Sample records for basin mineral resources

  1. Sandstone copper assessment of the Teniz Basin, Kazakhstan: Chapter R in Global mineral resource assessment

    Cossette, Pamela M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Wallis, John C.; Zientek, Michael L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts national and global resource assessments (mineral, energy, water, and biological) to provide data and scientific analyses to support decision making. Three-part mineral resource assessments result in informed, unbiased, quantitative, and probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral resources and deposits. In particular, mineral assessment results inform decisions concerning land-use and mineral-resource development. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of the sandstone subtype of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits in the Teniz Basin, Kazakhstan, was undertaken by the USGS.

  2. Hydrocarbons and Mineral Resources of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    United States Department of the Interior, Indian Affairs Bureau


    The Uinta Basin holds special fascination for economic geologists because of its rich and diverse assemblage of mineral and hydrocarbon resources. Due to their presence in rocks of the basin, much effort has been put into assessing and exploiting uranium, phosphate, gold, copper, coal, and evaporite minerals. However, the basin is probably best noted for its extensive and very rich accumulations of hydrocarbons such as, oil, gas, bituminous sandstones, oil shale (shale oil), and gilsonite a...

  3. Mineral resources

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.


    The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be conserved

  4. Mineral Resources

    Ababsa, Myriam


    Jordan’s natural resources are very limited: water is scarce, there is little arable land and the country has few sources of energy (fig. I.11). Jordan’s mineral industry has a long history: flint was used in prehistoric times and early copper mining started in Wadi Faynan during the Chalcolithic Period. The following is a brief presentation of Jordan’s resources. Mining and investments will be studied in Part 3. Figure I.11 — Jordan Mineral Resources. NRA 2012 Phosphates The Jordanian Natur...

  5. Mineral resource areas of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource areas are defined as those areas with a high likelihood of containing occurrences of valuable mineral deposits. A variety of sources of minerals...

  6. Sandstone copper assessment of the Chu-Sarysu Basin, Central Kazakhstan: Chapter E in Global mineral resource assessment

    Box, Stephen E.; Syusyura, Boris; Hayes, Timothy S.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Seltmann, Reimar; Chechetkin, Vladimir; Dolgopolova, Alla; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.


    Mineral resource assessments represent a synthesis of available information to estimate the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources in the upper part of the Earth’s crust. This report presents a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within the late Paleozoic Chu-Sarysu Basin in central Kazakhstan by the U.S. Geological Survey as a contribution to a global assessment of mineral resources. The purposes of this study are to: (1) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects in this area, (2) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within 2 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment uses the three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993; Singer and Menzie, 2010).

  7. Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin: Chapter I in Global mineral resource assessment

    Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.


    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. The U.S. Geological Survey prepared a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Central America and the Caribbean Basin in collaboration with geoscientists from academia and the minerals industry. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within the permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits. The assessment was done using a three-part mineral resource assessment based on established mineral deposit models. Permissive tracts were delineated based primarily on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with convergent plate margins. Five permissive tracts were delineated: the Early Cretaceous through Eocene Santiago tract, the Late Cretaceous through Oligocene Chortis tract, the Paleocene through Oligocene Darién tract, the Miocene and Pliocene Cocos tract, and the Eocene to Holocene Lesser Antilles tract. These tracts range in size from about 3,000 to about 204,000 square kilometers.

  8. Mineral resources

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  9. Trade in mineral resources

    Davis, Graham A.


    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  10. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.


    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  11. Mineral Resources Data System

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  12. Marine mineral resources of the Central Indian Basin: Ferromanganese nodules and crusts

    Rao, P.S.; Nair, R.R.

    The morphology, mineralogy and composition of ferromanganese nodules and crusts from the Central Indian Basin and southwestern flank of the Charlsberg Ridge have been characterized from the analyses of data and samples collected at more than 2000...

  13. Discussion on Nontraditional Mineral Resources


    In this paper, the authors introduce the concept of nontraditional mineral resources, and pro pose the major system of nontraditional mineral resources, including nontraditional resources, research methods, mining and mineral economics. Then the authors conclude that the research on nontraditional mineral resources is not only significant to satisfication the human needs in the 21st century, but also important to the development of the present geological theory.

  14. The Role of Heat in the Development of Energy and Mineral Resources in the Northern Basin and Range Province

    Armstrong, Richard L.

    It is now just over a decade since OPEC escalated the price of oil and triggered a flurry of alternate energy research and changing energy consumption practices. One scientific impact of that historical economic turning point was the launching of geothermal exploration programs of unprecedented intensity that focused on Cenozoic volcanic rocks and active, as well as fossil, geothermal systems. The good science that was already being done on such rocks and systems was both accelerated and diluted by government-funded research and energy industry exploration efforts. After the initial flood of detailed reports, gray literature, and documents interred in company files, we are observing the appearance of syntheses of just what happened and what progress was achieved during the geothermal boom (which has now wilted to the quiet development of a few most promising sites). Recent examples of geothermal synthesis literature include the book Geothermal Systems by L. Rybach and L.J. Muffler (John Wiley, New York, 1981), publications like Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Paper 15 by G.R. Priest et al. (1983) entitled “Geology and geothermal resources of central Oregon Cascade range,” and informative maps like the U.S. Geological Survey series summarizing late Cenozoic volcanic rock distribution and age (R.G. Luedke and R.L. Smith, maps 1-1091 A to D, 1979 to 1982), and state and regional geothermal resources maps (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, 1977-1982). The book under review here is part of this second literature wave, a useful primary reference, collection of syntheses, and literature guide but certainly not unique.

  15. Clay minerals and sedimentary basin history

    Merriman, Richard J.


    Clay minerals in the mud and soil that coat the Earth's surface are part of a clay cycle that breaks down and creates rock in the crust. Clays generated by surface weathering and shallow diagenetic processes are transformed into mature clay mineral assemblages in the mudrocks found in sedimentary basins. During metamorphism, the release of alkali elements and boron from clay minerals generates magmas that are subsequently weathered and recycled, representing the magma-to-mud pathway of the cl...

  16. Research of the discharge's uranium mineralization hydrogeochemistry of Baiyinhubuer basin

    By means of the research of the discharge's hydrogeology conditions and chemical characteristics of groundwater in Dongwuqi Baiyinhubuer basin, analyzes space attribute and the character of supply, leach and discharge in this basin, the discharge in this region is the local discharge, testifies the zone of chemical character of groundwater. By the correlativity of isotope, the precipitation is the only resource of groundwater because altitude of sampling is less to supply altitude. According to the attribute of discharge in Baiyinhubuer basin, and the relationship to uranium mineralization, marks off the perspective of uranium mineralizations, the discharge controlling the uranium mineralization in space is testified. Advanced research method is discussed in the region where has several discharges

  17. Assessment of undiscovered copper resources associated with the Permian Kupferschiefer, Southern Permian Basin, Europe: Chapter U in Global mineral resource assessment

    Zientek, Michael L.; Oszczepalski, Sławomir; Parks, Heather L.; Bliss, James D.; Borg, Gregor; Box, Stephen E.; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Spieth, Volker; Taylor, Cliff D.


    This study synthesizes available information and estimates the location and quantity of undiscovered copper associated with a late Permian bituminous shale, the Kupferschiefer, of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe. The purpose of this study is to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered reduced-facies sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits could occur within 2.5 kilometers of the surface, (2) provide a database of known reduced-facies-type sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and significant prospects, and (3) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of undiscovered copper that could be present within each tract. This assessment is a contribution to a global assessment conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  18. Mineral resources of the Tertiary deposits of Spain

    García del Cura, M. Ángeles; Cristino J. Dabrio; Ordóñez Delgado, Salvador


    Spain is the most self-sufficient country for minerals in the EsU. A major proportion of these Spanish mineral resources has been oblained from Tertiary material-. The main material exploited in Tertiary basins have been: brown coal and lignites, potassium salts, sodium salts (sulphates and chlorides), diátomite, sepiolite and other absorbent days, bentonites, celestine. pumíce and also dimension (building) stones and ceramícs, portland cement and plaster raw materials. Pb-...

  19. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    Siddiquie, H. N.; Gujar, A. R.; Hashimi, N. H.; Valsangkar, A. B.

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits The humid tropical climate of some of the land areas bordering the Indian Ocean accelerates weathering of the source rocks. This coupled with the large river runoff and wave and current conditions favour the formation of a variety of placer deposits. The beach and offshore placer deposits of the Indian Ocean may be some of the largest in the world. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow banks and on the continental shelves and the oozes in the deep sea. A study of these deposits is needed to acquire a better understanding of their formation, turnover, regeneration rates and sustainable yields. The anthigenic deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the phosphorites and the polymetallic nodules. Occurrences of phosphorite deposits have been found both along continental margins (South Africa and Western India) and around seamounts (Eastern and Western Indian Ocean). The continental margins of South Africa, East Africa, Southern Arabia, Western India and the Andamans are marked by strong upwelling and provide non-depositional environments which are conducive to the formation of phosphorite. The polymetallic nodules in the Indian Ocean cover an area of 10-15. 10 6 km 2 and the resources are estimated to be about 1.5 .10 11 tonnes. A study of over 900 chemical analyses from 350 stations shows that the deposits in most of the basins are submarginal; in the Central Indian Ocean they are paramarginal (Ni + Cu + Co > 2.4% and concentrations > 5 kg.m -2). Most of the exploration for minerals even on the continental margins of the Indian Ocean has been carried out by the developed countries from outside the region and little work has been carried out by the countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The development of capabilities within the region for exploration of the mineral

  20. Aggregation of estimated numbers of undiscovered deposits: an R-script with an example from the Chu Sarysu Basin, Kazakhtan: Chapter B in Global mineral resource assessment

    Schuenemeyer, John H.; Zientek, Michael L.; Box, Stephen E.


    Mineral resource assessments completed by the U.S. Geological Survey during the past three decades express geologically based estimates of numbers of undiscovered mineral deposits as probability distributions. Numbers of undiscovered deposits of a given type are estimated in geologically defined regions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, these undiscovered deposit estimates are combined with tonnage and grade models to derive a probability distribution describing amounts of commodities and rock that could be present in undiscovered deposits within a study area. In some situations, it is desirable to aggregate the assessment results from several study areas. This report provides a script developed in open-source statistical software, R, that aggregates undiscovered deposit estimates of a given type, assuming independence, total dependence, or some degree of correlation among aggregated areas, given a user-specified correlation matrix.

  1. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    resources on the continental margins as in deep sea is currently uneconomical. With further depletion of onshore resources and advancement in technology, the mining of these resources may also become a reality in the near future....

  2. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper assessment of the Neoproterozoic Roan Group, central African copperbelt, Katanga Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter T in Global mineral resource assessment

    Zientek, Michael L.; Bliss, James D.; Broughton, David W.; Christie, Michael; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Horton, John D.; Frost-Killian, Susan; Jack, Douglas J.; Master, Sharad; Parks, Heather L.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Woodhead, Jon


    This study estimates the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered copper in stratabound deposits within the Neoproterozoic Roan Group of the Katanga Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. The study area encompasses the Central African Copperbelt, the greatest sediment-hosted copper-cobalt province in the world, containing 152 million metric tons of copper in greater than 80 deposits. This study (1) delineates permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits may occur within 2 kilometers of the surface, (2) provides a database of known sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and prospects, (3) estimates numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provides probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment, conducted in January 2010 using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment, indicates that a substantial amount of undiscovered copper resources might occur in sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits within the Roan Group in the Katanga Basin. Monte Carlo simulation results that combine grade and tonnage models with estimates of undiscovered deposits indicate that the mean estimate of undiscovered copper in the study area is 168 million metric tons, which is slightly greater than the known resources at 152 million metric tons. Furthermore, significant value can be expected from associated metals, particularly cobalt. Tracts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have potential to contain near-surface, undiscovered deposits. Monte Carlo simulation results indicate a mean value of 37 million metric tons of undiscovered copper may be present in significant prospects.

  3. Mineral Resource Data System: Conterminous US

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MRDS describes metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources throughout the world. Included are deposit name, location, commodity, deposit description, geologic...

  4. Mineral resources in Afghanistan. Final report

    Despite Afghanistan's wide variety of mineral resources and long history of small-scale mining of gems, gold, copper, and coal, it was not until the 1950's that the country's mineral resources were subject to systematic exploration. The report documents the past and present status of these resources and examines alternative strategies for their exploitation. Chapter 2 provides a brief history of minerals exploration, exploitation, and planning in Afghanistan, including the roles of Great Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet bloc, and the United States in Afghanistan's mineral sector; mineral policy in the five national plans during the years 1962-83; and sector assessments conducted by the World Bank (1978) and the US Department of Energy (1989). Chapter 3 discusses three strategies for developing the country's mineral and hydrocarbon resources. (1) a national orientation focusing on domestic needs; (2) a regional strategy that would consider markets in countries close to Afghanistan; and (3) an international strategy that would place Afghan resources on the international market

  5. In Brief: Assessing Afghanistan's mineral resources

    Showstack, Randy


    Afghanistan has significant amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources, with copper and iron ore having the most potential for extraction, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment. The assessment, done cooperatively with the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, also found indications of significant deposits of colored stones and gemstones (including emeralds, rubies, and sapphires), gold, mercury, sulfur, chromite, and other resources. ``Mineral resource assessments provide government decision-makers and potential private investors with objective, unbiased information on where undiscovered mineral resources may be located, what kinds of resources are likely to occur, and how much of each mineral commodity may exist in them,'' said USGS director Mark Myers. The USGS, in cooperation with the Afghan government, released an oil and gas resources assessment in March 2006 and an earthquake hazards assessment in May 2007. For more information, visit the Web sites: and

  6. Surface mining of mineral resources

    Braeunig, H.D.


    This article outlines general advantages of surface mining technology and aspects of selecting the most suitable mining technology in surface mine projection. Heavy surface mining equipment of the TAKRAF engineering plants is recommended for efficient excavation and overburden removal up to 230,000 m/sup 3/d capacity with the largest excavator type and 440,000 m/sup 3/d capacity with the largest overburden conveyor bridge. Two major variants of surface mine technology are outlined: design of surface mines with continuous working equipment (bucket wheel or bucket chain excavators requiring up to 200 N/cm digging force for minerals and overburden and haulage by belt conveyors) or discontinuously working equipment (dragline excavators, truck transportation, etc.). The second major variant concerns overburden removal to the spoil bank, either by haulage in a semicircle around the pit or by a shortcut across the pit from the excavation to the spoil bank side (direct spoil removal method). TAKRAF equipment for surface mining operations is described with various specifications and details on its performance. (In German)

  7. A Review of Mineral Resources and GIS Applications in Mineral Resource Assessment in Northeast China

    Zhou Yunxuan; Wang Lei; Liu Wansong; Xu Huiping; Sun Fengyue


    Northeast China is one of the regions in China that possesses a great abundance of mineral resources.Coal, petroleum, natural gas, gold, iron, magnesite, graphite, talc, molding sand, glass sand and some others account for large portion in reserves and yields of that in the whole country. The region faced also shortages of copper, molybdenum, oil shale, zirconium, tantalum, rare earth, and beryllium, although they have large reserves,but limited by economical and technical factors. Geological mapping and mineral exploration activities have been intensive. Only the north part of Daxinanling Mountains in the region leaves unexplored. GIS applications in mineral resource assessment in the region start not long. Databases for GIS applications are on the way of construction.Well - trained technical staff and expertise do not meet the demand.This article reviews the situation of mineral resources and GIS applications for mineral resource assessment in the region. Suggestions on multi - lateral cooperation and GIS training are also made.

  8. Xinjiang Integrates Mineral Resources of 11 Major Mining Areas


    <正>According to reports,from this year,Xinjiang, a large mineral resource province,will implement mineral resource integration of 11 major mining areas involving minerals including coal, iron,copper and bentonite,so as to further adjust the structure of mineral exploitation and optimize the distribution of resources.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: aluminum

    Bray, E. Lee


    The article offers information on aluminum, a mineral resource which is described as the third-most abundant element in Earth's crust. According to the article, aluminum is the second-most used metal. Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish chemist, was the first to isolate aluminum in the laboratory. Aluminum is described as lightweight, corrosion-resistant and an excellent conductor of electricity and heat.

  10. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas


    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  11. Mineral resources estimation based on block modeling

    Bargawa, Waterman Sulistyana; Amri, Nur Ali


    The estimation in this paper uses three kinds of block models of nearest neighbor polygon, inverse distance squared and ordinary kriging. The techniques are weighting scheme which is based on the principle that block content is a linear combination of the grade data or the sample around the block being estimated. The case study in Pongkor area, here is gold-silver resource modeling that allegedly shaped of quartz vein as a hydrothermal process of epithermal type. Resources modeling includes of data entry, statistical and variography analysis of topography and geological model, the block model construction, estimation parameter, presentation model and tabulation of mineral resources. Skewed distribution, here isolated by robust semivariogram. The mineral resources classification generated in this model based on an analysis of the kriging standard deviation and number of samples which are used in the estimation of each block. Research results are used to evaluate the performance of OK and IDS estimator. Based on the visual and statistical analysis, concluded that the model of OK gives the estimation closer to the data used for modeling.

  12. Basin Fluid Mineralization during Multistage Evolution of the Lanping Sedimentary Basin, Southwestern China


    The Lanping sedimentary basin has experienced a five-stage evolution since the late Paleozoic: ocean-continent transformation (late Paleozoic to early mid-Triassic); intracontinental rift basin (late mid-Triassic to early Jurassic); down-warped basin (middle to late Jurassic); foreland basin (Cretaceous); and strike-slip basin (Cenozoic). Three major genetic types of Ag-Cu polymetailic ore deposits, including the reworked hydrothermal sedimentary, sedimentary-hydrothermally reworked and hydrothermal vein types, are considered to be the products of basin fluid activity at specific sedimentary-tectonic evolutionary stages. Tectonic differences of the different evolutionary stages resulted in considerable discrepancy in the mechanisms of formation-transportation, migration direction and emplacement processes of the basin fluids, thus causing differences in mineralization styles as well as in genetic types of ore deposit.

  13. Multivariate statistical analysis of stream sediments for mineral resources from the Craig NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    Beyth, M.; McInteer, C.; Broxton, D.E.; Bolivar, S.L.; Luke, M.E.


    Multivariate statistical analyses were carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Craig quadrangle, Colorado, to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic or other important commercial mineral resources. A few areas for favorable uranium mineralization are suggested for parts of the Wyoming Basin, Park Range, and Gore Range. Six potential source rocks for uranium are postulated based on factor score mapping. Vanadium in stream sediments is suggested as a pathfinder for carnotite-type mineralization. A probable northwest trend of lead-zinc-copper mineralization associated with Tertiary intrusions is suggested. A few locations are mapped where copper is associated with cobalt. Concentrations of placer sands containing rare earth elements, probably of commercial value, are indicated for parts of the Sand Wash Basin.

  14. Multivariate statistical analysis of stream sediments for mineral resources from the Craig NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    Multivariate statistical analyses were carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Craig quadrangle, Colorado, to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic or other important commercial mineral resources. A few areas for favorable uranium mineralization are suggested for parts of the Wyoming Basin, Park Range, and Gore Range. Six potential source rocks for uranium are postulated based on factor score mapping. Vanadium in stream sediments is suggested as a pathfinder for carnotite-type mineralization. A probable northwest trend of lead-zinc-copper mineralization associated with Tertiary intrusions is suggested. A few locations are mapped where copper is associated with cobalt. Concentrations of placer sands containing rare earth elements, probably of commercial value, are indicated for parts of the Sand Wash Basin

  15. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  16. Classification of Mineral Resources Associated and Accompanied with Coal Measures


    The paper discusses the concept of mineral resources associated with coal measures. A rational and scientific classification of such mineral resources becomes more necessary with the development of science and technology. A classification scheme is proposed based on compositions and physical properties and the utilization of these associated minerals.


    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk


    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  18. Current Picture for China’s Mineral Resource Availability



    Economic growth and structural change has caused China to consume an increasingly immense amount of mineral resources. This article is intended to present a fundamental picture of mineral resource shortages facing China through an in-depth analysis of mineral reserves, demand and supply as well as structure. We believe that China will continue to face a shortage of certain representative minerals resources in the foreseeable future. As a result, China has to rely on imports of such minerals to meet surging domestic demand.

  19. Geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral occurrences, and mineral resource assessment for the commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic map with faults, along with additional scientific information needed for mineral resource assessment (geochemical analyses, mineral occurrences, geologic...

  20. Preliminary discussion on relationship between deep-basin gas and uranium mineralization in Ordos basin

    Deep-basin gas is a kind of non-traditional natural gas deposit. The deep-basin gas in Ordos basin is closely associated with uranium mineralization. Upper Paleozoic in the basement of the basin represents both gas-sourced and uranium-sourced beds and uranium in Paleozoic strata is easily leachable. The squeezed water (i.e. deep-bed water) formed during the diagenetic process of uranium-sourced bed was rapidly heated and pressed making the uranium solubility in it greatly increased. It was just the peak-period of gas generation in the basin, and gas pressure greatly exceeded water pressure. So, the gas made deep-bed water moved and diffused upwards along faults. Because of the complicated gas-water geochemical barrier formed by the involvement of surface water, the precipitation of uranium occurred in overlying aquifers to form uranium deposit. This paper has summarized prospecting criteria of such uranium deposit as well

  1. Temporo-spatial Coordinates of Evolution of the Ordos Basin and Its Mineralization Responses

    LIU Chiyang; ZHAO Hongge; ZHAO Junfeng; WANG Jianqiang; ZHANG Dongdong; YANG Minghui


    The Ordos basin was developed from Mid-Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous, and then entered into its later reformation period since the Late Cretaceous. Its main body bears the features of an intra-cratonic basin. The basin also belongs to a multi-superposed basin which has overlapped on the large-scale basins of the Early and Late Paleozoic. Currently, Ordos basin has become a residual basin experienced reformation of various styles since the Late Cretaceous. It's suggested that there were at least four obvious stages of tectonic deformations existing during the basin's evolution, dividing the evolution and sedimentation into four stages. The prior two stages were of the most prosperous, during which the lake basin was broad, the deposition range was more than twice larger than the current residual basin, resulting in major oil- and coal-bearing strata. The two stages were separated by regional uplift fluctuations in the area. At the end of the Yan'an Stage, the depositional interruption and erosion were lasting for a short period of time. The third one is the Mid- Jurassic Zhiluo-Anding stage, in which the sedimentation extent was still broad but the lake area was obviously reduced. In the Late Jurassic tectonic deformation was intensive. A thrust-nappe belt was formed on the basin's western margin while conglomerate of different thickness were accumulated within the foredeep of the eastern side. The central and eastern parts of the basin were subject to erosion and reformation. A regional framework with "uplift in the east and depression in the west" took shape in the area west of the Yellow River. In the Early Cretaceous sediments were widely distributed, unconformably overlapping the former western margin thrust belt and the ridges on the northern and southern borders. There are abundant energy resources such as oil, natural gas, coal and uranium deposits formed in Ordos Basin. The main stages of generation, mineralization and positioning of the multiple energy

  2. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.


    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  3. Mineral resources: Geological scarcity, market price trends, and future generations

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; van Ierland, E.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.


    Abstract The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be con

  4. Mineral resources and constraints on China’s economic growth

    李钢; 陈志; 崔云


    This article conducts an empirical study of how access to mineral resources can constrain China’s economic growth.The authors reckon that due to the relatively low price elasticity of supply and demand in relation to mineral resources over the short run,access to mineral resources places pronounced constraints on economic growth in the short run,but only marginal constraints on economic growth in the long run.This split is the result of alternate resource substitution and technological progress.In this article,the authors have calculated the actual effects of access to mineral resources on China’s economic growth using 2001-2006 mineral resource import and export data.The results of these calculations show that,in the short run,access to mineral resources is increasingly placing constraints on China’s economic growth.The value of these constraints rose from 4.96% of GDP in 2006 to 5.74% of GDP in 2007 (estimated).Contrastingly,in the long run,the constraints that access to mineral resources place on China’s economic growth are quite limited at approximately 0.23% of GDP.

  5. Principles of Probabilistic Regional Mineral Resource Estimation

    Frits Agterberg


    Five principal sources of uncertainty in quantitative mineral resource estimation are listed and illustrated by means of a simple example (mosaic model) and a case history study for large copper deposits in the Abitibi area of the Canadian Shield.Abitibi copper potential originally was estimated on the basis of 1968 estimates of production and reserves totalling 3. 12 Mt Cu.This prognostication now could be evaluated on the basis of 2008 copper production and reserves totalling 9. 50 Mt Cu. An earlier hindsight study performed on the basis of 1977 data (totalling 5. 23 Mt Cu) showed seven new discoveries occurring either in the immediate vicinities of known deposits or on broad regional copper anomalies predicted from the 1968 inputs. By 1977,the global geographic distribution pattern of large copper deposits in the Abitibi area had stabilized. During the next 30 years,new copper was essentially found close to existing deposits, much of it deeper down in the Earth's crust. In this paper, uncertainties associated with copper ore tonnage are analyzed by comparison of 2008 data with 1968 data using (a) log-log plots of size versus rank, and (b) lognormal QQ-plots. Straight lines fitted by least squares on these plots show that 1968 slopes provide good estimates of 2008 slopes but 1968 intercepts are much less than 2008 intercepts. In each linear log-weight versus logrank plot, the slope is related to fractal dimension of a Pareto frequency distribution, and in a lognormal QQ-plot it is determined by logarithmic variance The difference between 2008 and 1968 intercepts represents the increase in copper ore production and reserves from 1968 to 2008. The Pareto model fits actual copper and massive sulphides increase over the past 40 years better than the lognormal frequency distribution model for 10 km× 10 km cells on favorable environments in the Abitibi area.

  6. Simulation of mine drainage for preliminary development of oil shale and associated minerals, Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado

    Taylor, O. James


    The Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contains large resources of oil shale, nahcolite, and dawsonite. Development of these minerals will require drainage of water from mines. A six-layer hydrologic model of the basin was prepared to simulate mine drainage for mineral development. Streams and major tributaries were simulated as head-dependent nodes. Stream nodes were gaining or losing, but the rate of loss was constrained by the leakance of the streambed and the stream stage. Springs also were simulated as head-dependent nodes that stop flowing if the aquifer head declines below the spring orifice. (USGS)

  7. Mineral resources and geo-engineering

    Fathi Habashi


    Metals used in everyday life are produced from ores occurring in the Earth’s crust. Geological processes are known to concentrate minerals to form ores of economic value. Mineral processing engineers concentrate these ores by mechanical and physico-chemical methods while the extractive metallurgist extracts the metals by chemical means.

  8. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Virta, Robert L.


    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  9. Water resource management model for a river basin

    Jelisejevienė, Emilija


    The objective is to develop river basin management model that ensures integrated analysis of existing water resource problems and promotes implementation of sustainable development principles in water resources management.

  10. Mineral Features of Surface Sediments and Analysis of Solid-State Mineral Resources in Southeastern China Sea


    With the development of modern industry and the increase of human demand, it is increasingly important to prospect and exploit marine mineral resources. Based on the oceanic geological investigation references obtained from the regional geological surveying and mapping of China Sea (“Shantoufu, F-50” 1: 1 000 000) and on the data (“Marine Engineering Geological Investigation Project in the Pearl River Mouth basin in the South China Sea” 1: 200 000), the authors elaborate the grain size composition, mineral composition, mineral features and distribution pattern of the surface sediments in the sea at 114°- 120°E and 20°-24°N. Moreover, the analysis of the regional solid-state mineral resources in the coast of iFujian, Guangdong and the west of Taiwan, shows that the main resources include littoral/neritic placers, littoral/neritic sandy gravel and ferromanganese nodule (crust). In addition, the future focus should be on the placers and sandy gravels in this littoral area.

  11. Numerical models of carbonate hosted gold mineralization, Great Basin Nevada

    Person, M.; Hofstra, A.; Gao, Y.; Sweetkind, D.; Banerjee, A.


    The Great Basin, Nevada contains many modern hydrothermal system and world class gold deposits hosted within Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Temperature profiles, fluid inclusion studies, and isotopic evidence suggest that modern geothermal and fossil hydrothermal systems associated with gold mineralization share many common features including the absence of a clear magmatic source, flow restricted to fault zones, and remarkably high temperatures at shallow depth. While the plumbing of these systems is not well understood, geochemical and isotopic data suggest that fluid circulation along fault zones is relatively deep (greater than 5 km) and comprised of relatively unexchanged Pleistocene meteoric water with small (less than 2.5 per mill) shifts from the MWL. Many fossil ore-forming systems were also dominated by meteoric water, but are usually exhibit shifts of 5 to 15 per mill from the MWL. Here we present two-dimensional numerical models to reconstruct the plumbing of modern geothermal and Tertiary hydrothermal systems in the Great Basin. Multiple tracers are used in our models, including O- and C-isotopic compositions of fluids/rocks, silica transport/ precipitation, and temperature anomalies, to constrain the plumbing of these systems. Our results suggest that both fossil hydrothermal and modern geothermal systems were probably driven by natural convection cells associated with localized high basal heating. We conclude that the fault controlled flow systems responsible for the genesis of Carlin gold mineralization and modern geothermal systems had to be transient in nature. Permeability changes within the carbonate reservoir was probably associated with extensional tectonic events.

  12. Classification system of the mineral reserves and resources of Ukraine

    This paper describes the system used to classify the resources and reserves of all minerals and fuels in Ukraine. The classification system is part of an official procedure determined by the Ukrainian State Commission on Reserves. Following preparation of resource estimates the results are registered with the State, which maintains an official inventory of all mineral resources. This paper compares the Ukrainian system to, and finds it compatible with the United Nations International Framework of resource classification. The UN system is based on economics of production and mineability. (author)

  13. Mineral resources: Geological scarcity, market price trends, and future generations

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; van Ierland, E. C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.


    Abstract The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be conserved in time for future generations without intervening but instead simply relying on the price mechanism of the free market system. First we discuss the role of geological scarcity in the long-t...

  14. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    Kramer, Deborah A.


    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  15. Mineral resource of the month: niobium (columbium)

    Papp, John F.


    It’s not just diamonds associated with conflict in Africa. Coltan, short for columbite-tantalite (a blend of niobium — also called columbium — and tantalum minerals), is linked with the recent conflicts in the Congo that involved several African countries. The metallic ore, which is processed to separate out niobium and the very valuable tantalum (see Geotimes, August 2004), is believed to be smuggled out and sold to help finance the armed conflicts.

  16. Mineral Resources and Their Comprehensive Utilization in China Sea


    @@It was said that mineral resources in oceans might be a reliable source for the material production. Ocean water is regarded as a huge “liquid deposit” for its ability to dissolve many kinds of elements. The total amount of elements in ocean water is greater than that in land. At the seafloor or below, occur a large number of mineral resources besides those in the water.China Sea, situated in the junction between North China block, Yangtze block and the Pacific plate and the Philippines plate, is excellent in ore-forming geological conditions, resulting in the presence of many kinds of deposits and abundant reserves. Mineral resources found in China Sea mainly include oil-gas resources, sea-beach placer and submarine coalfield.In addition, the manganese nodule and cobalt-rich crust are also discovered in South China Sea. Furthermore, the hydrothermal metalliferous deposit and gas hydrate may also be present in South China Sea.

  17. The application of GIS in identifying mineral resources in Libya

    Rekhibi, Soliman; Wadi, Monira; Said, Ali


    In any country, natural mineral resources are considered the back-bone for the development of the industry and the country's economical growth. Exploration and mining for mineral ores and manufacturing and marketing these ores will add value to the country's national income. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has an advantage over other information systems because it combines the conventional query operations with the ability to display and analyze spatial data from maps, satellite imagery, and aerial photography. Knowing the importance of mineral ores as a pilar of the economy this paper concentrates on mineral resources in Libya. Geographic information systems (GIS) was used for identifying mineral resources in Libya. Geodatabases were designed and all available information were stored in these geodatabases. The information was collected from scientific researchers, and geological and mining studies. The database also, included the Libyan international boundaries, the administrative boundaries and the oil and gas fields and pipelines, and such maps as geophysical and geological maps. Thus a comprehensive database was created containing all the information available concerning mineral resources in Libya.

  18. Conditions and potential evaluation of the uranium mineralization in volcanic basins at the west section of the Yanliao mineral belt

    The West section of the Yanliao Mineral Belt is an important prospective uranium mineralization area in volcanic basins at North China. It has undergone three evolutionary periods and developed into six large volcanic collapse faulted basins with tri-layer structure. This leads to three times of pre-enrichment and multiple mineralization of uranium. Finally, the accumulation of uranium and superimposed reworked actions of uranium mineralization resulted in the formation of uranium deposits. After analyzing conditions of uranium mineralization, a model for uranium mineralization of mixed hydrothermal solution of multiple sources in penetrating volcanic collapse faulted basins and seven exploring criteria are suggested. On this basis the evaluation of prospect in this area is positive, and the main exploring strategy has been decided. Furthermore, five prospective areas of mineralization and three most favorable mineralization zones are selected. For exploring large size or super-large size uranium deposits in the area, the key is to strengthen the study and boring of deep layers. Thus, the mineralization in the deep layers or basement may be found. The prediction of deep blind deposits in known ore districts has been proved effectively

  19. Discussion on the basement topography and its relation with the uranium mineralization in Xiangshan basin

    The depth of the basement and the relation between the basement relief shape and uranium mineralization are discussed by forward and inverse computation for large-scale gravity data in Xiangshan basin. The difference of basement topography result in the inhomogeneous distribution of uranium mineralization. The margin of the basement upheaval section and the variation place of basement topography are the favorable place for uranium mineralization. It's helpful to prospect deep and blind uranium deposit in Xiangshan basin

  20. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, This data set consists of mineral deposit areas (KMDAs) for locatable minerals., Published in 1993, Arizona State Land Department.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset as of 1993. It is described as 'This data set consists of mineral deposit areas (KMDAs) for locatable minerals.'. Data...

  1. Structural geology of Ordos basin mineralization and mineralization of uranium deposits in the Huianbao region, west of Ordos basin

    The thesis discussed the geotectonic setting of west Ordos Basin, classification of tectonic units, geology of west fault-fold belt and structural feature in Majiatan region. The stable tectonic region was overall guidance thoughts and ideas for the uranium deposits in the structure relative activities region. Based on exploration and research of uranium geology for many years, the over-thrust nappe belt was favorable region for uranium mineralization. Two oxidation layers which the ancient oxidation was red and oxidation alteration was yellow existed in this region, the uranium ore was controlled on by two oxidation layers. Early red oxidized sandstone was experienced post-reformation such as thrust pushover, lifting, erosion, superimposed depth and separation of block fault. Late yellow oxidation which tended to inherit the early red oxidation and carry on the superposition modification distributed both wings of anticline. The thesis was to summarized the uranium features and metallogenic regularity, which has some guidance for uranium deposits in the basin. (authors)

  2. Santa Lucia River basin. Development of water resources

    The main objective of this study was to orient the development of water resources of the Santa Lucia River basin to maximum benefit in accordance with the priorities established by Government in relation to the National Development Plans

  3. The United Nations' endeavour to standardize mineral resource classification

    The United Nations' Economic and Social Council passed a resolution in July 1975 calling for the development of a mineral resources classification system to be used in reporting data to the United Nations. Following preparation of background papers and an agenda by the UN Centre for Natural Resources, Energy and Transport, a panel of experts recommended a classification system to the Council's Committee on Natural Resources. The Committee met in Turkey in June 1979 and has reported favourably to the Council on the proposed system. The classification system is designed to provide maximum capability for requesting and receiving data from the resources data systems already used internally by major mineral producing nations. In addition, the system provides for flexibility in adjusting to the particular needs of individual mineral commodities. The proposed system involves three basic categories of in-situ resources: R-1, reliable estimates of known deposits; R-2, preliminary estimates of the extensions of known deposits; and, R-3, tentative estimates of quantities to be found in undiscovered deposits. As an option for given countries and commodities, the R-1 category can be further sub-divided into: R-1-E, economic; R-1-M, marginal; and R-1-S, sub-economic. Finally, the classification scheme provides for all categories to have a parallel set of estimates of recoverable mineral quantities. (author)

  4. Version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    Duval, Joseph S.


    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type. The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. Version 3.0 of the EMINERS program is available as this USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344. Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques. The release notes included with this report give more details on changes in EMINERS over the years. EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer personal computers. It does not work on Macintosh computers. For help in using the program in this report, see the "Quick-Start Guide for Version 3.0 of EMINERS-Economic Mineral Resource Simulator" (W.J. Bawiec and G.T. Spanski, 2012, USGS Open-File Report 2009-1057, linked at right). It demonstrates how to execute EMINERS software

  5. The Ministry of Land and Resources Supports the Western Region to Intensify Efforts in Prospecting and Developing Advantageous Mineral Resources


    <正>The Ministry of Land and Resources supports the western region to intensify efforts in prospecting, developing and utilizing advantageous mineral resources including petrol, natural gas, and coal resources, build advantageous mineral economy, speed up the development of nonferrous metals, key building materials, and non metal mineral resources with obvious

  6. Some discussions on uranium mineralization in and out of the red bed (basin)

    Economic uranium mineralization exists in and out of the red bed (basin). Uranium mineralization out of the red bed includes various types, such as the unconformity-related type, grainite type, carbonate-silicoeous-pelitic type, palaeokarst type, infiltration type and sandstone type, the formatoinal process and distribution of which are closely related to the red bed (basin). It is by no means the protective layer of the unconformity-related uranium mineralization. The metallogenetic model and prospecting orientation for uranium mineralization out of the red bed are also summarized

  7. Uranium mineralization characteristics and ore-control factors in Shazaoquan area of Badanjilin basin

    Based on the integration of previous research achievement, this paper discussed the Lower Cretaceous Xinminpu Group and uranium mineralization in Shazaoquan area of Badanjilin basin with results of field geological investigation as well as borehole verification. After analyzing the ore-control factors, the uranium mineralization was believed to be controlled by sequence stratigraphic boundary, lithofacies, epigenetic oxidation. The favorite mineralization area should have relative stable structure and proper structural lift condition in the centre depression of the basin. The boundary of sequence Ⅳ/Ⅲ of Xinminpu Group with the change in structural and depositional system and geochemical condition is the most important ore-control factor. The foreside of alluvial fan and midland also afford favourite lithology combination and space for uranium mineralization. Uranous granite afford the very beneficial uranium mineralizing condition for the sandstone-type uranium deposits. In general, Badanjilin basin have a good prospective. (authors)

  8. Groundwater Resources of the Virgin River Basin in Utah

    Clyde, Calvin G.


    The Division of Water Resources is conducting a study of further water development in the Virgin River Basin. This report examines the effects of groundwater development as a part of the overall study. The study area includes about 1000 square miles in the Central Virgin River Basin east of the Hurricane Fault. The deeply incised Virgin River has cut a youthful drainage network with deep canyons and steep escarpm...

  9. Groundwater Systems and Resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    HOU Guangcai; LIANG Yongping; SU Xiaosi; ZHAO Zhenghong; TAO Zhengping; YIN Lihe; YANG Yuncheng; WANG Xiaoyong


    The Ordos Basin is.a large-scalesedimentary basin in northwestern China. The hydrostratigraphic units from bottom to top are pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks, Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic clastic rocks and Cenozoic deposits. The total thickness is up to 6000 m. Three groundwater systems are present in the Ordos Basin, based on the geological settings, I.e. The karst groundwater system, the Cretaceous dastic groundwater system and the Quaternary groundwater system. This paper describes systematically the groundwater flow patterns of each system and overall assessment of groundwater resources.

  10. Clay Mineral Distribution Patterns of Tertiary Continental Oil-bearing Basins in China

    Zhao Xingyuan


    @@ Induction This paper studies the clay mineral distribution patterns of Tertiary continental oil-bearing basins in China. More than 9 000 shale samples from Paleogene (E) to Neogene (N) Series distributed in Bohai Gulf, Subei, Jianghan,Nanxiang, Zhoukou, Sanshui, Beibu Bay, East China Sea,Hetao, Juiquan, Qaidam and Tarim basins, and so on.

  11. Structure and fluid evolution of Yili basin and their relation to sandstone type uranium mineralization

    Based on the summary of strata and structure distribution of Yili basin, the relation of structure and fluid evolution to sandstone type ur alum mineraliation are analyzed. It is found that uranium mineralization in Yili basin experienced ore hosting space forming, pre-alteration of hosting space, hosting space alteration and uranium formation stages. (authors)

  12. The Gas Resources Assessment Expert System of the Songliao Basin


    The gas resources assessment expert system is one of the advanced methods for appraising oil and gas resources. The establishment of a knowledge base is the focal task in developing the expert system. This paper presents a summary of the mechanism and the major controlling factors in the formation of gas pools in the southeast uplift of the Songliao basin. Then an appropriate assessment model is established for trapping the gas resources and a knowledge base built in the expert system to realize the model. By using the expert system to appraise the gas-bearing probability of 25 major traps of the Quantou and Denglouku Formations in the Shiwu-Dehui area, the authors have proved that the expert system is suitable for appraising traps in the Songliao basin and similar basins.

  13. Genesis of uranium mineralization and its prospecting significance in hailiutu basin, Wulatzhongqi, Inner Mongolia

    Applying multi-disciplinal (geological, geophysical, hydrogeological etc.) approaches, this paper analyses depositional environments, hydrogeologic circumstances and features of uranium mineralization in Hailiutu basin. The author suggests that uranium mineralization and anomalies are controlled by shallow-buried groundwater with slow water exchange regime, and are formed by the evaporation-concentration process

  14. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute


    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  15. Uranium mineralization in the Mesoproterozoic Banganapalle formation near Nagayapalle, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    Cuddapah Basin is the hub of uranium exploration for years together in India. Initial efforts were for quartz-pebble-conglomerate type mineralization. However, the emphasis later shifted towards dolostone-hosted mineralization and finally to unconformity-associated uranium mineralization. The recent finding of uranium mineralization associated with the Banganapalle Formation near Nagayapalle is the outcome of continuous exploration input in the Cuddapah Basin over years. Uranium mineralization (up to 0.278% U3O8) associated with the Mesoproterozoic Banganapalle Formation near Nagayapalle is represented by pitchblende and autunite. Pitchblende occurs as tiny grains in the intergranular spaces and along grain boundaries; and also at places replaces pyrite and covellite grains. The geological set-up indicates that the geodomain is favourable for uranium mineralization. (author)

  16. Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling


    The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

  17. [Inventories of the Earth. Mineral resource appraisals and the rise of resource economics].

    Westermann, Andrea


    How do the earth sciences mediate between the natural and social world? This paper explores the question by focusing on the history of nonfuel mineral resource appraisal from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century. It argues that earth sciences early on embraced social scientific knowledge, i.e. economic knowledge, in particular, when it came to determining or deposits and estimating the magnitude of mineral reserves. After 1900, assessing national and global mineral reserves and their "life span" or years of supply became ever more important, scaling up and complementing traditional appraisal practices on the level of individual mines or mining and trading companies. As a consequence, economic methods gained new weight for mineral resource estimation. Natural resource economics as an own field of research grew out of these efforts. By way of example, the mineral resource appraisal assigned to the U.S. Materials Policy Commission by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 is analyzed in more detail. Natural resource economics and environmental economics might be interpreted as a strategy to bring down the vast and holistically conceived object of geological and ecological research, the earth, to human scale, and assimilate it into social matters. PMID:24988755

  18. Dynamic evaluation of groundwater resources in Zhangye Basin

    LiNa Mi; HongLang Xiao; ZhengLiang Yin; ShengChun Xiao


    Groundwater resource is vital to the sustainable development of socio-economics in arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China. An estimation of the groundwater resources variation in Zhangye Basin was made during 1985–2013 based on long-term groundwater observation data and geostatistical method. The results show that from 1985 to 2013, groundwater storage exhibited tremendous dissimilarity on temporal and spatial scale for the whole Zhangye Basin, especially before and after implementation of the water diversion policy. Trend of groundwater storage varied from quick to slow decline or increase. The accumulative groundwater storage decreased nearly 47.52×108 m3, and annual average depletion rate reached 1.64×108 m3/a. Among which, the accumulative groundwater storage of the river and well water mixed irrigation district decreased by 37.48×108 m3, accounting for about 78.87% of the total groundwater depletion of the Zhangye Basin. Accumulative depletion of groundwater storage varied in respective irrigation districts. Though groundwater resources depletion rate slowed down from 2005, the overall storage in the whole basin and re-spective districts during 1985–2013 was still in a severe deficit such that, the groundwater resource was in a rather negative balance, which could threaten the local aquifer. This is the joint effect of climate change and human activities, however human activities, such as water diversion policy and groundwater exploitation, became increasingly intense. Our research results could provide a reasonable estimation for the groundwater balance in Zhangye Basin, providing a scientific basis for water resources unified planning and, this method can provide a relatively reliable way of estimation for large scale groundwater resources.

  19. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia



    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  20. Mineral Resources: Reserves, Peak Production and the Future

    Lawrence D. Meinert


    Full Text Available The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798, but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using copper as an example, identified resources are twice as large as the amount projected to be needed through 2050. Estimates of yet-to-be discovered copper resources are up to 40-times more than currently-identified resources, amounts that could last for many centuries. Thus, forecasts of imminent peak production due to resource exhaustion in the next 20–30 years are not valid. Short-term supply problems may arise, however, and supply-chain disruptions are possible at any time due to natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or political complications. Needed to resolve these problems are education and exploration technology development, access to prospective terrain, better recycling and better accounting of externalities associated with production (pollution, loss of ecosystem services and water and energy use.

  1. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Christopher Bonzi


    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  2. Quantifying exhaustible resource theory: an application to mineral taxation policy

    The paper presents the results of a dynamic nonlinear programming model of a mineral resource market with several features of heterogeneous quality in the mineral, links with related product markets, incorporation of institutional constraints, resource allocations for each year in the planning period, and analysis of outcomes under various severance tax rates. The model computes privately efficient competitive use paths to perform cost-benefit analysis of public mineral policies. Policy variables are evaluated for their impact on both private behaviour and public benefits. The application is to New Mexico's linked coal and electric power markets. Findings reveal that scarcity rents are currently 4% of coal's price, and peak at 27% in 43 years. Increasing the present 1 dollar/ton New Mexico severance tax to 11 dollars reduces current annual coal output by 25%, prolongs the life of the state's coal industry by three years, and increases discounted severance tax revenues by 850% or 4.2 billion dollars. 38 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Tibet Wuyu basin analysis of sandstone-type uranium mineralization conditions

    The basin is located in central and southern Tibet, in the eastern mountains of Gangdese basin, tectonic position in the Gondwana northern margin of the Tethyan tectonic domain. The data of research collection through the region and comprehensive study, carried out geological surveys, geophysical, remote sensing and hydrogeological work, generally identified in the basin and the form of base, cover stratigraphy, structure and development characteristics; identify the basin cover eruption-sedimentary cycle, stratigraphic sequence, lithologic, sand size, occurrence and characteristics of epigenetic oxidation, and further exploration to determine the target layer. Through a variety of geological, hydrological and geophysical technology radioactive for basin-forming conditions of the system, from the analysis of tectonic conditions, uranium source, seal condition, subsequent transformation of uranium anomalies and mineralization conditions and characteristics of each area, which the basin has a good condition and sandstone-type uranium mineralization uranium mineralization vision, through a systematic survey, expected in the area 1 to 2 new discovery of uranium mineral. (authors)

  4. Study on geochronology of sandstone-type uranium mineralization in western Hailaer basin

    The study on U-Pb isotopic dating of sandstone-type uranium mineralization in western Hailaer basin, namely, Xihulitu and Kelulun depressions, has been carried out. The ages of 81 ± 2 Ma, 44 ± 2 Ma, 9 ± 2 Ma, 2 ± 0 Ma for sandstone-type uranium mineralization in Xihulitu depression and 51 ± 8 Ma, 67 ± 5 Ma for sandstone-type uranium mineralization in Kelulun depression have been obtained for the first time by U-Pb isochron dating. These mineralization ages are in good accordance with the tectonic and climatic evolution histories of the study area

  5. Impact of enterprises of Ural mineral resource complex on water resources

    Zaliya Maratovna Bobrova; Oksana Yur'evna Il'ina; Gennadiy Andreevich Studenok; Evgeniy Mikhaylovich Tseytlin


    The article discusses the negative impact of mining and metallurgical enterprises of the Middle and South Urals on water resources. Authors define characteristic pollutants for mineral resources complex, including ferrous, nonferrous metallurgy and mining enterprises of building materials. Authors also show the information about water pollution contaminants, including metals, nitrogen compounds, sulfates, manganese and other substances. The article describes main causes of pollution and measu...

  6. Can multfractals be used for mineral resource appraisal?

    Agterberg, Frits


    Various models have been proposed for modeling the worldwide resources of minerals and hydrocarbons. Most of these models assume either a lognormal or a Pareto distribution for the high-value tails of the size-frequency distributions of known deposits and assume that undiscovered deposits would satisfy these statistical models as well. The lognormal size distribution often provides a good fit to all sizes except for the largest deposits. Pareto-type models allow for tails that are thicker than those of the lognormal. With respect to the spatial distribution of the deposits, various statistical discrete frequency distribution models including the Poisson and negative binomial are commonly used. However, these models are based on the assumption that mean point concentration is independent of size of area used for measuring deposit density. Fractal-multifractal point distribution models can provide better results. A good approach to worldwide deposit modeling would consist of (1) quantification of 2-D boundaries of permissive terrains for different types of deposits; (2) assuming that the mineral deposits are spatially distributed as fractals or multifractals; and (3) adopting Pareto-type frequency distributions for the largest mineral deposits. In this paper, examples will be presented of cases in which (a) the fractal/multifractal approach provides better results for spatial distribution of deposits than classical statistical models, and (b) the Pareto is performing better than the lognormal as size distribution model for the largest mineral deposits. In recent years, large worldwide mineral deposit data bases have become available. Statistical analysis of these data confirms the idea that amounts of metals in ore deposits generally satisfy the lognormal model except in their high-value Pareto-type frequency distribution tails.

  7. Metallic Mineral Resources Assessment and Analysis System Design


    This paper presents the aim and the design structure of the metallic mineral resources assessment and analysis system. This system adopts an integrated technique of data warehouse composed of affairs-processing layer and analysis-application layer. The affairs-processing layer includes multiform databases (such as geological database, geophysical database, geochemical database),while the analysis application layer includes data warehouse, online analysis processing and data mining. This paper also presents in detail the data warehouse of the present system and the appropriate spatial analysis methods and models. Finally, this paper presents the prospect of the system.

  8. Evaluation on uranium mineralizing geological conditions and prospect in Erlian basin and its adjacent area

    Three kinds of mineralizing plate-tectonic settings, among them marginal trough located in the rise of thrust structural-magmatic rock belt in front of continent and multi-cycle structural-magmatic rock belt in back of arc is optimal in the research area, are ascertained according to the study of pre-Mesozoic basement plate-tectonic and its evolution, crust maturity, and uranium pre-enrichment. On the basis of research on cover geological-structural features, basin evolution and sedimentary formation, the authors demonstrate the inter-relations and interactions of mineralization-controlled conditions including uranium sources, basin structures, host strata, ancient climate, sedimentary formation, rock facies and ancient geography, and their control to mineralization of sedimentary formation and reformation mineralization, reveal the time and spacial distribution law and emplacement condition of uranium deposit, summarize systematically mineralization conditions and exploration criteria, and set up the mineralization model. The mineralization prospect of 6 troughs in the research area is evaluated, and 12 potential mineralization districts are calculated in terms of above-mentioned mineralization plate-tectonic settings conditions and exploration criteria. (8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  9. Clay mineral composition of river sediments in the Amazon Basin

    Guyot, Jean-Loup; Jouanneau, J.M.; Soares, L; Boaventura, G.R.; Maillet, N; Lagane, Christelle


    Clay minerals are important in evaluating the maturity of suspended sediments, weathering intensity and source area. However, there are processes that can change the mineral assemblage such as river transportation, deposition, remobilization and tributary inputs. In terms of water discharge and sediment yield, the Amazon is one of the largest rivers in the world. Most of the suspended sediments come from the Andes, crossing the lowlands before reaching the ocean. This study measures the spati...

  10. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project. The Washington State... water resource problems in the basin. The YRBWEP was charged with developing a plan to achieve...

  11. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  12. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.


    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  13. Radiometric dating of uranium mineralization in the proterozoic basins of Eastern Dharwar Craton, South India

    Results of radiometric dating by Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics on uranium bearing rocks within the Proterozoic basins of the Eastern Dharwar craton in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, South India are discussed. The results indicate three main periods of uranium mineralization and remobilization events at c. 1.70-1.80 Ga, c. 1.25-1.35 Ga and 0.45-0.55 Ga in these basins. (author)

  14. Sedimentary and tectonic environments for uranium mineralization on the Parana Basin, Brazil

    The Parana Basin is an isolated intracratonic basin in Southeastern South America and is characterized by Paleozoic and Mesozoic clastic sediments and by the location of one of the world's largest lava flows. Uranium mineralization occurs mainly in lower Devonian epineritic feldsphatic sandstones and in fluvio-deltaic channels developed in middle Permian mudstones and sandstones. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic conditions plus tectonic barriers in association with underground water controlled the mineralization. Two uranium deposits with 4250 and 6800 tonnes U of RAR plus EAR were found containing primary (pitchblende and coffinite) and secondary (autunite, sabugalite, uranocircite) minerals. A paleochannel model for the Permo-carboniferous mineralization is quite well established whereas many questions are still open for the confirmation of a model for the Devonian occurrences. Host rock sedimentary environment, ore-forming conditions and source rocks are discussed. (author)

  15. Nuclear techniques in exploration, extraction and processing of mineral resources

    Nuclear techniques and instrumentation are contributing to the exploration of minerals and their efficient extraction and processing. The Agency felt it would be timely to review new concepts and developments as applied to oil, gas, coal, metallic and non-metallic minerals. In the 1977 symposium, the session on oil and gas was devoted to the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon saturation (and associated depth of investigation) by the use of pulsed-neutron-capture, gamma-ray logs and logs based on measurements of gamma rays from inelastic neutron scattering; the combined use of a borehole gravity meter and formation density log to detect hydrocarbons up to tens of metres distant from the borehole; the use of natural gamma-ray spectral logs; new developments in nuclear logging instrumentation and applications; the use of stable isotope measurements in oil exploration and the present status of radioactive tracer surveys. Applications of nuclear techniques in the coal industry were reviewed. Following early applications, such as density and level gauges, nuclear techniques are now being used in a more sophisticated manner, especially in coal exploration and in coal preparation. Borehole probes incorporating radioisotope sources and radiation detectors now occupy a dominant position in borehole logging and their success has greatly reduced the need for core analysis. In coal preparation plants, on-line ash monitors are now an established application and other on-line measurements are currently being developed. In the session on mineral exploration and mining, many points of view were put forward on the various techniques to be used for geochemical analysis of soils and stream sediments, borehole logging, sea-bed surveying, sample analysis for mine control, and evaluation of geothermal resources. The development of the earth's geothermal resources is expected to contribute to the utilization of alternative energy sources in the next two decades. Potential

  16. Selected social phenomena following the extraction of mineral resources

    Kocoń Paweł


    Full Text Available The author, due to the didactic needs and seeing a small gap in the way of presenting scientific data on the area of social science, have decided to present this work hoping that it will influence on widening both the social science and geography knowledge of the recipients, having connected the development and creation of certain social phenomena with particular economic activity, that is, the extraction of mineral resources. The aim of the hereby text is to present such social phenomena like organizational culture, discourse and social capital. The notions mentioned above ought to concern not only students, but also the specialists and scientists dealing with any of those two fields, as it seems prudent to follow the path of closely connecting two major issues emerging from two distinctively separate areas of science if that may help to better understand how such mixture influence people’s behaviour and allows to draw conclusion on the effect such actions may have on community or society. Moreover, such fact was prior for the author to decide to work on the problem of protests for mining in the future. On the other hand, the article may help in organizing the process of exploitation of mineral resources in the different organizations involved in this type of activity.

  17. Probe into Problem-Related Nontraditional Mineral Resources Research


    @@The discovery of and research into the nontraditional mineral resources, both in theory and in practice for the next century,are commented in this paper.The nontraditional mineral resources prognostication is very important for the research into and the discovery of the history of typical deposits all over the world.The emphasis of the present research is laid on new kinds of deposits. The processes and approaches of the discovery of new kinds of deposits should be studied carefully. The research into gold ores that we have done so far concludes the following 5 points. (1) Through finding the alluvial gold, we could obtain primary gold deposits such as Tuanjiegou porphyroid gold deposit in Heilongjiang Province. (2) Through geochemical prospecting, we might discover new types of deposits such as Carlin gold deposit in USA. (3) Some deposits might be discovered around a large-scale deposit. For example, a few large-scale altered gold deposits have been discovered around Linglong in Shandong Province.

  18. Remote Sensing Detecting for Hydrocarbon Microseepage and Relationship with the Uranium Mineralization in Dongsheng Area, Ordos Basin, China

    Zhu, M.; Liu, D.; Gao, Y.


    The Ordos Basin is located at the central area of northern China with an area of about 250,000 km2. It is well known "a basin of energy resources" of China for its large reserves of coal, oil and gas. A large-scale sandstone-type uranium metallogenic belt has been found recently in Zhiluo Formation of middle Jurassic in Dongsheng area in the northeastern part of the basin. The ore-forming mechanism remains unsolved so far. There is a hypothesis that the uranium precipitation was related to a hydrocarbon migration from the central basin. In order to explore the evidences of ever existed hydrocarbon microseepage and migration in this area, several indices such as the Iron Oxide Index, Ferrous Index, Clay Mineral Index, Mineral Composite Index, and Ferrous Transfer Percentage Index have been derived. Thorium Normalization of aeroradiometric data and fusion of aeroradiometric and TM data have been carried out as well. Therefore, the subaerial oxide and reduced area, uranium outmigrated and immigrated area, and ancient recharge and discharge of groundwater are thus delineated. As a result, two hydrocarbon microseepage belts in Dongsheng area have been extracted by combining the methods mentioned above. One is in the northern of Dongsheng along a nearly east-westward fault zone and the other one is in the southern of Dongsheng uranium mineralization belt along a nearly northwestward fault zone. The study suggests that the subaerial reduced area was related to hydrocarbon microseepage and the hydrocarbon migration along the fault and fracture zone or penetrable strata played an important role for uranium deposition in Zhiluo Formation near the northwestward fault zone.

  19. 36 CFR 293.15 - Gathering information about resources other than minerals.


    ... resources other than minerals. 293.15 Section 293.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... than minerals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall allow any activity, for the purposes of gathering information about resources, other than minerals, in National Forest Wilderness, except that any such...

  20. Mature Basin Development Portfolio Management in a Resource Constrained Environment

    Nigerian Petroleum industry is constantly faced with management of resource constraints stemming from capital and operating budget, availability of skilled manpower, capacity of an existing surface facility, size of well assets, amount of soft and hard information, etceteras. Constrained capital forces the industry to rank subsurface resource and potential before proceeding with preparation of development scenarios. Availability of skilled manpower limits scope of integrated reservoir studies. Level of information forces technical and management to find low-risk development alternative in a limited time. Volume of either oil or natural gas or water or combination of them may be constrained due to design limits of the existing facility, or an external OPEC quota, requires high portfolio management skills.The first part of the paper statistically analyses development portfolio of a mature basin for (a) subsurface resources volume, (b) developed and undeveloped and undeveloped volumes, (c) sweating of wells, and (d) facility assets. The analysis presented conclusively demonstrates that the 80/20 is active in the statistical sample. The 80/20 refers to 80% of the effect coming from the 20% of the cause. The second part of the paper deals with how 80/20 could be applied to manage portfolio for a given set of constraints. Three application examples are discussed. Feedback on implementation of them resulting in focussed resource management with handsome rewards is documented.The statistical analysis and application examples from a mature basin form a way forward for a development portfolio management in an resource constrained environment

  1. Theory and Method of Mineral Resource Prediction Based on Synthetic Information

    Wang Shicheng; Ye Shuisheng; Zhou Dongdai


    Metallogenic prognosis of synthetic information uses the geological body and the mineral resource body as a statistical unit to interpret synthetically the information of geology, geophysics, geochemistry and remote sensing from the evolution of geology and puts all the information into one entire system by drawing up digitalized interpretation maps of the synthetic information. On such basis, different grades and types of mineral resource prospecting models and predictive models of synthetic information can be established. Hence, a new integrated prediction system will be formed of metallogenic prognosis (qualitative prediction), mineral resources statistic prediction (determining targets) and mineral resources prediction (determining resources amount).

  2. On resource survey of natural mineral drugs in eastern Jilin and their sustaining application


    There are rich natural resources of natural mineral drugs in eastern Jilin Province. Systematic resource investigation can elevate fractional conversion of this area' s mineral drugs resources superiority. Research on natural mineral drugs of this area can upgrade the translation rate of resource superiority and accelerate the development of local medical industry, especially, it can provide scientific data for founding the strategic design of Chinese traditional medicine's trademark of Jilin Changbai Mountain. Since the resource of mineral drugs can not be regenerated, it must be exploited scientifically, utilized reasonably and protected effectively its sustaining application.

  3. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.


    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  4. Rare earth minerals and resources in the world

    Kanazawa, Yasuo [Human Resource Department, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Kamitani, Masaharu [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)


    About 200 rare earth (RE) minerals are distributed in a wide variety of mineral classes, such as halides, carbonates, oxides, phosphates, silicates, etc. Due to the large ionic radii and trivalent oxidation state, RE ions in the minerals have large coordination numbers (c.n.) 6-10 by anions (O, F, OH). Light rare earth elements (LREEs) tend to occupy the larger sites of 8-10 c.n. and concentrate in carbonates and phosphates. On the other hand, heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y occupy 6-8 c.n. sites and are abundant in oxides and a part of phosphates. Only a few mineral species, such as bastnaesite (Ce,La)(CO{sub 3})F, monazite (Ce,La)PO{sub 4}, xenotime YPO{sub 4}, and RE-bearing clay have been recovered for commercial production. Bayan Obo, China is the biggest RE deposit in the world. One of probable hypotheses for ore geneses is that the deposit might be formed by hydrothermal replacement of carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin. The hydrothermal fluid may be derived from an alkaline-carbonatite intrusive series. Following Bayan Obo, more than 550 carbonatite/alkaline complex rocks constitute the majority of the world RE resources. The distribution is restricted to interior and marginal regions of continents, especially Precambrian cratons and shields, or related to large-scale rift structures. Main concentrated areas of the complexes are East African rift zones, northern Scandinavia-Kola peninsula, eastern Canada and southern Brazil. Representative sedimentary deposits of REE are placer- and conglomerate-types. The major potential countries are Australia, India, Brazil, and Malaysia. Weathered residual deposits have been formed under tropical and sub-tropical climates. Bauxite and laterite nickel deposit are the representative. Ion adsorption clay without radioactive elements is known in southern China. Weathering processes concentrate REE in a particular clay mineral-layer in the weathered crusts whose source were originally REE-rich rocks like granite

  5. Geology and coal-bed methane resources of the northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    This guidebook is the first of its kind: A focused look at coal-bed methane in a large Rocky Mountain Laramide basin. The papers in this volume cover every aspect of coal-bed methane in the San Juan Basin, including: The geology, environments of deposition, and geometry of the coal beds that contain the resource; the origin and migration history of the gas; basin-wide resource estimates; the engineering aspects of getting the gas out of the ground; the marketing and economics of producing coal-bed methane in the San Juan Basin; the legal ownership of the gas; state regulations governing well spacing and field rules; disposal of produced water; and land and mineral ownership patterns in the northern part of the basin. Also included are detailed papers on all of the major coal-bed methane fields in the basin, and in a paper on the history of Fruitland gas production, a discussion of most of the not-so-major fields. A small section of the book deals with geophysical methods, as yet still experimental, for surface detection of underground hydrocarbon resources. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  6. Characteristics and genesis of clay minerals in the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin

    Wang Linlin; Jiang Bo; Peng Dehua; Yin Chengming; Zeng Chunlin


    In order to develop appropriate reservoir protection measures in the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin and improve its oil and gas recovery efficiency, characteristics of clay minerals from eleven clay rock samples from the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin were investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and energy spectrum analysis. Clay mineral composition and distribution characteristics of the main hydrocarbon reservoirs, I.e., from the Jurassic and Paleogene-Neogene, were explored. We analyzed the main factors which affected these attributes. The results show that the major clay minerals in the northern margin are chlorite, kaolinite, illite, smectite and illite/smectite inter-stratified minerals, Illite is the most widely spread clay mineral in this area.Chlorite is mainly found in the entire Neogene and in shallow horizons of the Paleogene. Smectite is enriched in the shallow Paleogene-Neogene. There are large amounts of kaolinite and illite/smectite inter-stratified minerals in the Jurassic. The major factors affecting the different development of clay minerals in the region are properties of parent rocks, paleoclimate and paleowater media conditions,diagenesis transformation, tectonic and terrain conditions.

  7. Shungites: origin and classification of a new carbon mineral resource

    Ivankin, P.F.; Galdobina, L.P.; Kalinin, Yu.K.


    The discovery of a new mineral resource in Karelia-shungite- and the confirmation of the finding in the geological literature have a long history. In 1876, local peasants found black stones near the village of Shun'ga, which were taken to be coal and called Olenets anthracite. A discussion began on the nature of this strange anthracite, which did not burn in furnaces. The found of the Karelian geological school, A.A. Inostrantsev, was the first to doubt that Olenets anthracite was really coal, and he named it shungite. Shungites, very unusual, barely combustible high-carbon rocks, have a variety of potential uses. Although details remain obscure, the authors propose a metasomatic origin involving migration and reduction of carbonaceous compounds driven by igneous intrusions. 10 references.

  8. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    Aird, H. M.


    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  9. Mineral resources in lands owned by Australian aborigines

    McNamara, P.


    An overview of British legal treatment of aboriginal natives in Australia focuses on land rights and the ownership of mineral resources. After nearly 200 years of denying the rights of aborigines, legislation began in the 1970s to grant traditional tribal lands in the Northern Territory, South Australia, and New South Wales, with similar action imminent in Victoria. The grants confer a right of exclusive occupation, but do not make the land immune from access for mining purposes by authorized persons. Aborigines have more control over access by outsiders for mining purposes than do ordinary land owners, and have the authority to exact payments as a condition of access from mining operators and royalties from the state. Neither the restraints nor the rights are uniform. Hostility on the part of the mining industry is expected to lessen as negotiations proceed.

  10. Application of GIS in Mineral Resource Prediction of Synthetic Information

    Ye Shuisheng; Wang Shicheng; Li Deqiong


    This paper introduces the formation mechanism and synthetic information prediction of large and superlarge deposits in Shandong Province by analyzing and studying on the GIS platform. The authors established a prospecting model of synthetic information from large and superlarge gold deposit concentration region, and the multi-source spatial database from concentration region of deposits and anomalies. On the basis of the spatial database, a target map layer, a model map layer and a predictive map layer were set up. Based on these map layers, geological variables of the model unit and predictive unit were extracted, then launched location and quantitative prediction of the gold deposit concentration region. The achievement of predicting large and superlarge deposits by the GIS platform has enabled the authors to design automation (or semi-automatic) interpretation subsystems, namely geophysics, geochemistry, geologic prospecting and comprehensive prognosis, and a set of the applicable GIS softwarefor mineral resources prognosis of synthetic information.

  11. Quantifying the Recoverable Resources of Companion Metals: A Preliminary Study of Australian Mineral Resources

    Mudd, Gavin M.; Mohan Yellishetty; Barbara K. Reck; Graedel, T. E.


    The long-term availability of mineral resources is crucial in underpinning human society, technology, and economic activity, and in managing anthropogenic environmental impacts. This is increasingly true for metals that do not generally form the primary product of mines (“host” metals), such as copper or iron, but are recovered as by-products (or sometimes co-products during the processing of primary ores). For these “companion” metals, it is therefore useful to develop methodologies to estim...

  12. Water resources evolution and social development in Hai River basin, China

    Peng, Dingzhi; You, Jinjun


    The Hai River basin is one of the three important bread baskets in China. As the rapid economy development in the basin, surface water reduction, groundwater overexploitation and water pollution had caused serious deterioration of the ecological environment. The rainfall, evaporation, surface water, groundwater, water quality, pollution sources, supply and demand of water resources were analyzed and the characteristic of water resources evolution was summarized in Hai River basin. Furthermore, the social and economic development and the relationship between water resources evolution and social development were discussed in the basin. It was found that the human activity is the first impact factor of water cycle in Hai River basin, and the climate change is the second. Finally, the attenuation of water resources in the basin was induced by the two factors together. For sustainable utilization of water resources in the Hai River basin, the unified management and optimal allocation of water resources should be strengthened and promoted.

  13. Evaluation of water resource economics within the Pasco Basin, Washington

    The Columbia River basalt beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington is being considered for possible use as a terminal repository medium for high-level nuclear waste. Such underground storage would require that the facility be contiguous to at least a portion of the ambient groundwater system of the Pasco Basin. This report attempts to evaluate the economic factors and conditions related to the water resources of the Pasco Basin and the probable economic effects associated with selected hypothetical changes in local water demand and supply as a basis for eventual selection of credible water supply alternatives and more detailed analyses of the consequences of such alternative selection. It is most likely that total demand for water for consumptive uses in the Pasco Basin will increase from nearly 2.0 million acre-feet per year in 1980 to almost 2.8 million acre-feet in 2010, with total demand slightly more than 3.6 million acre-feet per year in 2080. The Columbia River and other surface streams constitute the source of more than 99 percent of the water available each year for all uses, both consumptive and non-consumptive, in the Pasco Basin. It is estimated that pumped groundwater accounted for 3 percent of the value of all water supplied to consumers of water in the Pasco Basin in 1980. Groundwater's share of the total cost is proportionately higher than groundwater's share of total use because it is generally more costly to acquire than is surface water and the value of water is considered equivalent to its cost of acquisition. Because groundwater represents such a small part of the total water supply and demand within the Pasco Basin, it is concluded that if the development of a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Site were to result in changes in the groundwater supply during the next 100 years, the economic impact on the overall water supply picture for the entire basin would be insignificant

  14. Metallogenetic features and perspective evaluation of sandstone-type uranium mineralization in Hailaer Basin, NE, China

    Hailaer basin is located at the Mongolia-Erguna microplate between Siberian and North-China plates. The basement of the basin is composed of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, which experienced multiple granitization, and Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic granites and acidic-intermediate volcanics constituting a uranium-enriched provenance area. The sedimentary cover of the basin consists of continental sedimentary series of Late Jurassic to Tertiary. Of them, Lower Cretaceous (Damouguaihe Formation) clastics of alluvial, fan-delta and fluvial facies rich in organic matter are the main uranium ore-hosting series. Numerous uranium occurrences have been found at the western part of the basin, and uranium mineralization mainly occurs in coarse-grained clastics of the second and third members of Damouguaihe Formation. Uranium ore bodies usually are tabular, a few roll-shaped. The thickness of individual orebody ranges from 0.3m to 5m. Ore grade commonly is 0.0n% with the encountered highest grade of 0.38%. Uranium in ores is in adsorption form, heterogeneously disseminated in the cement of sandstone. No independent uranium mineral has been found. Associated elements in ores include Mo, V, Se, Sc, and Re. Discovered uranium mineralization in the basin approximately occurs at the same elevation intervals (660-680m), suggesting the paleo-phreatic origin. Uranium mineralization is mostly localized in permeable sandstone units of fluvial and fan-delta facies with high content of organic matter. Ore-formation age is supposed to be the period from K2 to N when the ore-hosting sedimentary series outcropped at the surface and was eroded. High content of uranium in provenance area, existence of permeable ore-hosting sandstone units and the oxidation (phreatic and interlayer) alteration of ore-hosting sandstone after its deposition under arid climate environments are key factors determining the perspective potential of uranium ore-formation. (author)

  15. Quantifying the Recoverable Resources of Companion Metals: A Preliminary Study of Australian Mineral Resources

    Gavin M. Mudd


    Full Text Available The long-term availability of mineral resources is crucial in underpinning human society, technology, and economic activity, and in managing anthropogenic environmental impacts. This is increasingly true for metals that do not generally form the primary product of mines (“host” metals, such as copper or iron, but are recovered as by-products (or sometimes co-products during the processing of primary ores. For these “companion” metals, it is therefore useful to develop methodologies to estimate the recoverable resource, i.e., the amount that could, if desired, be extracted and put into use over the next several decades. We describe here a methodological approach to estimating the recoverable resources of companion metals in metal ores, using preliminary data for some particular host/companion pairs in Australia as examples.

  16. Integrated Water Resources Management Improving Langat Basin Ecosystem Health

    Mazlin B. Mokhtar


    Full Text Available The ecosystem provides us with all the goods and services that form the base of our economic, social cultural and spiritual life. Good scientific information will be required for managing the environment by using the Ecosystem approach. The groundwater is considered as a possible supplementary of alternative water source, and some factories already started shifting their water source from surface water to groundwater. Uncontrolled use of groundwater, however, may induce serious environmental problems, e.g., land subsidence, saltwater intrusion to the aquifer. The establishment of a balanced multi-sector and integrated groundwater resources and environmental management plan is deemed urgent to attain a sustainable groundwater resources use and to maintain a favorable groundwater quality in the Langat Basin. To achieve sustainable lifestyle in large scale ecosystem requires integrated and holistic approaches from all stakeholders. Through Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR it was determined a revolutionized water resources management, providing a sustainable supply while minimizing the environmental impact of surface storage. By using underground geologic formations to store water, by integrated water resources management advisory system (IWRMAS aquifer recharge can now easily applied to obviate water resource and environmental problems, including seasonal shortages, emergency storage, ground subsidence and saline intrusion.

  17. Study on tertiary in-situ leachable uranium mineralization conditions in South Songliao basin

    Tertiary in-situ leachable mineralization in Songliao Basin was analyzed in theory in the past. Since 1998, regional investigation at 1:200000 scale has been done with about 120 holes drilled. Based on drill holes recording, section compiling and sample analysis, the authors investigate into the Tertiary in-situ leachable conditions including rock character, sedimentary facies, rock chemistry, organic substances, uranium content, sandstone porosity, sandstone bodies, interlayer oxidation, and hydro-dynamic value. The study would play important role in prospecting for in-situ leachable uranium in South Songliao basin

  18. Managing Water Resource Challenges in the Congo River Basin

    Aloysius, N. R.


    Water resources in the tropical regions are under pressure from human appropriation and climate change. Current understanding of interactions between hydrology and climate in the tropical regions is inadequate. This is particularly true for the Congo River Basin (CRB), which also lacks hydroclimate data. Global climate models (GCM) show limited skills in simulating CRB's climate, and their future projections vary widely. Yet, GCMs provide the most credible scenarios of future climate, based upon which changes in water resources can be predicted with coupled hydrological models. The objectives of my work are to i) elucidate the spatial and temporal variability of water resources by developing a spatially explicit hydrological model suitable for describing key processes and fluxes, ii) evaluate the performance of GCMs in simulating precipitation and temperature and iii) develop a set of climate change scenarios for the basin. In addition, I also quantify the risks and reliabilities in smallholder rain-fed agriculture and demonstrates how available water resources can be utilized to increase crop yields. Key processes and fluxes of CRB's hydrological cycle are amply characterized by the hydrology model. Climate change projections are evaluated using a multi-model ensemble approach under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The near-term projections of climate and hydrological fluxes are not affected by emission scenarios. However, towards the mid-21st century, projections are emission scenario dependent. Available freshwater resources are projected to increase in the CRB, except in the semiarid southeast. These increases present new opportunities and challenges for augmenting human appropriation of water resources. By evaluating agricultural water requirements, and timing and availability of precipitation, I challenge the conventional wisdom that low agriculture productivities in the CRB are primarily attributable to nutrient limitation. Results show that

  19. Uranium mineralization rules controlled by sedimentation in Bayanwula region in Erlian basin

    Uranium mineralization is closely related to sedimentation in Bayanwula region in Erlian Basin. Clarifying the relation of sedimentation and Uranium Mineralization Through detailed analysis of vertical sequences, stratigraphic correlation and the heterogeneity of sand body. Study show that the of development characteristics of sequences of Bayanwula region control the vertical positioning of favorable sand, the skeleton sand bodies of LST in upper Saihan formation is the most favorable reservoir space for uranium. Uranium mineralization is closely related with the heterogeneity of the sand bodies of upper Saihan formation. the heterogeneity of Sand body is mainly reflected in plane and vertical. In plane, with the research of the sand distributed system of upper Saihan formation, the change position of sandstone thickness and sand rate, the position of the variation of shape and trend of sand body, and the change position of sand body character and genesis are most favorable for uranium mineralization. In vertical, the number of layers and thickness of isolated barrier bed not only control the thickness of oxide sandstone. but also they are associated with the distribution of uranium mineralization; The evolution of sedimentary basins created Bayanwula uranium deposits. There is a second order sequence boundary between the upper Saihan formation and the Erlian formation of Late Cretaceous, which is a long-term exposure and erosion unconformity, resulting in the partly erosion of the upper Saihan formation, providing the best conditions of the penetration of the uranium-bearing oxygen water and the development of phreatic oxidation and interlayer oxidation zone. (author)

  20. Review of Biohydrometallurgical Metals Extraction from Polymetallic Mineral Resources

    Helen R. Watling


    Full Text Available This review has as its underlying premise the need to become proficient in delivering a suite of element or metal products from polymetallic ores to avoid the predicted exhaustion of key metals in demand in technological societies. Many technologies, proven or still to be developed, will assist in meeting the demands of the next generation for trace and rare metals, potentially including the broader application of biohydrometallurgy for the extraction of multiple metals from low-grade and complex ores. Developed biotechnologies that could be applied are briefly reviewed and some of the difficulties to be overcome highlighted. Examples of the bioleaching of polymetallic mineral resources using different combinations of those technologies are described for polymetallic sulfide concentrates, low-grade sulfide and oxidised ores. Three areas for further research are: (i the development of sophisticated continuous vat bioreactors with additional controls; (ii in situ and in stope bioleaching and the need to solve problems associated with microbial activity in that scenario; and (iii the exploitation of sulfur-oxidising microorganisms that, under specific anaerobic leaching conditions, reduce and solubilise refractory iron(III or manganese(IV compounds containing multiple elements. Finally, with the successful applications of stirred tank bioleaching to a polymetallic tailings dump and heap bioleaching to a polymetallic black schist ore, there is no reason why those proven technologies should not be more widely applied.

  1. Vein mineralizations - record of paleo-fluid systems in the Thuringian basin (Germany)

    Lepetit, Petra; Viereck, Lothar; Abratis, Michael; Fritsch, Stefanie


    Vein-related mineralizations within the Mesozoic sediments of the Thuringian basin (Germany) are investigated in analytical detail (petrography, XRD, XRF, EPMA, LA-ICP-MS, and isotope studies: O, C, S, Sr) in order to characterize paleo-fluid systems that intruded the basin and circulated within it millions of years ago. Samples from 55 outcrops, 34 quarries and 21 drill cores comprise mainly carbonates (calcite, dolomite, siderite, ankerite), additional sulfates (gypsum, celestine, barite,), and rarely sulfides. The mineralizations are almost exclusively restricted to WNW-ESE trending fault systems. First δ13C and δ18O isotope analyses of calcite mineralizations reveal differences between veins within Triassic sediments (Lower Muschelkalk: δ13C: 1.8 to 2.9 o, mean 2.3 o, δ18O: -7.3 to -10.4 o, mean -8.2 o) and Jurassic sediments (δ13C: -0.7 to -2.1 o, mean -1.4 o, δ18O: -9.3 to -10.6 o, mean -9.9 o), indicating intra-formational and extra-formational paleo-fluid transport. Also first δ34S and δ18O isotope analyses of gypsum mineralizations display differences between veins within Triassic and Permian sediments, respectively. These initial data are comparable with isotope analyses of vein-related host rocks and hydrochemical signatures of recent well waters in the Thuringian basin indicating intra-formational in addition to extra-formational paleo-fluid transport. Further isotope studies are in progress including high resolution in situ-Sr- isotope analysis. The present study is part of INFLUINS, a BMBF-funded project bundle, which is dedicated to the comprehensive description and understanding of the fluid systems within the Thuringian basin in time and space.

  2. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN: Industrial Mineral Data in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN is a shapefile that shows the distribution of stratigraphic data for various industrial minerals in Indiana. These data were derived...

  3. Prospect analysis for sandstone-type uranium mineralization in the northern margin of Qaidam basin

    Affected by the regional geological structural evolution, a set of sedimentary structure, i.e. the construction of coal-bearing classic rocks which is in favor of the sandstone-type uranium mineralization has deposited in the northern margin of Qaidam Basin since Meso-Cenozoic. A NWW thrust nappe tectonic belt, i.e. the ancient tectonic belt which is the basis for the development of ancient interlayer oxidation zone formed by the tectonic reverse in late Jurassic and Cretaceous. The Mid and late Jurassic layer was buried by the weak extension in Paleogene and the depression in early Neogene. The extrusion reversal from late Neogene to Quaternary made the basin into the development era of the modern interlayer oxidation zone. It can be concluded that the layer of the northern margin of Qaidam Basin has the premise for the formation of sandstone-type uranium ore. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the thrust belt, the structure of the purpose layer, the sand body, the hydrogeology, the interlayer oxidation zone and uranium mineralization, the results indicated that the ancient interlayer oxidation zone is the prospecting type of sandstone-type uranium ore. Beidatan and the east of Yuqia are the favorable prospective area of sandstone-type uranium mineralization. (authors)

  4. Study on the rights and interests value of mineral resources and its evaluation method

    LIU Hai-bin(刘海滨); RUI Jian-wei(芮建伟)


    The rights and interests value of mineral resources includes the prospecting rights value and the mining rights value. The mining rights value is made up of the mineral resources value and the compensation value based on the inputs of capitals and labors in different exploration stage, the prospecting rights value should be equal to exploration differential rent of resources. According to the stage characteristic of mineral resources exploration and development, the initial evaluating methods and models are used to evaluate the prospecting rights and mining rights value.

  5. Effects of hydrocarbon generation on fluid flow in the Ordos basin and relationship with uranium mineralization

    The Ordos Basin is not only an important uranium mineralization province but also a major producer of oil. gas and coal in China. The genetic relationship between uranium mineralization and hydrocarbons has been recognized by a number of previous studies, but it has not been well understood in terms of hydrodynamics of basin fluid flow. In a previous study we have demonstrated that the preferential localization of uranium mineralization in the upper part of the Jurassic strata may have been related to the interface of an upward flowing, reducing fluid and a downward flowing, oxidizing fluid, and that this interface may have been controlled by the interplay between fluid overpressure, which was related to disequilibrium sediment compaction and drove the upward flow, and topographic relief which drove the down- ward flow. In the present study, we carried out numerical modeling for the contribution of oil and gas generation to the development of fluid overpressure, in addition to sediment compaction and heating. Our results indicate that when hydrocarbon generation was taken into account, fluid overpressure during the Cretaceous was more than doubled in comparison with the simulation when hydrocarbon generation was not considered. Furthermore, fluid overpressure dissipation after ceasing of sedimentation slowed down relative to the no-hydrocarbon generation case. These results suggest that hydrocarbon generation may have played an important role in uranium mineralization, not only in providing reducing agents required for the mineralization, but also in contributing to the driving force to maintain the upward flow against the pushing of topography driven. downward flow, thus helping stabilize the interface between the two fluid system and localization of uranium mineralization. (authors)

  6. Mineral resources of the Massacre Rim Wilderness Study Area, Washoe County, Nevada

    The Massacre Rim Wilderness Study Area encompasses 23,260 acres in Northwest Nevada. There is moderate mineral resource potential for gold, silve, and mercury in hydrothermal deposits in the eastern part of the study area. There is moderate mineral resource potential for uranium throughout the study area. There is no potential for oil and gas in the study area. The potential for geothermal resources is unknown

  7. Porphyry copper assessment of eastern Australia: Chapter L in Global mineral resource assessment

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Len, Richard A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Zientek, Michael L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Jaireth, Subhash; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts national and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, and biologic) to provide science in support of decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide syntheses of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to occur in the Earth’s crust and which commodities may be present, together with estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits. The USGS collaborated with geologists of the Geological Survey of New South Wales and Geoscience Australia (formerly the Australian Geological Survey Organisation) on an assessment of Phanerozoic-age porphyry copper resources in Australia. Porphyry copper deposits contain about 11 percent of the identified copper resources in Australia. This study addresses resources of known porphyry copper deposits and expected resources of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in eastern Australia.

  8. Assessment of Climate Change Effects on Water Resources in the Yellow River Basin, China

    Zhiyong Wu; Heng Xiao; Guihua Lu; Jinming Chen


    The water resources in the Yellow River basin (YRB) are vital to social and economic development in North and Northwest China. The basin has a marked continental monsoon climate and its water resources are especially vulnerable to climate change. Projected runoff in the basin for the period from 2001 to 2030 was simulated using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model. VIC was first calibrated using observations and then was driven by the precipitation and temperat...

  9. Overview of the Practical and Theoretical Approaches to the Estimation of Mineral Resources. A Financial Perspective

    Leontina Pavaloaia


    Full Text Available Mineral resources represent an important natural resource whose exploitation, unless it is rational, can lead to their exhaustion and the collapse of sustainable development. Given the importance of mineral resources and the uncertainty concerning the estimation of extant reserves, they have been analyzed by several national and international institutions. In this article we shall present a few aspects concerning the ways to approach the reserves of mineral resources at national and international level, by considering both economic aspects and those aspects concerned with the definition, classification and aggregation of the reserves of mineral resources by various specialized institutions. At present there are attempts to homogenize practices concerning these aspects for the purpose of presenting correct and comparable information.

  10. Progress in the Regulation of Radiation Environmental Safety in the Utilization of Mineral Resources in China

    In the paper, the background to the progress made in the regulation of radiation environmental safety in the utilization of mineral resources other than uranium (thorium) ores in China is first introduced. The regulatory experience of radiation environmental safety in the utilization of mineral resources in international organizations and industrial countries (e.g. International Commission on Radiological Protection, IAEA, European Union and United States of America) is surveyed and analysed. Finally, the scope and requirements of regulation on the radiation environmental safety in the utilization of mineral resources in China are stated. (author)

  11. Maps showing metallic mineral resources of the Bendeleben and Solomon quadrangles, western Alaska

    Gamble, Bruce M.; Till, Alison B.


    This report summarizes the potential for metallic mineral resources in the Bendeleben and Solomon quadrangles, central Seward Peninsul, Alaska (fig. 1), and was prepared as part of the AMRAP (Alaska Mineral Resources Appraisal Program) studies for these quadrangles, which were begun in 1981.  Geologic mapping during this study (TILL and others, 1986) included the southern part of the Kotzebue quadrangle.  However, stream-sediment and panned-concentrate samples were not collected in that area, and the mineral resources of the southern part of the Kotzebue quadrangle are not assessed in this report.

  12. Governance of mineral resources: Towards the end of national states’ supremacy?

    Fanny Verrax


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of mineral resources’ governance and trading rules. In doing so, it takes a closer look at the 2012 World Trade Organization (WTO case pertaining to Chinese exportation quotas of rare earth elements and other minerals. It argues that the current governance system based on national responsibility over resources control and global trading rules is not well adapted to a sustainable and fair management of mineral resources, and concludes by suggesting two paths towards a better governance of such resources.

  13. Mineral composite assessment of Kelkit River Basin in Turkey by means of remote sensing

    Hakan Mete Dogan


    Utilizing remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) tools, mineral composite characteristics (ferrous minerals (FM), iron oxide (IO), and clay minerals (CM)) of the Kelkit River Basin (15913.07 km2) in Turkey were investigated and mapped. Mineral composite (MC) index maps were produced from three LANDSAT-ETM+ satellite images taken in 2000. Resulting MC index maps were summarized in nine classes by using ‘natural breaks’ classification method in GIS. Employing bi-variety correlation analysis, relationships among index maps were investigated. According to the results, FM and IO index maps showed positive correlation, while CM index map is negatively correlated with FM and IO index maps. Negative correlations between iron and clay variables suggested that the dominant clay minerals of the study area might be smectite, illite, kaolinite, and chlorite, which have little or no iron content. Using field data for which their geographic coordinates had been determined by global positioning system (GPS), developed MC maps were verified, and found dependable for environmental and ecological modeling studies.

  14. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division


    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and

  15. Study on the discontinuance evalution theory of the minerals resource construction item

    ZHAO Guo-chen; REN Feng-yu; ZHONG Wei-qing


    The period of the minerals resource construction items is very long,which affected largely by the changeable market.The discontinuance evalution theory and content of construction item about the resource used up and economic evalution theodes of the invest were brought forward from the two aspects of the resource using value and the income rate.

  16. Study on the discontinuance evalution theory of the minerals resource construction item

    ZHAO Guo-chen; REN Feng-yu; ZHONG Wei-qing


    The period of the minerals resource construction items is very long, which af-fected largely by the changeable market. The discontinuance evalution theory and content of construction item about the resource used up and economic evalution theories of the invest were brought forward from the two aspects of the resource using value and the in-come rate.

  17. Analysis of geological characteristics of uranium mineralization of Na Linggou in Husiliang located in the northern of Ordos basin

    In this paper, rock facies, the development of interlayer oxidation zone and the control factors and characteristics of uranium mineralization in northern Ordos basin in terms of beam areas call Adams Ridge sulcus satisfied lots Zhiluo uranium mineralization characteristics do lower concluded that the location uranium mineralization controlled by the interlayer oxidation zone of uranium deposits located in the developed parts of the faults. (author)

  18. Proceedings for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development

    Briskey, Joseph A., (Edited By); Schulz, Klaus J.


    Preface The world's use of nonfuel mineral resources continues to increase to support a growing population and increasing standards of living. The ability to meet this increasing demand is affected especially by concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. What information does the world need to support global minerals development in a sustainable way? Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and future mineral resource supply require a long-term perspective and an integrated approach to resource, land use, economic, and environmental management worldwide. Such perspective and approach require unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation. The U.S. Geological Survey and the former Deposit Modeling Program of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a workshop on 'Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development' at the 31st International Geological Congress (IGC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 18-19, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in mineral deposit modeling and resource assessment and to examine the role of global assessments of nonfuel mineral resources in sustainable development. The workshop addressed questions such as the following: Which of the available mineral deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral exploration information? How can mineral resource assessments be used to address economic and

  19. Ministry of Land and Resources Plans to Find Out Support Capabilities of Mineral Resources including Copper, Lead, Zinc and Nickel


    <正>On September 10,the Ministry of Land and Resources(MLR)revealed on its website that it decided to carry out a research on the support capability of main mineral resources in China for national economy and social development by 2020,2025 and 2030.According to MLR,China’s research and argumentation on support capacity of important

  20. The Ministry of Land and Natural Resources is Preparing to Delete the Approval Right for Mineral Resources Geological Prospecting


    <正>Yu Haifeng, Deputy Director of Geological Prospecting Department and Executive Deputy Director of the Mineral Prospecting Office under the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, disclosed at the recently concluded National Prospecting Meeting for 2013 that, the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources is con

  1. The set-up of an international agreement on the conservation and sustainable use of geologically scarce mineral resources

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Driessen, Peter; Ryngaert, C.M.J.; Worrell, Ernst


    For more than a century, the use of mineral resources has increased exponentially with annual growth percentages of between 4% and 6%. While for most mineral resources, depletion is not an issue, for some mineral resources the current level of extraction is likely to pose a problem for future genera

  2. Transboundary Water Resources Allocation Under Various Parametric Conditions: The Case Of The Euphrates & Tigris River Basin

    Kucukmehmetoglu, Mehmet; Geymen, Abdurrahman


    The literature on transboundary water resources allocation modeling is still short in encompassing and analyzing complex geographic multiparty nature of basins. This study elaborates Inter Temporal Euphrates and Tigris River Basin Model (ITETRBM)*, which is a linear programming based transboundary water resources allocation model maximizing net economic benefit from allocation of scarce water resources to energy generation, urban, and agricultural uses. The elaborations can be categorized in ...

  3. Exploration, extraction and potential areas of mineral resources in the Republic of Slovenia

    Ivan Strgar


    In 2003, the Commission for Mineral and Ground Water Resources of the Republic of Slovenia (Commission) collected data and produced a balance of exploration, extraction and potential areas of mineral resources in the Republic of Slovenia – situation on 31 December 2002 for the first time. The balance was based on data gained from forms »Registration of the size of exploration and extraction area – situation on 31 December 2002”. The Commission has not produced any such balance before, althoug...


    Simmons, Stuart F [Colorado School of Mines; Spycher, Nicolas [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Sonnenthal, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


    This report summarizes the results of Phase I work for a go/no go decision on Phase II funding. In the first objective, we assessed the extent to which fluid-mineral equilibria controlled deep water compositions in geothermal systems across the Great Basin. Six systems were evaluated: Beowawe; Desert Peak; Dixie Valley; Mammoth; Raft River; Roosevelt. These represent a geographic spread of geothermal resources, in different geological settings and with a wide range of fluid compositions. The results were used for calibration/reformulation of chemical geothermometers that reflect the reservoir temperatures in producing reservoirs. In the second objective, we developed a reactive -transport model of the Desert Peak hydrothermal system to evaluate the processes that affect reservoir fluid geochemistry and its effect on solute geothermometry. This included testing geothermometry on “reacted” thermal water originating from different lithologies and from near-surface locations where the temperature is known from the simulation. The integrated multi-component geothermometer (GeoT, relying on computed mineral saturation indices) was tested against the model results and also on the systems studied in the first objective.

  5. Quantifying and communicating the uncertainty of mineral resource evaluations

    Mee, Katy; Marchant, Ben; Mankelow, Joseph; Deady, Eimear


    Three-dimensional subsurface models are increasingly being used to assess the value of sand and gravel mineral deposits. Planners might use this information to decide when deposits should be protected from new developments. The models are generally based on interpretations of relatively sparse boreholes and are therefore uncertain. This uncertainty propagates into the predictions of the value of the deposit and must be quantified and communicated to planners in a manner which permits informed decision-making. We discuss these issues in relation to a 60 km by 40 km study area in the south of England. We use the interpretations of 630 boreholes to build statistical models of the subsurface. Mineral deposit categories are defined in terms of the ratio of mineral depth to overburden depth and the proportion of fine particles within the mineral. We use a linear model of coregionalization to model the spatial distribution of these parameters. Furthermore, we use stochastic simulation methods to produce maps of the probability of each category of mineral deposit occurring at each location in the study area. These maps indicate where deposits of suitable sand and gravel might be expected to occur. However, they are only telling us the probability that if a borehole was to be drilled at a location that its contents would satisfy the criteria of each mineral category. Planners require information for areas much larger than a single borehole. Therefore, we demonstrate how the model can be up-scaled to a 1 km2 site. We again use a stochastic simulation method to produce box-whisker plots which illustrate the proportions of gravels, sands, fine sands and fine material that are predicted to occur in the region and the uncertainty associated with the predictions.

  6. Clay minerals in basin of Mexico lacustrine sediments and their influence on ion mobility in groundwater

    Warren, C. J.; Rudolph, D. L.


    Semiconfined aquifers used as the principal water supply within the Basin of Mexico are overlain by lacustrine deposits that provide a degree of protection from contamination associated with metropolitan Mexico City. Solute transport behavior and the nature of chemical interactions with mineral components in these sediments is poorly understood. The objectives of this paper were to identify the clay mineral phases of the lacustrine sediments and to determine the significance of the exchange properties of the day minerals on contaminant transport processes. Samples obtained from two cores were separated into sand, silt, and clay-size fractions. The clay-size fraction was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and for specific surface area and pH-dependent cation and anion exchange capacity. The clay-sized fraction averaged 56% of the sediment. Analyses indicated that the clay was predominantly composed of a Si-rich allophane with approximately 30% montmorillonite. Halloysite was also present to a depth of about 1.5 m, but was absent deeper in the sediment. Kaolinite and illite, reported in previous studies, and imogolite were not found in the samples. Solute transport in the sediment was modeled to demonstrate the impact of exchange properties imparted by the allophane compared to other possible clay mineral assemblages. The predominance of allophane in the Basin of Mexico sediments is responsible for many of the fundamental characteristics of the material including: high porosity (0.8-0.9), high water content (200-400%), and an extremely high and pH-dependent cation exchange capacity. The pH of the pore water within the lacustrine sediments of the Basin of Mexico is typically between 6.5 and 12. Measured cation exchange values ranged from ≈ 450 meq kg -1 at pH 6.5 to ≈ 650 meq kg -1 at pH 12 which could produce variable cation mobility in the semiconfining aquitard. The simulations illustrated that allophane is very effective

  7. Discussion on origin of clay minerals in outcropped sandstone from Lower Cretaceous Chengzihe Formation and Muling Formation in Jixi Basin

    LIU Jianying; LIU Li; QU Xiyu


    Clay minerals in the outcropped sandstone from Lower Cretaceous Chengzihe Formation and Muling Formation in Jixi Basin were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results show that the clay minerals mainly consist of illite, kaollinite and illite/smectite, which can be divided into two types: kaolinite- and illite/smectite types. The outcropped sandstone occurred in middle diagenetic stage-A on the basis of the clay mineral composition. The development factor of the formation of kaolinite type clay mineral is caused mainly by the organic acid from the coal-bearing formation and mudstone during the diagenesis process in Lower Cretaceous Chengzihe Formation and Muling Formation in the Jixi Basin. The weak hydrodynamic force of sedimentary facies made the sandstone leaching condition poor, which is the reason forming the aggregation of clay minerals of the illite/smectite-and illite types.

  8. Biofuel Expansion and Water Resources in the Ivinhema Basin

    Libra, J. M.; King, C.; Xavier, A.; Scanlon, B. R.


    Brazil produces approximately a quarter the world's yearly ethanol demand, making it a global leader in biofuel production. The repercussions for local water resources in areas of intensive biofuel expansion, however, remain uncertain. To assess the effects of various land-use change scenarios on water sustainability in Brazil, this study models a small catchment currently experiencing soybean and sugarcane expansion using the Stockholm Environment Institute's Water Evaluation and Planning software (WEAP). The catchment, the Ivinhema basin in Southern Mato Grosso do Sul, has experienced extensive sugarcane expansion since the mid-1990s - a trend that is expected to continue. The model uses climatic data, soil characteristics, and agricultural production trends in the region from 1990 - 2012 to simulate known streamflows, using the WEAP-MABIA method. The model predicts flow impacts under a number of different future climatic and land-use scenarios. The results will be used to inform the ICONE's Brazil Land Use Model (BLUM), which models the economics of land use.

  9. Water resources and ecological conditions in the Tarim Basin

    宋郁东; 王让会; 彭永生


    Temporal sequential analyses of the hydrological observational data in the Tarim Ba-sin over the last forty years revealed an annual increase of 2 × 107m3 in the water quantities at thethree headstreams of the upper courses and an annual decrease of 3 × 107m3 in the water flowfrom Alaer, which is on the upper main stream. A prediction of the trends indicates that there canbe severe situations under which intermittent water interceptions occur. By means of approximateestimations on vegetative water consumption through phreatic evaporation combined with a quotaassessment, the ecological water demands required to maintain the ecological environment in themainstream area over the three different targeted years of 2005, 2010 and 2030 are defined asstanding at 31.86× 108m3, 36.27× 108m3 and 41.04× 108m3 respectively. Ecological fragility in-dexes are established on the basis of the selection of environmental sensitivity factors. Rationalevaluations give proof that the lower reaches of the mainstream have already turned into zoneswhere their ecological environments are gravely damaged. Multi-objective optimization should beconducted and protective schemes be framed within the threshold limits of the bearing capacitiesof water resources and the environment.

  10. Research and application of mineral resources assessment by weights of evidence model based on SIG

    Yuanyuan Chuai; Keyan Xiao; Yihua Xuan; Shaobin Zhan


    Geological data are usually of the characteristics of multi-source, large amount and multi-scale. The construction of Spatial Information Grid overcomes the shortages of personal computers when dealing with geological data. The authors introduce the definition, architecture and flow of mineral resources assessment by weights of evidence model based on Spatial Information Grid (SIG). Meanwhile, a case study on the prediction of copper mineral occurrence in the Middle-Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt is given. The results show that mineral resources assessement based on SIG is an effective new method which provides a way of sharing and integrating distributed geospatial information and improves the efficiency greatly.

  11. Conversion, ecological and social aspects of the research on mineral resources at the Semipalatinsk test site

    Despite the history of the Semipalatinsk test site in nuclear weapons testing, this territory is of interest for geologic exploration and utilization of mineral resources. The prospect for minerals on this territory was already known before the beginning of tests. Nowadays several companies work on the territory. Positive experience of using Kara Zhira coal deposit, refinement of local gabbros and stone-cutting plant, and preparation of gold mining at Naimanzhal deposit, allow us to hope that these mineral and raw material resources of the Semipalatinsk test site can become an important economic factor for development of the Eastern Kazakhstan region. (author)

  12. Assessment of mineral resource tracts in the Chugach National Forest, Alaska

    Nelson, Steven W.; Miller, Marti L.


    Locatable minerals have been produced from the Chugach National Forest (CNF) for nearly 100 years. Past gold production has come from the Kenai Peninsula and the Girdwood, Port Wells, and Valdez areas. Copper and by-product gold and silver have been produced from mines at Ellamar, on Latouche Island, and near Valdez. Many of the past-producing properties were not mined out and contain significant inferred reserves of gold, copper, lead, zinc, and silver. This report outlines mineral resource areas (tracts) that contain both identified and undiscovered mineral resources. These tracts were drawn on the basis of one or more of the following criteria: (1) geochemical anomalies, (2) favorable geologic units, (3) presence of mines, prospects or mineral occurrences, and (4) geophysical anomalies. Bliss (1989) used six mineral deposit models to describe the types of deposits known from the CNF. Of these deposit types, only four are sufficiently known and defined in the CNF to be suitable for consideration in outlining and ranking of mineral resource tracts; these deposit types are: (1) Cyprus-type massive sulfide, (2) Chugach-type low-sulfide goldquartz veins, (3) placer gold, and (4) polymetallic vein. The U.S. Bureau of Mines indicated that most of the inferred mineral reserves in the CNF would not be economic to produce under current prices. Small-scale placer gold operations are a possible exception. Other known resources that have recorded past production (oil, coal, rock, sand, and gravel) are not addressed in this report.

  13. Analysis of stream sediment reconnaissance data for mineral resources from the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    Multivariate statistical analysis to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic and other commercially important mineral resources was carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado. The analysis suggests that: (1) the southern Colorado Mineral Belt is an area favorable for uranium mineral occurrences; (2) carnotite-type occurrences are likely in the nose of the Gunnison Uplift; (3) uranium mineral occurrences may be present along the western and northern margins of the West Elk crater; (4) a base-metal mineralized area is associated with the Uncompahgre Uplift; and (5) uranium and base metals are associated in some areas, and both are often controlled by faults trending west-northwest and north

  14. Analysis of stream sediment reconnaissance data for mineral resources from the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    Beyth, M.; Broxton, D.; McInteer, C.; Averett, W.R.; Stablein, N.K.


    Multivariate statistical analysis to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic and other commercially important mineral resources was carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado. The analysis suggests that: (1) the southern Colorado Mineral Belt is an area favorable for uranium mineral occurrences; (2) carnotite-type occurrences are likely in the nose of the Gunnison Uplift; (3) uranium mineral occurrences may be present along the western and northern margins of the West Elk crater; (4) a base-metal mineralized area is associated with the Uncompahgre Uplift; and (5) uranium and base metals are associated in some areas, and both are often controlled by faults trending west-northwest and north.

  15. Gondwana basins and their coal resources in Bangladesh

    Fault bounded five Gondwana basins have been discovered in the north western Bangladesh. Among these basins show considerable amount of coal deposits. The Gondwana rocks are highly formed during the Permo-carboniferous diastrophism and later on acquired dynamic characters. In almost all basins, the Permian rocks overlie the Precambrian basement and underlie either the Tertiary or the Cretaceous sediments, structural, stratigraphic, and depositional history of these basins is more or less similar. The sedimentary sequences are composed of light to dark gray, fine to very coarse grained, sub angular to sub rounded felspathic sandstone, dark grey carbonaceous shale and sandstone, variegated conglomerate and thick coal seams (single seam max. 42.38m). The rocks are often alternated and bear the characteristics of cyclic sedimentation. The depositional environments varied from restricted drainage to open fluvial dominated low to moderate sinuous drainage system. The coal bearing basins were flanked by vegetated and swampy over bank. Age of these coals is suggested to be the late permian. Proved and probable reserves of coal in Jamalganj-Paharpur basin are 670 and 1,460 million metric tons, in Barapukuria basin 303 and 3899 million metric tons; in Barapukuria basin 303 and 389 million metric tons; and in Khalaspir basin 143 and 685 million metric tons respectively. The coal is high volatile, low sulphur, bituminous type. It can be used for different forms of thermal conversion. (author)

  16. On the possibilities of occurrence of structure controlled unconformity-proximal uranium mineralization in Madhawanpalli - Rayalgandi Sector, Srisailam Sub-Basin, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    The northern margin of Srisailam Sub-basin is well known for its potential to host unconformity proximal uranium mineralization and so far three deposits have been established at Lambapur, Peddagattu and Chitrial. Recent exploration in Madhawanpalli-Rayalgandi sector and follow up sub-surface exploration has indicated uranium mineralization in the granites beneath the cover of Srisailam sediments. The host rock is characterized by intense fracturing, brecciation, cataclasism and alterations like chloritization, illitization and silicification signifying the role of basement structures in uranium mineralization near the unconformity surface. (author)

  17. The scarcity-abundance relationship of mineral resources introducing some sustainable aspects

    The Planet has a large number of concentrations of minerals. However, the low price assigned to these resources and the principles of sustainable mining in the short term may cause limitations in the exploration and extraction of these resources in the immediate future and they affect the supply of minerals. The true accounts of non-renewable natural resources must be completed entering with the non market values associated to its exploitation. The environmental management tools (Exergetic Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment) are instruments to achieve this goal as outlined below.

  18. Relationship between the hydrogeochemical environment and sandstone-type uranium mineralization in the Ili basin, China

    Research highlights: → We explore the relationship of U in groundwater to the hydrogeochemical environment. → We integrate hydrogeochemical parameters to characterize the hydrogeochemical zones. → U speciation and behavior in groundwater are different in different zones. → U in groundwater is dissolved and transported as U(VI) in the oxidized zone. → U in groundwater is precipitated and mineralized as U(IV) in the redox transition zone. - Abstract: This paper describes the occurrence and distribution of U within groundwater of the Ili basin in Xinjiang, China. Dissolved major ions, dissolved gases, pH, Eh and salinity in groundwater were employed to distinguish different hydrogeochemical environments and associated processes affecting U transport within the aquifer. The results show that dissolution and deposition of U by groundwater are closely related to reactions with organic C and minerals such as sulfides, carbonates and silicates along groundwater flow paths. Different chemical reactions predominate and account for changes in the occurrence of U in the rock and water of the oxidized zone, the redox transition zone, and the reduced zone. Knowledge of these associations between U and hydrogeochemical environments could enhance the understanding of relationships of groundwater circulation and U mineralization and could have implications for prospecting for sandstone-type U deposits.

  19. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment for Kern National Wildlife Refuge and Tulare Basin Wildlife Management Area

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Kern National Wildlife Refuge and Tulare Basin Wildlife Management Area describes hydrologic information,...

  20. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Cooper Basin, Australia, 2016

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 482 million barrels of oil and 29.8 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper Basin of Australia.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  2. Raster Dataset Model of Nahcolite Resources in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ESRI GRID raster datasets were created to display and quantify nahcolite resources for eight oil shale zones in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009...

  3. Assessment of Paleozoic shale gas resources in the Sichuan Basin of China, 2015

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 23.9 trillion cubic feet of technically recoverable shale gas resources in Paleozoic formations in the Sichuan Basin of China.

  4. Progress Report on the fish and wildlife resources of Virginia Lake Basin, Territory of Alaska

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a progress report on the fish and wildlife resources of Virginia Lake Basin. This report specifically looks at the potential for hydroelectric power...

  5. A Unified Approach to Mechanical Compaction, Pressure Solution, Mineral Reactions and the Temperature Distribution in Hydrocarbon Basins

    Yang, Xin-She


    In modelling sediment compaction and mineral reactions, the rheological behaviour of sediments is typically considered as poroelastic or purely viscous. In fact, compaction due to pressure solution and mechanical processes in porous media is far more complicated. A generalised model of viscoelastic compaction and the smectite to illite mineral reaction in hydrocarbon basins is presented. A one-step dehydration model of the mineral reaction is assumed. The obtained nonlinear governing equations are solved numerically and different combinations of physical parameters are used to simulate realistic situations in typical sedimentary basins. Comparison of numerical simulations with real data has shown very good agreement with respect to both the porosity profile and the mineral reaction.

  6. Geology and world politics: mineral resource appraisals as tools of geopolitical calculation, 1919-1939

    Westermann, Andrea


    How is nature transformed into natural resources? Histories analyzing the state sciences of agriculture and forestry in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries showed that these sciences redefined nature as natural resources by making them amenable to cameralistic calculation, bookkeeping and accountability. Against this background, my first line of inquiry is exploring how, over the twentieth century, nonfuel mineral resource appraisals, i.e. attempts to quantify the metal content of t...

  7. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    A. N. Laghari; D. Vanham; Rauch, W.


    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM) within the basin. Sustainable WRM pr...

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California, 2006

    Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered natural gas resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources are 534 billion cubic feet of natural gas and 323 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids in the Sacramento Basin Province. Additional undiscovered oil accumulations larger than 0.5 million barrels are considered unlikely.

  9. Exploration and management of mineral and energy resources for sustainable development

    Minerals and energy are essential to modern well-being and are therefore important components in the development of a sustainable society. Mineral and energy resources consist of concentrations of naturally occurring solid, liquid or gaseous material in or on the earth's crust in such form and amount such that profitable extraction or production is currently and potentially feasible. These resources are depletable but in the case of some metals or materials derived from minerals, these are reusable and may be recycled. These resources are distributed unevenly such that an international trade in minerals and energy is inevitable and a stable supply of minerals and energy is crucial in maintaining or attaining industrialization. Exploration consists of the activities designed to locate deposits of minerals or reservoirs of petroleum or geothermal energy. It includes geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys, drilling and excavation of underground openings. These activities also include the search for additional deposits during production, or extraction. Substantial investments are required during the long span of time between the commencement of exploration and production. Proper planning of extraction of the reserves delineated would include measures towards protecting the environment and site restoration. While sound management of exploration and extraction may enhance success in discovering resources and recovery of reserves as well as protect the environment, conservation measures are also necessary to optimize utilization of these nonrenewable resources. Multidisciplinary research in the various phases of exploration, development, production, site restoration and in conservation and efficient utilization of energy and mineral resources in the Philippines would be needed in the coming years in order to achieve sustainable development. (auth.)

  10. Clay mineral facies and lateritization in basalts of the southeastern Parana Basin, Brazil

    Seventeen samples from two lateritic profiles, each with five facies, were studied. These profiles occur on the old planation surface of the plateau basalts of the southern part of ParanáBasin, Brazil. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra were used to obtain information about the nature and chemical composition of each weathering facies. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and analyses of clay minerals were performed to detect microcrystalline environmental changes. Both profiles have two major parts: a loose red-clay latosol separated from an underlying mottled clay and an alterite facies; a stone line may or may not be present between the latosol and the underlying units. In both profiles the latosol consists principally of kaolinite, hematite and goethite. Two alterite facies, shaped by differential weathering, are also present in the lower profile: a halloysite–nontronite clayey matrix with a well developed fissure system occurs in the argillaceous alterite and a network of Al–goethite aggregates is typical of the highly porous cortex of the boulder alterite that is found in the stone line and below it. Gibbsite has crystallized in the large pores of porphyritic boulder alterite but is absent in the small pores of the subaphyric boulder alterite. Clay minerals observed in fissures include halloysite associated with goethite and manganese oxides. The basalt has hydrothermal green-clays (mixed layers and trioctahedral smectites) that formed between primary plagioclase, pyroxene and Ti–magnetite crystals while fresh corestones of the boulder alterite have cryptocrystalline iron-rich material. The study of these profiles shows one principal evolutionary trend for clay minerals. This trend is from smectite and mixed layers that form green clays in altered bedrock at the base of the profile to an intermediate association of nontronite and halloysite in the argillaceous

  11. Evaluation of the ground water resources within the Lewiston basin

    The Lewiston Basin located in North Idaho covers approximately 550 square miles and includes the cities of Lewiston, Idaho and Clarkston, Washington. The deep aquifer in the Lewiston Basin has been declared a sole source aquifer. This system provides the primary water supply for the City of Clarkston Washington and a partial water supply for the City of Lewiston and the Lewiston Orchards Irrigation District. Questions have been raised relative to the maximum yield of the aquifer system with the continued growth of the area. This study addresses the hydrogeology of the basin, along with the locations and mechanisms for recharge and discharge. The geology of the Lewiston Basin consist of Miocene-Pliocene basalt flows overlain by quaternary sediments. The basalt flows were structurally deformed during and after emplacement, thus creating a structural basin with numerous faults. The lower most basalt unit of the Lewiston Basin is the Imnaha Basalt, which is overlain by the Grande Ronde and Wanapum Basalts. The boundaries of the ground water flow system are the same as the structural basin. 7 refs., 4 figs

  12. Heavy Oil and Natural Bitumen Resources in Geological Basins of the World

    Meyer, Richard F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.


    Heavy oil and natural bitumen are oils set apart by their high viscosity (resistance to flow) and high density (low API gravity). These attributes reflect the invariable presence of up to 50 weight percent asphaltenes, very high molecular weight hydrocarbon molecules incorporating many heteroatoms in their lattices. Almost all heavy oil and natural bitumen are alteration products of conventional oil. Total resources of heavy oil in known accumulations are 3,396 billion barrels of original oil in place, of which 30 billion barrels are included as prospective additional oil. The total natural bitumen resource in known accumulations amounts to 5,505 billion barrels of oil originally in place, which includes 993 billion barrels as prospective additional oil. This resource is distributed in 192 basins containing heavy oil and 89 basins with natural bitumen. Of the nine basic Klemme basin types, some with subdivisions, the most prolific by far for known heavy oil and natural bitumen volumes are continental multicyclic basins, either basins on the craton margin or closed basins along convergent plate margins. The former includes 47 percent of the natural bitumen, the latter 47 percent of the heavy oil and 46 percent of the natural bitumen. Little if any heavy oil occurs in fore-arc basins, and natural bitumen does not occur in either fore-arc or delta basins.

  13. Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in the Klela Basin, Southern Mali

    Adama Toure; Bernd Diekkrüger; Adama Mariko


    Investigations of groundwater resources in order to understand aquifer system behavior are vital to the inhabitants of the Klela Basin, Mali, because groundwater is the only permanent water resource and is used for drinking water and irrigation. Due to climate change, this vital resource is being threatened. Therefore, MODFLOW was applied in this study to simulate groundwater dynamics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in the Klela bas...

  14. Geology of carbonate aggregate resources of Illinois, Illinois mineral notes

    Goodwin, J. H.

    Carbonate rocks ranging in age from Pennsylvanian through Ordovician provide the principal resources for crushed stone production in Illinois. In the northern third of Illinois, dolomite and calcareous dolomite of the Silurian and Ordovician Systems from the bedrock surface are the basis of a large quarrying industry. One of the largest quarries in the United States wins stone from Silurian reefal dolomite at Thornton, near Chicago. Aggregate for skid-resistant asphalt pavement is produced from Devonian chert in extreme southern Illinois.

  15. An Opportunity on Exploiting of Geology and Mineral Resource Data for Regional Development

    Indonesia archipelago have the very complex geo diversity. The complexity of geo diversity gives a lot of opportunity on exploiting of earth resources for society prosperity. In other side, the complexity of geology also gives a lot of resistance and various limitation at one particular region to expand. Hence, various data of geology as well as data of result of mapping of minerals resources (mapping at macro scale and also have detail scale) require to be managed and exploited maximally. Effort the exploiting also require various infrastructure which is concerning regulatory, technological, human resources being, market-drive of an economic geo material, social environment and culture which grow around geology data, and also availability and readiness of geology and mineral resources data. This study is expected can give a few description of how the geology and minerals resources data can be as reference in regional development planning. This paper was writed by assessment of description qualitative and comparative inter-region case study in various regency area, where writer have been involved to conduct the activity of geological mapping and mineral resources data and also involved by a discussion with a few officers of local government in so many opportunity. Some of the case study region for example : in Kampar Regency (Riau), Tanjung Jabung Timur Regency (Jambi), Biak Numfor Regency (Papua), Gunung Kidul Regency (Yogyakarta), Pacitan Regency (East Java), and also Klaten Regency (Central Java). (author)

  16. A strategic analysis of International GUI Resources Corp.- a junior mineral exploration company

    Mazvihwa, Judith Tendayi


    This project is a strategic analysis of a mineral exploration company, International GUI Resources Corp. (GUI). The project describes and evaluates GUI's external environment and identifies the company's strategic threats and opportunities. GUI's strategic threat is related to the extreme bargaining power suppliers of exploration services have in the mineral exploration industry. The project suggests and investigates three potential strategic alternatives to mitigate this threat. It then eval...

  17. Interdisciplinary applications and interpretations of ERTS data within the Susquehanna River Basin (resource inventory, land use, and pollution)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. An interdisciplinary group at Penn State University is analyzing ERTS-1 data. The geographical area of interest is that of the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania. The objectives of the work have been to ascertain the usefulness of ERTS-1 data in the areas of natural resources and land use inventory, geology and hydrology, and environmental quality. Specific results include a study of land use in the Harrisburg area, discrimination between types of forest resources and vegetation, detection of previously unknown geologic faults and correlation of these with known mineral deposits and ground water, mapping of mine spoils in the anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania, and mapping of strip mines and acid mine drainage in central Pennsylvania. Both photointerpretive techniques and automatic computer processing methods have been developed and used, separately and in a combined approach.

  18. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, Trinity River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.


    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage only at 5 gaging stations; stage and contents at 33 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 65 gaging stations; and data for 12 partial-record stations comprised of 7 flood-hydrograph, 2 low-flow, and 3 creststage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  19. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 3. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.


    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 126 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 15 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 62 gaging stations; and data for 35 partial-record stations comprised of 8 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 18 creststage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  20. Bull Mountain Basin Boundary from 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the Bull Mountain coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National...

  1. Treasure hunt of mineral resources: a serious game in a virtual world

    Boniello, Annalisa


    This posterdescribes a geoscience activities on mineral resources for students of 14-18 years old. The activities are created as a treasure hunt of mineral resources, students must pass test and solve questions, search mineral in different environments: near a volcanos, in the river, in a lake, in a cave, under the sea and on a mountain. The activity is created using a virtual environment a virtual world built with a software, Opensim, a opensource software. In this virtual world every student as avatar, a virtual rapresentation of himself, search information, objects, mineral as in a serious game, a digital serious game. In the serious game buit as a treasure hunt, students interact with environment in a learning by doing, and they interact with other students in a cooperative learning and a collaborative environment. In the hunt there is a challenge that student must overcome: understanding what is a mineral resource collecting data on mineral analyzing environments where they are created so the students can improve motivation and learn, and improve scientific skills.

  2. Development, evolution, and destruction of the saline mineral area of Eocene Lake Uinta, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.


    Halite and the sodium bicarbonate mineral nahcolite were deposited in Eocene-age saline Lake Uinta in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado. Variations in the areal extent of saline mineral deposition through time were studied using descriptions of core and outcrop. Saline minerals have been extensively leached by groundwater, and the original extent of saline deposition was determined from the distribution of empty vugs and collapse breccias. Because vugs and breccias strongly influence groundwater movement, determining where leaching has occurred is an important consideration for in-situ oil shale extraction methods currently being developed.

  3. Characteristics of Oil-gas Resources in Sichuan Basin

    Ran Longhui


    @@ Sichuan Basin, a large and old oil-bearing superimposed basin in western China, has an acreage of190 thousand square kilometers. Its superimposed strata are composed of 7000-12000 meters of sedimentary rock from the Sinian to the Quaternary, in which the strata are mainly marine carbonate below the Middle Triassic and terrestrial clastic rock above the Upper Triassic. For more than 50 years, CNPC has been working in the basin for oil-gas exploration and development and has discovered so far 106 gas fields and 14 oil fields with proven gas reserves achieving 840 billion cubic meters (bcm)and annual gas and crude production reaching 12 bcm and 145 thousand tons respectively. Oil/gas fields in Sichuan Province is currently China's largest gas-producing region. Recent exploration and development practices show that gas reserves and production of the basin are still in the upsoaring stage and an understanding of oilgas distribution in the basin is of vital importance for a sustainable development of natural gas in the basin.

  4. Australasian code for reporting of mineral resources and ore reserves (the JORC code)



    The latest revision of the Code first published in 1989 becomes effective in September 1999. It was prepared by the Joint Ores Reserves Committee of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geoscientists and Minerals Council of Australia (JORC). It sets out minimum standards, recommendations and guidelines for public reporting of exploration results, mineral resources and ore reserves in Australasia. In this edition, the guidelines, which were previously separated from the Code, have been placed after the respective Code clauses. The Code is applicable to all solid minerals, including diamonds, other gemstones and coal for which public reporting is required by the Australian and New Zealand Stock Exchanges.

  5. Availability of water resources in the rio Bermudez micro-basin. Central Region of Costa Rica

    The Rio Bermudez micro-basin makes up part of the principal hydrological resource area in the Central Region of Costa Rica. For this reason a study was done to determine the availability of hydrological resources in said micro-basin to identify areas with potential water availability problems. A monthly water balance was calculated using land use, geomorphology and climate parameters. From these water balance studies, the amount of available water was calculated and classified into four categories, however, in this micro-basin, only three categories were identified: high, medium and moderate water availability. No areas were identified with low water availability, indicating availability is sufficient; however, there is increasing demand on water resources because over half of the micro-basin area is classified as having moderate water availability. (Author)

  6. World mineral energy resources and their distribution in time and space

    If the estimated total geological potential of the world mineral energy resources is reduced to a common denominator, then the total resources are estimated at 20 600 terawatt years (TWyr). Assuming that all these resources are recoverable, and applying today's technology, they would suffice for 1 700 years under no-growth conditions and approximately 130 years assuming an annual growth rate of 3%. It should, however, be borne in mind that only about 15% (or 3 100 TWry) of the world's resources can be regarded as proved or partly proved and recoverable at current price levels and with current technology. Assuming a no-growth scenario, these resources will meet future energy requirements for a period of approximately 260 years. At a 3% annual growth rate resources will last for about 70 years. From these figures it is clear that the known mineral energy resources will be depleted in the near future. The challenge to the geologist to locate additional energy potential is enormous and in order to do so, the distribution of known resources in time and space was reappraised. The present investigation confirms the time-bound character of the mineralising processes. These took place in a series of clearly defined rhythms ranging from the early Proterozoic to the Recent. Uranium and thorium constitute the only energy resources of the Proterozoic. In contrast, the Phanerozoiceon contains the totality of fossil fuels and at least 60% of the nuclear resources; strata younger than 600 Ma therefore represent the most favourable target areas for prospecting

  7. Mineral resources of the Fiddler Butte (East) Wilderness study area, Garfield County, Utah

    This paper reports on the Fiddler Butte (East) Wilderness Study Area which comprises 5,700 acres east of the Henry Mountains, Garfield County, Utah, between the Dirty Devil River and the Colorado River. Field and laboratory studies investigated the identified (known) resources and the mineral resource potential (undiscovered resources). This study area has identified resources of tar sands (heavy oil-impregnated sandstones) in the northeastern part of the study area; an inferred subeconomic resource of high-magnesium dolomite within the Navajo Sandstone; inferred subeconomic resources of the common variety materials, sand, gravel, and stone; and petrified wood suitable for collecting and polishing. The southwestern part of the study area has a moderate mineral resource potential for undiscovered tar sands as localized deposits within the White Rim Sandstone. This entire study area has a moderate resource potential for undiscovered uranium and vanadium, for oil and gas, and for small isolated occurrences of precious (gold and silver) metals, and a low resource potential for geothermal resources and other undiscovered metals

  8. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katie


    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  9. Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China: Chapter W in Global mineral resource assessment

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Wallis, John C.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre


    The U.S. Geological Survey assesses resources (mineral, energy, water, environmental, and biologic) at regional, national, and global scales to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources in undiscovered deposits.

  10. Porphyry copper assessment of British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada: Chapter C in Global mineral resource assessment

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Frost, Thomas P.; Ludington, Steve


    The U.S. Geological Survey does regional, national, and global assessments of resources (mineral, energy, water, biologic) to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources that may be present in undiscovered deposits.

  11. The characteristics of uranium mineralization and genesis of Nuheting uranium deposit in Erlian basin Inner Mongolian

    The Nuheting uranium deposit is located at the northern margin of Erlian basin in Inner Mongolian. Uranium mineralizations are localized in the Erlian formation of upper Cretaceous system. Main types of ore are argillite, argillaceous siltstone and argillaceous graywacke. There are 3 main mineral associations in places with uranium: uranium-gypsum-celestione; uranium-pyriteorganic matter; uranium-pyrite, marcasite and other metalliferous sulfides. Uranium is mainly adsorbed and pitchblende in minor amount can also be found. The formation of economic uranium orebody is related with migration of oil and gas, because there are organic matter of aromatic hydrocarbon and moving hydrocarbon in uranium ore. The U-Pb isotopic ages of ore and pitchblende are 85, 40 and 10 Ma, which indicate that Nuheting uranium deposit was formed in long-term geological process and principally underwent three main stages: Sedimentary diagenesis; migration of oil and gas; and stage of supergene reworking. Therefore, the deposit should be classified as polygenetic type. (9 tabs.; 3 figs)

  12. Characteristic and mineralization of sandstone-type uranium deposits in mesozoic continental energy sources basin in east China tectonic domain

    The sandstone type uranium deposits in the Mesozoic continental basin of the tectonic zone in east China have distinct features. The u-mineralization shows obvious overlap of multi-mineralization including the infiltration-type and effusion-type. Upper of the target stratum is the new type of bi-layer fluvial facies. It locates in the unique structure-construction sequence; this formation sequence appears as a full two-grade sequence, and it comprises of several three-grade sequences and forms evolution pattern of the basin including 'triplex structure, two interfaces, three set of formation'. These constructions are controlled by dynamic evolution of the Pacific tectonic zone migrating from west to east step by step, and form coexistence of uranium with coal, oil and gas in the basin. (authors)

  13. 矿产资源核算研究%Study on mineral resources accounting



    矿产资源是经济社会发展的重要基础。其价值核算是当今经济社会发展和生态文明建设进程中一个重要命题,成为目前世界各国政府及理论界普遍关注的焦点问题。本文分析了资源核算的研究现状、内容、方法及存在的问题,界定了矿产资源核算的内涵及对象,论述了矿产资源核算的理论基础、意义及方法,构建了矿产资源核算的基本框架。%Mineral resources are an important foundation for economic and social development .The value accounting is an important proposition in today ’ s economic and social development and ecological civilization construction in the process ,become the focus of attention at present ,governments around the world and theory circle .This paper analyzed the present situation of research on resource accounting , content ,methods and the existing problems ,defines the connotation and objects of mineral resources accounting ,it discusses the basic theory of mineral resources accounting ,the significance and the method , constructs the basic framework of mineral resource accounting .

  14. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)


    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  15. Do Magnetic Minerals Record Paleoprecipitation? Insights from Paleocene-Eocene Paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, WY

    Maxbauer, D.; Feinberg, J. M.; Fox, D. L.; Clyde, W.


    The magnetic mineralogy of soils and paleosols is a rich archive of paleoclimatic information. However, efforts to quantify parameters such as mean annual precipitation (MAP) or temperature using environmental magnetism are still in their infancy. Inherent in any magnetic paleoclimate proxy is a fundamental understanding of how the concentration, grain size distribution, and composition of iron oxides and oxyhydroxides formed during pedogenesis reflect the climatic conditions that prevailed during soil formation. The influence of diagenetic processes on magnetic minerals, particularly for paleosols in pre-Quaternary systems, may compromise our ability to recover a climatic signal due to mineral alterations or incomplete preservation. Here, we evaluate the rock magnetic properties of non-loessic paleosols across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~55.5 Ma) in the Bighorn Basin, WY. Our study compares data from nine paleosol layers sampled from outcrop, exposed to surficial weathering, as well as the equivalent paleosol layers sampled from drill core, all of which are preserved below a pervasive oxidative weathering front and presumably unweathered. Despite variation in magnetic properties within paleosol layers, there is no clear change in magnetic mineralogy that we can attribute to surficial weathering. Further, common measures of magnetic enhancement in susceptibility and remanence show similar trends across the PETM, in both core and outcrop, when compared to estimates of MAP from geochemical weathering indices. Taken together, our record suggests that the magnetic minerals preserved in ancient paleosols retain at least qualitative information about paleoprecipitation and could be an important source of information for paleoclimatic studies. Further work to improve our understanding of the relative preservation of various pedogenic components in paleosols will ultimately determine their viability as quantitative indicators of paleoclimate.

  16. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Tarim River Basin, Xinjiang, China

    MENG Lihong; CHEN Yaning; LI Weihong; ZHAO Ruifeng


    This paper explores the method of comprehensive evaluation of water resources carrying capacity and sets up an evaluation model applying the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Based on the data of nature, society, economics and water resources of the Tarim River Basin in 2002, we evaluated the water resources carrying capacity of the basin by means of the model. The results show that the comprehensive grades are 0.438 and 0.454 for Aksu and Kashi prefectures respectively, where the current water resources exploitation and utilization has reached a relative high degree and there is only a very limited water carrying capacity, 0.620 for Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture, where water resources carrying capacity is much higher, and in between for Hotan Prefecture and Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture. As a whole, the comprehensive grade of the Tarim River Basin is 0.508 and the current water resources exploitation and utilization has reached a relative high degree. Thus, we suggest that the integrated management of the water resources in the basin should be strengthened in order to utilize water resources scientifically and sustainably.

  17. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Menzie, W. David


    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  18. Oil discoveries and basin resource prediction in Latin America: Past, present, and future

    Kronman, G.E.; Aleman, A.M.; Rushworth, S.W. (Amoco Production Company, Houston, TX (United States))


    Over 350 oil discoveries were made in Latin America during the 1980s. About 12% are estimated to contain reserves greater than 100 MMBO. Several of the larger finds (>500 MMBO), such as Cusiana (Colombia), Furrial/Musipan (Venezuela), Cano Lima (Colombia) and Marlim (Brazil) represent an important part of the giant field found worldwide since 1980. Most of the larger discoveries were made by national oil companies in Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil. Undiscovered oil resources of 40-80 BBO are estimated to remain in the highest potential Latin American basins, including those in Mexico, based on historical field size data and current geological knowledge. Over 150 BBO of produced oil and proven reserves has been found in the same group of basins. The probability of finding large undiscovered oil and gas fields (>100 MMBOE) in selected established and mature Latin American basins is high. The Campos (Brazil), Llanos (Colombia), Magadalena (Colombia), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Marahon-Oriente-Putomayo (Peru-Ecuador-Colombia), Maturin (Venezuela), Reforma-Campeche (Mexico) and Ucayali (Peru) basins have the best possibility for such accumulations. Another tier of frontier and emerging basins may also contain significant resources, but limited data makes it difficult to estimate their undiscovered resources. Some of the higher potential basins in this group include the Sierra de Chiapas (Mexico/Guatemala), Huallaga (Peru), Yucatan (Mexico), Sabinas, and Burgos (Mexico) basins.

  19. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources

    Fabbri, A; Sinding-Larsen, R


    This volume contains the edited papers prepared by lecturers and participants of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources" held at II Ciocco (Lucca), Italy, June 22 - July 4, 1986. During the past twenty years, tremendous efforts have been made to acquire quantitative geoscience information from ore deposits, geochemical, geophys ical and remotely-sensed measurements. In October 1981, a two-day symposium on "Quantitative Resource Evaluation" and a three-day workshop on "Interactive Systems for Multivariate Analysis and Image Processing for Resource Evaluation" were held in Ottawa, jointly sponsored by the Geological Survey of Canada, the International Association for Mathematical Geology, and the International Geological Correlation Programme. Thirty scientists from different countries in Europe and North America were invited to form a forum for the discussion of quantitative methods for mineral and energy resource assessment. Since then, not ...

  20. An Analysis of the Published Mineral Resource Estimates of the Haji-Gak Iron Deposit, Afghanistan

    The Haji-Gak iron deposit of eastern Bamyan Province, eastern Afghanistan, was studied extensively and resource calculations were made in the 1960s by Afghan and Russian geologists. Recalculation of the resource estimates verifies the original estimates for categories A (in-place resources known in detail), B (in-place resources known in moderate detail), and C1 (in-place resources estimated on sparse data), totaling 110.8 Mt, or about 6% of the resources as being supportable for the methods used in the 1960s. C2 (based on a loose exploration grid with little data) resources are based on one ore grade from one drill hole, and P2 (prognosis) resources are based on field observations, field measurements, and an ore grade derived from averaging grades from three better sampled ore bodies. C2 and P2 resources are 1,659.1 Mt or about 94% of the total resources in the deposit. The vast P2 resources have not been drilled or sampled to confirm their extent or quality. The purpose of this article is to independently evaluate the resources of the Haji-Gak iron deposit by using the available geologic and mineral resource information including geologic maps and cross sections, sampling data, and the analog-estimating techniques of the 1960s to determine the size and tenor of the deposit.

  1. Spatiotemporal Assessment of Groundwater Resources in the South Platte Basin, Colorado

    Ruybal, C. J.; McCray, J. E.; Hogue, T. S.


    The South Platte Basin is one of the most economically diverse and fastest growing basins in Colorado. Strong competition for water resources in an over-appropriated system brings challenges to meeting future water demands. Balancing the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater from the South Platte alluvial aquifer and the Denver Basin aquifer system is critical for meeting future demands. Over the past decade, energy development in the basin has added to the competition for water resources, highlighting the need to advance our understanding of the availability and sustainability of groundwater resources. Current work includes evaluating groundwater storage changes and recharge regimes throughout the South Platte Basin under competing uses, e.g. agriculture, oil and gas, urban, recreational, and environmental. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites in conjunction with existing groundwater data is used to evaluate spatiotemporal variability in groundwater storage and identify areas of high water stress. Spatiotemporal data will also be utilized to develop a high resolution groundwater model of the region. Results will ultimately help stakeholders in the South Platte Basin better understand groundwater resource challenges and contribute to Colorado's strategic future water planning.

  2. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  3. Availability of mineral resources for society; Disponibilidad y retos actuales de los recursos minerales para la sociedad

    Price, J. G.; Espi, J. A.


    Trends in global mineral production and expanding uses of mineral resources foretell a bright future, although with significant challenges, for exploration and development. Demand for mineral resources is likely to remain high and grow to meet increases in world population and standards of living. Significant challenges include meeting future demand with new discoveries and developing the resources in environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable ways. A historical perspective from the last 50 years on finding new mineral districts, discovering new types of ore deposits, and using new technologies in exploration suggests that the world will not run out of mineral resources. It is likely that substitution and recycling will play increasingly major roles in meeting global mineral demand. New technologies for ocean mining will help add to the resource base. Historical perspectives also suggest that mining scams will continue, and environmental, health, and safety concerns will be major factors in deciding where future mines will be located and how they will be operated. (Author)

  4. Agenda, extended abstracts, and bibliographies for a workshop on Deposit modeling, mineral resources assessment, and their role in sustainable development

    Briskey, Joseph A., (Edited By); Schulz, Klaus J.


    Global demand for mineral resources continues to increase because of increasing global population and the desire and efforts to improve living standards worldwide. The ability to meet this growing demand for minerals is affected by the concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and resource development require a long-term perspective and an integrated approach to land-use, resource, and environmental management worldwide. This, in turn, requires unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation. The purpose of the IGC workshop is to review the state-of-the-art in mineral-deposit modeling and quantitative resource assessment and to examine their role in the sustainability of mineral use. The workshop will address such questions as: Which of the available mineral-deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral-exploration information? How can mineral-resource assessments be used to address economic and environmental issues? Presentations will include overviews of assessment methods used in previous national and other small-scale assessments of large regions as well as resulting assessment products and their uses.

  5. The effect of sedimentation background of depression target stratum containing mineral in Erlian basin, Ulanqab to uranium mineralization type

    The ore bearing stratum in depression of Ulanqab contains target stratum of lower cretaceous Saihan formation, upper cretaceous Erlian formation, paleogene system etc. The uranium mineralization type which have found by now contains sandstone type, mudstone type and coal petrography. The genetic type of mineral deposit contains paleovalley-type, reformed type after superposition with sedimentation and diagenesis by sedimentation. Uranium mineralization of both the natural type and genetic type have close relationship with its ore bearing stratum. Different geological background forms different sedimentary system combination, and different sedimentary system combination forms different uranium mineralization type. (authors)

  6. Lunar mineral feedstocks from rocks and soils: X-ray digital imaging in resource evaluation

    Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Higgins, Stefan J.; Mckay, David S.


    The rocks and soils of the Moon provide raw materials essential to the successful establishment of a lunar base. Efficient exploitation of these resources requires accurate characterization of mineral abundances, sizes/shapes, and association of 'ore' and 'gangue' phases, as well as the technology to generate high-yield/high-grade feedstocks. Only recently have x-ray mapping and digital imaging techniques been applied to lunar resource evaluation. The topics covered include inherent differences between lunar basalts and soils and quantitative comparison of rock-derived and soil-derived ilmenite concentrates. It is concluded that x-ray digital-imaging characterization of lunar raw materials provides a quantitative comparison that is unattainable by traditional petrographic techniques. These data are necessary for accurately determining mineral distributions of soil and crushed rock material. Application of these techniques will provide an important link to choosing the best raw material for mineral beneficiation.

  7. CRIB; the mineral resources data bank of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Calkins, James Alfred; Kays, Olaf; Keefer, Eleanor K.


    The recently established Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) of the U.S. Geological Survey is expected to play an increasingly important role in the study of United States' mineral resources. CRIB provides a rapid means for organizing and summarizing information on mineral resources and for displaying the results. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records containing the basic information needed to characterize one or more mineral commodities, a mineral deposit, or several related deposits. The information consists of text, numeric data, and codes. Some topics covered are: name, location, commodity information, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which performs all the processing tasks needed to build, operate, and maintain the CRIB file. The sophisticated retrieval program allows the user to make highly selective searches of the files for words, parts of words, phrases, numeric data, word ranges, numeric ranges, and others, and to interrelate variables by logic statements to any degree of refinement desired. Three print options are available, or the retrieved data can be passed to another program for further processing.

  8. Exploration, extraction and potential areas of mineral resources in the Republic of Slovenia

    Ivan Strgar


    Full Text Available In 2003, the Commission for Mineral and Ground Water Resources of the Republic of Slovenia (Commission collected data and produced a balance of exploration, extraction and potential areas of mineral resources in the Republic of Slovenia – situation on 31 December 2002 for the first time. The balance was based on data gained from forms »Registration of the size of exploration and extraction area – situation on 31 December 2002”. The Commission has not produced any such balance before, although a need for such information has appeared in the past already. From the documents stored in the archives of the Geological Survey of Slovenia and the Commission it can be clearly seen that data on exploration and extraction areas for single types of mineral resources were collected, but were not complete in a sense of physical size and actual states in single time periods of collecting and processing those data.From the balance of existing exploration, extraction and potential areas of all types of mineral resources in the Republic of Slovenia, situation on 31 December 2002, it can be summarized that they include 2.877 km2, which is about 14,2 % of the entire Slovenian territory.

  9. Management of Mineral Resources: Economic valuation of the limestone deposits in Colombia

    This work proposes a management of natural mineral resources model based on the economic valuation of Limestone deposits in Colombia. I propose a methodology for their economic valuation derived from the simulation of three scenarios (i.e. optimistic, normal and pessimistic), for the extraction of country deposits, given some environmental, technical and financial settings

  10. Preliminary publications Book 1 from Project on Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis and Tectonics of Northeast Asia

    Ariunbileg, Sodov; Badarch, Gombosuren; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Bulgatov, Alexander N.; Chimed, Noosoi; Deikunenko, Aleksey V.; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Diggles, Michael F.; Distanov, Elimir G.; Dorjgotov, Dangindorjiin; Gerel, Ochir; Gordienko, Ivan V.; Gotovsuren, Ayurzana; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Koch, Richard D.; Miller, Robert J.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Orolmaa, Demberel; Oxman, Vladimir S.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Popeko, Ludmila I.; Prokopiev, Andrey V.; Smelov, Alexander P.; Sotnikov, Vitaliy I.; Sudo, Sadahisa; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tret'yakov, Felix F.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Ye, Mao; Zadgenizov, Alexander P.


    This report consists of preliminary data tables, maps, and interpretative articles compiled in late 1997 and early 1998 for a new project on the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia (Eastern and Southern Siberia, Mongolia, North-eastern China, South Korea, and Japan).

  11. GIS-A Tool to Change Traditional Way of Mineral Resources Appraisal


    Because of the wide application of digital spatial information technology to geology, a large spatial database in geology, geophysics, geochemistry and remote sensing is constructed, resulting in a change in conditions, methods and targets of mineral resources appraisal (MRA). In this paper, the difference between the GIS-base MRA and the traditional MRA is studied.

  12. Mineral resource assessment of pegmatite minerals in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    Lesure, Frank G.; D'Agostino, John P.


    Mineral resources of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina, were assessed between 1984 and 1990 under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The mineral resource assessments were made on the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and on the distribution of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences reported in the literature. This report is an assessment of the minerals associated with mica pegmatites in the Greenville quadrangle. It is based on the geology as mapped by Nelson and others (1989), on field studies conducted from 1952 to 1962 by the USGS for the Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA) and the concurrent examination of many of the known mica mines and prospects in Georgia, and on the published geologic literature and an unpublished report by K.H. Teague on file with the South Carolina Development Board, Division of Geology, in Columbia, S.C.

  13. The dynamic relationship between property rights, water resource management and poverty in the Lake Victoria Basin.

    Orindi, V.; Huggins, C.


    This review aims to synthesize information on the dynamic relationships between property rights to land and natural resources, water resource management and poverty in the Lake Victoria Basin of East Africa. It focuses on the way in which water management systems, under the conceptual umbrella of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), address customary claims to land and water. The water sector in all the three countries is being reformed, decentralized and liberalized to improve effic...

  14. Coexistence and inherence of diverse energy resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    CHANG Xiangchun; WANG Mingzhen; HAN Zuozhen


    The Ordos Basin is abundant in oil, natural gas, coal, coalbed gas and sandstone-type uranium deposits. Oil pools are hosted mainly in the Triassic and Jurassic systems in the southern part of the basin. Gas reservoirs which occur dominantly in the northern part of the basin are situated vertically beneath the oil pools. Coal measures are widely distributed in the Carboniferous, Permian, Jurassic and Triassic systems. Developed at the margin of the basin are the sandstone-type uranium deposits and coalbed gas. The investigations of sources and timing of various energy resources indicated that there are certain genetic connections among them. Especially the contributions of coal measures to natural gas, the supplement of coalbed gas to deep basin gas and the reduction of uranium deposits by natural gas are relatively remarkable.


    R. S. Shikalgar


    The development of morphometric techniques was a major advance in the quantitative description of thegeometry of the drainage basins and its network. Watershed prioritization on the basis of morphometric parametersis necessary in order to develop a sustainable watershed management plan. The present study aims to assess thelinear and shape morphometric parameters and prioritization of twenty three sub-watersheds of Yerala river basinfor soil resource management. Yerala river basin has an area ...

  16. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; W. Rauch


    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries – Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to...

  17. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    Laghari, A. N.; Vanham, D.; W. Rauch


    The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. The Indus Basin is shared by 4 countries – Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and China. With a current population of 237 million people which is projected to increase to 319 million in 20...

  18. Water resources of the English River, Old Mans Creek, and Clear Creek basins in Iowa

    Schwob, H.H.


    The surface and ground water resources of a 991 square mile area comprising the drainage basins of English River, Old Mans Creek and Clear Creek are presented. These basins lie to the west and southwest of Iowa City, Iowa, and all three streams are tributary to the Iowa River. The area is comprised of rolling uplands with relatively broad valleys and is devoted mainly to agriculture and livestock farming.

  19. Analysis methods of basin tectonic and its application in uranium resource evaluation

    By summing up the former research findings of the tectonics, this paper concludes that the structure identification, structure stress field, balanced cross section, paleomagnetism, isotope chronology, geographic information system(GIS)are the major research methods for the structure analysis in U-bearing basin analysis, puts forward the structure research idea that from small to large, from local to region; from simple to complex, from individual to systematic and from single scientific research to mult-study crossed research, and introduces the application of the structure analysis to uranium resources asasessment by studying on the south edge of Yili basin and the northeast of Erdos basin. (authors)

  20. Clay minerals in surface sediments of the Pearl River drainage basin and their contribution to the South China Sea

    LIU ZhiFei; Christophe COLIN; HUANG Wei; CHEN Zhong; Alain TRENTESAUX; CHEN JianFang


    Clay minerals have played a significant role in the study of the East Asian monsoon evolution in the South China Sea by being able to track oceanic current variations and to reveal contemporaneous paleoclimatic changes prevailing in continental source areas. As one of the most important rivers inputting terrigenous matters to the northern South China Sea, the Pearl River was not previously paid attention to from the viewpoint of clay mineralogy. This paper presents a detailed study on clay minerals in surface sediments collected from the Pearl River drainage basin (including all three main channels,various branches, and the Lingdingyang in the estuary) by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method.The results indicate that the clay mineral assemblage consists dominantly of kaolinite (35%-65%),lesser abundance of chlorite (20%-35%) and illite (12%-42%), and very scare smectite occurrences (generally <5%). Their respective distribution does not present any obvious difference throughout the Pearl River drainage basin. However, downstream the Pearl River to the northern South China Sea, the clay mineral assemblage varies significantly: kaolinite decreases gradually, smectite and illite increase gradually. Additionally, illite chemistry index steps down and illite crystallinity steps up. These variations indicate the contribution of major kaolinite, lesser illite and chlorite, and very scarce smectite to the northern South China Sea from the Pearl River drainage basin. The maximum contribution of clay minerals from the Pearl River is 72% to the northern margin and only 15% to the northern slope of the South China Sea. In both glacials and interglacials, kaolinite indicates that the ability of mechanical erosion occurred in the Pearl River drainage basin.

  1. Water resources planning for a river basin with recurrent wildfires.

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V; Pacheco, F A L


    Situated in the north of Portugal, the Beça River basin is subject to recurrent wildfires, which produce serious consequences on soil erosion and nutrient exports, namely by deteriorating the water quality in the basin. In the present study, the ECO Lab tool embedded in the Mike Hydro Basin software was used for the evaluation of river water quality, in particular the dissolved concentration of phosphorus in the period 1990-2013. The phosphorus concentrations are influenced by the burned area and the river flow discharge, but the hydrologic conditions prevail: in a wet year (2000, 16.3 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 16.4 m(3)·s(-1) the maximum phosphorus concentration was as low as 0.02 mg·L(-1), while in a dry year (2005, 24.4 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 2 m(3)·s(-1) the maximum concentration was as high as 0.57 mg·L(-1). Phosphorus concentrations in the water bodies exceeded the bounds of good ecological status in 2005 and between 2009 and 2012, water for human consumption in 2009 and water for multiple uses in 2010. The River Covas, a right margin tributary of Beça River, is the most appropriate stream as regards the use of water for human consumption, because it presents the biggest water potential with the best water quality. Since wildfires in the basin result essentially from natural causes and climate change forecasts indicate an increase in their frequency and intensity in the near future, forestry measures are proposed to include as a priority the conversion of stands of maritime pine in mixed stands of conifer and hardwood species. PMID:25918888

  2. Water resources optimization and eco-environmental protection in Qaidam Basin


    In order to realize sustainable development of the arid area of Northwest China, rational water resources exploitation and optimization are primary prerequisites. Based on the essential principle of sustainable development, this paper puts forward a general idea on water resources optimization and eco-environmental protection in Qaidam Basin, and identifies the competitive multiple targets of water resources optimization. By some qualitative methods such as Input-output Model & AHP Model and some quantitative methods such as System Dynamics Model & Produce Function Model, some standard plans of water resources optimization come into being. According to the Multiple Targets Decision by the Closest Value Model, the best plan of water resources optimization, eco-environmental protection and sustainable development in Qaidam Basin is finally decided.

  3. Models for Canadian unconformity deposits: An important component in metallogenic studies, exploration and mineral resource appraisals

    Canadian unconformity uranium deposits contain the world's largest high grade concentrations of uranium ores. Two models, a regional metallogenic model and a conceptual deposit model, have been developed from studies of the Athabasca Basin metallogenic province. The regional model, which has been derived from the well documented Cigar Lake - Key Lake and Rabbit Lake - Eagle Point trends and the Carswell Structure, includes specific lithological and structural controls within the large Athabasca intracratonic basin. The deposits are spatially related to Archean granitoid domes, such as the Swanson, Collins Bay and Dominique-Peter, which are flanked by a Lower Proterozoic metasedimentary sequence that contains layers of eucinic rocks. These basement rocks are capped by a regolith. They are uncomfortably overlain by a sequence of undisturbed sediments of the Athabasca Group. The Athabasca Group rocks have been subjected to high-temperature prograde diagenesis, which was followed by retrograde alteration. The deposit model, which has been derived from observations on the Cigar Lake, P2 North, Key Lake, Collins Bay and Cluff Lake deposits, postulates deposition of the metals and associated gangue minerals from highly saline brines at redox fronts. Uranium was transported in hexavalent form and deposited due to reduction to tetravalent form. The mineralization processes took place predominantly at the sub-Athabasca unconformity and, to a lesser degree, a short distance from it in the basement or in the cover rocks. At present these models are used in metallogenic studies, for delineation of new exploration targets, and in mineral potential appraisals of the Athabasca Basin frontier areas. (author). 11 refs, 18 figs

  4. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors

  5. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.


    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors.

  6. Nuclear techniques in the exploration and exploitation of energy and mineral resources

    Over the last two decades, many nuclear techniques have been developed and applied on an industrial scale for the exploration and exploitation of energy and mineral resources in developed countries. These applications have resulted in enormous technical and economic benefits, which have accrued through the improved efficiency of raw material exploration, ore extraction and processing, and through savings in the energy and materials used in these processes. The major nuclear techniques which are currently employed on a large scale include nucleonics control and on-stream analysis, nuclear well logging and tracer investigations. The well known advantages of nuclear techniques include rapidity, relative simplicity of use and, in some cases, the possibility of application in hostile environments where no other instruments or methods can be used. Furthermore, nuclear measurements and nucleonics control can be made by non-contact processes through the walls of vessels. The International Symposium on Nuclear Techniques in the Exploration and Exploitation of Energy and Mineral Resources was organized by the IAEA to review the latest concepts and developments in nuclear techniques as applied to mineral resource exploration and exploitation, and to foster an exchange of information leading to technology transfer to developing Member States. The symposium was held in Vienna from 5 to 8 June 1990 and was attended by 68 participants representing 28 Member States of the IAEA. Fifty papers were presented, dealing with nucleonics control systems and on-stream analysers in the coal industry, on-line nuclear and nuclear related techniques in the mineral industry, nuclear borehole logging applications, instrumentation, data processing and interpretation, tracer techniques, radiometric methods and nuclear activation analysis in the mineral industry. In addition, there was a panel discussion, summarized in these Proceedings, on the trends and future perspectives for nuclear and nuclear

  7. The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management

    A. N. Laghari


    Full Text Available The Indus basin is one of the regions in the world that is faced with major challenges for its water sector, due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty, all aggravated by climate change. This paper gives a comprehensive listing and description of available options for current and future sustainable water resources management (WRM within the basin. Sustainable WRM practices include both water supply management and water demand management options.

  8. The constitutionality of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002 / Elmarie van der Schyff

    Van der Schyff, Elmarie


    The Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002 (MPRDA} is premised on the principle that minerals are part of the natural heritage of all South Africans. Section 3 of the MPRDA articulates the core of the new mineral law dispensation. Through the provisions of the said section, new concepts are introduced to the field of mineral law previously governed by the South African common law system of private ownership, based on Roman-Dutch principles. The study f...

  9. Study of uranium mineralization in rock samples from marwat range bannu basin by fission track analysis technique

    The Geophysics Division, Atomic Energy Minerals Centre (AEMC), Lahore has planned a uranium exploration program in Marwat Range, Bannu Basin. In this connection 30 thin sections of rock samples, collected from four areas; namely, Darra Tang, Simukili, Karkanwal and Sheikhillah from Marwat Range, and one from Salt Range were provided to Nuclear Geology Group of Physics Research Division, PINSTECH for the study of nature and mechanism of uranium mineralization These studies are aimed to help in designing uranium exploration strategy by providing the loci of uranium sources in the Marwat and Salt Ranges. The samples have been studied using fission track analysis technique. (author)

  10. Prospects for industrial developing of technogeneous mineral resources of the Republic of Armenia

    Metal mining industry of the Republic develops mainly by the extensive way: productivity of an enterprise is increased to the detriment of full-scale ore processing and extraction, and expansion of the range of products. Huge amounts of technogeneous mineral wastes continue to accumulate in the territory of the country, creating a very tense ecological situation in some of its regions. The scope of use of these secondary resources does not match their economic potential and is now practically zero. The article proposes an option of using the technogeneous mineral wastes, which, in addition to a positive economic effect, will allow reduction of the heavy environmental load to a certain extent

  11. Sensitivity of water resources in the Delaware River basin to climate variability and change

    Ayers, Mark A.; Wolock, David M.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Tasker, Gary D.


    Because of the "greenhouse effect," projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels might cause global warming, which in turn could result in changes in precipitation patterns and evapotranspiration and in increases in sea level. This report describes the greenhouse effect; discusses the problems and uncertainties associated with the detection, prediction, and effects of climatic change, and presents the results of sensitivity-analysis studies of the potential effects of climate change on water resources in the Delaware River basin. On the basis of sensitivity analyses, potentially serious shortfalls of certain water resources in the basin could result if some climatic-change scenarios become true. The results of basin streamflow-model simulations in this study demonstrate the difficulty in distinguishing effects of climatic change on streamflow and water supply from effects of natural variability in current climate. The future direction of basin changes in most water resources, furthermore, cannot be determined precisely because of uncertainty in current projections of regional temperature and precipitation. This large uncertainty indicates that, for resource planning, information defining the sensitivities of water resources to a range of climate change is most relevant. The sensitivity analyses could be useful in developing contingency plans on how to evaluate and respond to changes, should they occur.

  12. Tectonic thermal history and its significance on the formation of oil and gas accumulation and mineral deposit in Ordos Basin


    The analyzing data on stratigraphic temperature measurement , thermal conductivity of the strata and radioactive heat production rate show that the present average geothermal gradient in the Ordos Basin is 2.93℃/100 m, and the average heat flow value is 61.78 mW/m2, which belongs to the mesothermal basin, and the value of the present geothermal gradient and heat flow in the east is higher than that in the west. The sandstone radioactive heat production rate of Zhiluo Group in Dongsheng Uranium deposits of Yimeng uplift is obviously higher in the mudstone, indicating that there exists a uranium anomaly. Based on studies of the present thermal field of the basin, the late-Mesozoic paleotemperature and paleogeothermal gradient are determined by using different kinds of paleotemperature methods. According to the anomaly of the late-Mesozoic paleotemperature gradient and magmatic event age, there was a tectonic thermal event in the early Cretaceous epoch of late-Mesozoic. This article rebuilds tectonic thermal history of different tectonic units by thermal history simulation using basin simulating software. The evolution of oil-gas and coal, and accumulation (mineralization) of mineral uranium are all controlled by the tectonic thermal history in the Ordos basin, especially by the tectonic thermal event that happened in the late Mesozoic. For both the gas source rocks of upper Paleozoic group and lower paleozoic group, the gas was largely generated in the early Cretaceous epoch of the late Mesozoic. The main petroleum generation period for Yanchang Group in Triassic system is the early Cretaceous epoch too, and the highest thermal maturity of the coal of Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, and Jurassic reaches is the early Cretaceous epoch also. Early Cretaceous epoch is still one of the most important mineralizing periods of uranium.

  13. Assessment of Climate Change Effects on Water Resources in the Yellow River Basin, China

    Zhiyong Wu


    Full Text Available The water resources in the Yellow River basin (YRB are vital to social and economic development in North and Northwest China. The basin has a marked continental monsoon climate and its water resources are especially vulnerable to climate change. Projected runoff in the basin for the period from 2001 to 2030 was simulated using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC macroscale hydrology model. VIC was first calibrated using observations and then was driven by the precipitation and temperature projected by the RegCM3 high-resolution regional climate model under the IPCC scenario A2. Results show that, under the scenario A2, the mean annual temperature of the basin could increase by 1.6°C, while mean annual precipitation could decrease by 2.6%. There could be an 11.6% reduction in annual runoff in the basin according to the VIC projection. However, there are marked regional variations in these climate change impacts. Reductions of 13.6%, 25.7%, and 24.6% could be expected in the regions of Hekouzhen to Longmen, Longmen to Sanmenxia, and Sanmenxia to Huayuankou, respectively. Our study suggests that the condition of water resources in the YRB could become more severe in the period from 2001 to 2030 under the scenario A2.

  14. Mineral-magnetic signal of long-term climatic variation in Pleistocene fluvio-lacustrine sediments, Nihewan Basin (North China)

    Ao, Hong


    The Nihewan Basin (around 40°N, North China) is a major focus of investigations into hominid occupation in the eastern Asia during the early Pleistocene, thus the paleoenvironmental evolution in this area is crucial for understanding of early human habitation at high northern latitudes of East Asia. To retrieve reliable long-term paleoenvironmental signals from the Nihewan fluvio-lacustrine sequences, I conduct an environmental magnetic investigation on the Pleistocene Xiantai fluvio-lacustrine sequence at the eastern margin of the Nihewan Basin. Results suggest that there exist an up-section decreasing trend in magnetic mineral concentration and grain size, which is attributed to a long-term decrease in abundance of magnetic minerals in the catchments and in transportation of detrital magnetic minerals into the Nihewan paleolake. I further reveal that these long-timescale variations are related to a long-term decrease in East Asian monsoon precipitation and humidity in the Nihewan Basin during the Pleistocene. This paleoclimate inference is consistent with the increasing aridification in Asian mainland during the Pleistocene, an important climate response to increasing global ice volume.

  15. Provenance of eastern Magallanes foreland basin sediments: Heavy mineral analysis reveals Paleogene tectonic unroofing of the Fuegian Andes hinterland

    Zahid, Khandaker M.; Barbeau, David L., Jr.


    Documenting variations in the composition of foreland basin detrital sediments is a useful tool for reconstructing the kinematic history of associated orogenic systems. Herein we report the results of our SEM-EDS heavy mineral analysis of the Late Cretaceous to early Miocene eastern Magallanes basin of southernmost Argentina. Our data indicate that Campanian to middle Eocene sediments had a mafic/ophiolitic provenance, which we interpret as being derived from the Patagonian-Fuegian magmatic arc and the mafic floor of the preceding Rocas Verdes marginal basin. Upper middle Eocene to lower Miocene heavy minerals, on the other hand, indicate a metamorphic/metasedimentary provenance, which we interpret as being derived from the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex. Together, these data indicate an abrupt shift in sediment provenance in middle to late Eocene time, thereby corroborating recent interpretations of the basin's detrital-zircon geochrononology, and providing further support for temporal and possibly genetic relationships between development of the Patagonian orocline, the opening of Drake Passage and the Oi-1 glaciation of Antarctica.

  16. Integration of hydrologic and water allocation models in basin-scale water resources management considering crop pattern and climate change: Karkheh River Basin in Iran

    The paradigm of integrated water resources management requires coupled analysis of hydrology and water resources in a river basin. Population growth and uncertainties due to climate change make historic data not a reliable source of information for future planning of water resources, hence necessit...

  17. Knowledge Organization of Integrated Water Resources Management: A Case of Chi River Basin, Thailand

    Nattapong Kaewboonma; Kulthida Tuamsuk; Wanida Kanarkard


    This study is a part of the research project on the Development of an Ontology-Based Semantic Search for Integrated Water Resources Management of the Chi River Basin (CRB), Thailand. The study aimed at developing the knowledge domain of water resources management for CRB. The research methods included document analysis and qualitative research by adopting Liou (1990)’s knowledge acquisition approach. Fifteen experts including ten experts in the areas of environmental engineerin...

  18. Genetic Modeling of GIS-Based Cell Clusters and Its Application in Mineral Resources Prediction


    This paper presents a synthetic analysis method for multi-sourced geological data from geographic information system (GIS). In the previous practices of mineral resources prediction, a usually adopted methodology has been statistical analysis of cells delimitated based on thoughts of random sampiing. That might lead to insufficient utilization of local spatial information, for a cell is treated as a point without internal structure. We now take "cell clusters", i. e. , spatial associations of cells, as basic units of statistics, thus the spatial configuration information of geological variables is easier to be detected and utilized, and the accuracy and reliability of prediction are improved. We build a linear multi-discriminating model for the clusters via genetic algorithm. Both the right-judgment rates and the in-class vs. between-class distance ratios are considered to form the evolutional adaptive values of the population. An application of the method in gold mineral resources prediction in east Xinjiang, China is presented.

  19. The U.S. Geological Survey`s National Coal Resource Assessment: The Northern and Central Appalachian Basin

    Ruppert, L.; Bragg, L.; Tewalt, S. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)


    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resource Surveys Program is currently conducting a five-year National Coal Resource Assessment project. Primary focus is on the quality and quantity of top-producing coal beds and coal zones in five of the nine major coal producing regions in the US. These regions include the (1) Northern and Central Appalachian Basin, (2) Gulf Coastal Plain, (3) Illinois Basin, (4) Colorado Plateau, and (5) Powder River Basin and Northern Great Plains.

  20. Analysis on the hydrogeological condition and uranium mineralization prospect in Santanghu basin, Xinjiang

    Santanghu basin is an infiltration depression basin with forward direction hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical zonation. The basin has a well developed aquifer and favorable mud-sand-mud pattern and abundant uranium source. The distribution pattern of uranium in the ground water is favorable for the precipitation and enrichment of uranium in transitional part of redox zone. (authors)

  1. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  2. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  3. Use of MAGSAT anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US midcontinent

    Carmichael, R. S.


    Magnetic field data acquired by NASA's MAGSAT satellite is used to construct a long-wavelength magnetic anomaly map for the U.S. midcontinent. This aids in interpretation of gross crustal geology (structure, lithologic composition, resource potential) of the region. Magnetic properties of minerals and rocks are investigated and assessed, to help in evaluation and modelling of crustal magnetization sources and depth to the Curie-temperature isotherm.

  4. The Design and Implementation of "The GIS Based Mineral Resource Management Information System"

    Zhang,Chunming; Sun,Huoran; Jiang,Shaofei; Zhao, Zhigang


    It is described in detail in this paper the entire development process of "The GIS Based Mineral Resource Management Information System" exercising software engineering principles together with GIS technology, database analysis and design techniques etc. It is designed to implement the standardization of geological data storage and management, to provide an efficient retrieval system and a visualization tool for data analysis,thus lays a solid foundation for profound exploration and utilization of geological data.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered gas resources of the Thrace Basin, Turkey, 2015

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 787 billion cubic feet of conventional gas and 1,630 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas in the Thrace Basin, Turkey.

  6. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Illinois Basin, 2007

    Swezey, Christopher S.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the following quantities of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Illinois Basin, USA: (1) a mean of 214 million barrels of oil; (2) a mean of 4.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas; and (3) a mean of 24 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  7. Adaptation tot changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    Moors, E.J.; Groot, A.M.E.; Biemans, H.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Siderius, C.; Stoffel, M.


    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector a

  8. Uranium mineralization along the northeastern margin of proterozoic Chhattisgarh Basin around Chitakhol, Central India: a petromineralogical study

    Uranium mineralization occurs along the unconformity contact between the basement granites and the overlying Chandrapur sediments of the Chhattisgarh Supergroup along the northeastern margin of the Chhattisgarh Basin around Chitakhol area, Korba and Janjgir - Champa districts, Chhattisgarh. A number of uranium occurrences, spread over an area of 20 km2, have been delineated with surface samples analyzing up to 0.39% U3O8 in sediments, 2.72% U3O8 in basement granites and up to 0.21% U3O8 in basic dykes. The uranium mineralization is confined to the basement granites and the overlying sediments proximal to the unconformity contact. The basic dykes traversing the basement granites are also mineralized. Uranium mineralization at the depth is associated with carbonaceous black shale and is represented by coffinite and pitchblende. Uraninite, brannerite with 'U-Fe-Ti' complex, meta-autunite and uranophane also contribute to the mineralization. However, in surface and near surface samples uranium occurs in adsorbed state on to goethite and also as filling the criss-cross fractures. Fracture filled, epigenetic, hydrothermal type of uranium mineralization related to the Proterozoic unconformity is manifested

  9. Examining Riparian Drinking Water Resources in the Danube Basin

    The importance of the need for high quality drinking water and for its long term secure supply is growing, even in economically medium developed countries. The drinking water requirements of several million people are covered by bank filtered (riparian) groundwater resources along the Danube River and its tributaries. These are very vulnerable water resources, of which exploited water is a mixture of waters coming from a minimum of two, but often from three or four sources as river water, locally infiltrated precipitation, distantly infiltrated precipitation, or infiltrated still water (from lakes or wetlands). The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires the setup of protected areas and management plans for groundwater bodies based on conceptual hydrological models. One of the most reliable methods for proving, calibrating or verifying these models is the application of environmental isotope data

  10. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.


    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long