meet these requi...
Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants
The book on power plant technology 2014 (strategies, systems engineering and operation) covers the following issues: Climate, politics and economy; wind power; fossil-fuel power plants, flexible power plants - plant operation, flexible power plants- materials, materials for energy technology, fuel feed and incineration, modeling of the water-vapor-circuit, corrosion, deposits and cleaning, vapor turbines, GUD power plants, fluidized bed combustion, energetic biomass use, combined heat and power generation and decentralized units, storage facilities, emissions - mitigation and measuring techniques.
This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Third Annual Technical Progress report summarizes the period from September 1991 to October 1992. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. His philosophy, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree of automation where a greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. To achieve this goal, a hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions was pursued in this research. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 stem plant. Emphasized in this Third Annual Technical Progress Report is the continuing development of the in-plant intelligent control demonstration for the final project milestone and includes: simulation validation and the initial approach to experiment formulation