The Safe Motherhood Initiative was launched in 1988 as a global effort to halve maternal mortality and morbidity by the year 2000. The program uses a combination of health and nonhealth strategies to emphasize the need for maternal health services, extend family planning services, and improve the status of women. The maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) is 390 for the world, 20-30 for developed countries, 450 for developing countries, and 420 for Asia. This translates into 308,000 maternal deaths in Asia, of which 100,000 occur in India. The direct causes of maternal mortality include sepsis, hemorrhage, eclampsia, and ruptured uterus. Indirect causes occur when associated medical conditions, such as anemia and jaundice, are exacerbated by pregnancy. Underlying causes are ineffective health services, inadequate obstetric care, unregulated fertility, infections, illiteracy, early marriage, poverty, malnutrition, and ignorance. India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program seeks to achieve immediate improvements by improving health care. Longterm improvements will occur as nutrition, income, education, and the status of women improve. Improvements in health care will occur in through the provision of 1) essential obstetric care for all women (which will be essentially designed for low-risk women), 2) early detection of complications during pregnancy and labor, and 3) emergency services. Services will be provided to pregnant women at their door by field staff, at a first referral hospital, perhaps at maternity villages where high risk cases can be housed in the latter part of their pregnancies, and through the continual accessibility of government vehicles. In addition, family planning services will be improved so that fertility regulation can have its expected beneficial effect on the maternal mortality rate. The professional health organizations in India will also play a vital role in the success of this effort to reduce maternal mortality. PMID
Emre Yanikkerem; Aynur Saruhan; Ahsen Sirin
The safe motherhood is aimed to reduce deaths and illnesses among women and infants, maternal deaths in developing countries are often the ultimate tragic outcome of the cumulative denial of womens human rights. Women and infants are dying because of preventable disease. Safe motherhood is now on the world agenda as one of eight millennium Development Goals. The global community of health professionals has a major responsibility to help make motherhood safer for all women. This article ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, maternal mortality ratio remains unacceptably high at 578/100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage of antenatal care (96%, only 44% of deliveries take place within the formal health services. Still, "Ensure skilled attendant at birth" is acknowledged as one of the most effective interventions to reduce maternal deaths. Exploring the potential of community-based interventions in increasing the utilization of obstetric care, the study aimed at developing, testing and assessing a community-based safe motherhood intervention in Mtwara rural District of Tanzania. Method This community-based intervention was designed as a pre-post comparison study, covering 4 villages with a total population of 8300. Intervention activities were implemented by 50 trained safe motherhood promoters (SMPs. Their tasks focused on promoting early and complete antenatal care visits and delivery with a skilled attendant. Data on all 512 deliveries taking place from October 2004 to November 2006 were collected by the SMPs and cross-checked with health service records. In addition 242 respondents were interviewed with respect to knowledge on safe motherhood issues and their perception of the SMP's performance. Skilled delivery attendance was our primary outcome; secondary outcomes included antenatal care attendance and knowledge on Safe Motherhood issues. Results Deliveries with skilled attendant significantly increased from 34.1% to 51.4% (ρ Conclusion The study has demonstrated the effectiveness of community-based safe motherhood intervention in promoting the utilization of obstetric care and a skilled attendant at delivery. This improvement is attributed to the SMPs' home visits and the close collaboration with existing community structures as well as health services.
Majhi, A K; Mondal, A; Mukherjee, G G
Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is the most important index for monitoring the progress of safe motherhood programmes. A retrospective analysis of all maternal deaths at RG Kar Medical College and Hospital, Calcutta from 1st January, 1995 to 31st December, 1997 was carried out. There were 29,563 live births and 203 maternal deaths giving cumulative MMR of 686.67 per 100,000 live births. Among the victims 25.6% were rural (59.6%) or urban slum (20.2%) and from low socio-economic status (59.6%). Most (60.10%) were multiparous and 50.74% patients died within 24 hours of hospital admission. Direct causes were responsible for 83.25%, indirect causes for 14.78% and unrelated causes for 1.97% of maternal deaths. Toxaemia was the leading cause (53.20%) of maternal mortality. Other important causes were haemorrhage (16.75%), sepsis (12.31%), severe anaemia (6.4%), infective hepatitis (1.47%) and heart disease (3.44%). In comparison to previous years no significant changes in MMR had been found though there were temporary decline in some years. The contribution of toxaemia in maternal deaths is significantly high and is on the rise. The other national and global pictures were reviewed. India is among the countries of high MMR and far away from achieving safe motherhood. Majority of deaths are preventable. The medical causes of maternal deaths are in fact, the end point of a longer chain of many underlying factors like low socio-economic status, poverty, illiteracy, high parity and inadequate or no health care. An active community-based health care system accessible to every mother with strong referral system is the most effective approach to achieve safe motherhood. PMID:11478755
This document summarizes the 10 action messages (and the rationale behind them) that emerged from a technical consultation held in Sri Lanka in 1997 to mark the 10th anniversary of the Safe Motherhood Initiative. The 10 safe motherhood messages emphasize 1) establishing safe motherhood as a human right, 2) promoting safe motherhood as a vital economic and social investment, 3) empowering women and ensuring choices, 4) delaying marriage and first birth, 5) understanding that every pregnancy involves risks, 6) ensuring skilled attendance at deliveries, 7) improving access to quality maternal health services, 8) addressing unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion, 9) measuring progress, and 10) using the power of partnerships. The document describes the extent of maternal mortality and morbidity in the world and notes that provision of quality maternal health care is the single most important intervention. The socioeconomic importance of safe motherhood is considered in the next section, followed by an explanation of the social justice and human rights aspects of safe motherhood. After a look at the importance of delaying childbearing and the fact that every pregnancy involves risks, the document highlights the need to ensure skilled attendance at delivery, to improve access to and quality of maternal health services, to prevent unwanted pregnancy, and to address unsafe abortion. The document ends by reviewing the difficulties involved in measuring maternal mortality and emphasizing the importance of analyzing each maternal death in detail and sharing the important information gleaned with the community. PMID:12293576
Mseu D; Nyasulu BM; Muheriwa SR
Dennis Mseu,1 Betty Mkwinda Nyasulu,2 Sadandaula Rose Muheriwa3 1Nurses and Midwives Council of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi; 2Basic Studies Department, Kamuzu College of Nursing, University of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi; 3Department of Maternal and Child Health, Kamuzu College of Nursing, University of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi Purpose: This study evaluated knowledge and practices of childbearing women on key childcare practices within the Safe Motherhood project, administered by the Ntcheu Distri...
In 1987 an international conference brought global attention to an issue that previously had been ignored: the world's alarmingly high number of maternal deaths in childbirth. The conference ended with a declaration calling for a reduction in maternal mortality by at least half by the year 2000. As the deadline approached, safe motherhood activists lamented the fact that the world was nowhere near to achieving this objective. They attributed this failure to a variety of causes, but were in agreement that the medical technology was available to prevent maternal deaths in childbirth, and the key was generating the political will to make such technology widely available to women in developing countries.What 'political will' means, however, has been left as an unopened black box. What causes governments to give priority to the issue of safe motherhood, given that national political systems are burdened with thousands of issues to sort through each year? In marked contrast to our extensive knowledge about the medical interventions necessary to prevent maternal death, we know little about the political interventions necessary to increase the likelihood that national leaders pay meaningful attention to the issue. Drawing from a scholarly literature on agenda setting, this paper identifies four factors that heighten the likelihood that an issue will rise to national-level attention: the existence of clear indicators showing that a problem exists; the presence of effective political entrepreneurs to push the cause; the organization of attention-generating focusing events that promote widespread concern for the issue; and the availability of politically palatable policy alternatives that enable national leaders to understand that the problem is surmountable. The paper presents a case study of the emergence, waning and re-generation of political priority for safe motherhood in Indonesia over the decade 1987-1997, to highlight how these four factors interacted to raise safe
Rao, K B
According to a 3-year collaborative study estimating maternal mortality rates from 41 hospitals affiliated with teaching centers in India, maternal mortality was 721 per 100,000 live births. Community studies in rural areas of Sirur, Pachod, and Ambula reported maternal mortality as 210-253 per 100,000. Cohort studies conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research reported maternal mortality as 530 per 100,000 based on data from rural areas of Varanasi, 460 per 100,000 in urban Delhi, and 450 per 100,000 in urban Madras. The Ministry of Health gave the rate as 460 per 100,000 in 1984, while UNICEF gave a figure of 400 per 100,000 for 1980-91. India has 1 out of 4 of the world's maternal deaths, or 1 every 6 minutes. The risk of maternal death has been calculated to be one in 64. Risk is unevenly distributed geographically. Risk is low in Kerala compared to Uttar Pradesh or Madya Pradesh. In 1992 maternal mortality was calculated to be 1320 per 100,000 births based on 5 district hospitals. The cause of maternal deaths was anemia in 25% of cases. 75% of cases were accounted for by eclampsia, sepsis, hemorrhage, and abortion. Anemia (pre-existing the pregnancy) is acerbated by the demands of pregnancy and causes congestive heart failure and death. Blood losses of greater than 150 ml (due to hemorrhages of pregnancy and labor) can be fatal. During 1982-89 anemia was responsible for 17-24% of all maternal deaths in rural areas. Morbidity from pregnancy-related causes included obstetric fistulae, pelvic inflammatory disease, anemia, genital prolapse, and urinary incontinence. Quality of maternal care is an important factor in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. Societal factors such as illiteracy and malnutrition, early marriage, poorly supervised pregnancies, and lack of transportation during emergencies are other determinants of mortality and morbidity. About 10% of maternal deaths are attributed to unsafe abortion. The government aim for the year 2000 of
Full Text Available In this historical review, Ignaz Semmelweis's study of handwashing to prevent puerperal fever is described and used as a benchmark from which to identify salient issues that are informative to today's women’s health activists working for Safe Motherhood. The epidemiology of contemporary excess maternal mortality is reviewed. Using the conceptual framework of social epidemiology, the paper addresses four issues that were problematic in Semmelweis’ era. New tools in public health are presented that can help to solve critical, still challenging problems to reduce excess maternal mortality, nosocomial infections, and puerperal fever at childbirth: 1 progress in behavioral methods to promote health behavior change, 2 the introduction of participatory action research, 3 the diffusion of evidence-based public health practice and 4 understanding how politics and health interact and present challenges when trying to meet public health goals. Social exclusion and marginality are still key issues in determining who has access to safe motherhood and who risks her life in maternity. Applied social epidemiology allows practitioners to make effective use of the already accumulated evidence and translate it into effective public health practice to promote safe motherhood around the world.
Hardee, Karen; Gay, Jill; Blanc, Ann K.
In safe motherhood programming in the developing world, insufficient attention has been given to maternal morbidity, which can extend well beyond childbirth. For every woman who dies of pregnancy-related causes, an estimated 20 women experience acute or chronic morbidity. Maternal morbidity adversely affects families, communities and societies. Maternal morbidity has multiple causes, with duration ranging from acute to chronic, severity ranging from transient to permanent and with a range of ...
Chapman, Rachel R
Despite high infant and maternal mortality rates, many Mozambican women with access to prenatal services delay prenatal clinic consultations, limiting opportunity for prevention and treatment of preventable pregnancy complications. Ethnographic research, interviews with health providers and longitudinal pregnancy case studies with 83 women were conducted in Central Mozambique to examine pregnant women's underutilization of clinic-based prenatal services. The study found that pregnancy beliefs and prenatal practices reflect women's attempts to influence reproduction under conditions of vulnerability at multiple levels. Women reported high maternal reproductive morbidity, frequent pregnancy wastage, and immense pressure to bear children throughout their reproductive years. Reproductive vulnerability is intensified by poverty and an intense burden placed on poor, peri-urban women farmers for family subsistence and continuous fertility in a period of economic austerity, land shortages, and increasing social conflict and inequality. In this environment of economic insecurity exacerbated by congested living conditions, women report competing for scarce resources, including male support and income. This vulnerability heightens women's perceptions that they and their unborn infants will be targets of witchcraft or sorcery by jealous neighbors and kin. They respond by hiding pregnancy and delaying prenatal care. Within the context of women's perceived reproductive risks, delayed prenatal care can be seen as a strategy to protect pregnancy from purposeful human and spirit harm. Women mobilized limited resources to acquire prenatal care outside the formal clinic setting. It is concluded that provision of clinical prenatal services is insufficient to reduce reproductive risks for the most socially and economically marginal since it is their vulnerability that prevents women from using available services. Confidential maternity services and social safety nets for greater
Tsu, Vivien D; Jeronimo, Jose
As we move toward the post-2015 development agenda, we should reflect on the accomplishments of the Safe Motherhood movement and derive potential lessons to strengthen programs to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. Five key areas have been the focus of attention over the years: definition of the magnitude and distribution of maternal mortality; identification of effective and feasible clinical solutions; advocacy to increase attention, resources, and commitment; leadership through international coalitions; and development of a framework for accountability, with targets and indicators. While efforts have been made in each of these areas for cervical cancer prevention, progress has been constrained by inadequate resources. Data are of variable quality, with few cancer registries in the countries where cervical cancer is most prevalent. There has been substantial progress in identifying feasible and effective clinical and programmatic interventions, and a growing consensus around meaningful indicators. Advocacy on behalf of cervical cancer prevention has been gaining momentum but leadership is still fragmented. With so many of the basic elements for cervical cancer prevention in place, we must use the lessons learned from the Safe Motherhood movement to accelerate the pace of scaling-up cervical cancer prevention activities, saving millions of women's lives in the next decade. PMID:23910179
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal care is an important strategy for protection and promotion of maternal and children's health by reducing maternal mortality and improving the quality of birth. However, the status of maternal care is quite weak in the less developed rural areas in western China. It is found that the maternal mortality rates in some western areas of China were 5.8 times higher than those of their eastern costal counterparts. In order to reduce the maternal mortality rates and to improve maternal care in western rural areas of China, the Chinese Ministry of Health (MOH and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF sponsored a program named "Safe Motherhood" in ten western provinces of China from 2001 through 2005. This study mainly aims to evaluate the effects of "Safe Motherhood" program on maternal care utilization. Methods 32 counties were included in both surveys conducted in 2001 and 2005, respectively. Ten counties of which implemented comprehensive community-based intervention were used as intervention groups, while 22 counties were used as control groups. Stratified 3-stage probability-proportion-to-size sampling method was used to select participating women. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted with questionnaires about the prenatal care utilization in 2001 and 2005, respectively. Difference in difference estimation was used to assess the effect of intervention on the maternal care utilization while controlling for socio-economic characteristics of women. Results After the intervention, the proportion of pregnant women who had their first prenatal visit in the first trimester was increased from 38.9% to 76.1%. The proportion of prenatal visits increased from 82.6% to 98.3%. The proportion of women mobilized to deliver in hospitals increased from 62.7% to 94.5%. Hospital delivery was improved greatly from 31.1% to 87.3%. The maternal mortality rate was lowered by 34.9% from 91.76 to 59.74 per 100,000 live births. The
levels of health care delivery system in developing countries like India to maintain safe - motherhood.
Dutta, P K
Editorial commentary focused on several Health System Research (HSR) approaches which exemplified some of the key issues for application of HSR for further improvement in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services in India. The goals of HSR are to delineate health policy which improves the operations of the health care delivery system for sustainability at the district level. HSR is part of a global effort of Health For All by 2000 AD and India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood (CSSM) program, sponsored by IDA/UNICEF. CSSM aims also to end polio by 2000 AD, eliminate neonatal tetanus by 1995, and prevent deaths and morbidity from measles, diarrheal diseases, and acute respiratory infection. MCH services will be expanded at the village, subcenter, primary health center, and community health center levels in order to reduce maternal mortality to below 2/1000 from the 1990 5/1000 and to reduce mortality of children aged 1-4 years to less than 10/1000 live births from 80/1000 by 2000 AD. States with particularly high levels of child and maternal mortality are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh, which have about 40% of India's population. These states have low marriage ages, low female literacy, and few women in nonagricultural employment. There are about 90 districts in these states with particularly low demographic indicators. India policy directs all CSSM work to be carried out by existing staff; the program emphasis will be training, supervision, and logistics. IEC will need to be directed to attitudinal change in rural areas and urban slums. Research has found that coverage is uneven and quality of MCH services, poor. One study will evaluate the performance over 5 years in Gwalior district in a nutrition and school health program. Another research effort will perform quality assessment of MCH care at the primary health care level and promote community awareness and increased utilization. An ongoing study is evaluating nationally the family welfare
Nwakwuo, Geoffrey Chima; Oshonwoh, Ferdinand Ebiarede
Pregnancy and the events surrounding it are generally viewed as feminine issues exclusively for women. In sub-Saharan Africa, believing that pregnancy and the events that follow are guided by nature, a lot of superstition is attributed in the event of complications, which result in poor maternal outcomes. Maternal mortality remains a public health challenge worldwide, and Nigeria has one of the highest levels of maternal mortality in the world (545 per 100,000 live births). The involvement of men in ensuring and enhancing maternal health was a great idea hatched at the Cairo conference in 1994, but since then, not much has been done in practical terms in most of the developing world. This study is aimed at assessing the level of male involvement in their spouses' reproductive health events before pregnancy, during pregnancy, delivery and peuperium. A descriptive cross-sectional study design in which questionnaires were incorporated with an in-depth interview was used and a multistage sampling technique was used to select respondents. After house numbering, a total of 400 houses were selected from a cluster of four quarters in Patani Town. Participants were systematically sampled from each household using random number table. Results from data collected on the study indicated that (61.1 %) of men were aware of maternal health issues and the level of education was shown to have significant relationship (χ² = 5.139, df = 3, p = 0.162) with the knowledge of maternal health issues. Though the level of male involvement in safe motherhood was shown to be of good proportion, strategies to create awareness on male support for their parous spouses should be given a broader frontier, both in clinics, household and community levels. Men should be more involved than before, as they have a priceless role to play towards a significant improvement in maternal health. The Government, development partners and NGOs at all levels should be committed with a strong political
Because it is often argued that surrogacy should not be treated as contractual, the question arises in which terms this practice might then be couched. In this article, I argue that a phenomenology of surrogacy centering on the notion of trust provides a description that is illuminating from the moral point of view. My thesis is that surrogacy establishes a complex and extended reproductive unit--the "surrogacy triad" consisting of the surrogate mother, the child, and the intending parents--whose constituents are bound together by mutual trustful commitments. Even though a trust-based approach does not provide an ultimate answer to whether surrogacy should be sanctioned or prohibited, it allows for at least some practical suggestions. In particular, I will argue that, under certain conditions, surrogacy is tenable within familial or other significant relationships, and I will stress the necessity of acknowledging the new relationships and moral commitments that result from this practice. PMID:26449234
Bustreo, Flavia; Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Merialdi, Mario; Presern, Carole; Songane, Francisco
The present paper provides an overview of the Safe Motherhood Initiative, Healthy Newborn Partnership, and Child Survival Partnership and their eventual merge into the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH) in 2005. The promise and past successes of the PMNCH are highlighted, with a particular focus on the PMNCH's partner-centric approach showing the importance of collaboration for progress. The aims of the strategic framework for 2012-2015 are presented within the context of the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health, launched in 2010, and growing political momentum to achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 (reduce child mortality and improve maternal health, respectively). The next 4 years leading to 2015 are critical, and the global community must continue to work together to ensure all women and children are reached with key interventions proven to reduce mortality. PMID:22883915
To deconstruct discourses on motherhood means to answer the questions, how certain gender relationships in the given society are constructed based on the dominant discourse, in which way do they become natural relationships and become binding for the members of the community creating the ideal type of woman-wife-mother. If we accept that the dominant motherhood discourse was conceived as the social relation of power, we can also inquire as to its problematizing and transformation. In this pap...
Rudge Marilza VC
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs set targets for reducing child mortality and improving maternal health by 2015. Objective To evaluate the results of a new education and referral system for antenatal/intrapartum care as a strategy to reduce the rates of Cesarean sections (C-sections and maternal/perinatal mortality. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Sao Paulo State University/UNESP, Brazil. Population: 27,387 delivering women and 27,827 offspring. Data collection: maternal and perinatal data between 1995 and 2006 at the major level III and level II hospitals in Botucatu, Brazil following initiation of a safe motherhood education and referral system. Main outcome measures: Yearly rates of C-sections, maternal (/100,000 LB and perinatal (/1000 births mortality rates at both hospitals. Data analysis: Simple linear regression models were adjusted to estimate the referral system's annual effects on the total number of deliveries, C-section and perinatal mortality ratios in the two hospitals. The linear regression were assessed by residual analysis (Shapiro-Wilk test and the influence of possible conflicting observations was evaluated by a diagnostic test (Leverage, with p Results Over the time period evaluated, the overall C-section rate was 37.3%, there were 30 maternal deaths (maternal mortality ratio = 109.5/100,000 LB and 660 perinatal deaths (perinatal mortality rate = 23.7/1000 births. The C-section rate decreased from 46.5% to 23.4% at the level II hospital while remaining unchanged at the level III hospital. The perinatal mortality rate decreased from 9.71 to 1.66/1000 births and from 60.8 to 39.6/1000 births at the level II and level III hospital, respectively. Maternal mortality ratios were 16.3/100,000 LB and 185.1/100,000 LB at the level II and level III hospitals. There was a shift from direct to indirect causes of
Full Text Available To deconstruct discourses on motherhood means to answer the questions, how certain gender relationships in the given society are constructed based on the dominant discourse, in which way do they become natural relationships and become binding for the members of the community creating the ideal type of woman-wife-mother. If we accept that the dominant motherhood discourse was conceived as the social relation of power, we can also inquire as to its problematizing and transformation. In this paper, on the one hand, religious-magical - practice are analyzed, supporting the discourse of ideal motherhood, and on the other, there is the analysis of the strategies of the magic rites, which form the alternative discourses of - control in the comprehension of woman’s reproductive role in the traditional Serbian culture of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. Cultural concepts of motherhood are directed at the fact that woman is not left with much choice, namely, the alternative discourses of motherhood tell us that women ruled over illegitimate knowledge and magic, performed abortions and in that way enabled women to strike a balance between childbearing and their own wishes and interests. However, this kind of discourse is in contrast with the interests of the church and society, that is, their tendency to use women’s reproductive potential accordi- ng to the needs of the society and not the needs of women themselves. By deconstructing taboos and magic rites which are involved in creating the discourse of the good and bad mother it is indirectly pointed at the gender construction and the power relations.
A generation after women regularly began combining motherhood with careers, female academics find that balancing the demands of the tenure system and the timing of motherhood is difficult. Some are delaying childbearing, some are asking for delay of tenure decisions, and others are job-sharing to accommodate family and career. (MSE)
Chang, Curtis Li-ming
A "surrogate mother" is a woman who, for financial or other reasons, agrees to bear a child for another woman who is incapable to conceive herself. In other words, she is a "substitute mother" that conceives, gestates and delivers a baby on behalf of another woman who is subsequently to be seen as the "real" (social and legal) mother of the child. Though the practice of surrogacy has already become a big market in western countries, it has also generated countless challenges for the law because it adds a third dimension to the meaning of motherhood. Like adoption, surrogacy separates the role of rearing mother from what the law has called the natural mother, but gestational surrogacy breaks the latter down into the roles of genetic mother and birth mother, leaving two women with biological connections to the child. Because surrogacy tends to commodify and dehumanize people, and because of all its legal, social, and psychological complications, it is obviously not wise to accept surrogacy as an alternative way of procreation. PMID:15460596
Full Text Available Surrogate motherhood, also known as surrogacy, has recently become achance to exercise the right of paternity by some people. Surrogacy itself did notinvolve a disadvantaged idea, but when this is coupled with scientific experimentsand economic and personal interests, requires intervention of the State tolegislate about consequences arising from the unlimited execution of this practice. Since 70’s,developed countries have been creating laws, decrees and regulations to regulateassisted reproduction, while developing countries have no specific legislation in thisregard, and in particular case of Colombia, law projects are proposed but soon withdrawndue to lack of knowledge and dedication.RESUMEN:La maternidad subrogada, conocida en el lenguaje popular como el alquiler de vientres seha convertido en los últimos años en una posibilidad para ejercer el derecho de paternidadpor parte de algunas personas. En sí misma no encierra una idea desventajosa, perocuando a esto se suman intereses económicos, experimentos científicos e interesespersonales, es necesaria la intervención del Estado para legislar con respecto a lasconsecuencias que se derivan de la acción sin límites de esta potestad. Desde ladécada de los 70’s, países desarrollados han divulgado leyes, decretos y normas pararegular la reproducción asistida; mientras que países en vía de desarrollo no tienenlegislaciones específicas al respecto, y en el caso particular de Colombia los proyectosde ley propuestos poco tiempo después son retirados debido a la falta de conocimientoy esmero.
Full Text Available O Brasil necessita melhorar a assistência à saúde materna e perinatal, haja vista os índices elevados de morbimortalidade e de cesáreas, o processo de medicalização do corpo feminino e a violação dos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos das mulheres durante o ciclo gravídico-puerperal. A partir da contribuição de pesquisadores e organismos internacionais dedicados ao estudo destas questões, este texto tem como finalidade oferecer subsídios teóricos que sustentem a proposta de que a promoção da maternidade segura requer a efetiva participação de obstetrizes e enfermeiras obstetras, profissionais que, a partir da perspectiva da promoção da saúde, podem colaborar na constituição de uma rede efetiva de cuidados, cuja premissa básica seja a atenção humanizada e baseada em evidências científicas a fim de melhorar a experiência da mulher e da família no processo de gestação, parto e pós-parto.Brazil needs to improve maternal and perinatal health care, given the high rates of morbidity, mortality and cesarean sections, the medicalization process of the female body and the violation of the sexual and reproductive rights of women during pregnancy and childbirth. Based on the contribution of international researchers and agencies to address these issues, the scope of this text is to provide theoretical input to support the proposal of the promotion of safe motherhood that requires the active participation of midwives and nurse-midwives. These are professionals who, from the perspective of health promotion, can collaborate in the establishment of an effective network of care, whose basic premise is the humanization of care based on scientific evidence in order to improve the experience of women and the family in the process of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum.
Fukazawa, Tomoo; Nisase, Takemi; Kawashima, Masahisa; Hariu, Takeo; Oshima, Yoshihito
Next Generation Network (NGN), which has been undergoing standardization as it has developed, is expected to create new services that converge the fixed and mobile networks. This paper introduces the basic requirements for NGN in terms of security and explains the standardization activities, in particular, the requirements for the security function described in Y.2701 discussed in ITU-T SG-13. In addition to the basic NGN security function, requirements for NGN authentication are also described from three aspects: security, deployability, and service. As examples of authentication implementation, three profiles-namely, fixed, nomadic, and mobile-are defined in this paper. That is, the “fixed profile” is typically for fixed-line subscribers, the “nomadic profile” basically utilizes WiFi access points, and the “mobile profile” provides ideal NGN mobility for mobile subscribers. All three of these profiles satisfy the requirements from security aspects. The three profiles are compared from the viewpoint of requirements for deployability and service. After showing that none of the three profiles can fulfill all of the requirements, we propose that multiple profiles should be used by NGN providers. As service and application examples, two promising NGN applications are proposed. The first is a strong authentication mechanism that makes Web applications more safe and secure even against password theft. It is based on NGN ID federation function. The second provides an easy peer-to-peer broadband virtual private network service aimed at safe and secure communication for personal/SOHO (small office, home office) users, based on NGN SIP (session initiation protocol) session control.
Patterson, Gregory A.
Tenure or baby? Motherhood or Dr. Mom? Many women in higher education still view family and career as an either/or proposition, while the institutions they work in profess to be making strides that would lessen their burden. The nation's colleges and universities are addressing the situation with programs that allow women, and sometimes men who…
The choice of motherhood for women and women's rights have been forbidden in law by men, in religious doctrines by men, and within the medical system by men. Women in poverty have little say in determining whether to have children or not. When choice is exercised for abortion, poor women have unsafe and illegal abortions, which can be life-threatening. Rich women have safer options. Women historically have allowed their rights to be eroded by gender inequality and patriarchal manipulation. The religious right and the Roman Catholic church have been allowed to speak and decide for women. Abortion rights are not about western influences, but about maternal mortality. The right to make choices about one's life is the fundamental premise of the universal rights of all human beings. African governments have signed the UN Convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, but the practice of human rights has not been implemented at the local and family level. Motherhood needs to be demystified. Motherhood is linked with the absence of personhood and bodily integrity. The rhetoric of moral obligations and the rights of the unborn child take precedence over the rights of women. The right of an African woman not to have children is not recognized in most Africa societies. The issue of AIDS creates an even more difficult milieu for women. The interests of the family and the interests of men overwhelm the interests of women to protect themselves. Motherhood is essential to validating one's heterosexuality and gaining stature, and females without a child are marginalized and unrecognized. Women whose babies do not survive are marginalized further than barren women. Men derive power from women's birthing. The terminology of male power is replete with expressions such as "pregnant with promise" and "miscarriage of justice's", no one says "uterus envy." Male psychologists only recognize "penis envy." Men need children for purposes of property, lineage, and
Lenice Gnocchi da Costa Reis
Full Text Available A mortalidade materna é uma questão complexa e permanece sendo um grave problema de saúde pública. Este artigo se propõe a olhar esse fenômeno sob a ótica do direito à saúde, destacando que a opção por trazer a discussão para o campo dos direitos humanos proporcionou a ampliação de sua explicação e uma apresentação mais clara à sociedade. É apresentada breve trajetória da inserção desse tema na agenda política global, explorando algumas iniciativas internacionais e nacionais. O quadro atual da mortalidade materna no Brasil é apenas a face mais visível da precariedade da atenção à saúde das mulheres. A situação se agrava quando são considerados os casos de morbidade materna grave, que afeta um expressivo número de mulheres. Apesar das iniciativas para a efetivação do direito à maternidade segura, ainda são poucos os avanços, e a sociedade deve exigir que o Estado reverta o quadro de injustiça contra as mulheres.Maternal mortality is a complex issue and remains a serious public health problem. This paper aims to look at this phenomenon from the perspective of the right to health, noting that the option for bringing the discussion to the field of human rights provided an extension of its explanation and a clearer presentation to society. It presents brief history of the insertion of this theme in the global policy agenda, exploring national and international initiatives. The current situation of maternal mortality in Brazil is just the most visible face of the precariousness of the health care of women. The situation worsens when cases of severe maternal morbidity are considered, which affects a significant number of women. Despite the initiatives for the realization of the right to safe motherhood, there are few advances, and society must require the State to reverse the injustice against women.
Lannuzya Verissimo e Oliveira
Full Text Available The study aimed to understand the motherhood experience for prisoners. This is an exploratory-descriptive qualitative study conducted with 17 prisoner women in the Penitentiary System of Paraíba State, during the period of July to December of 2012. A sociodemographic questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Data were organized and categorized following content analysis, generating three categories: separation suffering; comfort during anguish; family fragmentation. Results pointed out that motherhood experience in the prison is permeated by suffering and limitations. However, the presence of their child creates comfort during anguish and minimize difficulties in prison, although temporarily. It is necessary to create inter sectoral actions to favor the mother-child relationship in the prison context.
Lannuzya Verissimo e Oliveira; Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de Miranda; Gabriela Maria Cavalcanti Costa
The study aimed to understand the motherhood experience for prisoners. This is an exploratory-descriptive qualitative study conducted with 17 prisoner women in the Penitentiary System of Paraíba State, during the period of July to December of 2012. A sociodemographic questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Data were organized and categorized following content analysis, generating three categories: separation suffering; comfort during anguish; family fragmen...
Public health communication aims to influence health practices of large populations, including maternal health care providers (traditional birth attendants, (TBAs), nurse-midwives, other indigenous practitioners, and physicians). A quality assurance process is needed to give public sector health providers feedback. Computerized record keeping is needing for quality assurance of maternal health programs. The Indian Rural Medical Association has trained more than 20,000 rural indigenous practitioners in West Bengal. Training of TBAs is expensive and rarely successful. However, trained health professional leading group discussions of TBAs is successful at teaching them about correct maternity care. Health education messages integrated into popular songs and drama is a way to reach large illiterate audiences. Even though a few donor agencies and governments provide time and technical assistance to take advantage of the mass media as a means to communicate health messages, the private sector has most of the potential. Commercial advertisements pay for Video on Wheels, which, with 100 medium-sized trucks each fitted with a 100-inch screen, plays movies for rural citizens of India. They are exposed to public and family planning messages. Jain Satellite Television (JST) broadcasts 24 hours a day and plans to broadcast programs on development, health and family planning, women's issues, and continuing education for all health care providers (physicians, nurses, TBAs, community workers, and indigenous practitioners). JST and the International Federation for Family Health plan to telecast courses as part of an Open University of Health Sciences. PMID:12179179
Martin, James N
Timely and appropriate response to severe hypertension during gestation is an important component of quality, safe care for pregnant or puerperal mothers regardless of causation. The reduction of severe maternal morbidity and maternal mortality in the hypertensive mother is clearly enhanced by the addition of standard protocols for provider response to severe hypertension, particularly severe systolic hypertension. The program developed in New York State via the Safe Motherhood Initiative promotes the implementation of unit-specific safety bundles, especially one that is focused upon a standardized approach to handling the obstetric emergency of severe hypertension usually associated with preeclampsia/eclampsia. The comprehensive preeclampsia/eclampsia safety bundle as summarized by Drs. Moroz and colleagues is reviewed especially from the perspective of its focus on the timely and specific responses for health care providers to make when severe hypertension is detected in the pregnant patient. Evidence-based guidance to practice considerations and clinical care of patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia is embedded within the program outlined for New York State by Moroz and her District II ACOG colleagues. There is a central focus on timely and appropriate antepartum/postpartum management of severe hypertension, a core concept to lessen maternal risk for cerebral hemorrhage. Ten considerations for further integration into the New York program are suggested. Beyond blood pressure control, there is a need for systematic review of interventions and outcomes over time, attention to possible future variations of the protocol for racial/ethnic patient groups at highest risk for maternal morbidity and mortality, and the identification of biomarker(s) that further specify and quantify risk to the maternal brain and other organ systems when severe hypertension develops. Safer motherhood will happen when evidence for best practice is integrated into systems of care for all
The surrogate motherhood and IVF (test-tube baby) practice has currently reached an advanced level and people who are not allowed to pregnancy for medical reasons, look at positively the surrogate motherhood. The surrogacy is permitted worlwide in many countries like USA except in New Jersey, Michigan and Arizona states). Georgia, Thailand, India, Belgium, England, Brazil, some countries of Africa. It is banned in Germany, Sweden, Italy and Norway. In Turkey, The Presidency of Religious Af...
Motherhood surrogacy is almost considered as a new way to born next to natural born, adoption and IVF treatments. If the other practices are accepted by the social and scientific community, the motherhood surrogacy brings some problems, especially on a social point of view. This happens because of the big sufferance of the women involved in this practice and because of the social distortion of this practice transforming the traditional family structures and bringing social, legal and healthy ...
Full Text Available Motherhood surrogacy is almost considered as a new way to born next to natural born, adoption and IVF treatments. If the other practices are accepted by the social and scientific community, the motherhood surrogacy brings some problems, especially on a social point of view. This happens because of the big sufferance of the women involved in this practice and because of the social distortion of this practice transforming the traditional family structures and bringing social, legal and healthy problems for the persons involved. The aim of this work is to study this phenomenon also on the interest point of view in which feminism and religious position are united.
Full Text Available In her conceptualization of the human as defined by the capacity for revolt Kristeva unavoidably touches upon issues of robotization, technology, and the virtual. The concepts of animal and machine, however, although they do appear occasionally and in important ways, are never at the focus of her inquiries and are absent in her “New Forms of Revolt.” Yet these two concepts to a large extent define the field of contemporary philosophical debates of the human giving rise to three major theoretical orientations. On the one hand, there is the trend which tries to come to terms with technological novelties and the merging of human and machine that they imply. This trend unfolds under the rubric of “transhuman” or “posthuman” and of the “enhancement” of man. The second trend predominates in animal studies. Mostly in an ethical perspective but also ontologically, this trend, to which Derrida’s later writing made a significant contribution, questions the idea of the “human exception” and the rigorous distinction between man and animal on which this exception rests. While apparently antagonistic, both trends align the human with the animal and oppose it to technology. The third trend collapses the distinctions on which the previous two rely through the lens of biopolitics: drawing on Heidegger, Kojève, and Foucault, it regards contemporary technological transformations as amounting to the animalization of man. The human disappears in the animal, in the machine, or in the indistinguishability of the two, confirming what Agamben has described as the inoperativeness of the anthropological machine. The present text turns to Kristeva’s conceptions of motherhood and revolt as introducing a powerful inflection in this tripartite field. Remarkably, it is precisely new sagas of rebellious machines like Battlestar “Galactica” that foreground the relevance of Kristeva’s approach.
Sawhill, Isabel V.
Suggests that preventing early childbearing among those who are still young and unmarried is likely to yield significant social benefits, including the restoration of marriage, discussing whether marriage is the solution to the problem of early motherhood. Explains the need for strong efforts to prevent early childbearing, examining teen pregnancy…
A sample of middle-aged Latin American women of low socioeconomic status interviewed about their reproductive histories and attitudes reported almost unanimously that their first pregnancies occurred without much thought. During the pregnancy or at the birth of the first child, most began to experience motherhood as extremely satisfying. The idea of consciously deciding to become mothers was new. For these women of very limited resources, motherhood was a joy but also required effort, work, and responsibility that often was unshared. Too many children and too little money hampered their ability to enjoy motherhood. All the groups of mothers expressed ambivalent feelings of happiness and responsibility. Whether or not other family members were available to help care for the children was a key element in the lives of the women. Adolescent motherhood typically greatly curtails the mother's education and employment prospects and frequently condemns her children to lives of poverty. A few women were able to seek employment or resume their education when their children became older. Younger women appeared to have greater access to family planning information and improved prospects of planning their childbearing. PMID:12348501
A fail-safe mode of operation for computers used in nuclear reactor protection systems was first evolved in the UK for application to a sodium cooled fast reactor. The fail-safe properties of both the hardware and the software were achieved by permanently connecting test signals to some of the multiplexed inputs. This results in an unambiguous data pattern, each time the inputs are sequentially scanned by the multiplexer. The ''test inputs'' simulate transient excursions beyond defined safe limits. The alternating response of the trip algorithms to the ''out-of-limits'' test signals and the normal plant measurements is recognised by hardwired pattern recognition logic external to the computer system. For more general application to plant protection systems, a ''Test Signal Generator'' (TSG) is used to compute and generate test signals derived from prevailing operational conditions. The TSG, from its knowledge of the sensitivity of the trip algorithm to each of the input variables, generates a ''test disturbance'' which is superimposed upon each variable in turn, to simulate a transient excursion beyond the safe limits. The ''tripped'' status yielded by the trip algorithm when using data from a ''disturbed'' input forms part of a pattern determined by the order in which the disturbances are applied to the multiplexer inputs. The data pattern formed by the interleaved test disturbances is again recognised by logic external to the protection system's computers. This fail-safe mode of operation of computer-based protection systems provides a powerful defence against common-mode failure. It also reduces the importance of software verification in the licensing procedure. (author)
This paper examines the effect of violent crime on the prevalence of early motherhood in Colombia. To instrument for the predominance of violent crime I use geographical and temporal variation in drug trafficking networks. My results suggest that one standard deviation increase in the homicide rate induces a 2.55 percentage points increase in the probability of early motherhood
Linda Rae Bennett
Full Text Available This article focuses on Indonesian adolescents who are wives and mothers, demonstrating how early marriage and adolescent motherhood are normative among women from poor Sasak communities in Western Lombok. It is based on ethnographic research with 28 young mothers that included focus group discussions, in depth interviews, and observations. Demographic and ethnographic data on the aetiology of early marriage and adolescent motherhood are discussed, and confirm that low educational attainment for girls, lack of employment prospects, poverty, and low levels of economic development are all associated with a higher probability of adolescent marriage and motherhood in Indonesia. The article also reveals how conservative sexual morality and local marriage customs can propel girls into early marriage. It provides a human rights analysis that demonstrates how early marriage and adolescent motherhood intersect with the neglect of girls’ rights to education, employment, equality in marriage, health information, family planning, and maternal health.
Erlen, J A; Holzman, I R
Surrogate mothering is an arrangement whereby a woman who gives birth to an infant intends--through a contractual agreement--to give that baby to another couple. The recent Baby M case in the United States has raised numerous legal concerns causing many legislative bodies to consider possible statutes to regulate or prohibit surrogacy. The competing interests among and between the individuals involved in this relationship (i.e., the surrogate mother, the couple, the baby, and society) suggest various ethical issues related to benefits, risks, and autonomy. Legal and ethical concerns surrounding the technologically possible procedure of surrogate motherhood are discussed. PMID:2391288
This article reviews the causes and consequences of adolescent sex behavior and adolescent pregnancy and motherhood. The article opens by noting that adolescents give birth to 15 million babies annually despite their increased risk resulting from biological and social vulnerability. Risky sex behavior is seen to result from gender power imbalances and from "clustering" of high-risk behaviors. Lack of contraceptives, particularly condoms, increases risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease or HIV infection as well as the risk of pregnancy. Adolescent sexual activity also doubles the lifetime risk of acquiring cervical cancer. Pregnant adolescents are more likely than mature women to have eclampsia or obstructed labor with its attendant complication of obstetric fistula. Adolescents are also less likely to seek prenatal care and face a higher risk of death during delivery. Adolescents also account for a large proportion of abortion complications because they undergo illegal or late procedures. Babies born to adolescents risk low birth weight, prematurity, and a higher rate of perinatal mortality. Adolescent mother also face social ostracism and reduced ability to acquire a job or education. Research into adolescent sexuality is best undertaken with the input of adolescents themselves (an example is the World Health Organization's narrative research method). Adolescent health can be promoted by creation of a safe and supportive environment and by provision of 1) information, 2) opportunities for adolescents to develop skills to negotiate sexual encounters, 3) counseling, and 4) youth-friendly adolescent health services. PMID:12292434
This article addresses the connection between risk and motherhood at an urban obstetrics hospital in Mexico. It primarily aims to explore the ways that clinicians define risk as well as how they conflate risk with bad motherhood. It discusses how clinicians' perceptions of their patients' social lives shape their interactions and decisions about the women's health. The study was based on interviews and participant observation in June 2008 and June-July 2011 with 71 obstetrical patients, 30 physicians, 9 nurses, and 12 midwives in the city of Puebla. Results show that birth itself was defined as a risky event, clinicians conflated social factors with biological factors in their management of risk, and the patients were a priori classified as bad mothers. This article proposes a reproductive habitus to explain the connection between health institutions, class, responsibility, blame, and clinical decision-making to analyze how risk is managed and blame enacted upon women's bodies. PMID:22981837
Full Text Available Continuum robots exhibit great potential in a number of challenging applications where traditional rigid link robots pose certain limitations, e.g.,working in unstructured environments. In order to enable the usage of continuum robots in safety-critical applications, such as surgery and nuclear decontamination, it is extremely important to ensure a safe path for the robot’s movement. Existing algorithms for continuum robot path planning have certain limitations that need to be addressed. These include the fact that none of the algorithms provide safety assurance parameters and control for path planning. They are computationally expensive, applicable to a specific type of continuum robots, and mostly they do not incorporate design and kinematics constraints. In this paper, we propose a points-based path planning (PoPP algorithm for continuum robots that computes the path by imposing safety constraints and improves upon the limitations of existing approaches. In the algorithm, we exploit the constant curvature-bending property of continuum robots in their path planning process. The algorithm is computationally efficient and provides a good tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency that can be implemented to enable the safety-critical application of continuum robots. This algorithm also provides information regarding path volume and flexibility in movement. Simulation results confirm that the algorithm possesses promising potential for all types of continuum robots (following the constant curvature-bending property. We believe that this effectively balances the desired safety and efficiency requirements.
Schwartz, Lita Linzer
Discusses the "Baby M" surrogate motherhood case which has produced heated debate in popular media, legal publications, and other professional journals. Summarizes arguments offered and reasoning behind actions of judiciary. (Author/ABL)
Prinds, Christina Lange
Motherhood transition is a significant life event. Research from various disciplines outlines pregnancy, birth and the initial period of motherhood as a period of life in which a woman might experience disruption and gain new perspectives in a bodily, psychological, social and existential way. This...... research about the significance of motherhood transition through the lens of existential psychology. For the second and third study, a nationwide questionnaire survey among Danish first-time FT and PT mothers was conducted. In the second study attitudes about making meaning of life existentially was...... may be even more relevant for women giving birth preterm, since research suggests that mothers of premature babies undergo an experience of loss, crisis and unpredictability. This PhD project aimed to identify whether motherhood transition actualises considerations on how to make meaning of life...
Full Text Available This article is based on the research I did for my doctoral thesis about voluntarily single motherhood in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain. It is an anthropological approach to the appearance and the development of voluntarily single motherhood, which is when a woman becomes a mother through adoption or conception previously planned without partner. Within a framework of study carried out from October 2001 to October 2007 in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area, my research is based on in-depth interviews with twelve women from April 2002 to April 2006. The aim of the paper is to understand why women in Barcelona choose to be voluntarily single mothers. The purpose is to point out that the voluntarily single motherhood is a new way of understanding between women and men, resulting from the progressive changes in their respective gender roles. This anthropological research is grounded in a full vital process: from the personal decision of the women to become single mothers to the daily interaction with their children.
This chapter examines the situation of lone parents in contemporay Ireland, in particular the workings of ideologies of motherhood and the family through different sites, contexts and institutions in order to determine the impact of these ideologies on single mothers' lives. Specifically, the number of single mothers, ideologies of motherhood and the family, the influence of Church, State and New Right and Irish social policy are examined, and their combined impact on Irish single mothers is ...
WALKER, Ian; Zhu, Yu
Teen motherhood continues to be high in the US and the UK relative to most other western European countries. While recent research has clarified how effective policies to reduce teen motherhood might be (Kearney (2009)), there remains little evidence that quantifies the causal effects of teen motherhood on such mothers and their first born children. This paper provides estimates of the causal effect of teen motherhood on worklessness and does so by exploiting the availability of two sources o...
Hadfield, L.; Rudoe, N.; Sanderson-Mann, J.
In this paper we ask: How is motherhood being represented in the British media, especially in relation to choice, age and fertility? Do media discourses reflect a redefinition or transformation of "motherhood" in the twenty-first century, and what implications do they have for feminist research into maternal identity and motherhood? As three Ph.D.…
Howard, L. M.
An estimated 500,000 women, 99 percent of them from the developing world, die each year from pregnancy-related causes. About three quarters of these deaths are the direct result of obstetrical complications -- hemorrhage, infection, toxemia, obstructed labor, and abortion (under primitive and illegal conditions). An estimated equivalent number of infants do not survive their mother's death. For surviving mothers, the consequences of pregnancy have a severe impact on health and family economic...
Results: Total study participants were 36 (100% response rate. Majority (83% were aware about the two leading causes of maternal mortality (PE, PPH. Twenty four (67% knew the warning signs of eclampsia and 61% knew the signs of eclampsia but only 17% were aware of MgSO4 toxicity. Only 56% could correctly prepare the loading dose of MgSO4. All were aware about PPH; however only17% knew methergine as the drug for active management. Grossly wrong attitude noted only in 27% for PPH and 27% for severe PE. Overall preparedness for emergency was satisfactory in LR and PNC. Conclusions: Though the overall awareness for identifying emergencies (PE, PPH was satisfactory, lacunae in awareness were noted about components of eclampsia, magnesium toxicity and drugs required for initial management of PE and PPH. Preparedness of nurses in labour room and postnatal ward was fairly good. Regular assessment of awareness and preparedness for obstetric emergencies would be desirable to optimize the overall delivery outcomes especially at peripheral rural centres where nurses are primarily involved in the care of labouring women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 998-1001
Dayi Qu; Xiufeng Chen; Wansan Yang; Xiaohua Bian
In car-following procedure, some distances are reserved between the vehicles, through which drivers can avoid collisions with vehicles before and after them in the same lane and keep a reasonable clearance with lateral vehicles. This paper investigates characters of vehicle operating safety in car following state based on required safe distance. To tackle this problem, we probe into required safe distance and car-following model using molecular dynamics, covering longitudinal and lateral safe...
It is possible to bestow fail-safe properties upon any data handling system by specifying that the output shall be dynamic (i.e. shall cyclically alternate between two or more static states) and that all internal states shall also be dynamic. The choice of cyclic sequence of static states must ensure that every part of the system (each bit) is regularly exercised at a rate determined by the maximum MTTR (mean time to repair) of the system which in turn must be short compared with the MTBF (mean time between failures). Although the examples given are of very simple computer tasks which basically replace conventional trip unit and safety circuit logic hardware, the principles could be extrapolated to more complex data processing tasks. (orig.)
Edwards, Anna; Lutzker, John R.
SafeCare is an evidenced-based parenting program for at-risk and maltreating parents that addresses the social and family ecology in which child maltreatment occurs. SafeCare home visitors focus on behavioral skills that are trained to predetermined performance criteria. Recent research has stressed the importance of successful dissemination and…
In this paper, a mechanism describing the onset of bit balling is given. On the basis of this mechanism, a new copolymer/polypropylene glycol (COP/PPG) water-based drilling fluid was developed. The properties of this fluid are described, and field test comparisons are made with water- and oil-based fluids
Develop a New Group Version of the Becker-DeGroot-Marsckek (BDM) Auction to Measure Willingness to Pay of Compound Members for Shared Hardware.; Develop a New Survey Instrument to Measure Behavioural Determinants of Hand Washing and Water Treatment Like Disgust and Shame or Social Pressure.; Identify New Methods for Measuring Hand Washing and Water Treatment Behaviour.; Compare the Effectiveness of the Disgust and Shame Based Interventions With Standard Public Health Interventions.
Aswani, Anil; Sastry, S Shankar; Tomlin, Claire
Controller design for systems typically faces a trade-off between robustness and performance, and the reliability of linear controllers has caused many control practitioners to focus on the former. However, there is a renewed interest in improving system performance to deal with growing energy and pollution constraints. This paper describes a learning-based model predictive control (MPC) scheme. The MPC provides deterministic guarantees on robustness and safety, and the learning is used to identify richer models of the system to improve controller performance. Our scheme uses a linear model with bounds on its uncertainty to construct invariant sets which help to provide the guarantees, and it can be generalized to other classes of models and to pseudo-spectral methods. This framework allows us to handle state and input constraints and optimize system performance with respect to a cost function. The learning occurs through the use of an oracle which returns the value and gradient of unmodeled dynamics at discr...
Van Zyl, Liezl; Walker, Ruth
It has become common to distinguish between altruistic and commercial contract motherhood (or 'surrogacy'). Altruistic arrangements are based on the 'gift relationship': a woman is motivated by altruism to have a baby for an infertile couple, who are free to reciprocate as they see fit. By contrast, in commercial arrangements both parties are motivated by personal gain to enter a legally enforceable agreement, which stipulates that the contract mother or 'surrogate' is to bear a child for the intending parents in exchange for a fee. She is required to undergo medical examinations and to refrain from behaviour that could harm the foetus. The intending parents are the child's legal parents from the outset. The parties to the contract can, but are not expected to, maintain contact after the transaction is completed. We argue that contract motherhood should not be organized according to the norms of the gift relationship, and that contract mothers should be compensated for their labour. However, we accept that there are good reasons for rejecting the commercial model as a suitable framework for contract pregnancy, and argue, instead, in favour of viewing it as a profession. PMID:22500585
Satish Kumar; Bansal, V. K.
Worker safety during construction is widely accepted, but the selection of safe sites for a building is generally not considered. Safe site selection (SSS) largely depends upon compiling, analyzing, and refining the information of an area where a building is likely to be located. The locational and topographical aspects of an area located in hilly regions play a major role in SSS, but are generally neglected in traditional and CAD-based systems used for site selection. Architects and engineer...
Prinds, Christina Lange; Mogensen, Ole; Hvidt, Niels Christian;
to motherhood were selected. Eleven papers were included in the synthesis, all using qualitative interviews. The following data were extracted from each study: (a) author(s), year of publication, study location, (b) aims of the study, (c) participants, (d) research design, (e) data collection method......Abstract: Objective to provide a thematic overview of the existing literature on existential meaning-making related to transition to motherhood among mothers of full term born babies in Western oriented countries and to discuss the themes from a existential psychology perspective. Design: The......, (f) outcome measures, and (g) results. Measurements: The studies were synthesised in a thematisation on the basis of the existential psychotherapist and philosopher Emmy van Deurzen's concepts of four interwoven life dimensions, through which we experience, interpret, and act in the world: Umwelt...
Frenkel, D A
The Israeli Law on surrogate motherhood demands a preconception agreement to include payments to be made to the surrogate mother. Surrogacy arrangements with family members are forbidden. Commercial surrogacy is allowed and encouraged. The Law causes many problems. Validity of consent given by surrogate mothers is doubtful. Possible future psychological harm are ignored. There is a danger of "commodification" of children. Abusing women of low socio-economic status as breeding machines may be another outcome. No clear responsibility is imposed on the "intended parents" for an impaired child. The law ignores possibility of divorce or death of the "intended parents" before the child's birth. Splitting motherhood is another social problem that has to be dealt with. So far the sperm of the husband from the "intended parents" has to be used, but further steps may follow. It is not certain that a policy of "positive eugenics" will not develop. PMID:11817392
Full Text Available Rape is a common occurrence during genocide and the presence of children born as a result of rape poses a challenge to post-genocide recovery processes. This paper treats mothers of children born as a result of genocidal rape during the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi as a separate category of survivors and explores the contribution of a positive embrace of motherhood in their recovery. It is based upon a study that included fourteen women from Kigali city, Karongi District in the Western Province and Huye District in the Southern Province. Qualitative analysis of individual interviews and focus groups provided a means to explore in-depth the perceptions of mothers and the value of motherhood. It was found that mothers of children of rape experienced challenges raising their children, especially in the early stages of parenting. Social stigma related to rape and children born of rape created challenges, as did the lack of psychosocial resources for the women, particularly when faced with disclosing paternity to the children. However, despite these and other difficulties, motherhood played a positive role for many women, often providing a reason to live again after the genocide. These findings show that positive experiences of motherhood can be key to the recovery of survivors of genocidal rape in Rwanda and points to future directions for research and health promotion among populations affected by conflict-related sexual violence.
Petra Bradler; Chun Yee Wong
Using data from the 1982 National Longitudinal Survey for Young Women (NLSYW) we replicate Korenman and Neumark's (K&N) (1992) study "Marriage, Motherhood and Wages" and obtain similar OLS estimates. Applying IV estimation to account for the endogeneity of experience and tenure, K&N find evidence in favor of the endogeneity of and obtain more negative coefficients for the children coefficients. In the IV estimation we obtain experience and tenure coefficients which are not significantly diffe...
Is Breast Best?: breastfeeding, motherhood and identity is concerned with how breastfeeding is both a personal and a political issue. Earle begins with a cross-cultural analysis of the prevalence of breastfeeding, considering differences between and within countries and cultures and highlighting the presumed physical and psychological advantages for mothers and their babies. The remainder of the chapter is devoted to data derived from a qualitative study concerned with the body in pregnancy, ...
In this study, a fail-safe mechanism for backing up the reliability of an isolator device is being developed predicated on the application of a base isolation system to nuclear fuel facilities. 'Fail-safe' is often understood to mean that when a device loses its function, a separate mechanism will work in order that there will be no trouble with regard to safety. However, since it may be considered extremely difficult to support loads without any trouble when the base isolation device itself loses its function, the term will be used here to mean that the base isolation device is supported so that it will not lose its function. The two points below will be made the objectives of design as workings of the fail-safe system in this study. 1) Response Displacement Control: Suppresses excessive deformation of the base isolation device even in case of input of an earthquake greater than the design seismic force to prevent destruction of the base isolation device, superstructure, and connected piping. 2) Response Acceleration Control: Reduces acceleration transmitted to the superstructure insofar as possible by action of the fail-safe mechanism. Characteristics tests and analyses, and earthquake observations using reduced-scale model have now been carried out to grasp the response characteristics of a base isolation combining high-damping rubber bearings and hardening-stopper type fail-safe mechanisms, and the results will be reported below. (author)
Thornton, Jill M
This thesis frames the transition into motherhood as a rite of passage; proposes a new model for the rite of passage into motherhood based on the four seasons; and highlights the importance of contextual and specific ritual actions or sequences to navigate the transition. Qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with ten western women, from a middle class, Christian background, who had all become mothers through childbirth, are examined under three main headings. Firstly, the women...
According to the medical profession the direction and scope of reproductive services such as IVF and pre-natal screening are based on solid evidence; the evidence indicates these are effective and safe services. Moreover, women want them. As a consequence these services are usually presented to the wider community in a positive light with images…
Full Text Available Objective:To clarify the principles of a safe delivery based on Clinical Governance Criteria, as recommended by the pertinent experts.Materials and methods:The current study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method in 2013 and purposive sampling, performing 24 in-depth interviews based on semi-structured questions and analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research included midwives, obstetricians, managers, and hospital doctors. The data were under continuous consideration and comparative analysis in order to achieve data saturation.Results:The main concepts derived from interpretations of the pertinent experts include: Patient & Public involvement; Risk Management; Education; Clinical efficiency; Clinical audit; Personnel & Management.Conclusion:In a safe delivery, there is a vicious cycle of causes the elimination of which is only possible through benchmarking patterns that attend to most aspects of a safe delivery.Changes to services require utilization of appropriate change management strategies.
Huang, Yanshu; Davies, Paul G; Sibley, Chris G; Osborne, Danny
Although Benevolent Sexism (BS)-an ideology that highly reveres women who conform to traditional gender roles-is cloaked in a superficially positive tone, being placed upon a pedestal is inherently restrictive. Accordingly, because the paternalistic beliefs associated with BS are based on the idealization of traditional gender roles (which include motherhood), BS should predict people's attitudes toward women's reproductive rights. Using data from a nationwide longitudinal panel study (N = 12,299), Study 1 showed that BS (but not Hostile Sexism) had cross-lagged effects on opposition to both elective and traumatic abortion. Study 2 (N = 309) extended these findings by showing that the relationship between BS and support for abortion was fully mediated by attitudes toward motherhood. These results highlight the pernicious nature of BS by demonstrating that the idealization of women-and motherhood, in particular-comes at a substantial cost (namely, the restriction of women's reproductive rights). PMID:27226340
Bacon, Melanie; Blood, Leslie; Ault, Marilyn; Adams, Doug
4Kids.org is an online resource with an accompanying syndicated print publication created to promote safe access to websites and technology literacy. 4Kids.org, created by ALTEC at the University of Kansas in 1995, provides a variety of Internet-based activities as well as access to a database of websites reviewed for educational content,…
For over 30 years AEA Technology has carried out research and development in the field of nuclear instrumentation and protection systems. Throughout the course of this extensive period of research and development the dominant theme has been the achievement of fully fail-safe designs. These are defined as designs in which the failure of any single component will result in the unit output reverting to a demand for trip action status. At an early stage it was recognized that the use of dynamic rather than static logic could ease the difficulties inherent in achieving a fail-safe design. The first dynamic logic systems coupled logic elements magnetically. The paper outlines the evolution from these early concepts of a dynamic fail-safe approach to the design of computer-based safety systems. Details are given of collaboration between AEA Technology and Duke Power Co. to mount an ISATTM demonstration at Duke's Oconee Nuclear Power Station
Blaney, C L
hospital delivery by allowing family presence during delivery. Family planning has increased in parts of Inquisivi to 60%, and harmful traditional practices were curbed or revised through educational efforts. Birthing chairs are being considered for replacing prone hospital delivery. Another rural education project had traveling doctors give talks about safe delivery practices, fetal development, prenatal care, risk assessment, and emergency care. PMID:12287504
The objective with this study is to locate discourses within the anti-abortion debate in Chile and analyze these. The discourses will be contextualized with a historical perspective and the pro- abortion arguments. Based upon what was encountered during research, two themes selected were The Right to Motherhood and The Right to Life. The two themes were analyzed from a power, gender, class, body and normative lifeline perspective. The conclusion was that the anti- abortion debate in Chile is ...
Baranowska-Rataj, Anna; Matysiak, Anna; Mynarska, Monika
This paper contributes to the discussion on the effects of single motherhood on happiness. We use a mixed-method approach. First, based on in-depth interviews with mothers who gave birth while single, we explore mechanisms through which children may influence mothers’ happiness. In a second step, we analyze panel survey data to quantify this influence. Our results leave no doubt that, while raising a child outside of marriage poses many challenges, parenthood has some positive influence on a ...
This thesis explores transnational commercial surrogacy in the context of Thailand, with the specific purpose to examine Thai women’s motives and experiences of being a surrogate mother. The study is based on two months of fieldwork in Bangkok between June and August 2014 during which interviews were conducted with eleven former, current or future surrogate mothers. The analysis take a postcolonial feminist approach, and draw upon theory of motherhood, intimate labor and stratified reproducti...
Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky
Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…
Tingting Zhou; Ming Li; Xiaoming Mai; Qi Wang; Fang Liu; Qingquan Li
Tracking the actions of vehicles at crossroads and planning safe trajectories will be an effective method to reduce the rate of traffic accident at intersections. It is to resolve the problem of the abrupt change because of the existence of drivers' voluntary choices. In this paper, we make approach of an improved IMM tracking method based on trajectory generation, abstracted by trajectory generation algorithm, to improve this situation. Because of the similarity between human-driving traject...
Full Text Available Worker safety during construction is widely accepted, but the selection of safe sites for a building is generally not considered. Safe site selection (SSS largely depends upon compiling, analyzing, and refining the information of an area where a building is likely to be located. The locational and topographical aspects of an area located in hilly regions play a major role in SSS, but are generally neglected in traditional and CAD-based systems used for site selection. Architects and engineers select a site based on their judgment, knowledge, and experience, but issues related to site safety are generally ignored. This study reviewed the existing literature on site selection techniques, building codes, and approaches of existing standards to identify various aspects crucial for SSS in hilly regions. A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify various aspects that construction professionals consider critical for SSS. This study explored the application of geographic information systems (GIS in modeling the locational and topographical aspects to identify areas of suitability. A GIS-based methodology for locating a safe site that satisfies various spatial safety aspects was developed.
Chen, K C; Ng, H T
With increasing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and its related issues, the Ethics Committee of the Asia-Oceania Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (AOFOG), after discussion at its council meeting, took up the mission to understand the current legal and ethical aspects of this special subject in Asia-Oceania area before making proper recommendations. This Committee drafted a questionnaire to all 22 country member societies in 1995, and again conducted the same survey in 2000 to track changes in each country/region's laws and regulations. The results show that the current attitude and status of country member societies vary in a wide range and do not have formal legal codes in majority regulating the ethical aspects of ART. The use of ART and surrogacy is obviously affected by local traditions, popularity in the use of such techniques and cultural/religious concerns. The changes in 5 years are not major. Three countries do not as yet practice such techniques. However, liberalization of surrogate motherhood has become a trend. Five countries, compared with two only in 1995, are now available for surrogate motherhood, though regulated by strict criteria. Based on the data collected and issues discussed, a detailed guideline may not be generally applicable as each region has its own rules, reflecting differences in the management of ART, especially in the surrogate motherhood. This Committee therefore recommends that ART must be performed by a board certified gynecologist in a certification laboratory and surrogate motherhood must be used only for medical reasons and not be commercialized. The patients of this special group must be treated individually, based on this recommendation and the regulations of their own country/region. PMID:11396645
Food irradiation has been endorsed by many national and international bodies as a safe and effective method for reducing post-harvest losses in food which also enhances food hygiene. Food irradiation technology, therefore, has enormous potential to increase international trade and to stabilize the price structure thus improving rural based agro-economy. 1 tab., 6 ills
Audun Sanderud; Trygve Thomessen; Hisashi Osumi; Mihoko Niitsuma
In an increasing demand for human-robot collaboration systems, the need for safe robots is crucial. This paper presents a proactive strategy to enable an awareness of the current risk for the robot. The awareness is based upon a map of historically occupied space by the operator. The map is built based on a risk evaluation of each pose presented by the operator. The risk evaluation results in a risk field that can be used to evaluate the risk of a collaborative task. Based on this risk field,...
Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen
Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a num...
Full Text Available Each year, hundreds of thousands of children in the U.S. are victims of child maltreatment. Experts recommend behavioral, skill-based parent training programs as a strategy for the prevention of child abuse and neglect. These programs can be enhanced using innovative technology strategies. This paper presents a brief history of the use of technology in SafeCare®, a home visiting program shown to prevent child neglect and physical abuse, and highlights current work that takes a technology-based hybrid approach to SafeCare delivery. With this unique approach, the provider brings a tablet computer to each session, and the parent interacts with the software to receive psychoeducation and modeling of target skills. The provider and parent then work together to practice the targeted skills until mastery is achieved. Initial findings from ongoing research of both of these strategies indicate that they show potential for improving engagement and use of positive parenting skills for parents and ease of implementation for providers. Future directions for technology enhancements in SafeCare are also presented.
The issue of surrogate motherhood captured worldwide attention with the Baby M case in the United States. Some medical practitioners now claim that the surrogate arrangement may be the answer for certain women who are unable to conceive children naturally. Feminist activists are highly critical about the issue. In her landmark book The Mother Machine, Corea (1985) called surrogates "breeders," women whose bodies are being used by men. Lawyers and ethicists debate whether surrogacy is baby selling or not, and religious fundamentalists have condemned any form of procreation outside the "normal" or "natural" form of sexual relations within a marriage. But what do Canadian women think about commercial surrogacy? Findings pertaining to this issue from the latest national fertility survey of 5,315 women in the reproductive ages of 18-49 are reported. PMID:8056650
Melissa Cowart-Osborne; Matthew Jackson; Elizabeth Chege; Evander Baker; Daniel Whitaker; Shannon Self-Brown
Each year, hundreds of thousands of children in the U.S. are victims of child maltreatment. Experts recommend behavioral, skill-based parent training programs as a strategy for the prevention of child abuse and neglect. These programs can be enhanced using innovative technology strategies. This paper presents a brief history of the use of technology in SafeCare®, a home visiting program shown to prevent child neglect and physical abuse, and highlights current work that takes a technology-base...
Nikjoo Mohammad S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Swallowing accelerometry has been suggested as a potential non-invasive tool for bedside dysphagia screening. Various vibratory signal features and complementary measurement modalities have been put forth in the literature for the potential discrimination between safe and unsafe swallowing. To date, automatic classification of swallowing accelerometry has exclusively involved a single-axis of vibration although a second axis is known to contain additional information about the nature of the swallow. Furthermore, the only published attempt at automatic classification in adult patients has been based on a small sample of swallowing vibrations. Methods In this paper, a large corpus of dual-axis accelerometric signals were collected from 30 older adults (aged 65.47 ± 13.4 years, 15 male referred to videofluoroscopic examination on the suspicion of dysphagia. We invoked a reputation-based classifier combination to automatically categorize the dual-axis accelerometric signals into safe and unsafe swallows, as labeled via videofluoroscopic review. From these participants, a total of 224 swallowing samples were obtained, 164 of which were labeled as unsafe swallows (swallows where the bolus entered the airway and 60 as safe swallows. Three separate support vector machine (SVM classifiers and eight different features were selected for classification. Results With selected time, frequency and information theoretic features, the reputation-based algorithm distinguished between safe and unsafe swallowing with promising accuracy (80.48 ± 5.0%, high sensitivity (97.1 ± 2% and modest specificity (64 ± 8.8%. Interpretation of the most discriminatory features revealed that in general, unsafe swallows had lower mean vibration amplitude and faster autocorrelation decay, suggestive of decreased hyoid excursion and compromised coordination, respectively. Further, owing to its performance-based weighting of component classifiers, the static
Melissa Cowart-Osborne; Matthew Jackson; Elizabeth Chege; Evander Baker; Daniel Whitaker; Shannon Self-Brown
Each year, hundreds of thousands of children in the U.S. are victims of child maltreatment. Experts recommend behavioral, skill-based parent training programs as a strategy for the prevention of child abuse and neglect. These programs can be enhanced using innovative technology strategies. This paper presents a brief history of the use of technology in SafeCareÂ®, a home visiting program shown to prevent child neglect and physical abuse, and highlights current work that takes a technology-bas...
Full Text Available In an increasing demand for human-robot collaboration systems, the need for safe robots is crucial. This paper presents a proactive strategy to enable an awareness of the current risk for the robot. The awareness is based upon a map of historically occupied space by the operator. The map is built based on a risk evaluation of each pose presented by the operator. The risk evaluation results in a risk field that can be used to evaluate the risk of a collaborative task. Based on this risk field, a control algorithm that constantly reduces the current risk within its task constraints was developed. Kinematic redundancy was exploited for simultaneous task performance within task constraints, and risk minimization. Sphere-based geometric models were used both for the human and robot. The strategy was tested in simulation, and implemented and experimentally tested on a NACHI MR20 7-axes industrial robot.
If the hazardous materials transportation industry is to reduce human error, reduce accidents, and improve its public image, there must be assurance that transportation personnel are properly trained and qualified to perform their jobs in a safe and efficient manner. This training must make them intimately aware of the hazards and risks associated with transport activities, ensure understanding of responsibilities and liabilities unique to their job, and ensure that they can competently perform functional duties vital to safety. To ensure that trained and qualified personnel are on the job, it is essential that the training be performance-based and require trainees to demonstrate functional proficiency. Performance-based training has proven to be a highly effective means of ensuring personnel are qualified to conduct their assignments safely and efficiently. This training is designed around the basic premise that training must be provided that supplies the information necessary for each worker to perform their assigned duties at a predetermined and acceptable level of expertise and skill. (J.P.N.)
With recent development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, a great amount of efforts have been devoted to nanomedicine development. Among various nanomaterials, silica nanoparticle (NP) is generally accepted as non-toxic, and can provide a versatile platform for drug loading. In addition, the surface of the silica NP is hydrophilic, being favorable for cellular uptake. Therefore, it is considered as one of the most promising candidates to serve as carriers for drugs. The present thesis mainly focuses on the design of silica based nanocarrier-drug systems, aiming at achieving safe nanocarrier excretion from the biological system and enhanced drug efficacy, which two are considered as most important issues in nanomedicine development. To address the safe carrier excretion issue, we have developed a special type of selfdecomposable SiO2-drug composite NPs. By creating a radial concentration gradient of drug in the NP, the drug release occurred simultaneously with the silica carrier decomposition. Such unique characteristic was different from the conventional dense SiO2-drug NP, in which drug was uniformly distributed and can hardly escape the carrier. We found that the controllable release of the drug was primarily determined by diffusion, which was caused by the radial drug concentration gradient in the NP. Escape of the drug molecules then triggered the silica carrier decomposition, which started from the center of the NP and eventually led to its complete fragmentation. The small size of the final carrier fragments enabled their easy excretion via renal systems. Apart from the feature of safe carrier excretion, we also found the controlled release of drugs contribute significantly to the drug efficacy enhancement. By loading an anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) to the decomposable SiO 2-methylene blue (MB) NPs, we achieved a self-decomposable SiO 2(MB)-Dox nanomedicine. The gradual escape of drug molecules from NPs and their enabled cytosolic release by optical
Hala Mahmoud Obeidat
Full Text Available Aim, Background, and Introduction. Bearing and rearing children are an important part of life in nearly all cultures and are a central role for Jordanian Muslim women. Infertility can create anxiety, stress, and depression for couples who are infertile. Women frequently bear the emotional stigma of a couple’s infertility. There is a paucity of literature focusing on Jordanian Muslim women experiencing infertility and failed assistive reproductive technology. Therefore, this study explored these women’s lived experience. Methods. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with 30 Jordanian Muslim women who experienced failed assistive reproductive technology for infertility. Perceptions of experiences with failed treatment of infertility were documented and analyzed. Results. Major themes were identified: missing out on motherhood and living with infertility, experiencing marital stressors, feeling social pressure, experiencing depression and disappointment, having treatment associated difficulties, appreciating support from family and friends, using coping strategies, and fear of an unknown future. Discussion, Conclusion, and Implications for Clinical Practice. Being infertile significantly influences the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual health of Jordanian Muslim women as well as their quality of life. Perceived social support and personal coping strategies were used by study participants to mediate failed attempts to conceive. Designing and implementing culturally appropriate interventions for Muslim women globally who are experiencing infertility are essential.
Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl
A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making. PMID:25688455
Heilman, Madeline E; Okimoto, Tyler G
Results of 2 experimental studies in which job incumbents were said to be applying for promotions to traditionally male positions demonstrated bias against mothers in competence expectations and in screening recommendations. This bias occurred regardless of whether the research participants were students (Study 1) or working people (Study 2). Although anticipated job commitment, achievement striving, and dependability were rated as generally lower for parents than for nonparents, anticipated competence was uniquely low for mothers. Mediational analyses indicated that, as predicted, negativity in competence expectations, not anticipated job commitment or achievement striving, promoted the motherhood bias in screening recommendations; expected deficits in agentic behaviors, not in dependability, were found to fuel these competence expectations. These findings suggest that motherhood can indeed hinder the career advancement of women and that it is the heightened association with gender stereotypes that occurs when women are mothers that is the source of motherhood's potentially adverse consequences. PMID:18211144
Two thirds of the 4,000 women who are in prison in England and Wales are mothers of dependent children. Imprisonment can severely alter, disrupt or even terminate mothering. However, there is a relative absence of empirical research within this area. Therefore, we know little of the meaning of mothering and motherhood for women in prison. The main aim of this research was to explore the way in which women in prison make sense of motherhood and construct their mothering identity. To achiev...
Lepperdinger, Günter; Brunauer, Regina; Jamnig, Angelika;
The prospective clinical use of multipotent mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSC) holds enormous promise for the treatment of a large number of degenerative and age-related diseases. However, the challenges and risks for cell-based therapies are multifaceted. The risks for patients receiving stem...... restricts their proliferation and differentiation efficiency. It however also limits the yield of sufficient numbers of cells needed for therapy. Another issue is to eliminate contamination of expanding cells with serum-bound pathogenic agents in order to reduce the risks for infection. A recent technical...... cells, which have been expanded in vitro in the presence of xenogenic compounds, can hardly be anticipated and methods for the culture and manipulation of "safe" MSC ex vivo are being investigated. During in vitro expansion, stem cells experience a long replicative history and are thus subject to damage...
Rape is a common occurrence during genocide and the presence of children born as a result of rape poses a challenge to post-genocide recovery processes. This paper treats mothers of children born as a result of genocidal rape during the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi as a separate category of survivors and explores the contribution of a positive embrace of motherhood in their recovery. It is based upon a study that included fourteen women from Kigali city, Karongi District in the Western Pro...
Rape is considered to be a common occurrence during genocide and the children born as a result of rape pose a challenge to post-genocide recovery processes. This paper places mothers of children born as a result of genocidal rape during the Rwandan Genocide against the Tutsi to be a separate category of victims and explores the contribution of a positive embrace of motherhood to their recovery. It is based upon a study that included fourteen (14) women from Kigali city, Karongi District in th...
The Network of Excellence 'Knowledge-based Multicomponent Materials for Durable and Safe Performance' (KMM-NoE) consists of 36 institutional partners from 10 countries representing leading European research institutes and university departments (25), small and medium enterprises, SMEs (5) and large industry (7) in the field of knowledge-based multicomponent materials (KMM), more specifically in intermetallics, metal-ceramic composites, functionally graded materials and thin layers. The main goal of the KMM-NoE (currently funded by the European Commission) is to mobilise and concentrate the fragmented scientific potential in the KMM field to create a durable and efficient organism capable of developing leading-edge research while spreading the accumulated knowledge outside the Network and enhancing the technological skills of the related industries. The long-term strategic goal of the KMM-NoE is to establish a self-supporting pan-European institution in the field of knowledge-based multicomponent materials--KMM Virtual Institute (KMM-VIN). It will combine industry oriented research with educational and training activities. The KMM Virtual Institute will be founded on three main pillars: KMM European Competence Centre, KMM Integrated Post-Graduate School, KMM Mobility Programme. The KMM-NoE is coordinated by the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT) of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente
Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available. PMID:26936478
Shanok, Arielle F.; Miller, Lisa
This mixed-methods, context-oriented study explored transitions to motherhood among pregnant and newly parenting inner-city teenagers (n = 80) attending an alternative public school. Additionally, a novel research approach was assessed. Using data from a 2-year psychotherapy trial, inductive content analyses of therapy sessions and post hoc…
Yano, Tomoyuki; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Tanaka, Kentarou; Iida, Hideo
For safe and reliable skull base reconstruction combined with repair of cranial bone defects, we introduce the flap sandwich technique in this study. A titanium mesh is often used to repair structural cranial bone defects because it has less donor site morbidity and is easy to handle. However, titanium mesh has disadvantages of exposure and infection postoperatively. To improve surgical outcomes, we applied the flap sandwich technique to 3 cases of skull base reconstruction combined with cranial bone defect repair. Two anterior skull base defects and 1 middle skull base defect were included in this study. The subjects were all women, aged 30, 58, and 62 years. One patient had former multiple craniotomies and another patient had preoperative radiotherapy. The flap sandwich technique involves structural cranial bone reconstruction with a titanium mesh and soft tissue reconstruction with a chimeric anterolateral thigh free flap. First, the dead space between the repaired dura and the titanium mesh is filled with vastus lateralis muscle, and then structural reconstruction is performed with a titanium mesh. Finally, the titanium mesh is totally covered with the adiposal flap of the anterolateral thigh free flap. The muscle flap protects the dead space from infection, and the adiposal flap covers the titanium mesh to reduce mechanical stress on the covered skin and thus prevent the exposure of the titanium mesh through the scalp. By applying this technique, there was no intracranial infection or titanium mesh exposure in these 3 cases postoperatively, even though 2 patients had postoperative radiotherapy. Additionally, the adiposal flap could provide a soft and natural contour to the scalp and forehead region, and this gives patients a better facial appearance even though they have had skull base surgery. PMID:25954846
Anna Baranowska-Rataj; Anna Matysiak; Monika Mynarska
This paper contributes to the discussion on the effects of single motherhood on happiness. We use a mixed-method approach. First, based on in-depth interviews with mothers who gave birth while single, we explore mechanisms through which children may influence mothers’ subjective well-being. In a second step, we analyze panel survey data to quantify this influence. Our results leave no doubt that, while raising a child outside of marriage poses many challenges, parenthood has some positive inf...
Inauen, Jennifer; Mosler, Hans-Joachim
Theory-based interventions can enhance people's safe water consumption, but the sustainability of these interventions and the mechanisms of maintenance remain unclear. We investigated these questions based on an extended theory of planned behaviour. Seven hundred and ten (445 analysed) randomly selected households participated in two cluster-randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh. Study 1 promoted switching to neighbours' arsenic-safe wells, and Study 2 promoted switching to arsenic-safe deep wells. Both studies included two intervention phases. Structured interviews were conducted at baseline (T1), and at 1-month (T2), 2-month (T3) and 9-month (T4) follow-ups. In intervention phase 1 (between T1 and T2), commitment-based behaviour change techniques--reminders, implementation intentions and public commitment--were combined with information and compared to an information-only control group. In phase 2 (between T2 and T3), half of each phase 1 intervention group was randomly assigned to receive either commitment-based techniques once more or coping planning with reminders and information. Initial well-switching rates of up to 60% significantly declined by T4: 38.3% of T2 safe water users stopped consuming arsenic-safe water. The decline depended on the intervention. Perceived behavioural control, intentions, commitment strength and coping planning were associated with maintenance. In line with previous studies, the results indicate that commitment and reminders engender long-term behavioural change. PMID:26304476
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This paper intends to offer a theoretical insight into the myths of motherhood and how these myths can bear on the pathogenesis of postpartum depression. METHODS: From a man's view motherhood is conceptualized as a necessary stage in the progress towards the attainment of femininity. This view is impersonal and external to the experience of motherhood. From a female perspective, motherhood presents itself as a conflicting situation. We will then focus on the necessity to construct a discourse on motherhood by using a code which belongs to women rather than men. The analysis of a blog and a comedy show will provide evidence concerning the evolution of the female discourse on motherhood thus contributing to the debunking of the myths of motherhood. The final section discusses ways in which myths of motherhood can bear on the pathogenesis of postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: Among "melancholic type" women, who tend to abide by social norms, play established social roles and hide their inner conflicts, myths of motherhood contribute to suppress the contradiction which is intrinsic to motherhood itself making this contradiction uncontrollable and potentially devastating.
Full Text Available For path planning of the mobile robot in dynamic environment, this paper proposed an approach to safe path planning based on compact maps. This algorithm utilizes an efficient stream decimation algorithm of massive mesh to build compact maps of the environment models. And it uses a knowledge based genetic algorithm to find the global optimal safe path. The fitness of the algorithm is linear with gap, and has less computation demand. The proposed knowledge based genetic algorithm incorporates the domain knowledge into its initial population and adjusts adaptively the parameter, which increases greatly the efficiency of the algorithm, in order to plan safe path of the mobile robot in the dynamic environment. Various simulation results show the effectiveness and efficiency of the presented method.
Fletcher, Faith; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Kerr, Jelani; Buchberg, Meredith; Richter, Donna L; Sowell, Richard
HIV disproportionately impacts African American women of childbearing age residing in the southern United States. Antiretroviral therapy has increased the quantity and quality of life for people living with HIV and produced viable and safe reproduction possibilities for women living with HIV. However, little is known about reproductive decision-making processes for African American women living with HIV. The overall goal of our study was to qualitatively explore perspectives related to reproduction and motherhood in HIV-infected African American women of childbearing capacity. HIV-infected African American women of childbearing capacity in South Carolina (N = 42) participated in in-depth interviews. Our respondents held positive views about pregnancy and motherhood, despite nonsupportive pregnancy messages from interpersonal influences, including health care providers. Study findings uncovered the need for programs and interventions to support women's reproductive autonomy and focus on reducing conception- and pregnancy-related transmission risks to infants and uninfected sexual partners. PMID:26781931
The overall objective of the Safe-KBS project is to develop generic development and certification methodologies that allow the introduction of knowledge-based components in safety-related applications. The expert system technology presents a set of features, such as the capability to provide the rationale for its conclusions, that may significantly contribute to the new operation support systems. Nevertheless, the use of this technology in safety-related applications is limited by the lack of recognised methodologies and standards that allow a formal demonstration of the quality and reliability of these systems, as required for obtaining the approval for their use at nuclear power plants. The development methodology is structured in three hierarchical levels: life cycle model, i.e., processes and activities constituting the life cycle, life cycle plans, i.e., tasks, and support packages, i.e., set of techniques and methods to perform certain activities or tasks. The certification methodology consists of a set of certification requirements and a certification scheme for demonstrating the compliance with these requirements. This project was developed within the European framework ESPRIT, with the collaboration of Sextant, Cise, Qualience, Ilog, Computes, DNV and Uninfo. (Author)
Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Young, Tracy; Roth, Lisa; Garinger, Anne; Snetselaar, Linda; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Parents play a fundamental role in teaching their children safe driving skills to reduce risk of motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death for teens. "Steering Teens Safe" is a new parent-based intervention that equips parents with communication skills to talk about, demonstrate, and practice safe driving behaviors and skills…
Grimshaw, D. and Rubery, J.
Executive summaryWhat is the motherhood pay gap?The motherhood pay gap measures the pay gap between mothers and non-mothers,the latter defined in most econometric studies as women without dependent children. Italso measures the pay gap between mothers and fathers. This is different from the genderpay gap, which measures the pay gap between all women and all men in the workforce.While there is a considerable international literature on the motherhood gap, differencesboth in methodologies and i...
Verónica Vázquez García
Full Text Available In México, women's participation in municipal politics faces, among other difficulties, that of reconciling domestic and public responsibilities. Drawing on research conducted with eighteen female mayors of Oaxaca, this paper analyzes the ways in which women perceive the relationship between motherhood, double burden (child raising and domestic work and their presidential position. All the women who have ruled a Custom and Practice municipality in Oaxaca since 1996 were interviewed. Two main conclusions are drawn from the analysis. First, the relationship between motherhood and presidential position varies according to women's marital status; the age of their children; and their chances of hiring domestic help. Second, even if women assume a public position of prestige and responsibility, they continue to perform domestic duties; household chores do not get redistributed among its members.
Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.
Prior research shows that mothers earn lower hourly wages than women without children, and that this maternal wage penalty cannot be fully explained by differences between mothers and other women in work experience and job characteristics. This research examines whether the residual motherhood wage penalty results from differences between mothers and other women in the accumulation of work interruptions and breaks in schooling. Using longitudinal data for 486 women followed from ages 19 to 31...
This paper investigates the experience of motherhood and employment within the UK accounting profession by examining the oral history narratives of a small group of accountants who have recently become mothers and returned to work, thereby undertaking a process of redefinition and transformation of the self. Drawing from contemporary theories on identity, it considers how individuals make sense of the different social identities, which they take on over their life course, and to what extent s...
Galbraith, Mhairi; McLachlan, Hugh V; Swales, J Kim
In this paper we investigate the legal arrangements involved in UK surrogate motherhood from a transaction-cost perspective. We outline the specific forms the transaction costs take and critically comment on the way in which the UK institutional and organisational arrangements at present adversely influence transaction costs. We then focus specifically on the potential role of surrogacy agencies and look at UK and US evidence on commercial and voluntary agencies. Policy implications follow. PMID:15889679
Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of the theoretical exploration of maternity and motherhood as a feminist political idea and includes the overview of the social practices and methods aimed at strengthening maternity and parenting in modern states, emphasizing the issue of the political support and social status of motherhood in Serbia today. The general trend in current changes is the separation of the population policy from the social policy of family planning, and deterioration of the social status of parenthood and motherhood, while the formal legal framework and ideas for improving the gender equality has been nominally improved, which contributes to their impracticability. Recent changes and adoption of new laws dealing with family and parenthood are fully adapted to the neoliberal transformation of Serbia, within which the social position of women is getting worse. In response, nationalist and patriarchal family policy are reinforced in the broader society. The article highlights the importance of examining women’s experiences and needs of women related to their reproduction and maternity, as a necessary starting point for developing appropriate policies in the wider society. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179035: Izazovi nove društvene integracije u Srbiji - koncepti i akteri
Full Text Available Separating CBRN mixed samples that contain both chemical and biological warfare agents (CB mixed sample in liquid and solid matrices remains a very challenging issue. Parameters were set up to assess the performance of a simple filtration-based method first optimized on separate C- and B-agents, and then assessed on a model of CB mixed sample. In this model, MS2 bacteriophage, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis baculovirus (AcNPV, Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores were used as biological agent simulants whereas ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA and pinacolyl methylphophonic acid (PMPA were used as VX and soman (GD nerve agent surrogates, respectively. Nanoseparation centrifugal devices with various pore size cut-off (30 kD up to 0.45 µm and three RNA extraction methods (Invisorb, EZ1 and Nuclisens were compared. RNA (MS2 and DNA (AcNPV quantification was carried out by means of specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCRs (qPCR. Liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS methods was used for quantifying EMPA and PMPA. Culture methods and qPCR demonstrated that membranes with a 30 kD cut-off retain more than 99.99% of biological agents (MS2, AcNPV, Bacillus Atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores tested separately. A rapid and reliable separation of CB mixed sample models (MS2/PEG-400 and MS2/EMPA/PMPA contained in simple liquid or complex matrices such as sand and soil was also successfully achieved on a 30 kD filter with more than 99.99% retention of MS2 on the filter membrane, and up to 99% of PEG-400, EMPA and PMPA recovery in the filtrate. The whole separation process turnaround-time (TAT was less than 10 minutes. The filtration method appears to be rapid, versatile and extremely efficient. The separation method developed in this work constitutes therefore a useful model for further evaluating and comparing additional separation alternative procedures for a safe handling and
Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from ... the skin around the genital area. Before having sex: Get to know your partner and discuss your ...
Zongyan Zhao; Wenbo Wang; Zhenhua Gao; Mingruo Guo
Whey protein is a renewable and environmentally safe biomaterial, a by-product of cheese production. It can be utilized for non-food applications for value-added products. The substances glyoxal (GO), glutaraldehyde (GA), polymeric methylene biphenyl diisocyanate (p-MDI), urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin, and phenol-formaldehyde oligomer (PFO) that contain reactive groups were applied together with whey protein as modifier in order to increase crosslinking density and molecular weight for improvi...
Qingqi Pei; Xiaobo Du; Lei Liu; Chen Chen; Xiangmo Zhao
We proposed a Critical Safe Distance (CSD) model in V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle) communication systems. By elaborately analyzing the vehicular movement features for car following, we proposed a CSD definition which well balances the requirement between driving safety and traffic throughput efficiency. Different from the time-headway and traditional braking models, our model fully takes the relative movement status of the front and back cars into consideration and derives a CSD which is more pract...
Parusel, Sven; Haddadin, Sami; Albu-Schaeffer, Alin
In this paper we present a novel control architecture for realizing human-friendly behaviors and intuitive state based programming. The design implements strategies that take advantage of sophisticated soft-robotics features for providing reactive, robust, and safe robot actions in dynamic environments. Quick access to the various functionalities of the robot enables the user to develop flexible hybrid state automata for programming robot behaviors. The real-time robot co...
The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, were historically established with the objective to reduce the probability that persons be exposed to unacceptable doses due to normal operation or accident situations during transport of radioactive material. Based on the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (BSS), the definition, which was adopted for an unacceptable dose for an accident situation, is the excess of the maximum dose limits permissible in a single year for the occupational exposure of a worker in the BSS. Concerning the severity of accident situations, it has always be clearly stated that the objective of the tests for demonstrating ability to withstand accident conditions of transport was not to cover every accident condition, but solely most of them. The last available evaluations regarding the rate of accidents which are covered by the standardised accident conditions of transport defined in the IAEA Regulations give a range of about 80%, plus or minus 15% which depends on transport mode and studies. Consequently, slight variations in the capabilities of the packages to meet the specified performance would probably not have significant consequences on the protection level in case of accident. In the assessment of the compliance with the regulations, the tendency of experts, taking advantage of the enhanced performances of computer calculation codes, is to ask more and more calculations, with more and more accuracy, leading to more and more restrictions. Consequently, cost and delay are considerably increased without any evidence of an equivalent effect on the level of protection. This paper will initiate a reflection on the general objectives and principles when implementing the Regulations, in such a way that demonstrations remain cost effective, taking into account evolution of the techniques and a high level of safety
Full Text Available The thesis of the present paper is to investigate the reasons why it may become difficult for the 20th century Western woman to avoid feeling trapped within her status of motherhood and to transcend her immanence as a woman. Simone de Beauvoir argues in The Second Sex, Part V, chapter XVII (“The Mother” that the modern Western woman proves unable to transgress her own immanence. What are the three factors that stand in the way of the woman's existential telos? What is the natural consequence of her Snow White-type of imprisonment? Will she impose the same pattern of panoptic surveillance upon her own offspring?
Becoming a mother derails many women’s chances for career progression. One reason for this is that women leave organisations when they become mothers, or reduce their working hours. Another reason is that people within the organisation start to view them as less career-orientated as a result of being mothers. At the core of this issue is that who a woman is – her identity – is being redefined in the transition to motherhood, by herself and by those around her. But, little is known about how h...
School safety is a critical issue for school staff and administrators, policymakers, and parents across the nation. Media coverage of school shootings, gang violence, and bullying at school and online highlight the increasing need to understand how safe students feel at school, and how school safety affects student outcomes. Policy efforts to promote safety often focus on reducing school violence and disorder, such as zero-tolerance disciplinary policies, the installation of metal detectors, ...
QU Xiao-hui; ZHUANG Da-fang; QIU Dong-sheng
The safety of safe crop products (SCP) is critical to maintain people's health and living standard. With the global efforts on the improvement of the traceability of food products, it is inevitable to establish corresponding traceability systems to monitor the safety of crop products in China. In this article, the supply chain pattern of SCP in China has been analyzed and its spatial characters have been described in detail. The study deals with on how to relate traceability technology with GIS, and on how to trace and retrace the safety of SCP using the function of excellent spatial representation, spatial locating, and spatial analysis provided in GIS, which has been discussed from several aspects, such as coding technique of traceability information, transferring technique of traceability information, spatialization of traceability information, and application integration of traceability system. A pilot study was carried out to present the basic functions of the system, which provided an efficient and credible way to trace and retrace the safety of SCP in a real supply chain. An innovative idea has been brought forward for how to establish an efficient, credible, applied traceability system of SCP.
Tânia Cristina Machado
Full Text Available This article analyses juridical discourses about Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR in Portugal, focusing specifically on the access of lesbians to this type of intervention. Empirical data refer to an exploratory research that combined the analysis of legislation with non-directive interviews to five judges from Family and Juvenile Courts of Law of the Northern Region of Portugal. One argues that the representation of motherhood present in the law reinforces and reproduces normative sexuality and femininity while simultaneously justifies the exclusion of lesbians from MAR. As such, although Portuguese legislation emerges as a mechanism of partial deregulation of the gender regime since it appears to weaken the practical and causal association between sexuality and procreation, in fact, it ends up reinforcing dominant ideas of femininity and family. As for the judges who were interviewed, their representations of motherhood are broad enough to encompass medically assisted motherhood and/or motherhood accomplished within a lesbian couple. This is achieved through a process of normalisation of the lesbian and/or of lesbian motherhood, which may resort to five different assumptions: (i parenthood as a desire inherent to every human being; (ii motherhood as a defining element of femininity; (iii motherhood as a project framed by a stable conjugal relationship; (iv lesbian motherhood as something that can be accomplished through “natural” means; (v parenthood as a mechanism of social reproduction of the gender regime. These assumptions are differently combined and support different positions regarding lesbian motherhood: although some judges seem to concur with the preservation of heteronormativity, most favour legal changes to encompass other models of sexuality and family.
Gender-based violence is a global problem that causes more poor health and death than a host of other physical and psychological maladies combined, but it is only slowly being addressed by national public health policies and actions. Even more difficult to bring to the forefront is the issue of gender-based violence and sexual harassment in the…
Clark, S.; Hamplová, Dana
Roč. 50, č. 5 (2013), s. 1521-1549. ISSN 0070-3370 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Child mortality * single motherhood * Africa Subject RIV: AO - Sociology , Demography Impact factor: 2.631, year: 2013
Phyllis Ann Thompson
Full Text Available Review of Marilyn Francus. Monstrous Motherhood: Eighteenth-Century Culture and the Ideology of Domesticity. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 2012. Xi + 297pp. Index. ISBN 978-1-4214-0737-1.
Goud, Mula. Sneha; Sunkara, Abhiram
The roots of surrogacy can be traced long back in Indian history. The world's second and India's first IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) is a baby - Kanupriya alias Durga in 1978. Since then the field of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has developed rapidly. But legally the laws related to surrogacy are still in the nascent stage. At present the agreement between the parties based on the ART Guidelines are the guiding force of such treatment and the codified law is yet to be adopted and implemented. With the recent growth in the Intended parents opting for surrogacy, India has become the much sought after surrogacy destination. In my opinion, the acceptance of same sex marriages/union and the recognition of the basic human right to have family and children had given rise to surrogacy manifold. However, at the same time nations all across the globe are condemning commercial surrogacy as it results in commercialization of human reproductive system and co modification of children. For it has various socio-ethical reasons, surrogacy has also became a topic of deep interest amongst the government of different nations, medico-legal luminaries as well as public at large.
Dorrit, Posel; Gabrielle, van der Stoep
The effects of motherhood on women's labour force participation are estimated usually for mothers who are co-resident with their children. This paper, however, shows that a co-residency requirement upwardly biases the negative effects of motherhood in a country where labour force participation includes (temporary) migration to places of employment. In contrast to co-resident mothers in South Africa, not co-resident mothers are significantly more likely to be labour force participants. The...
Mahler, Philippe; Winkelmann, Rainer
We examine the effect of single motherhood on children's secondary school track choice using a sample of 14 years old children drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel. In line with previous studies for the U.S., the U.K. and Sweden, we find a negative correlation between disrupted family structure and children's educational outcome. Looking for alternative explanations for this correlation, we use ordered probit regression models to control for factors related to single motherhood such as ...
Liu, Qingzhi; Yıldırım, Kasım Sinan; Pawełczak, Przemysław; Warnier, Martijn
RF-based wireless power transfer networks (WPTNs) are deployed to transfer power to embedded devices over the air via RF waves. Up until now, a considerable amount of effort has been devoted by researchers to design WPTNs that maximize several objectives such as harvested power, energy outage and charging delay. However, inherent security and safety issues are generally overlooked and these need to be solved if WPTNs are to be become widespread. This article focuses on safety and security pro...
Full Text Available Good motherhood and the need for a transnational perspective In this article, the author examines how a youth care worker in a specific case attributes meaning to the concept of “good motherhood”. The author analyzes a case-study with the help of two concepts, transnationalism and intercultural competence. She concludes that a combination of a problemfocused method and a lack of attention to cultural differences can have severe consequences. Goed moederschap en de noodzaak voor een transnationaal perspectief In dit artikel onderzoekt de auteur hoe een jeugdbeschermer in een concrete casus het concept van een “goede moeder” construeert en wat de gevolgen daarvan kunnen zijn. De casus, besproken aan de hand van de concepten transnationalisme en interculturele competentie, illustreert hoe een probleemgerichte aanpak zonder aandacht voor culturele aspecten de plank mis slaat en kan leiden tot eenzijdige conclusies.
Gestational surrogacy in which a commissioning couple's egg and spermatozoon are united in vitro and the resulting embryo is implanted in a woman's uterus is, of all the new methods for overcoming infertility, the most genetically appealing. This is because the genes are often perceived as determining all aspects of human health, disease and even behaviour. Having a child with the genes of both parents has become far more attractive to most infertile couples than having one who is only genetically related to the father. However, gestational surrogacy has created a situation where one child has two mothers, each one claiming to be the 'true' mother having exclusive parental rights. Surrogacy arrangements also raise the question of the meaning of motherhood. PMID:1430122
Katelyn M. Guastaferro; Lutzker, John R.; Graham, Megan L.; Jenelle R. Shanley; Whitaker, Daniel J.
SafeCare is an evidence-based parent-training program that reduces child maltreatment, particularly neglect. The risk of child maltreatment, a public health issue affecting millions of U.S. children each year, can be markedly reduced by interventions such as SafeCare that deliver in-home services. Drawing from applied behavioral analysis roots, SafeCare focuses on providing parents with concrete skills in three areas: health, home safety, and parent-child/-infant interaction. This paper will ...
Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Gunnell, David;
. One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been...... at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. Discussion This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong...... partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered...
Full Text Available Background: Kligman′s triple combination formula has been one of the most popular treatment options in melasma over the last three decades. The original Kligman′s formula has been modified in many ways over the years and the most recent modification that has been introduced is a triple combination of 2% hydroquinone, 0.025% tretinoin, and 1% mometasone. The use of this triple combination in patients with melasma has seen a sharp rise over the last few years and with this rampant use the side-effect profile of this triple combination has also come to the fore. Aim : The aim of the present study was to assess the overall safety of the mometasone-based triple combination treatment in the management of melasma. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on 60 patients of melasma who had used a mometasone-based triple combination treatment for at least 3 weeks anytime in the previous 1 year. The patients were given a preformed questionnaire wherein they assessed the overall effect of the triple combination treatment on their melasma during its use as well as after its withdrawal. The patients were specifically asked about the status of their disease as well as the sun sensitivity of their skin before and after the use of triple combination treatment. In addition, the patients were assessed by a single trained dermatologist for the presence of any adverse effects arising out of the triple combination treatment in the form of telangiectasia, hypertrichosis, acne, skin atrophy, etc. Results: Majority of patients (51.7% had used the combination treatment well beyond the recommended duration. About one-third (36.7% of the patients rated their melasma as worse at the time of filling the questionnaire as compared with their disease before the use of triple combination treatment. On clinical examination, the evidence of steroid side effects was seen in 26 patients (43.3%. Steroid-induced telangiectasia was the commonest finding, seen
The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle! With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...
The results of further development of challenging conception of nuclear fission reactor with the so-called inner safety based on the phenomenon of self-sustained regime of nuclear burning wave proposed by L.P. Feoktistov in 1988 are presented. The initiation and propagation of the nuclear burning wave (NBW) in a fast reactor (FR) are described using the original deterministic multi-group approach based on the solution of the non-stationary two-dimensional diffusion equation for neutron transport, the burn-up equations for fuel components and the equations of nuclear kinetics for precursor nuclei of delayed neutrons. The critical fast reactor of cylindrical form with metal fuel of the UPu cycle that consists of two homogeneous zones along the axial direction is considered. In the first zone (ignition zone) the fuel consists of uranium enriched with plutonium to 10 %. The second zone (breeding zone) is filled with U- 238. Both zones also include the constructional material Fe and the Na or Pb-Bi eutectic coolant. The possibility of creating a self-sustained regime of a running NBW in the critical FR under consideration is demonstrated. Despite forming a large amount of fission products FR is automatically sustained in this regime for a long time in a state close to the critical one due to an intrinsic reactivity feedback governed by the non-linearity of the NBW regime. This negative feedback prevents the reactor from the runaway regime and ensures the stable evolution of the self-organizing NBW regime. The calculation results show a notable stability of the NBW regime towards distortions of the neutron flux. The velocity of NBW propagation strongly depends on the transverse size of FR. For the reactor of 117 cm radius the velocity is about 26 cm/year at steady state of NBW propagation, and in the case of FR of 10 m length the reactor campaign lasts about 30 years without any refueling or fuel shuffling using the natural or depleted uranium as its fuel. It means that
On March 11th, 2011, a natural disaster created by earthquakes and Tsunami caused a serious potential of nuclear reactor meltdown in Fukushima due to the failure of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) powered by diesel generators. In this paper, heat pipe based ECCS has been proposed for nuclear power plants. The designed loop type heat pipe ECCS is composed of cylindrical evaporator with 62 vertical tubes, each 150 mm diameter and 6 m length, mounted around the circumference of nuclear fuel assembly and 21 m × 10 m × 5 m naturally cooled finned condenser installed outside the primary containment. Heat pipe with overall thermal resistance of 1.44 × 10−5 °C/W will be able to reduce reactor temperature from initial working temperature of 282 °C to below 250 °C within 7 h. The overall ECCS also includes feed water flooding of the core using elevated water tank for initial 10 min which will accelerate cooling of the core, replenish core coolant during loss of coolant accident and avoids heat transfer crisis phenomena during heat pipe start-up process. The proposed heat pipe system will operate in fully passive mode with high runtime reliability and therefore provide safer environment to nuclear power plants. - Highlights: • Completely passive emergency core cooling system (ECCS) for nuclear power plants. • ECCS consists of loop type heat pipe and initial feed water flooding system. • Overall thermal resistance of loop type heat pipe is 1.44 × 10−5 °C/W. • Heat pipe system can reduce reactor temperature from 282 °C to 250 °C in 7 h. • Proposed system will provide reliable and safer cooling for nuclear reactor
Katelyn M. Guastaferro
Full Text Available SafeCare is an evidence-based parent-training program that reduces child maltreatment, particularly neglect. The risk of child maltreatment, a public health issue affecting millions of U.S. children each year, can be markedly reduced by interventions such as SafeCare that deliver in-home services. Drawing from applied behavioral analysis roots, SafeCare focuses on providing parents with concrete skills in three areas: health, home safety, and parent-child/-infant interaction. This paper will include an overview of the SafeCare model, an historical perspective of its history and dynamic development, description of the theoretical underpinnings of the model, a description of the program targets and content by describing its modules and delivery, an overview of program outcomes, and data discussion of dissemination and implementation.
La maternité est un des plus grands rites de passage vers la féminité adulte chez les femmes. Cependant, toutes les femmes n'ont pas accès à cette maternité. Dans cet article, j'explore la communauté des personnes infertiles en ligne, dans lesquelles les femmes traient de leur exclusion et expriment leur incrédulité face à la perspective d'avoir un enfant biologique. Les femmes considèrent leur infertilité comme une injustice, ce qui les mène à revendiquer cette maternité. Je soutiens que la façon dont les femmes revendiquent la maternité change notre compréhension de la maternité comme norme du genre féminin. La maternité est plus que la poursuite d'une identité du genre féminin; c'est également un droit de la femme. Cette recherche pousse en avant les conceptualisations analytiques de la maternité, tout en enrichissant de façon empirique nos connaissances face à l'homosocialité des femmes. Motherhood is one of the most enduring rites of passage to adult femininity for women. However, not all women have access to motherhood. In this paper, I explore the online infertility community wherein women blog to process their exclusion, expressing incredulity about the prospect of never having a biological child of their own. Women understand their infertility as an injustice, leading them to lay claim to motherhood. I argue that how women lay claim to motherhood changes our understanding of motherhood as a gendered norm. Motherhood is more than a pursuit of a gender identity; it is also a gendered entitlement. This research pushes analytic conceptualizations of motherhood forward, while also empirically enriching our knowledge about women's homosociality. PMID:26890448
Janoschka, Tobias; Martin, Norbert; Martin, Udo; Friebe, Christian; Morgenstern, Sabine; Hiller, Hannes; Hager, Martin D.; Schubert, Ulrich S.
For renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric to be effectively used in the grid of the future, flexible and scalable energy-storage solutions are necessary to mitigate output fluctuations. Redox-flow batteries (RFBs) were first built in the 1940s and are considered a promising large-scale energy-storage technology. A limited number of redox-active materials--mainly metal salts, corrosive halogens, and low-molar-mass organic compounds--have been investigated as active materials, and only a few membrane materials, such as Nafion, have been considered for RFBs. However, for systems that are intended for both domestic and large-scale use, safety and cost must be taken into account as well as energy density and capacity, particularly regarding long-term access to metal resources, which places limits on the lithium-ion-based and vanadium-based RFB development. Here we describe an affordable, safe, and scalable battery system, which uses organic polymers as the charge-storage material in combination with inexpensive dialysis membranes, which separate the anode and the cathode by the retention of the non-metallic, active (macro-molecular) species, and an aqueous sodium chloride solution as the electrolyte. This water- and polymer-based RFB has an energy density of 10 watt hours per litre, current densities of up to 100 milliamperes per square centimetre, and stable long-term cycling capability. The polymer-based RFB we present uses an environmentally benign sodium chloride solution and cheap, commercially available filter membranes instead of highly corrosive acid electrolytes and expensive membrane materials.
Janoschka, Tobias; Martin, Norbert; Martin, Udo; Friebe, Christian; Morgenstern, Sabine; Hiller, Hannes; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S
For renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric to be effectively used in the grid of the future, flexible and scalable energy-storage solutions are necessary to mitigate output fluctuations. Redox-flow batteries (RFBs) were first built in the 1940s and are considered a promising large-scale energy-storage technology. A limited number of redox-active materials--mainly metal salts, corrosive halogens, and low-molar-mass organic compounds--have been investigated as active materials, and only a few membrane materials, such as Nafion, have been considered for RFBs. However, for systems that are intended for both domestic and large-scale use, safety and cost must be taken into account as well as energy density and capacity, particularly regarding long-term access to metal resources, which places limits on the lithium-ion-based and vanadium-based RFB development. Here we describe an affordable, safe, and scalable battery system, which uses organic polymers as the charge-storage material in combination with inexpensive dialysis membranes, which separate the anode and the cathode by the retention of the non-metallic, active (macro-molecular) species, and an aqueous sodium chloride solution as the electrolyte. This water- and polymer-based RFB has an energy density of 10 watt hours per litre, current densities of up to 100 milliamperes per square centimetre, and stable long-term cycling capability. The polymer-based RFB we present uses an environmentally benign sodium chloride solution and cheap, commercially available filter membranes instead of highly corrosive acid electrolytes and expensive membrane materials. PMID:26503039
Drawing on sociological and anthropological studies, the aim of this article is to reconstruct how obstetric technologies contribute to a moral conception of pregnancy and motherhood, and to evaluate that conception from a normative point of view. Obstetrics and midwifery, so the assumption, are value-laden, value-producing and value-reproducing practices, values that shape the social perception of what it means to be a "good" pregnant woman and to be a "good" (future) mother. Activities in the medical field of reproduction contribute to "kinning", that is the making of particular social relationships marked by closeness and special moral obligations. Three technologies, which belong to standard procedures in prenatal care in postmodern societies, are presently investigated: (1) informed consent in prenatal care, (2) obstetric sonogram, and (3) birth plan. Their widespread application is supposed to serve the moral (and legal) goal of effecting patient autonomy (and patient right). A reconstruction of the actual moral implications of these technologies, however, reveals that this goal is missed in multiple ways. Informed consent situations are marked by involuntariness and blindness to social dimensions of decision-making; obstetric sonograms construct moral subjectivity and agency in a way that attribute inconsistent and unreasonable moral responsibilities to the pregnant woman; and birth plans obscure the need for a healthcare environment that reflects a shared-decision-making model, rather than a rational-choice-framework. PMID:25837233
Full Text Available We describe and analyze data on changes in the representations of motherhood and age characteristics of infants under the influence of pregnancy and motherhood experiences with girls in their late teens (we studied three groups: having no children, pregnant women and young mothers. We used questionnaire “Representations of characteristics of children in each period of their development” (designed by M.E. Lantsburg, A.A. Krys’ko, pictorial projective test, “Me and my child”, projective technique “Mothers TAT”, with 5 reproductions of paintings “Motherhood” by S. Krasauskas representing parenting, motherhood and childbirth, selected as stimulus material. The results of analysis were used to identify the main trends for each of the three groups of subjects.
Barclay, L; Everitt, L; Rogan, F; Schmied, V; Wyllie, A
This paper presents the results of a qualitative study conducted by midwife researchers into women's experience of new motherhood. Data were collected using focus groups involving 55 first-time mothers and analysed using grounded theory method. The analysis produced six categories: 'realizing', 'unready', 'drained', 'aloneness', 'loss' and 'working it out'. The core category, 'becoming a mother', integrates all other categories and encapsulates the process of change experienced by women. Also explained are factors mediating the often distressing experience of becoming a mother. The analysis provides a conceptualization of early motherhood enabling the development of strategies for midwives, nurses and other helping women negotiate this challenge. PMID:9104667
Full Text Available Nana Yaa Konadu Gyesaw,1 Augustine Ankomah2 1Regional Health Directorate, Ghana Health Service, Koforidua, Eastern Region, 2Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana Background: The proportion of teenage girls who are mothers or who are currently pregnant in sub-Saharan African countries is staggering. There are many studies regarding teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortions, and family planning among teenagers, but very little is known about what happens after pregnancy, ie, the experience of teenage motherhood. Several studies in Ghana have identified the determinants of early sexual activity, contraception, and unsafe abortion, with teenage motherhood only mentioned in passing. Few studies have explored the experiences of adolescent mothers in detail with regard to their pregnancy and childbirth. This qualitative study explores the experiences of adolescent mothers during pregnancy, childbirth, and care of their newborns. Methods: This qualitative study was based on data from focus group discussions and indepth interviews with teenage mothers in a suburb in Accra. Participants were recruited from health facilities as well as by snowball sampling. Results: Some of the participants became pregnant as a result of transactional sex in order to meet their basic needs, while others became pregnant as a result of sexual violence and exploitation. A few others wanted to become pregnant to command respect from people in society. In nearly all cases, parents and guardians of the adolescent mothers were upset in the initial stages when they heard the news of the pregnancy. One key finding, quite different from in other societies, was how often teenage pregnancies are eventually accepted, by both the young women and their families. Also observed was a rarity of willingness to resort to induced abortion. Conclusion: Special programs should be initiated by the government and the various
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... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...
... confusing, especially with all the new gadgets and features available (not to mention the many product recalls). ... Gates Choosing Safe Baby Products: Infant Seats & Child Safety Seats (Car Seats) Choosing Safe Baby Products: Playpens Choosing Safe ...
Full Text Available Background: During the second half of the 20th century there was a positive relationship between single parenthood and the mother's educational level in Spain and Italy. Objective: However, several important transformations contemplated by Goode (1993 and McLanahan (2004 suggest that this relationship may have been inverted in Spain but perhaps not in Italy. The purpose of our study is to test this hypothesis. Methods: We use EU_SILC data from waves 2005 and 2011 and logistic regressions. Results: We found the relationship between the mother's educational level and being a single mother is negative in Spain, while it is not significant in Italy. However, we found that for Italian mothers aged 40 and younger and mothers from northwest Italy, this relationship is also negative. By contrast, for older mothers and mothers from the islands or southern Italy, this association is positive. Meanwhile, for mothers from the central and northeast regions, the relationship between educational level and single motherhood is not significant. Conclusions: These results show how Spain and some parts of Italian society are moving towards family models similar to those in the Northern European countries. As Sara McLanahan (2004 noted for the United States, this social transformation in Southern Europe cannot be considered without recognizing the potential negative consequence for future generations. The single-mother households dealing with the economic crisis that started in 2008 have lower socioeconomic backgrounds than the single mothers who suffered through previous crises, and therefore the consequences of this crisis for children in single-parent families might be even more negative, especially in Spain.
Farokhzadian, Jamileh; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Borhani, Fariba; Zare, Mohmmad Reza
Introduction Evidence-based practice (EBP) has been recognized as the gold standard for safe and high quality care. Nurse leaders have a strategic position in terms of initiating changes in clinical settings for successfully implementing EBP. Therefore, the factors that influence implementing EBP must be measured. Aims To examine nurse leaders' attitudes, self-efficacy, and training needs for implementing evidence-based practice. Place and Duration of Study Four teaching hospitals affiliated ...
The use of nanomaterials is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN. A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures. We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have. The HSE Unit
Full Text Available A maternidade é freqüentemente situada na lógica fálica. Nossa proposta é nos interrogarmos sobre o que, da maternidade e da gestação, não se reduz ao falo. As figuras da maternidade em Clarice Lispector exibem o que há aí de incomensurável, de impossível a simbolizar e aparecem ligadas ao mundo orgânico, ou, ainda, a um gozo animal e excessivo, lembrando o que Lacan nomeia como gozo outro. A criança é, para a mulher, um modo de relação com o falo, e não dizemos o contrário, entretanto Clarice nos dá a ver que a criança torna também presente um real incomensurável.Motherhood is often situated in a phallic logic. But something in motherhood is not reduced to the phallus. The figures of motherhood in Clarice Lispector shows what is incommensurable in it, what cannot be symbolized and is still linked to the organic world, to an animal and excessive jouissance. The child is, for the woman, a kind of relation with the phallus, but also the incommensurable real.
Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew M.; Hogsnes, Geir
The motherhood wage penalty is a substantial obstacle to progress in gender equality at work. Using matched employer-employee data from Norway (1979-1996, N = 236,857 individuals, N = 1,027,462 individual-years), a country with public policies that promote combining family and career, we investigate (a) whether the penalty arises from differential…
Uses nationally representative, longitudinal data from Great Britain to examine the fertility patterns of daughters (N=2,183) of teen mothers. Explores how early motherhood is reproduced across generations, including an earlier inherited age of menarche, poor family and educational environments, and an early ideal age of childbearing. (RJM)
Barmao-Kiptanui, Catherine; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga; Lelan, Joseph K.
Teenage pregnancy and motherhood is a concern in both developed and developing countries and is a complex reality of contemporary society however the re-entry of teenage mothers into the school system continues to demand attention as society's negative attitude towards pregnant girls and teenage mothers persists. Those who do return to school…
Sencindiver, Susan Yi
narratives. Enlisting Joseph Conrad’s short story, “The Secret Sharer,” among others, as both a paradigmatic yet self-conscious example, I examine the intersecting hotbed of these two strange bedfellows, motherhood and homosexuality, as well as the significance of gender in the male doppelgänger imaginary....
Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth
Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…
This article brings together, and builds upon, previous scholarship on juvenile delinquency, motherhood, and education in 1950s America, and explores how the widespread contention that inadequate mothering was responsible for a rise in juvenile crime and social deviance helped shape the organization of schooling in the postwar era. In the first…
Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew M; Høgsnes, Geir
Given the key role that processes occurring in the family play in creating gender inequality, the family is a central focus of policies aimed at creating greater gender equality. We examine how family status affects the gender wage gap using longitudinal matched employer-employee data from Norway, 1979-96, a period with extensive expansion of family policies. The motherhood penalty dropped dramatically from 1979 to 1996. Among men the premia for marriage and fatherhood remained constant. In 1979, the gender wage gap was primarily due to the motherhood penalty, but by 1996 husband premia were more important than motherhood penalties. PMID:25097932
Smith, Lane F.
Background: There continues to be controversy about performing abdominoplasty concurrently with abdominal liposuction. The concern is that liposuction on the already vascularly compromised abdominal flap will lead to increased complications and flap necrosis. The central abdomen is supplied by the epigastric system. If perforator vessels from this system are spared, the blood supply to the abdomen can be spared and liposuction should be able to be safely performed on the elevated abdominal fl...
This report describes the seismic base isolation (SBI) design of the 4S reactor building. Currently, there are no codes and regulations specifically for the application of seismic base isolation to nuclear power plants in the U.S. Therefore, the present 4S seismic base isolation design is based on a Japanese guideline for the application of seismic base isolation to nuclear power plants. The current 4S design uses Lead-rubber bearings (LRBs), but the other types could also be used in the 4S design. An LRB device is composed of natural rubber and a lead plug damper. As a whole, an LRB device has very nonlinear dynamic properties. Among the properties, stiffness of the isolators after yielding of the dampers is a key performance indicator of the isolator. Also the yielding force level of the lead dampers is another key. The design earthquake for the 4S standard design is an Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) as defined in U.S. Regulatory Guide 1.60, scaled with maximum ground acceleration of 0.3g. The Japanese JEAG 4601-2000 guideline states, however, that it is also necessary to pay full attention to the amplitude of the design spectra in the lower-frequency region. Thus, the 4S design earthquake spectra were determined by modifying the Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectra so that they also cover, in the lower-frequency region, another design earthquake spectrum proposed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan (CRIEPI) for application of base isolation to nuclear power plants. Result of the dynamic analyses in horizontal direction shows that the maximum acceleration of the isolated building is 231 to 235 cm/sec2, which is less than the seismic input 0.3g (294 cm/sec2). The maximum displacement is 212mm, which will be the design displacement for the isolators. The base shear ratio, the ratio of total shear force at isolation level to total weight of isolated building, is 0.236. The maximum acceleration of the isolated base mat in vertical direction
The European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy) has long been running nuclear installations for research purposes. The Nuclear Decommissioning and Facilities Management Unit (NDFM) is responsible for the surveillance of radioactivity levels in nuclear emergency conditions. The NDFM Unit has commissioned the implementation of a specifically developed decision support system, which can be used for quick emergency evaluation in the case of hypothetical accident and for emergency exercises. The requisites were to be a user-friendly software, able to quickly calculate and display values of air and ground radioactive contamination in the complex area around JRC, following an accidental release of radioactive substances from a JRC nuclear research installation. The developed software, named 'SafeAirView', is an advanced implementation of GIS technology applied to an existing MS-DOS mode dispersion model, SAFEAIR (Simulation of Air pollution From EmissionsAbove Inhomogeneous Regions). SAFEAIR is a numerical model which simulates transport, diffusion, and deposition of airborne pollutants emitted in the low atmosphere above complex orography at both local and regional scale, under non-stationary and inhomogeneous emission and meteorological conditions. SafeAirView makes use of user-friendly MS-Windows type interface which drives the dispersion model by a sequential and continuous input-output process, allowing a real time simulation. The GIS environment allows a direct interaction with the territory elements in which the simulation takes place, using data for the JRC Ispra region represented in geo-referenced cartography. Furthermore it offers the possibility to relate concentrations with population distribution and other geo-referenced maps, in a geographic view. Output concentration and deposition patterns can be plotted and/or exported. In spite of the selected specific databases, the SafeAirView software architecture is a general structure
Salomon, Maria; Sylvest, Randi; Hansson, Helena;
OBJECTIVE: To examine sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, and attitudes towards motherhood in single vs. cohabiting women seeking treatment with donor semen. DESIGN: Baseline data collection in a multicenter cohort study. SETTING: All nine public fertilit...
Kaye Dan K
Abstract Background Adolescence is a transitional stage from childhood to adulthood that is characterized by physical, physiological, psychosocial and behavioral changes that are influenced to a large extent by the age, culture and socialization of the individual. To explore what adolescent mothers perceive as their struggles during the period of transition from childhood to parenthood (through motherhood) and to describe strategies employed in coping with stress of pregnancy, motherhood and ...
Until recently, surrogacy was banned in Vietnam for all cases. The government, however, has altered its position on reproductive technology and will soon legalize non-commercial surrogacy among relatives. Motherhood is highly venerated in Vietnamese society and, under this local kinship conception, gestational process is of paramount importance in establishing a connection between the fetus and the woman. The implications of this new government decision for local kinship, motherhood and the individuals concerned will be discussed. PMID:25496836
Edson Ferreira Liberal
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is
... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Choosing Safe Toys KidsHealth > For Parents > Choosing Safe Toys Print A ... can contribute to hearing damage. continue The Right Toys at the Right Ages Always read labels to ...
... Use Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription ... all the medicines, vitamins, minerals, and herbs you use. Share this information with your doctor. Store your ...
Zhou, Shuya; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Xing; Chen, Pan; Wu, Xi; Guo, Yanan; Liu, Susu; Liang, Zhenglun; Fan, Changfa; Wang, Youchun
Enterovirus A71 infection has become a severe threat for global public health. Vaccines for controlling and preventing Enterovirus A71 epidemics are highly demanded, however, vaccine evaluation has been hindered by the lack of suitable Enterovirus A71 infection animal models. Here we established an hSCARB2 knockin mouse model for real-time monitoring of enterovirus A71 infection in vivo. This model was sensitive to the infection of both replication-competent virus rEV71(FY)-EGFP and single round pseudotype virus pEV71(FY)-Luc. The intensity of bioluminescence correlated well with viral loads in infected tissues (R=0.86, Pbioluminescence. Therefore, this work provides a safe, sensitive and visualizing model for exploring mechanisms of enterovirus A71 infection and examining human enterovirus A71 vaccines and antiviral therapies. PMID:27102822
Marlowe, Penny; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal
Armed conflict causes suffering in many countries; it contributes to poor health and hinders health services development. The effects of conflict are evidenced by weakened community structures and can make reconstruction efforts challenging. East Timor has a history of prolonged conflict and saw a resurgence of internal violence in 2006. This participant observation study discusses considerations for implementing public health and health systems development projects in postconflict settings using a case study of a maternal and child health project. It illustrates the importance of appreciating the historical context and community dynamics when implementing development projects. The sequelae of conflict are often characterized by reduced human resource development capacity, distrust of hierarchy, and limited capacity for resource mobilization. Working in such postconflict communities requires flexibility in program design, stronger efforts for community capacity building, and rebuilding trust between various stakeholders. PMID:19783562
General Electric provided results for several boiling water reactor/4 (BWR/4) accident sequences using the SAFE computer code. MAAP-BWR 3.0B Revision 6, was exercised for the same sequences to compare against the SAFE results. Overall, the SAFE and MAAP results for the sequences analyzed show excellent agreement. There are some uncertainties as to the assumptions in the SAFE calculations and the initial conditions. However, given those uncertainties, MAAP and SAFE appear to agree quite well on the response of the reactor vessel for various accident sequences
Silva, Sofia A; Pires, António P; Guerreiro, Cristina; Cardoso, Antónia
This is a study about balancing motherhood and drug addiction, during the transition to parenthood. Few studies have dealt with the parental experience of drug-addicted mothers. The participants included 24 drug-addicted mothers, on methadone, with ages 25-42 and with children 1-32 months of age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed according to Grounded Theory. The mothers' main concern was the ambivalence they felt towards pregnancy/motherhood and drug addiction, which was associated with strong feelings of guilt. Confronted with this ambivalence their maternal role becomes merely functional. They focus on providing the basic care to the child, but show little willingness to talk or play. Social support, especially from the partner seems to have a positive role. PMID:22544158
Cenna, Jonathan; Hunter, Meredith; Tan, Gene S; Papaneri, Amy B; Ribka, Erin P; Schnell, Matthias J; Marx, Preston A; McGettigan, James P
Although current postexposure prophylaxis rabies virus (RV) vaccines are effective, approximately 40,000-70,000 rabies-related deaths are reported annually worldwide. The development of effective formulations requiring only 1-2 applications would significantly reduce mortality. We assessed in mice and nonhuman primates the efficacy of replication-deficient RV vaccine vectors that lack either the matrix (M) or phosphoprotein (P) gene. A single dose of M gene-deficient RV induced a more rapid and efficient anti-RV response than did P gene-deficient RV immunization. Furthermore, the M gene-deleted RV vaccine induced 4-fold higher virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) levels in rhesus macaques than did a commercial vaccine within 10 days after inoculation, and at 180 days after immunization rhesus macaques remained healthy and had higher-avidity antibodies, higher VNA titers, and a more potent antibody response typical of a type 1 T helper response than did animals immunized with a commercial vaccine. The data presented in this article suggest that the M gene-deleted RV vaccine is safe and effective and holds the potential of replacing current pre- and postexposure RV vaccines. PMID:19764884
Cenna, Jonathan; Hunter, Meredith; Tan, Gene S.; Papaneri, Amy B.; Ribka, Erin P.; Schnell, Matthias J.; Marx, Preston A.; McGettigan, James P.
Although current postexposure prophylaxis rabies virus (RV) vaccines are effective, ~40,000–70,000 rabies-related deaths are reported annually worldwide. The development of effective formulations requiring only 1–2 applications would significantly reduce mortality. We assessed in mice and nonhuman primates the efficacy of replication-deficient RV vaccine vectors that lack either the matrix (M) or phosphoprotein (P) gene. A single dose of M gene–deficient RV induced a more rapid and efficient anti-RV response than did P gene–deficient RV immunization. Furthermore, the M gene–deleted RV vaccine induced 4-fold higher virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) levels in rhesus macaques than did a commercial vaccine within 10 days after inoculation, and at 180 days after immunization rhesus macaques remained healthy and had higher-avidity antibodies, higher VNA titers, and a more potent antibody response typical of a type 1 T helper response than did animals immunized with a commercial vaccine. The data presented in this article suggest that the M gene–deleted RV vaccine is safe and effective and holds the potential of replacing current pre- and postexposure RV vaccines. PMID:19764884
Rebecca Bach; Julianne M. Weinzimmer; Shreya S. Bhandari
We conducted twenty in-depth interviews with residents of a domestic violence shelter in a southeastern metropolitan area to understand how low-income women experience mothering within the context of intimate partner violence (IPV). Interview questions explored the women’s feelings about motherhood, their relationships with their children, and the effects of IPV on their children. Despite the difficulties of raising children with an abusive partner, the women did not regret becoming a mothe...
This study attempts to quantify female teenage sexual activity, pregnancy, and motherhood in Bolivia using the most recent Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive results suggest that teenage sexual activity, pregnancy, and childbearing are more prevalent among those adolescents who are more likely to be socially vulnerable and excluded. In addition, the high incidence of undesired pregnancies among Bolivian teen girls suggests that government action to prevent teenage pregnancy is needed....
Irvine, H; Bradley, T; Cupples, M; Boohan, M
Teenage pregnancy and motherhood have implications for several different aspects of primary health care. First, the provision of health education and contraceptive services is obviously relevant to the prevention of unplanned teenage pregnancy. Secondly, appropriate obstetric care should be provided for teenagers, who are at high risk of developing complications in pregnancy and childbirth. Thirdly, and perhaps even more significantly, there is the implication of care required to deal with lo...
Herman, Clem; Lewis, Suzan
Sustaining careers and motherhood is particularly challenging in highly masculinised science, engineering and technology (SET) sectors. We explore this issue using a social comparison theory perspective, drawing on interviews with professional engineers and scientists from four companies, located in Italy, France and the Netherlands. We examine how decisions to reduce working hours are influenced by perceived ideological, normative and policy contexts. Despite contextual differences in opport...
Surrogate motherhood is an arrangement in which a woman agrees to carry and deliver a child for another couple who ordered the pregnancy. This procedure is applied today in Great Britain, Holland (although without legal regulations), Israel, Greece, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia, the USA and Australia, and it is forbidden in France, Austria, Spain, Germany, Switzerland and Slovenia. There are two types of surrogacy, one when the woman gives birth to a child who is genetically her own ("part...
Zeiler, Kristin; Malmquist, Anna
IVF with ROPA (Reception of Oocytes from Partners) allows lesbian mothers to share biological motherhood. The gestational mother receives an egg from her partner who becomes the genetic mother. This article examines the ethics of IVF with ROPA with a focus on the welfare of the woman and the resulting child, on whether ROPA qualifies as a "legitimate" medical therapy that falls within the goals of medicine, and on the meaning and value attributed to a biologically shared bond between parents ...
Postpartum depression affects between 10 - 15% of all mothers within the first year after giving birth (Dietz, 2007; Epperson, 1999). Studies that have focused on women\\'s experiences of postpartum depression have found similar in experience of contrast between women\\'s expectations of motherhood, and their actual experiences (Beck, 2002; Knudson-Martin & Silverstein, 2009; Mauthner, 1999). Using a phenomenological approach, this study sought to explore women\\'s experiences of contrast, und...
S. A. Moreva; A. V. Silaeva; A. N. Kornetov; Ye. N. Borodina; A. Ye. Yankovskaya; N. I. Pryadukhina; N. E. Golovakha; V. B. Obukhovskaya
The article presents a social-psychological indicators of stress, coping mechanisms, rigidity and psychological component gestational dominant as risk factors predisposing to deviations in the context of preparedness for motherhood, marked psychological characteristics of pregnant women main group.Material and methods. The study was conducted on the basis of obstetric clinics SSMU, prenatal maternity hospital number 4 and the Centre for Medical Prevention (Cabinet crisis pregnancy). Total was...
Full Text Available This article focuses on the discursive construction and control of female sexuality and sexual activity, which simultaneously lead to the definition of women as inherently evil and to their suppression. This process is reinforced through a “motherhood narrative” inaugurated by a number of discourses, wherein female evils play the role of the villains, either as evil women or as anthropomorphised female beings that harm the mother or the unborn/newborn baby. The role of the “female evil”, a universally occurring archetypal motif, is to steal, kill or harm the child or the mother during pregnancy, labour, or puerperium. This motif is taken into account particularly in the framework of discourses that can be termed as medico-religious. Case studies of female evils are given as examples in the article, with a focus on the motherhood narrative and medico-religious discourses. This focus provides an insight to the way in which female evils pertain to the suppression of women within a more general framework. Female evils appear as necessary constructs of the aforementioned discourses to be able to control female sexual activity and the motherhood related fears of women, especially through the internalisation of control and through shaping the relationship of women with other women.
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Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... equilibriums are likely to exist where a certain regulation is substantially lower in a small country than in its big neighbor. This generates a large capital inflow to the safe havens. The pool of funds that may reach the safe havens is shown to be huge. It is far in excess of the absorptive capacity of the...... safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....
Mohamed Fathi Helaly
Full Text Available Buchi Emecheta is one of the most important female writers to emerge from Nigeria. She is distinguished for her vivid description of female subordination and conflicting cultural values in modern Africa. In Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood Nnu Ego, the protagonist, has to suffer as a wife both in the tribal environment in which she was born and the urban community in which she is compelled to live the rest of her life. Nnu Ego has to suffer because these two environments have different cultures. She falls a victim of the tension of the collision of these two conflicting cultures. This collision occurs between the institutions of the traditional Ibo society and the institution of Western Europe. The hardships that Nnu Ego experiences are the result of the clash between the Ibo traditions and the colonized Lagos. It is a clash of traditions, values and priorities. Nnu Ego is victimzed because of what the village (Ibuza community demands her to do, on the one hand, and what the rules of a European political regime requires her to be. She finds herself in a predicament as she has to assume different roles in accordance with the values of the surrounding communities in which she has to live. She escapes from Ibuza because she is not accepted as a wife who cannot produce children. She flees to the distant city of Lagos to start a new life with another husband with the hope of fulfilling her dream of carrying children. This dream is rooted in the cultural values of the Ibo society where motherhood is the primary source of female self- esteem and public status. In Lagos Nnu Ego fulfills her dream of motherhood and begets a lot of children but the pleasures associated with motherhood are negated by the difficult economic conditions of her new urban community and its norms and values. She has to work day in and day out as a street-side peddler to sustain her children because her husband is away working for the colonizers most of the time. Nnu
在Mobile Safe Ambients演算进程的拓扑结构抽象表示基础上, 通过识别可被激活的移动原语和通讯原语, 计算系统运行的所有动态进程拓扑结构, 并在文法规则中显示地标识约束名字和变量, 使分析结果在α变换下保持不变. 该策略可被应用于静态分析和验证基于Mobile Safe Ambients演算描述的并行与分布式系统的动态行为及属性.
Sariya Mary Cheruvallil-Contractor
Full Text Available According to foundational Islamic texts, motherhood is a key aspect of women’s diverse social roles; however some Muslim religious commentaries position motherhood as the only aspect of women’s contributions to society. The everyday mothering experiences of Muslim women remain absent from these discussions. This anthropological article will examine Muslim women’s narratives of motherhood and mothering in contemporary Britain. In my research, Muslim women in Britain chose motherhood, firstly, as one of the many fronts on which to challenge patriarchy that is evident in some Muslim texts and to thus ‘reclaim their faith’ as articulated in foundational Islamic texts. Secondly, in their mothering experiences, Muslim women found a space of commonality that they shared with other women – motherhood was something these Muslim women believed they shared with their ‘sisters’ who were from backgrounds different to their own. Within their diverse and multifaceted struggles, Muslim women thus identified a space which they share with other women.
Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric
In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.
Jones, Rachel K.; Frohwirth, Lori F.; Moore, Ann M.
The majority of U.S. women who have abortions (61%) have children. This exploratory study analyzes qualitative information from 38 women obtaining abortions to examine how issues of motherhood influenced their decisions to terminate their pregnancies. Women in the sample had abortions because of the material responsibilities of motherhood, such as…
Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.
We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....
Today's large nuclear power reactors of world-wise use have been designed based on the philosophy. It seems that recent less electricity demand rates, higher capital cost and the TMI accident let us acknowledge relative small and simplified nuclear plants with safer features, and that Chernobyl accident in 1983 underlines the needs of intrinsic and passive safety characteristics. In such background, several inherently safe reactor concepts have been presented abroad and domestically. First describing 'Can inherently safe reactors be designed,' then I introduce representative reactor concepts of inherently safe LWRs advocated abroad so far. All of these innovative reactors employ intrinsic and passive features in their design, as follows: (1) PIUS, an acronym for Process Inherent Ultimate Safety, or an integral PWR with passive heat sink and passive shutdown mechanism, advocated by ASEA-ATOM of Sweden. (2) MAP(Minimum Attention Plant), or a self-pressurized, natural circulation integral PWR, promoted by CE Inc. of the U.S. (3) TPS(TRIGA Power System), or a compact PWR with passive heat sink and inherent fuel characteristics of large prompt temperature coefficient, prompted by GA Technologies Inc. of the U.S. (4) PIUS-BWR, or an inherently safe BWR employing passively actuated fluid valves, in competition with PIUS, prompted by ORNL of the U.S. Then, I will describe the domestic trends in Japan and the innovative inherently safe LWRs presented domestically so far. (author)
Wei, Lin-Gwei; Chen, Chieh-Feng; Hwang, Chun-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Chiu, Wen-Kuan; Li, Chun-Chang; Wang, Hsian-Jenn
Tourniquets are often needed for optimized phalangeal surgeries. However, few surgeons forget to remove them and caused ischemic injuries. We have a modified method to create a safe finger tourniquet for short duration finger surgeries, which can avoid such tragedy. It is done by donning a glove, cutting the tip of the glove over the finger of interest, and rolling the glove finger to the base. From 2010 to 2013, approximately 54 patients underwent digital surgical procedures with our safe finger tourniquet. Because the glove cannot be forgotten to be removed, the tourniquet must be released and removed. This is a simple and efficient way to apply a safe finger tourniquet by using hand rubber glove for a short-term bloodless finger surgery and can achieve an excellent surgical result. PMID:26855166
Full Text Available Mobile information systems agendas are increasingly becoming an essential part of human life and they play an important role in several daily activities. These have been developed for different contexts such as public facilities in smart cities, health care, traffic congestions, e-commerce, financial security, user-generated content, and crowdsourcing. In GIScience, problems related to routing systems have been deeply explored by using several techniques, but they are not focused on security or crime rates. In this paper, an approach to provide estimations defined by crime rates for generating safe routes in mobile devices is proposed. It consists of integrating crowd-sensed and official crime data with a mobile application. Thus, data are semantically processed by an ontology and classified by the Bayes algorithm. A geospatial repository was used to store tweets related to crime events of Mexico City and official reports that were geocoded for obtaining safe routes. A forecast related to crime events that can occur in a certain place with the collected information was performed. The novelty is a hybrid approach based on semantic processing to retrieve relevant data from unstructured data sources and a classifier algorithm to collect relevant crime data from official government reports with a mobile application.
Different methods for energetic boiler testing have been described for assessing safety of their exploitation. The results for typical boiler steels have been presented. The recommendations concerning exploitation time and conditions, modernization proposals or emergency repairs needs can be done on the base of results analysis of complex diagnostic testing. 14 refs, 7 figs
Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Hooper, Simon
Educators can use video to gain invaluable information about their students. A concern is that collecting videos online can create an increased security risk for children. The purpose of this article is to provide ethical and legal guidelines for designing video-based apps for mobile devices and the web. By reviewing the literature, law, and code…
Ventura, Miriam; Simas, Luciana; Larouzé, Bernard
This study analyzes the links between health, rights, legislation, and public policies based on document research on legal safeguards for women and their children residing in prison. The research was conducted at the Federal level and in four States of Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso, Paraná, and São Paulo. The study aims to back measures by public agencies to guarantee such rights and to raise awareness of the problem, given the extreme vulnerability of women inmates and their children and the issue's legal and administrative invisibility. The authors identified 33 different legal provisions as points of tension, such as the possibility of house arrest and disparities in the terms and conditions for children to remain inside the prison system. Various provisions cite the Constitutional guarantee of women inmates' right to breastfeed in prison. Meanwhile, the study found gaps in other issues pertaining to motherhood in prison, expressed as dual incarceration (imprisonment arbitrarily extended to their children). It is necessary to expand and enforce the existing legislation to prevent such violations of rights. PMID:25859727
Bourne, L.; Phooko, D.; Van Graan, A.E.; Wright, H. H.; Bopape, M.
The purpose of this review is to summarise the literature that supports the importance of the food-based dietary guideline on water consumption. General recommendations for total daily water intake are between 2 and 3.7 l for women and men, 0.7 l for infants aged 0-6 months, 0.8 l for infants aged 7-12 months, 1.3 l for children aged 1-3 years, and 1.7 l for children aged 4-8 years. Water recommendations for the elderly and people who are involved in exercise or hard physical labo...
The postponement of motherhood is one of the most important trends in fertility behaviour in the last few decades. The consequences of late motherhood for child health are not well understood, however. One reason is that in the study of child health, the focus is either on birth (e.g., risk factors for low birth weight), or on child health after birth (e.g., child health consequences of low birth weight). The comprehensive view to child health underlying this paper is that both sides are clos...
Full Text Available ... take medicine safely, people can vastly lower the quality of their lives and in some extreme cases, ... the other one standing on my head, you know, it really gets to be difficult. Announcer: Some ...
Full Text Available ... teeth or eating breakfast. By communicating with our health care providers and by accepting a greater responsibility in our own health care, we can learn to take our medicines safely.
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Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.
Full Text Available ... or eating breakfast. By communicating with our health care providers and by accepting a greater responsibility in our own health care, we can learn to take our medicines safely.
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Full Text Available The experience of motherhood is, in a symbolic sense, one of the most important women’s experiences closely associated with constructs emphasized femininity (Connell, 1987. It is a social experience that incorporates internal ambivalence. On the one hand it is one of the most intimate experiences through which women discover new frontiers of the relations with themselves and their own bodies. On the other hand it is a social construct through which different power relations that exist within the society and culture they belong to refract, and reshape their relations with others. This paper attempts to reconstruct how women of different ages, education and social background in their narratives conceptualize their own social experiences related to motherhood, strategies of adjustments and changes that these experiences produce related to their position within the social network of family relationships. On the basis of the collected empirical data within project Politics of Parenthood of Institute for Sociological Research (Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade the paper reconstructs two basic types of adjustment strategies which women use in order to find a balance between their own construct of motherhood, and its own related identity positions, on the one hand, and frustrated and disempowered (wider and narrower referent social contexts. These strategies are: (a strategy of conforming or mimicry, which is being implemented in two possible ways through: full acceptance of the ideological and normative positions that dominate within the referent family network, and the practice of self-sacrificing micro-matriarchy (Blagojević, 1997; and (b strategy of active confrontation, which is also being implemented in two different ways through: indirect confrontation (distancing strategies, and / or direct confrontation.
Silvia Alexim Nunes
Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de um projeto que pretende avaliar o lugar da maternidade na constituição da subjetividade de um grupo de adolescentes. Parte da hipótese de que a gravidez na adolescência só se tornou um problema político e social dentro de uma biopolítica voltada para a produção e reprodução do corpo social que pressupõe a maternidade como um projeto racional. Nesse contexto, a gravidez na adolescência torna-se um problema de saúde pública, e os discursos sobre o tema adotam um tom homogeneizante e estigmatizante, acentuando seus aspectos negativos. A pesquisa, realizada com adolescentes de camadas populares entre 16 e 18 anos de idade, permite questionar esses discursos. Apontou a maternidade como um acontecimento fundamental para a constituição da subjetividade dessas jovens, possibilitando a construção de ideais e a articulação de um projeto de futuro.This paper is part of a research that aims to evaluate the place of motherhood in the constitution of subjectivity in a group of teenagers. It begins with the hypotheses that teenage pregnancy has become a political and social problem, inside a bio-politic targeting the production and reproduction of the social body. In this context, teenage pregnancy becomes a public health problem and the speeches about the subject tend to assume a homogenizing and stigmatizing tone, punctuating its negatives aspects. A research developed with teenagers from poor communities, between 16 and 18 years old, allows us to question these speeches. The research pointed out motherhood as a fundamental event in the constitution of these young women subjectivities. In fact, motherhood makes possible for them to built new ideals, and articulates a plan for the future.
Polish birthrates during the state socialist period, 1948-1989, stayed above replacement level but since 1989 fell dramatically to one of the lowest in Europe, at 1.29 in 2010. The Polish Catholic Church and the newly-elected nationalist government of Lech Wałęsa reacted by escalating pronatalist rhetoric calling on women to increase childbearing in the name of economic and nationalist causes. Reflecting the renewed dominance of the Church, Wałęsa implemented restrictions on family planning, including abortion, contraception, and sex education, justifying them in moral and demographic terms. Plummeting fertility has been portrayed by the Church, media, and state as dangerous and unreasonable - a sign of Polish women's rejection of motherhood and the embrace of selfish priorities. Simultaneously however, the state cut back motherhood-friendly policies established by the socialist regime, including subsidized childcare, maternity leave, and healthcare. This paper draws on 19 months of fieldwork between 2000 and 2007, using interviews with 55 women in four healthcare clinics in Gdańsk area, and participant-observation at the social services offices in Krakow. This paper shows that far from irrational rejection of motherhood, Polish middle-class women are guided by pragmatic reasons when delaying parenthood in order to navigate the new political landscape marked by job insecurity and gendered discrimination in employment. Yet, rather than implementing work-family reconciliation policies that have stimulated fertility elsewhere in Europe, the Church and state insist on blaming women for 'irrational' non-reproduction, thus betraying a lack of political commitment to gender equity in employment, reproductive health, and in the family. PMID:22889425
Recently, International Atomic Energy Agency and major leading countries in radioactive waste management tend to subdivide the categories of radioactive waste based upon risk-graded approach. In this context, the category of very low level waste has been newly introduced, or optimized management options for this kind of waste have been pursued in many countries. The application of engineered surface landfill type facilities dedicated to dispose of very low level waste has been gradually expanded, and it was analyzed that their design concept of isolation has been much advanced than those of the old fashioned surface trench-type disposal facilities for low and intermediate level waste, which were usually constructed in 1960's. In addition, the management options for very low level waste in major leading countries are varied depending upon and interfaced with the affecting factors such as: national framework for clearance, legal and practical availability of low and intermediate level waste repository and/or non-nuclear waste landfill, public acceptance toward alternative waste management options, and so forth. In this regard, it was concluded that optimized long-term management options for very low level waste in Korea should be also established in a timely manner through comprehensive review and discussions, in preparation of decommissioning of large nuclear facilities in the future, and be implemented in a systematic manner under the framework of national policy and management plan for radioactive waste management
Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user`s processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user`s perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user`s ``model of the world,`` in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more.
Brewer, Margo L; Stewart-Wynne, Edward G
Royal Perth Hospital, in partnership with Curtin University, established the first interprofessional student training ward in Australia, based on best practice from Europe. Evaluation of the student and client experience was undertaken. Feedback from all stakeholders was obtained regularly as a key element of the quality improvement process. An interprofessional practice program was established with six beds within a general medical ward. This provided the setting for 2- to 3-week clinical placements for students from medicine, nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, social work, pharmacy, dietetics and medical imaging. Following an initial trial, the training ward began with 79 students completing a placement. An interprofessional capability framework focused on the delivery of high quality client care and effective teamwork underpins this learning experience. Quantitative outcome data showed not only an improvement in students' attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration but also acquisition of a high level of interprofessional practice capabilities. Qualitative outcome data from students and clients was overwhelmingly positive. Suggestions for improvement were identified. This innovative learning environment facilitated the development of the students' knowledge, skills and attitudes required for interprofessional, client centred collaborative practice. Staff reported a high level of compliance with clinical safety and quality. PMID:24299579
Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user's processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user's perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user's ''model of the world,'' in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more
MacIntyre, Deirdre; Carr, Alan.
Objective. This child abuse prevention study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Stay Safe Programme in training unscreened 7 and 10 year old children in personal safety skills. Subsidiary aims were to evaluate the programme's impact on children's self-esteem and parents' and teachers' knowledge and attitudes of relevance to child abuse and protection. Method. Changes in safety knowledge and skills and self-esteem of 339 children who participated in the Stay Safe Program...
We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter interactions according to which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the interaction strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies towards a finite constant value of the coupling. The net effect is to partially offset direct detection constraints without affecting thermal freeze-out at higher energies. High-energy collider and indirect annihilation searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter.
Alvarez-Díaz, Jorge Alberto
The presence of a transsexual pregnant male in the mass media has made people reassess if transsexuals should have access to assisted reproduction. The bioethical discussion should focus on the future child best interests. This article describes the story of this transsexual man, legally married to a woman in the state of Oregon in the United States. A brief overview of transsexuality and the specific characteristics of this case, with special considerations towards fertility in transsexual people is included. We suggest reflections on what constitutes motherhood and fatherhood and bioethical considerations brought forth by this groundbreaking event. PMID:19518023
Full text: Small-sized floating NPPs of 3 to 10 MW in electric capacity seem to be rather attractive for energy supply in Republic Sakha (Jakutiya) and some other regions of Russia's north and north-east. High level of reliability, radiological and ecological safety, acceptable economic characteristics, long-term operation without refueling (about 10 years) make them advantageous for application in these remote areas. Commercial advantages are based on the following features of the floating NPPs: Floating variant of small NPP is relatively not expensive, does not require development of special supporting infrastructure (warehouses, transportation, maintenance and repair facilities etc.). Floating NPP tows to a site as a shop assembled ready for operation unit. In 10-12 years of operation it is to be replaced by 'fresh' one. At the end of life (∼40 years) the floating NPP will be simply towed to the factory for decommissioning thus leaving a 'green lawn' at site. - Shallow draught (not more than 2.5 m) provides wide choice of location sites along rivers and in sea shore. - It is possible to arrange single or twin-reactor design of a floating NPP and operate it as dedicated electricity only or dual-purpose (electricity and heat) source. - Relatively low construction cost which is about 20 M$ for 3 MWe. - Low number of operating staff (∼ 20 persons) reduces operation cost essentially. - Availability of operating prototypes of all main equipment of nuclear power unit and long-term experience in construction and operation of nuclear vessels is a guarantee of high quality of design, excludes costly R and D, demonstration tests and unpredictable design modifications. - Not any expenditures are required for development new facilities for construction of floating NPPs, reactor refueling equipment, radwaste management and NPP decommissioning. h) Implementation of floating NPPs eliminates critical problems and annual 'headache' with delivery of vast amount of fossil fuel
An application of the combined Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation/Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SAFE/SNAP) modeling technique to a physical protection system (PPS) aboard a generic ship is described. This application was performed as an example of how the SAFE and SNAP techniques could be used. Estimates of probability of interruption and neutralization for the example shipboard PPS are provided by SAFE as well as an adversary scenario, which serves as input to SNAP. This adversary scenario is analyzed by SNAP through four cases which incorporate increasingly detailed security force tactics. Comparisons between the results of the SAFE and SNAP analyses are made and conclusions drawn on the validity of each technique. Feedback from SNAP to SAFE is described, and recommendations for upgrading the ship based on the results of the SAFE/SNAP application are also discussed
Full Text Available Abstract Background The WHO recognises pesticide poisoning to be the single most important means of suicide globally. Pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health and clinical problem in rural Asia, where it has led to case fatality ratios 20-30 times higher than self-poisoning in the developed world. One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been set up in 44,000 households in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. A census is being performed, collecting baseline demographic data, socio-economic status, pesticide usage, self-harm and alcohol. Participating villages are then randomised and eligible households in the intervention arm given a lockable safe storage container for agrochemicals. The primary outcome will be incidence of pesticide self-poisoning over three years amongst individuals aged 14 years and over. 217,944 person years of follow-up are required in each arm to detect a 33% reduction in pesticide self-poisoning with 80% power at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. Discussion This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov ref: NCT1146496 (http://clinicaltrialsfeeds.org/clinical-trials/show/NCT01146496.
Full Text Available Background: The study aims were to clarify safe duration for temporary vessel occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA during aneurysm surgery as exactly as possible. We examined safe time duration (STD, where brain tissue exposed to ischemia will never fall into even the ischemic penumbra using intraoperative motor-evoked potential (MEP. Methods: In 45 patients, temporary occlusion of the ICA was performed with MEP. We measured STD as the duration of temporary vessel occlusion during which MEP changes did not occur. To estimate average STD, we calculated the 95% confidence interval for the population mean from sample data for STD in patients with MEP changes and in patients without changes. Results: In the proximal-control group, 4 of 38 patients (10.5% developed intraoperative MEP changes. In 4 patients, the time to MEP change (i.e. STD was 6.0 ± 2.5 min. STD was 3.8 ± 1.6 min in the 34 patients without changes. The average STD was 4.0 ± 0.6 min. In the trap group (proximal and distal flow control, five of seven patients (60.0% experienced intraoperative MEP changes (STD, 2.3 ± 1.0 min. All patients in the trap group who developed MEP changes showed involvement of the anterior choroidal artery (AchA in the trapped segment. Average STD was 2.3 ± 1.1 min when trapping involving the AchA. Conclusions: Although the study is preliminary based on the limited number of the patients, the 95% upper confidence limit for average STD was 4.6 min when the ICA was occluded proximal to the aneurysm, 3.4 min when the ICA was trapped involving the AchA.
Gestational surrogacy as a treatment for infertility is being practised in some well-known medical institutions in Tehran and some other cities in Iran. While the majority of Muslims in the world are Sunni, the majority of Iranians are Shiite. Most Sunni scholars do not permit surrogate motherhood, since it involves introducing the sperm of a man into the uterus of a woman to whom he is not married. Most Shiite scholars, however, have issued jurisprudential decrees (fatwas) that allow surrogate motherhood as a treatment for infertility, albeit only for legal couples. They regard this practice as transferring an embryo or fetus from one womb to another, which is not forbidden in Shiite jurisprudence. Nevertheless, there are some controversies concerning some issues such as kinship and inheritance. The main ethical concern of Iran's experience with gestational surrogacy is the monetary relation between the intended couple and the surrogate mother. While monetary remuneration is practised in Iran and allowed by religious authorities, it seems to suffer from ethical problems. This article proposes that this kind of monetary relation should be modified and limited to reimbursement of normal costs. Such modification requires new legislation and religious decrees. PMID:19407039
This paper addresses and challenges the pronatalist marginalization and oppression of voluntarily childless women in the Global North. These conditions call for philosophical analyses and for sociopolitical responses that would make possible the necessary moral spaces for resistance. Focusing on the relatively privileged subgroups of women who are the targets of pronatalist campaigns, the paper explores the reasons behind their choices, the nature and methods of Western pronatalism, and distinguishes three specific sources of some of the more lasting, and stigmatizing attacks: popular culture, law and policy, and medicine itself. I then argue that because they are construed by motherhood-essentializing, and increasingly popular, pronatalist narratives as, among other things, "failed" or "selfish," voluntarily childless women are subsequently burdened with damaged identities that can leave them personally othered and uniquely liminal in ways that are destructive to moral agency. Finally, I conclude with a challenge to the pronatalist master narratives by suggesting the possibility of counter narratives to the voluntarily childless woman's liminality that might serve as the ground of moral and political solidarity among differently situated women, regardless of their motherhood status. PMID:26797511
Safety is a syntactic condition of higher-order grammars that constrains occurrences of variables in the production rules according to their type-theoretic order. In this paper, we introduce the safe lambda calculus, which is obtained by transposing (and generalizing) the safety condition to the setting of the simply-typed lambda calculus. In contrast to the original definition of safety, our calculus does not constrain types (to be homogeneous). We show that in the safe lambda calculus, there is no need to rename bound variables when performing substitution, as variable capture is guaranteed not to happen. We also propose an adequate notion of beta-reduction that preserves safety. In the same vein as Schwichtenberg's 1976 characterization of the simply-typed lambda calculus, we show that the numeric functions representable in the safe lambda calculus are exactly the multivariate polynomials; thus conditional is not definable. We also give a characterization of representable word functions. We then study the ...
Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Jaenichen, Ursula
Examined whether women's growing economic independence, resulting from better education, is major factor in rise in delayed marriage and motherhood. New panel data from (former) Federal Republic of Germany showed that women's increasing educational attainment could explain part of changes in process of family formation. Better educated women…
S. A. Moreva
Full Text Available The article presents a social-psychological indicators of stress, coping mechanisms, rigidity and psychological component gestational dominant as risk factors predisposing to deviations in the context of preparedness for motherhood, marked psychological characteristics of pregnant women main group.Material and methods. The study was conducted on the basis of obstetric clinics SSMU, prenatal maternity hospital number 4 and the Centre for Medical Prevention (Cabinet crisis pregnancy. Total was attended by 52 women aged 18 to 44 years, at different stages of pregnancy – from 5 to 39 weeks. Methodological apparatus consisted of a structured interview questionnaire “Medical and social data of the pregnant woman” methodology for determining the stress and social adaptation of Holmes and Rage (1967, a questionnaire of coping R. Lazarus and S. Folkman (WCQ, 1988, Tomsk questionnaire rigidity G.V. Zalewski (TORZ, 1987, test on pregnant I.V. Dobryakova (1996. Data processing was carried out using statistical methods Spearman rank correlation coefficient, nonparametric Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis H and φ * – Fisher's angular transformation.Results. Significant psychological factors that may influence the formation of readiness for motherhood among women of the main group can be considered an unplanned pregnancy (65%, and also its not gelendost (35%.Studies of stress resistance was detected in pregnant women from the main group low stress levels (88%, and only 12% have a high degree. Most of the women from the сomparison group reverse the situation 64% have a high degree of stress, this suggests that the presence of previously state miscarriage is for this group of stress.On the formation of readiness for motherhood affects not only the presence of stressful situations, butalso how the woman in their lives. Using U-test Mann–Whitney, were statistically significant differences were observed among the main group and сomparison group in
"Tava morta e revivi": significado de maternidade para adolescentes com experiência de vida nas ruas "I was dead, but came back to life": the meaning of motherhood for adolescent girls with a history of living in the streets
Daniela T. Gontijo
Full Text Available A descoberta da sexualidade entre as adolescentes que fazem das ruas seu espaço de sobrevivência geralmente é permeada pelo desconhecimento do próprio corpo, o que resulta, muitas vezes, em comportamentos de risco para a contaminação por doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e para a gravidez. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar os significados atribuídos à maternidade por adolescentes com experiência de vida nas ruas que optaram por assumir o cuidado dos filhos fora das ruas. Com base na abordagem de pesquisa qualitativa, os dados foram coletados junto a adolescentes-mães abrigadas em uma instituição não-governamental, e analisados segundo a modalidade temática da análise de conteúdo. Os resultados foram discutidos por meio da categoria "a nova vida: mãe & filho", mostrando que a experiência da maternidade é significada de forma positiva pelas adolescentes, sendo o filho entendido como o "salvador" de uma morte certa nas ruas, depositando nele as expectativas de um futuro melhor. A título de considerações finais, observamos no exercício da maternidade uma oportunidade de estabelecimento de novas formas de estar e se relacionar no mundo, sendo o processo de construção dessa maternidade terreno fértil para a intervenção de profissionais da saúde.The discovery of sexuality by adolescent girls living in the streets generally involves lack of knowledge about their own bodies, often resulting in risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. This study aimed to identify the meanings ascribed to motherhood by teenage girls with a history of living in the streets and who chose to assume the care for their children, off the streets. Based on a qualitative methodology, data were collected from the adolescent mothers at a nongovernmental shelter and analyzed according to the content analysis modality. The results were discussed using the category "new life: mother & child", showing that the adolescents
Formosa, Saviour; Duca, Edward
The above cutout could become a reality if a Category 3 storm lashes Malta with 178 to 208 km per hour winds. The chances are minimal but too probable to ignore, since 1995 a similar storm formed close to the Maltese Islands followed by others in 1996, 2006, 2011. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/future-safe-malta/
... the medicine should be taken with or without food how the medicine should be stored how long the medicine can be stored safely before it needs to be discarded common side effects or reactions interactions with other medications your child may be taking what happens if ...
This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe. Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED). Date Released: 5/27/2009.
Budin, Wendy C.
In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the growing challenge of assuring a safe birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote, support, and protect normal birth.
Full Text Available This paper describes the state vector of safe ship operation on sea waterways. The author determines relationships between the state vector of safe ship operation and parameters of sea waterway system elements. These include three subsystems: area, navigation and traffic control. These relationships have been exemplified with the 68-kilometre Świnoujście-Szczecin fairway, presently under reconstruction. A systematic approach to sea waterway design is globally unique.
Full Text Available Surrogate motherhood is an arrangement in which a woman agrees to carry and deliver a child for another couple who ordered the pregnancy. This procedure is applied today in Great Britain, Holland (although without legal regulations, Israel, Greece, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia, the USA and Australia, and it is forbidden in France, Austria, Spain, Germany, Switzerland and Slovenia. There are two types of surrogacy, one when the woman gives birth to a child who is genetically her own ("partial", genetic surrogacy, and the other where the surrogate mother only carries and gives birth to a child, whereby the child is genetically from the couple that wanted the child, or the fertilized egg is from a third woman (donor, or the embryo was donated ("full", "total", gestational surrogacy. In these cases two women take part in conception and birth of the child while in the last case there is a third woman who will raise the child. Biologically observed, the woman whose egg has been fertilized may be called the genetic mother, while the woman who carried the pregnancy and gave birth to the child - the gestational carrier. Taking into consideration that the Preliminary Draft of the Serbian Civil Law anticipates the introduction of surrogate motherhood into domestic law, we believe restrictive solutions should first be taken into consideration. This would mean that only full surrogating should be allowed, namely the egg should be from the woman who wants the child and not the surrogate mother. In domestic conditions, genetic surrogation should not be allowed as it leads to confusion in family relations, and kinships still have an important social and legal significance in our country. The surrogate mother should be a woman who has already given birth, because in that way any possible shocks which might arise after birth when the woman who has to handover the child to the intended couple would be avoided. The next condition would be that persons involved in this
Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM)
Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.
The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are gi...
The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are giv...
The lack of proper motherhood in Shakespeare's plays has been a point of attraction for many feminist critics actively engaged in emphasizing the patriarchal aspect of Shakespeare's plays. This paper aims to analyze motherhood and the lack of mother/mother-figure in The Tempest, Romeo and Juliet and The Taming of the Shrew through Luce Irigaray's theory of gender and the work of other feminist critics. The issues of gender, father-daughter relations and the reflections of the absent mothers w...
Full Text Available We undertook this study to determine the safe limits of capsulorhexis during nucleus expression in 40 eyes of patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL implantation and in 30 cadaver eyes. In group I (patient eyes, capsulorhexis of 4.5 to 7.5 mm was performed and the nucleus was expressed by hydrodissection. The nuclei measured 4.5 to 9.0 mm. One relaxing incision at 12 o′clock position had to be placed in 9 patients. In group II (cadaver eyes, continuous curvilinear capsulotomies of 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 mm were made in 5 eyes each. No relaxing incisions were placed. In both the groups, nuclei of all sizes could be safely delivered through intact capsulotomies measuring 5.5 mm or more. In two patient eyes, posterior capsule rupture occurred with rhexis measuring 4.5 and 5.0 mm, respectively. In the cadaver eyes, intracapsular extraction occurred in 4 eyes with rhexis measuring 5.0 mm or less. We conclude that a rhexis less than 5.5 mm is not safe for nucleus delivery during ECCE.
This article juxtaposes three types of illegitimate motherhood that came in the wake of the Second World War in Nazi Germany. The first found institutional support in the Lebensborn project, an elite effort to raise the flagging birth-rates, which at the same time turned a new page in the history of sexuality. The second came before the lower courts in the form of paternity and guardianship suits that had a long precedent, and the third was a social practice that the regime considered a ‘mass crime' among its female citizenry: namely, forbidden unions between German women and prisoners of war. Through these cases the article addresses issues such as morality, sexuality, paternity, citizenship and welfarism. The flesh-and-blood stories have been culled from the Lebensborn Dossiers and Special Court files, as well as cases from the lower courts. PMID:22180924
Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond
The current study explored the intergenerational transmission of aggression and antisocial behavior by examining mothers' juvenile delinquency, their pregnancies, and its impact on their children's aggressive behavior. The sample consisted of the first 181 biological mothers recruited as part of the Vancouver Longitudinal Study on the Psychosocial Development of Children (British Columbia, Canada). Results indicated that mothers who were juvenile delinquents were more likely to experience social adversity, to use substances during pregnancy and to offend in adulthood. Furthermore, mothers who reported juvenile delinquency had children who were more physically aggressive and had an earlier onset of physical aggression. This pattern of association held when controlling for sociodemographics, social adversities, prenatal substance exposure, and criminal involvement in adulthood. The study findings highlighted the importance of understanding the role and impact of female delinquency and motherhood on the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior. PMID:22392721
Full Text Available We conducted twenty in-depth interviews with residents of a domestic violence shelter in a southeastern metropolitan area to understand how low-income women experience mothering within the context of intimate partner violence (IPV. Interview questions explored the women’s feelings about motherhood, their relationships with their children, and the effects of IPV on their children. Despite the difficulties of raising children with an abusive partner, the women did not regret becoming a mother. In fact, respondents identified their children as one of few positives in their lives and mothering as central to their identity. Relationships with their children enabled the women to feel empowered in ways that their intimate partnerships did not and motivated them to escape the violence and persevere.
In a host surrogate motherhood arrangement, the surrogate agrees to be implanted with, and carry to term, an embryo created from the commissioning couple's gametes. When the surrogate child is born, it is the surrogate mother who, according to UK law, holds the legal status of mother. By contrast, the commissioning mother possesses no maternal status and she can only attain it once the surrogate agrees to the completion of the arrangement. One consequence of this is that, in the event that a host arrangement fails, the commissioning mother is left without maternal status. In this paper, I argue that this denial of maternal status misrepresents the commissioning mother's role in the host arrangement and her relationship with the surrogate child. Consequently, I suggest that commissioning mothers participating in host surrogacy arrangements ought to be granted the status of mother in the event that the arrangement fails. PMID:25139932
Prinds, Christina; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Mogensen, Ole;
were selected. Eleven papers were included in the synthesis, all using qualitative interviews. The following data were extracted from each study: (a) author(s), year of publication, study location, (b) aims of the study, (c) participants, (d) research design, (e) data collection method, (f) outcome......OBJECTIVE: to provide a thematic overview of the existing literature on existential meaning-making related to transition to motherhood among mothers of full term born babies in Western oriented countries and to discuss the themes from a existential psychology perspective. DESIGN: the review follows...... measures, and (g) results. MEASUREMENTS: the studies were synthesised in a thematisation on the basis of the existential psychotherapist and philosopher Emmy van Deurzen's concepts of four interwoven life dimensions, through which we experience, interpret, and act in the world: Umwelt, Mitwelt, Eigenwelt...
Rogan, F; Shmied, V; Barclay, L; Everitt, L; Wyllie, A
This paper explains the methods used in a grounded theory analysis of the experience of 55 first-time mothers in Australia, presented in the first of this series of two papers. The categories identified in the research are realising, readiness, drained, aloneness, loss and working it out, encompassed in the core category becoming a mother. Specifically, this paper extends the analysis and explains the application of a 'paradigm model' and the identification of a Basic Social Process (BSP). The paper links the analysis to the literature on early motherhood from nursing, midwifery, feminist, and sociological research. A substantive theory is proposed to explain women's experience in becoming mothers that demonstrates how, when responsive to the needs of those researched, a grounded theory analysis can provide a framework for nursing and midwifery care. PMID:9147193
Rindfuss, R; Parnell, A; Hirschman, C
Abstract This paper examines the determinants of age at first birth from an explicitly comparative perspective in the following Asian societies: Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan and Thailand. The key structural variables have the same (or similar) effects in each of the groups examined. Education through primary school and beyond has a strong delaying effect on age at first birth in all eight populations. Difference of rural-urban origin does not affect the timing of motherhood in any of these societies. We also find a remarkably strong effect of shared cultural heritage. All the Confucian groups tend to behave similarly, as do the Muslim and Hindu groups. PMID:22085144
Blossfeld, H; De Rose, A
"The purpose of this paper has been to assess empirically the question of whether women's growing economic independence, resulting from better education, is one of the major factors in determining the timing of marriage and motherhood in Italy.... We have analysed the life histories of a sample of Italian women from different cohorts, collected on the occasion of the National Survey on Family Structures and Behaviours carried on by the National Institute of Statistics.... The effect of level of education is negative. That is, it increases the age of entry into marriage. However, the size of the effect is small and seems limited to the passage from youth to adulthood, because the longer time the woman spends in the educational system increases the age at which she feels herself ready to marry. As far as the timing of the first child, it is almost independent of educational attainment, once marital status is taken into account." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA) PMID:12286608