WorldWideScience

Sample records for barometric pressure conditions

  1. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Barometric Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have barometric pressure data. *These services are for testing and...

  2. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Barometric Pressure, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Barometric Pressure data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have...

  3. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, J.M.

    1985-12-01

    Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented.

  4. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented

  5. Water-Level Responses to Barometric-Pressure Fluctuations in Wells in Semi-Confined Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, W.; Butler, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrologists have long recognized that changes in barometric pressure can produce changes in water levels in wells. The relationship between barometric pressure and water level has traditionally been characterized using the barometric efficiency (BE), the ratio of the change in water level to the change in barometric pressure head. Although BE has proven to be an effective means of characterizing the short-term response of a well to a change in barometric pressure, the barometric response function (BRF) is a more effective means to characterize the longer-term response. The BRF, which can be determined through a regression deconvolution procedure developed by Rasmussen and co-workers (Rasmussen and Crawford, 1997; Toll and Rasmussen, 2007), characterizes the water level response over time to a step change in barometric pressure, essentially BE as a function of the time since the imposed load. We have extended earlier work of Rasmussen and Spane (Rasmussen and Crawford, 1997; Spane, 2002) to show that the BRF can be utilized to glean important insights into semi-confined aquifer systems. The form of the BRF indicates the degree of aquifer confinement, while a comparison of BRFs from different wells provides insight into aquitard continuity. Recently, we have developed a new approach for estimating aquitard K by fitting type curves to experimentally determined BRFs. We will demonstrate the power of the BRF using field data from a long-term monitoring site of the Kansas Geological Survey at which a four-day pumping test has previously been performed. The aquitard K estimates obtained from the BRFs are in good agreement at this site with the estimate determined from the pumping test. We will also show how the BRF for a well in a semi-confined aquifer can be used to gain insights into conditions in the overlying unconfined aquifer and vadose zone. Although the BE is considered an invariant parameter of a well, we will show that the BRF of a well in a semi-confined aquifer can change as a function of vadose-zone conditions. The BRF is a promising tool for gaining important insights into site hydrostratigraphy through passive monitoring of water levels and barometric pressure, and can often be a cost-effective supplement to a conventional pumping test for assessing aquitard properties.

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Barometric (Air) Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Barometric (Air) Pressure data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  7. Environment, behavior and physiology: do birds use barometric pressure to predict storms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuner, Creagh W; Sprague, Rachel S; Patterson, Stephen H; Woods, H Arthur

    2013-06-01

    Severe storms can pose a grave challenge to the temperature and energy homeostasis of small endothermic vertebrates. Storms are accompanied by lower temperatures and wind, increasing metabolic expenditure, and can inhibit foraging, thereby limiting energy intake. To avoid these potential problems, most endotherms have mechanisms for offsetting the energetic risks posed by storms. One possibility is to use cues to predict oncoming storms and to alter physiology and behavior in ways that make survival more likely. Barometric pressure declines predictably before inclement weather, and several lines of evidence indicate that animals alter behavior based on changes in ambient pressure. Here we examined the effects of declining barometric pressure on physiology and behavior in the white-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys. Using field data from a long-term study, we first evaluated the relationship between barometric pressure, storms and stress physiology in free-living white-crowned sparrows. We then manipulated barometric pressure experimentally in the laboratory and determined how it affects activity, food intake, metabolic rates and stress physiology. The field data showed declining barometric pressure in the 12-24 h preceding snowstorms, but we found no relationship between barometric pressure and stress physiology. The laboratory study showed that declining barometric pressure stimulated food intake, but had no effect on metabolic rate or stress physiology. These data suggest that white-crowned sparrows can sense and respond to declining barometric pressure, and we propose that such an ability may be common in wild vertebrates, especially small ones for whom individual storms can be life-threatening events. PMID:23678098

  8. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site: formation permeability analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The report evaluates previous investigations of the gas permeability of the rock surrounding emplacement holes at the Nevada Test Site. The discussion sets the framework from which the present uncertainty in gas permeability can be overcome. The usefulness of the barometric pressure testing method has been established. Flow models were used to evaluate barometric pressure transients taken at NTS holes U2fe, U19ac and U20ai. 31 refs., 103 figs., 18 tabs. (ACR)

  9. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site: formation permeability analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report evaluates previous investigations of the gas permeability of the rock surrounding emplacement holes at the Nevada Test Site. The discussion sets the framework from which the present uncertainty in gas permeability can be overcome. The usefulness of the barometric pressure testing method has been established. Flow models were used to evaluate barometric pressure transients taken at NTS holes U2fe, U19ac and U20ai. 31 refs., 103 figs., 18 tabs

  10. Well responses to barometric-pressure fluctuations in confined and semi-confined aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, G. A.; Jin, W.; Butler, J. J., Jr.; Reboulet, E. C.

    2009-04-01

    Modern data logger and sensor technology enable well responses to barometric pressure changes to be monitored at a high frequency and precision. In this presentation, we demonstrate that such monitoring data can be utilized not just for the conventional calculation of a well's barometric efficiency but also to provide valuable information for site characterization applications. We investigate the water-level responses of wells in confined and semi-confined aquifers to changes in barometric pressure and show how simple analytical solutions can be fit to experimentally determined barometric response functions to place bounds on the properties of the confining bed. We demonstrate our approach at the Larned Research Site, located along the Arkansas River in south-central Kansas in the Great Plains region of the United States. The site contains monitoring wells tapping an unconsolidated, semi-confined aquifer (High Plains Aquifer) overlain by a clay unit and a shallow, unconfined aquifer. Water levels and atmospheric pressure have been monitored in the wells at 15-minute intervals for up to seven years. The spatial and temporal changes in the barometric response functions provide important insights on the degree of confinement and its change in space and time. Short term (hour or less) response functions indicate a classical confined aquifer, whereas long term responses (day) show semi-confined behavior, an indication that the air pressure exerted on the water table is being transmitted downward through the confining bed. The barometric response functions vary little in space, indicating the homogeneity of the confining bed, but do vary temporally as a function of the water table elevation and the pneumatic diffusivity of the vadose zone.

  11. The effects of temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure on short-sprint race times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureika, J. R.

    2006-04-01

    A numerical model of 100 m and 200 m world class sprinting performances is modified using standard hydrodynamic principles to include effects of air temperature, pressure, and humidity levels on aerodynamic drag. The magnitude of the effects are found to be dependent on wind speed. This implies that differing atmospheric conditions can yield slightly different corrections for the same wind-gauge reading. In the absence of wind, temperature is found to induce the largest variation in times (0.01 s per 10 degrees C increment in the 100 m), while relative humidity contributes the least (under 0.01 s for all realistic conditions for 100 m). Barometric pressure variations at a particular venue can also introduce fluctuations in performance times on the order of a 0.01 s for this race. The combination of all three variables is essentially additive, and is more important for head-wind conditions that for tail-winds. As expected, calculated corrections in the 200 m are magnified due to the longer duration of the race. The overall effects of these factors on sprint times can be considered a ``second order'' adjustment to previous methods that rely strictly on a venue's physical elevation, but can become important in extreme conditions.

  12. [The influence of barometric pressure changes in the oral cavity: dental barotrauma and barodontalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakdimon, I; Zehavi, E; Chapnik, L; Zadik, Y

    2014-07-01

    Several oro-facial physiologic and pathologic phenomena affect individuals during flight or self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving. Physicians and dentists who treat aircrews and divers are occasionally challenged by those manifestations, though their uncommon appearance. This article reviews the two main barometric-related phenomena in the oral cavity: dental barotrauma and barodontalgia. Dental barotrauma includes all barometric-related dental mechanical phenomena. Tooth fracture or failure of dental restoration usually appears in a tooth with a leaking restoration or secondary caries lesion. In addition, changes in barometric pressure can cause a reduction in the retention of dental restoration and appliance. Barodontalgia is the oral pain which evoked during changes of the atmospheric pressure. This manifestation can be classified as a direct or non-direct pain. In most cases, the direct pain is caused by deterioration of pre-existed oral disease, whereas the source of the nondirect pain is an extra-oral facial barotrauma. These two barometric-related manifestations can cause a decrease in life quality and jeopardize the safety of flight or diving. PMID:25219097

  13. The Effects of Temperature, Humidity and Barometric Pressure on Short Sprint Race Times

    CERN Document Server

    Mureika, J R

    2006-01-01

    A numerical model of 100 m and 200 m world class sprinting performances is modified using standard hydrodynamic principles to include effects of air temperature, pressure, and humidity levels on aerodynamic drag. The magnitude of the effects are found to be dependent on wind speed. This implies that differing atmospheric conditions can yield slightly different corrections for the same wind gauge reading. In the absence of wind, temperature is found to induce the largest variation in times (0.01 s per $10\\dc$ increment in the 100 m), while relative humidity contributes the least (under 0.01 s for all realistic conditions for 100 m). Barometric pressure variations at a particular venue can also introduce fluctuations in performance times on the order of a 0.01 s for this race. The combination of all three variables is essentially additive, and is more important for head-wind conditions that for tail-winds. As expected, calculated corrections in the 200 m are magnified due to the longer duration of the race. The...

  14. Activity classification based on inertial and barometric pressure sensors at different anatomical locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniature, wearable sensor modules are a promising technology to monitor activities of daily living (ADL) over extended periods of time. To assure both user compliance and meaningful results, the selection and placement site of sensors requires careful consideration. We investigated these aspects for the classification of 16 ADL in 6 healthy subjects under laboratory conditions using ReSense, our custom-made inertial measurement unit enhanced with a barometric pressure sensor used to capture activity-related altitude changes. Subjects wore a module on each wrist and ankle, and one on the trunk. Activities comprised whole body movements as well as gross and dextrous upper-limb activities. Wrist-module data outperformed the other locations for the three activity groups. Specifically, overall classification accuracy rates of almost 93% and more than 95% were achieved for the repeated holdout and user-specific validation methods, respectively, for all 16 activities. Including the altitude profile resulted in a considerable improvement of up to 20% in the classification accuracy for stair ascent and descent. The gyroscopes provided no useful information for activity classification under this scheme. The proposed sensor setting could allow for robust long-term activity monitoring with high compliance in different patient populations. (paper)

  15. Relation of Total and Cardiovascular Death Rates to Climate System, Temperature, Barometric Pressure, and Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Bryan G; Qualls, Clifford; Kloner, Robert A; Laskey, Warren K

    2015-10-15

    A distinct seasonal pattern in total and cardiovascular death rates has been reported. The factors contributing to this pattern have not been fully explored. Seven locations (average total population 71,354,000) were selected where data were available including relatively warm, cold, and moderate temperatures. Over the period 2004 to 2009, there were 2,526,123 all-cause deaths, 838,264 circulatory deaths, 255,273 coronary heart disease deaths, and 135,801 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) deaths. We used time series and multivariate regression modeling to explore the association between death rates and climatic factors (temperature, dew point, precipitation, barometric pressure), influenza levels, air pollution levels, hours of daylight, and day of week. Average seasonal patterns for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths were very similar across the 7 locations despite differences in climate. After adjusting for multiple covariates and potential confounders, there was a 0.49% increase in all-cause death rate for every 1°C decrease. In general, all-cause, circulatory, coronary heart disease and STEMI death rates increased linearly with decreasing temperatures. The temperature effect varied by location, including temperature's linear slope, cubic fit, positional shift on the temperature axis, and the presence of circulatory death increases in locally hot temperatures. The variable effect of temperature by location suggests that people acclimatize to local temperature cycles. All-cause and circulatory death rates also demonstrated sizable associations with influenza levels, dew point temperature, and barometric pressure. A greater understanding of how climate, temperature, and barometric pressure influence cardiovascular responses would enhance our understanding of circulatory and STEMI deaths. PMID:26297511

  16. Investigation of relationship between barometric pressure and coal and gas outburst events in underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönet, Sinem; Esen, Olgun; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outburst is a serious risk which occurs during the mine production. This accident results both ejection of high volumes of gas and high amount of coal into the mine production area, and death of mining workers for many years in Turkey. Outburst of gas, coal and rock can be defined as sudden release of coal and rock accompanied by large quantities of gas into the working face or other mine workings. It is a phenomena that influenced by geological structure such as folds, joints of rocks or coal seams, is also still investigated for many years. Zonguldak Coal Basin is the main part of the Upper Carboniferous bituminous coal basin of Turkey. Much of the bituminous coal mining has thus been concentrated in the Zonguldak Basin which is located on the Black Sea coast. The coal field has been disturbed by tectonic activity, first by Hercynian and later by Alpine orogenesis resulting in folding and faulting of strata. This formation has a complex structural geology which consists mostly fault zones, anticlinal and syncline strata and because of this a large amount of methane gases are adsorbed or accumulated in strata or in coal fractures, pores and micropores. There are 5 Collieries exists in Zonguldak Coalfield and coal and gas outbursts were occurred only in two collieries such as Karadon and Kozlu Mines. In addition at a number of 90 coal and gas outburst events were experienced in these collieries. Based on the analysis of data, oscillation at barometric pressure and temperature values at the location of Kozlu and Karadon Mines were seen when coal and gas outburst events were occurred. In this study, barometric pressure and temperature changes are investigated at Kozlu and Karadon Mines. Also the relationship between the variation at temperature with barometric pressure and coal and gas outbursts are evaluated. It can be understand that this investigation depends to field observations and macroscopic considerations and on the purpose of predicting the coal and gas outburst event earlier.

  17. Energy expenditure estimation during normal ambulation using triaxial accelerometry and barometric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy expenditure (EE) is an important parameter in the assessment of physical activity. Most reliable techniques for EE estimation are too impractical for deployment in unsupervised free-living environments; those which do prove practical for unsupervised use often poorly estimate EE when the subject is working to change their altitude by walking up or down stairs or inclines. This study evaluates the augmentation of a standard triaxial accelerometry waist-worn wearable sensor with a barometric pressure sensor (as a surrogate measure for altitude) to improve EE estimates, particularly when the subject is ascending or descending stairs. Using a number of features extracted from the accelerometry and barometric pressure signals, a state space model is trained for EE estimation. An activity classification algorithm is also presented, and this activity classification output is also investigated as a model input parameter when estimating EE. This EE estimation model is compared against a similar model which solely utilizes accelerometry-derived features. A protocol (comprising lying, sitting, standing, walking, walking up stairs, walking down stairs and transitioning between activities) was performed by 13 healthy volunteers (8 males and 5 females; age: 23.8 ± 3.7 years; weight: 70.5 ± 14.9 kg), whose instantaneous oxygen uptake was measured by means of an indirect calorimetry system (K4b2, COSMED, Italy). Activity classification improves from 81.65% to 90.91% when including barometric pressure information; when analyzing walking activities alone the accuracy increases from 70.23% to 98.54%. Using features derived from both accelerometry and barometry signals, combined with features relating to the activity classification in a state space model, resulted in a .VO2 estimation bias of −0.00 095 and precision (1.96SD) of 3.54 ml min−1 kg−1. Using only accelerometry features gives a relatively worse performance, with a bias of −0.09 and precision (1.96SD) of 5.99 ml min−1 kg−1, with the largest errors due to an underestimation of .VO2 when walking up stairs. (paper)

  18. Some Connections Between the Solar Wind, Barometric Pressure, Geomagnetism, and Seismic Background Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Thomson, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    All three of the original papers on seismic hum note the curious fact that some of the measured peaks in the noise spectrum do not correspond to known seismic S or T modes. We have previously noted (Thomson et al, Proc. IEEE, 2007) the presence of high--Q peaks in barometric pressure data. Similarly, (Ghosh et al, JGR 2009) peaks were noted in solar wind density at the ACE spacecraft and evidence given that solar modes can coexist with turbulence in the solar wind. Here we show that fluctuations in the solar wind density and velocity measured at ACE are coherent with those measured on the microbarograph at BFO and elsewhere. This coherence is strongest at the frequences of solar normal modes with the described peak at 404 uHz probably being P0,2. There are many similar examples. We also examine the canonical coherence between geomagnetic and seismic data and again find that it is generally very high with peaks approaching the 100% significance level at the frequencies of low--degree solar modes. Many of these frequencies occur between those of seismic normal modes and thus explain the curious peaks noted in the original papers. Moreover, at frequencies where solar and seismic normal mode frequencies coincide, as 0S18 (2672.5 uHz) and P3,17 (2671.0 uHz) the coupling appears to be more efficient. This coupling occurs largely on the horizontal seismic components and, because the horizontal sensors of STS-1s are insensitive to magnetic fields, must be seismic and not instrumental.

  19. The Effects of Temperature, Humidity and Barometric Pressure on Short Sprint Race Times

    OpenAIRE

    Mureika, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    A numerical model of 100 m and 200 m world class sprinting performances is modified using standard hydrodynamic principles to include effects of air temperature, pressure, and humidity levels on aerodynamic drag. The magnitude of the effects are found to be dependent on wind speed. This implies that differing atmospheric conditions can yield slightly different corrections for the same wind gauge reading. In the absence of wind, temperature is found to induce the largest variation in times (0....

  20. Barometric pumping of contaminated gases through fractured permeable media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated gases may be transported vertically through a fractured permeable medium by the breathing process which is associated with cyclical changes in the barometric pressure. A review of results from analytical and numerical modelling indicates that the contaminant transport induced by barometric pumping may be orders of magnitude greater than the rate of transport by molecular diffusion

  1. Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FA Spane, Jr.

    1999-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

  2. Barometric altimetry system as virtual constellation applied in CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guoxiang; Sheng, Peixuan; Du, Jinlin; Zheng, Yongguang; Cai, Xiande; Wu, Haitao; Hu, Yonghui; Hua, Yu; Li, Xiaohui

    2009-03-01

    This work describes the barometric altimetry as virtual constellation applied to the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS), which uses the transponders of communication satellites to transfer navigation messages to users. Barometric altimetry depends on the relationship of air pressure varying with altitude in the Earth’s atmosphere. Once the air pressure at a location is measured the site altitude can be found. This method is able to enhance and improve the availability of three-dimensional positioning. The difficulty is that the relation between barometric pressure and altitude is variable in different areas and under various weather conditions. Hence, in order to obtain higher accuracy, we need to acquire the real-time air pressure corresponding to an altimetric region’s reference height. On the other hand, the altimetry method will be applied to satellite navigation system, but the greatest difficulty lies in how to get the real-time air pressure value at the reference height in the broad areas overlaid by satellite navigation. We propose an innovational method to solve this problem. It is to collect the real-time air pressures and temperatures of the 1860 known-altitude weather observatories over China and around via satellite communication and to carry out time extrapolation forecast uniformly. To reduce data quantity, we first partition the data and encode them and then broadcast these information via navigation message to CAPS users’ receivers. Upon the interpolations being done in receivers, the reference air pressure and temperature at the receiver’s nearby place is derived. Lastly, combing with the receiver-observed real air pressure and temperature, the site’s altitude can be determined. The work is presented in the following aspects: the calculation principle, formulae, data collection, encoding, prediction, interpolation method, navigation message transmission together with errors causes and analyses. The advantages and shortcomings of the technique are discussed at the end.

  3. Variations in cosmic radiation intensity associated with the barometric effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fco. Valdés-Galicia

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The barometric effect for the Mexico City neutron monitor is obtained from cosmic ray intensity data obtained during the years 1990-1997, more than half a solar cycle, by correlation between the neutron intensity and the atmospheric pressure. In order to eliminate other factors of solar or geomagnetic origin we use only geomagnetically quiet days (kp<20°. The evolution of the barometric coefficient from maximum (1990 to minimum (1997 solar activity is discussed.

  4. Critical conditions of pressurized pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2013), s. 401-412. ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2052 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : pressurized pipe * J-integral * C factor * critical conditions Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics http://www.engineeringmechanics.cz/obsahy.html?R=20&C=5

  5. Barometric pumping with a twist: VOC containment and remediation without boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large national cost is incurred in remediating near-surface contamination such as surface spills, leaking buried pipelines, and underground storage tank sites. Many of these sites can be contained and remediated using enhanced natural venting, capitalizing on barometric pumping. Barometric pumping is the cyclic movement experienced by soil gas due to oscillations in atmospheric pressure. Daily variations of 5 millibars are typical, while changes of 25 to 50 millibars can occur due to major weather front passage. The fluctuations can cause bulk vertical movement in soil gas ranging from centimeters to meters, depending on the amplitude of the pressure oscillation, soil gas permeability, and depth to an impermeable boundary such as the water table. Since the bulk gas movement is cyclic, under natural conditions no net advective vertical movement occurs over time. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., is developing an engineered system to capitalize on the oscillatory flow for soil contaminant remediation and containment. By design, the system allows normal upward movement of soil gas but restricts the downward movement during barometric highs. The earth's surface is modified with a sealant and vent valve such that the soil gas flow is literally open-quotes ratchetedclose quotes to cause a net upward flow over time. A key feature of the design is that it does not require boreholes, resulting in a very low cost remediation effort and reduced personnel exposure risk. In the current phase (Phase I) the system's performance is being evaluated. Static and transient analysis results are presented which illustrate the relative magnitude of this advective movement compared to downward contaminant diffusion rates. Calculations also indicate the depth of influence for various surface and soil configurations. The system design will be presented, as well as a cost assessment compared to conventional techniques

  6. Barometric pumping with a twist: VOC containment and remediation without boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, W.; Dunn, S.D.; Walsh, R. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A large national cost is incurred in remediating near-surface contamination such as surface spills, leaking buried pipelines, and underground storage tank sites. Many of these sites can be contained and remediated using enhanced natural venting, capitalizing on barometric pumping. Barometric pumping is the cyclic movement experienced by soil gas due to oscillations in atmospheric pressure. Daily variations of 5 millibars are typical, while changes of 25 to 50 millibars can occur due to major weather front passage. The fluctuations can cause bulk vertical movement in soil gas ranging from centimeters to meters, depending on the amplitude of the pressure oscillation, soil gas permeability, and depth to an impermeable boundary such as the water table. Since the bulk gas movement is cyclic, under natural conditions no net advective vertical movement occurs over time. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., is developing an engineered system to capitalize on the oscillatory flow for soil contaminant remediation and containment. By design, the system allows normal upward movement of soil gas but restricts the downward movement during barometric highs. The earth`s surface is modified with a sealant and vent valve such that the soil gas flow is literally {open_quotes}ratcheted{close_quotes} to cause a net upward flow over time. A key feature of the design is that it does not require boreholes, resulting in a very low cost remediation effort and reduced personnel exposure risk. In the current phase (Phase I) the system`s performance is being evaluated. Static and transient analysis results are presented which illustrate the relative magnitude of this advective movement compared to downward contaminant diffusion rates. Calculations also indicate the depth of influence for various surface and soil configurations. The system design will be presented, as well as a cost assessment compared to conventional techniques.

  7. Barometric pumping with a twist: VOC containment and remediation without boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, W.; Dunn, S.D.; Walsh, R.; Zakian, P.

    1995-12-31

    A large national cost is incurred in remediating near-surface contamination such as surface spills, leaking buried pipelines, and underground storage tank sites. Many of these sites can be contained and remediated using enhanced natural venting, capitalizing on barometric pumping. Barometric pumping is the cyclic movement experienced by soil gas due to oscillations in atmospheric pressure. Daily variations of 5 millibars are typical, while changes of 25 to 50 millibars can occur due to major weather front passage. The fluctuations can cause bulk vertical movement in soil gas ranging from centimeters to meters, depending on the amplitude of the pressure oscillation, soil gas permeability, and depth to an impermeable boundary such as the water table. Since the bulk gas movement is cyclic, under natural conditions no net advective vertical movement occurs over time. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., is developing an engineered system to capitalize on the oscillatory flow for soil contaminant remediation and containment. By design, the system allows normal upward movement of soil gas but restricts the downward movement during barometric highs. The earth`s surface is modified with a sealant and vent valve such that the soil gas flow is literally {open_quotes}ratcheted{close_quotes} to cause a net upward flow over time. A key feature of the design is that it does not require boreholes, resulting in a very low cost remediation effort and reduced personnel exposure risk. In the current phase (Phase I) the system`s performance is being evaluated. Static and transient analysis results are presented which illustrate the relative magnitude of this advective movement compared to downward contaminant diffusion rates. Calculations also indicate the depth of influence for various surface and soil configurations. The system design will be presented, as well as a cost assessment compared to conventional techniques.

  8. Passive remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds using barometric pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program, sponsored by the Department of Energy, is to demonstrate new subsurface characterization, monitoring, and remediation technologies. The interbedded clay and sand layers at the Integrated Demonstration Site (IDS) are contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). Characterization studies show that the bulk of the contamination is located in the approximately 40 m thick vadose zone. The most successful strategy for removing contaminants of this type from this environment is vapor extraction alone or in combination with other methods such as air sparging or enhanced bioremediation. Preliminary work at the IDS has indicated that natural pressure differences between surface and subsurface air caused by surface barometric fluctuations can produce enough gas flow to make barometric pumping a viable method for subsurface remediation. Air flow and pressure were measured in wells that are across three stratigraphic intervals in the vadose zone' The subsurface pressures were correlated to surface pressure fluctuations but were damped and lagging in phase corresponding to depth and stratum permeability. Piezometer wells screened at lower elevations exhibited a greater phase lag and damping than wells screened at higher elevations where the pressure wave from barometric fluctuations passes through a smaller number of low permeable layers. The phase lag between surface and subsurface pressures results in significant fluxes through these wells. The resultant air flows through the subsurface impacts CVOC fate and transport. With the appropriate controls (e.g. solenoid valves) a naturally driven vapor extraction system can be implemented requiring negligible operating costs yet capable of a large CVOC removal rate (as much as 1--2 kg/day in each well at the IDS)

  9. Steam-water pressure drop under high pressure condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Steam Generator (SG) in a commercialized sodium cooled Faster Breeder Reactor, flow instability in water side is one of the most important items need researching. As the first step of the research, thermal hydraulics experiments using water as test fluid were performed under high pressure condition at JAEA with using a circular tube. Pressure drop, heat transfer coefficients and void fraction data were derived. This paper focuses on the discussion to steam-water pressure drop. We evaluated existing correlations for two-phase flow multiplier under high pressure. As a result, Chismholm correlation was confirmed being the best one for the present high pressure data. (author)

  10. Field measurements of tracer gas transport by barometric pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical gas motions induced by barometric pressure variations can carry radioactive gases out of the rubblized region produced by an underground nuclear explosion, through overburden rock, into the atmosphere. To better quantify transit time and amount of transport, field experiments were conducted at two sites on Pahute Mesa, Kapelli and Tierra, where radioactive gases had been earlier detected in surface cracks. At each site, two tracer gases were injected into the rubblized chimney 300-400 m beneath the surface and their arrival was monitored by concentration measurements in gas samples extracted from shallow collection holes. The first ''active'' tracer was driven by a large quantity of injected air; the second ''passive'' tracer was introduced with minimal gas drive to observe the natural transport by barometric pumping. Kapelli was injected in the fall of 1990, followed by Tierra in the fall of 1991. Data was collected at both sites through the summer of 1993. At both sites, no surface arrival of tracer was observed during the active phase of the experiment despite the injection of several million cubic feet of air, suggesting that cavity pressurization is likely to induce horizontal transport along high permeability layers rather than vertical transport to the surface. In contrast, the vertical pressure gradients associated with barometric pumping brought both tracers to the surface in comparable concentrations within three months at Kapelli, whereas 15 months elapsed before surface arrival at Tierra. At Kapelli, a quasisteady pumping regime was established, with tracer concentrations in effluent gases 1000 times smaller than concentrations thought to exist in the chimney. Tracer concentrations observed at Tierra were typically an order of magnitude smaller. Comparisons with theoretical calculations suggest that the gases are traveling through ∼1 millimeter vertical fractures spaced 2 to 4 meters apart. 6 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Observando as mars atmosfricas: uma aplicao da placa Arduino com sensores de presso baromtrica e temperatura / Observing the atmospheric tides: an application of the Arduino board with sensors for barometric pressure and temperature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Raimundo Moreira de, Carvalho; Helio Salim de, Amorim.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma montagem experimental simples para o estudo da mar atmosfrica, baseada no uso da placa Arduino Uno. Com essa montagem, o professor de fsica no Ensino Mdio poder apresentar para seus alunos as oscilaes baromtricas, um efeito fundamentalmente de origem trmica devido ao aqueci [...] mento da atmosfera produzido pela radiao solar. Apresentamos tambm uma comparao entre a mar atmosfrica e o efeito gravitacional da mar ocenica, destacando as diferenas entre os dois fenmenos. Abstract in english We present a simple experimental apparatus for studying the atmospheric tide based on the use of Arduino Uno board. With this apparatus, the physics teacher in high school can present to your students barometric oscillations, an effect mainly of thermal origin, due to the warming of the atmosphere p [...] roduced by solar radiation. We also present a comparison between atmospheric tide and the gravitational effect of ocean tide, with emphasis on the differences between the two phenomena.

  12. Spray combustion under oscillatory pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, H. R.; Santoro, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The performance and stability of liquid rocket engines is often argued to be significantly impacted by atomization and droplet vaporization processes. In particular, combustion instability phenomena may result from the interactions between the oscillating pressure field present in the rocket combustor and the fuel and oxidizer injection process. Few studies have been conducted to examine the effects of oscillating pressure fields on spray formation and its evolution under rocket engine conditions. The pressure study is intended to address the need for such studies. In particular, two potentially important phenomena are addressed in the present effort. The first involves the enhancement of the atomization process for a liquid jet subjected to an oscillating pressure field of known frequency and amplitude. The objective of this part of the study is to examine the coupling between the pressure field and or the resulting periodically perturbed velocity field on the breakup of the liquid jet. In particular, transverse mode oscillations are of interest since such modes are considered of primary importance in combustion instability phenomena. The second aspect of the project involves the effects of an oscillating pressure on droplet coagulation and secondary atomization. The objective of this study is to examine the conditions under which phenomena following the atomization process are affected by perturbations to the pressure or velocity fields. Both coagulation and represent a coupling mechanism between the pressure field and the energy release process in rocket combustors. It is precisely this coupling which drives combustion instability phenomena. Consequently, the present effort is intended to provide the fundamental insights needed to evaluate these processes as important mechanisms in liquid rocket instability phenomena.

  13. Determination of Barometric Altimeter Errors for the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Denise L.; Munoz, Jean-Philippe; Gay, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The EFT-1 mission is the unmanned flight test for the upcoming Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). During entry, the EFT-1 vehicle will trigger several Landing and Recovery System (LRS) events, such as parachute deployment, based on onboard altitude information. The primary altitude source is the filtered navigation solution updated with GPS measurement data. The vehicle also has three barometric altimeters that will be used to measure atmospheric pressure during entry. In the event that GPS data is not available during entry, the altitude derived from the barometric altimeter pressure will be used to trigger chute deployment for the drogues and main parachutes. Therefore it is important to understand the impact of error sources on the pressure measured by the barometric altimeters and on the altitude derived from that pressure. There are four primary error sources impacting the sensed pressure: sensor errors, Analog to Digital conversion errors, aerodynamic errors, and atmosphere modeling errors. This last error source is induced by the conversion from pressure to altitude in the vehicle flight software, which requires an atmosphere model such as the US Standard 1976 Atmosphere model. There are several secondary error sources as well, such as waves, tides, and latencies in data transmission. Typically, for error budget calculations it is assumed that all error sources are independent, normally distributed variables. Thus, the initial approach to developing the EFT-1 barometric altimeter altitude error budget was to create an itemized error budget under these assumptions. This budget was to be verified by simulation using high fidelity models of the vehicle hardware and software. The simulation barometric altimeter model includes hardware error sources and a data-driven model of the aerodynamic errors expected to impact the pressure in the midbay compartment in which the sensors are located. The aerodynamic model includes the pressure difference between the midbay compartment and the free stream pressure as a function of altitude, oscillations in sensed pressure due to wake effects, and an acoustics model capturing fluctuations in pressure due to motion of the passive vents separating the barometric altimeters from the outside of the vehicle.

  14. Detecting the vulnerability of groundwater in semi-confined aquifers using barometric response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odling, N. E.; Perulero Serrano, R.; Hussein, M. E. A.; Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.

    2015-01-01

    The use of barometric response functions (BRFs) for detecting the presence of fully penetrating, highly conductive bodies within aquifer confining layers that present potential pathways for contaminants is explored. BRFs are determined from borehole water level (WL) and barometric pressure (Bp) records. Past studies have shown that confining layer properties can be estimated from BRFs, providing a potential link between BRFs and the concept of groundwater vulnerability. Existing analytical models that predict the BRF from system properties assume homogeneity within the aquifer and its confining layer, conditions which are seldom satisfied in nature. The impact of partially and fully penetrating, high diffusivity heterogeneities within a confining layer (representing potential high flow pathways for contaminants) on the BRF is investigated through a suite of three-dimensional, transient numerical simulations of the confining layer-aquifer system. The results are interpreted through comparison with a modified pre-existing analytical model for the BRF. Comparison of numerically and analytically calculated BRFs reveals that the key effect of a localised, fully penetrating, high diffusivity heterogeneity within a low diffusivity confining layer is to reduce the BRF gain with only minor changes to the phase. This impact on the BRF decreases with increasing distance from the heterogeneity. The importance of heterogeneity size is secondary to distance from the borehole and partially penetrating heterogeneities affect the BRF to only a minor extent. Data from a study of the Chalk Aquifer (E. Yorkshire, England) which is semi-confined by heterogeneous glacial sediments display variations in BRFs which are qualitatively similar to those shown by the numerical results. It is suggested that the variation in BRFs estimated from borehole records across a semi-confined aquifer could be used to assess the degree of spatial continuity of low diffusivity lithologies within the confining layer which protect the aquifer against surface sourced contamination, and thus provide a tool to improve groundwater vulnerability assessment.

  15. Barometric pumping effect for radon-due neutron flux in underground laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Stenkin, Yu V; Gromushkin, D M; Shchegolev, O B; Sulakov, V P

    2016-01-01

    It is known that neutron background is a big problem for low-background experiments in underground Laboratories. Our global net of en-detectors sensitive to thermal neutrons includes the detectors running both on the surface and at different depths underground. We present here results obtained with the en-detector of 0.75 m^2 which is running more than 3 years in underground room at a depth of 25 m of water equivalent in Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow. Spontaneous increases in thermal neutron flux up to a factor of 3 were observed in delayed anti-correlation with barometric pressure. The phenomenon can be explained by a radon barometric pumping effect resulting in similar effect in neutron flux produced in (alpha,n)-reactions by alpha-decays of radon and its daughters in surrounding rock

  16. Barometric response functions from borehole water level records and quantification of aquifer vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odling, N. E.; Serrano, R. P.; Hussein, M.; Guadagnini, A.; Riva, M.

    2013-12-01

    In confined and semi-confined aquifers, borehole water levels respond to fluctuations in barometric pressure and this response can be used to estimate the properties of aquifer confining layers. We use this response as indicator of groundwater vulnerability for the semi-confined Chalk aquifer in East Yorkshire, UK. Time series data of borehole water levels are corrected for Earth tides and recharge, and barometric response functions (BRFs) estimated using cross-spectral deconvolution-averaging techniques. The resulting BRFs are fitted using a theoretical model of the BRF gain and phase for a semi-confined aquifer (Rojstaczer, 1988) to obtain confining layer properties. For all of the boreholes, non-zero hydraulic diffusivities for the confining layer were found indicating that the aquifer is semi-confined. A ';characteristic time scale' based on the hydraulic and pneumatic diffusivities of the confining layer is introduced as a measure of the degree of aquifer confinement and therefore groundwater vulnerability. The analytical model assumes that the confining layer and aquifer are homogeneous. However, in nature, confining layers are heterogeneous and groundwater vulnerability dominated by the presence of high diffusivity, high flow pathways through the confining layer to the aquifer. A transient numerical model (MODFLOW) was constructed to test the impact of such heterogeneities on the BRF. In the model, an observed barometric pressure time series is used as a boundary condition applied to the upper surface of the top unit of the model (representing the confining layer) and BRFs determined from the time series of model heads in the bottom unit (representing the aquifer). The results from a numerical model with a homogeneous confining layer were found to accurately reproduce the BRFs from a modified version of the analytical model. The introduction of a localized, high diffusive block in the confining layer was found to modify the BRF, reducing the gain amplitude while having limited impact on the phase. It was found that the BRF reflects the presence of a fully penetrating, high diffusivity heterogeneity up to several hundred meters distant from the observation borehole, and shows little sensitivity to the heterogeneity's horizontal dimension. Heterogeneities that are 50% partially penetrating do not significantly impact on the BRF and 90% penetrating heterogeneities can only be detected when large and close to the observation borehole. These results show that BRF gain may be particularly useful in detecting the presence of fully penetrating heterogeneities of high diffusivity within confining layers that potentially enhance groundwater vulnerability. This research has been funded in part through the EU ITN ';IMVUL' (PITN-GA-2008-212298). Reference: Rojstaczer, S. (1988) Determination of fluid-flow properties from the response of water levels in wells to atmospheric loading, Water Resources Research, 24(11), 1927-1938.

  17. Parametric study of barometric pumping of a fractured porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Pierre; Mourzenko, Valeri; Thovert, Jean Francois; Pili, Eric; Guillon, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Fluctuations in the ambient atmospheric pressure result in motion of air in porous fractured media. This mechanism, known as barometric pumping, efficiently transports gaseous species through the vadose zone to the atmosphere. This is of interest in fields, such as transport of trace gases from soil to atmosphere, remediation of contaminated sites, radon in buildings, leakage from carbon sequestration sites and detection of nuclear explosions. The fractures are modeled as polygonal plane surfaces with a given transmissivity embedded in a permeable matrix. The slightly compressible fluid obeys Darcy's law in these two media with exchanges between them. The solute obeys convection-diffusion equations in both media again with exchanges. The numerical methodology is briefly described. The fractures and the porous medium are meshed by triangles and tetrahedra, respectively. The equations are discretized by the finite volume method and a Flux Limiting Scheme diminishes numerical dispersion. This model is applied to the Roselend Natural Laboratory. At a 55 m depth, a sealed cavity allows for gas release experiments across fractured porous rocks in the unsaturated zone. The standard case consist of hexagonal fractures with a radius of 5m, of aperture 0.5 mm and of density larger than 2.4 10-3 m-3; the pressure fluctuations are sinusoidal, of amplitude 0.01 bar and period 1 week; the solute concentration is equal to 1 at the bottom. Systematic results will be presented. First, the precision of the calculations is assessed. Second, the pressure and solute concentration fields are displayed and discussed. Within the time limit, the influence of the major parameters (fracture density, aperture, porosity, diffusion coefficient, pressure fluctuations including real recordings, ) is illustrated and discussed relatively to the standard case. Emphasis is put on some paradoxical results which are obtained. These results are discussed in terms of the amplification of solute transfer to the ground surface by the pressure fluctuations.

  18. Stationary and transient thermal states of barometric pumping in the access pit of an underground quarry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-15

    The transition zone between free and underground atmospheres hosts spectacular phenomena, as demonstrated by temperature measurements performed in the 4.6m diameter and 20m deep vertical access pit of an abandoned underground quarry located in Vincennes, near Paris. In summer, a stable stratification of the atmosphere is maintained, with coherent temperature variations associated with atmospheric pressure changes, with a barometric tide S2 larger than 0.1°C peak to peak. When the winter regime of turbulent cold air avalanches is initiated, stratification with pressure induced signals can be restored transiently in the upper part of the pit, while the lower part remains fully mixed and insensitive to pressure variations. The amplitude of the pressure to temperature transfer function increases with frequency below 5×10(-4)Hz, with values at 3×10(-5)Hz varying from 0.1°C·hPa(-1) at the bottom up to 2°C·hPa(-1) towards the top of the pit. These temperature variations are accounted for by cave breathing, which is pressure induced motion of air amplified by the large volume of the quarry. This understanding is supported by a numerical model including advective heat transport, heat diffusion, and heat exchange with the pit walls. Mean lifetime in the pit is of the order of 9 to 13h, and barometric pumping results in an effective ventilation rate of the quarry of the order of 10(-7)s(-1). This study illustrates the important role of barometric pumping in heat and matter transport between atmosphere and lithosphere. The resulting stationary and transient states, revealed in this pit, are probably a general feature of functioning interface systems, and therefore are an important aspect to consider in problems of contaminant transport, or the preservation of precious heritage such as rare ecosystems or painted caves. PMID:26855357

  19. Practical conditions in the neutron diffraction under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practical analysis is made on some conditions in utilizing neutrons for the study of atomistic structure of materials under high pressure. Investigation is made on the geometrical conditions; size of the specimen, width of slits, and the rate of extra-scattering. Experiments are performed on the effects of absorption by high pressure cell and the disturbance due to an overlapping of diffraction peaks. An observation is presented on the pressure-induced transformation in RbBr. (author)

  20. On The Barometric Formulas And Their Derivation From Hydrodynamics and Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlich, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    We derive the approximate pressure profiles, density profiles, and temperature profiles of an atmosphere, also called barometric formulas. Our variant of a derivation goes beyond the common standard exercise of a thermodynamics lecture, where commonly the discussion of the underlying physical assumptions is missed. We depart from the Navier-Stokes equation and explicitly point our attention on the physical assumptions disregarded elsewhere. We show that the usual assumptions can be relaxed leading to generalized formulas that hold even in the case of horizontal winds. This fundamental physics has some relevance to the current discussions on the climate debate.

  1. Steam pressure spike in PWR plant under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the steam pressure spike due to core debris/water interaction under severe accident conditions is presented for pressurized water reactors with large dry and ice condenser containments. The MARCH computer code was modified to analyze the debris/water interaction. Comparative analyses were performed for the single-sphere model (highly dispersed debris particles) and the dryout heat flux model (packed debris bed). For a TMLB' accident in a large dry containment, the single-sphere model predicts a rapid pressure rise at vessel failure, and the debris bed model shows a much slower pressure rise. The peak containment pressure does not exceed current estimates of containment failure pressure. For the case of ice condenser plant, the deinerting effect of ice could result in simultaneous hydrogen ignitions together with the steam spike at vessel failure. The predicted pressure rise could be greater than the estimated failure pressure of the ice condenser plant

  2. A Sensor Fusion Method for Tracking Vertical Velocity and Height Based on Inertial and Barometric Altimeter Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Maria Sabatini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A sensor fusion method was developed for vertical channel stabilization by fusing inertial measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and pressure altitude measurements from a barometric altimeter integrated in the same device (baro-IMU. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF estimated the quaternion from the sensor frame to the navigation frame; the sensed specific force was rotated into the navigation frame and compensated for gravity, yielding the vertical linear acceleration; finally, a complementary filter driven by the vertical linear acceleration and the measured pressure altitude produced estimates of height and vertical velocity. A method was also developed to condition the measured pressure altitude using a whitening filter, which helped to remove the short-term correlation due to environment-dependent pressure changes from raw pressure altitude. The sensor fusion method was implemented to work on-line using data from a wireless baro-IMU and tested for the capability of tracking low-frequency small-amplitude vertical human-like motions that can be critical for stand-alone inertial sensor measurements. Validation tests were performed in different experimental conditions, namely no motion, free-fall motion, forced circular motion and squatting. Accurate on-line tracking of height and vertical velocity was achieved, giving confidence to the use of the sensor fusion method for tracking typical vertical human motions: velocity Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was in the range 0.04–0.24 m/s; height RMSE was in the range 5–68 cm, with statistically significant performance gains when the whitening filter was used by the sensor fusion method to track relatively high-frequency vertical motions.

  3. Effects of the imposed pressure differential conditions on duoplasmatron performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The duoplasmatron plasma source (D.P.T.) was modified to allow access to the arc discharge (to measure the discharge properties) and to vary independently the pressures in different volumes of the arc with the aim of seeing if this freedom would help in optimising the output. The duoplasmatron plasma source was operated under normal running condition (N.R.C.), positive imposed pressure differential condition (P.I.P.D.C.) and negative imposed pressure differential condition (N.I.P.D.C.) and the corresponding properties of the plasma output were measured. Running the duoplasmatron under P.I.P.D. condition did not seem to improve the output as compared to that under N.R.C. However, running the duoplasmatron under N.I.P.D. condition seemed to be advantageous as the output increased by about 30%. It was observed that the back pressure was critical in maintaining the arc and the gap pressure could be lowered much below the normal minimum (while the arc was on) if back pressure was kept above a critical value. The results showed that the effects of varying the dimensions of the intermediate electrode nozzle on the output could be understood in terms of the effect of changes in these dimensions on the relative pressures. An empirical expression for the effect of the pressure ratio was developed from the observations and compared with the experimental results. The reasons for various results can be related to the plasma emission mechanism. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  4. Density and solidification feeding model of vacuum counter-pressure cast aluminum alloy under grade-pressuring conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Qing-song Yan; Huan Yu; Gang Lu

    2016-01-01

    The density of vacuum counter-pressure cast aluminum alloy samples under grade-pressuring condition was studied. The effect of grade pressure difference and time on the density of aluminum alloys was discussed, and the solidification feeding model under grade-pressuring condition was established. The results indicate the grade-pressured solidification feeding ability of vacuum counter-pressure casting mainly depends on grade pressure difference and time. With the increase of grade pressure di...

  5. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic Jump Conditions for Oblique Relativistic Shocks with Gyrotropic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double, Glen P.; Baring, Matthew G.; Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.

    2003-01-01

    Shock jump conditions, i.e., the specification of the downstream parameters of the gas in terms of the upstream parameters, are obtained for steady-state, plane shocks with oblique magnetic fields and arbitrary flow speeds. This is done by combining the continuity of particle number flux and the electromagnetic boundary conditions at the shock with the magnetohydrodynamic conservation laws derived from the stress-energy tensor. For ultrarelativistic and nonrelativistic shocks, the jump conditions may be solved analytically. For mildly relativistic shocks, analytic solutions are obtained for isotropic pressure using an approximation for the adiabatic index that is valid in high sonic Mach number cases. Examples assuming isotropic pressure illustrate how the shock compression ratio depends on the shock speed and obliquity. In the more general case of gyrotropic pressure, the jump conditions cannot be solved analytically with- out additional assumptions, and the effects of gyrotropic pressure are investigated by parameterizing the distribution of pressure parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. Our numerical solutions reveal that relatively small departures from isotropy (e.g., approximately 20%) produce significant changes in the shock compression ratio, r , at all shock Lorentz factors, including ultrarelativistic ones, where an analytic solution with gyrotropic pressure is obtained. In particular, either dynamically important fields or significant pressure anisotropies can incur marked departures from the canonical gas dynamic value of r = 3 for a shocked ultrarelativistic flow and this may impact models of particle acceleration in gamma-ray bursts and other environments where relativistic shocks are inferred. The jump conditions presented apply directly to test-particle acceleration, and will facilitate future self-consistent numerical modeling of particle acceleration at oblique, relativistic shocks; such models include the modification of the fluid velocity profile due to the contribution of energetic particles to the momentum and energy fluxes.

  7. [Photooxidation of CS2 under ambient pressure and vacuum condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Wu, Hong-Bo; Chen, Jian-Min

    2005-03-01

    With the radiation of UV light, the photooxidation of CS2 was studied under ambient pressure and vacuum condition. By means of in-situ FTIR, XPS and GC-MS, it is confirmed that the products of the reaction are COS, SO2, CO and CO2. The reaction is apparent first-order. Under ambient pressure and vacuum condition the concentration of the intermediate product COS varies tremendously. Under ambient pressure the concentration of COS increases sharply and then decreases gently. While under vacuum condition COS rose only up to 1/10 that of the ambient pressure, and remained invariable until finally vanished slowly. Under ambient pressure and vacuum condition, the half life time of CS2 was 31.6 s and 39.8 s, and it took 55 min and 22 min to degrade 98% of COS respectively. Oxygen promotes CS2 photooxidation. The main products of the photooxidation of COS, which is an important intermediate of the photooxdiation of CS2, are CO2 and SO2. In addition, SO2 could be further oxidized into SO2(4-). Increasing appropriate amount of oxygen could promote the photooxidation activity of COS. However, the rate constant remains invariable when the oxygen is overloaded. PMID:16004298

  8. A Stochastic Approach to Noise Modeling for Barometric Altimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Maria Sabatini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The question whether barometric altimeters can be applied to accurately track human motions is still debated, since their measurement performance are rather poor due to either coarse resolution or drifting behavior problems. As a step toward accurate short-time tracking of changes in height (up to few minutes, we develop a stochastic model that attempts to capture some statistical properties of the barometric altimeter noise. The barometric altimeter noise is decomposed in three components with different physical origin and properties: a deterministic time-varying mean, mainly correlated with global environment changes, and a first-order Gauss-Markov (GM random process, mainly accounting for short-term, local environment changes, the effects of which are prominent, respectively, for long-time and short-time motion tracking; an uncorrelated random process, mainly due to wideband electronic noise, including quantization noise. Autoregressive-moving average (ARMA system identification techniques are used to capture the correlation structure of the piecewise stationary GM component, and to estimate its standard deviation, together with the standard deviation of the uncorrelated component. M-point moving average filters used alone or in combination with whitening filters learnt from ARMA model parameters are further tested in few dynamic motion experiments and discussed for their capability of short-time tracking small-amplitude, low-frequency motions.

  9. Barometric tides from ECMWF operational analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Ray

    Full Text Available The solar diurnal and semidiurnal tidal oscillations in surface pressure are extracted from the operational analysis product of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF. For the semidiurnal tide this involves a special temporal interpolation, following Van den Dool et al. (1997. The resulting tides are compared with a "ground truth" tide data set, a compilation of well-determined tide estimates deduced from many long time series of station barometer measurements. These comparisons show that the ECMWF (analysis tides are significantly more accurate than the tides deduced from two other widely available reanalysis products. Spectral analysis of ECMWF pressure series shows that the tides consist of sharp central peaks with modulating sidelines at integer multiples of 1 cycle/year, superimposed on a broad cusp of stochastic energy. The integrated energy in the cusp dominates that of the side-lines. This complicates the development of a simple empirical model that can characterize the full temporal variability of the tides.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides

  10. Pohorje eclogites revisited: Evidence for ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirijam Vrabec

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Kyanite eclogites from the Pohorje Mountains, Slovenia, are providing the first evidence of ultrahigh-pressureEo-Alpine metamorphism in the Eastern Alps. Polycrystalline quartz inclusions in garnet, omphacite and kyaniteare surrounded by radial fractures and exhibit microtextures diagnostic for the recovery after coesite breakdown.The non-stoichiometric supersilicic omphacites found in Pohorje eclogites contain up to 5 mol % of Ca-Eskola molecule.Such clinopyroxenes are known to be stable exclusively at high-pressure conditions exceeding 3 GPa. Theirbreakdown during decompression resulted in exolution of quartz rods and needles that are oriented parallel toomphacite c-axis. The absence of coesite is a consequence of near-isothermal decompression during the first stagesof exhumation.Pressure and temperature conditions for the formation of the peak metamorphic mineral assemblages have beenassessed through a consideration of a Fe2+-Mg partitioning between garnet and omphacite pairs, based on differentcalibrations; b the equilibrium between garnet + clinopyroxene + phengite ± kyanite ± quartz/coesite assemblage.Estimated peak pressure and temperature conditions of 3.0-3.1 GPa and 750-783 °C are well within the coesite, i.e.the ultrahigh-pressure stability field.

  11. Computational analysis for prediction of pressure of PWR pressurizer under transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer model has been developed for prediction of the pressure in the pressurizer under transient conditions. In the model three separate thermodynamic regions which are not required to be in thermal equilibrium have been considered. The mathematical model derived from the general conservation equations includes all of the important thermal-hydraulics phenomena occurring in the pressurizer, i.e., stratification of the hot water and incoming cold water, bulk flashing and condensation, wall condensation, and interfacial heat and mass transfer, etc. The bubble rising and rain-out models are developed to describe bulk flashing and condensation, respectively. To obtain the wall condensation rate, a one-dimensional heat conduction equation is solved by the pivoting method. The presented model will predict the pressure-time behavior of a PWR pressurizer during a variety of transients. The results obtained from the proposed mathematical model are in good agreement with available data on the CHASHMA nuclear power plant's pressurizer performance

  12. Steam water heat transfer characteristics under high pressure condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a steam generator with straight double-walled heat transfer tubes that used in sodium cooled faster breeder reactor, clarification of flow instability in heat transfer tubes is one of the most important research themes. As the first step of the research, thermal hydraulics experiments with water were performed under high pressure condition in JAEA with using a circular tube. Pressure drop, heat transfer coefficients and void fraction data were derived. This paper summarizes the heat transfer characteristics under 15 - 18MPa. Saturated boiling heat transfer was discussed with four most famous general heat transfer correlations (Chen, Shah, Steiner-Taborek and Gungor-Winterton) being tested. Under present high pressure condition, it was found that the shah correlation gave good agreement with data at low mass flow rate and Chen correlation gave good agreement at high mass flow rate condition. For the nominate flow rate of w=110 g/s, both Chen and shah correlation can be used. As a result, under present high pressure condition, we recommend the smaller one of the Chen and Shah correlations being used for the calculation of heat transfer coefficient. (author)

  13. Investigations on pressure suppression system loads at accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For simulation of the integral behavior of pressure suppresion systems at accident conditions a mathematical model was developed which simulates a wide range of the loads occurring during a loss-of coolant accident. The multi-zone point model DRASYS serves for mathematical simulation of quasistatic (pressure and temperature build-up in the dry well and the suppression chamber) as well as dynamic loads (free-blowing process, water throw-up and condensing oscillations) in the course of a loss-of-coolant accident. For determination of the state variations with time in the individual pressure sections thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed between steam and water phases. Thermal non-equilibrium states are taken into account if phase separation interfaces between water and steam/air mixture exist. The flows between the individual pressure sections are treated as homogeneous, nonsteady, incompressible flows. For verification of the mathematical model recalculations were made of experiments performed at various test stands. Teh recalculations showed that the mathematical model has got a wide range of application and is suited for design and assessment of pressure suppression systems at accident conditions. (orig.)

  14. Drying kinetics of RDX under atmospheric pressure and vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In this study, RDX is dried in the ranges of 60–90 °C under atmospheric pressure and vacuum conditions. • Ten models are used to describe the drying of RDX. • The Midilli–Kucuk model is determined as the most suitable model. • Effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy for drying process are determined. - Abstract: The drying characteristics of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) are investigated in the ranges of 60–90 °C of drying temperature under atmospheric pressure and vacuum conditions in a laboratory scale dryer. The effect of drying temperature and absolute pressure on the drying characteristics is determined. In order to estimate and select the suitable form of RDX drying curves, the curves are fitted to ten different semi-theoretical and/or empirical thin-layer drying models and coefficients are evaluated by non-linear regression analysis. The models are compared based on their coefficient of determination, such as mean bias error, root mean square error, reduced chi-square and modeling efficiency between experimental and predicted moisture ratios. It is deduced that Midilli–Kucuk model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data as compared to other models. A diffusion model is used to describe the moisture transfer and the effective diffusivity for RDX drying is also determined at each temperature. Beside, the activation energy is also expressed using Arrhenius-type relationship under atmospheric pressure and vacuum conditions

  15. Pressure effects on critical heat flux under low pressure and low flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate pressure effects on CHF and to get CHF data, experimental study has been performed with vertical round tubes under the condition of low pressure and low mass flux. Test sections are made of Inconel-625 tube and have the geometry of 8 and 10 mm in diameter, and 0.5 and 1.0 m in heated length. All experiments have been conducted at the pressure of under 9 bar, the mass flux of under 250 kg/m2s and the inlet subcooling of 350 and 450 kJ/kg, for stable upward flow with water as a working fluid. Flow regime analysis is conducted for obtained CHF data with Mishima's flow regime map, which reveals that most of the CHF conditions occur in the annular-mist flow regime. General parametric trends of the collected CHF data are consistent with those of previous But for the pressure effect on CHF, two different trends are observed: At relatively high mass flux(? 150 kg/m2s), CHF increases with increasing pressure but at relatively low mass flux(? 100 kg/m2s), CHF decreases or is constant with increasing pressure. The CHF data are compared with predictions of existing well-known correlations and AECL 1995 look-up table resulting that Shah(1987) correlation yields the best prediction accuracy among them. Using modern data regression tool, ACE algorithm, a new CHF correlation for low pressure and low mass flux condition is developed based on local condition with the available 315 CHF data. The developed CHF correlation is based on six dimensionless parameters and shows good prediction accuracy; average error of -0.5% and RMS error of 10.2% for HBM

  16. Modelling of radionuclide migration after underground nuclear explosions by barometric pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During and shortly after a nuclear explosion several noble gas isotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe) besides many other fission products are produced. If the explosion is emplaced underground for clandestine test purposes these isotopes, all other fission and activation products are injected into the surrounding rocks. Only the noble gases are able to migrate upwards to the surface through suitable pathways in a fractured permeable medium due to cyclical changes in barometric surface pressure. Possible pathways are cracks, faults or high-permability layers. Times of arrival are much shorter than is expected by diffusion-process alone and may be of orders of magnitude more significant to allow verifying the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This work calculates time of arrival and shifts in abundance of the radioxenons due to its different molecular diffusion lengths

  17. Modeling of Spray Combustion under Cryogenic and High Pressure Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Schlotz, D.; Vogelgesang, M.; E. Gutheil; Clauss, W.; Sender, J

    2005-01-01

    The paper concerns both the numerical and experimental investigation of turbulent liquid oxygen/hydrogen spray combustion for elevated subcritical pressure and cryogenic inlet temperature conditions. In particular, the combustion in the single injector combustion chamber is studied where experimental data are obtained for gas phase temperature and both droplet size and velocities. The model uses an Eulerian--Lagrangian formulation for the gas and the liquid phase, respectively. Detailed ...

  18. Photoelectron Spectroscopy under Ambient Pressure and Temperature Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogletree, D. Frank; Bluhm, Hendrik; Hebenstreit, Eleonore B.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-02-27

    We describe the development and applications of novel instrumentation for photoemission spectroscopy of solid or liquid surfaces in the presence of gases under ambient conditions or pressure and temperature. The new instrument overcomes the strong scattering of electrons in gases by the use of an aperture close to the surface followed by a differentially-pumped electrostatic lens system. In addition to the scattering problem, experiments in the presence of condensed water or other liquids require the development of special sample holders to provide localized cooling. We discuss the first two generations of Ambient Pressure PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (APPES) instruments developed at synchrotron light sources (ALS in Berkeley and BESSY in Berlin), with special focus on the Berkeley instruments. Applications to environmental science and catalytic chemical research are illustrated in two examples.

  19. Horizon pressure from junction conditions for Schwarzschild and Rindler geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Culetu, Hristu

    2016-01-01

    We assumed a stress tensor is necessary on the event horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole or on the Rindler horizon for the Israel matching conditions to be satisfied. We found the surface energy density $\\rho_{s}$ is vanishing but the surface pressure $p_{s}$ equals $1/16\\pi l$ in both cases, where $l$ is the proper distance from the horizon. The junction relations are applied both for $r =$ const. and $T =$ const. surfaces, with the same results for the surface parameters $\\rho_{s}$ and $p_{s}$. We emphasize the nonstatic feature of the spacetimes beyond the corresponding horizons.

  20. Pressurized thermal shock. Thermo-hydraulic conditions in the CNA-I reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we analyze several reports issued by the Utility (Nucleo Electrica S.A.) and related to Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) phenomena in the CNA-I Nuclear Power Plant. These analyses are aimed at obtaining conclusions and establishing criteria ensuring the RPV integrity. Special attention was given to the effects ECCS cold-water injection at the RPV down-comer leading to pressurized thermal shock scenarios. The results deal with hypothetical primary system pipe breaks of different sizes, the inadvertent opening of the pressurizer safety valve, the double guillotine break of a live steam line in the containment and the inadvertent actuation pressurizer heaters. Modeling conditions were setup to represent experiments performed at the UPTF, under the hypothesis that they are representative of those that, hypothetically, may occur at the CNA-I. No system scaling analysis was performed, so this assertion and the inferred conclusions are no fully justified, at least in principle. The above mentioned studies, indicate that the RPV internal wall surface temperature will be nearly 40 degree. It was concluded that they allowed a better approximation of PTS phenomena in the RPV of the CNA-I. Special emphasis was made on the influence of the ECCS systems on the attained RPV wall temperature, particularly the low-pressure TJ water injection system. Some conservative hypothesis made, are discussed in this report. (author)

  1. Evaluation of pressurized thermal shock in transitional condition for boiling water reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural integrity for Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) was evaluated for the RPVs of Japanese Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). It has been clarified that the BWR RPVs have the sufficient margin of fracture toughness by calculating the stress intensity factor in transitional condition and the acceptance criteria for RPV shell plate which is assumed to be neutron-irradiated in core region for 60 years. (author)

  2. Evaluating road surface conditions using dynamic tire pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yubo; Wu, H. Felix; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2014-03-01

    In order to best prioritize road maintenance, the level of deterioration must be known for all roads in a city's network. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and International Roughness Index (IRI) are two standard methods for obtaining this information. However, IRI is substantially easier to measure. Significant time and money could be saved if a method were developed to estimate PCI from IRI. This research introduces a new method to estimate IRI and correlate IRI with PCI. A vehicle-mounted dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) system is used. The DTPS measures the signals generated from the tire/road interaction while driving. The tire/road interaction excites surface waves that travel through the road. DTPS, which is mounted on the tire's valve stem, measures tire/road interaction by analyzing the pressure change inside the tire due to the road vibration, road geometry and tire wall vibration. The road conditions are sensible to sensors in a similar way to human beings in a car. When driving on a smooth road, tire pressure stays almost constant and there are minimal changes in the DTPS data. When driving on a rough road, DTPS data changes drastically. IRI is estimated from the reconstructed road profile using DTPS data. In order to correlate IRI with PCI, field tests were conducted on roads with known PCI values in the city of Brockton, MA. Results show a high correlation between the estimated IRI values and the known PCI values, which suggests that DTPS-based IRI can provide accurate predictions of PCI.

  3. Density and solidification feeding model of vacuum counter-pressure cast aluminum alloy under grade-pressuring conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-song Yan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The density of vacuum counter-pressure cast aluminum alloy samples under grade-pressuring condition was studied. The effect of grade pressure difference and time on the density of aluminum alloys was discussed, and the solidification feeding model under grade-pressuring condition was established. The results indicate the grade-pressured solidification feeding ability of vacuum counter-pressure casting mainly depends on grade pressure difference and time. With the increase of grade pressure difference, the density of all the aluminum alloy samples increases, and the trend of change in density from the pouring gate to the top location is first decreasing gradually and then increasing. In addition, in obtaining the maximum density, the optimal grade-pressuring time is different for samples with different wall thicknesses, and the solidification time when the solid volume fraction of aluminum alloy reaches about 0.65 appears to be the optimal beginning time for grade-pressuring.

  4. Dust acoustic and gravity modes in barometric equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with mode in nonrotating horizontally stratified dusty atmosphere. We have studied dust gravity and acoustic modes in presence of a barometric equilibrium in an unmagnetized dusty plasma. All the dust grains are considered to have same and fixed negative (positive) charge on them. The electron and ions are considered to obey isothermal equations of state while the dust grain are following an adiabatic equation of state. This work can be considered as a generalization of single fluid treatment of gravity-acoustic modes. The analysis of dispersion relation suggests that the dust grains can introduce a new decay length of the perturbation. Therefore we find that the dispersion characteristics of single fluid treatment is strongly modified in the presence of charged dust grain. Finally we discussed importance of our results in the context of planetary and stellar environments

  5. PRESSURE INTEGRITY OF 3013 CONTAINER UNDER POSTULATED ACCIDENT CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawls, G.

    2010-02-01

    A series of tests was carried out to determine the threshold for deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT), structural loading, and structural response of the Department of Energy 3013 storage systems for the case of an accidental explosion of evolved gas within the storage containers. Three experimental fixtures were used to examine the various issues and three mixtures consisting of either stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen, stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen with added nitrogen, or stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen with an added nitrogen-helium mixture were tested. Tests were carried out as a function of initial pressure from 1 to 3.5 bar and initial temperature from room temperature to 150 C. The elevated temperature tests resulted in a slight increase in the threshold pressure for DDT. The elevated temperature tests were performed to ensure the test results were bounding. Because the change was not significant the elevated temperature data are not presented in the paper. The explosions were initiated with either a small spark or a hot surface. Based on the results of these tests under the conditions investigated, it can be concluded that DDT of a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture (and mixtures diluted with nitrogen and helium) within the 3013 containment system does not pose a threat to the structural integrity of the outer container.

  6. The Interface Conditions for Pressures at Oil-water Flood Front in the Porous Media Considering Capillary Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiaolong; Du, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Flood front is the jump interface where fluids distribute discontinuously, whose interface condition is the theoretical basis of a mathematical model of the multiphase flow in porous medium. The conventional interface condition at the jump interface is expressed as the continuous Darcy velocity and fluid pressure (named CPVCM). This paper has inspected it via the studying the water-oil displacement in one dimensional reservoir with considering capillary pressure but ignoring the compressibility and gravity. It is proved theoretically that the total Darcy velocity and total pressure (defined by Antoncev etc.), instead of the Darcy velocities and pressures of water and oil, are continuous at the flood front without considering the compressibility of fluid and porous media. After that, new interface conditions for the pressures and Darcy velocity of each fluid are established, which are collectively named as Jump Pressures and Velocities Conditions Model (JPVCM) because the model has shown the jump pressures and...

  7. Hulls and structural material waste conditioning by high pressure compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1986 KfK is developing a conditioning process. Main subjects of the investigations were the development of the production technique and the planning of the most important equipments of the process under remote conditions. The process is based on an extensive program of experiments. Inactive bulks of hulls and structural material components were compacted using maximum axial pressure load of about 300 MPa. The product density as function of press force was experimentally determinated. The mechanical loads of the press and tools were estimated for the design of these equipments. The hydraulic press consists a horizontal four-cylinder press. The maximum force of the press is 25 MN. The main advantage is the modular design of the press which is open on all sides. Especially the free accessibility from top is ensured. The report also represents relevant radiological data of the alternative product. Co-60 is the dominating activity of the product due to the effects of the heat production. An amount of 10 kg hull waste or 25 kg top and bottom pieces of the spent fuel assemblies per package is already beyond the Co-60 limit of the KONRAD regulations. The nuclear thermal power of a filled container is approximately sixty times lower compared with a vitrified HLW-container. Since the product shows thermal stability beyond 2000C, this it is suited for a combined disposal together with vitrified HLW-containers in salt bore holes of a geological disposal. The preliminary cost evaluation is based on a reprocessing throughput of 500 tHM per year and volume reduction factor of 5.3. Accordingly there are produced 300 waste packages with hulls only or 625 units with hulls and top and bottom pieces which require 1.6 or 2.3 millions DM respectively

  8. Chlorogenic acid stability in pressurized liquid extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wianowska, Dorota; Typek, Rafał; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L

    2015-01-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CQAs) are phenolic compounds naturally occurring in all higher plants. They are potentially useful in pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, food additives, and cosmetics due to their recently suggested biomedical activity. Hence, research interest in CQA properties, their isomers, and natural occurrence has been growing. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) is regarded as an effective and quick sample preparation method in plant analysis. The short time of PLE decreases the risk of chemical degradation of extracted compounds, thus increasing the attractiveness of its application. However, PLE applied for plant sample preparation is not free from limitations. We found that trans-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (trans-5-CQA), the main CQA isomer, isomerizes to 3- and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acids and undergoes transesterification, hydrolysis, and reaction with water even in rapid PLE. Moreover, the number and concentration of trans-5-CQA derivatives formed in PLE strongly depends on extractant composition, its pH, and extraction time and temperature. It was not possible to find the PLE conditions in which the transformation process of trans-5-CQA would be eliminated. PMID:25905748

  9. Pressurized heavy water reactor fuel behaviour in power ramp conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionescu, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, Campului Str., 1, 115400 Mioveni (Romania)], E-mail: silviu.ionescu@nuclear.ro; Uta, O.; Parvan, M.; Ohai, D. [Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, Campului Str., 1, 115400 Mioveni (Romania)

    2009-03-31

    In order to check and improve the quality of the Romanian CANDU fuel, an assembly of six CANDU fuel rods has been subjected to a power ramping test in the 14 MW TRIGA reactor at INR. After testing, the fuel rods have been examined in the hot cells using post-irradiation examination (PIE) techniques such as: visual inspection and photography, eddy current testing, profilometry, gamma scanning, fission gas release and analysis, metallography, ceramography, burn-up determination by mass spectrometry, mechanical testing. This paper describes the PIE results from one out of the six fuel rods. The PIE results concerning the integrity, dimensional changes, oxidation, hydriding and mechanical properties of the sheath, the fission-products activity distribution in the fuel column, the pressure, volume and composition of the fission gas, the burn-up, the isotopic composition and structural changes of the fuel enabled the characterization of the behaviour of the Romanian CANDU fuel in power ramping conditions performed in the TRIGA materials testing reactor.

  10. Pressurized heavy water reactor fuel behaviour in power ramp conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, S.; U??, O.; Prvan, M.; Ohi, D.

    2009-03-01

    In order to check and improve the quality of the Romanian CANDU fuel, an assembly of six CANDU fuel rods has been subjected to a power ramping test in the 14 MW TRIGA reactor at INR. After testing, the fuel rods have been examined in the hot cells using post-irradiation examination (PIE) techniques such as: visual inspection and photography, eddy current testing, profilometry, gamma scanning, fission gas release and analysis, metallography, ceramography, burn-up determination by mass spectrometry, mechanical testing. This paper describes the PIE results from one out of the six fuel rods. The PIE results concerning the integrity, dimensional changes, oxidation, hydriding and mechanical properties of the sheath, the fission-products activity distribution in the fuel column, the pressure, volume and composition of the fission gas, the burn-up, the isotopic composition and structural changes of the fuel enabled the characterization of the behaviour of the Romanian CANDU fuel in power ramping conditions performed in the TRIGA materials testing reactor.

  11. Touch mode micromachined capacitive pressure sensor with signal conditioning electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragiacomo, Giulio; Eriksen, Gert F.; Christensen, Carsten; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades, pressure sensors have been one of the greatest successes of the MEMS industry. Many companies are using them in a variety of applications from the automotive to the environmental field. Currently piezoresistive pressure sensors are the most developed, and a well established t...

  12. Phase stability limit of c-BN under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jianwei; Du, Jinglian; Wen, Bin, E-mail: wenbin@ysu.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiangyi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Melnik, Roderick [M2NeT Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo25, 75 University Ave. West, Ontario, Canada N2L 3C5 (Canada); Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-4 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan and Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1, Lavyrentyev Avenue, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-28

    Phase stability limit of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has been investigated by the crystal structure search technique. It indicated that this limit is ?1000 GPa at hydrostatic pressure condition. Above this pressure, c-BN turns into a metastable phase with respect to rocksalt type boron nitride (rs-BN). However, rs-BN cannot be retained at 0 GPa owing to its instability at pressure below 250 GPa. For non-hydrostatic pressure conditions, the phase stability limit of c-BN is substantially lower than that under hydrostatic pressure conditions and it is also dramatically different for other pressure mode.

  13. Barometric pumping with a twist: VOC containment and remediation without boreholes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The majority of the planned remediation sites within the DOE complex are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In many instances the contamination has not reached the water table, does not pose an immediate threat, and is not considered a high priority problem. These sites will ultimately require remediation of some type, either by active vapor extraction, bioremediation, or excavation and ex-situ soil treatment. The cost of remediating these sites can range from $50 K to more than $150 K, depending on site characteristics, contaminants, and remediation method. Additionally, for many remediated sites, residual contamination exists which could not practically be removed by the applied remediation technology. These circumstances result in modest sites with contamination of limited risk, but by regulation they must still be controlled. A remediation solution being developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) for the Department of Energy serves as an in-situ containment and extraction methodology for sites where most or all of the contamination resides in the vadose zone soil. The approach capitalizes on the advective soil gas movement resulting from barometric pressure oscillations.

  14. Study of graphite strength properties under conditions of hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three graphite grades are studied under compression, tension and hydrostaic pressure. It is shown that an increase in the ultimate strength and higher arrangement of strain curves are observed beginning with a certain value of hydrostatic pressure under compression. Several different types of coatings have been tested under compression and none of them gave a reliable protection against of oil in pores and cracks of a specimen as a result of which the strength values in this case are lower that under atmospheric pressure

  15. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M.; Backman, P.; Ek, P.; Hulden, S.T.; Kullberg, M.; Sorvari, V.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  16. Intelligent fiber optic pressure sensor for measurements in extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) for measurements of pressure and speed of pressure variation in water reactors of nuclear power plants contributes to improving their safety and long-term metrological stability, which demands for intelligent sensors. It is shown that the manufacturing of a FFPI sensitive element based on a molecular layering nano-technology provides for substantial enhancement of the quality of the gauge. The algorithm of self-calibration of the pressure sensor based on the fact that the length of the FFPI cavity depends on the pressure at a constant spectrum of an optical source is considered. By means of fast tuning of the spectrum of an optical source it is possible to make self-calibration in the course of continuous work of the pressure gauge. It is also shown that the intelligent FFPI pressure sensor maintains metrological characteristics when the total dose of high-neutron/ gamma radiation is over 2 MGy. (authors)

  17. Comparing temporal and spatial change of pore water pressure and slope stability between wet soil condition and unsaturated soil condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongyeob; Im, Sangjun; Lee, Eun Jai; Ahn, Byungkyu

    2013-04-01

    Intense rainfall event during short duration is the most significant reason of landslide in South Korea. Typically, it increases pore water pressure in soil and reduces soil effective stress, which cause landslide. In rainfall-induced landslide, saturation rate of soil at initial condition can affect whether landslide occurs. The objective of this study is to compare temporal and spatial pore water pressure and slope stability between in wet soil and in unsaturated soil under same rainfall condition. Two different infiltration models of TRIGRS 2 (Fortran Program for Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability Analysis) were employed to analyze difference of pore water pressure and soil stability under different soil initial conditions. The study site was two small watersheds of Mt. Umyeon in South Korea, where several landslides occurred under an extreme rainfall event on July 27, 2011. Topographical data were generated based on 1 m x 1 m-LiDAR data, and parameters of soil and water characteristics were measured in-situ for TRIGRS 2 simulation. In addition, soil water characteristic curve of the site for the unsaturated soil condition was estimated by the pressure plate method and the filter paper method. The simulation results showed that pore water pressure differently responded between the different water conditions of soil. Ground water table rise appeared relatively faster and higher in the wet soil condition than in the unsaturated soil condition. Moreover, in the wet soil condition, pore water pressure increased with depth while in the unsaturated soil condition, vertical distribution of pore water pressure varied in time. In terms of slope stability, lower factor of safety (FS) were estimated in the wet soil condition than in the unsaturated soil condition. Comparing with landslide initiation positions in reality, FS were calculated more reasonably in the wet soil condition while FS were under-estimated in the unsaturated soil condition. These results indicate that estimating accurate initial water condition of landslide site is important for assessing landslide susceptibility.

  18. Beat Pressure and Comparing it with Ascending Aorta Pressure in Normal and Abnormal Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Firoozabadi, Bahar; Sajadi, Behrang; Zolfonoon, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Lumped method (Electrical analogy) is a quick and easy way to model human cardiovascular system. In this paper Lumped method is used for simulating a complete model. It describes a 36-vessel model and cardiac system of human body with details that could show hydrodynamic parameters of cardiovascular system. Also this paper includes modeling of pulmonary, atrium, left and right ventricles with their equivalent circuits. Exact modeling of right and left ventricles pressure with division of ascending aorta into 27 segments increases the accuracy of our simulation. In this paper we show that a calculated pressure for aorta from our complex circuit is near to measured pressure by using advanced medical instruments. Also it is shown that pressure graph from brachial is so near to aortic pressure because of this its pressure signal is usable instead of aortic pressure. Furthermore, obstruction in ascending aorta, brachial and its effects has been showed in different figures.

  19. In-situ observation of surfaces under near ambient pressure conditions by AP-XPS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied chemical states of adsorbates on solid surfaces under near ambient pressure conditions. While we observe the same adsorption state as that under UHV condition, in some cases the formation of high-density phases and high-pressure-induced dissociation can be observed, which have not seen under UHV conditions. A study on the surfaces under the progress of catalytic surface reaction at near ambient pressures is also introduced. (author)

  20. An alternative method to Mariotte reservoir system for maintaining constant hydraulic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some studies being done to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain area as a potential radioactive waste repository require the application of a constant water pressure as a boundary condition to study water flow through porous media. The Mariotte reservoir system is commonly used to supply such a boundary condition. Several problems with the Mariotte reservoir system were discovered when it was used to apply a constant water pressure as a boundary condition for a prolonged period. The constant-pressure boundary condition is required for some lab. experiments to study water flow through porous media. The observed problems were caused by temperature and barometric-pressure fluctuations while the flow rates were very small and caused erroneous water flow-rate measurements. An alternative method was developed and used where the water pressure is controlled by regulating its level by using water-level sensing electrodes. The new method eliminated the effects of temperature and barometric-pressure fluctuations and maintained an acceptable accuracy of the estimated water flow rate without compromising the advantage of the Mariotte reservoir

  1. Micromachined capacitive pressure sensor with signal conditioning electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragiacomo, Giulio

    Micromachined capacitive pressure sensors for harsh environment together with interfacing electronic circuits have been studied in this project. Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have been proposed as substitutes for macro scale sensor’s systems in many different fields and are the only...... possible solution in many cases where, for example, the dimensions of the sensing element is the limiting factor. Furthermore, MEMS can significantly reduce costs and power consumption being the best candidate for consumer electronics such as mobile phones and cameras, or for the automotive industry where....... The developed MEMS consist of hermetically sealed vacuum cavities surrounded by two heavily doped silicon layers which constitute the plates of a capacitor. The top plate is also the sensing element being a thin diaphragm that deflects when pressure is applied, thus increasing the capacitance (i...

  2. Solid Nitrogen at Extreme Conditions of High Pressure and Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, A; Gregoryanz, E

    2004-04-05

    We review the phase diagram of nitrogen in a wide pressure and temperature range. Recent optical and x-ray diffraction studies at pressures up to 300 GPa and temperatures in excess of 1000 K have provided a wealth of information on the transformation of molecular nitrogen to a nonmolecular (polymeric) semiconducting and two new molecular phases. These newly found phases have very large stability (metastability) range. Moreover, two new molecular phases have considerably different orientational order from the previously known phases. In the iota phase (unlike most of other known molecular phases), N{sub 2} molecules are orientationally equivalent. The nitrogen molecules in the theta phase might be associated into larger aggregates, which is in line with theoretical predictions on polyatomic nitrogen.

  3. Estimation of partial pressure during graphite conditioning by matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma Facing Components (PFC) of SST-1 tokamak are designed to be compatible for UHV as it is kept in the main vacuum vessel. Graphite is the most widely used plasma facing material in present day tokamaks. High thermal shock resistance and low atomic number carbon are the most important properties of graphite for this application. However, graphite is porous and absorbs gases, which may be released during plasma operation. Graphite tiles are baked at high temperature of about 1000 deg. C in high vacuum (10-5 Torr) for several hours before installing them in the tokamak to remove the impurities (mainly water vapour and metal impurities), which may have been deposited during machining of the tiles. The measurements of the released gas (such as H2, H2O, CO, CO2, Hydrocarbons, etc.) from graphite tiles during baking are accomplished with the help of a Quadrupole Mass Analyzer (QMA). Since, the output of this measurement is a mass spectrum and not the partial pressures of the residual gases, one needs to adopt some procedure to convert the spectrum to obtain the partial pressures. The conventional method of analysis is tedious and time consuming. We propose a new approach based on constructing a set of linear equations and solving them using matrix operations. This is a simple method compared to the conventional one and also eliminates the limitations of the conventional method. A Fortran program has been developed which identifies the likely gases present in the vacuum system and calculates their partial pressures from the data of the residual gas analyzers. Application of this method of calculating partial pressures from mass spectra data will be discussed in detail in this paper

  4. On pressure boundary conditions for steady flows of incompressible fluids with pressure and shear rate dependent viscosities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lanzendörfer, Martin; Stebel, Jan

    Ostrava : Institute of Geonics AS CR, 2009 - (Blaheta, R.; Starý, J.). s. 71-75 ISBN 978-80-86407-60-9. [SNA '09 - Seminar on numerical analysis: modelling and simulation of challenging engineering problems. 02.02.2009-06.02.2009, Ostrava] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06052; GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0352 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : existence * weak solutions * incompressible fluids * non-Newtonian fluids * pressure dependent viscosity * shear dependent viscosity * inflow/outflow boundary conditions * pressure boundary conditions * filtration boundary conditions http://www.ugn.cas.cz/ events /2009/sna/sbornik.pdf

  5. A frmula baromtrica como instrumento de ensino em Qumica The barometric formula as resource for teaching Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otvio Luiz Bottecchia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The barometric equation is revisited. Restrictions imposed for its derivation are investigated. Results are discussed and related to simple themes of ordinary life. The theoretical models fit to experimental data. Correction for temperature effect improves the fitting in comparison to the barometric formula. The scope for application of the model is discussed.

  6. Design and Application of a High Sensitivity Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Low Pressure Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Huiyang Yu; Jianqiu Huang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a pressure sensor for low pressure detection (0.5 kPa–40 kPa) is proposed. In one structure (No. 1), the silicon membrane is partly etched to form a crossed beam on its top for stress concentration. An aluminum layer is also deposited as part of the beam. Four piezoresistors are fabricated. Two are located at the two ends of the beam. The other two are located at the membrane periphery. Four piezoresistors connect into a Wheatstone bridge. To demonstrate the stress concentrate ...

  7. Charge Accumulation in LDPE and XLPE Conditioned at 80oC under Reduced Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Robert J.; Henriksen, Mogens; Holbøll, Joachim T.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of thermal conditioning, under reduced pressure, on space accumulation in planar LDPE and XLPE samples under DC stress, have been investigated. The samples were conditioned prior to voltage application by being held at 80oC for 2-3 days in short circuit at rotary pump pressure. Some w...... monitored as a function of time using the PEA (Denmark) and LIPP (Australia) techniques. Conditioning did not prevent space charge accumulation in either the LDPE or XLPE samples....

  8. Shape memory effects in titanium nickelide under conditions of all-round pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made into direct and reverse shape memory effects in TiNI alloy under conditions of all-round pressure up to 250 MPa. The pressure is shown to shift the temperature of martensitic transition to the side of lower temperatures but this shift is different for direct and reverse transitions. This results in different temperature hysteresis with pressure increasing. It is revealed experimentally that rather high inelastic strains can be initiated under isothermal conditions only due to an increase or a drop of pressure within the temperature range of direct on reverse transition correspondingly

  9. Analysis of air-conditioning and drying processes using spreadsheet add-in for psychrometric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Diemuodeke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A spreadsheet add-in for the psychrometric data at any barometric pressure and in the air-conditioning and drying temperatureranges was developed using appropriate correlations. It was then used to simulate and analyse air-conditioning and dryingprocesses in the Microsoft Excel environment by exploiting its spreadsheet and graphic potentials. The package allowsone to determine the properties of humid air at any desired state, and to simulate and analyse air-conditioning as well asdrying processes. This, as a teaching tool, evokes the intellectual curiosity of students and enhances their interest and abilityin the thermodynamics of humid-air processes.

  10. A Review of Large-Scale Fracture Experiments Relevant to Pressure Vessel Integrity Under Pressurized Thermal Shock Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, C.E.

    2001-01-29

    Numerous large-scale fracture experiments have been performed over the past thirty years to advance fracture mechanics methodologies applicable to thick-wall pressure vessels. This report first identifies major factors important to nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity under pressurized thermal shock (PTS) conditions. It then covers 20 key experiments that have contributed to identifying fracture behavior of RPVs and to validating applicable assessment methodologies. The experiments are categorized according to four types of specimens: (1) cylindrical specimens, (2) pressurized vessels, (3) large plate specimens, and (4) thick beam specimens. These experiments were performed in laboratories in six different countries. This report serves as a summary of those experiments, and provides a guide to references for detailed information.

  11. Antiferromagnetic critical pressure in URu2Si2 under hydrostatic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Butch, Nicholas P.; Jeffries, Jason R.; Chi, Songxue; Leo, Juscelino B.; Lynn, Jeffrey W.; Maple, M. Brian

    2010-01-01

    The onset of antiferromagnetic order in URu2Si2 has been studied via neutron diffraction in a helium pressure medium, which most closely approximates hydrostatic conditions. The antiferromagnetic critical pressure is 0.80 GPa, considerably higher than values previously reported. Complementary electrical resistivity measurements imply that the hidden order-antiferromagnetic bicritical point far exceeds 1.02 GPa. Moreover, the redefined pressure-temperature phase diagram suggests that the super...

  12. Study of intestinal mucosa in high pressure conditions of variable pressure SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Eva; Neděla, Vilém

    Nové Město na Moravě : Československá mikroskopická společnost, 2010 - (Frank, L.; Hozák, P.), s. 33 ISBN N. [Mikroskopie 2010. Nové Město na Moravě (CZ), 17.02.2010-18.02.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : intestinal mucosa * variable pressure SEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  13. Jump conditions for pressure anisotropy and comparison with the Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Vogl

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the pressure anisotropy in the solar wind, we study the magnetic field and plasma parameters downstream of a fast shock, as functions of upstream parameters and downstream pressure anisotropy. In our theoretical approach, we model two cases: a the perpendicular shock and b the oblique shock. We use two threshold conditions of plasma instabilities as additional equations to bound the range of pressure anisotropy. The criterion of the mirror instability is used for pressure anisotropy p perp /pparrallel > 1. Analogously, the criterion of the fire-hose instability is taken into account for pressure anisotropy p perp /pparrallel < 1. We found that the variations of the parallel pressure, the parallel temperature, and the tangential component of the velocity are most sensitive to the pressure anisotropy downstream of the shock. Finally, we compare our theory with plasma and magnetic field parameters measured by the WIND spacecraft.

  14. A study on the manufacturing conditions of metal matrix composites by low pressure infiltration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal fiber preform reinforced aluminum alloy composite as made by the infiltration of molten metal under low pressure casting process. The infiltration behavior of filling pattern and the velocity profile with low-pressure casting process was investigated. The thermocouple was inserted into the preform in order to observe the infiltration behavior. The infiltration of applied pressure time, 1, 2 and 5 s under constant pressure of 0.4 MPa was completely filled during 0.4 s. In these conditions, molten aluminum alloy has successfully infiltrated to FeCrSi metal fiber preform by low-pressure casting process. It was observed the porosity of composites for reliability of composites. The automobile piston was developed with FeCrSi reinforced aluminum alloy that is 0% porosity by the optimal applied pressure and applied pressure time

  15. Design and Application of a High Sensitivity Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Low Pressure Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huiyang; Huang, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a pressure sensor for low pressure detection (0.5 kPa-40 kPa) is proposed. In one structure (No. 1), the silicon membrane is partly etched to form a crossed beam on its top for stress concentration. An aluminum layer is also deposited as part of the beam. Four piezoresistors are fabricated. Two are located at the two ends of the beam. The other two are located at the membrane periphery. Four piezoresistors connect into a Wheatstone bridge. To demonstrate the stress concentrate effect of this structure, two other structures were designed and fabricated. One is a flat membrane structure (No. 2), the other is a structure with the aluminum beam, but without etched silicon (No. 3). The measurement results of these three structures show that the No.1 structure has the highest sensitivity, which is about 3.8 times that of the No. 2 structure and 2.7 times that of the No. 3 structure. They also show that the residual stress in the beam has some backside effect on the sensor performance. PMID:26371001

  16. Design and Application of a High Sensitivity Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Low Pressure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyang Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a pressure sensor for low pressure detection (0.5 kPa–40 kPa is proposed. In one structure (No. 1, the silicon membrane is partly etched to form a crossed beam on its top for stress concentration. An aluminum layer is also deposited as part of the beam. Four piezoresistors are fabricated. Two are located at the two ends of the beam. The other two are located at the membrane periphery. Four piezoresistors connect into a Wheatstone bridge. To demonstrate the stress concentrate effect of this structure, two other structures were designed and fabricated. One is a flat membrane structure (No. 2, the other is a structure with the aluminum beam, but without etched silicon (No. 3. The measurement results of these three structures show that the No.1 structure has the highest sensitivity, which is about 3.8 times that of the No. 2 structure and 2.7 times that of the No. 3 structure. They also show that the residual stress in the beam has some backside effect on the sensor performance.

  17. Apparatus for filling the pillbox high-pressure optical cell under unaerobic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, S.; van Eldik, R.

    1989-05-01

    The construction of a special apparatus is reported that allows a quick and easy filling of the pillbox optical cell under unaerobic conditions for photochemical and spectroscopic measurements at elevated pressure.

  18. Biogenic amines in pressurized vacuum-packaged cooked sliced ham under different chilled storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Carballo, J; Jiménez Colmenero, F

    2007-03-01

    This work was undertaken to study how storage conditions (at constant temperatures of 2±1 and 12±1°C and temperature fluctuations at 7±5°C) affect microbial development and the production of biogenic amines in vacuum-packaged cooked sliced ham subjected to high pressure (400MPa/10min/30°C). Initially, the product exhibited low levels of contamination. Microbiological changes during storage depend on the processing (non-pressure and pressure treatment) and the chilled storage conditions. Generally, microbial growth in pressurized samples was similar to that in the non-pressurized samples, although the total viable count and lactic flora were lower and growth was delayed. Processing and storage conditions affected the formation of each amine differently. The most important changes were in tyramine, which formed more quickly in non-pressurized products stored at 12°C and with temperature fluctuations. The formation of biogenic amines in these products can be prevented not only by ensuring good manufacturing practices and applying high pressure but also by ensuring the right chilled storage conditions. PMID:22063795

  19. Simulation of subcooled boiling at low pressure conditions with RELAP5-3D computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation of subcooled boiling was carried out using RELAP5 thermal hydraulic computer programs. Both 1D and 3D analyses were carried out with RELAP5/MOD3.2 and RELAP5-3D code. Experimental data from the subcooled boiling experiment at low pressure conditions of Bartel, and Zeitoun and Shoukri were simulated. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 was executed to determine the axial void faction distribution. The predictions of void fraction distributions at low-pressure conditions were underestimated. The same model was used to simulate high pressure subcooled boiling data. High pressure subcooled boiling experiments of Bartolomey and Sabotinov were simulated. The axial void fraction distribution results of RELAP5/MOD3.2 were in a good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  20. Characterisation of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome in French Bulldogs Using Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Nai-Chieh; Sargan, David R.; Adams, Vicki J; Ladlow, Jane F.

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is an important health and welfare problem in several popular dog breeds. Whole-body barometric plethysmography (WBBP) is a non-invasive method that allows safe and repeated quantitative measurements of respiratory cycles on unsedated dogs. Here respiratory flow traces in French bulldogs from the pet population were characterised using WBBP, and a computational application was developed to recognise affected animals. Eighty-nine French bulldog...

  1. Prediction of pressure fluctuation of a hydraulic turbine at no-load condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. J.; Wu, X. J.; Liu, J. T.; Wu, Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    In order to study characteristics of pressure fluctuation of a turbine during the starting period, a turbine with guide vanes device at no-load condition was investigated using RNG k-epsilon turbulence model. The inner flow distribution and pressure fluctuation characteristics were analyzed. Results show that the pressure fluctuations in the region between the runner and guide vanes are different around the runner inlet. The dominant frequency of pressure fluctuation in the vaneless space close to the casing outlet is the blade passing frequency, while the dominant frequency at the rest region is the twice of the blade passing frequency. The increase of amplitude of pressure fluctuation close to the casing outlet can be attribute to the large scale stall at suction side of the runner inlet.

  2. Apparatus for study of electron paramagnetic resonance under conditions of high pressure and shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadali, A.A.; Shanditsev, V.A.; Lastenko, I.P.; Buchachenko, A.L.

    1988-02-01

    Apparatus is described for study of EPR spectra of paramagnetic centers under conditions of shear deformation at high pressure. A stock 3-cm-band EPR spectrometer is used. The specimen is deformed in the resonator of the spectromer itself. The cylindrical H/sub 11n/ (n = 1, 2) operating-mode resonator is made of corundum ceramic; the modulation is radio-frequency (100 kHz). The pressure reaches 3 GPa and the shear angle is 45/sup 0/.

  3. Lumped-parameter modeling of PWR downcomer and pressurizer for LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two lumped-parameter models, one for a PWR downcomer and the other for a pressurizer, are presented. The models are based on the transient, nonhomogeneous, drift-flux description of two-phase flow, and are suitable for simulating a hypothetical LOCA condition. Effects of thermal nonequilibrium are incorporated in the downcomer model, whereas the pressurizer model can track the interfaces among various flow regimes. Semiimplicit numerical schemes are used for solution. Encouraging results have been obtained for both the models. (author)

  4. Resistivity Variation due to CO2 Migration in Different Temperature and Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Y.; Onishi, K.; Yamada, Y.; Matsuoka, T.; Xue, Z.

    2007-12-01

    CO2 geological sequestration is one of the effective approaches solving the global warming problem. Captured CO2 is injected to the deep aquifers or depleted oil and gas fields. Injected CO2 migrates thorough the reservoir rock, however, the details behavior of injected CO2 under the ground at super critical phase is not yet fully understood. Migration of injected CO2 will change by the condition of the injected reservoir such as the temperature and pressure. Also density and permeability of the rock may be changed due to temperature or pressure variations. These changes control the migration behavior of injected CO2. In this study, experiments of resistivity measurements were conducted to detect the migration difference of CO2 in different temperature and pressure conditions by using sandstone core samples. Core sample was taken from Berea sandstone and processed to 5cm diameter and 12cm length. For the resistivity measurement, impression electrode was set on the both end and the measurement electrode of ring condition was set on the side of the rock sample. We stetted the core sample in the pressure vessel and recreated the condition of underground reservoir which is high pressure and high temperature. We injected supercritical CO2 in different pressure and temperature for each experiment. Pressure was changed in range of 8 to 11MPa and temperature was changed in range of 35° to 45°. This means that all the experiments were conducted in supercritical phase. From the measured resistivity variation, we verified the migration of CO2 and compared the migration behavior of CO2 in different conditions.

  5. Abiotic Formation of Valine Peptides Under Conditions of High Temperature and High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Otake, Tsubasa; Ishiguro, Takato; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the oligomerization of solid valine and the stabilities of valine and valine peptides under conditions of high temperature (150-200 °C) and high pressure (50-150 MPa). Experiments were performed under non-aqueous condition in order to promote dehydration reaction. After prolonged exposure of monomeric valine to elevated temperatures and pressures, the products were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry comparing their retention times and masses. We identified linear peptides that ranged in size from dimer to hexamer, as well as a cyclic dimer. Previous studies that attempted abiotic oligomerization of valine in the absence of a catalyst have never reported valine peptides larger than a dimer. Increased reaction temperature increased the dissociative decomposition of valine and valine peptides to products such as glycine, β-alanine, ammonia, and amines by processes such as deamination, decarboxylation, and cracking. The amount of residual valine and peptide yields was greater at higher pressures at a given temperature, pressure, and reaction time. This suggests that dissociative decomposition of valine and valine peptides is reduced by pressure. Our findings are relevant to the investigation of diagenetic processes in prebiotic marine sediments where similar pressures occur under water-poor conditions. These findings also suggest that amino acids, such as valine, could have been polymerized to peptides in deep prebiotic marine sediments within a few hundred million years.

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPACTING PRESSURE AND CONDITIONS IN PRESSING CHAMBER DURING BIOMASS PRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Križan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the impact of the conditions in pressing chambers during the pressing of wooden briquettes. The conditions in pressing chambers can significantly impact the resulting compacting pressure required for the pressing of briquettes. In the introduction, we show which parameters of the pressing chamber during pressing can impact the resulting compacting pressure. The experiment results which are shown in this paper described the detected impact of some important pressing chamber parameters. This experiment aims to detect the pressing chamber length impact and the impact of the way of pressing. By setting the pressing conditions, we will be able to achieve the suitable resulting compacting pressure with respect to the required final briquettes quality.

  7. Effect of Specific Operating Conditions on the Properties of LPPS Plasma Jets Expanding at Low Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LPPS processes, which use DG plasma jets expanding at low pressure, are widely used for the deposition of various kinds of layers. The supersonic expansion of the plasma jet in a low-pressure environment requires special care in the operating conditions in order to obtain the desired properties of the flow, regarding powder injection and transport and plasma jet-surface interaction. This paper presents measurements of the plasma jet properties for different chamber pressures. The torch is operated both in the over-expanded and under-expanded regimes, according to pressure measurements at the exit of the nozzle as a function of the backpressure. The topology of the expansion-compression zones of the plasma jet for the different operating pressures is inferred from imaging of the plasma jet. In addition, a modified enthalpy probe system is used to measure the specific enthalpy and the stagnation pressure profiles throughout the jet. De- termination of the local free-stream jet parameters, such as the temperature and velocity, for the case of supersonic flow is made assuming an isentropic frozen stagnation process at the probe tip. For these calculations the pressure dependence of the equilibrium thermodynamic and transport properties is accounted for. Discussion on expanded jet rarefaction is made for chamber pressure below 20 mbar, in the light of plasma jet imaging and nozzle exit pres- sure measurements. (author)

  8. Barometric gas transport along faults and its application to nuclear test-ban monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground nuclear explosions produce a unique but evanescent set of radionuclide gases that potentially can be used in the context of an on-site, test-ban monitoring program to differentiate them from other detected events such as earthquakes or mining activity. In Part I of this report we describe an experiment to evaluate the upward transport of gases from an underground explosion using two gas tracers with very different diffusivities that were released in a 400-m-deep, chemical explosive detonation. The less diffusive (more massive) tracer was detected on a nearby geologic fault 50 days following the detonation while the more diffusive tracer was detected 375 days after release. Computer simulations indicate that the arrival time and the chromatographic behavior of transport are characteristic of barometrically induced flow in a fractured, porous matrix regime. For a hypothetical 1-kiloton fission explosion subject to the same weather and gas transport conditions of the chemical explosion, simulations predict the detectability of argon-37 after 80 days in spite of depletion by radioactive decay. Largely because of the earlier arrival of xenon-133, owing to its lower binary gas diffusivity, the exceedingly short lived isotope should also be detectable - arriving about 30 days earlier than argon. In Part II we consider that our prediction of the detectability of argon and xenon is based upon the small volume (0.00001 m3) sampling technique of the NPE tracer-gas sampling study while actual sampling for radionuclides would involve drawing much larger volume (possibly 0.1-1 m3) gas samples from the near-surface. Extraction of such a large volume of gas from 1-5 meter depths in the soil raises the possibility of significant atmospheric infiltration, leading to substantial dilution of the extracted gas sample. However, an infiltration experiment suggests that significant dilution would not, in fact, occur at the most prolific sampling stations of the earlier gas-tracer study. Of the soil gas being extracted at the shallowest sample site, less than 10% of the gas in the sample volume can be attributed to the infiltration of atmospheric gas. (author)

  9. Boiling heat transfer and dryout in helically coiled tubes under different pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Heat transfer characteristics and dryout for helically coiled tube are performed. A boiling heat transfer tends to increase with a pressure increase. Dryout occurs at high quality test conditions investigated. SteinerTaboreks correlation is predicted well based on the experimental results. - Abstract: A helically coiled once-through steam generator has been used widely during the past several decades for small nuclear power reactors. The heat transfer characteristics and dryout conditions are important to optimal design a helically coiled steam generator. Various experiments with the helically coiled tubes are performed to investigate the heat transfer characteristics and occurrence condition of a dryout. For the investigated experimental conditions, SteinerTaboreks correlation is predicted reasonably based on the experimental results. The pressure effect is important for the boiling heat transfer correlation. A boiling heat transfer tends to increase with a pressure increase. However, it is not affected by the pressure change at a low power and low mass flow rate. Dryout occurs at high quality test conditions investigated because a liquid film on the wall exists owing to a centrifugal force of the helical coil

  10. Determination of optimal conditions for pressure oxidative leaching of Sarcheshmeh Molybdenite concentrate using Taguchi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnevisana A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research work is based on finding the optimum conditions for pressure oxidative leaching of the molybdenite concentrate to produce technical-grade molybdic oxide (MoO3 with high recovery through further treatment of the filtrate solution. The Taguchi method was used to design and minimize the number of experiments. By using Taguchi orthogonal (L25 array, five parameters (time, temperature, oxygen pressure, pulp density and acid concentration at five levels were selected for 25 experiments. The experiments were designed and carried out in a high-pressure reactor in the presence of nitric acid as solvent and oxidizing agent for the molybdenite concentrate and its ReS2 content. The optimum conditions for pressure leaching of molybdenite were obtained through using Signal to Noise analysis and modified by using Minitab software prediction tool. Furthermore, the optimum condition for an economical pressure leaching of rhenium sulfide (ReS2 was achieved with the same process. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the pulp density is of paramount importance in this process.

  11. Flow instability research on steam generator with straight double-walled heat transfer tube for FBR. Pressure drop under high pressure condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Steam Generator (SG) with straight double-walled heat transfer tube that used in sodium cooled Faster Breeder Reactor, flow instability is one of the most important items need researching. As the first step of the research, thermal hydraulics experiments were performed under high pressure condition in JAEA with using a straight tube. Pressure drop, heat transfer coefficients and void fraction data were derived. This paper evaluates the pressure drop data with TRAC-BF1 code. The Pffan's correlation for single phase flow and the Martinelli-Nelson's two-phase flow multiplier are found can be well predicted the present pressure drop data under high pressure condition. (author)

  12. The lubrication characteristics of the vane tip under pressure boundary condition of oil hydraulic vane pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lubrication mode of line contacts between the vane and the camring in an oil hydraulic vane pump has been investigated. First, the variations of the radial force of a vane were calculated from previous measurements of dynamic internal pressure in four chambers surrounding a vane. Next, the lubrication modes were distinguished with Hooke's chart, which is an improvement over Johnson's chart. Finally, the influence of the boundary conditions in the lubrication region on the fluid film lubrication was examined by calculating the film pressure distributions. The results showed that the lubrication mode of the vane tip exists in the rigid-variable-viscosity region, and that discharge pressure higher than 7 MPa greatly affects the oil film pressure in the small and the large arc section because of the Piezo-viscous effect

  13. Study on vortex cavitation in a compact fast reactor. Effects of system pressure on inception condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact sodium reactor is designed as a commercialized fast reactor cycle system. A 1/10 scaled water experiment was performed to optimize flow in an upper plenum of the reactor vessel, because of high flow velocity resulted from the compacted vessel. In the experiment, vortex cavitation was found at the hot leg inlet because of high velocity in the hot leg pipe (9.4m/s in the design). To evaluate cavitation inception condition of the commercialized reactor, we use the cavitation number k in order to consider the difference of system pressures (0.1MPa in the experiment and 0.3MPa in the design). The minimum pressure at the vortex center will depend on vortex core radius (size of forced vortex region). It is related to axial velocity gradient and fluid viscosity in theory of the Burger's stretched vortex model. We carried out a basic water experiment to investigate the influence of system pressure and fluid viscosity on the vortex cavitation. The cavitation number at the inception of vortex cavitation slightly increased according to the increase of the system pressure. It means that the vortex cavitation occurs easily under higher pressure condition as compared with the similar condition of cavitation number with lower pressure. However the increase was less than 30% when the system pressure was varied from 0.1 to 0.3MPa. The influence of fluid viscosity was examined by change of fluid temperature. Velocity distribution around the vortex was also measured to see the structure of vortex. (authors)

  14. Effect of processing conditions on oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviara, N A; Musa, W B; Owolarafe, O K; Ogunsina, B S; Oluwole, F A

    2015-07-01

    Seed oil expression is an important economic venture in rural Nigeria. The traditional techniques of carrying out the operation is not only energy sapping and time consuming but also wasteful. In order to reduce the tedium involved in the expression of oil from moringa oleifera seed and develop efficient equipment for carrying out the operation, the oil point pressure of the seed was determined under different processing conditions using a laboratory press. The processing conditions employed were moisture content (4.78, 6.00, 8.00 and 10.00 % wet basis), heating temperature (50, 70, 85 and 100 °C) and heating time (15, 20, 25 and 30 min). Results showed that the oil point pressure increased with increase in seed moisture content, but decreased with increase in heating temperature and heating time within the above ranges. Highest oil point pressure value of 1.1239 MPa was obtained at the processing conditions of 10.00 % moisture content, 50 °C heating temperature and 15 min heating time. The lowest oil point pressure obtained was 0.3164 MPa and it occurred at the moisture content of 4.78 %, heating temperature of 100 °C and heating time of 30 min. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that all the processing variables and their interactions had significant effect on the oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed at 1 % level of significance. This was further demonstrated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Tukey's test and Duncan's Multiple Range Analysis successfully separated the means and a multiple regression equation was used to express the relationship existing between the oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed and its moisture content, processing temperature, heating time and their interactions. The model yielded coefficients that enabled the oil point pressure of the seed to be predicted with very high coefficient of determination. PMID:26139917

  15. Effect of Low Pressure End Conditions on Steam Power Plant Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syed Haider

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the electricity produced throughout the world today is from steam power plants and improving the performance of power plants is crucial to minimize the greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption. Energy efficiency of a thermal power plant strongly depends on its boiler-condenser operating conditions. The low pressure end conditions of a condenser have influence on the power output, steam consumption and efficiency of a plant. Hence, the objective this paper is to study the effect of the low pressure end conditions on a steam power plant performance. For the study each component was modelled thermodynamically. Simulation was done and the results showed that performance of the condenser is highly a function of its pressure which in turn depends on the flow rate and temperature of the cooling water. Furthermore, when the condenser pressure increases both net power output and plant efficiency decrease whereas the steam consumption increases. The results can be used to run a steam power cycle at optimum conditions.

  16. Hydrate dissociation conditions at high pressure : experimental equilibrium data and thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi, H.; Burgess, R.; Chapoy, A.; Tohidi, B. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Centre for Gas Research, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds that are created when water or ice and certain molecules come together under favourable conditions, normally at low temperatures and elevated pressures. Gas hydrates could form in numerous hydrocarbon production and processing operations, causing serious operational and safety concerns, therefore making it essential to gain a better understanding of the behaviour of gas hydrate. Most of the existing experimental gas hydrate data for real reservoir fluids are limited to low to medium pressure conditions. However, production from deeper water reservoirs, and the need for long tie backs, requires hydrate prevention at high pressure conditions. Therefore, this study investigated the hydrate dissociation point measurements for simple nitrogen, ethane and propane hydrates from medium to high pressure. Existing experimental gas hydrate data were used in the development and validation of the presented predictive techniques. The Valderrama modification of the Patel-Teja equation-of-state, combined with non-density-dependent mixing rules, was used to model the fluid phases with previously reported binary interaction parameters. The hydrate-forming conditions were modelled by the solid solution theory of van der Waals and Platteeuw. Langmuir constants were calculated by both Kihara potential as well as direct techniques. Model predictions were then validated against independent experimental data. It was concluded that there was a good agreement between predictions and experimental data, supporting the reliability of the developed model. 33 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  17. Finite Element Simulation of Photoacoustic Pressure in a Resonant Photoacoustic Cell Using Lossy Boundary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Lopes, Natasha; Willatzen, Morten; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2011-01-01

    The finite-element method (FEM) is used to simulate the photoacoustic signal in a cylindrical resonant photoacoustic cell. Simulations include loss effects near the cell walls that appear in the boundary conditions for the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation governing the acoustic pressure. Reasonably...

  18. Experimental study of the pressure fluctuations on propeller turbine runner blades: part 2, transient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, S.; Fraser, R.; Ciocan, G.; Deschênes, C.

    2012-11-01

    Transient conditions such as load rejection will often lead to high amplitude pressure fluctuations that will affect a turbine residual-life. If Computational Fluid Dynamic offers a promising tool to study the flow dynamic under transient regime, focused validation data on the runner are still lacking to assess the accuracy of different simulation strategies. Hence within the framework of the AxialT project of the International Consortium on Hydraulic Machines, exploratory measurements of the pressure field on the runner blades of a propeller turbine model were performed in transient conditions. The model was setup on the test stand of the LAMH of Laval University. The test stand control procedures were adapted to mimic transient condition such as load rejection or the transition from a normal operating condition to a speed-no-load condition. The pressure on the runner blades were measured using miniature piezo-resistive transducer linked to a high frequency telemetric system. Using specifically adapted data processing routines, it was possible to characterize the variations of the energy content during the transient runs. Specifically, the main fluctuations appear to occur in the sub-synchronous range in both cases.

  19. Experimental study of the pressure fluctuations on propeller turbine runner blades: part 2, transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient conditions such as load rejection will often lead to high amplitude pressure fluctuations that will affect a turbine residual-life. If Computational Fluid Dynamic offers a promising tool to study the flow dynamic under transient regime, focused validation data on the runner are still lacking to assess the accuracy of different simulation strategies. Hence within the framework of the AxialT project of the International Consortium on Hydraulic Machines, exploratory measurements of the pressure field on the runner blades of a propeller turbine model were performed in transient conditions. The model was setup on the test stand of the LAMH of Laval University. The test stand control procedures were adapted to mimic transient condition such as load rejection or the transition from a normal operating condition to a speed-no-load condition. The pressure on the runner blades were measured using miniature piezo-resistive transducer linked to a high frequency telemetric system. Using specifically adapted data processing routines, it was possible to characterize the variations of the energy content during the transient runs. Specifically, the main fluctuations appear to occur in the sub-synchronous range in both cases.

  20. Improvement of the RELAP5 subcooled boiling model for low pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 Gamma code was assessed against low pressure subcooled boiling experiments performed by Zeitoun and Shoukri [1] in a vertical annulus. The predictions of subcooled boiling bubbly flow showed that the present version of the RELAP5 code underestimates the void fraction growth along the tube. To improve the void fraction prediction at low pressure conditions a set of model changes is proposed, which includes modifications of bubbly-slug transition criterion, drift-flux model, interphase heat transfer coefficient and wall evaporation modeling. The improved experiment predictions with the modified RELAP5 code are presented and analysed. (author)

  1. Safety conditions of using structural steels under high temperature and pressures in hydrogen containing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for establishing full-strength conditions was suggested on the base of results of creep-rupture test of tube samples under hydrogen pressure and according to permissible stresses in neutral medium. Applicability of the method was considered taking St3 and 12KhM steels as examples. It was shown that the use of suggested dependences and special efficiency factors enables to forecast endurance limit for the given steel grade and assigned partial hydrogen pressure without labour-intensive test conducting

  2. Detectability and significance of 12 hr barometric tide in radon-222 signal, drip water flow rate, air temperature and carbon dioxide concentration in an underground tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searching for small periodic signals, such as the 12 hr (S2) barometric tide, and monitoring their amplitude as a function of time, can provide important clues on the complex processes affecting fluid transport in unsaturated fractured media under multiple influences. Here, first, we show that a modified spectrogram analysis (MSA) is more efficient than simple Fourier transform to reveal weak periodic signals. Secondly, we show how transient periodic signals can be monitored as a function of time using spectrograms. These methods are applied to time-series of radon and carbon dioxide concentration, drip water flow rates and air temperature measured during several years in the Roselend dead-end tunnel, located in the French Alps near an artificial lake. A weak S2 line is evidenced in radon concentration, with enhanced amplitude during transient radon bursts. Similarly, the S2 line is observed using MSA in drip water flow rates which sample mainly fracture flow, as suggested by a hydrochemical analysis, while it is not seen in drip water flow rates sampling matrix flow. In the absence of a strong 24 hr line, the presence of a S2 line suggests sensitivity to barometric pressure, and thus a significant advective contribution in radon and some drip water transport. No S2 line is observed in the carbon dioxide time-series. The temporal structure of the S2 component, however, is not similar in the radon concentration and the drip water flow rates, suggesting, in particular, that drip water does not play a significant role in the generation of radon bursts. Temperature time-series exhibit a significant S2 contribution, induced by atmospheric pressure, spatially organised in the tunnel, decreasing vertically upwards. A remarkable transient temperature inversion during radon bursts suggests that the additional advective air contributions responsible for the radon bursts occur from the non-saturated rocks below the tunnel. (authors)

  3. Local conditions separating expansion from collapse in spherically symmetric models with anisotropic pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimoso, José P.; Le Delliou, Morgan; Mena, Filipe C.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate spherically symmetric spacetimes with an anisotropic fluid and discuss the existence and stability of a separating shell dividing expanding and collapsing regions. We resort to a 3+1 splitting and obtain gauge invariant conditions relating intrinsic spacetime quantities to properties of the matter source. We find that the separating shell is defined by a generalization of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equilibrium condition. The latter establishes a balance between the pressure gradients, both isotropic and anisotropic, and the strength of the fields induced by the Misner-Sharp mass inside the separating shell and by the pressure fluxes. This defines a local equilibrium condition, but conveys also a nonlocal character given the definition of the Misner-Sharp mass. By the same token, it is also a generalized thermodynamical equation of state as usually interpreted for the perfect fluid case, which now has the novel feature of involving both the isotropic and the anisotropic stresses. We have cast the governing equations in terms of local, gauge invariant quantities that are revealing of the role played by the anisotropic pressures and inhomogeneous electric part of the Weyl tensor. We analyze a particular solution with dust and radiation that provides an illustration of our conditions. In addition, our gauge invariant formalism not only encompasses the cracking process from Herrera and co-workers but also reveals transparently the interplay and importance of the shear and of the anisotropic stresses.

  4. Pressure-volume-temperature gauging method experiment using liquid nitrogen under microgravity condition of parabolic flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Man Su; Park, Hana; Yoo, Don Gyu; Jeong, Sang Kwon [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young Suk [Launcher Systems Development Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Measuring an exact amount of remaining cryogenic liquid propellant under microgravity condition is one of the important issues of rocket vehicle. A Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) gauging method is attractive due to its minimal additional hardware and simple gauging process. In this paper, PVT gauging method using liquid nitrogen is investigated under microgravity condition with parabolic flight. A 9.2 litre metal cryogenic liquid storage tank containing approximately 30% of liquid nitrogen is pressurized by ambient temperature helium gas. During microgravity condition, the inside of the liquid tank becomes near-isothermal condition within 1 K difference indicated by 6 silicon diode sensors vertically distributed in the middle of the liquid tank. Helium injection with higher mass flow rate after 10 seconds of the waiting time results in successful measurements of helium partial pressure in the tank. Average liquid volume measurement error is within 11% of the whole liquid tank volume and standard deviation of errors is 11.9. As a result, the applicability of PVT gauging method to liquid.

  5. Pressure-volume-temperature gauging method experiment using liquid nitrogen under microgravity condition of parabolic flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measuring an exact amount of remaining cryogenic liquid propellant under microgravity condition is one of the important issues of rocket vehicle. A Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) gauging method is attractive due to its minimal additional hardware and simple gauging process. In this paper, PVT gauging method using liquid nitrogen is investigated under microgravity condition with parabolic flight. A 9.2 litre metal cryogenic liquid storage tank containing approximately 30% of liquid nitrogen is pressurized by ambient temperature helium gas. During microgravity condition, the inside of the liquid tank becomes near-isothermal condition within 1 K difference indicated by 6 silicon diode sensors vertically distributed in the middle of the liquid tank. Helium injection with higher mass flow rate after 10 seconds of the waiting time results in successful measurements of helium partial pressure in the tank. Average liquid volume measurement error is within 11% of the whole liquid tank volume and standard deviation of errors is 11.9. As a result, the applicability of PVT gauging method to liquid

  6. Flash-type barometric desalination plant powered by waste heat from electricity power stations in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and evaluates the results of a study into the problems of freshwater production and shortages on the island of Cyprus. The use of a novel barometric flash-type desalinator, driven by otherwise waste-heat from the island's power-stations, is proposed as a means of increasing freshwater supplies. Mathematical models are described and used to investigate the thermodynamic performance and economic viability of the proposed system. Although water and electricity-supply data for the island of Cyprus were used for the purposes of this investigation, the overall findings are thought to have a wider applicability

  7. Valve inlet fluid conditions for pressurizer safety and relief valves in combustion engineering-designed plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to assemble documented information for C-E designed plants concerning pressurizer safety and power operated relief valve (PROV) inlet fluid conditions during actuation as calculated by conventional licensing analyses. This information is to be used to assist in the justification of the valve inlet fluid conditions selected for the testing of safety valves and PORVs in the EPRI/PWR Safety/Relief Valve Test Program. Available FSAR/Reload analyses and certain low temperature overpressurization analyses were reviewed to identify the pressurization transients which would actuate the valves, and the corresponding valve inlet fluid conditions. In addition, consideration was given to the Extended High Pressure Liquid Injection event. A general description of each pressurization transient is provided. The specific fluid conditions identified and tabulated for each C-E designed plant for each transient are peak pressurizer pressure, pressure ramp rate at actuation, temperature and fluid state

  8. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  9. A modified resistance equation for modeling underwater spark discharge with salinity and high pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pengfei; Roy, Subrata, E-mail: roy@ufl.edu [Applied Physics Research Group, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    This work investigates the performance of underwater spark discharge relating to bubble growth and decay under high pressure and with salinity conditions by introducing a modified form of the resistance equation. Here, we study salinity influence on circuit parameters by fitting the experimental data for which gap resistance is much larger in conductive water than in dielectric water. Accordingly, the resistance equation is modified by considering the influence of both plasma and its surrounding liquid. Thermal radiation effect of the bubble is also studied by comparing two different radiation models. Numerical results predict a larger bubble pressure for saline water but a reduced size and a smaller bubble cycle at a greater water depth. Such study may be useful in many saltwater applications, including that for deep sea conditions.

  10. A modified resistance equation for modeling underwater spark discharge with salinity and high pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates the performance of underwater spark discharge relating to bubble growth and decay under high pressure and with salinity conditions by introducing a modified form of the resistance equation. Here, we study salinity influence on circuit parameters by fitting the experimental data for which gap resistance is much larger in conductive water than in dielectric water. Accordingly, the resistance equation is modified by considering the influence of both plasma and its surrounding liquid. Thermal radiation effect of the bubble is also studied by comparing two different radiation models. Numerical results predict a larger bubble pressure for saline water but a reduced size and a smaller bubble cycle at a greater water depth. Such study may be useful in many saltwater applications, including that for deep sea conditions

  11. Intrinsic sheath edge conditions for sheath instability in low-pressure electronegative plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions at the sheath edge that could lead to instability in the plasma-wall boundary in low-pressure electronegative plasmas are considered in a comprehensive manner. The relevant range of the ratio of the negative ion density to the electron density at the sheath edge was derived on the basis of a fluid model and it was clarified how the parameter range are affected by the positive and negative ion temperatures, by the geometries of plasmas (plane-parallel, cylindrical, and spherical), by the directions of the positive ion flow (converging or diverging), and by the effects of ionization and momentum transfer collisions. It was found that in any geometry the instability would be induced in conditions that could be realized without difficulty in low-pressure plasmas

  12. Tear film dynamics on an eye-shaped domain I: pressure boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kara L; Braun, Richard J; Henshaw, William D; King-Smith, P Ewen

    2010-09-01

    We study the relaxation of a model for the human tear film after a blink on a stationary eye-shaped domain corresponding to a fully open eye using lubrication theory and explore the effects of viscosity, surface tension, gravity and boundary conditions that specify the pressure. The governing non-linear partial differential equation is solved on an overset grid by a method of lines using a finite-difference discretization in space and an adaptive second-order backward-difference formula solver in time. Our 2D simulations are calculated in the Overture computational framework. The computed flows show sensitivity to both our choices between two different pressure boundary conditions and the presence of gravity; this is particularly true around the boundary. The simulations recover features seen in 1D simulations and capture some experimental observations including hydraulic connectivity around the lid margins. PMID:20064825

  13. Retrofit of heat exchanger networks with pressure recovery of process streams at sub-ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • New mathematical model for heat exchanger networks retrofit with pressure recovery. • Optimal heat and work integration applied to the retrofit of sub-ambient processes. • Streams pressure manipulation is used to enhance heat integration of the system. • Compressors and turbines can act on a coupling shaft and/or as stand-alone equipment. • Use of smaller amount of cold utilities, reducing significantly the operational costs. - Abstract: This paper presents a new mathematical programming model for the retrofit of heat exchanger networks (HENs), wherein the pressure recovery of process streams is conducted to enhance heat integration. Particularly applied to cryogenic processes, HENs retrofit with combined heat and work integration is mainly aimed at reducing the use of expensive cold services. The proposed multi-stage superstructure allows the increment of the existing heat transfer area, as well as the use of new equipment for both heat exchange and pressure manipulation. The pressure recovery of streams is carried out simultaneously with the HEN design, such that the process conditions (streams pressure and temperature) are variables of optimization. The mathematical model is formulated using generalized disjunctive programming (GDP) and is optimized via mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), through the minimization of the retrofit total annualized cost, considering the turbine and compressor coupling with a helper motor. Three case studies are performed to assess the accuracy of the developed approach, including a real industrial example related to liquefied natural gas (LNG) production. The results show that the pressure recovery of streams is efficient for energy savings and, consequently, for decreasing the HEN retrofit total cost especially in sub-ambient processes

  14. An atmospheric pressure flow reactor: Gas phase kinetics and mechanism in tropospheric conditions without wall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Davis, Dennis D.; Hansen, Merrill

    1988-01-01

    A new type of gas phase flow reactor, designed to permit the study of gas phase reactions near 1 atm of pressure, is described. A general solution to the flow/diffusion/reaction equations describing reactor performance under pseudo-first-order kinetic conditions is presented along with a discussion of critical reactor parameters and reactor limitations. The results of numerical simulations of the reactions of ozone with monomethylhydrazine and hydrazine are discussed, and performance data from a prototype flow reactor are presented.

  15. Feasibility study of tar sands conditioning for earth pressure balance tunnelling

    OpenAIRE

    D. Martinelli; Peila, D.; E. Campa

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of laboratory test on the feasibility of soil conditioning for earth pressure balance (EPB) excavation in a tar sand, which is a natural material never studied in this respect. The laboratory test performed is based on a procedure and methods used in previous studies with different types of soils, but for this special complex material, additional tests are also conducted to verify particular properties of the tar sands, such as the tilt test and vane shear test...

  16. Consideration of loading conditions initiated by thermal transients in PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the present state of PWR-plants in the Federal Republic of Germany with respect to - the design of the primary pressure boundary - the analysis of thermal transients and resulting loads - the material conditions and neutron fluence - the requirements for protection against fast fracture. The experimental and analytical research and development programs are delineated together with some foreign R and D programs. It is shown that the parameters investigated (loading condition, crack shape and orientation etc.) cover a broad range. Extensive analytical investigations are emphasized. (orig./RW)

  17. BWR In-Core Monitor Housing Replacement Under Dry Condition of Reactor Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of In-Core Monitor Housing replacement has been successfully applied to Tokai Unit 2 (BWR with 1100 MWe) in April of 2001. It was designed to replace a housing under dry condition of reactor pressure vessel (RPV): this enabled the elimination of water filled-up and drained processes during the replacement procedure resulting in the reduction of implementation schedule. To realize the dry condition, the radiation shields were placed in the RPV and the hollow guide pipe (GP) was adopted to transfer the apparatuses from the top to the bottom work area. (authors)

  18. Irradiation performance of (Th,Pu)O2 fuel under Pressurized Water Reactor conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, B.; Lemehov, S.; Wéber, M.; Parthoens, Y.; Gysemans, M.; McGinley, J.; Somers, J.; Verwerft, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the in-pile safety performance of (Th,Pu)O2 fuel pins under simulated Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) conditions. Both sol-gel and SOLMAS produced (Th,Pu)O2 fuels at enrichments of 7.9% and 12.8% in Pu/HM have been irradiated at SCK·CEN. The irradiation has been performed under PWR conditions (155 bar, 300 °C) in a dedicated loop of the BR-2 reactor. The loop is instrumented with flow and temperature monitors at inlet and outlet, which allow for an accurate measurement of the deposited enthalpy.

  19. Seismic-safe conditions of blasting near pressure pipe-lines during power installation construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic-safe conditions for performing drill-blasting operations in the vicinity of underground gas pipelines when constructing thermal- or nuclear power plants are discussed. It is shown that, for the determination of seismic-safe parameters, of drill-blasting operations, the maximum permissible level of seismic loads should be specified taking into account the mechanical properties of the pipeline.metal, structural parameters of the gas pipeline and the pressure of the medium transported. Besides, the seismic effect of the blast should be considered with regard to particular conditions of blasting and rock properties. The equations and diagrams used in the calculation are given

  20. A structural evaluation of the Shippingport reactor pressure vessel for transport impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, is being decommissioned and dismantled. This government-leased property will be returned, in a radiologically safe condition, to its owner. All radioactive material is being removed from the Shippingport Station and transported for burial to the DOE Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) will be transported by barge to Hanford. This paper describes an evaluation of the structural response of the RPV to the normal and accident impact test conditions as required by the Code of Federal Regulations. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Spherically symmetric models: generalised local conditions separating expansion from collapse in models with anisotropic pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Mimoso, José P; Mena, Filipe C

    2013-01-01

    We investigate spherically symmetric spacetimes with an anisotropic ?uid and discuss the exis- tence and stability of a dividing shell separating expanding and collapsing regions. We resort to a 3 + 1 splitting and obtain gauge invariant conditions relating intrinsic spacetimes quantities to characteristics of the matter source. We ?nd that the dividing shell is de?ned by a generalization of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volko? equilibrium condition. The latter establishes a balance between the pressure gradients, both isotropic and anisotropic, and the strength of the ?elds induced by the Misner-Sharp mass inside the separating shell and by the pressure ?uxes. This de?nes a local equi- librium condition, but conveys also a non-local character given the de?nition of the Misner-Sharp mass. By the same token it is also a generalized thermodynamical equation of state as usually interpreted for the perfect ?uid case, which now has the novel feature of involving both the isotropic pressure P and the anisotropic stress. W...

  2. High-pressure behavior of cristobalite under quasi-hydrostatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernok, Ana; Bykova, Elena; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2014-05-01

    Cristobalite is a high-temperature, low-pressure polymorph of SiO2. It is comprised of a framework of SiO4 tetrahedra, like many other low-pressure silica polymorphs, e.g. quartz tridymite, or coesite. Its cubic form known as β-cristobalite crystallizes above 1470 ° C and at atmospheric pressure. The tetragonal α-phase is a metastable polymorph which appears upon cooling of the cubic β-cristobalite to ambient temperature and it can be found in natural acidic volcanic rocks. High-pressure behavior of α-cristobalite is of interest form the geological standpoint because it was experimentally observed that under elevated pressures and at ambient temperature this polymorph with 4-fold coordinated silicon can transform to seifertite - a lower mantle phase with octahedrally coordinated Si. The transformational sequence is as follows. The tetragonal α-cristobalite transforms to a monoclinic cristobalite II near ~1.5 GPa upon hydrostatic compression. The structure of this higher-pressure polymorph was recently solved. Above ~10 GPa cristobalite II is found to transforms to cristobalite X-I. Apart from the recent determination of the unit cell parameters, the structure of the cristobalite X-I still remains unknown. Further compression of cristobalite X-I above pressures exceeding ~35 GPa leads to formation of cristobalite X-II, which is the polymorph reported to have the structure of seifertite. However, there is a large discrepancy among various experimental observations regarding the pressure at which this transition takes place. Motivated by the recent studies, we aim at understanding how the structure of this "bridging phase", cristobalite X-I, is evolving under pressure and how it transforms to the seifertite phase. We performed in-situ single crystal Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction up to 82 GPa in steps of 3-5 GPa. We used diamond-anvil cells with 250 μm diamond culet size and neon as the pressure-transmitting medium. In-situ Raman spectra indicated the phase transition to cristobalite II near 1.5 GPa and the formation of the X-I phase above 10 GPa, in agreement with previous studies. This high-pressure phase persists up the highest pressures achieved and it is not quenchable - upon decompression it retransforms into a phase with Raman spectra very similar to that of the starting α-cristabolate. Single crystal X-ray diffraction data were collected at Extreme Conditions Beamline P02.2 at Petra III. We confirmed the phase transition to cristobalite II and further above 10 GPa to the phase X-I. Indexing of the diffraction patterns of the phase X-I collected at 17 GPa yields a primitive monoclinic unit cell with a = 6.5899(9) Å, b = 4.0493(6) Å, c = 6.841(8) Å, β = 98.15(3)° and the most likely space groups P21/c or P21/n. A preliminary structure analysis reveals that all Si atoms are octahedrally coordinated at this pressure. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data from experiments at higher pressures are currently being analyzed.

  3. Experimental investigation of symmetric and asymmetric heating of pressure tube under accident conditions for Indian PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Circumferential temperature gradient for asymmetric heat-up was 400 °C. ► At same pressure ballooning initiates at lower temperature in asymmetrical heat-up. ► At 1 MPa ballooning initiated at 408 °C and with expansion rate of 0.005 mm/s. ► At 2 MPa ballooning initiation at 330 °C and with expansion rate of 0.0056 mm/s. ► For symmetrical heat-up strain rate was 10 times faster than asymmetric heat-up. - Abstract: In pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), under postulated scenario of small break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) coincident with the failure of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), a situation may arise under which reduction in mass flow rate of coolant through individual reactor channel can lead to stratified flow. Such stratified flow condition creates partial uncover of fuel bundle, which creates a circumferential temperature gradient over PT. The present investigation has been carried out to study thermo-mechanical behaviour of PT under asymmetric heating conditions for a 220 MWe PHWR. A 19-pin fuel simulator has been developed in which preferential heating of elements could be done by supplying power to the selected pins. The asymmetric heating of PT has been carried out at pressure 2 MPa and 1 MPa, respectively, by supplying power to upper region heating elements thus creating an half filled stratified flow conditions. The temperature difference up to 425 °C has been observed along top to bottom periphery of PT. A comparison is made between thermo-mechanical behaviour of PT under asymmetrical and symmetrical heat-up, expected from a large break LOCA condition. The radial expansion rate during symmetrical heating is found to be much faster as compared to that for asymmetric ballooning of PT at the same internal pressure. Integrity of PT is found to be maintained under both loading conditions. Heat sink around of test section, simulating moderator is found to be helpful in arresting the rise in temperature for both fuel pins and PT, thus establishing moderator as an effective heat sink under accident conditions.

  4. Non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary condition for modelling turbocharger turbine pulsating flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bespoke non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary for pulse flow turbine modelling. • Predictions show convincing results against experimental and literature data. • Predicted pulse pressure propagation is in good agreement with literature data. • New methodology is time efficient and requires minimal geometrical inputs. - Abstract: This paper presents a simplified methodology of pulse flow turbine modelling, as an alternative over the meanline integrated methodology outlined in previous work, in order to make its application to engine cycle simulation codes much more straight forward. This is enabled through the development of a bespoke non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary to represent the turbine rotor. In this paper, turbocharger turbine pulse flow performance predictions are presented along with a comparison of computation duration against the previously established integrated meanline method. Plots of prediction deviation indicate that the mass flow rate and actual power predictions from both methods are highly comparable and are reasonably close to experimental data. However, the new boundary condition required significantly lower computational time and rotor geometrical inputs. In addition, the pressure wave propagation in this simplified unsteady turbine model at different pulse frequencies has also been found to be in agreement with data from the literature, thereby supporting the confidence in its ability to simulate the wave action encountered in turbine pulse flow operation

  5. Pneumatic burst test under 'upper shelf conditions' of a pressure vessel containing an axial defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a programme of burst tests carried out in the 1960's on model steel pressure vessels with through thickness axial cracks, pressurised with water, some vessels when tested at temperatures in the upper part of the Charpy transition range underwent intermittent crack propagation. Each jump in crack length was accompanied by a drop in pressure, followed by a further crack extension on again raising the pressure. This behavior became more pronounced at higher temperatures and crack lengths and was suspected to be due to the low compressibility of the pressurising water and bulging of the pressure vessel shell local to the crack. Consequently, Test V15T1 was carried out using gas as the pressurising medium in order to demonstrate unambiguously that unstable crack propagation can continue if the loading is such as to give constant or increasing stress conditions as the crack propagates, even at temperatures corresponding to ''upper shelf'' Charpy values. Analyses of the test are given using two fracture assessment methods. (author)

  6. Measurements of mixtures with carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions using commercial high pressure equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Luciana L.P.R. de; Rutledge, Luis Augusto Medeiros; Moreno, Eesteban L.; Hovell, Ian; Rajagopal, Krishnaswamy [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LATCA-EQ-UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Lab. de Termodinamica e Cinetica Aplicada

    2012-07-01

    There is a growing interest in studying physical properties of binary and multicomponent fluid mixtures with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) over an extended range of temperature and pressure. The estimation of properties such as density, viscosity, saturation pressure, compressibility, solubility and surface tension of mixtures is important in design, operation and control as well as optimization of chemical processes especially in extractions, separations, catalytic and enzymatic reactions. The phase behaviour of binary and multicomponent mixtures with supercritical CO{sub 2} is also important in the production and refining of petroleum where mixtures of paraffin, naphthene and aromatics with supercritical fluids are often encountered. Petroleum fluids can present a complex phase behaviour in the presence of CO{sub 2}, where two-phase (VLE and LLE) and three phase regions (VLLE) might occur within ranges of supercritical conditions of temperature and pressure. The objective of this study is to develop an experimental methodology for measuring the phase behaviour of mixtures containing CO{sub 2} in supercritical regions, using commercial high-pressure equipment. (author)

  7. Core void fraction distribution under high-temperature high-pressure boil-off conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prediction of void fraction distributions in a core under boil-off conditions is important for analyzing the core cooling performance during reactor accidents. In this work, boil-off experiments were conducted under high-temperature high-pressure conditions using PWR-type and tight-lattice type (p/d = 1.11) simulated fuel assembly test sections of the Two-Phase flow Test Facility (TPTF). Several existing void fraction correlations and models were assessed against the experimental data. As a result, it has become clear that: 1) while the Chexal-Lellouche model predicts best the present experimental data, the model has a tendency to underestimate void fraction at higher pressures; 2) no significant problems are found in the applicability of the tested correlations and models to the tight-lattice geometry; and 3) void fractions measured by single-beam gamma densitometers tend to be larger than those measured by differential pressure transducers due to the radial void fraction distribution. (author)

  8. Fluid-structure Interaction Modeling of Aneurysmal Conditions with High and Normal Blood Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Ryo; Oshima, Marie; Kobayashi, Toshio; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.

    2006-09-01

    Hemodynamic factors like the wall shear stress play an important role in cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the influence of hemodynamic factors in blood vessels, the authors have developed a numerical fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis technique. The objective is to use numerical simulation as an effective tool to predict phenomena in a living human body. We applied the technique to a patient-specific arterial model, and with that we showed the effect of wall deformation on the WSS distribution. In this paper, we compute the interaction between the blood flow and the arterial wall for a patient-specific cerebral aneurysm with various hemodynamic conditions, such as hypertension. We particularly focus on the effects of hypertensive blood pressure on the interaction and the WSS, because hypertension is reported to be a risk factor in rupture of aneurysms. We also aim to show the possibility of FSI computations with hemodynamic conditions representing those risk factors in cardiovascular disease. The simulations show that the transient behavior of the interaction under hypertensive blood pressure is significantly different from the interaction under normal blood pressure. The transient behavior of the blood-flow velocity, and the resulting WSS and the mechanical stress in the aneurysmal wall, are significantly affected by hypertension. The results imply that hypertension affects the growth of an aneurysm and the damage in arterial tissues.

  9. Critical heat flux of water in vertical round tubes at low pressure and low flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study on critical heat flux (CHF) has been performed for water flow in vertical round tubes under low pressure and low flow (LPLF) conditions to provide a systematic data base and to investigate parametric trends. Totally 513 experimental data have been obtained with Inconel-625 tube test sections in the following conditions: diameter of 6, 8, 10 and 12 mm; heated length of 0.3?1.77 m; pressure of 106?951 kPa; mass flux of 20?277 kg m-2 s-1; and inlet subcooling of 50?654 kJ kg-1, thermodynamic equilibrium critical quality of 0.323?1.251 and CHF of 108?1598 kW m-2. Flow regime analysis based on Mishima and Ishii's flow regime map indicates that most of the CHF occurred due to liquid film dryout in annular-mist and annular flow regimes. Parametric trends are examined from two different points of view: fixed inlet conditions and fixed exit conditions. The parametric trends are generally consistent with previous understandings except for the complex effects of system pressure and tube diameter. Finally, several prediction models are assessed with the measured data; the typical mechanistic liquid film dryout model and empirical correlations of (Shah, M.M., 1987. Heat Fluid Flow 8 (4), 326-335; Baek, W.P., Kim, H.G., Chang, S.H., 1997. KAIST critical heat flux correlation for water flow in vertical round tubes, NUTHOS-5, Paper No. AA5) show good predictions. The measured CHF data are listed in Appendix B for future reference. (orig.)

  10. Visualization of airblast atomized spray structure under varying air pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, A.; Jasuja, A. K.

    1991-06-01

    Nonburning spray visualization is investigated for various air pressure conditions of gas turbine fuel injector/combustor head assembly hardware. In simulations of ground-idle through take-off conditions, aviation kerosene is employed to examine four pre-filming-type airblast injectors. High-intensity spark photography and video imaging are employed to record the dynamic and unsteady elements of spray behavior. These visualization techniques are shown to yield important quantitive as well as qualitative data regarding spray characteristics. An inhomogeneous structure with respect to both droplet concentration and ballistics is demonstrated by the sprays. Spray placement and structure are affected significantly by the design of the airblast injector and the operating conditions under which they are utilized. Because fuel sprays are nonuniform and variable, they affect the flame characteristics and increase the production of soot and other pollutant species.

  11. Cryogenic Tunnel Pressure Measurements on a Supercritical Airfoil for Several Shock Buffet Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Edwards, John W.

    1997-01-01

    Steady and unsteady experimental data are presented for several fixed geometry conditions from a test in the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The purpose of this test was to obtain unsteady data for transonic conditions on a fixed and pitching supercritical airfoil at high Reynolds numbers. Data and brief analyses for several of the fixed geometry test conditions will be presented here. These are at Reynolds numbers from 6 x 10(exp 6) to 35 x 10(exp 6) bases on chord length, and span a limited range of Mach numbers and angles of attack just below and at the onset of shock buffet. Reynolds scaling effects appear in both the steady pressure data and in the onset of shock buffet at Reynolds numbers of 15 x 10(exp 6) and 3O x 10(exp 6) per chord length.

  12. Dynamic response of berea sandstone shock-loaded under dry, wet and water-pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carney, T C; Hagelberg, C R; Hilt, M; Nellis, W J; Swift, R P

    1999-09-03

    A single-stage light-gas gun was used to perform shock-recovery experiments on Berea sandstone under dry, wet and hydrostatically water-pressurized conditions. The samples were impacted by flyer-plates to achieve stress levels in the range 1.3 to 9.8 GPa. The microstructure of the shocked samples was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser particle analysis and X-ray computed microtomography (XCMT). The dry samples show strongly fragmented and irregularly fractured quartz grains with a considerably reduced porosity, whereas the wet and water-pressurized specimens show less grain damage and less porosity reduction. During shock compression the water in the pores distributes the stresses and therefore the contact force between the grains is reduced. The interaction between the grains during the shock process was modeled by explicitly treating the grain-pore structure using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and the Discrete Element Method (DEM).

  13. Analysis of Reactor Pressurized Thermal Shock Conditions Considering Upgrading of Systems Important to Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyzes conditions of pressurized thermal shock on the reactor pressure vessel taking into account upgrading of the emergency core cooling system and primary overpressure protection system. For representative accident scenarios, calculation and comparative analysis was carried out. These scenarios include a small leak from the hot leg and PRZ SV stuck opening with re closure after 3600 sec and 3 SG heat transfer tube rupture. The efficiency of mass flow control by valves on the pump head (emergency core cooling systems) and cold overpressure protection (primary overpressure protection system) was analyzed. The thermal hydraulic model for RELAP5/Mod3.2 code with detailed downcomer (DC) model and changes in accordance with upgrades was used for calculations. Detailed (realistic) modeling of piping and equipment was performed. The upgrades prevent excessive primary cooling and, consequently, help to preserve the RPV integrity and to avoid the formation of a through crack, which can lead to a severe accident

  14. Determination of the optimum fuel loading strategy in a pressurized water reactor under aperiodic operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from a simple model of the burnup behaviour of a pressurized water reactor, a method is described for approximate calculation of the fraction of reload fuel assemblies as a function of full power operating time in the aperiodic mode of operation. A corresponding computational method has been coupled with the algorithm of dynamic optimization. The resulting model for determining optimum fuel loading strategies in the aperiodic mode of operation of a pressurized water reactor (NIPO) allows to take into account outages caused by fuel reloading and burnup enhancement, modified auxiliary power during the latter, and different start-up conditions of the core. Outages caused by fuel reloading and inspection, nuclear fuel cost, load factor during core cycle, mode of operation during burnup enhancement are varying with the cycle index. (author)

  15. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Kwang-Jun; Park, Hyung-Gil; Seo, Jongsoo

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT). The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  16. Dynamic response of berea sandstone shock-loaded under dry, wet and water-pressurized conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single-stage light-gas gun was used to perform shock-recovery experiments on Berea sandstone under dry, wet and hydrostatically water-pressurized conditions. The samples were impacted by flyer-plates to achieve stress levels in the range 1.3 to 9.8 GPa. The microstructure of the shocked samples was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser particle analysis and X-ray computed microtomography (XCMT). The dry samples show strongly fragmented and irregularly fractured quartz grains with a considerably reduced porosity, whereas the wet and water-pressurized specimens show less grain damage and less porosity reduction. During shock compression the water in the pores distributes the stresses and therefore the contact force between the grains is reduced. The interaction between the grains during the shock process was modeled by explicitly treating the grain-pore structure using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and the Discrete Element Method (DEM)

  17. Rheological contrast between olivine and garnet at high pressures under anhydrous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, S.; Suzuki, A. M.; Kohlstedt, D. L.; Durham, W. B.; Dixon, N. A.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we carried out experiments investigating the rheological contrast between olivine and garnet, two major components of the mantle, at mantle temperatures and pressures. Experiments were carried out using a deformation-DIA at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples were fabricated from powdered minerals; olivine was from San Carlos and garnet from the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in China. In the experiments, a cold-pressed cylinder of fine-grained olivine and one of garnet, each with a diameter of ~1.1 mm and a length of ~0.8 mm, were stacked together, separated by a nickel foil disk. This duplex sample was assembled with alumina pistons, a boron nitride sleeve, and graphite resistance heater into a 6.2-mm edge length cubic mullite-pyrophyllite pressure cell. Experiments were carried out at 1373 - 1573 K and pressures of 3 - 5 GPa. With the synchrotron x-ray beam, a time series of in-situ radiographs enables monitoring of the instantaneous lengths of both deforming samples at the same temperature, pressure, and load. At our experimental conditions, both samples deform with stress exponents of n ? 3 and with activation energies of Q ? 300 kJ/mol. Samples of olivine deform only a factor of ~1.5 faster than samples of garnet of similar grain size, indicating that there is no significant rheological contrast between samples of olivine and garnet under anhydrous conditions. This result, which is the first direct comparison of the rheological behavior of olivine and garnet, provides a solid basis for modeling the rheological structures of subducted lithosphere.

  18. Sulphation of oil shale ash under atmospheric and pressurized combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuelaots, I.; Yrjas, P.; Hupa, M.; Ots, A.

    1995-09-01

    One of the main problems in conventional combustion boilers firing pulverized oil shale is the corrosion and fouling of heating surfaces, which is caused by sulphur compounds. Another major problem, from the environmental point of view, are the high SO{sub 2} emissions. Consequently, the amount of sulphur in flue gases must be reduced. One alternative to lower the SO{sub 2}, concentration is the use of new technologies, such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). In FBC processes, the sulphur components are usually removed by the addition of limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or dolomite (CaCO{sub 3} x MgCO{sub 3}) into the bed. The calcium in these absorbents react with SO{sub 2}, producing solid CaSO{sub 4}. However, when burning oil shale, there would be no need to add limestone or dolomite into the bed, due to the initially high limestone content in the fuel (molar ratio Ca/S =10). The capture of sulphur by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus (PTGA). The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Four different materials were tested - one cyclone ash from an Estonian oil shale boiler, two size fractions of Estonian oil shale and, one fraction of Israeli oil shale. The cyclone ash was found to be the poorest sulphur absorbent. In general, the results from the sulphur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed conditions showed that the oil shale can capture not only its own sulphur but also significant amounts of additional sulphur from another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. (author)

  19. Sulphation of oil shale ash under atmospheric and pressurized combustion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main problems in conventional combustion boilers firing pulverized oil shale is the corrosion and fouling of heating surfaces, which is caused by sulphur compounds. Another major problem, from the environmental point of view, are the high SO2 emissions. Consequently, the amount of sulphur in flue gases must be reduced. One alternative to lower the SO2, concentration is the use of new technologies, such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). In FBC processes, the sulphur components are usually removed by the addition of limestone (CaCO3) or dolomite (CaCO3 x MgCO3) into the bed. The calcium in these absorbents react with SO2, producing solid CaSO4. However, when burning oil shale, there would be no need to add limestone or dolomite into the bed, due to the initially high limestone content in the fuel (molar ratio Ca/S =10). The capture of sulphur by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus (PTGA). The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Four different materials were tested - one cyclone ash from an Estonian oil shale boiler, two size fractions of Estonian oil shale and, one fraction of Israeli oil shale. The cyclone ash was found to be the poorest sulphur absorbent. In general, the results from the sulphur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed conditions showed that the oil shale can capture not only its own sulphur but also significant amounts of additional sulphur from another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. (author)

  20. A study on the critical heat flux for annuli and round tubes under low pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to reveal the characteristics of the critical heat flux (CHF) of internally heated concentric annuli and vertical round tubes in low-pressure and low-flow (LPLF) conditions. Although many efforts have been devote to the subject of the CHF during the last forty years, the information on the CHF phenomenon for LPLF conditions is still very limited. The applicable ranges of the CHF correlations for annuli and round tubes are concentrate on the operating conditions of nuclear power plant (NPP), namely high-pressure and high-flow (HPHF) conditions. these facts promoted to collect the reliable CHF data for LPLF conditions for both annuli and round tubes. The critical heat flux data for vertical flow boiling of water in annuli and round tubes at low pressures and low mass fluxes show the following trends: The observed CHF mechanism for annuli was changed in the order of flooding, churn-to-annular flow transition, and local dryout under a large bubble in churn flow as the flow rate was increased from zero to higher values. The observed parametric trends for annuli are consistent with the previous understanding except that the CHF for downward flow is considerably lower (up to 40%) than that for upward flow. The critical quality is much lower than that for round tubes at the same inlet conditions. The observed parametric trends for round tubes are generally consistent with the previous understanding except for system pressure an tube diameter effect. For the system pressure effect, it is observed that the pressure effect is complicated but not so large, whereas the existing CHF correlations do not present the parametric trend exactly. For tube diameter effect, the decreasing trends of CHF with respect to tube diameter was the general understanding so far, but in this region the CHF show a increasing trend of tube diameter. The prediction and the parametric trend analyses are performed by two view points, I.e., for fixed inlet conditions and for local conditions hypothesis for annuli and round tubes. The data have also been compared with predictions of the existing well-known correlations: Among the CHF correlation for annuli, Doerffer et al.'s correlation is suggested to be used for reliable assessment of the annulus CHF for most conditions, except for very low pressure conditions (P < 1000 kPa). The success of tube-table-based correlations by Doerffer et al. indicate the feasibility of using a well-established tube correlation as a basis for future development of annulus CHF prediction models. The artificial neural networks (ANNs) are applied to the CHF database for round tube at LPLF (P = 110?1100 kPa, G = 0?500 kg/m2s) conditions. The train back-propagation neural networks (BPNs) predict the CHF better than those any other CHF correlations. The parametric trends on the BPN for fixed inlet conditions well agree with our experimental results. For local conditions hypothesis, the parametric trend analysis are consistence with many previous studies except for tube diameter effect. Except for exit qualities of 0.6 and 0.7, the CHF increases with increasing tube diameter. By considering the above conclusions, the followings are recommended for further study: (a) BPN is recommended to be used for predicting and parametric trend analyzing the critical heat flux with high reliability. (b) It is found that the trained data can be directly used to assess the error statistics of a trained BPN; whereas in the past an independent sample data have been used to assess the errors. (c) It is recommended that the feasibility of using a well-established tube correlation as a basis for future development of annulus CHF prediction models. (d) Still, the CHF database for LPLF conditions are not enough, it is highly recommended to supplement the reliable CHF data set specially in the subcooled and low-quality region

  1. Numerical characterization of pressure instabilities in a vaned centrifugal pump under partload condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Pavesi, G.; Cavazzini, G.; Yuan, S. Q.

    2013-12-01

    This paper studies the hysteresis/saddle phenomena of the head-drop in a scaled model pump turbine using CFD methods. This lag was induced by complicated flow patterns, which influenced the reliability of rotating machine that was analysed by a commercial code with DES model for computing turbulence. Analyses were carried out on the pressure signals both in frequency and time-frequency domains at full and part load conditions. The results highlighted the remarkable interaction between the unsteady structures in diffuser and return.

  2. Meshfree finite differences for vector Poisson and pressure Poisson equations with electric boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Dong; Shirokoff, David; Chidyagwai, Prince; Rosales, Rodolfo Ruben

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate how meshfree finite difference methods can be applied to solve vector Poisson problems with electric boundary conditions. In these, the tangential velocity and the incompressibility of the vector field are prescribed at the boundary. Even on irregular domains with only convex corners, canonical nodal-based finite elements may converge to the wrong solution due to a version of the Babuska paradox. In turn, straightforward meshfree finite differences converge to the true solution, and even high-order accuracy can be achieved in a simple fashion. The methodology is then extended to a specific pressure Poisson equation reformulation of the Navier-Stokes equations that possesses the same type of boundary conditions. The resulting numerical approach is second order accurate and allows for a simple switching between an explicit and implicit treatment of the viscosity terms.

  3. Liquid Fuel Emulsion Jet-in-Crossflow Penetration and Dispersion Under High Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Guillermo Andres

    The current work focuses on the jet-in-crossflow penetration and dispersion behavior of water-in-oil emulsions in a high pressure environment. Both fuel injection strategies of using a water-in-oil emulsion and a jet-in-crossflow have demonstrated unique benefits in improving gas turbine performance from an emissions and efficiency standpoint. A jet-in-crossflow is very practical for use in gas turbine engines, rocket propulsion, and aircraft engines since it utilizes already available crossflow air to atomize fuel. Injecting water into a combustion chamber in the form of a water-in-oil emulsion allows for pollutant emissions reduction while reducing efficiency loses that may result from using a separate water or steam injection circuit. Dispersion effects on oil droplets are expected, therefore investigating the distribution of both oil and water droplets in the crossflow is an objective in this work. Understanding the synchronization and injection behavior of the two strategies is of key interest due to their combined benefits. A water-to-oil ratio and an ambient pressure parameter are developed for emulsion jet-in-crossflow trajectories. To this end, a total of 24 emulsion jet-in-crossflow tests were performed with varying ambient pressures of 2-8 atm and momentum flux ratios of 50, 85, and 120. Sobel edge filtering was applied to each averaged image obtained from a high speed video of each test case. Averaged and filtered images were used to resolve top and bottom edges of the trajectory in addition to the overall peak intensity up to 40 mm downstream of the injection point. An optimized correlation was established and found to differ from literature based correlations obtained under atmospheric pressure conditions. Overall it was found that additional parameters were not necessary for the top edge and peak intensity correlations, but a need for a unique emulsion bottom edge and width trajectory correlation was recognized. In addition to investigating emulsion jet-in-crossflow trajectory correlations, a unique Dual Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (Dual-PLIF) method was applied for the first time on emulsions at elevated pressure conditions. From the Dual-PLIF results, qualitative observations provided insight into the unique dispersion of oil and water concentrations within a cross-sectional plane down stream of the jet-in-crossflow injection.

  4. The relation between intraocular pressure change and plasma natriuretic peptide under simulated hypobaric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadag Remzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To ascertain whether the changes in intraocular pressure (IOP that occur during hypobaric hypoxic exposure are related to plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 26 healthy participants (all male, mean age 23.1 years. IOP was measured at local ground level, (792 m above sea level, then while in a chamber providing hypobaric hypoxic conditions (the subjects were exposed to a pressure equivalent to 9144 m for 1-3 min, and again after exit from the chamber. In each condition, the mean of three consecutive measurements of IOP was calculated for each eye. For BNP measurements, blood samples were drawn before the participants entered the chamber and just after they left the chamber. Results: IOP during hypobaric hypoxic exposure (18.00 ± 3.70 mmHg was significantly greater than that before (15.66 ± 2.10 mmHg, P < 0.001 or after (16.10 ± 2.63 mmHg, P = 0.001 the exposure. IOP levels before and after the exposure were not significantly different (P = 0.136. Plasma BNP levels measured before and after exposure to hypobaric hypoxic conditions were not significantly different (P = 0.462. Conclusion: Plasma BNP levels did not change after short-term hypobaric hypoxic exposure, while the IOP increased. This increase may have been caused by some other systemic factors. As the hypobaric hypoxic conditions were reversed, IOP decreased to normal levels.

  5. Safety criterion for burnout of the plate-type fuel in pressurized conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduced enrichment program for JMTR is now underway and the core conversion to LEU (Low Enrichment Uranium) is scheduled to be made in 1993. Consistent with the safety guide which have been recently developed for research and test reactors in Japan, the safety analysis for the JMTR LEU conversion was conducted. In the safety analysis, DNB (Departure from Nucleate Boiling) heat flux correlation for the JMTR downflow condition was reconsidered because recent studies on burnout show that DNB heat fluxes with thin rectangular channels under low flow rate and low pressure conditions are much lower than predicted values by conventional DNB correlations. Available DNB data, however, are very limited for the JMTR operation pressure range, so that DNB experiments were conducted simulating the JMTR fuel subchannel. Based mainly on the present experimental data, the DNB correlations scheme composed of three correlations was selected for the JMTR safety analysis. Errors of the correlations scheme with experimental data were evaluated in order to determine the allowable limit of the minimum DNB ratio for preventing fuel failure. (author)

  6. First-principles investigation of boron incorporation into CRUD under Pressurized Water Reactor conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Zs.; O'Brien, C. J.; Brenner, D. W.

    2014-03-01

    CRUD (Chalk River Unidentified Deposit) is predominately a nickel-ferrite deposit on hot surfaces of nuclear fuel rods during reactor operation. The presence of CRUD modifies the core-coolant heat transfer and can induce localized corrosion on the cladding surface. Besides these unwanted effects boron, which is a neutron absorber, can accumulate within the CRUD, triggering shifts in the neutron flux and fluctuations in the reactor power level. Therefore, it is crucial to understand and predict the mechanisms by which B is trapped into the CRUD. As a first step, the incorporation of B defect into the crystal structure of NiFe2O4 has been investigated using the DFT framework. To obtain the formation energies of various interstitial and substitutional B-defects, theoretical results have been combined with experimental thermo-chemical data. Assuming solid-solid equilibrium conditions, the main factors that limit the incorporation of B are (i) the narrow stability domain of the host NiFe2O4 and (ii) the formation of ternary Fe-B-O and Ni-B-O compounds. The study also investigates the incorporation of B assuming solid-liquid equilibrium between NiFe2O4 and the surrounding aqueous solution under conditions of pressure, temperature, and pH characteristic to pressurized water reactors.

  7. Behavior of Supported Palladium Oxide Nanoparticles under Reaction Conditions, Studied with near Ambient Pressure XPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgensen, Astrid; Heutz, Niels; Raschke, Hannes; Merz, Klaus; Hergenröder, Roland

    2015-08-01

    Near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a promising method to close the "pressure gap", and thus, study the surface composition during heterogeneous reactions in situ. The specialized spectrometers necessary for this analytical technique have recently been adapted to operate with a conventional X-ray source, making it available for routine quantitative analysis in the laboratory. This is shown in the present in situ study of the partial oxidation of 2-propanol catalyzed with PdO nanoparticles supported on TiO2, which was investigated under reaction conditions as a function of gas composition (alcohol-to-oxygen ratio) and temperature. Exposure of the nanoparticles to 2-propanol at 30 °C leads to immediate partial reduction of the PdO, followed by a continuous reduction of the remaining PdO during heating. However, gaseous oxygen inhibits the reduction of PdO below 90 °C, and the oxidation of 2-propanol to carboxylates only occurs in the presence of oxygen above 90 °C. These results support the theory that metallic palladium is the active catalyst material, and they show that environmental conditions affect the nanoparticles and the reaction process significantly. The study also revealed challenges and limitations of this analytical method. Specifically, the intensity and fixed photon energy of a conventional X-ray source limit the spectral resolution and surface sensitivity of lab-based NAP-XPS, which affect precision and accuracy of the quantitative analysis. PMID:26144222

  8. CFD simulation of pressure and discharge surge in Francis turbine at off-design conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, D.; Avdyushenko, A.; Panov, L.; Bannikov, D.; Cherny, S.; Skorospelov, V.; Pylev, I.

    2012-11-01

    A hybrid 1D-3D CFD model is developed for the numerical simulation of pressure and discharge surge in hydraulic power plants. The most essential part - the turbine itself - is simulated directly using 3D unsteady equations of turbulent motion of fluid-vapor mixture, while the rest of the hydraulic system is simulated in frames of 1D hydro-acoustic model. Thus the model accounts for the main factors responsible for excitation and propagation of pressure and discharge waves in hydraulic power plant. Boundary conditions at penstock inlet and draft tube outlet are discussed in detail. Then simulations of dynamic behavior at part load and full load operating points are performed. It is shown that the numerical model is able to capture self-excited oscillations in full load conditions. The influence of penstock length and flow structure behind the runner are investigated. The presented approach seems to be a promising tool for prediction and investigation the dynamic behavior in hydraulic power plants.

  9. CFD simulation of pressure and discharge surge in Francis turbine at off-design conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid 1D-3D CFD model is developed for the numerical simulation of pressure and discharge surge in hydraulic power plants. The most essential part – the turbine itself – is simulated directly using 3D unsteady equations of turbulent motion of fluid-vapor mixture, while the rest of the hydraulic system is simulated in frames of 1D hydro-acoustic model. Thus the model accounts for the main factors responsible for excitation and propagation of pressure and discharge waves in hydraulic power plant. Boundary conditions at penstock inlet and draft tube outlet are discussed in detail. Then simulations of dynamic behavior at part load and full load operating points are performed. It is shown that the numerical model is able to capture self-excited oscillations in full load conditions. The influence of penstock length and flow structure behind the runner are investigated. The presented approach seems to be a promising tool for prediction and investigation the dynamic behavior in hydraulic power plants.

  10. Stress corrosion cracking of low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels under boiling water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour of different reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and weld filler/heat-affected zone materials was characterized under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) normal water (NWC) and hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) conditions by periodical partial unloading, constant and ripple load tests with pre-cracked fracture mechanics specimens. The experiments were performed in oxygenated or hydrogenated high-purity or sulphate/chloride containing water at temperatures from 150 to 288 deg. C. In good agreement with field experience, these investigations revealed a very low susceptibility to SCC crack growth and small crack growth rates (<0.6 mm/year) under most BWR/NWC and material conditions. Critical water chemistry, loading and material conditions, which can result in sustained and fast SCC well above the 'BWRVIP-60 SCC disposition lines' were identified, but many of them generally appeared atypical for current optimized BWR power operation practice or modern RPVs. Application of HWC always resulted in a significant reduction of SCC crack growth rates by more than one order of magnitude under these critical system conditions and growth rates dropped well below the 'BWRVIP-60 SCC disposition lines'

  11. Impact of Mental and Physical Stress on Blood Pressure and Pulse Pressure under Normobaric versus Hypoxic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Trapp, Michael; Trapp, Eva-Maria; Egger, Josef W.; Domej, Wolfgang; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Avian, Alexander; Rohrer, Peter M.; Hörlesberger, Nina; Magometschnigg, Dieter; Cervar-Zivkovic, Mila; Komericki, Peter; Velik, Rosemarie; Baulmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hypobaric hypoxia, physical and psychosocial stress may influence key cardiovascular parameters including blood pressure (BP) and pulse pressure (PP). We investigated the effects of mild hypobaric hypoxia exposure on BP and PP reactivity to mental and physical stress and to passive elevation by cable car. Methods 36 healthy volunteers participated in a defined test procedure consisting of a period of rest 1, mental stress task (KLT-R), period of rest 2, combined mental (KLT-R) and p...

  12. Analysis of pressure locking and thermal binding conditions on shutdown cooling system suction isolation valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutdown Cooling System (SCS) suction isolation valves for Yonggwang Nuclear Units 5 and 6 (YGN 5 and 6) had been selected as the valves susceptible to pressure locking and thermal binding (PLTB) phenomena considering valves' allowable internal leakage and various operating conditions. To prevent the anticipated PLTB phenomena, the isolation valve type was changed from the flexible-wedge gate valve to the double-disk gate valve with the drilled hole on the upstream disk. During plant pre-operational hydrostatic tests, however, the technical issue regarding the valve type change was raised due to the inherent difficulty in pressurizing the valve downstream piping, which was caused by the drilled hole. In order to resolve this technical issue, the technical adequacy of the valve type change was justified through the identification of the PLTB conditions on the SCS isolation valves using brief hand calculations and FLUENT code simulations. From these calculations and simulations, it was found that the upstream fluid temperatures of the second and third valves were almost the same as the ambient temperature for the case of no leakage in the isolation valves. However, if there were leakage through each isolation valve up to the maximum allowable leakage in the plant Technical Specification, the upstream fluid temperature of the farthest third isolation valve even increased enough to cause the PLTB phenomena. In these analyses, the valve leakage and turbulent penetration due to high-velocity flow in the RCS hot leg were identified as dominant factors which cause the PLTB conditions such as a valve bonnet overpressurization and a thermal difference between both ends of the valve disk. (author)

  13. Freezing and Melting of 3D Complex Plasma Structures under Microgravity Conditions Driven by Neutral Gas Pressure Manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freezing and melting of large three-dimensional complex plasmas under microgravity conditions is investigated. The neutral gas pressure is used as a control parameter to trigger the phase changes: Complex plasma freezes (melts) by decreasing (increasing) the pressure. The evolution of complex plasma structural properties upon pressure variation is studied. Theoretical estimates allow us to identify the main factors responsible for the observed behavior.

  14. In situ study of Polymorphism and Melting of Metals and Compounds under Extreme Conditions of High Pressure and High Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the experimental investigation of structure and melting of three important materials under extreme conditions of high pressure and high temperature. The melting points of elements and compounds are of fundamental importance for the study of planetary interiors and for fundamental and applied physics. The high pressure apparatus used in this thesis is the diamond anvil cell, which has been used to reach pressures of up to 137 GPa and temperatures up to 6000-7000 K via lase...

  15. Thermal behaviour of pressure tube under fully and partially voided heating conditions using 19 pin fuel element simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a nuclear reactor temperature can rise drastically during LOCA due to failure of heat transportation system and subsequently leads to mechanical deformations like sagging, ballooning and breaching of pressure tube. To understand the phenomenon an experiment has been carried out using 19 pin fuel element simulator. Main purpose of the experiment was to trace temperature profiles over the pressure tube, calandria tube and clad tubes of 220 MWe Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR). The symmetrical heating of pressure tube of 1 m length was done through resistance heating of 19 pins under 13.5 kW power using a rectifier and the variation of temperatures over the circumference of pressure tube (PT), calandria tube (CT) and clad tubes were measured. The sagging of pressure tube was initiated at 460 deg C temperature and highest temperature attained was 650 deg C. The highest temperature attained by clad tubes was 680 deg C (over outer ring) and heat is dissipated to calandria vessel mainly due to radiation and natural convection. Again to simulate partially voided conditions, asymmetrical heating of pressure was carried out by injecting 8 kW power to upper 8 pins of fuel simulator. A maximum temperature difference of 295 deg C was observed over the circumference of pressure tube which highlights the magnitude of thermal stresses and its role in breaching of pressure tube under partially voided conditions. Integrity of pressure tube was retained during both symmetrical and asymmetrical heatup conditions. (author)

  16. AMPTRACT: an algebraic model for computing pressure tube circumferential and steam temperature transients under stratified channel coolant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a number of postulated accident scenarios in a CANDU reactor, some of the horizontal fuel channels are predicted to experience periods of stratified channel coolant condition which can lead to a circumferential temperature gradient around the pressure tube. To study pressure tube strain and integrity under stratified flow channel conditions, it is, necessary to determine the pressure tube circumferential temperature distribution. This paper presents an algebraic model, called AMPTRACT (Algebraic Model for Pressure Tube TRAnsient Circumferential Temperature), developed to give the transient temperature distribution in a closed form. AMPTRACT models the following modes of heat transfer: radiation from the outermost elements to the pressure tube and from the pressure to calandria tube, convection between the fuel elements and the pressure tube and superheated steam, and circumferential conduction from the exposed to submerged part of the pressure tube. An iterative procedure is used to solve the mass and energy equations in closed form for axial steam and fuel-sheath transient temperature distributions. The one-dimensional conduction equation is then solved to obtain the pressure tube circumferential transient temperature distribution in a cosine series expansion. In the limit of large times and in the absence of convection and radiation to the calandria tube, the predicted pressure tube temperature distribution reduces identically to a parabolic profile. In this limit, however, radiation cannot be ignored because the temperatures are generally high. Convection and radiation tend to flatten the parabolic distribution

  17. Bench-Scale Trace Contaminant Testing of SA9T at Ambient and Reduced Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broerman, Craig; Sweterlitsch, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for air revitalization technology in a closed loop system is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O). An amine based sorbent technology, SA9T, has been evaluated for use in this application and several programs are evaluating it for use in both cabin and space suit applications. While the CO2 and H2O performance of the sorbent has been tested extensively, the question of how trace contaminants impact performance requires further evaluation. This paper presents experimental results of bench-scale SA9T testing that was performed under a variety of test conditions and with several different trace contaminants. Tests were conducted to determine if the capacity of the SA9T media to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O is compromised after exposure to a fully saturated trace contaminant at ambient conditions. Tests also were conducted to evaluate the performance of SA9T at ambient conditions in a continuous 30-day test with a mixed trace contaminant stream. In addition, testing also evaluated the impact of CO2 and H2O removal performance at suit loop pressures (29.6 KPa/4.3 psia) during cyclic operation with a constant inlet contaminant load.

  18. Small Scale Trace Contaminant Testing of SA9T at Ambient and Reduced Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broerman, Craig; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    A principle concern for air revitalization technology in a closed loop system is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O). An amine based sorbent technology, SA9T, has long been evaluated for use in this application and several programs are evaluating it for use in both a cabin as well as space suit applications. While the CO2 and H2O performance of the sorbent has been tested extensively, the question of how trace contaminants impact performance requires further evaluation. This paper presents experimental results of small scale SA9T testing that was performed over a variety of test conditions and with a variety of trace contaminants. Testing evaluated the ability of SA9T media to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O after exposure to a fully saturated trace contaminant at ambient conditions. Testing also evaluated the impact of CO2 and H2O removal performance at suit loop pressures during cyclic operation with a constant inlet contaminant load. In addition, testing evaluated the performance of SA9T at ambient conditions in a continuous 30-day test with a mixed trace contaminant stream.

  19. Thermodynamic properties of water in compacted bentonite under external pressure-free conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to determine the thermodynamic properties of water in bentonite, the vapor pressure of water in compacted bentonite was measured as functions of water content and temperature, under external pressure-free conditions. The relative partial molar Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of the water in bentonite were determined at a temperature of 298.15 K. The interlayer distance of montmorillonite in bentonite was also measured by X-ray diffraction. It is probable that one fourth of the total water included in the bentonite at water content of 20.3 wt% and dry density of 1.76 x 103 kg/m3 is nearly free water; the water is not regarded as dilute electrolytic solution but the solution with higher ionic strength. Another one fourth of the water in the bentonite at the water content is bound water; the partial molar entropy of the bound water referred to pure water is from a half to whole of solidification entropy of pure water. The remainder is regarded as intermediately bound water

  20. Advanced development and operating experience with a canned motor pump under pressurized water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the research reactor FRG-2, Geesthacht, an irradiation device is in operation for testing defective light-water-reactor (LWR) test fuel rods under pressurized water reactor conditions (3200C, 160 bar). The requirements to the canned motor pump for cooling water circulation: medium: Demineralized water, operating temperature 3200C, operating pressure 155 bar, radiation field of the reactor, integration in the irradiation capsule, helium leak rate -6mbar.dm3.s-1, minimum working life 3000 hours, were high and caused difficulties in the acquisition of this component. First test runs with supplied pumps showed that the desired working life could not be achieved. The results of the development steps, the test runs, and the performance in service show that for our range of applications, the best combination of materials for the radial bearings is silicon-infiltrated SiC (8% free Si) against the same material. These bearings allowed a good working life for the pump to be achieved. (orig./GL)

  1. Nonlinear Analysis of Onset of Nucleate Boiling in Natural Circulation under Different Pressure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we obtain the flow signals before and after the ONB through natural circulation experiments under pressure conditions of 0.15MPa and 0.3MPa. Researches were conducted by applying nonlinear analysis techniques. Results revealed that the power spectrum of volume flow data declined exponentially over time in semi logarithmic coordinates, the autocorrelation coefficient declined gradually and the phase diagram exerted the subtle structures of chaotic movement, which might prove the existence of chaos in natural circulation system. The natural convection of single phase appeared before the occurrence of ONB belonged to a non equilibrium process which showed remarkable random features. The occurrence of ONB was a process containing the beginning of chaotic motion and the continuing occurrence of bubbles at ONB and the tendency of phase change to become nucleation boiling would achieve certain states, which embodied the characteristics of chaos. In addition, the intense density difference environment of natural circulation could accelerate the occurrences of both chaotic motion and ONB. While the density difference of heated liquid decreased with the increase of pressure, which could delay the occurrence of ONB.

  2. Investigation of LPP combustors under elevated pressure conditions; Untersuchungen zu LPP-Flugtriebwerksbrennkammern unter erhoehtem Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, R.

    2001-05-01

    The development of new combustor concepts for aero engines to meet future emissions regulations in based on a detailed knowledge of the combustion process and the velocity field. In the presented thesis, non intrusive measurements were performed in a model combustion chamber under almost realistic pressure and temperature conditions. The species OH, NO, unburned hydrocarbons and fuel droplets were detected in 2 dimensions with the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). The velocity field was measured with the Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV). [German] Die Weiterentwicklung neuer Brennkammerkonzepte zur Erfuellung zukuenftiger Schadstoffemissionsrichtlinien erfordert genaue Kenntnisse der ablaufenden Verbrennungs- und Stroemungsvorgaenge in der Brennkammer. Bei den in der Arbeit vorgestellten Untersuchungen wurden in einer LPP-Modellbrennkammer unter annaehernd realistischen Eintrittsbedingungen die Spezies OH, NO, unverbrannte Kohlenwasserstoffe sowie noch fluessiger Brennstoff zweidimensional anhand der Laserinduzierten Fluoreszenz (LIF) nachgewiesen. Das Stroemungsfeld wurde mit Hilfe der Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) gemessen.

  3. Natural Circulation Characteristics at Low-Pressure Conditions through PANDA Experiments and ATHLET Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Schäfer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural circulation characteristics at low pressure/low power have been studied by performing experimental investigations and numerical simulations. The PANDA large-scale facility was used to provide valuable, high quality data on natural circulation characteristics as a function of several parameters and for a wide range of operating conditions. The new experimental data allow for testing and improving the capabilities of the thermal-hydraulic computer codes to be used for treating natural circulation loops in a range with increased attention. This paper presents a synthesis of a part of the results obtained within the EU-Project NACUSP “natural circulation and stability performance of boiling water reactors.” It does so by using the experimental results produced in PANDA and by showing some examples of numerical simulations performed with the thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET.

  4. Characterization of transient discharges under atmospheric pressure conditions applying nitrogen photoemission and current measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Sandra; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Plasma parameters of three transient discharges (filamentary and homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges in air, and the spark discharge of an argon plasma coagulator) operated at atmospheric pressure conditions are determined applying a combination of diagnostics methods, namely numerical simulation, current measurement, and optical emission spectroscopy. These diagnostic methods supplement each other and resolve problems, which arise when these methods are used separately. Nitrogen is used as sensor gas and is admixed to argon for studying the argon plasma coagulator. The Boltzmann equation is solved in 'local' approximation to determine electron velocity distribution function. Drift velocity, electron-impact excitation rate constants for nitrogen molecular emission, electric current density, and emission spectrum of nitrogen molecule are calculated. Plasma parameters (electron velocity distribution function and electron density) are determined applying calculated as far as measured electric current, and ...

  5. Dispersed flow film boiling at low pressure and low mass flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made and presented of dispersed flow film boiling of water steam mixture flowing through a 12 mm i.d. uniformly heated tube. Vapour superheats of several hundred degrees (0C) in the presence of water drops were measured. Experimental data were obtained at the following conditions: Pressure 2 to 7 bar; Mass Flow Rate 40 to 140 Kg/m/sup 2/ sec; Inlet Quality 0.025 to 0.834; Heat Flux 32 to 76 Kw/m. A model including heat transfer from wall to vapour and drops and from vapour to drops was presented. A comparison was made between the experimental data and the calculated results with the proposed model

  6. Multipole Electrodynamic Ion Trap Geometries for Microparticle Confinement under Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalcea, Bogdan M; Stan, Cristina; Visan, Gina T; Ganciu, Mihai; Filinov, Vladimir E; Lapitsky, Dmitry S; Deputatova, Lidiya V; Syrovatka, Roman A

    2015-01-01

    Trapping of microparticles and aerosols is of great interest for physics and chemistry. We report microparticle trapping in multipole linear Paul trap geometries, operating under Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure (SATP) conditions. An 8-electrode and a 12-electrode linear trap geometries have been designed and tested with an aim to achieve trapping for larger number of particles and to study microparticle dynamical stability in electrodynamic fields. We report emergence of planar and volume ordered structures of the microparticles, depending on the a.c. trapping frequency and particle specific charge ratio. The electric potential within the trap was mapped using the electrolytic tank method. Particle dynamics was simulated using a stochastic Langevin equation. We emphasize extended regions of stable trapping with respect to quadrupole traps, as well as good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations.

  7. Theoretical and numerical investigations of TAP experiments. New approaches for variable pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senechal, U.; Breitkopf, C. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    2011-07-01

    Temporal analysis of products (TAP) is a valuable tool for characterization of porous catalytic structures. Established TAP-modeling requires a spatially constant diffusion coefficient and neglect convective flows, which is only valid in Knudsen diffusion regime. Therefore in experiments, the number of molecules per pulse must be chosen accordingly. New approaches for variable process conditions are highly required. Thus, a new theoretical model is developed for estimating the number of molecules per pulse to meet these requirements under any conditions and at any time. The void volume is calculated as the biggest sphere fitting between three pellets. The total number of pulsed molecules is assumed to fill the first void volume at the inlet immediately. Molecule numbers from these calculations can be understood as maximum possible molecules at any time in the reactor to be in Knudsen diffusion regime, i.e., above the Knudsen number of 2. Moreover, a new methodology for generating a full three-dimensional geometrical representation of beds is presented and used for numerical simulations to investigate spatial effects. Based on a freely available open-source game physics engine library (BULLET), beds of arbitrary-sized pellets can be generated and transformed to CFD-usable geometry. In CFD-software (ANSYS CFX registered) a transient diffusive transport equation with time-dependent inlet boundary conditions is solved. Three different pellet diameters were investigated with 1e18 molecules per pulse, which is higher than the limit from the theoretical calculation. Spatial and temporal distributions of transported species show regions inside the reactor, where non-Knudsen conditions exist. From this results, the distance from inlet can be calculated where the theoretical pressure limit (Knudsen number equals 2) is obtained, i.e., from this point to the end of the reactor Knudsen regime can be assumed. Due to linear dependency of pressure and concentration (assuming ideal gas thermodynamics), the results from one numerical simulation can be converted to any number of molecules per pulse. With this procedure, the distance from inlet from which on Knudsen regime can be assumed for different molecules per pulse can be calculated easily. The new model will be applied to enhance the description of industrially relevant conversions, as for instance alkane conversions on transition metal oxides. (orig.)

  8. Effect of Nb additions on the microstructure, thermal stability and mechanical behavior of high pressure Zr phases under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhilyaev, A.P. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, RAS, 450001 Ufa (Russian Federation); Sabirov, I. [Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies of Materials (IMDEA-Materials Institute) C/Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Doncel, G. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Molina-Aldareguia, J.; Srinivasarao, B. [Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies of Materials (IMDEA-Materials Institute) C/Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Prado, M.T., E-mail: teresa.perez.prado@imdea.org [Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies of Materials (IMDEA-Materials Institute) C/Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We analyze the influence of Nb additions on the shear-induced {alpha} {yields} {omega} {yields} {beta} phase transformations in pure Zr by high pressure torsion (HPT). {yields} Nb reduces the transition pressures and increases the transformation kinetics. {yields} High pressure phases are retained under ambient conditions due to the presence of an internal stress. {yields} Post-HPT annealing allows to fabricate bimodal/biphase nanostructures with enhanced mechanical behavior. - Abstract: This paper analyzes the influence of Nb on the shear-induced {alpha} {yields} {omega} {yields} {beta} transformation taking place when processing Zr by high pressure torsion (HPT) under suitable conditions of pressure and shear. With that purpose, pure Zr and Zr-2.5%Nb were processed by HPT at room temperature and at pressures ranging from 0.25 to 6 GPa using 5 anvil turns. Nb causes a further reduction of the transition pressures, which are already lower when applying shear besides pressure. Thus, the transition pressure to the {beta} phase is reduced at least 100 times in the Zr-Nb alloy. Alloying with Nb decreases the grain size of the transformed phases, significantly enhances their thermal stability and increases their UTS and elongation to failure. Selected post-HPT annealing treatments lead to the development of very tough, multiphase Zr and Zr-Nb with bimodal grain size distributions. The retention of the high pressure phases under ambient conditions is explained by the development of a high internal stress during processing. This stress is measured by synchrotron radiation diffraction at HZB-BESSY II. It is proposed that the presence of Nb reduces the internal stress level required for the retention of the high pressure phases.

  9. Sufficient conditions for globally asymptotic self-stability of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Self-stability analysis of the PWR is presented through the shifted-ectropy based approach. Sufficient conditions for the globally asymptotic self-stability are established. The correctness of the theoretic results are finally verified through numerical simulation. - Abstract: After the Fukushima accident, safe, stable and efficient operation of reactors is very necessary for the development of nuclear power industry. Since pressurized water reactor (PWR) is the mostly widely used fission reactor, the improvement of its operation performance is quite meaningful. Self-stability is the most important dynamic feature of any reactors, and analyzing the self-stability can give the approach of improving the operation performance. With this in mind, the self-stability analysis of the PWR is presented through the shifted-ectropy based approach, and sufficient conditions for the globally asymptotic self-stability in cases of negative, zero and positive coolant temperature feedback coefficient are all established. The correctness of the theoretical results are finally verified through numerical simulation. The results of this paper give the way to not only guaranteeing self-stability through physical and thermal-hydraulic reactor design but also strengthening closed-loop stability and robustness by the means of feedback control

  10. Characteristics of Syngas Auto-ignition at High Pressure and Low Temperature Conditions with Thermal Inhomogeneities

    KAUST Repository

    Pal, Pinaki

    2015-05-31

    Effects of thermal inhomogeneities on syngas auto-ignition at high-pressure low-temperature conditions, relevant to gas turbine operation, are investigated using detailed one-dimensional numerical simulations. Parametric tests are carried out for a range of thermodynamic conditions (T = 890-1100 K, P = 3-20 atm) and composition (Ф = 0.1, 0.5). Effects of global thermal gradients and localized thermal hot spots are studied. In the presence of a thermal gradient, the propagating reaction front transitions from spontaneous ignition to deflagration mode as the initial mean temperature decreases. The critical mean temperature separating the two distinct auto-ignition modes is computed using a predictive criterion and found to be consistent with front speed and Damkohler number analyses. The hot spot study reveals that compression heating of end-gas mixture by the propagating front is more pronounced at lower mean temperatures, significantly advancing the ignition delay. Moreover, the compression heating effect is dependent on the domain size.

  11. The kinetics of dolomite reaction rim growth under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpa, V.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. G.; Abart, R.; Dresen, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    During burial and exhumation, rocks are simultaneously exposed to metamorphic reactions and tectonic stresses. Therefore, the reaction rate of newly formed minerals may depend on chemical and mechanical driving forces. Here, we investigate the reaction kinetics of dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) rim growth by solid-state reactions experiments on oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions. Cylindrical samples of 3-5 mm length and 7 mm diameter were drilled and polished perpendicular to the rhombohedral cleavage planes of natural clear crystals. The tests were performed using a Paterson-type deformation apparatus at P = 400 MPa confining pressure, temperatures, T, between 750 and 850°C, and reaction durations, t, of 2 - 146 h to calculate the kinetic parameters of dolomite rim growth under isostatic stress conditions. For non-isostatic reaction experiments we applied in addition differential stresses, σ, up to 40 MPa perpendicular to the contact interface at T = 750°C for 4 - 171 h duration, initiating minor inelastic deformation of calcite. The thickness of the resulting dolomite reaction rims increases linearly with the square root of time, indicating a diffusion-controlled reaction. The rims consist of two different textural domains. Granular dolomite grains (≈ 2 -5 μm grain size) form next to calcite and elongated palisade-shaped grains (1-6 μm diameter) grow perpendicular to the magnesite interface. Texture measurements with the electron backscatter diffraction technique indicate that the orientations of dolomite grains are mainly influenced by the orientation of the calcite educt crystal, in particular in the granular rim. To some extent, the texture of dolomite palisades is also influenced by the orientation of magnesite. The thickness of the two individual layers increases with temperature. At 400 MPa isostatic pressure, T = 750°C and t = 29 hours, a 5 μm thick granular dolomite layer and a 7 μm thick palisade-shaped layer evolve. At similar conditions and a differential stress of 30 MPa, the rim thickness remains similar; consequently the effect of non-isostatic stress on dolomite rim growth is negligible. Platinum markers show that the initial calcite-magnesite interface is located between granular and palisade-forming dolomite, indicating that rim growth occurs by counter diffusion of MgO and CaO. Diffusion of MgO across the dolomite reaction rim into calcite forms additionally magnesio-calcite grains with diameters of ≈ 13 - 46 μm, depending on the experimental conditions and increasing with increasing distance to the dolomite boundary. At T = 750°C, t = 29 hours, the thickness of the magnesio-calcite layer is 32 μm (isostatic) - 35 μm (σ = 30 MPa). The experiments indicate that solid-state reaction rim growth of dolomite between calcite and magnesite is primarily controlled by diffusion of MgO and CaO, forming layers with different microstructures during growth into the educt phases. The kinetics of the reaction in the carbonate system are not significantly changed by differential stresses up to 40 MPa. We suggest that volume diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism, which is presumably less affected by non-isostatic stresses than grain boundary diffusion.

  12. Magnetite reactivity in representative conditions of the secondary circuit of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the secondary circuit of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), magnetite deposits lead to steam generators (SG) fouling, which decreases thermal performances and enhances stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of magnetite particles behaviour and their reactivity in the secondary circuit conditions. Experimental tests investigated the fast thermal decomposition of hydrazine, injected in the secondary circuit to eliminate oxygen. Temperature, pH, and catalytic properties of materials surfaces have an influence on the kinetics of hydrazine decomposition. A predictive model was proposed. Growing, transport and deposits of iron oxides, essentially formed with magnetite, responsible of the steam generator fouling, were studied in the experimental loop FORTRAND, Formation and Transport of Deposits. Surface characterizations show that magnetite is the corrosion product formed on carbon steel and stainless steel at 220 C, and goethite is formed at room temperature on stainless steel. Results indicate also that the effect of different amines, used in the secondary circuit, on the soluble iron is principally due to their effect on the pH. Performed tests highlight transport and deposition of magnetite particles in the loop. Deposits formed in the SG could promote SCC of tubes by sorption and reduction of sulfates. To reproduce secondary circuit conditions, studies of sorption were made in reducing medium imposed by hydrazine. At 275 C, the presence of hydrazine has an effect on the speciation of sulfates in solution but does not seem to influence the sorption nor to lead to H2S(g) emission predicted by thermodynamic calculations. These experimental results are used to predict sulfur and iron species behaviour in the secondary circuit. Low pH conditioning enhances soluble iron concentration, consequently iron transport in the SG. Sulfides are the most probable sulfur species in flow-restricted areas of SG, harmful for stress corrosion cracking. (author)

  13. Transitiometric investigation of asphaltenic fluids under real conditions of temperature and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowiak, C.; Grolier, J.P.E. [Univ. Blaise Pascal, Lab. de Thermodynamique et Genie Chimique, Aubiere (France); Randzio, S. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Inst. of Physical Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland)

    2000-08-01

    Flocculation of asphaltenes is a major concern in the petroleum industry in such activities as production, extraction and transport. With the aim of characterising flocculation phenomena and primarily the flocculation threshold, titration calorimetry has already been used to study the effect of solvents on asphaltenic fluids; the precipitation of asphaltenes is in that case induced by the addition of solvent (usually n-alkanes, according to the definition of asphaltenes). We have recently developed a new experimental technique, scanning transitiometry which appears typically suitable to investigate phase changes in asphaltenic fluids. This technique which makes use of a calorimetric detector allows to scan one of the three independent variables p, V or T, while one is maintained constant. From the recording of the variation of the dependent variable and of the associated heat effect, thermomechanical coefficients of the bulk phase can be computed and phase changes detected very accurately. The scanning rates as well as the operating ranges of T and p permit to rigorously monitor the thermodynamic behaviour of the system loaded in the transitiometric cell. Moreover, a full thermodynamic study is possible over an extended p, V, T-surface and fluids under real high T-high p in-well conditions can be treated. This means also that the possible reversibility of phase transitions can be investigated with this technique. We report here a preliminary investigation on real petroleum fluids under in-well conditions of temperature and pressure. Fluids containing asphaltenes have been used to illustrate the advantages of scanning transitiometry to investigate such systems. Of particular importance is the transferring of the fluid system into the measuring cell under isobaric condition. (au)

  14. Stress corrosion cracking of ferritic reactor pressure vessel steels under boiling water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour of low-alloy reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels in oxygenated high-temperature water and its relevance to boiling water reactor (BWR) power operation, in particular its possible effect on both, RPV structural integrity and safety, has been a subject of controversial discussions for many years. The SCC crack growth behaviour of different RPV steels under simulated BWR/NWC conditions was therefore characterized by constant load and ripple load tests with pre-cracked fracture mechanics specimens in oxygenated high-temperature water at temperatures of either 288, 250, 200 or 150 C. Modern high-temperature water loops, online crack growth monitoring (DCPD) and fractographical analysis by scanning electron microscopy were used to quantify the cracking response. It is concluded that there is no susceptibility to sustained SCC crack growth at temperatures around 288 C under purely static loading, as long as small-scale-yielding conditions prevail at the crack tip and the water chemistry is maintained within current BWR/NWC operational practice (EPRI water chemistry guidelines). However, sustained, fast SCC (with respect to operational time scales) cannot be excluded for faulted water chemistry conditions (EPRI Action Level 3) and/or for highly stressed specimens, either loaded near to KIJ or with a high degree of plasticity in the remaining ligament. The conservative character of the 'BWR VIP 60 Disposition Lines 1 and 2' for SCC crack growth in low-alloy steels has been confirmed by this study for 288 C and RPV base material. Preliminary results indicate, that these disposition lines may be significantly or slightly exceeded (even in steels with low sulphur content) in the case of small load fluctuations at high load ratios (ripple loading) or at intermediate temperatures (200 - 250 C) in RPV materials, which show a distinct susceptibility to Dynamic Strain Ageing (DSA). (orig.)

  15. An experimental study on sub-cooled flow boiling CHF of R134a at low pressure condition with atmospheric pressure (AP) plasma assisted surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jun [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zou, Ling [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jones, Barclay G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering

    2015-02-01

    In this study, sub-cooled flow boiling critical heat flux tests at low pressure were conducted in a rectangular flow channel with one uniformly heated surface, using simulant fluid R-134a as coolant. The experiments were conducted under the following conditions: (1) inlet pressure (P) of 400-800 kPa, (2) mass flux (G) of 124-248 kg/m2s, (3) inlet sub-cooling enthalpy (ΔHi) of 12~ 26 kJ/kg. Parametric trends of macroscopic system parameters (G, P, Hi) were examined by changing inlet conditions. Those trends were found to be generally consistent with previous understandings of CHF behavior at low pressure condition (i.e. reduced pressure less than 0.2). A fluid-to-fluid scaling model was utilized to convert the test data obtained with the simulant fluid (R-134a) into the prototypical fluid (water). The comparison between the converted CHF of equivalent water and CHF look-up table with same operation conditions were conducted, which showed good agreement. Furthermore, the effect of surface wettability on CHF was also investigated by applying atmospheric pressure plasma (AP-Plasma) treatment to modify the surface characteristic. With AP-Plasma treatment, the change of microscopic surface characteristic was measured in terms of static contact angle. The static contact angle was reduced from 80° on original non-treated surface to 15° on treated surface. An enhancement of 18% on CHF values under flow boiling conditions were observed on AP-Plasma treated surfaces compared to those on non-treated heating surfaces.

  16. An experimental study on sub-cooled flow boiling CHF of R134a at low pressure condition with atmospheric pressure (AP) plasma assisted surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, sub-cooled flow boiling critical heat flux tests at low pressure were conducted in a rectangular flow channel with one uniformly heated surface, using simulant fluid R-134a as coolant. The experiments were conducted under the following conditions: (1) inlet pressure (P) of 400-800 kPa, (2) mass flux (G) of 124-248 kg/m2s, (3) inlet sub-cooling enthalpy (ΔHi) of 12~ 26 kJ/kg. Parametric trends of macroscopic system parameters (G, P, Hi) were examined by changing inlet conditions. Those trends were found to be generally consistent with previous understandings of CHF behavior at low pressure condition (i.e. reduced pressure less than 0.2). A fluid-to-fluid scaling model was utilized to convert the test data obtained with the simulant fluid (R-134a) into the prototypical fluid (water). The comparison between the converted CHF of equivalent water and CHF look-up table with same operation conditions were conducted, which showed good agreement. Furthermore, the effect of surface wettability on CHF was also investigated by applying atmospheric pressure plasma (AP-Plasma) treatment to modify the surface characteristic. With AP-Plasma treatment, the change of microscopic surface characteristic was measured in terms of static contact angle. The static contact angle was reduced from 80° on original non-treated surface to 15° on treated surface. An enhancement of 18% on CHF values under flow boiling conditions were observed on AP-Plasma treated surfaces compared to those on non-treated heating surfaces.

  17. AISI 316L under electron radiolysis at high temperature and pressure in PWR modelling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    temperature (HT), 280-320 deg. C, and high pressure (HP), 15.5 MPa. Very few data are available in the literature on the role of HTHP water radiolysis on the corrosion of metallic reactor components. The present approach use electron beam to control the production of radiolytic species at a AISI 316L/PWR solution interface in a high temperature and high pressure (HTHP) electrochemical cell working at the range [25 deg. C, 1 bar] - [300 deg. C, 90 bar]. The cell is designed to record the free corrosion potential of the AISI 316L/PWR solution interface mounted on line at the SIRIUS pelletron delivering the electron beam (LSI, Ecole Polytechnique, France). The PWR primary solutions are simulated by aqueous solutions prepared at room temperature by adding boric acid and lithium hydroxide to high purity water and, in some cases, purged with Ar/H2 flow. At the AISI 316L/PWR solution interfaces irradiated between 25 deg. C/ 1 bar and 300 deg. C/ 90 bar, electrons emerge at ∼0.6 MeV and the flux varies from ∼1010 to 1012 e-.cm-2.s-1. The results clearly show that the response of the free potential between the AISI316L/water interface and a pseudo-reference electrode, i.e. a platinum wire during the irradiation (from electron beam switch-on until cut-off) depends on many parameters: the energy of the electron beam, the temperature and pressure, the concentration of hydrogen in the solution, the ageing of the disc electrode, the growth conditions of the initial oxide passive layers, etc... These results can be compared with those which have obtained by using the proton beam (CEMHTI, CNRS Orleans, France). Surface characterization experiments (XPS, SEM, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence...) on the oxide layer of AISI316L which are formed under the irradiation could also bring new information about the irradiation influence on the AISI316L. (authors)

  18. Effects of Partial 02 Pressure, Partial CO2 Pressure, and Agitation on Growth Kinetics of Azospirillum lipoferum under Fermentor Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Etienne; Mulard, Daniel; Blanc, Philippe; Fages, Jacques; Goma, Gerard; Pareilleux, Alain

    1990-01-01

    Azospirillum lipoferum crtl was grown in batch cultures under standard conditions at 85% saturation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and 30-g/liter glucose concentrations. Kinetic studies revealed nutritional limitations of growth and the presence of an initial lag phase prior to consumption of glucose. The influences of various gaseous environments and shear stress on growth, i.e., various conditions of agitation-aeration, were characterized. Faster growth in the first stages of the culture and shor...

  19. Source and loading conditions in pressure suppression systems - results of the multivalent large scale pressure suppression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals mainly with the dynamic loading of the vent pipes and the wetwell walls as measured during the chugging regime and its sources. High speed pictures of the steam condensation correlated with pressure recordings help to clarify the pressure source mechanism during a chugging event. The resulting effective load on a vent pipe is measured with strain gages under the assumption that the pipe behaves like a cantilever beam. Frequency analyses of signals from accelerometers and strain gages at the wetwell walls reveal strong periodicities which are correlated with the chugging ringdown frequency of about 30 to 40 Hz. In impact analysis of the wetwell walls suggested the lowest, weak mode of the partly waterfilled wetwell to occur 40 Hz. This mode was not detected for the empty wetwell. Tentatively, the characteristic frequency of the chugging ringdown is attributed to a fluid-structure coupled vibration albeit the lowest acoustic mode of the pool is calculated to occur only at about 100 Hz with one-phase, room-temperature water. (orig./HP)

  20. Two-Phase Instability Characteristics of Printed Circuit Steam Generator for the Low Pressure Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduction of installation space for steam generators can lead to much smaller reactor vessel with resultant decrease of overall manufacturing cost for the components. A PCHE(Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger) is one of the compact types of heat exchangers available as an alternative to conventional shell and tube heat exchangers. Its name is derived from the procedure used to manufacture the flat metal plates that form the core of the heat exchanger, which is done by chemical milling. These plates are then stacked and diffusion bonded, converting the plates into a solid metal block containing precisely engineered fluid flow passages. PCSG(Printed Circuit Steam Generator) is a potential candidate to be applied to the integral reactor with its compactness and mechanical robustness. For the introduction of new steam generator, design requirement for the two-phase flow instability should be considered. This paper describes two-phase flow instability characteristics of PCSG for the low pressure condition. PCSG is a potential candidate to be applied to the integral reactor with its compactness and mechanical robustness. Interconnecting flow path was developed to mitigate the two-phase flow instability in the cold side. The flow characteristics of two-phase flow instability at the PCSG is examined experimentally in this study

  1. Study on an Efficient Dehumidifying Air-conditioning System utilizing Phase Change of Intermediate Pressure Refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kensaku; Inaba, Hideo

    The present study has proven a new dehumidifying system that aimed to reduce the sensible heat factor(SHF) of cooling process without using additional heat to relieve the internationally indicated conflict between energy saving and dehumidification necessary for keeping adequate indoor air quality (IAQ). In this system, we used intermediate pressure refrigerant in a vapor compression refrigerating cycle as heat transfer medium of a characteristic heat exchanger to precool the process air entering into an evaporator as well as to reheat the process air leaving from the evaporator. By this system, the present results achieved higher moisture removal and consequently higher efficiency of dehumidifying process. In addition to this fact, since this system has capability of integration into air-conditioning apparatus(HVAC system), it will be able to work for wide range of cooling load by variable SHF function. In the present paper, technical information, experimental results, and simulation results which assumed to apply this system into HVAC system are reported.

  2. High Pressure Compression-Molding of α-Cellulose and Effects of Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Rouilly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercial α-cellulose was compression-molded to produce 1A dog-bone specimens under various operating conditions without any additive. The resulting agromaterials exhibited a smooth, plastic-like surface, and constituted a suitable target as replacement for plastic materials. Tensile and three-points bending tests were conducted according to ISO standards related to the evaluation of plastic materials. The specimens had strengths comparable to classical petroleum-based thermoplastics. They also exhibited high moduli, which is characteristic of brittle materials. A higher temperature and higher pressure rate produced specimens with higher mechanical properties while low moisture content produced weaker specimens. Generally, the strong specimen had higher specific gravity and lower moisture content. However, some parameters did not follow the general trend e.g., thinner specimen showed much higher Young’s Modulus, although their specific gravity and moisture content remained similar to control, revealing a marked skin-effect which was confirmed by SEM observations.

  3. Thermal decomposition of 3-methoxypropylamine under secondary systems condition of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-Methoxypropylamine (MPA) is one of the promising alternative amines to control pH value of the secondary coolant of pressurized water reactors. Several carboxylic acids may be generated through thermal decomposition of the amine, and possibly brings about acidic environment for turbines. Therefore, it is important to evaluate yields of the carboxylic acids resulted from the thermal decomposition of the amine. The thermal decomposition of MPA was investigated under two conditions: (1) dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration less than 5 ppb at 553 K and (2) DO concentration of 20 ppb at 343 K. Initial MPA concentration was 10 ppm. After the tests, concentrations of MAP and carboxylic acids were measured with ion chromatography. Approximately 9 to 15% of MPA was decomposed after the tests. Carboxylic acid concentrations were as follows: (1) formate 110 ppb, acetate 260 ppb and propionate 400 ppb at 553 K, (2) formate less than 2 ppb, acetate 60 ppb and propionate 1270 ppb at 343 K. Reaction mechanism of the MPA decomposition was estimated based on the present experimental results. (author)

  4. Main mechanisms of material properties degradation under reactor pressure vessel operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of NPP equipment operation materials are subjected to a prolonged influence of loads, associated with the variation of inner pressure and temperature under various conditions. Each equipment element damage is associated with some material fracture mechanism. For NPP equipment the mechanisms of irreversible damage accumulation are related with: irradiation embrittlement, thermal and strain aging, fatigue damages from mechanical and thermal loading, stress corrosion and fatigue corrosion, creep and thermal relaxation stresses, erosion and weak, thermal shock. The basic tasks of specialists working in the sphere of the provision of reliability and service life of nuclear power equipment are not only the determination of the main mechanisms of damages and reasons of their appearance, but also the study of methods which would permit to control these properties completely. By giving some examples of Russian NPP equipment with VVER-440 and VVER-1000 reactors the paper presents most typical degradation mechanisms of equipment material properties, including weldments, in the process of operation and methods to recover by using various technological means. (author)

  5. Measurement of subcooled boiling pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient in horizontal tube under LPLF conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Measured subcooled boiling pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient in horizontal tubes. ► Infra-red thermal imaging is used for wall temperature measurement. ► Developed correlations for pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient. -- Abstract: Horizontal flow is commonly encountered in boiler tubes, refrigerating equipments and nuclear reactor fuel channels of pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR). Study of horizontal flow under low pressure and low flow (LPLF) conditions is important in understanding the nuclear core behavior during situations like LOCA (loss of coolant accidents). In the present work, local heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are measured in a horizontal tube under LPLF conditions of subcooled boiling. Geometrical parameters covered in this study are diameter (5.5 mm, 7.5 mm and 9.5 mm) and length (550 mm, 750 mm and 1000 mm). The operating parameters varied are mass flux (450–935 kg/m2 s) and inlet subcooling (29 °C, 50 °C and 70 °C). Infra-red thermography is used for the measurement of local wall temperature to estimate the heat transfer coefficient in single phase and two phase flows with water as the working medium at atmospheric pressure. Correlation for single phase diabatic pressure drop ratio (diabatic to adiabatic) as a function of viscosity ratio (wall temperature to fluid temperature) is presented. Correlation for pressure drop under subcooled boiling conditions as a function of Boiling number (Bo) and Jakob number (Ja) is obtained. Correlation for single phase heat transfer coefficient in the thermal developing region is presented as a function of Reynolds number (Re), Prandtl number (Pr) and z/d (ratio of axial length of the test section to diameter). Correlation for two phase heat transfer coefficient under subcooled boiling condition is developed as a function of boiling number (Bo), Jakob number (Ja) and Prandtl number (Pr)

  6. Test equipment for the determination of the corrosion fatigue of reactor materials under pressurized water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental set-up was developed for the determination of corrosion fatigue properties under pressure water conditions. The design of the autoclave and its arrangement in a servo-hydraulic pulsator are described. Tests can be performed with this apparatus in pressure water up to 3500C and 165 bar with top loads of 20 000 N at frequencies up to 30 cycles per second. (orig.)

  7. Numerical simulation of pressure fluctuation of a pump-turbine with MGV at no-load condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to analyse the pressure fluctuation caused by misaligned guide vanes (MGV) during starting period at no-load condition, 3-D (three dimensional), unsteady flows in a pump-turbine were numerically studied. Pressure fluctuations of different points at no-load condition are obtained. Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) was used to analyse the frequency spectrum of pressure fluctuations. The amplitude and dominant frequency of pressure fluctuation at vaneless space between the runner and guide vane, as well as the inlet of draft tube, was investigated. The amplitude of pressure fluctuation of the pump-turbine with MGV device is twice that of synchronous vanes. This might be caused by the non-uniform flow in the pump-turbine due to the pre-opened guide vanes. The pump-turbine with synchronous vanes has a low frequency which is 0.33fn, while the low frequency changes into 0.63fn when the MGV device is used. The vortex rope in the draft tube is large than that of synchronize vanes. Resultsof pressure fluctuations with synchronous vanes agree with each other between computational and testing results. The numerical study of pressure fluctuations with MGV can provide a basic understanding for the improvement of the instability of a pump-turbine.

  8. An Inexpensive Arterial Pressure Wave Sensor and its application in different physiological condition

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, S; Sur, Shantanu

    2005-01-01

    Arterial Blood Pressure wave monitoring is considered to be important in assessment of cardiovascular system. We developed a novel pulse wave detection system using low frequency specific piezoelectric material as pressure wave sensor. The transducer detects the periodic change in the arterial wall diameter produced by pressure wave and the amplified signal after integration represents the pressure wave. The signal before integration is proportional to the rate of change of pressure wave and it not only reproduces the pressure waveform faithfully, but also its sharper nature helps to reliably detect the heart period variability (HPV). We have studied the position-specific (e.g. over carotid or radial artery) nature of change of this pulse wave signal (shape and amplitude) and also the changes at different physiological states.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of pressure-driven flows in microchannels using Navier–Maxwell slip boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Reis, Tim

    2012-01-01

    We present lattice Boltzmann simulations of rarefied flows driven by pressure drops along two-dimensional microchannels. Rarefied effects lead to non-zero cross-channel velocities, nonlinear variations in the pressure along the channel. Both effects are absent in flows driven by uniform body forces. We obtain second-order accuracy for the two components of velocity the pressure relative to asymptotic solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with slip boundary conditions. Since the common lattice Boltzmann formulations cannot capture Knudsen boundary layers, we replace the usual discrete analogs of the specular diffuse reflection conditions from continuous kinetic theory with a moment-based implementation of the first-order Navier-Maxwell slip boundary conditions that relate the tangential velocity to the strain rate at the boundary. We use these conditions to solve for the unknown distribution functions that propagate into the domain across the boundary. We achieve second-order accuracy by reformulating these conditions for the second set of distribution functions that arise in the derivation of the lattice Boltzmann method by an integration along characteristics. Our moment formalism is also valuable for analysing the existing boundary conditions. It reveals the origin of numerical slip in the bounce-back other common boundary conditions that impose conditions on the higher moments, not on the local tangential velocity itself. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  10. A study on the stem friction coefficient with differential pressure conditions for the motor operated flexible wedge gate valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem friction coefficient is very important parameter for the evaluation of valve performance. In this study, the characteristics of stem friction coefficient is analyzed, and the bounding value is determined. The hydraulic testing is performed for flexible wedge gate valves in the plant and statistical method is applied to the determination of bounding value. According to the results of this study, stem friction coefficient is not effected in low differential pressure condition, but it is showed different distribution in medium and high differential pressure condition. And the bounding value of closing stroke is higher than that of opening stroke

  11. Cyclic thermal shock crack propagation tests on the HDR-reactor pressure vessel nozzle under operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the HDR-Safety Research Program Cyclic Thermal Shock Tests were performed on a cladded reactor pressure vessel nozzle under operating conditions (temperature 3100C, pressure about 11 MPa). The whole round inner edge of the nozzle (diameter 200 mm) was sprayed with cold water by a special device. The main goal of these investigation is to contribute to the understanding of crack propagation of flaws under cyclic loading for adverse environmental water conditions. Furthermore, it is the object of the tests to monitor such cracks and the crack growth by non destructive technics as well as to assess and qualify the applied fracture analysis methods. (orig.)

  12. Effectiveness of Sealed Double-Ring Infiltrometers trademark and effects of changes in atmospheric pressure on hydraulic conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site is currently evaluating some 40 hazardous and radioactive-waste sites for remediation. Among the remedial alternatives considered is closure using a kaolin clay cap. The hydraulic conductivity suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency is 1.0 x 10-7 cm/sec. One instrument to measure this value is the Sealed Double-Ring Infiltrometer trademark (SDRI). Six SDRI were recently installed on a kaolin test cap. Test results demonstrated uniform performance of these instruments. However, the test data showed as much as an order of magnitude of variation over time. This variation is attributed to both internal structural heterogeneity and variable external boundary conditions. The internal heterogeneity is caused by construction variability within a specified range of moisture and density. The external influences considered are temperature and barometric pressure. Temperature was discharged as a source of heterogeneity because of a lack of correlation with test data and a negligible impact from the range of variability. However, a direct correlation was found between changes in barometric pressure and hydraulic conductivity. This correlation is most pronounced when pressure changes occur over a short period of time. Additionally, this correlation is related to a single soil layer. When the wetting front passes into a more porous foundation layer, the correlation with pressure changes disappears. Conclusions are that the SDRI performs adequately, with good repeatability of results. The duration of test is critical to assure a statistically valid data set. Data spikes resulting from pressure changes should be identified, and professional judgment used to determine the representative hydraulic conductivity. Further evaluation is recommended to determine the impact of pressure change on the actual hydraulic conductivity

  13. HEADCO: a program for converting observed water levels and pressure measurements to formation pressure and standard hydraulic head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Static water-level and fluid pressure measurements are commonly converted in hydrologic studies to formation pressure and hydraulic head, which are used to determine groundwater flow characteristics of aquifer systems. While the direct use of field measurements is usually adequate for determining formation pressure and hydraulic head for shallow flow systems (i.e., <1000 ft), corrections and conversion parameters must be used to properly account for fluid-column density effects, which commonly occur with deep systems. This report presents a program, HEADCO, for converting static water-level and pressure measurements to formation pressure and standard hydraulic head. The HEADCO program corrects field measurements for the effects of fluid-density variation and selected external stresses. Factors that affect density of the fluid column, in which field measurements are made, include temperature, pressure, salinity, suspended solids, and multiphase conditions. External stresses examined in HEADCO include barometric and earth tide fluctuations, and gravitational acceleration variation. A program description and procedures for converting field measurements obtained using field test arrangements commonly employed in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project field program are provided in this report. The report includes user instructions and an illustrative test example. Results of a field example comparison are also provided. This comparison examines observed and HEADCO-calculated pressures for 30 pressure probes recently calibrated in a laboratory and tested under field conditions at borehole DC-8. The test case and field example comparisons indicate that HEADCO provides accurate estimates of formation pressure and standard hydraulic head that are well within the accuracy range of downhole pressure-measuring instrumentation. 44 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Predicting CO2 Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP Using Alternating Conditional Expectation (ACE Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alomair O.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Miscible gas injection is one of the most important enhanced oil recovery (EOR approaches for increasing oil recovery. Due to the massive cost associated with this approach a high degree of accuracy is required for predicting the outcome of the process. Such accuracy includes, the preliminary screening parameters for gas miscible displacement; the Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP and the availability of the gas. All conventional and stat-of-art MMP measurement methods are either time consuming or decidedly cost demanding processes. Therefore, in order to address the immediate industry demands a nonparametric approach, Alternating Conditional Expectation (ACE, is used in this study to estimate MMP. This algorithm Breiman and Friedman [Brieman L., Friedman J.H. (1985 J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 80, 391, 580-619]estimates the transformations of a set of predictors (here C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7+, CO2, H2S, N2, Mw5+, Mw7+ and T and a response (here MMP that produce the maximum linear effect between these transformed variables. One hundred thirteen MMP data points are considered both from the relevant published literature and the experimental work. Five MMP measurements for Kuwaiti Oil are included as part of the testing data. The proposed model is validated using detailed statistical analysis; a reasonably good value of correlation coefficient 0.956 is obtained as compare to the existing correlations. Similarly, standard deviation and average absolute error values are at the lowest as 139 psia (8.55bar and 4.68% respectively. Hence, it reveals that the results are more reliable than the existing correlations for pure CO2 injection to enhance oil recovery. In addition to its accuracy, the ACE approach is more powerful, quick and can handle a huge data.

  15. Photochemical modelling of the Barcelona area under weak pressure synoptic summer conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This city of Barcelona and its surrounding area, located in the western Mediterranean basin, can reach high levels of O3 in summertime under weak pressure synoptic conditions. To study the origin of this photochemical pollution, the episode that took place between the 3 and 5 August 1990 was chosen. The main meteorological mesoscale flows that take place in the region, such as sea and land breeze, convection cells and topographic injections, were reproduced with the meteorological non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MEMO for 5 August 1990. Industrial and commercial activity on 5 August 1990 was very low because it was a Sunday in the summer holiday period. Therefore, the emissions inventory calculated for this day in an area of 80x80 km2 around Barcelona showed that the main sources of VOC were traffic (51%) and vegetation (34%), while NOx were mostly emitted by traffic (88%). Photochemical simulation with the MARS model has shown that the combination of mesoscale circulations and local emissions is crucial in the production of O3. For instance, NOx inland transport towards regions where biogenic VOC are emitted causes the formation of O3, while topographic injections cause the formation of elevated O3 air layers. The synoptic wind, coming from the northeast in this case, also played an important role in advecting the air masses with local generated O3 away from their precursor emission sources. Evaluation of the model simulations is also performed and discussed by means of comparison of meteorological measurements in 9 surface stations and concentration measurements in 5 surface stations. (Author)

  16. Gallium melts under high-pressure and temperature conditions: Synchrotron x-ray tomography and diffraction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. L.; Liu, H.

    2014-12-01

    Gallium has a rare water-ice type P-V-T phase diagram in which the density of Ga melt exceeds by about 3 % that of the stable solid Ga phase I at ambient pressure. Liquid gallium, which is easily supercooled, can remain in a metastable liquid state for several months at ambient pressure. A rich polymorphism and metastable modifications of Ga have been discovered in P-T domain. There are a number of studies of liquid gallium under high pressure conditions, but some fundamental properties, such as the equation of state (EoS) of liquid Ga under extreme conditions remain unclear. Very recently, the advanced pair distribution function (PDF) method in which synchrotron high-energy x-ray total scattering data, combined with reverse Monte Carlo simulation, was used to study the microstructure and EoS of liquid gallium under high pressure conditions. However, the application of PDF method for amorphous or liquid samples under pressure conditions normally required a priori knowledge of their EoS. The density estimation from the reverse Monte Carlo simulation with the best mathematical fit to the measured structure factor data could cause big errors if it is calculated without knowing the EoS. In the paper, the volume change of liquid and solid gallium have been studied as a function of pressure and temperature up to 3.63 GPa using synchrotron x-ray microtomography combined with energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) techniques. Two sets of directly measured P-V data at 300 K and 330 K were obtained from 3D tomography reconstruction data. The existence of a liquid-liquid phase transition region is proposed based on the abnormal compressibility of Ga melt at about 2.44 GPa and 330 K conditions.

  17. Sulphate chemistry under pressurized oxidizing, reducing and fluctuating conditions; Sulfatkemi under trycksatta oxiderande, reducerande och fluktuerande foerhaallanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Yrjas, P.; Backman, P. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    In the literature it has been reported that sulfur capture with limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) under atmospheric fluidized bed combustion conditions reaches a maximum at about 850 deg C. Previously, the maximum has been attributed to the sintering of sorbent particles which decreases the reactive surface area. Lately, also another explanation has been reported. In this case the sulfur capture decrease at higher temperatures was concluded to be due to fluctuating oxidizing/reducing conditions in the atmospheric combustor. In this work the influence of alternating oxidizing/reducing conditions on SO{sub 2} capture at atmospheric and elevated pressure (15 bar) has been studied. In the pressurized case, the CO{sub 2} partial pressure was kept high enough to prevent CaCO{sub 3} from calcining and therefore the CaSO{sub 4} would not form CaO but CaCO{sub 3} under reducing conditions. The experiments were done with a pressurized TGA by periodically changing the gas environment between oxidizing (O{sub 2}. SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}) and slightly reducing (CO, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}) gas mixtures at different temperatures. The results from the experiments showed that under normal pressure and slightly reducing conditions CaO formation from CaSO{sub 4} increased with temperature as expected. However, no significant amounts of CaCO{sub 3} were formed from CaSO{sub 4} at elevated pressure. It was also concluded that since the formation of CaO from CaSO{sub 4} was relatively slow it could not explain the sharp sulfur capture maximum at about 850 deg C. Therefore, it was assumed that the strongly reducing zones, where CaS thermodynamically is the stable compound, play a more important role concerning the sulfur capture in fluidized bed combustors. (orig.)

  18. Controlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Etuan; Beer, Gary Lee

    2015-11-10

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the tar sands formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A pressure in the portion of the formation is controlled such that the pressure remains below a fracture pressure of the formation overburden while allowing the portion of the formation to heat to a selected average temperature of at least about 280.degree. C. and at most about 300.degree. C. The pressure in the portion of the formation is reduced to a selected pressure after the portion of the formation reaches the selected average temperature.

  19. Local charge transport properties of hydrazine reduced monolayer graphene oxide sheets prepared under pressure condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryuzaki, Sou; Meyer, Jakob Abild Stengaard; Petersen, Søren Vermehren; Nørgaard, Kasper; Hassenkam, Tue; Laursen, Bo Wegge

    2014-01-01

    Charge transport properties of chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets prepared by treatment with hydrazine were examined using conductive atomic force microscopy. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of monolayer RGO sheets prepared under atmospheric pressure followed an exponentially...... increase due to 2D variable-range hopping conduction through small graphene domains in an RGO sheet containing defect regions of residual sp3carbon clusters bonded to oxygen groups, whereas RGO sheets prepared in a closed container under moderate pressure showed linear I-V characteristics with a...... conductivity of 267.2-537.5S/m. It was found that the chemical reduction under pressure results in larger graphene domains (sp2networks) in the RGO sheets when compared to that prepared under atmospheric pressure, indicating that the present reduction of GO sheets under the pressure is one of the effective...

  20. Local charge transport properties of hydrazine reduced monolayer graphene oxide sheets prepared under pressure condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryuzaki, Sou, E-mail: ryuzaki.soh.341@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Meyer, Jakob A. S.; Petersen, Søren; Nørgaard, Kasper; Hassenkam, Tue; Laursen, Bo W. [Nano-Science Center and Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetparken 5, 2100 Københaven Ø (Denmark)

    2014-09-01

    Charge transport properties of chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets prepared by treatment with hydrazine were examined using conductive atomic force microscopy. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of monolayer RGO sheets prepared under atmospheric pressure followed an exponentially increase due to 2D variable-range hopping conduction through small graphene domains in an RGO sheet containing defect regions of residual sp{sup 3} carbon clusters bonded to oxygen groups, whereas RGO sheets prepared in a closed container under moderate pressure showed linear I-V characteristics with a conductivity of 267.2−537.5 S/m. It was found that the chemical reduction under pressure results in larger graphene domains (sp{sup 2} networks) in the RGO sheets when compared to that prepared under atmospheric pressure, indicating that the present reduction of GO sheets under the pressure is one of the effective methods to make well-reduced GO sheets.

  1. Temperature and pressure characteristics of JAPM dosimeter and long-term stability of several barometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ionization chamber is one of the most suitable devices to dose determinations for any types of ionizing radiations. It is necessary, however, to correct for air density within the chamber due to difference of an ambient temperature and pressure from the standard conditions for them. There are few data about time constants of temperature and pressure for an ionization chamber, while Lowry was pointed out of the influence for a Farmer chamber in a special case. We have been measured time constants of temperature and pressure for JAPM chamber using a miniature thermister and a special pressure gauge which both can be expressed with digital quantity. Measurements of temperature characteristics were made for four conditions as follows; (a) chamber with build up cap in air, (b) chamber in air, (c) chamber in checking source, and (d) chamber in a Mix-DP phantom. The results show that the times required to attain to room temperature within 0.3 degrees of centigrade for conditions (a) through (d), proviede that the initial temperature difference between the chamber and room is supposed to be 3 degrees of centigrades, are 17, 9, 7 and 5 minutes, respectively. The pressure time constant is less than 10 seconds. To determine the barometric pressure within the accuracy of 0.1 percent using Aneroid barometer, only a precission type of the barometer is nece ssary. (author)

  2. Void fraction predictions in rod bundles at low-pressure low-flow conditions based on Cunningham-Yeh model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many experiments have been conducted in the past with full-scale rod bundles to develop void fraction correlations or interfacial drag model which can be used to predict the mixture level in a reactor core following a postulated Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The Cunningham and Yeh correlation was originally developed and validated with boil-off data obtained in the 100 to 400 psi pressure range. Subsequently the validity of the correlation was successfully assessed against several other experiments. However most of the data concentrated in the intermediate to high pressure range (from 100 to 2200 psi). More recently, the development of advanced passive plant such as the AP1000, put more emphasis in the level swell behavior in the near-atmospheric pressure conditions. Following a postulated SBLOCA event for the AP1000 design, the reactor vessel is automatically de-pressurized to a near atmospheric condition and in the long term the core decay heat is removed by gravity driven injection flow while boiling is occurring in the core. In this paper the Cunningham-Yeh correlation was assessed against data beyond its original data base. Cunningham-Yeh model predictions were compared to several low-flow, low-pressure full-scale rod bundle experiments. Results show that the correlation performs relatively well against low pressure test data. However the Cunningham-Yeh model has the tendency to underpredict the void fraction and therefore to provide conservative results of level swell for plant safety analysis. (authors)

  3. Determination of safe operating conditions for gasketed flange joint under combined internal pressure and temperature: A finite element approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of a flange joint is characterised mainly by its 'strength' and 'sealing capability'. A number of analytical and experimental studies have been conducted to study these characteristics under internal pressure loading. However, with the advent of new technological trends for high temperature and pressure applications, an increased demand for analysis is recognized. The effect of steady-state thermal loading makes the problem more complex as it leads to combined application of internal pressure and temperature. The present design codes do not address the effects of temperature on the structural integrity and sealing ability. In addition, the available design solutions do not solve problems of failure of a gasketed flange joint even under bolt up and internal pressure loading conditions. To investigate joint strength and sealing capability under combined internal pressure and different steady-state thermal loading, a 3D nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) of a gasketed flange joint is carried out and its behaviour is discussed. To determine the safe operating conditions or the actual joint load capacity, the joint is further analyzed for different internal pressures keeping the temperature constant

  4. Outflow boundary conditions for 3D simulations of non-periodic blood flow and pressure fields in deformable arteries

    CERN Document Server

    Vignon-Clementel, Irene; Jansen, K E; Taylor, C A; 10.1080/10255840903413565

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of blood flow and pressure in arteries requires outflow boundary conditions that incorporate models of downstream domains. We previously described a coupled multidomain method to couple analytical models of the downstream domains with 3D numerical models of the upstream vasculature. This prior work either included pure resistance boundary conditions or impedance boundary conditions based on assumed periodicity of the solution. However, flow and pressure in arteries are not necessarily periodic in time due to heart rate variability, respiration, complex transitional flow or acute physiological changes. We present herein an approach for prescribing lumped parameter outflow boundary conditions that accommodate transient phenomena. We have applied this method to compute haemodynamic quantities in different physiologically relevant cardiovascular models, including patient-specific examples, to study non-periodic flow phenomena often observed in normal subjects and in patients with acquired or congen...

  5. Characterisation of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome in French Bulldogs Using Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nai-Chieh; Sargan, David R; Adams, Vicki J; Ladlow, Jane F

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is an important health and welfare problem in several popular dog breeds. Whole-body barometric plethysmography (WBBP) is a non-invasive method that allows safe and repeated quantitative measurements of respiratory cycles on unsedated dogs. Here respiratory flow traces in French bulldogs from the pet population were characterised using WBBP, and a computational application was developed to recognise affected animals. Eighty-nine French bulldogs and twenty non-brachycephalic controls underwent WBBP testing. A respiratory functional grading system was used on each dog based on respiratory signs (i.e. respiratory noise, effort, etc.) before and after exercise. For development of an objective BOAS classifier, functional Grades 0 and I were considered to have insignificant clinical signs (termed here BOAS-) and Grades II and III to have significant signs (termed here BOAS+). A comparison between owner-perception of BOAS and functional grading revealed that 60 % of owners failed to recognise BOAS in dogs that graded BOAS+ in this study.WBBP flow traces were found to be significantly different between non-brachycephalic controls and Grade 0 French bulldogs; BOAS- and BOAS+ French bulldogs. A classifier was developed using quadratic discriminant analysis of the respiratory parameters to distinguish BOAS- and BOAS + French bulldogs, and a BOAS Index was calculated for each dog. A cut-off value of the BOAS Index was selected based on a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the classifier on the training group (n=69) were 0.97, 0.93, 0.95, and 0.97, respectively. The classifier was validated using a test group of French bulldogs (n=20) with an accuracy of 0.95. WBBP offers objective screening for the diagnosis of BOAS in French Bulldogs. The technique may be applied to other brachycephalic breeds affected by BOAS, and possibly to other respiratory disease in dogs. PMID:26079684

  6. Experimental determination of heat transfer critical conditions in water forced convection at low pressure in a circular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental determination was made of heat transfer critical conditions in a circular channel, uniformly heated, and internally cooled by water in ascending forced convection, under a pressure slightly above atmospheric pressure. Measurements were made of water flow, pressure, electric power temperature and heating, and a systematic analysis was made of the system's parameters. The values obtained for the heat critical flux are circa 50% lower than those predicted by Becker and Biasi and this is accounted to flowing instabilities of thermo-hydrodynamic nature. It is suggested that the flowing channels of circuits aiming at the study of the boiling crisis phenomenon be expanded in its upper extremity, and that the coolant circulation be kept through a pump with a pressure X flow characteristic as vertical as possible

  7. Propagule Pressure, Habitat Conditions and Clonal Integration Influence the Establishment and Growth of an Invasive Clonal Plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wen-Hua; Han, Cui-Min; Fang, Long-Xiang; Du, Dao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, spreading mainly by vegetative propagules. Propagule pressure (the number of propagules) may affect the establishment, growth, and thus invasion success of these clonal plants, and such effects may also depend on habitat conditions. To understand how propagule pressure, habitat conditions and clonal integration affect the establishment and growth of the invasive clonal plants, an 8-week greenhouse with an invasive clonal plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides was conducted. High (five fragments) or low (one fragment) propagule pressure was established either in bare soil (open habitat) or dense native vegetation of Jussiaea repens (vegetative habitat), with the stolon connections either severed from or connected to the relatively older ramets. High propagule pressure greatly increased the establishment and growth of A. philoxeroides, especially when it grew in vegetative habitats. Surprisingly, high propagule pressure significantly reduced the growth of individual plants of A. philoxeroides in open habitats, whereas it did not affect the individual growth in vegetative habitats. A shift in the intraspecific interaction on A. philoxeroides from competition in open habitats to facilitation in vegetative habitats may be the main reason. Moreover, clonal integration significantly improved the growth of A. philoxeroides only in open habitats, especially with low propagule pressure, whereas it had no effects on the growth and competitive ability of A. philoxeroides in vegetative habitats, suggesting that clonal integration may be of most important for A. philoxeroides to explore new open space and spread. These findings suggest that propagule pressure may be crucial for the invasion success of A. philoxeroides, and such an effect also depends on habitat conditions. PMID:27200041

  8. Counter-pressure-assisted ITP with electrokinetic injection under field-amplified conditions for bacterial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Sui Ching; Nai, Yi Heng; Macka, Mirek; Powell, Shane M; Guijt, Rosanne M; Breadmore, Michael C

    2015-09-01

    Counter-pressure was used to extend the duration of field-amplified sample injection in isotachophoresis (FASI-ITP) in order to improve the detection of bacterial cells. Using 0.51-μm negatively charged encapsulated fluorescent beads as a model, the counter-pressure, injection and separation voltages, and times were optimized. Using 6-min 8,963-Pa counter-pressure FASI-ITP injections at -12 kV followed by mobilization of the ITP band with continued injection at -6 kV, the limit of detection (LOD) for Escherichia coli was improved to 78 cells/mL, a factor of 4 when compared with FASI-ITP without counter-pressure. PMID:26143061

  9. In-line pressure within a HOTLINE Fluid Warmer, under various flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Midoriko; Yamaura, Ken; Matsubara, Yukie; Fukudome, Takuya; Hoka, Sumio

    2015-04-01

    Roller pump infusion devices are widely used for rapid infusion, and may be combined with separate warming devices. There may be instances however, where the pressures generated by the roller pump may not be compatible with the warming device. We assessed a commonly used roller pump in combination with a HOTLINE Fluid Warmer, and found that it could generate pressures exceeding the HOTLINE manufacturers specifications. This was of concern because the HOTLINE manufacturer guideline states that not for use with pressure devices generating over 300 mmHg. Pressure greater than 300 mmHg may compromise the integrity of the HOTLINE Fluid Warming Set. The aim of this study was to compare in-line pressure within a HOTLINE Fluid Warmer at different infusion rates of a roller pump using various sizes of intravenous cannulae. The rapid infusion system comprised a 500 mL-normal saline bag, roller pump type infusion device, HOTLINE Fluid Warmer (blood and fluid warmer system), and six different sizes of intravenous cannulae. In-line pressure was measured proximal to the HOTLINE (pre-warmer) and proximal to the cannula (post-warmer), at flow rate of 50-160 mL/min. The in-line pressures increased significantly with increasing flow rate. The pre-warmer pressures exceeded 300 mmHg when the flow rate was ?120 mL/min with 20-gauge, 48 mm length cannula, 130 with 20-gauge, 25 mm cannula, and 160 mL/min with 18-gauge, 48 mm cannula. However, they were <300 mmHg at any flow rates with 18-gauge, 30 mm cannula and 16-gauge cannulae. The post-warmer pressures exceeded 300 mmHg at the flow rate of 140 mL/min with 20-gauge, 48 mm cannula, and 160 mL/min with 20-gauge, 25 mm cannula, while they were <300 mmHg at any flow rates with 18 and 16-gauge cannulae. The in-line pressure within a HOTLINE could exceed 300 mmHg, depending on the flow rate and size and length of cannula. It is important to pay attention to the size and length of cannulae and flow rate to keep the maximum in-line pressure<300 mmHg when a roller pump type infusion device is used. PMID:25087123

  10. Dopaminergic control of striatal 5-HT level at normobaric condition and at pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbin, O; Risso, J J; Rostain, J C

    2010-01-01

    High pressure of helium-oxygen (He-O2) increases the extracellular levels in both serotonine and dopamine in the rat striatum. Some motor symptoms evoked by high pressure (i.e., LMA) are known to be reduced by intrastriatal infusions of D1-like (SCH23390, 1 microM) or D2-like (Sulpiride, 1 microM) dopaminergic antagonists. Other studies have also reported that serotoninergic antagonists reduce the motor perturbation at pressure. However, it remains unknown whether the changes in serotoninergic neurotransmission may contribute to the beneficial effects of intrastriatal administration of a dopaminergic antagonist. The present study reports the effects of SCH23390 and sulpiride on serotonin levels in the striatum of rats exposed to 8 MPa of He-O2. Both sulpiride and SCH23390 reduced pressure-induced striatal 5-HT increase. Our data suggest that D1-like and D2-like receptors have similar effects on a pressure-evoked striatal 5-HT increase. Thus, reduction in serotoninergic neurotransmission may be one mechanism by which dopaminergic antagonists reduce motor symptoms at pressure. PMID:20568545

  11. COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD JP

    2011-09-08

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The disequilibrium is likely limited to wells screened across the water table (i.e., open to the deep vadose zone) where the depth to water is large or a low-permeability layer occurs in the vadose zone. Such wells are a pathway for air movement between the deep vadose zone and land surface and this sustains the pressure disequilibrium between the well bore and the atmosphere for longer time periods. Barometric over-response was not observed with the absolute pressure transducers because barometric compensation was achieved by directly measuring the air pressure within the well. Users of vented pressure transducers should be aware of the over-response issue in certain Hanford Site wells and ascertain if it will affect the use of the data. Pressure disequilibrium between the well and the atmosphere can be identified by substantial air movement through the wellbore. In wells exhibiting pressure disequilibrium, it is recommended that absolute pressure transducers be used rather than vented transducers for applications that require precise automated determinations of well water-level changes in response to barometric pressure fluctuations.

  12. Comparison Of Vented And Absolute Pressure Transducers For Water-Level Monitoring In Hanford Site Central Plateau Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The disequilibrium is likely limited to wells screened across the water table (i.e., open to the deep vadose zone) where the depth to water is large or a low-permeability layer occurs in the vadose zone. Such wells are a pathway for air movement between the deep vadose zone and land surface and this sustains the pressure disequilibrium between the well bore and the atmosphere for longer time periods. Barometric over-response was not observed with the absolute pressure transducers because barometric compensation was achieved by directly measuring the air pressure within the well. Users of vented pressure transducers should be aware of the over-response issue in certain Hanford Site wells and ascertain if it will affect the use of the data. Pressure disequilibrium between the well and the atmosphere can be identified by substantial air movement through the wellbore. In wells exhibiting pressure disequilibrium, it is recommended that absolute pressure transducers be used rather than vented transducers for applications that require precise automated determinations of well water-level changes in response to barometric pressure fluctuations.

  13. Valve inlet fluid conditions for pressurizer safety and relief valves in Westinghouse-designed plants. Final report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliksetian, A.; Sklencar, A.M.

    1982-12-01

    The overpressure transients for Westinghouse-designed NSSSs are reviewed to determine the fluid conditions at the inlet to the PORV and safety valves. The transients considered are: licensing (FSAR) transients; extended operation of high pressure safety injection system; and cold overpressurization. The results of this review, presented in the form of tables and graphs, define the range of fluid conditions expected at the inlet to pressurized safety and power-operated relief valves utilized in Westinghouse-designed PWR units. These results will provide input to the PWR utilities in their justification that the fluid conditions under which their valve designs were tested as part of the EPRI/PWR Safety and Relief Valve Test Program indeed envelop those expected in their units.

  14. Real-Time Optical Monitoring of Flow Kinetics and Gas Phase Reactions Under High-Pressure OMCVD Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, N.; McCall, S.; Bachmann, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution addresses the real-time optical characterization of gas flow and gas phase reactions as they play a crucial role for chemical vapor phase depositions utilizing elevated and high pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) conditions. The objectives of these experiments are to validate on the basis of results on real-time optical diagnostics process models simulation codes, and provide input parameter sets needed for analysis and control of chemical vapor deposition at elevated pressures. Access to microgravity is required to retain high pressure conditions of laminar flow, which is essential for successful acquisition and interpretation of the optical data. In this contribution, we describe the design and construction of the HPCVD system, which include access ports for various optical methods of real-time process monitoring and to analyze the initial stages of heteroepitaxy and steady-state growth in the different pressure ranges. To analyze the onset of turbulence, provisions are made for implementation of experimental methods for in-situ characterization of the nature of flow. This knowledge will be the basis for the design definition of experiments under microgravity, where gas flow conditions, gas phase and surface chemistry, might be analyzed by remote controlled real-time diagnostics tools, developed in this research project.

  15. EXAFS measurements under high pressure conditions using a combination of a diamond anvil cell and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EXAFS spectra for Fe, Co, Ni K-edges were successfully measured under high pressure conditions using a combination of a set of normal 1/8 carat diamond anvils, synchrotron radiation and a scintillation counter. A newly developed motor controlled goniometer stage was used for adjusting the position of a miniature diamond anvil cell. On the measurement of Cr and Mn spectra, specially designed thinner diamond anvil was necessary. EXAFS analysis of bis(dimethylglyoximato)nickel(II) at pressures from 1 atm to 5.6 GPa was made. (author)

  16. Scaling of conditional Lagrangian time correlation functions of velocity and pressure gradient magnitudes in isotropic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Huidan

    2009-01-01

    We study Lagrangian statistics of the magnitudes of velocity and pressure gradients in isotropic turbulence by quantifying their correlation functions and their characteristic time scales. It has been found that the Lagrangian time-correlations of the velocity and pressure gradient tensor and vector elements scale with the locally-defined Kolmogorov time scale, defined from the box-averaged dissipation-rate and viscosity. In this work, we study the Lagrangian time-correlations of the absolute values of velocity and pressure gradients. We explore the appropriate temporal scales with the aim to achieve collapse of the correlation functions. The data used in this study are sampled from the web-services accessible public turbulence database(http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu). The database archives a pseudo-spectral direct numerical simulation of forced isotropic turbulence with Taylor-scale Reynolds number 433, and supports spatial differentiation and spatial/temporal interpolation inside the database. The analysis s...

  17. Osmosis-induced water uptake by Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste and pressure development in constant volume conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marieen, A., E-mail: amarien@sckcen.be [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Mokni, N., E-mail: Nadia.mokni@upc.edu [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Calle Gran Capitan, s/n, Edificio C-1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Valcke, E. [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Olivella, S. [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Calle Gran Capitan, s/n, Edificio C-1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Smets, S. [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Li, X., E-mail: xli@sckcen.be [EIG EURIDICE, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The water uptake by Eurobitum is studied to judge the safety of geological disposal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High pressures of up to 20 MPa are measured in constant volume water uptake tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of leached Eurobitum samples is studied with {mu}CT and ESEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observations are reproduced by an existing CHM formulation for Eurobitum. - Abstract: The chemo-hydro-mechanical (CHM) interaction between swelling Eurobitum radioactive bituminized waste (BW) and Boom Clay is investigated to assess the feasibility of geological disposal for the long-term management of this waste. These so-called compatibility studies include laboratory water uptake tests at Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN, and the development of a coupled CHM formulation for Eurobitum by the International Center for Numerical Methods and Engineering (CIMNE, Polytechnical University of Cataluna, Spain). In the water uptake tests, the osmosis-induced swelling, pressure increase and NaNO{sub 3} leaching of small cylindrical BW samples (diameter 38 mm, height 10 mm) is studied under constant total stress conditions and nearly constant volume conditions; the actual geological disposal conditions should be intermediate between these extremes. Two nearly constant volume tests were stopped after 1036 and 1555 days to characterize the morphology of the hydrated BW samples and to visualize the hydrated part with microfocus X-ray Computer Tomography ({mu}CT) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). In parallel, a coupled CHM formulation is developed that describes chemically and hydraulically coupled flow processes in porous materials with salt crystals, and that incorporates a porosity dependent membrane efficiency, permeability and diffusivity. When Eurobitum BW is hydrated in (nearly) constant volume conditions, the osmosis-induced water uptake results in an increasing pressure to values that can be (in theory) as high as 42.8 MPa, being the osmotic pressure of a saturated NaNO{sub 3} solution. After about four years of hydration in nearly constant volume water uptake tests, pressures up to 20 MPa are measured. During this hydration period only the outer layers with a thickness of 1-2 mm were hydrated (as derived from {mu}CT and ESEM analyses), and only about 10-20% of the initial NaNO{sub 3} content was released by the samples. In the studied test conditions, the rates of water uptake and NaNO{sub 3} leaching are low because of the low porosity, and thus low permeability, of the hydrated BW samples in combination with a highly efficient semi-permeable bitumen membrane. In contrast to the hydration in free swelling conditions, the increase in porosity is limited by the high pressures in the nearly constant volume tests. Furthermore, at the interface with the stainless steel filters, a low permeable re-compressed bitumen layer is formed, as observed on the ESEM images. The experimental results of pressure increase and NaNO{sub 3} leaching, as well as observations on {mu}CT and ESEM images (e.g. compression of leached layers, high dissolved NaNO{sub 3} concentration in hydrated BW after about four years), were reproduced rather successfully by the coupled CHM formulation for Eurobitum BW. A long-term model prediction of the evolution of the osmosis-induced pressure in the nearly constant volume tests shows that the pressure would reach a maximal value of about 20 MPa after about 5.5 years, after which the pressure would start to decrease. After 10,000 days ({approx}27 years) the pressure would have decreased to a value of {approx}2 MPa.

  18. Osmosis-induced water uptake by Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste and pressure development in constant volume conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The water uptake by Eurobitum is studied to judge the safety of geological disposal. ► High pressures of up to 20 MPa are measured in constant volume water uptake tests. ► The morphology of leached Eurobitum samples is studied with μCT and ESEM. ► The observations are reproduced by an existing CHM formulation for Eurobitum. - Abstract: The chemo-hydro-mechanical (CHM) interaction between swelling Eurobitum radioactive bituminized waste (BW) and Boom Clay is investigated to assess the feasibility of geological disposal for the long-term management of this waste. These so-called compatibility studies include laboratory water uptake tests at Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN, and the development of a coupled CHM formulation for Eurobitum by the International Center for Numerical Methods and Engineering (CIMNE, Polytechnical University of Cataluña, Spain). In the water uptake tests, the osmosis-induced swelling, pressure increase and NaNO3 leaching of small cylindrical BW samples (diameter 38 mm, height 10 mm) is studied under constant total stress conditions and nearly constant volume conditions; the actual geological disposal conditions should be intermediate between these extremes. Two nearly constant volume tests were stopped after 1036 and 1555 days to characterize the morphology of the hydrated BW samples and to visualize the hydrated part with microfocus X-ray Computer Tomography (μCT) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). In parallel, a coupled CHM formulation is developed that describes chemically and hydraulically coupled flow processes in porous materials with salt crystals, and that incorporates a porosity dependent membrane efficiency, permeability and diffusivity. When Eurobitum BW is hydrated in (nearly) constant volume conditions, the osmosis-induced water uptake results in an increasing pressure to values that can be (in theory) as high as 42.8 MPa, being the osmotic pressure of a saturated NaNO3 solution. After about four years of hydration in nearly constant volume water uptake tests, pressures up to 20 MPa are measured. During this hydration period only the outer layers with a thickness of 1–2 mm were hydrated (as derived from μCT and ESEM analyses), and only about 10–20% of the initial NaNO3 content was released by the samples. In the studied test conditions, the rates of water uptake and NaNO3 leaching are low because of the low porosity, and thus low permeability, of the hydrated BW samples in combination with a highly efficient semi-permeable bitumen membrane. In contrast to the hydration in free swelling conditions, the increase in porosity is limited by the high pressures in the nearly constant volume tests. Furthermore, at the interface with the stainless steel filters, a low permeable re-compressed bitumen layer is formed, as observed on the ESEM images. The experimental results of pressure increase and NaNO3 leaching, as well as observations on μCT and ESEM images (e.g. compression of leached layers, high dissolved NaNO3 concentration in hydrated BW after about four years), were reproduced rather successfully by the coupled CHM formulation for Eurobitum BW. A long-term model prediction of the evolution of the osmosis-induced pressure in the nearly constant volume tests shows that the pressure would reach a maximal value of about 20 MPa after about 5.5 years, after which the pressure would start to decrease. After 10,000 days (∼27 years) the pressure would have decreased to a value of ∼2 MPa.

  19. Crack growth morphology in real pressure vessel and in small scale specimen under LWR condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal shock experiments are conducted in the full scale pressure vessel of the decommissioned HDR plant in the FRG. Cyclic crack growth calculations done were based on the application of the ASME Section XI curve so far. To confirm results of theoretical analysis cyclic crack growth studies have been carried out in simulated autoclave environment. In this paper fractography and crack growth results obtained by CT-specimens in autoclaves are presented and comparisons to the crack growth morphology in the HDR reactor pressure vessel are made and discussed. (orig.)

  20. The Effects of Temperature, Pressure, and Humidity Variations on 100 Meter Sprint Performances

    CERN Document Server

    Mureika, J R

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that ``equivalent'' sprint race times run with different accompanying wind speeds or at different altitudes are anything but equivalent races. The drag force acting on a sprinter is a function of air density and the relative wind speed, where the former has traditionally been calculated using the race venue's elevation above sea level. However, air density variation is dependent on more than just altitude. This work will quantify how changes in air temperature, barometric pressure, and humidity levels influence 100 m sprint performances. When these effects are considered in combination, the corrections to performances can be very large. The results suggest that a non-negligible difference in race times can be expected for ``equivalent'' performances run with the same wind speed at the same venue or physical altitude, but under different atmospheric conditions.

  1. A pressure correction scheme for generalized form of energy-stable open boundary conditions for incompressible flows

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Suchuan

    2014-01-01

    We present a generalized form of open boundary conditions, and an associated numerical algorithm, for simulating incompressible flows involving open or outflow boundaries. The generalized form represents a family of open boundary conditions, which all ensure the energy stability of the system, even in situations where strong vortices or backflows occur at the open/outflow boundaries. Our numerical algorithm for treating these open boundary conditions is based on a rotational pressure correction-type strategy, with a formulation suitable for $C^0$ spectral-element spatial discretizations. We have introduced a discrete equation and associated boundary conditions for an auxiliary variable. The algorithm contains constructions that prevent a numerical locking at the open/outflow boundary. In addition, we have also developed a scheme with a provable unconditional stability for a sub-class of the open boundary conditions. Extensive numerical experiments have been presented to demonstrate the performance of our meth...

  2. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    the outlet temperature of the gas cooler, the evaporation temperature and the efficiency of the compressor. General correlations for this optimal heat rejection pressure were derived based on cycle simulations. The correlations presented in this paper provide a basis for designing transcritical carbon...

  3. CO2/water interfacial tensions under pressure and temperature conditions of CO2 geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2 storage in aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the most promising options for reducing CO2 atmospheric concentration. However, its implementation in a given reservoir requires demonstration that CO2 leakage through the reservoir seal (caprock) is extremely limited. One possible cause of rapid leakage is capillary failure of the caprock, which is to a large extent controlled by the CO2/water interfacial tension (IFT). This paper presents pendant drop measurements of IFTs between water and CO2 in a range of temperatures (308-383 K) and pressures (5-45 MPa) relevant to CO2 storage in deep geological formations. Phase densities were measured simultaneously, allowing precise IFT determinations. Increasing the pressure along a given isotherm, IFTs were observed to decrease sharply, then to level off and reach, for pressures above 20 MPa, a pseudo-plateau that decreases slightly with temperature, from around 30 mN/m at 308 K to 23 mN/m at 383 K. The presence of salt (20 g/l NaCl) in the water phase has a negligible effect on the IFT. An important conclusion for CO2 storage is that CO2/brine IFTs have low but reasonable values (higher than 20 mN/m) even at the highest pressures and temperatures examined, and that, neglecting all other possible effects, CO2 storage can, therefore, be considered even in deep geological formations

  4. Aluminum oxide films deposited in low pressure conditions by reactive pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Seino, T

    2002-01-01

    The reactive pulsed dc sputtering technique is widely used for the deposition of oxide films. The operating pressure for sputtering is commonly above 0.13 Pa. In this study, however, aluminum oxide (alumina) films were deposited at operating pressures from 0.06 to 0.4 Pa using a sputtering system equipped with a scanning magnetron cathode and a pulsed dc power supply. The pulsed dc power was found to be useful not only to reduce arcing, but also to sustain the discharge at low pressure. The electrical breakdown field, intrinsic stress, O/Al ratio, refractive index, and surface roughness were investigated. Both a low intrinsic stress and an O/Al ratio around the stoichiometry were required to get the film having a high breakdown field. A low operating pressure of 0.1 Pa was found to provide the necessary stress and O/Al ratio targets. A 50-nm-thick alumina film having a maximum breakdown field of 7.4 MV/cm was obtained.

  5. Re-investigation of the crystal structure of enstatite under high-pressure conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Periotto, Benedetta; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Nestola, Fabrizio; Katerinopoulou, Anna; Angel, Ross

    2012-01-01

    A synthetic single crystal of pure orthoenstatite (MgSiO3, space group Pbca) has been investigated at high pressure for structural determinations by in situ single-crystal X‑ray diffraction using a diamond-anvil cell. Ten complete intensity data collections were performed up to 9.36 GPa. This stu...

  6. TURBULENCE SETS THE INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-PRESSURE ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the simplicity of theoretical models of supersonically turbulent, isothermal media, their predictions successfully match the observed gas structure and star formation activity within low-pressure (P/k < 105 K cm–3) molecular clouds in the solar neighborhood. However, it is unknown whether or not these theories extend to clouds in high-pressure (P/k > 107 K cm–3) environments, like those in the Galaxy's inner 200 pc central molecular zone (CMZ) and in the early universe. Here, we present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 3 mm dust continuum emission within a cloud, G0.253+0.016, which is immersed in the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. While the log-normal shape and dispersion of its column density probability distribution function (PDF) are strikingly similar to those of solar neighborhood clouds, there is one important quantitative difference: its mean column density is one to two orders of magnitude higher. Both the similarity and difference in the PDF compared to those derived from solar neighborhood clouds match predictions of turbulent cloud models given the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. The PDF shows a small deviation from log-normal at high column densities confirming the youth of G0.253+0.016. Its lack of star formation is consistent with the theoretically predicted, environmentally dependent volume density threshold for star formation which is orders of magnitude higher than that derived for solar neighborhood clouds. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that the current theoretical understanding of molecular cloud structure derived from the solar neighborhood also holds in high-pressure environments. We therefore suggest that these theories may be applicable to understand star formation in the early universe

  7. TURBULENCE SETS THE INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-PRESSURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Contreras, Y. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW, 1710 (Australia); Longmore, S. N.; Bastian, N. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Jackson, J. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kruijssen, J. M. D. [Max-Planck Institut fur Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Alves, J. F. [University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Bally, J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 8030 (United States); Foster, J. B. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101 New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Garay, G. [Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Testi, L. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Walsh, A. J., E-mail: Jill.Rathborne@csiro.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth (Australia)

    2014-11-10

    Despite the simplicity of theoretical models of supersonically turbulent, isothermal media, their predictions successfully match the observed gas structure and star formation activity within low-pressure (P/k < 10{sup 5} K cm{sup –3}) molecular clouds in the solar neighborhood. However, it is unknown whether or not these theories extend to clouds in high-pressure (P/k > 10{sup 7} K cm{sup –3}) environments, like those in the Galaxy's inner 200 pc central molecular zone (CMZ) and in the early universe. Here, we present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 3 mm dust continuum emission within a cloud, G0.253+0.016, which is immersed in the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. While the log-normal shape and dispersion of its column density probability distribution function (PDF) are strikingly similar to those of solar neighborhood clouds, there is one important quantitative difference: its mean column density is one to two orders of magnitude higher. Both the similarity and difference in the PDF compared to those derived from solar neighborhood clouds match predictions of turbulent cloud models given the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. The PDF shows a small deviation from log-normal at high column densities confirming the youth of G0.253+0.016. Its lack of star formation is consistent with the theoretically predicted, environmentally dependent volume density threshold for star formation which is orders of magnitude higher than that derived for solar neighborhood clouds. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that the current theoretical understanding of molecular cloud structure derived from the solar neighborhood also holds in high-pressure environments. We therefore suggest that these theories may be applicable to understand star formation in the early universe.

  8. Osmosis-induced water uptake by Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste and pressure development in constant volume conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, A.; Mokni, N.; Valcke, E.; Olivella, S.; Smets, S.; Li, X.

    2013-01-01

    The chemo-hydro-mechanical (CHM) interaction between swelling Eurobitum radioactive bituminized waste (BW) and Boom Clay is investigated to assess the feasibility of geological disposal for the long-term management of this waste. These so-called compatibility studies include laboratory water uptake tests at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK•CEN, and the development of a coupled CHM formulation for Eurobitum by the International Center for Numerical Methods and Engineering (CIMNE, Polytechnical University of Cataluña, Spain). In the water uptake tests, the osmosis-induced swelling, pressure increase and NaNO3 leaching of small cylindrical BW samples (diameter 38 mm, height 10 mm) is studied under constant total stress conditions and nearly constant volume conditions; the actual geological disposal conditions should be intermediate between these extremes. Two nearly constant volume tests were stopped after 1036 and 1555 days to characterize the morphology of the hydrated BW samples and to visualize the hydrated part with microfocus X-ray Computer Tomography (μCT) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). In parallel, a coupled CHM formulation is developed that describes chemically and hydraulically coupled flow processes in porous materials with salt crystals, and that incorporates a porosity dependent membrane efficiency, permeability and diffusivity. When Eurobitum BW is hydrated in (nearly) constant volume conditions, the osmosis-induced water uptake results in an increasing pressure to values that can be (in theory) as high as 42.8 MPa, being the osmotic pressure of a saturated NaNO3 solution. After about four years of hydration in nearly constant volume water uptake tests, pressures up to 20 MPa are measured. During this hydration period only the outer layers with a thickness of 1-2 mm were hydrated (as derived from μCT and ESEM analyses), and only about 10-20% of the initial NaNO3 content was released by the samples. In the studied test conditions, the rates of water uptake and NaNO3 leaching are low because of the low porosity, and thus low permeability, of the hydrated BW samples in combination with a highly efficient semi-permeable bitumen membrane. In contrast to the hydration in free swelling conditions, the increase in porosity is limited by the high pressures in the nearly constant volume tests. Furthermore, at the interface with the stainless steel filters, a low permeable re-compressed bitumen layer is formed, as observed on the ESEM images. The experimental results of pressure increase and NaNO3 leaching, as well as observations on μCT and ESEM images (e.g. compression of leached layers, high dissolved NaNO3 concentration in hydrated BW after about four years), were reproduced rather successfully by the coupled CHM formulation for Eurobitum BW. A long-term model prediction of the evolution of the osmosis-induced pressure in the nearly constant volume tests shows that the pressure would reach a maximal value of about 20 MPa after about 5.5 years, after which the pressure would start to decrease. After 10,000 days (˜27 years) the pressure would have decreased to a value of ˜2 MPa.

  9. A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Transitional Flows in Low-Pressure Turbines under a Wide Range of Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Ashpis, D. E.; Volino, R. J.; Corke, T. C.; Thomas, F. O.; Huang, J.; Lake, J. P.; King, P. I.

    2007-01-01

    A transport equation for the intermittency factor is employed to predict the transitional flows in low-pressure turbines. The intermittent behavior of the transitional flows is taken into account and incorporated into computations by modifying the eddy viscosity, mu(sub p) with the intermittency factor, gamma. Turbulent quantities are predicted using Menter's two-equation turbulence model (SST). The intermittency factor is obtained from a transport equation model which can produce both the experimentally observed streamwise variation of intermittency and a realistic profile in the cross stream direction. The model had been previously validated against low-pressure turbine experiments with success. In this paper, the model is applied to predictions of three sets of recent low-pressure turbine experiments on the Pack B blade to further validate its predicting capabilities under various flow conditions. Comparisons of computational results with experimental data are provided. Overall, good agreement between the experimental data and computational results is obtained. The new model has been shown to have the capability of accurately predicting transitional flows under a wide range of low-pressure turbine conditions.

  10. Study of ballooning of a completely voided pressure tube of Indian PHWR under heat up condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Simulating of LOCA at 4 and 6 MPa internal pressures for IPHWR was carried out at IIT Roorkee, India. ► The sagging of PT takes place at 500 °C before the commencement of ballooning. Maximum sagging is less than 2 mm. ► Once PT touches the CT, there is no further rise in PT temperature. ► The maximum PT temperature was below 700 °C. ► The transverse creep correlation for CANDU material also holds good for Indian PT material for the temperature range expected during LOCA. - Abstract: In a nuclear reactor, loss of coolant accident (LOCA) considers wide range of postulated damage or rupture of pipe in the heat transport piping system. In case of LOCA with/without failure of emergency core cooling system in a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor, the pressure tube (PT) temperature can rise significantly due to fuel heat up and gross mismatch of heat generation and heat removal in the affected channel. The extent and nature of deformation is important from reactor safety point of view. Experimental set-ups have been designed and fabricated to simulate ballooning (radial deformation) of PT for 220 MWe IPHWRs. Experiments have been conducted using voided PTs at 4 and 6 MPa internal pressure at different heating rates. It is observed that at 4 MPa and 6 MPa internal pressure, the PT sagged at about 500 °C before the ballooning initiation. The ballooning initiates at a temperature around 625 °C and contact between PT and Calandria Tube (CT) occurs at around 680 °C, respectively, for 4 MPa and the same was at 550 °C and 640 °C for 6 MPa. The structural integrity of PT is retained (no breach) for all the experiments. The PT heat up is found to be arrested after the contact between PT and CT, thus establishing the moderator acting as an efficient heat sink for IPHWRs. A thermal creep model ‘PTCREEP’ has been developed to predict creep behaviour of the PT of IPHWR. It is found that the contact time predicted by PTCREEP is very close to the experimental result. Hence, PTCREEP can be used for the prediction of the ballooning behaviour of the PT for IPHWR in case of LOCA for the operating temperature and pressure range.

  11. Stresses in heated pressurized multi-layer cylinders in generalized plane strain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical solution for the displacement field and corresponding stress state in multi-layer cylinders subjected to pressure and thermal loading is developed. Solutions are developed for axially loaded and spring-mounted cylinders, assuming that the combined multi-layer cross-section remains plane after deformation (generalized plane strain). The analytical solutions are verified by means of detailed three-dimensional finite element analyses. The solutions are easily implemented in, and suitable for, engineering applications. - Highlights: • An analytical solution for heated pressurized multi-layer cylinders is developed. • The solution is easily implemented and computationally efficient. • The solution highlights application to coated pipelines. • The analytical solution is verified numerically by finite element analyses

  12. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability under Moon, Mars and Zero Gravity Conditions During Parabolic Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Wouter; Joosen, Pieter; Widjaja, Devy; Varon, Carolina; Vandeput, Steven; Van Huffel, Sabine; Aubert, Andre E.

    2013-02-01

    Gravity changes during partial-G parabolic flights (0g -0.16g - 0.38g) lead to changes in modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), studied via the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). HRV and BPV were assessed via classical time and frequency domain measures. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure show both increasing trends towards higher gravity levels. The parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation show both an increasing trend with decreasing gravity, although the modulation is sympathetic predominant during reduced gravity. For the mean heart rate, a non-monotonic relation was found, which can be explained by the increased influence of stress on the heart rate. This study shows that there is a relation between changes in gravity and modulations in the ANS. With this in mind, countermeasures can be developed to reduce postflight orthostatic intolerance.

  13. The application of the Buckingham theorem to modeling high-pressure regenerative heat exchangers in changed conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rafal Marcin Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The study presents the possibility of applying the Buckingham theorem to modeling high-pressure regenerative heat exchangers in changed conditions. A list of independent parameters on which the water temperature at the outlet of the heat exchanger depends was selected; and by means of the Buckingham theorem a functional relation between two dimensionless quantities, where there is no overall heat transfer coefficient, was obtained. The exact form of the function was determined on the...

  14. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part II: WWER conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWRs) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of crack growth behavior of LAS in high-temperature water due to EAC under constant load (steady-state power operation), to study the effect of transient conditions (during operation or start-up/shut-down of a plant) using their impact on time-based and cycle-based crack growth rates and to a more detailed understanding of the acting mechanisms. Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurized water reactor (WWER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (WWER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarizes the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated WWER conditions. The influence of oxygen content and the effect of specimen size (C(T)25 versus C(T)50 specimens) on the crack growth rates are shown. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  15. Cold Pressure Welding of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys under Conditions Applicable to Hybrid Metal Extrusion & Bonding (HYB)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandvik, Erlend Andre

    2014-01-01

    Traditional solid-state welding methods mainly focuses on joining of similar materials.But with the increased interest in multi-material constructions more research is neededon joining of dissimilar materials. In the present thesis dedicated cold pressure welding experiments with dissimilar aluminum alloys have been performed. The alloy combinations investigated were cold-deformed AA5183 and soft-annealed AA5183 (Series II) and cold-deformed AA5183 and commercial purity AA1050 (Series III). I...

  16. Land use change under conditions of high population pressure : the case of Java

    OpenAIRE

    Verburg, P.H.; Veldkamp, A.; J Bouma

    1999-01-01

    A long history of increases in population pressure in Java has caused agricultural land use to expand and intensify. More recent land use changes caused the conversion of prime agricultural land into residential and industrial area. Results of a dynamic, regional-scale, land use change model are presented, defining the spatial distribution of these land use changes. The model is based on multi-scale modelling of the relations between land use and socio-economic and biophysical determinants. H...

  17. High Pressure Steam Oxidation of Alloys for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2014-08-05

    A steam oxidation test was conducted at 267 ± 17 bar and 670°C for 293 hr. A comparison test was run at 1 bar. All of the alloys showed an increase in scale thickness and oxidation rate with pressure, and TP304H and IN625 had very large increases. Fine-grained TP304H at 267 bar behaved like a coarse grained alloy, indicative of high pressure increasing the critical Cr level needed to form and maintain a chromia scale. At 267 bar H230, H263, H282, IN617 and IN740 had kp values a factor of one–to-two orders of magnitude higher than at 1 bar. IN625 had a four order of magnitude increase in kp at 267 bar compared to 1 bar. Possible causes for increased oxidation rates with increased pressure were examined, including increased solid state diffusion within the oxide scale and increased critical Cr content to establish and maintain a chromia scale.

  18. Turbulence sets the initial conditions for star formation in high-pressure environments

    CERN Document Server

    Rathborne, J M; Jackson, J M; Kruijssen, J M D; Alves, J F; Bally, J; Bastian, N; Contreras, Y; Foster, J B; Garay, G; Testi, L; Walsh, A J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the simplicity of theoretical models of supersonically turbulent, isothermal media, their predictions successfully match the observed gas structure and star formation activity within low-pressure (P/k 10^7 K cm^-3) environments, like those in the Galaxy's inner 200 pc Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) and in the early Universe. Here we present ALMA 3mm dust continuum emission within a cloud, G0.253+0.016, which is immersed in the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. While the log-normal shape and dispersion of its column density PDF is strikingly similar to those of solar neighbourhood clouds, there is one important quantitative difference: its mean column density is 1--2 orders of magnitude higher. Both the similarity and difference in the PDF compared to those derived from solar neighbourhood clouds match predictions of turbulent cloud models given the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. The PDF shows a small deviation from log-normal at high column densities confirming the youth of G0.253+0.016. Its...

  19. Boundary-Layer Separation Control under Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoil Conditions using Glow-Discharge Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Ashpis, David E.

    2003-01-01

    Modem low-pressure turbines, in general, utilize highly loaded airfoils in an effort to improve efficiency and to lower the number of airfoils needed. Typically, the airfoil boundary layers are turbulent and fully attached at takeoff conditions, whereas a substantial fraction of the boundary layers on the airfoils may be transitional at cruise conditions due to the change of density with altitude. The strong adverse pressure gradients on the suction side of these airfoils can lead to boundary-layer separation at the latter low Reynolds number conditions. Large separation bubbles, particularly those which fail to reattach, cause a significant degradation of engine efficiency. A component efficiency drop of the order 2% may occur between takeoff and cruise conditions for large commercial transport engines and could be as large as 7% for smaller engines at higher altitude. An efficient means of of separation elimination/reduction is, therefore, crucial to improved turbine design. Because the large change in the Reynolds number from takeoff to cruise leads to a distinct change in the airfoil flow physics, a separation control strategy intended for cruise conditions will need to be carefully constructed so as to incur minimum impact/penalty at takeoff. A complicating factor, but also a potential advantage in the quest for an efficient strategy, is the intricate interplay between separation and transition for the situation at hand. Volino gives a comprehensive discussion of several recent studies on transition and separation under low-pressure-turbine conditions, among them one in the present facility. Transition may begin before or after separation, depending on the Reynolds number and other flow conditions. If the transition occurs early in the boundary layer then separation may be reduced or completely eliminated. Transition in the shear layer of a separation bubble can lead to rapid reattachment. This suggests using control mechanisms to trigger and enhance early transition. Gad-el-Hak provides a review of various techniques for flow control in general and Volino discusses recent studies on separation control under low-pressure-turbine conditions utilizing passive as well as active devices. As pointed out by Volino, passive devices optimized for separation control at low Reynolds numbers tend to increase losses at high Reynolds numbers, Active devices have the attractive feature that they can be utilized only in operational regimes where they are needed and when turned off would not affect the flow. The focus in the present paper is an experimental Separation is induced on a flat plate installed in a closed-circuit wind tunnel by a shaped insert on the opposite wall. The flow conditions represent flow over the suction surface of a modem low-pressure-turbine airfoil ('Pak-B'). The Reynolds number, based on wetted plate length and nominal exit velocity, is varied from 50,000 to 300,000, covering cruise to takeoff conditions. Low (0.2%) and high (2.5%) Gee-stream turbulence intensities are set using passive grids. A spanwise-oriented phased-plasma-array actuator, fabricated on a printed circuit board, is surface- flush-mounted upstream of the separation point and can provide forcing in a wide frequency range. Static surface pressure measurements and hot-wire anemometry of the base and controlled flows are performed and indicate that the glow-discharge plasma actuator is an effective device for separation control. of active separation control using glow discharge plasma actuators.

  20. Shear Veins Under High Pore Pressure Condition Along Subduction Interface: Yokonami Mélange, Cretaceous Shimanto Belt, Shikoku, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Eida, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fluid pressure along subdcution interface is a key parameter to understand the fault strength, wedge geometry and seismogenic behavior. In this study, we focused on shear veins pervasively observed in exhumed accretionary complex, Yokonami mélange, Cretaceous Shiamanto Belt, Southwest Japan to examine paleo-stress, effective friction coefficient, fluid pressure ratio and fluid pressure along subduction interface. Lithology of the Yokonami mélange is mainly sandstones surrounded by foliated black shales with minor components of basalts, cherts, tuffs, and limestones, representing tectonic mélange textures. Shear veins cutting mélange foliations are pervasively observed. Shear veins are composed of quartz and calcite. Slicken lines and slicken steps are always observed on the surfaces of shear veins. Pressure-temperature conditions for shear veins are about 180MPa and about 200 degree C on the basis of fluid inclusion analysis. Since the distribution of shear veins are related to packages of ocean floor stratigraphy, formation of shear vein can be before underplating and after mélange formation along subduction interface. We conducted multiple inversion method using slip data of shear veins to examine paleo-stress. In the result, we obtained maximum shear stress horizontal to foliations with 0.3 of stress ratio that is defined as (sigma2-sigma3)/(sigma1-sigma3). Effective friction coefficient was estimated as about 0.10-0.22 by the lowest value of ratio of normal and shear stresses in the normalized Mohr's circle on each plane of shear vein. If we put friction coefficient under dry condition as 0.7 because shear veins cut lithified mélange through out, fluid pressure ratio is equivalent to 0.68-0.86. This is very high fluid pressure ratio along subduction plate interface. On the basis of this fluid pressure ratio and P-T conditions of shear veins from fluid inclusion analysis, 7-12km of depth and 20-30 degree C of geothermal gradient were estimated. The age of subducting plate in the Yokonami mélange was about 50-60Ma from the difference of depositional ages between chert and black shale. The geothermal gradient estimated from the slab age is consistent with from fluid pressure ratio and fluid inclusion analysis. This suggests that the low effective frictional coefficient and high fluid pressure ratio estimated from geological evidences are reasonable values for the formation of shear veins. Kitajima and Saffer (2012) revealed that very low frequency earthquakes (VLFs) occur in the high pore pressure area. Saito et al. (2013) found the quartz cemented fault rocks represent velocity weakening behavior and suggested that the quartz-rich shear veins in shallow accretionary complex might be a geological evidence of VLFs. Our result in this study can support this idea as a shear veins with high fluid pressure at the time of their formation.

  1. Application on electrochemistry measurement of high temperature high pressure condition in PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature high pressure electrochemistry testing system was comprehensively analyzed in this paper, according to actual status for supervision in primary and secondary circuits of PWR nuclear power plants. Three research methods were reviewed and discussed for in-situ monitor system. By combination with ECP realtime measurement it was executed for evaluation and water chemistry optimization in nuclear power plants. It is pointed out that in-situ electrochemistry measurement has great potential application for water chemistry evaluation in PWR nuclear power plants. (authors)

  2. Gas bubble dimensions in Archean lava flows indicate low air pressure at 2.7 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, S. M.; Buick, R.; Hagadorn, J.; Blake, T.; Perreault, J.; Harnmeijer, J.; Catling, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pressure constrains atmospheric composition, which, in turn, is linked to the Earth system through biogeochemical cycles and fluxes of volatiles from and to the Earth's interior. Previous studies have only placed maximum levels on surface air pressure for the early Earth [1]. Here, we calculate an absolute value for Archean barometric pressure using gas bubble size (vesicle) distributions in uninflated basaltic lava flows that solidified at sea level 2.7 billion years ago in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. These vesicles have been filled in by secondary minerals deposited during metasomatism and so are now amydules, but thin sections show that infilling did not change vesicle dimensions. Amygdule dimensions are measured using high-resolution X-ray tomography from core samples obtained from the top and bottom of the lava flows. The modal size expressed at the top and at the bottom of an uninflated flow can be linked to atmospheric pressure using the ideal gas law. Such a technique has been verified as a paleoaltimeter using Hawaiian Quaternary lava flows [2]. We use statistical methods to estimate the mean and standard deviation of the volumetric size of the amygdules by applying 'bootstrap'resampling and the Central Limit Theorem. Our data indicate a surprisingly low atmospheric pressure. Greater nitrogen burial under anaerobic conditions likely explains lower pressure. Refs: [1] Som et al. (2012) Nature 484, 359-262. D. L. Sahagian et al. (2002) J. Geol., 110, 671-685.

  3. Creep failure of a reactor pressure vessel lower head under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A severe accident in a nuclear power plant could result in the relocation of large quantities of molten core material onto the lower head of he reactor pressure vessel (RPV). In the absence of inherent cooling mechanisms, failure of the RPV ultimately becomes possible under the combined effects of system pressure and the thermal heat-up of the lower head. Sandia National Laboratories has performed seven experiments at 1:5th scale simulating creep failure of a RPV lower head. This paper describes a modeling program that complements the experimental program. Analyses have been performed using the general-purpose finite-element code ABAQUS-5.6. In order to make ABAQUS solve the specific problem at hand, a material constitutive model that utilizes temperature dependent properties has been developed and attached to ABAQUS-executable through its UMAT utility. Analyses of the LHF-1 experiment predict instability-type failure. Predicted strains are delayed relative to the observed strain histories. Parametric variations on either the yield stress, creep rate, or both (within the range of material property data) can bring predictions into agreement with experiment. The analysis indicates that it is necessary to conduct material property tests on the actual material used in the experimental program. The constitutive model employed in the present analyses is the subject of a separate publication

  4. Post-dryout heat transfer and entrained droplet sizes at low pressure and low flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The entrainment mechanisms and the entrained droplet sizes with relation to the flow regimes are investigated. Through the analysis of many experimental post-dryout data, it is shown that the most probable flow regime near dryout or quench front is not annular flow but churn-turbulent flow when the mass flux is low. A correlation describing the initial droplet size just after the CHF position at low mass flux is suggested through regression analysis. The history-dependent post-dryout model of Varone and Rohsenow replaced by the Webb-Chen model for wall-vapor heat transfer is used as a reference model in the analysis. In the post-dryout region at low pressure and low flow, it is found that the suggested one-dimensional mechanistic model is not applicable when the vapor superficial velocity is very low. This is explained by the change of main entrainment mechanism with the change of flow regime. In bubbly or slug flow a number of tiny droplets generated from bubble burst become important in the heat transfer after dryout. Therefore, the suggested correlation is valid only in the churn-turbulent flow regime (jg* = 0.5∼4.5). It is also suggested that the droplet size generated from the churn-turbulent surface is dependent not only on the pressure but also on the vapor velocity. It turns out that the present model can predict the measured cladding and vapor temperatures within 20% and 25%, respectively

  5. Pressure and current balance conditions during electron beam injections from spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, K. S.; Singh, Nagendra

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic charging level of a conducting surface in response to injections of electron beams into space plasma is investigated by means of one-dimensional Vlasov code. Injections of Maxwellian beams into a vacuum shows that the surface can charge up to an electric potential phi sub s greater than W sub b, where W sub b is the average electron beam energy. Since Maxwellian beams have extended trails with electrons having energies greater than W sub b, it is difficult to quantify the charging level in terms of the energies of the injected electrons. In order to quantitatively understand the charging in excess of W sub b, simulations were carried out for water-bag types of beam with velocity distribution functions described by f(V) = A for V sub min approx. less than V approx. less than V sub max and f(V) = O otherwise, where A is a constant making the normalized beam density unity. It is found that V sub max does not directly determine the charging level. The pressure distribution in the electron sheath determines the electric field distribution near the surface. The electric field in turn determines the electrostatic potential of the vehicle. The pressure distribution is determined by the beam parameters such as the average beam velocity and the velocity spread of the beam.

  6. Influence of product thickness, chamber pressure and heating conditions on production rate of freeze-dried yoghurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, N.K. [G.B. Pant Univ., of Agriculture and Technology (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Arora, C.P. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)

    1995-06-01

    The effects of product thickness, chamber pressure and heating conditions on product temperature profiles and production rate of freeze-dried yoghurt were investigated experimentally. Three sample thicknesses - 3.8 mm, 6.2 mm and 9.4 mm - were tested at chamber pressures of 0.01 and 0.5 mmHg. The production rate increased by decreasing product thickness in contact heating through the bottom of the frozen layer, whereas no significant change was observed in radiant heating. A reduction in chamber pressure from 0.50 to 0.01 mmHg increased the drying time in radiant heating. Maximum production rate was obtained when the thickness of dried product was 6.2 mm, when heat was transferred simultaneously through the frozen and dried layers, and the chamber pressure was at 0.01 mmHg. Use of the product tray developed in this study prevents the growth of dry layers at the contact surfaces. (Author)

  7. ON INFLUENCE OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND TRANSVERSE SHEAR ON BUCKLING OF THIN LAMINATED CYLINDRICAL SHELLS UNDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadi I. Mikhasev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Buckling of a thin cylindrical sandwich shell composed of elastic isotropic layers with different elastic properties under normal external pressure is the subject of this investigation. Differential equations based on the assumptions of the generalized kinematic hypothesis for the whole sandwich are used as the governing ones. Two variants of the joint support conditions are considered at the shell edges: a there are the infinite rigidity diaphragms inhibiting relative shears of layers along the shell edges, b the diaphragms are absent. Using the asymptotic approach, the critical pressure and buckling modes are constructed in the form of the superposition of functions corresponding to the main stress-strain state and the edges integrals. As an example, a three-layered cylinder with the magnetorheological elastomer (MRE embedded between elastic layers under different levels of magnetic field is studied. Physical properties of the magnetorheological (MR layer are assumed to be functions of the magnetic field induction. Dependencies of the buckling pressure on the variant of boundary conditions and the intensity of applied magnetic field are analyzed.

  8. The dynamic pressure measurements of the nuclear reactor coolant for condition-based maintenance of the reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The condition-based maintenance of the nuclear reactor, by monitoring and measuring the instantaneous dynamic pressure distribution of the coolant (water) impact on the solid surfaces of the reactor during operation is presented. The behaviour of water domes (jets) produced by underwater explosions of small changes of P.E.T.N. at various depths in two different size cylindrical containers, which simulate the nuclear reactor, is investigated. Water surface domes (jets) from the underwater explosions are photographed. Depending on the depth of the charge, curved and flat top jets of up to 455 mm diameter and impact speeds of up to 70 m/sec. are observed. The instabilities in the dome surfaces are observed and the instantaneous profiles are analysed. It is found that, in all cases tested, the maximum pressure takes place at the center of the jet and could reach up to 3.0 times the on-dimensional impact pressure value. The use of their measurements, as online monitoring for condition-based maintenance and design-out maintenance is discussed. 18 refs

  9. Behavior of Self-Lubricated Liquids Under Normal and Reduced-Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell'Aversana, P.; Tontodonato, V.; Neitzel, G. P.

    1999-11-01

    We explore the behavior of liquid systems where wetting is inhibited via a (self) lubrication effect produced by thermocapillary convection. We investigate shape changes in the lubricating air film when the ambient air pressure is reduced to determine the effect on load capacity and, ultimately, reliability of a system exploiting this effect. We examine the response to electrostatic charges that may induce the wetting of a solid surface, even when the lubricating action of the air film would be sufficient to prevent it otherwise. We have observed that a static model is suitable for describing the behavior of such systems despite the existence of convection. An original technique for measuring the difference between advancing and receding contact angles of a silicone oil drop attached at a copper platelet is presented. The drop is first squeezed and then released by an unwetted glass surface loaded onto the drop. Again, the static model seems suitable to describe the mechanical behavior of such a system.

  10. Characteristic study of atmospheric pressure microplasma jets with various operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-thermal microplasma jets generated under atmospheric pressure by means of radio-frequency of 13.56 MHz and low-frequency of several tens of kilohertz are characterized. They show several distinct discharge characteristics. Two operation modes of the plasma are observed when the single pin electrode is utilized and separated by the remote ground, and where plasma is sustained between the pin electrode and the ground ring electrode. The electrical characteristic of discharges and various effects of the ground ring electrode are presented. We observe that the emission spectra are dominated by the presence of excited nitrogen, helium, and nitrogen ions. Highly reactive radicals such as hydroxyl (OH) and atomic oxygen are also detected. With the addition of a ground ring electrode, the discharge current and optical emission intensities from the plasma plume are enhanced significantly indicating that the generated plasma is near the glow discharge mode.

  11. Experimental study on DNB heat flux of plate-type fuel in pressurized condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental study was carried out in order to determine the DNB correlation for the safety analysis of the JMTR low enrichment fuel core. Since it is essential to examine applicability and safety margin of the correlation for the safety analysis, DNB heat fluxes were measured with the test section of rectangular flow channel simulating JMTR fuel element subchannel in the pressure range of 1 ∼ 13 kg/cm2 abs and the velocity range of 0 ∼ 4.4 m/s. Reviewing existed DNB correlations based on the experimental data, Sudo correlations scheme was selected for the JMTR safety analysis with minor modification for the high flow rate region. Comparing the correlations scheme with experimental data, allowable limit of the minimum DNBR was determined to be 1.5. (author)

  12. Experimental investigation of supersonic low pressure air plasma flows obtained with different arc-jet operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stationary arc-jet plasma flow at low pressure is used to simulate some properties of the gas flow surrounding a vehicle during its entry into celestial body's atmospheres. This paper presents an experimental study concerning plasmas simulating a re-entry into our planet. Optical measurements have been carried out for several operating plasma conditions in the free stream, and in the shock layer formed in front of a flat cylindrical plate, placed in the plasma jet. The analysis of the spectral radiation enabled the identification of the emitting species, the determination of the rotational and vibrational temperatures in the free-stream and in the shock layer and the determination of the distance of the shock to the flat plate face. Some plasma fluid parameters like, stagnation pressure, specific enthalpy and heat flux have been determined experimentally along the plasma-jet axis.

  13. Numerical study of the pressure drop in a plain fin-and-circular tube heat exchanger under frost condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out to study the pressure drop behavior in a plain fin-and-four staggered layout and circular tube rows for different fin pitches under frost conditions using FLUENT 6.3 CFD code. Models geometry is created and meshed using GAMBIT 2.3. Fluid flow and heat transfer are simulated and results calculated using (Transitional SST k-omega) turbulence model, with steady-state solver. Model validation is carried out by comparing the pressure drop of a simulated case with experimental results from the literature. It was found that Fluent 6.3 software has been sufficient for simulating the flow characteristics in tube-fin heat exchangers. (author)

  14. The application of the Buckingham theorem to modeling high-pressure regenerative heat exchangers in changed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Marcin Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study presents the possibility of applying the Buckingham theorem to modeling high-pressure regenerative heat exchangers in changed conditions. A list of independent parameters on which the water temperature at the outlet of the heat exchanger depends was selected; and by means of the Buckingham theorem a functional relation between two dimensionless quantities, where there is no overall heat transfer coefficient, was obtained. The exact form of the function was determined on the basis of actual measurement data and a linear relation between two dimensionless quantities was obtained. The correctness of the proposed relation was examined for two high-pressure regenerative exchangers for a 200 MW power plant.

  15. A new transducer for roll gap measurements of the roll pressure distribution and the friction condition in cold flat rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagergren, Jonas; Wanheim, Tarras; Presz, W.; Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens; Jonsson, Nils-Göran

    2005-01-01

    Background/purpose The only way to establish the true rolling pressure and the true friction condition in cold rolling is to conduct measurements in the roll bite. A new transducer design is therefore proposed, this to overcome problems in previous measurements in the past 70 years. Method The new...... idea is to increase the contact surface of the transducer, to be larger than the arc of contact. This is in the opposite way, compared to the smaller and smaller contact pin design that has been prevailing. Results The measurements where conducted during cold dry rolling of both copper strips and....... Keywords Friction stress, normal pressure distribution, roll bite measurements, cold flat rolling of metals...

  16. Evaluation of hydraulic and mechanical properties of Berea sandstone under different conditions of temperature and confining pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotropic compression experiments using Berea sandstone were conducted under the different temperature and confining pressure conditions, and the evolutions of hydraulic and mechanical properties were observed. The temperatures and confining pressures prescribed for the experiments are 20 and 90degC, and 7.5 or 8.0 MPa, respectively. The observed permeability at 20degC did not significantly evolve during the experiment period, while that at 90degC decreased by roughly 20% relative to the original value. This reduction may be attributed to the change of pore-structure induced by mineral dissolution and/or precipitation. Unlikely, the uniaxial compression tests showed no obvious change observed between pre- and post-experimental results. The XRD observation also showed no significant difference of mineralogy between them. (author)

  17. A pressure correction scheme for generalized form of energy-stable open boundary conditions for incompressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.; Shen, J.

    2015-06-01

    We present a generalized form of open boundary conditions, and an associated numerical algorithm, for simulating incompressible flows involving open or outflow boundaries. The generalized form represents a family of open boundary conditions, which all ensure the energy stability of the system, even in situations where strong vortices or backflows occur at the open/outflow boundaries. Our numerical algorithm for treating these open boundary conditions is based on a rotational pressure correction-type strategy, with a formulation suitable for C0 spectral-element spatial discretizations. We have introduced a discrete equation and associated boundary conditions for an auxiliary variable. The algorithm contains constructions that prevent a numerical locking at the open/outflow boundary. In addition, we have developed a scheme with a provable unconditional stability for a sub-class of the open boundary conditions. Extensive numerical experiments have been presented to demonstrate the performance of our method for several flow problems involving open/outflow boundaries. We compare simulation results with the experimental data to demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm. Long-time simulations have been performed for a range of Reynolds numbers at which strong vortices or backflows occur at the open/outflow boundaries. We show that the open boundary conditions and the numerical algorithm developed herein produce stable simulations in such situations.

  18. High Pressure Compression-Molding of α-Cellulose and Effects of Operating Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    PINTIAUX, Thibaud; Viet, David; Vandenbossche, Virginie; Rigal, Luc; Rouilly, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Commercial α-cellulose was compression-molded to produce 1A dog-bone specimens under various operating conditions without any additive. The resulting agromaterials exhibited a smooth, plastic-like surface, and constituted a suitable target as replacement for plastic materials. Tensile and three-points bending tests were conducted according to ISO standards related to the evaluation of plastic materials. The specimens had strengths comparable to classical petroleum-based thermoplastics. They a...

  19. High Pressure Compression-Molding of ?-Cellulose and Effects of Operating Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine Rouilly; Luc Rigal; Virginie Vandenbossche; David Viet; Thibaud Pintiaux

    2013-01-01

    Commercial ?-cellulose was compression-molded to produce 1A dog-bone specimens under various operating conditions without any additive. The resulting agromaterials exhibited a smooth, plastic-like surface, and constituted a suitable target as replacement for plastic materials. Tensile and three-points bending tests were conducted according to ISO standards related to the evaluation of plastic materials. The specimens had strengths comparable to classical petroleum-based thermoplastics. They a...

  20. Morphological variations in AuxSiy nanostructures under variable pressure and annealing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, A.; Dash, J. K.; Juluri, R. R.; Satyam, P. V.

    2015-03-01

    Well-ordered, substrate symmetry-driven, AuxSiy structures of average size ~25 nm were formed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions using molecular beam epitaxy method. Post-annealing was done at 500 C in three different vacuum conditions: (1) low vacuum (LV) (10-2 mbar), (2) high vacuum (HV) (10-5 mbar) and (3) UHV (10-10 mbar) (MBE chamber). For both HV and LV cases, the AuxSiy nanostructures were found to have their corners rounded unlike in UHV case where the structures have sharp edges. In all the above three cases, samples were exposed to air before annealing. In situ annealing inside UHV chamber without exposing to air resulted in well-aligned rectangles with sharp corners, while sharp but irregular island structures were found for air exposed and UHV annealing system. The role of residual gases present in LV and HV annealing environment and inhibition of lateral surface diffusion due to the presence of surface oxide (through air exposure) would be discussed. Annealing at various conditions yielded variation in the coverage and correspondingly, the average area of nanostructures varied from a ~329 nm2 (as deposited) to ~2,578 nm2 (at high temperature). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (planar and cross section) has been utilized to study the morphological variations.

  1. Failure strains and proposed limit strains for an reactor pressure vessel under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The local failure strains of essential design elements of a reactor vessel are investigated. The size influence of the structure is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial load. Within one test family the specimen geometry and the load conditions are similar, but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for the reactor vessel. A key problem is to determine the local failure strain. Here suitable methods had to be developed including the so-called 'vanishing gap method', and the 'forging die method'. They are based on post-test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields using finite element models. The results indicate that stresses versus dimensionless deformations are approximately size independent up to failure for specimens of similar geometry under similar load conditions. Local failure strains could be determined. The values are rather high and size dependent. Statistical evaluation allow the proposal of limit strains which are also size dependent. If these limit strains are not exceeded, the structures will not fracture

  2. Effect of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment condition on adhesion of ramie fibers to polypropylene for composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Manolache, Sorin; Qiu, Yiping; Sarmadi, Majid

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the interfacial adhesion between hydrophilic ramie fibers and hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) matrices, ramie fibers are modified by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with our continuous ethanol flow technique in helium environment. A central composite design of experiments with different plasma processing parameter combinations (treatment current, treatment time and ethanol flow rate) is applied to find the most influential parameter and to obtain the best modification effect. Field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows the roughened surfaces of ramie fibers from the treated groups due to plasma etching effect. Dynamic contact angle analysis (DCAA) demonstrates that the wettability of the treated fibers drastically decreases. Microbond pullout test shows that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) between treated ramie fibers and PP matrices increases significantly. Residual gas analysis (RGA) confirms the creation of ethyl groups during plasma treatment. This study shows that our continuous ethanol flow technique is effective in the plasma modification process, during which the ethanol flow rate is the most influential parameter but all parameters have simultaneous influence on plasma modification effect of ramie fibers.

  3. In situ X-ray diffraction of natural chromium-bearing spinel under high pressure and high temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy dispersive X-ray powder diffraction (EDXD) of natural chromium-bearing spinel collected from Damapin using synchrotron radiation has been in situ measured under high pressure (0-12.82 GPa) and high temperature (300-603 K) conditions. Based on Murnaghan equation, the state equation of natural chromium-bearing spinel was deduced, the bulk modulus KT(0)=369 Gpa and compression coefficient K=2.713x10-3/Gpa were obtained. In addition, the thermal expansion of spinel was discussed, and a thermal expansion coefficient of ?=1.004 x 10-5/K was calculated. (authors)

  4. On the plasma-based growth of ‘flowing’ graphene sheets at atmospheric pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyganov, D.; Bundaleska, N.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, A.; Henriques, J.; Rego, A.; Ferraria, A.; Abrashev, M. V.; Dias, F. M.; Luhrs, C. C.; Phillips, J.

    2016-02-01

    A theoretical and experimental study on atmospheric pressure microwave plasma-based assembly of free standing graphene sheets is presented. The synthesis method is based on introducing a carbon-containing precursor (C2H5OH) through a microwave (2.45 GHz) argon plasma environment, where decomposition of ethanol molecules takes place and carbon atoms and molecules are created and then converted into solid carbon nuclei in the ‘colder’ nucleation zones. A theoretical model previously developed has been further updated and refined to map the particle and thermal fluxes in the plasma reactor. Considering the nucleation process as a delicate interplay between thermodynamic and kinetic factors, the model is based on a set of non-linear differential equations describing plasma thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. The model predictions were validated by experimental results. Optical emission spectroscopy was applied to detect the plasma emission related to carbon species from the ‘hot’ plasma zone. Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques have been applied to analyze the synthesized nanostructures. The microstructural features of the solid carbon nuclei collected from the colder zones of plasma reactor vary according to their location. A part of the solid carbon was deposited on the discharge tube wall. The solid assembled from the main stream, which was gradually withdrawn from the hot plasma region in the outlet plasma stream directed to a filter, was composed by ‘flowing’ graphene sheets. The influence of additional hydrogen, Ar flow rate and microwave power on the concentration of obtained stable species and carbon‑dicarbon was evaluated. The ratio of sp3/sp2 carbons in graphene sheets is presented. A correlation between changes in C2 and C number densities and sp3/sp2 ratio was found.

  5. Simulation of ATWS conditions in pressurized water reactors; Simulation von ATWS-Transienten in Druckwasserreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliem, Soeren; Mittag, Siegfried; Rohde, Ulrich; Grundmann, Ulrich; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung

    2009-02-15

    Safety analyses of nuclear power plants use ATWS (Anticipated Transients without Scram) as a term covering also events involving assumed failure of the reactor scram system. In this type of failure of the reactor scram system, power development in the reactor core is determined only by neutron kinetics feedback via the fuel temperature, moderator temperature and moderator density. If borated coolant is supplied, there is the additional feedback from the boron concentration. For nuclear power plants, coupled code complexes are developed and used which are made up of a thermohydraulic plant code and a 3D neutron kinetics model of the reactor core. These lend themselves to the use in analyses of ATWS states. The work presented here about the ATWS problem was performed in the interest of a consistent application of the DYN3D 3D neutron kinetics code in combination with the ATHLET thermohydraulic system code, and the quantification of differences resulting from variations of initial and boundary conditions. The DYN3D/ATHLET coupled code complex was validated by recalculation of various operating transients and by solving benchmark problems. The article contains results computed taking into account the influence of systems engineering and neutron kinetics boundary conditions. The calculations shown are methodological studies in no way demonstrating proof. (orig.)

  6. Slug behavior and pressure drop of adiabatic slug flow in a narrow rectangular duct under inclined conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The effect of inclination on distribution parameter and drift velocity is studied. • Slug behaviors in different flow regions are investigated. • Inclination influences the void fraction and slip ratio. • Drift flux models for calculating void fraction are evaluated. • Correlations of frictional pressure drop are evaluated in different flow regions. - Abstract: A visualization-based investigation was carried out on slug behavior and pressure drop of air–water slug flow in a narrow rectangular duct with cross section of 43 mm × 3.25 mm under inclined conditions. The velocity and length of slugs were obtained through image processing. Based on the liquid Reynolds number, slug flow was divided into laminar flow region (Rel l ⩾ 3000). Experimental results showed that both the slug velocity and the slug length increased with the inclination angle increasing in laminar flow region, while they were nearly unvaried in turbulent flow region. The slug length and slug frequency decreased with the gas superficial velocity increasing or the liquid superficial velocity decreasing for all cases. For laminar flow, the predictions of frictional pressure drop by Chisholm model, Mishima–Hibiki correlation and Lee–Lee correlation could be significantly improved by replacing the void fraction with the ratio of the slug velocity divided by the gas superficial velocity, us/jg; for turbulent region, all three models could well predict the experimental data if void fraction is calculated by the Jones–Zuber correlation

  7. Simulation and analysis of bearing pad to pressure tube contact heat transfer under large break LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some postulated loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) in a CANDU reactor, localized 'hot spots' can develop on the pressure tube as a result of decay heat dissipation by conduction through bearing pad/pressure tube contact locations. Depending on the severity of flow degradation in the channel, these 'hot spots' could represent a potential threat to fuel channel integrity. The most important parameter in the simulation of BP/PT contact is the contact conductance. Since BP/PT thermal contact conductance is a complex parameter which depends upon the thermal and physical characteristics of the material junction and the surrounding environment, contact conductance is determined from experiments relevant to the reactor conditions. A series of twelve full scale integrated BP/PT contact experiments have been conducted at AECL-WRL under CANDU Owner Group (COG). The objective of the experiments was to investigate the effect of BP/PT contact on PT thermal-mechanical behaviour. This paper presents the simulation of BP/PT interaction integrated experiments using SMARTT and MINI-SMARTT computer codes and subsequent derivation of the BP/PT contact conductance by best fitting of the experimental pressure tube temperature measurements. (author)

  8. A model for calculation of RCS pressure during reflux boiling under reduced inventory conditions and its assessment against PKL data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been recent interest in the United States concerning the loss of residual heat removal system (RHRS) under reduced coolant inventory conditions for pressurized water reactors. This issue is also of interest in the Federal Republic of Germany and an experiment was performed in the integral PKL-HI experimental facility at Siemens-KWU to supply applicable data. Recently, an NRC-sponsored effort has been undertaken at the Idaho-National Engineering Laboratory to identify and analyze the important thermal-hydraulic phenomena in pressurized water reactors following the long term loss-of-RHRS during reduced inventory operation. The thermal-hydraulic response of a closed reactor coolant system during such a transient is investigated in this report. Some of the specific processes investigated include: reflux condensation in the steam generators, the corresponding pressure increase in the reactor coolant system, and void fraction distributions on the primary side of the system. Mathematical models of these and other physical processes Experiment B4.5

  9. The influence of meteorological conditions on the side effects of contrast media during infusion urograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relationship between certain weather conditions and the frequency of some diseases has been recognised for a long time. During a period of two and a quarter years, the course of infusion urograms in 6862 patients was carefully monitored. At the same time, records were kept of the weather, including the general weather situation, changes in the weather, its dynamics, atmospheric pressure and 'vorticity'. 7.96% of patients showed side effects from the contrast medium. 32.6% of all patients admitted to having been affected by the weather, with an incidence of side effects of 9.7%. Older patients and over-weight patients tended to suffer fewer side effects. There was no correlation with the seasons. As regards the general weather situation, there was an increased incidence associated with changes coming from the east, fewer incidents during the in-flow of cold air and high pressure situations. There were marked differences during periods of high and low pressure ('vorticity'). High pressure situations and periods of increasing barometric pressure had complication rates of 5.3% and 4.7% respectively, low pressure, 11%. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the groups, but tendencies were unmistakable. A large number of individual factors are known to have an effect, such as abnormalities of the complement system, antigen-antibody reactions and others, but the importance of each factor remains uncertain. The present results indicate that the reaction of a patient at the moment of the investigation also plays a significant part. (org.)

  10. A reactor water level and pressure prediction method under small loss-of-coolant-accident conditions in boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-line method of predicting reactor water level and pressure under small loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) conditions has been proposed. The method features initialization of a simplified reactor model in transient conditions. This is done by using plant data in time series and estimating unknown parameters, such as break area, by a nonlinear optimization method. Off-line simulations were performed for small LOCAs (break area: about100 cm2) using the results of a reference LOCA analysis code for plant data. These showed that the difference from the reference calculation during a 10-min period was within 10%, normalized by the value at the initialization time, and the estimation error for break area was below 11%. The overall CPU time required for the prediction was below 10 s in a general purpose computer of 10 million instructions per second

  11. Fabrication of High-Pressure Cold-Sprayed Coating on Ni-Based Superalloy for High-Temperature Corrosive Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harminder

    2015-11-01

    The surface behavior of the Ni-based superalloy (composition similar to UNS N06075) is altered in this study by depositing a 298- µm-thick coating for various erosive-corrosive and wear applications at a high temperature. The 50%Ni-50%Cr coating was developed by a high-pressure cold-spraying method. The coating microstructure was studied by various characterization techniques. The unmelted solid particles formed the coating structure, which is homogeneous, dense, hard, and free from cracks, oxides, and other defects. The coating composition and microstructure is suitable for providing protection to the substrate under high-temperature corrosive conditions. The developed coating performed well, with degradation rate of 0.47 mm/year, in the chlorine-based highly corrosive conditions of actual waste incinerator at 900°C.

  12. Laboratory measurements of materials in extreme conditions; The use of high energy radiation sources for high pressure studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1998-06-01

    High energy lasers can be used to study material conditions that are appropriate fort inertial confinement fusion: that is, materials at high densities, temperatures, and pressures. Pulsed power devices can offer similar opportunities. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be a high energy multi-beam laser designed to achieve the thermonuclear ignition of a mm-scale DT-filled target in the laboratory. At the same time, NE will provide the physics community with a unique tool for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers and pulsed power tools can contribute to investigations of high energy density matter in the areas of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  13. Reactions of possible cellulose liquefaction intermediates under high pressure liquefaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, I.J.; Saunders, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    Glucose, methyl and phenyl glucosides, glucitol, levoglucosenone and hydroxymethylfurfural were allowed to react under conditions where cellulose liquefies, with ZnCl/sub 2/, NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ and NaOAc/H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ as catalysts, to determine whether these compounds could be intermediates in cellulose liquefaction. It was found that: free aldehyde groups and acidity promote charring; these compounds do not fully interconvert before further reaction; levoglucosenone cannot be an intermediate except in acid solutions, glucose and phenyl glucoside give products consistent with their being intermediates; and solvent phenol is incorporated in all products except for hydrocarbons. Dilute aqueous solutions of some of these intermediates can be reacted in the absence of phenol to produce liquids and char. The liquids contain about 90% phenols, and 75% of the liquid products is phenol itself. 18 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  14. Constitutive cylindrospermopsin pool size in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii under different light and CO2 partial pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangelini, Mattia; Sinha, Rati; Willis, Anusuya; Burford, Michele A; Orr, Philip T; Beardall, John; Neilan, Brett A

    2015-05-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and 7-deoxy-cylindrospermopsin (dCYN) are potent hepatotoxic alkaloids produced by numerous species of cyanobacteria, including the freshwater Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. C. raciborskii is an invasive cyanobacterium, and the study of how environmental parameters drive CYN production has received significant interest from water managers and health authorities. Light and CO2 affect cell growth and physiology in photoautotrophs, and these are potential regulators of cyanotoxin biosynthesis. In this study, we investigated how light and CO2 affect CYN and dCYN pool size as well as the expression of the key genes, cyrA and cyrK, involved in CYN biosynthesis in a toxic C. raciborskii strain. For cells growing at different light intensities (10 and 100 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), we observed that the rate of CYN pool size production (μCYN) was coupled to the cell division rate (μc) during batch culture. This indicated that CYN pool size under our experimental conditions is constant and cell quotas of CYN (QCYN) and dCYN (QdCYN) are fixed. Moreover, a lack of correlation between expression of cyrA and total CYN cell quotas (QCYNs) suggests that the CYN biosynthesis is regulated posttranscriptionally. Under elevated CO2 (1,300 ppm), we observed minor effects on QCYN and no effects on expression of cyrA and cyrK. We conclude that the CYN pool size is constitutive and not affected by light and CO2 conditions. Thus, C. raciborskii bloom toxicity is determined by the absolute abundance of C. raciborskii cells within the water column and the relative abundance of toxic and nontoxic strains. PMID:25724956

  15. The ReactorSTM: Atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy under high-pressure, high-temperature catalytic reaction conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enable atomic-scale observations of model catalysts under conditions approaching those used by the chemical industry, we have developed a second generation, high-pressure, high-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM): the ReactorSTM. It consists of a compact STM scanner, of which the tip extends into a 0.5 ml reactor flow-cell, that is housed in a ultra-high vacuum (UHV) system. The STM can be operated from UHV to 6 bars and from room temperature up to 600 K. A gas mixing and analysis system optimized for fast response times allows us to directly correlate the surface structure observed by STM with reactivity measurements from a mass spectrometer. The in situ STM experiments can be combined with ex situ UHV sample preparation and analysis techniques, including ion bombardment, thin film deposition, low-energy electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by atomically resolved images of Au(111) and atom-row resolution on Pt(110), both under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions

  16. Phenomenology during the loss of residual heat removal system at midloop conditions with pressurizer PORVs open: Associated boron dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The loss of residual heat removal system (RHRS) at midloop operation is an important risk contributor at low power and shutdown conditions. In this kind of transient the reflux-condensation can play an important role during the sequence to avoid the core damage. Several simulations concerning the loss of the RHRS in a PWR-W with the pressurizer PORVs open have been carried out with TRACE code considering the availability of steam generators. The present study aims to analyze, firstly, the thermal-hydraulic behavior after the loss of RHRS at midloop conditions throughout different configurations with reflux-condensation as the sole cooling mechanism available, and secondly, the issue related to the boron dilution that takes place during this kind of transient. The simulation results show that in the open RCS configuration, an equilibrium pressure is obtained in all cases and the reflux-condensation removes an important part of the decay heat. Moreover, in some configurations, this mechanism may cause the formation of an unborated water slug in the crossover leg that can lead to a boron dilution sequence

  17. The ReactorSTM: Atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy under high-pressure, high-temperature catalytic reaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbschleb, C. T.; Tuijn, P. C. van der; Roobol, S. B.; Navarro, V.; Bakker, J. W.; Liu, Q.; Stoltz, D.; Caas-Ventura, M. E.; Verdoes, G.; Spronsen, M. A. van; Bergman, M.; Crama, L.; Taminiau, I.; Frenken, J. W. M., E-mail: frenken@physics.leidenuniv.nl [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ofitserov, A.; Baarle, G. J. C. van [Leiden Probe Microscopy B.V., J.H. Oortweg 21, 2333 CH Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15

    To enable atomic-scale observations of model catalysts under conditions approaching those used by the chemical industry, we have developed a second generation, high-pressure, high-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM): the ReactorSTM. It consists of a compact STM scanner, of which the tip extends into a 0.5 ml reactor flow-cell, that is housed in a ultra-high vacuum (UHV) system. The STM can be operated from UHV to 6 bars and from room temperature up to 600 K. A gas mixing and analysis system optimized for fast response times allows us to directly correlate the surface structure observed by STM with reactivity measurements from a mass spectrometer. The in situ STM experiments can be combined with ex situ UHV sample preparation and analysis techniques, including ion bombardment, thin film deposition, low-energy electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by atomically resolved images of Au(111) and atom-row resolution on Pt(110), both under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions.

  18. Preliminary Testing of a Pressurized Space Suit and Candidate Fabrics Under Simulated Mars Dust Storm and Dust Devil Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.; deLeon, Pablo G.; Lee, Pascal; McCue, Terry R.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Thrasher, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In August 2009 YAP Films (Toronto) received permission from all entities involved to create a documentary film illustrating what it might be like to be on the surface of Mars in a space suit during a dust storm or in a dust devil. The science consultants on this project utilized this opportunity to collect data which could be helpful to assess the durability of current space suit construction to the Martian environment. The NDX-1 prototype planetary space suit developed at the University of North Dakota was used in this study. The suit features a hard upper torso garment, and a soft lower torso and boots assembly. On top of that, a nylon-cotton outer layer is used to protect the suit from dust. Unmanned tests were carried out in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at the NASA Ames Research Center, with the suit pressurized to 10 kPa gauge. These tests blasted the space suit upper torso and helmet, and a collection of nine candidate outer layer fabrics, with wind-borne simulant for five different 10 min tests under both terrestrial and Martian surface pressures. The infiltration of the dust through the outer fabric of the space suit was photographically documented. The nine fabric samples were analyzed under light and electron microscopes for abrasion damage. Manned tests were carried out at Showbiz Studios (Van Nuys, California) with the pressure maintained at 20 2 kPa gauge. A large fan-created vortex lifted Martian dust simulant (Fullers Earth or JSC Mars-1) off of the floor, and one of the authors (Lee) wearing the NDX-1 space suit walked through it to judge both subjectively and objectively how the suit performed under these conditions. Both the procedures to scale the tests to Martian conditions and the results of the infiltration and abrasion studies will be discussed.

  19. Mineralogía y termo-barometría de los Complejos máficos Sol de Mayo y Suya Taco, Norte de las Sierras de Comechingones, Córdoba Mineralogy and thermo-barometry of the Sol de Mayo and Suya Taco mafic complexes from northern Sierra de Comechingones, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina M. Tibaldi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un estudio detallado de la petrografía, mineralogía química y termo-barometría de dos complejos máficos que afloran al norte de la sierra de Comechingones. Se aplicaron un conjunto de termómetros y barómetros empíricos con el propósito de determinar los rangos de P y T absolutas de cristalización de estas rocas. Las temperaturas de equilibrio en pares de piroxenos (cpx-opx se estimaron usando tres termómetros independientes. Dos calibraciones termométricas (Wells 1977, Kretz 1982 dan resultados consistentes y razonables indicando que los piroxenos registran condiciones de cristalización magmática (920-1150ºC, mientras que la tercera calibración (Lindsley 1983 estima temperaturas muy inferiores. Esta discrepancia puede estar relacionada con el hecho de que la última calibración no sería aplicable a rocas que cristalizaron a partir de magmas ricos en hierro. Por su parte, la termometría Amph-Pl sugiere temperaturas de equilibrio comprendidas entre 750-850ºC, para composiciones típicas de núcleos, mientras que para composiciones representativas de los bordes de grano las temperaturas estimadas son significativamente inferiores (This work presents a detailed study including petrography, mineral chemistry and thermo-barometry of igneous rock from two mafic complexes that outcrop in the north portion of the sierra de Comechingones. The range of absolute P and T under which these rocks crystallized is retrieved using a set of empiric barometers and thermometers. The estimations of equilibrium temperature determined in pairs of pyroxenes (cpx-opx were performed through three independent thermometers. Two of the thermometric formulations (Wells 1977, Kretz 1982 yield consistent and reasonable results indicating that these phases record magmatic crystallizations conditions (920-1150ºC, whereas the third calibration by Lindsley (1983 gives lower temperatures. This discrepancy is thought to reflect the fact that the latter method may be not applicable to rocks crystallized from Fe-rich magmas. Amphibole-plagioclase thermometry estimates, which use typical core compositions, yield equilibrium temperature in the range of 750-850ºC. Whereas using rim compositions, Amph-pl thermometry estimates significantly give lower temperatures (< 600ºC, suggesting that amphiboles mostly crystallized at post-magmatic stages. Orthopyroxene-biotite Fe-Mg exchange thermometry shows that these minerals tend to equilibrate within two distinct thermal ranges (430-650ºC and 740-1030ºC. This indicates that biotites might have crystallized at both late-magmatic and post-magmatic stages. Barometric estimates have some variability in function of the type of calibration used, however they show a systematic pattern in which the equilibrium pressure determined in the Suya Taco complex are lower (5.5 ± 1 kbar than those obtained in the Sol de Mayo complex (8 ± 1 kbar. Overall, this result is consistent with barometry already performed in granulitic xenoliths. The P-T conditions deduced from igneous rocks indicate that the hosting regional metasedimentary sequence were experiencing amphibolite-facies temperatures and residing at middle crustal levels.

  20. The experimental measurement of circumferential temperature distributions developed on pressure tubes under stratified two-phase flow conditions: Tests 1 to 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five experiments have been conducted to study the effects of pressure, liquid level and heating power on the circumferential temperature distribution and deformation of CANDU pressure tubes under stratified coolant conditions. Stratified coolant conditions in these experiments were effected by injecting near-saturated water into the heated pressure tube to replenish the water boiled off during each experiment. In all five experiments, the pressure tube ballooned at the top, resulting in near or direct contact with the calandria tube. The experimental results suggest that pressure tube deformation had a significant cooling effect on the pressure tube and therefore affected the circumferential temperature distribution. The experimental program was funded by the CANDU Owners Group (COG). (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs

  1. Corrosion fatigue crack growth behaviour of low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels under boiling water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth behaviour of different low-alloy reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and weld filler/heat-affected zone materials was systematically characterized under simulated boiling water reactor normal water and hydrogen water chemistry conditions by low-frequency fatigue tests with pre-cracked fracture mechanics specimens. The experiments were performed in oxygenated or hydrogenated high-purity or sulphate/chloride containing water at temperatures from 150 to 288 deg. C. In this paper, the observed synergistic effects of environmental, material and loading parameters on the environmental acceleration of fatigue crack growth in low-alloy RPV steels are discussed in the context of the Ford-Andresen model. Additionally, the adequacy and conservatism of the current 'ASME XI reference fatigue crack growth curves' of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code are critically reviewed and assessed on the basis of the gathered experimental data base and this model. Based on the observed cracking behaviour and the Ford-Andresen model, a simple time-domain superposition model is suggested, which could reduce most of the undue conservatism and eliminate uncertainties of the existing codes and therefore serve as a basis for the development of improved reference fatigue crack growth curves

  2. Numerical simulation on the "S" characteristics and pressure fluctuation of reduced pump-turbine at start-up condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. M.; Zheng, J. S.; Wen, G. Z.; Zhao, Y. Z.; Shi, Q. H.

    2012-11-01

    The performance of a reversible pump turbine with S-shaped characteristics is of great importance to the transition processes such as start-up and load rejection. In order to improve the "S" characteristics of reduced pump-turbine, several MGV (misaligned guide vane) schemes are calculated. The SST (shear stress turbulence) model is added to the N-S (Navier-strokes) governing equation. In order to predict the S-shaped curve accurately and develop a reliable tool for design improvement, the "S" characteristic is investigated in a whole pump-turbine including spiral casing, stay vanes, guide vanes, runner and draft tube. To validate the scheme reasonable, the mesh independent is tested. Comparison of unit discharge and unit speed performance showed that good correspondence is obtained between experimental data and calculated results. The "S shape" of reduced pump-turbine is eliminated with MGV schemes. Based on this, internal flow analysis is carried out adopting six typical MGV schemes at the same working condition. Through the calculation, we find that, first the pressure fluctuation is different between the guide vane and runner among the five MGV schemes, second the pressure fluctuation amplitude of MGV schemes D (4*35° and 16*6° average installed) is smallest, third the main frequency is the blade passing frequency and guide vane passing frequency at vane-less space and head cover, respectively. The conclusion is the "S shape" of pump-turbine can be improved with the average installed scheme.

  3. Numerical simulation on the 'S' characteristics and pressure fluctuation of reduced pump-turbine at start-up condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a reversible pump turbine with S-shaped characteristics is of great importance to the transition processes such as start-up and load rejection. In order to improve the 'S' characteristics of reduced pump-turbine, several MGV (misaligned guide vane) schemes are calculated. The SST (shear stress turbulence) model is added to the N-S (Navier-strokes) governing equation. In order to predict the S-shaped curve accurately and develop a reliable tool for design improvement, the 'S' characteristic is investigated in a whole pump-turbine including spiral casing, stay vanes, guide vanes, runner and draft tube. To validate the scheme reasonable, the mesh independent is tested. Comparison of unit discharge and unit speed performance showed that good correspondence is obtained between experimental data and calculated results. The 'S shape' of reduced pump-turbine is eliminated with MGV schemes. Based on this, internal flow analysis is carried out adopting six typical MGV schemes at the same working condition. Through the calculation, we find that, first the pressure fluctuation is different between the guide vane and runner among the five MGV schemes, second the pressure fluctuation amplitude of MGV schemes D (4*35° and 16*6° average installed) is smallest, third the main frequency is the blade passing frequency and guide vane passing frequency at vane-less space and head cover, respectively. The conclusion is the 'S shape' of pump-turbine can be improved with the average installed scheme.

  4. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site. PMID:23971876

  5. DNS study of the ignition of n-heptane fuel spray under high pressure and lean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to investigate the ignition of n-heptane fuel spray under high pressure and lean conditions. For the solution of the carrier gas fluid, the Eulerian method is employed, while for the fuel spray, the Lagrangian method is used. A chemistry mechanism for n-heptane with 33 species and 64 reactions is adopted to describe the chemical reactions. Initial carrier gas temperature and pressure are 926 K and 30.56 atmospheres, respectively. Initial global equivalence ratio is 0.258. Two cases with droplet radiuses of 35.5 and 20.0 macrons are simulated. Evolutions of the carrier gas temperature and species mass fractions are presented. Contours of the carrier gas temperature and species mass fractions near ignition and after ignition are presented. The results show that the smaller fuel droplet case ignites earlier than the larger droplet case. For the larger droplet case, ignition occurs first at one location; for the smaller droplet case, however, ignition occurs first at multiple locations. At ignition kernels, significant NO is produced when temperature is high enough at the ignition kernels. For the larger droplet case, more NO is produced than the smaller droplet case due to the inhomogeneous distribution and incomplete mixing of fuel vapor

  6. Thermal-hydraulics of wave propagation and pressure distribution under hypothetical steam explosion conditions in the ANS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes salient aspects of the modeling and analysis framework for evaluation of dynamic loads, wave propagation, and pressure distributions (under hypothetical steam explosion conditions) around key structural boundaries of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor core region. A staged approach was followed, using simple thermodynamic models for bounding loads and the CTH code for evaluating realistic estimates in a staged multidimensional framework. Effects of nodalization, melt dispersal into coolant during explosion, single versus multidirectional dissipation, energy level of melt, and rate of energy deposition into coolant were studied. The importance of capturing multidimensional effects that simultaneously account for fluid-structural interactions was demonstrated. As opposed to using bounding loads from thermodynamic evaluations, it was revealed that the ANS reactor system will not be vulnerable to vertically generated missiles that threaten containment if realistic estimates of energetics are used (from CTH calculations for thermally generated steam explosions without significant aluminum ignition)

  7. Selection of instruments used for vibration measurement of fuel bundles in a pressure tube under CANDU reactor operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vibration characteristics of CANDU fuel bundle and fuel elements is a key parameter considered in the design of a fuel bundle. Out-reactor frequency and temperature sweep tests, under reactor operating conditions, are performed to verify vibration characteristics of CANDU fuel bundles. Several options have been considered in the selection of vibration instrumentation to perform out-reactor frequency and temperature sweep tests. This paper compares the benefits and disadvantages of various vibration instruments and summarizes the rationale behind the selection of instruments used for vibration measurements over a range of temperature and pressure pulsation frequencies. The conclusions are presented from the bench tests performed, which confirm the use of the selected instruments. (author)

  8. Optimal heating condition of mouthguard sheet in vacuum-pressure formation: part 2 Olefin-based thermoplastic elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Koide, Kaoru

    2016-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to clarify the suitable heating conditions during vacuum-pressure formation of olefin copolymer sheets and to examine the sheet temperature at molding and the thickness of the molded mouthguard. Mouthguards were fabricated using 4.0-mm-thick olefin copolymer sheets utilizing a vacuum-pressure forming device, and then, 10 s of vacuum forming and 2 min of compression molding were applied. Three heating conditions were investigated. They were, defined by the degree of sagging observed at the center of the softened sheet (10, 15, or 20 mm lower than the clamp (H-10, H-15, or H-20, respectively)). The working model was trimmed to the height of 20 mm at the maxillary central incisor and 15 mm at the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar. The temperature on both the directly heated and the non-heated surfaces of the mouthguard sheet was measured by the radiation thermometer for each condition. The thickness of mouthguard sheets after fabrication was determined for the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp and buccal surface), and dimensional measurements were obtained using a measuring device. Differences in the thickness due to the heating condition of the sheets were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests. The temperature difference between the heated and non-heated surfaces was highest under H-10. Sheet temperature under H-15 and H-20 was almost the same. The thickness differences were noted at incisal edge, cusp, and buccal surface, and H-15 was the greatest. This study demonstrated that heating of the sheet resulting in sag of 15 mm or more was necessary for sufficient softening of the sheet and that the mouthguard thickness decreased with increased sag. In conclusion, sag of 15 mm can be recommended as a good indicator of appropriate molding timing for this material. PMID:26341504

  9. The Influence of Collar on Surge Pressure Caused by the Drilling Fluid Viscous Force under Pumping Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Li 4; Zhen Huang; Ke Li; Wei Wu

    2013-01-01

    The study of surge pressure is of significant importance for the safety of drilling process because field practice shows that the surge pressure caused by fluid viscous force can cause a great damage to the drilling operation. The accurate calculation of surge pressure is directly related to the safety of the drilling process. However, the existing surge pressure models rarely take the impact of the collar into consideration and thus will inevitably affect the precision of the surge pressure ...

  10. An assessment of the failure rate for the beltline region of PWR pressure vessels during normal operation and certain transient conditions. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to assess the failure rate for the beltline region of a generic pressurized-water reactor (PWR) pressure vessel. This assessment included the evaluation of several normal operating and transient reactor conditions. Failure rates were calculated from a computer code that used fracture mechanics methods to model the failure process; random number generation techniques were used to simulate random variables and model their interaction in the failure-process. This investigation had three major objectives: (1) to better define the effect of neutron irradiation, material variation, and flaw distribution on the failure rate for the beltline region of PWR pressure vessels, (2) to estimate the relative margins against failure for normal operation and certain transient conditions associated with nuclear pressure vessels, and (3) to evaluate the current limitations for using fracture mechanics models to predict failure rates for nuclear pressure vessels

  11. Stability of supercritical water-cooled reactor during steady-state and sliding pressure start-up conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The drastic change of fluid density in the reactor core of a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) gives rise to the concern of density wave stability. Using a single channel thermal-hydraulic model, the stability boundary maps of the U.S. reference SCWR design have been constructed for both the steady state and the sliding pressure start-up conditions. For the steady state, the supercritical water in the reactor core has been simulated using a three-region model - (1) a 'heavy fluid' with constant density, (2) a mixture of 'heavy fluid' and 'light fluid' similar to homogeneous-equilibrium two-phase mixture, and finally (3) a 'light fluid' which behaves like an ideal gas or superheated steam. The governing non-dimensional groups have been determined from a non-dimensional analysis of the conservation equations for this three-region supercritical water model. Two important non-dimensional groups, namely, Pseudo-Subcooling number (Npsub) and Expansion number (Nexp), which are similar to the Subcooling number (Nsub) and Phase Change number (Npch) commonly used in the analysis of the subcritical two-phase flow, have been identified for the supercritical region. The stability map in the supercritical region has been plotted in the Pseudo-Subcooling number versus Expansion number plane. It has been found that the U. S. reference SCWR design operates in the stable region with a big margin. Sensitivity studies have been performed with respect to the inlet orifice coefficient, system pressure and the inlet coolant velocity. It has been found that the stability boundary in the Npsub - Nexp plane is not sensitive to the system pressure and the inlet coolant velocity, but it is sensitive to the inlet orifice coefficient. This is consistent with the findings of the earlier research done for the subcritical two-phase flow. During the sliding pressure start-up operation of the SCWR, two-phase steam-water mixture at subcritical pressure will appear in the reactor core. A non-homogeneous (e. g., drift-flux) nonequilibrium two-phase flow model was applied. An exponential vapor generation rate for subcooled boiling was assumed along with a simplified but recent correlation for vapor drift velocity. The characteristic equation was numerically integrated, and the stability boundary map was plotted on the traditional Subcooling number versus Phase Change number plane. The effects of different two-phase flow models on the stability boundary have also been investigated. Thus, stability boundary maps have been constructed using four different models, namely, the Homogenous-Equilibrium model, the Homogenous-Nonequilibrium model, the Non-homogenous-Equilibrium model and the Non-homogenous-Non-Equilibrium model. It has been found that the Homogenous-Nonequilibrium model predicts the most conservative stability boundary at high Subcooling numbers, while the Homogenous-Equilibrium model yields the most conservative boundary at low Subcooling numbers. These maps are being used to develop the sliding pressure start-up strategies of the SCWR. Work is underway to expand the single channel model to a multi-channel model with neutronic feedback to study the local flow instabilities in a SCWR. (authors)

  12. Development of Evaluation Technique for Hydrogen Embrittlement Behavior of Metallic Materials Using in-situ SP Testing under Pressurized Hydrogen Gas Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, alternative and novel energy resources have been developed for use in the future because of the current environmental problems and exhaustion of fossil energy resources. Hydrogen energy has many merits, such as its environmental friendliness, easy storage, and easy production, but it also has disadvantages, in that it is highly combustible and explosive. In this study, a test procedure using a simple SP test under highly pressurized hydrogen gas conditions was established. In order to evaluate its applicability, SP tests were carried out using a stainless steel (SUS316L) sample under atmospheric, pressurized helium, and pressurized hydrogen gas conditions. The results under the pressurized hydrogen gas condition showed fissuring and produced a reduction of the elongation in the plastic instability region due to hydrogen embrittlement, showing the effectiveness of the current in-situ SP test

  13. Environmentally-Assisted Cracking of Low-Alloy Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels under Boiling Water Reactor Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report summarizes the experimental work performed by PSI on the environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) of low-alloy steels (LAS) in the frame of the RIKORR-project during the period from January 2000 to August 2001. Within this project, the EAC crack growth behaviour of different low-alloy reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels, weld filler and weld heat-affected zone materials is investigated under simulated transient and steady-state BWR/NWC power operation conditions. The EAC crack growth behaviour of different low-alloy RPV steels was characterized by slow rising load (SRL) / low-frequency corrosion fatigue (LFCF) and constant load tests with pre-cracked fracture mechanics specimens in oxygenated high-temperature water at temperatures of either 288, 250, 200 or 150 C. These tests revealed the following important interim results: Under low-flow and highly oxidizing (ECP >= 100 mV SHE) conditions, the ASME XI 'wet' reference fatigue crack growth curve could be significantly exceeded by cyclic fatigue loading at low frequencies (<0.001 Hz), at high and low load-ratios R, and by ripple loading near to DKth fatigue thresholds. The BWR VIP 60 SCC disposition lines may be significantly or slightly exceeded (even in steels with a low sulphur content) in the case of small load fluctuations at high load ratios (ripple loading) or at intermediate temperatures (200 -250 C) in RPV materials, which show a distinct susceptibility to dynamic strain ageing (DSA). (author)

  14. Influencing factors research on CHF at low pressure, low flow conditions in narrow channel based on Rough Set Decision Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This article is consistent with the theme of the thermal–hydraulic. • It provides a new mathematical method for the analysis of the factors affecting the CHF (Critical Heat Flux). • Also it has a great potential for research related to CHF. - Abstract: CHF (Critical Heat Flux) is an important nuclear thermal–hydraulic parameter, and it is closely related to the reactor safety. Based on Rough Set Decision Model, this article proposed a new method to seek for the main factors which may affect CHF at low pressure, low flow conditions in narrow channels. Nine condition attributes are selected to build the CHF fault diagnosis model in narrow rectangular channels, and the rules of CHF occurring are obtained. These attributes include pipe diameter, circulating mode and flow stability, etc. The results show that flow instability could cause the CHF reach a minimum and CHF could be improved with the increase of pipe size. Diagnostic results in this method could predict the main influencing factors for CHF very well, and provide a new theoretical approach for the safety analysis of nuclear plants

  15. Correlation Approach to Evaluate Critical Brittleness Temperature for WWER-1000 Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials in Unirradiated Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical data analysis for ten WWER-1000 units of Ukrainian nuclear power plants has been performed to derive the relationship between the critical brittleness temperatures Tk0 (technical data on reactor pressure vessel) and Tkt (surveillance test data) for base and weld metal in unirradiated condition. According to standard PNAE G-7-002-86, there are two methods to evaluate the critical brittleness temperature of RPV materials in unirradiated (initial) condition. One method is deterministic, in which specified criteria are to be fulfilled to determine the critical brittleness temperature (Tk0). This temperature is evaluated within RPV material qualification tests. The other method employs a regression analysis of the temperature dependence of impact toughness applying a hyperbolic tangent function. In the latter case, the brittleness temperature (Tkt) is determined using the surveillance test data. The analysis has shown that Tkt increases with higher Tk0, and this correlation is linear for the examined materials. The set temperature Tk0 is 15deg C higher than Tkt on average. The standard deviation for the linear correlation is 6deg C. An equation to evaluate Tk0 has been proposed within this correlation analysis and can be applied to determine the critical brittleness temperature with a required safety margin for justification of WWER-1000 RPV safe operation.

  16. Investigations on tailoring the deposition conditions in HIPIMS by varying the pulse durations and the argon partial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most cases HIPIMS is used to get the highest possible ionisation of the deposition particles, which is realised by pulse durations with short on- and very long off-times. These conditions are combined with a more or less pronounced decrease in deposition rate. In this work the pulse configuration has been varied. A three dimensional matrix of parameters was spanned, made of 3 on- and 3 off-times at 4 argon partial pressures. The average power was kept constant and the data achieved were additionally compared to DC-magnetron sputtering. The experiments were carried out using 50 mm diameter targets made of Ti, powered by a MELEC SPIK1000A pulser unit. The deposition rate was measured by quartz microbalance mounted in front of the target. Peak current density and target voltage were recorded and time averaged optical emission spectroscopy (t.a.OES) measurements provided information about the ionisation conditions in the plasma. The results of the data analysis provide a coherent overview of the impact of the HIPIMS parameters as well as of their complex interrelations.

  17. Investigations on tailoring the deposition conditions in HIPIMS by varying the pulse durations and the argon partial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, M.; Fenker, M.

    2012-09-01

    In most cases HIPIMS is used to get the highest possible ionisation of the deposition particles, which is realised by pulse durations with short on- and very long off-times. These conditions are combined with a more or less pronounced decrease in deposition rate. In this work the pulse configuration has been varied. A three dimensional matrix of parameters was spanned, made of 3 on- and 3 off-times at 4 argon partial pressures. The average power was kept constant and the data achieved were additionally compared to DC-magnetron sputtering. The experiments were carried out using 50 mm diameter targets made of Ti, powered by a MELEC SPIK1000A pulser unit. The deposition rate was measured by quartz microbalance mounted in front of the target. Peak current density and target voltage were recorded and time averaged optical emission spectroscopy (t.a.OES) measurements provided information about the ionisation conditions in the plasma. The results of the data analysis provide a coherent overview of the impact of the HIPIMS parameters as well as of their complex interrelations.

  18. Environmentally-Assisted Cracking of Low-Alloy Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels under Boiling Water Reactor Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S

    2002-02-01

    The present report summarizes the experimental work performed by PSI on the environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) of low-alloy steels (LAS) in the frame of the RIKORR-project during the period from January 2000 to August 2001. Within this project, the EAC crack growth behaviour of different low-alloy reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels, weld filler and weld heat-affected zone materials is investigated under simulated transient and steady-state BWR/NWC power operation conditions. The EAC crack growth behaviour of different low-alloy RPV steels was characterized by slow rising load (SRL) / low-frequency corrosion fatigue (LFCF) and constant load tests with pre-cracked fracture mechanics specimens in oxygenated high-temperature water at temperatures of either 288, 250, 200 or 150 C. These tests revealed the following important interim results: Under low-flow and highly oxidizing (ECP >= 100 mV SHE) conditions, the ASME XI 'wet' reference fatigue crack growth curve could be significantly exceeded by cyclic fatigue loading at low frequencies (<0.001 Hz), at high and low load-ratios R, and by ripple loading near to DKth fatigue thresholds. The BWR VIP 60 SCC disposition lines may be significantly or slightly exceeded (even in steels with a low sulphur content) in the case of small load fluctuations at high load ratios (ripple loading) or at intermediate temperatures (200 -250 C) in RPV materials, which show a distinct susceptibility to dynamic strain ageing (DSA). (author)

  19. Study of hydride blisters grown on Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube spool piece under simulated condition of in-reactor pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) have pressure tubes, made from zirconium alloy. These pressure tubes undergo corrosion with the high temperature (300 deg C) heavy water coolant under the reactor environment and pick up a part of hydrogen generated as result of this corrosion reaction. This hydrogen affects the integrity of pressure tubes in many ways; nucleation and growth of hydride blisters being one of them. The present study has been carried out to understand the mechanisms of nucleation and growth of hydride blisters and their effect on the serviceability of the component in the reactor environment. (author)

  20. Development of strapdown inertial navigation system with MEMS sensors, barometric altimeter and ultrasonic range meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholopov, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    The results of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) tests with 9 degrees of freedom MEMS sensor MPU-9150 (triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer), pressure sensor LPS331 and ultrasonic range meter HC-SR04, implemented on the FPGA Altera Cyclone-II evaluation board DE1 is considered. SINS measures the spatial coordinates and altitude relative to the starting point, the orientation angles and distances to obstacles along the way. It is shown that the relative error of the spatial coordinates estimation does not exceed 1.1% in interval of some minutes.

  1. Radiolysis of water at high temperature and pressure conditions: a picosecond pulse radiolysis experiment and numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolytic products of coolant material under strong radiation field in water-cooled reactors are known to give undesirable effects on nuclear structural materials. Understanding of the fundamental processes will be of great importance for various application fields in water chemistry. Ionization and excitation of water molecules by ionizing radiations initiate very fast physical and chemical processes within μs(10-6 sec), ns (10-9 sec) or even ps (10-12 sec), followed by formation of primary radiolytic species (e-aq, OH, H, H2, H2O2 etc.). Through the processes, the radiation chemical yields (G-values) are supposed to change dynamically depending on time and also on temperature. However, because of so high reactivity (short lifetime), it was difficult to observe experimentally the temporal behaviors (spatially inhomogeneous reactions, called spur diffusion reactions). In this work, the fundamental processes (G-values of the intermediates and the fast reaction kinetics) of the radiolysis of water at high temperature and pressure conditions (HTHP) were investigated by a newly developed picosecond time-resolved pulse radiolysis system, and also by numerical analyses. The results indicated that the hydrated electron (e-aq) in the spur reaction process mainly reacts with OH at room temperature, while that with H3O+ becomes also competitive in subcritical water. Taking the cumulative yield variations (ΔG molec./100eV) into account, it is suggested that historically defined primary G-value of the hydrated electron in subcritical water (G ∼ 3.6 molec./100eV) will be appropriately reexamined to the lower value below 2.7 in neutral pH condition, while it is rather close to it in basic condition. (author)

  2. Crack growth behaviour of low alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions (CASTOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CASTOC project addresses environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) phenomena in low alloy steels used for pressure boundary components in both Western type boiling water reactors (BWR) and Russian type pressurised water reactors (VVER). It comprises the four work packages (WP): inter-laboratory comparison test (WP1); EAC behaviour under static load (WP2), EAC behaviour under cyclic load and load transients (WP3); evaluation of the results with regard to their relevance for components in practice (WP4). The use of sophisticated test facilities and measurement techniques for the on-line detection of crack advances have provided a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking and provided quantitative data of crack growth rates as a function of loading events and time, respectively. The effect of several major parameters controlling EAC was investigated with particular emphasis on the transferability of the results to components in service. The obtained crack growth rate data were reflected on literature data and on commonly applied prediction curves as presented in the appropriate Code. At relevant stress intensity factors it could be shown that immediate cessation of growing cracks occurs after changing from cyclic to static load in high purity oxygenated BWR water and oxygen-free VVER water corresponding to steady state operation conditions. Susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking under static load was observed for a heat affected zone material in oxygenated high purity water and also in base materials during a chloride transient representing BWR water condition below Action Level 1 of the EPRI Water Chemistry Guidelines according to the lectrical conductivity of the water but in the range of Action Level 2 according to the content of chlorides. Time based crack growth was also observed in one Russian type base material in oxygenated VVER water and in one Western type base material in oxygenated high purity BWR water at stress intensity factors above the limit for linear elastic fracture mechanics. There is evidence that the prediction curves of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, Appendix A are not conservative for some relevant cases with regard to crack growth rates under cyclic load even in oxygenated high purity BWR water. The CASTOC results have provided an important contribution to the understanding of crack growth behavior on the one hand as a function of time and on the other hand as a consequence of the number and height of loading events. This is an important key for the evaluation of transient events, which may occur in a plant during service. (orig.)

  3. Crack growth behaviour of low alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions (CASTOC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Materialpruefungsanstalt, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) (Spain); Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Inst. (NRI) (Czech Republic); Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) (Switzerland); Roth, A.; Devrient, B. [Framatome ANP GmbH (F ANP) (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    The CASTOC project addresses environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) phenomena in low alloy steels used for pressure boundary components in both Western type boiling water reactors (BWR) and Russian type pressurised water reactors (VVER). It comprises the four work packages (WP): inter-laboratory comparison test (WP1); EAC behaviour under static load (WP2), EAC behaviour under cyclic load and load transients (WP3); evaluation of the results with regard to their relevance for components in practice (WP4). The use of sophisticated test facilities and measurement techniques for the on-line detection of crack advances have provided a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking and provided quantitative data of crack growth rates as a function of loading events and time, respectively. The effect of several major parameters controlling EAC was investigated with particular emphasis on the transferability of the results to components in service. The obtained crack growth rate data were reflected on literature data and on commonly applied prediction curves as presented in the appropriate Code. At relevant stress intensity factors it could be shown that immediate cessation of growing cracks occurs after changing from cyclic to static load in high purity oxygenated BWR water and oxygen-free VVER water corresponding to steady state operation conditions. Susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking under static load was observed for a heat affected zone material in oxygenated high purity water and also in base materials during a chloride transient representing BWR water condition below Action Level 1 of the EPRI Water Chemistry Guidelines according to the lectrical conductivity of the water but in the range of Action Level 2 according to the content of chlorides. Time based crack growth was also observed in one Russian type base material in oxygenated VVER water and in one Western type base material in oxygenated high purity BWR water at stress intensity factors above the limit for linear elastic fracture mechanics. There is evidence that the prediction curves of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, Appendix A are not conservative for some relevant cases with regard to crack growth rates under cyclic load even in oxygenated high purity BWR water. The CASTOC results have provided an important contribution to the understanding of crack growth behavior on the one hand as a function of time and on the other hand as a consequence of the number and height of loading events. This is an important key for the evaluation of transient events, which may occur in a plant during service. (orig.)

  4. Frictional property of rocks in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Forearc under high temperature and pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, G.; Takahashi, M.; Saito, S.; Hirose, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Kanto region in central Japan lies atop of three tectonic plates: the North American Plate, the Pacific Plate, and the Philippine Sea Plate. The collision and subduction of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc on the Philippine Sea Plate into the Kanto region results in occurring the different type of earthquakes, including seismic slip (e.g., the Kanto earthquake) and aseismic creep (i.e., slow earthquakes around the Boso peninsula). The seismic and aseismic slip seems to generate side by side at almost same depth (probably nearly same P-T conditions). This study focus on frictional property of incoming materials to be subducted into the Kanto region, in order to examine a hypothesis that the different types of slips arise from different input materials. Thus, we have performed friction experiments on rocks that constitute the IBM forearc using a high P-T gas medium apparatus at AIST. We sampled five rocks (marl, boninite, andesite, sheared serpentinite and serpentinized dunite) recovered from the IBM forearc by Leg 125, Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 784, 786). The rocks were crushed and sieved into 10˜50 µm in grain size. Experiments were conducted at temperature of 300○C, confining pressure of 156 MPa, pore pressure of 60 MPa and axial displacement rates of 0.1 and 1 µm/s. For marl, andesite and boninite, a periodic stick-slip behavior appears at 1 µm/s. Rise time of the stick-slip behaviors are quite long (3.1, 9.9 and 14.2 sec, for marl, andesite and boninite, respectively). We called such events as a "slow stick-slip". Similar slow stick-slip behaviors were observed in previous studies (Noda and Shimamoto, 2010; Okazaki, 2013; Kaproth and Marone, 2013), but this is first time to recognize this characteristic slip behavior in sedimentary and igneous rocks. Although it is difficult to discuss the diverse slip behaviors observed at the Kanto region based on our limited experimental results, we will examine the conditions where the transition between stable and unstable sliding appears using the input materials and explore the generation mechanisms of earthquakes at the Kanto region.

  5. The ReactorAFM: Non-contact atomic force microscope operating under high-pressure and high-temperature catalytic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roobol, S. B.; Caas-Ventura, M. E.; Bergman, M.; Spronsen, M. A. van; Onderwaater, W. G.; Tuijn, P. C. van der; Koehler, R.; Frenken, J. W. M., E-mail: frenken@arcnl.nl [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, RA Leiden 2300 (Netherlands); Ofitserov, A.; Baarle, G. J. C. van [Leiden Probe Microscopy B.V., J.H. Oortweg 21, 2333 CH Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    An Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) has been integrated in a miniature high-pressure flow reactor for in-situ observations of heterogeneous catalytic reactions under conditions similar to those of industrial processes. The AFM can image model catalysts such as those consisting of metal nanoparticles on flat oxide supports in a gas atmosphere up to 6 bar and at a temperature up to 600 K, while the catalytic activity can be measured using mass spectrometry. The high-pressure reactor is placed inside an Ultrahigh Vacuum (UHV) system to supplement it with standard UHV sample preparation and characterization techniques. To demonstrate that this instrument successfully bridges both the pressure gap and the materials gap, images have been recorded of supported palladium nanoparticles catalyzing the oxidation of carbon monoxide under high-pressure, high-temperature conditions.

  6. Black Tea Lowers Blood Pressure and Wave Reflections in Fasted and Postprandial Conditions in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomised Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and arterial stiffening are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Flavonoids may exert some vascular protection. We investigated the effects of black tea on blood pressure (BP and wave reflections before and after fat load in hypertensives. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 19 patients were assigned to consume black tea (129 mg flavonoids or placebo twice a day for eight days (13 day wash-out period. Digital volume pulse and BP were measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after tea consumption. Measurements were performed in a fasted state and after a fat load. Compared to placebo, reflection index and stiffness index decreased after tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge increased wave reflection, which was counteracted by tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Black tea decreased systolic and diastolic BP (−3.2 mmHg, p < 0.005 and −2.6 mmHg, p < 0.0001; respectively and prevented BP increase after a fat load (p < 0.0001. Black tea consumption lowers wave reflections and BP in the fasting state, and during the challenging haemodynamic conditions after a fat load in hypertensives. Considering lipemia-induced impairment of arterial function may occur frequently during the day, our findings suggest regular consumption of black tea may be relevant for cardiovascular protection.

  7. Evaluation of Low Pressure Fogging System for Improving Crop Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.: Grown under Heat Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobi Shilo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean regions, many tomato plants are grown throughout the hot summer period (May–September in sheltered cultivation, mainly for plant protection reasons. Most of the shelters that are used are low cost net houses covered with 50 mesh insect proof net. In most cases these net houses have a flat roof and no ventilation or climate control measures. This insufficient ventilation during the hot summer leads to above optimal air temperatures and causes moderate heat stress inside the shelters, which leads to yield reduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a simple and inexpensive low pressure fogging system installed in a naturally ventilated net house to lower temperatures and improve the yield during the summer. The study showed that in areas where relative air humidity (RH during the daytime is less than 60%, tomato plants improved their performance when grown through the summer in net houses under moderate heat stress. Under fogging conditions pollen grain viability and fruit set were significantly improved. This improvement influenced the yield picked during September (104–136 DAP. However, total seasonal yield was not affected by the fogging treatment.

  8. Continuous enrichment culturing of thermophiles under sulfate and nitrate-reducing conditions and at deep-sea hydrostatic pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, J L; Seyfried, W E; Banta, A B; Reysenbach, A-L

    2007-03-01

    A continuous culture bioreactor was developed to enrich for nitrate and sulfate reducing thermophiles under in situ deep-sea pressures. The ultimate objective of this experimental design was to be able to study microbial activities at chemical and physical conditions relevant to seafloor hydrothermal vents. Sulfide, sulfate and oxide minerals from sampled seafloor vent-chimney structures [East Pacific Rise (9 degrees 46'N)] served as source mineral and microbial inoculum for enrichment culturing using nitrate and sulfate-enriched media at 70 and 90 degrees C and 250 bars. Changes in microbial diversity during the continuous reaction flow were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. Time series changes in fluid chemistry were also monitored throughout the experiment to assess the feedback between mineral-fluid reaction and metabolic processes. Data indicate a shift from the dominance of epsilon Proteobacteria in the initial inoculum to the several Aquificales-like phylotypes in nitrate-reducing enrichment media and Thermodesulfobacteriales in the sulfate-reducing enrichment media. Methanogens were detected in the original sulfide sample and grew in selected sulfate-enriched experiments. Microbial interactions with anhydrite and pyrrhotite in the chimney material resulted in measurable changes in fluid chemistry despite a fluid residence time only 75 min in the reactor. Changes in temperature rather than source material resulted in greater differences in microbial enrichments and mediated geochemical reactions. PMID:17221162

  9. Numerical investigation of the spray-mesh-turbulence interactions for high-pressure, evaporating sprays at engine conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a numerical methodology to simulate evaporating, high pressure Diesel sprays using the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. Specific sub-models were developed to describe the liquid spray injection and breakup, and the influence of the liquid jet on the turbulence viscosity in the vicinity of the nozzle. To reduce the computational time and easily solve the problem of the grid dependency, the possibility to dynamically refine the grid where the fuel-air mixing process takes place was also included. The validity of the proposed approach was firstly verified simulating an evaporating spray in a constant-volume vessel at non-reacting conditions. The availability of a large quantity of experimental data allowed us to investigate in detail the effects of grid size, ambient diffusivity and used spray sub-models. In this way, different guidelines were derived for a successful simulation of the fuel-air mixture formation process. Finally, fuel injection and evaporation were simulated in an optical engine geometry and computed mixture fraction distributions were compared with experimental data.

  10. Experimental Study of Abiotic Organic Synthesis at High Temperature and Pressure Conditions: Carbon Isotope and Mineral Surface Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, R. A.; Niles, P. B.

    2010-01-01

    Abiotic organic synthesis processes have been proposed as potential mechanisms for methane generation in subseafloor hydrothermal systems on Earth, and on other planets. To better understand the detailed reaction pathways and carbon isotope fractionations in this process under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions, hydrothermal experiments at high temperature (750 C) and pressure (0.55 GPa) were performed using piston cylinder apparatus. Formic acid was used as the source of CO2 and H2, and magnetite was the mineral catalyst. The chemical and carbon isotopic compositions of dissolved organic products were determined by GC-C-MS-IRMS, while organic intermediaries on the mineral catalyst were characterized by Pyrolysis-GC-MS. Among experimental products, dissolved CO2 was the dominant carbon species with a relative abundance of 88 mol%. Dissolved CH4 and C2H6 were also identified with a mole ratio of CH4 over C2H6 of 15:1. No dissolved CO was detected in the experiment, which might be attributable to the loss of H2 through the Au capsule used in the experiments at high temperature and pressure conditions and corresponding conversion of CO to CO2 by the water-gas shift reaction. Carbon isotope results showed that the 13C values of CH4 and C2H6 were -50.3% and -39.3% (V-PDB), respectively. CO2 derived from decarboxylation of formic acid had a (sigma)C-13 value of -19.2%, which was 3.2% heavier than its source, formic acid. The (sigma)C-13 difference between CO2 and CH4 was 31.1%, which was higher than the value of 9.4% calculated from theoretical isotopic equilibrium predictions at experimental conditions, suggesting the presence of a kinetic isotope effect. This number was also higher than the values (4.6 to 27.1%) observed in similar experiments previously performed at 400 C and 50 MPa with longer reaction times. CH4 is 11.0% less enriched in C-13 than C2H6. Alcohols were observed as carbon compounds on magnetite surfaces by Pyrolysis-GC-MS, which confirms the hypothesis regarding the reaction pathways of hydrothermal abiotic organic synthesis proposed by Fu et al. (2007, 2008). In this proposed pathway, hydroxymethylene (-CHOH) groups serve as organic intermediaries on mineral surfaces while dissolved H2 serves as a chain terminator/breaker to generate short chain hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds. This pathway is different from the carbide polymerization theory of Fischer- Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis in a gas phase. The observed increase of (sigma)C-13 values of C1 and C2 alkanes with carbon number in our hydrothermal experiments can be readily interpreted by hydroxymethylene pathway, and might be used to differentiate between hydroxymethylene and carbide polymerization pathways. Carbon isotope analysis of alcohols on mineral catalyst surfaces is under way to provide further constraints on formation of organic compounds by FTT in hydrothermal systems.

  11. Role of Sediments and Nutrients in the Condition of a Coral Reef Under Tourist Pressure: Akumal México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Garcia, M. J.; Vadés Lozano, D. S.; Real-De-Leon, E.; Lopez-Aguiar, K.; Garza-Perez, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Akumal, Mexico, was the first tourist resort in the Mexican Caribbean mainland, its highly developed coastal zone lies directly above the phreatic, and it is directly connected to the sub-littoral waters. Akumal is also known as a well-developed fringing coral reef, now in a critical condition. The main objective of this study was to explore the relationship between two of the main indicators of human pressure (nutrients and sedimentation, linked to coastal development and water run-offs) and the condition of the reef benthos, during a year. The sampling design used four transects perpendicular to shore, associated to different tourist and water run-off exposure, for a total of 12 stations distributed in three different reef zones (transition zone, shallow and deep spurs and grooves). Monthly samples were collected: water samples close to the reef lagoon drain channels and at bottom depth at each station, and sediment traps were recovered and replaced also at each station. Reef Benthos videotransects were recorded bi-monthly at each station to assess its condition. Macroalgae and filamentous algae dominate benthic cover (up to 50%), hard-coral cover ranges from 5-9%. Five coral-diseases were recorded, affecting 10.16% of the coral colonies: Caribbean Ciliate Infection, White Band, Purple Spots, White Spots and Yellow Band. The sedimentation rate -sr- ranged from 0.13 to 83.7 mg/cm2/day during the year; 86% of the samples had a sr ≤ 10 mg/cm2/day (reefs not stressed); 13% of the samples had a sr ranging from 10 to 50 mg/cm2/day (stressed reefs); and 1% of the samples were over the critical threshold (>50 mg/cm2/day). Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen concentrations during the year were above those recorded previously in Caribbean reefs. The most abundant fraction was ammonium, surpassing both Mexican norms: For protection of aquatic life in coastal zones (0.01 mg/L), and the critical threshold for aquatic life (0.4 mg/L). These concentration limits are considered as drivers of eutrophication, one of the main established causes of reef degradation globally. High concentrations of ammonium and other nutrients have been linked to increases in algae cover and coral diseases incidence, and to decreases in rates of coral calcification, fertility, production and viability of coral larvae, and the associated diversity loss.

  12. Valve inlet fluid conditions for pressurizer safety and relief valves for B and W 177-FA and 205-FA plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overpressurization transients for the Babcock and Wilcox Company's 177- and 205-FA units are reviewed to determine the range of fluid conditions expected at the inlet of pressurizer safety and relief valves. The final Safety Analysis Report, extended high-pressure injection, and cold overpressurization events are considered. The results of this review, presented in the form of tables and graphs, provide input to the PWR utilities in their justification that the fluid conditions under which their valve designs were tested as part of the EPRI PWR Safety and Relief Valve Test Program are representative of those expected in their unit(s)

  13. Influence of the external conditions on salt retention and pressure-induced electrical potential measured across a composite membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    Transport on single electrolyte solutions (NaCl and MgCl2) due to pressure gradients across a commercial reverse osmosis membrane was studied by measuring volume flux (J(v)), salt rejection (S) and pressure induced electrical potential (Delta E) in a crossflow cell. The influence on these...

  14. Modelling of crud growth mechanisms under local boiling conditions in pressurized water reactors fuel clads leading to important volumes activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) primary circuit materials are subject to general corrosion leading to soluble metallic element (mainly Fe, Ni, Cr, Mn, Co) transfer and subsequent ion precipitation processes on the primary circuit surfaces. When deposited on fuel rods, these species are activated by neutron flux. Thus, crud erosion and dissolution processes induce to primary coolant activity. During a normal operating cycle in a EDF PWR, the volume activity in the coolant is relatively stable (usually about 10-20 MBq.m-3 in 58Co). In some cycles (depending on fuel management), significant increases in 58Co and 51Cr volume activities are observed (10 to 100 times the ordinary volume activities). These increases of volume activities are due to local sub-cooled nucleate boiling on the 'hot' parts of fuel assemblies. As presented in this thesis, boiling at the top of some fuel assemblies may lead to much higher amount of metallic elements than usual (some micrometers). Indeed, boiling that can locally occurs under PWR conditions concentrates species and to increase significantly the quantity of deposited and precipitated material. Erosion flux is higher in these regions due to thicker crud thickness, involving a greater mass transfer of activated isotopes to the primary coolant. The OSCAR calculation code, developed by the 'Laboratoire de Modelisation des interactions et Transferts en Reacteur' in CEA, with these new mass transfer models can now well estimate the amount of deposit and the volume activities in the primary coolant in case of boiling in accordance with french PWR measurements. (author)

  15. Fuel pellets from biomass: The importance of the pelletizing pressure and its dependency on the processing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Holm, Jens K.; Sanadi, Anand R.; Barsberg, Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the key factors affecting the pelletizing pressure in biomass pelletization processes. The impact of raw material type, pellet length, temperature, moisture content and particle size on the pressure build up in the press channel of a pellet mill was...... studied using a single pellet press unit. It was shown that the pelletizing pressure increased exponentially with the pellet length. The rate of increase was dependent on biomass species, temperature, moisture content and particle size. A mathematical model, predicting the pelletizing pressure, was in...... act as lubricants, lowering the friction between the biomass and the press channel walls. The effect of moisture content on the pelletizing pressure was dependent on the raw material species. Different particle size fractions, from below 0.5 mm up to 2.8 mm diameter, were tested, and it was shown that...

  16. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative fuels. Optical patternation data and line of sight laser diffraction data show that there is significant difference between jet fuels. Particularly at low fuel injection pressures (0.345 MPa) and cold temperatures (-40 C), the patternation data shows that the total surface area in the spray at 38.1 mm from the pressure swirl injector for the JP-10 fuel type is one-sixth the amount of the JP-8. Finally, this study compares the atomizer performance of a pressure swirl nozzle to a hybrid air blast nozzle. The total surface area for both the hybrid air blast nozzle and the pressure swirl nozzle show a similar decline in atomization performance at low fuel injection pressures and cold temperatures. However, the optical patternator radial profile data and the line of sight laser diffraction data show that the droplet size and spray distribution data are less affected by injection conditions and fuel type in the hybrid air blast nozzle, than they are in the pressure swirl nozzle. One explanation is that the aerodynamic forces associated with the swirler on the hybrid air blast nozzle control the distribution droplets in the spray. This is in contrast to the pressure swirl nozzle droplet distribution that is controlled by internal geometry and droplet ballistics.

  17. Definition of routine conditions of transport: a perspective on pressure and temperature for excepted and industrial packages as required by ST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of ST-1 will bring a change to the requirements for packages to withstand ambient temperatures and pressures that are likely to be encountered in routine transport. This paper, making use of published data, postulates an environment and then considers the physical effect of that environment on excepted and industrial packages. The effect of atmospheric pressure changes is considered together with pressures arising from ambient temperature changes. Assuming a constant volume the pressure that could be developed within a package is estimated to be 21.4 kPa for transport in the UK at the highest road elevation. This equates to a volume change of 23% assuming constant pressure and variable volume. The constant pressure case is applicable to a wrapped or bagged package and the constant volume to a drum. Information from a major drum manufacturer indicates that a standard 200 litre drum may experience deformation of the lid beyond its elastic limit (particularly if the route is over mountain passes), although it is still likely to retain its contents (up to a pressure differential of 100 kPa). The paper poses the following questions: (1) Are the conditions considered for the UK realistic and acceptable to the Competent Authority? If not what should be used? (2) Is a drum capable of withstanding a 1.2 m drop test in its pressurised configuration, or does it have to? (3) Is there operational experience which refutes or supports the above?. (author)

  18. Constraining the Depth of a Martian Magma Ocean through Metal-Silicate Partitioning Experiments: The Role of Different Datasets and the Range of Pressure and Temperature Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Chabot, N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Mars accretion is known to be fast compared to Earth. Basaltic samples provide a probe into the interior and allow reconstruction of siderophile element contents of the mantle. These estimates can be used to estimate conditions of core formation, as for Earth. Although many assume that Mars went through a magma ocean stage, and possibly even complete melting, the siderophile element content of Mars mantle is consistent with relatively low pressure and temperature (PT) conditions, implying only shallow melting, near 7 GPa and 2073 K. This is a pressure range where some have proposed a change in siderophile element partitioning behavior. We will examine the databases used for parameterization and split them into a low and higher pressure regime to see if the methods used to reach this conclusion agree for the two sets of data.

  19. Effects of storage conditions before or after high-hydrostatic pressure on inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of storage conditions on subsequent high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oyster meat was investigated. Live oysters were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus to ca. 7-8 log MPN/g by feeding and stored at different conditi...

  20. Optimization of hydrostatic pressure at varied sonication conditions--power density, intensity, very low frequency--for isothermal ultrasonic sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Henri; Le, Ngoc Tuan; Barthe, Laurie; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine

    2015-07-01

    This work aims at investigating for the first time the key sonication (US) parameters: power density (DUS), intensity (IUS), and frequency (FS) - down to audible range, under varied hydrostatic pressure (Ph) and low temperature isothermal conditions (to avoid any thermal effect). The selected application was activated sludge disintegration, a major industrial US process. For a rational approach all comparisons were made at same specific energy input (ES, US energy per solid weight) which is also the relevant economic criterion. The decoupling of power density and intensity was obtained by either changing the sludge volume or most often by changing probe diameter, all other characteristics being unchanged. Comprehensive results were obtained by varying the hydrostatic pressure at given power density and intensity. In all cases marked maxima of sludge disintegration appeared at optimum pressures, which values increased at increasing power intensity and density. Such optimum was expected due to opposite effects of increasing hydrostatic pressure: higher cavitation threshold then smaller and fewer bubbles, but higher temperature and pressure at the end of collapse. In addition the first attempt to lower US frequency down to audible range was very successful: at any operation condition (DUS, IUS, Ph, sludge concentration and type) higher sludge disintegration was obtained at 12 kHz than at 20 kHz. The same values of optimum pressure were observed at 12 and 20 kHz. At same energy consumption the best conditions - obtained at 12 kHz, maximum power density 720 W/L and 3.25 bar - provided about 100% improvement with respect to usual conditions (1 bar, 20 kHz). Important energy savings and equipment size reduction may then be expected. PMID:25199444

  1. Heat transfer parameters for glass-peened calandria tube in pressure tube and calandria tube contact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a postulated event of large LOCA in CANDU reactors, the pressure tube may balloon to contact with its surrounding calandria tube to transfer heat to the moderator. To confirm the integrity of the fuel channel after the contact with a given moderator subcooling, many experiments have been performed in the last three decades by applying different pressure tube heatup rates, different pressure tube pressures and different moderator subcoolings for calandria tubes with smooth outer surface and glass-peened surface. A concept of Equivalent Moderator Subcooling (EMS) has been put forward to determine integrity of fuel channel upon pressure tube/calandria tube contact based on the existing experiment results. This concept has been presented in another work. In this work, the contact thermal conductance between pressure tube and calandria tube, critical heat flux, minimum film boiling temperature, empirical methods for nucleate boiling and film boiling heat transfer coefficient on the glass-peened calandria tube surface are discussed and estimated based on some experimental results and the EMS concept. These parameters are confirmed by simulating the existing experiments using a computer code. The estimated results may help detailed analyses on fuel channel integrity upon PT/CT contact if necessary. (author)

  2. Potential application of a flash-type barometric desalination plant powered by waste heat from electric-power stations in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and evaluates the results of a study into the problems of freshwater production and shortages on the island of Cyprus. The use of a novel barometric flash-type desalinator, driven by otherwise waste-heat from the island's power-stations, is proposed as a means of increasing freshwater supplies. Mathematical models are described and used to investigate the thermodynamic performance and economic viability of the proposed system. Although water and electricity supply data for the island of Cyprus were used for the purposes of this investigation, the overall findings are thought have a wider applicability

  3. Dewaterability of five sewage sludges in Guangzhou conditioned with Fenton's reagent/lime and pilot-scale experiments using ultrahigh pressure filtration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jialin; Huang, Shaosong; Dai, Yongkang; Li, Lei; Sun, Shuiyu

    2015-11-01

    Sludge conditioning with Fenton's reagent and lime is a valid method for sludge dewatering. This study investigated the influence of different organic matter content sludge on sludge dewatering and discussed the main mechanism of sludge conditioning by combined Fenton's reagent and lime. The results indicated that the specific resistance to filterability (SRF) of sludge was reduced efficiently by approximately 90%, when conditioned with Fenton's reagent and lime. Through single factor experiments, the optimal conditioning combinations were found. In addition, the relationship between VSS% and consumption of the reagents was detected. Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that the SRF and filtrate TOC values had a significant correlation with VSS% of sludge (including raw and conditioned). The main mechanism of sludge dewatering was also investigated. Firstly, it revealed that the dewaterability of sludge was closely correlated to extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and bound water contents. Secondly, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) stated that sludge particles were to be smaller and thinner after conditioning. And this structure could easily form outflow channels for releasing free water. Additionally, with the ultrahigh pressure filtration system, the water content of sludge cake conditioned with Fenton's reagent and lime could be reduced to below 50%. Moreover, the economic assessment shows that Fenton's reagent and lime combined with ultrahigh pressure filtration system can be an economical and viable technology for sewage sludge dewatering. Finally, three types of sludge were classified: (1) Fast to dewater; (2) Moderately fast to dewater; (3) Slow to dewater sludge. PMID:26253895

  4. A new experimental setup for the liquid-solid phase transition determination in crude oils under high pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Rizzo; H. Carrier; J. Castillo; S. Acevedo; J. Pauly [UNEXPO - Vicerectorado Barquisimeto (Venezuela). Departamento de Ingeniera Quimica

    2007-08-15

    A high pressure apparatus based on two sapphire windows high pressure cell coupled with a detection system of the reflected and refracted light intensities coming from a laser beam was designed to determine the phase transitions by the measurement of the light intensity change. The setup was used to measure the wax disappearance temperature under pressure up to 100 MPa in pure component, synthetic complex mixtures made up of distributions of n-paraffins ranging from n-C{sub 20} to n-C{sub 42}. Finally a real stabilized condensate was successfully investigated and the sensitivity of the detection system was demonstrated on a dark crude oil. 30 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Biofuels Barometer; Barometre Biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    In 2010 biofuel continued to gnaw away at petrol and diesel consumption in the European Union. However its pace backs the assertion that EU biofuel consumption growth slackened off. In the transport sector, it increased by only 1.7 Mtoe compared to 2.7 Mtoe in 2009. The final total biofuel consumption figure for 2010 should hover at around 13,9 Mtoe. [French] Dans les pays de l'union europeenne, les biocarburants ont continue en 2010 a se substituer a la consommation d'essence et de diesel. Ils l'ont cependant fait a un rythme plus lent, confirmant la perte de vitesse de la croissance de la consommation de biocarburants dans l'union europeenne. Dans le secteur des transports, l'augmentation n'a ete que de 1,7 Mtep en 2010 contre une augmentation de 2,7 Mtep en 2009. la consommation totale de biocarburants devrait finalement etre de l'ordre de 13,9 Mtep en 2010.

  6. Photovoltaic barometer; Barometre photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-04-15

    spain and Germany set the pace for the world photovoltaic market in 2008, which grew to more than twice its 2007 size. The European Union continued to drive photocell installation with an additional 4 592.3 MWp in 2008, or 151.6% growth over 2007. However, European growth prospects for the photovoltaic market in 2009 are being dampened by the global financial crisis and the scheduled slow-down of the Spanish market. (author)

  7. Photovoltaic barometer; Barometre photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-04-15

    The photovoltaic sector is continuing on track, just as the extent of solar energy's electricity-generating potential is dawning on the public mind. The annual global installation figure was up more than twofold in 2010 (rising from just short of 7000 MWp in 2009). It leapt to over 16000 MWp, bringing worldwide installed photovoltaic capacity close to 38000 MWp. The photovoltaic power generated in the European Union at the end of 2010 reached 22.5 TWh which means an additional capacity of 13023 MWp during 2010. Concerning the cumulated installed capacity, Germany and Spain rank first and second in the European Union with respectively 17370 MWp and 3808 MWp

  8. Biofuels barometer; Barometre biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-15

    In 2010 bio-fuel continued to gnaw away at petrol and diesel consumption in the European Union (EU). However its pace backs the assertion that bio-fuel consumption growth in EU slackened off in 2010. In the transport sector, it increased by only 1.7 Mtoe compared to 2.7 Mtoe in 2009. The final total bio-fuel consumption figure for 2010 should hover at around 13.9 Mtoe that can be broken down into 10.7 Mtoe for bio-diesel, 2.9 Mtoe for bio-ethanol and 0.3 Mtoe for others. Germany leads the pack for the consumption of bio-fuels and for the production of bio-diesel followed by France and Spain

  9. Biofuels barometer; Barometre biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-05-15

    Biofuels represent 2,6% of the energy content of all the fuels used in road transport in Europe today. Nearly half of the target of 5,75% for 2010 set by the directive on biofuels has thus been reached in four years time. To achieve 5,75%, the european union is going to have to increase its production and doubtless call even more on imports, at a moment when biofuels are found at the core of complex ecological and economic issues. This analysis provided data and reflexions on the biofuels situation in the european union: consumption, bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, producers, environmental problems, directives. (A.L.B.)

  10. High-pressure behavior and crystal–fluid interaction under extreme conditions in paulingite [PAU-topology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gatta, G. D.; Scheidl, K. S.; Pippinger, T.; Skála, Roman; Lee, J.; Miletich, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 206, April (2015), s. 34-41. ISSN 1387-1811 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : paulingite * high pressure * X-ray diffraction * compressibility * crystal–fluid interaction Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.453, year: 2014

  11. Desulfurization under Conditions of Substoichiometric Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Coal - Comparison with TG-Tests and Equilibrium Limits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Čermák, Jiří; Pohořelý, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 120 (2001), s. 39-53. ISSN 1211-1929 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072801; GA MŠk OK 349 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : desulfurization * sub-stoichiometric * pressurized fluidized bed combustion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  12. Effects of the condition of the approach boundary layer and of mainstream pressure gradients on the heat transfer coefficient on film-cooled surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, N.; Lampard, D.; Saluja, C. L.

    1984-06-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the sensitivity of the heat transfer coefficient under the film to the state of the approach boundary layer for injection through a row of holes on a flat plate. The investigation is done for a range of blowing parameters using a heat-mass transfer analogy. Injection angles of 35 deg and 90 deg are covered. Additionally, for the same injection geometries, the effect of injection in the presence of mild adverse, mild favorable, and strong favorable mainstream pressure gradients is investigated. The results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient under the film is sensitive neither to the condition of the approach boundary layer nor to the presence of a mild adverse pressure gradient, but it is significantly lowered by a favorable pressure gradient, particularly at low blowing parameters.

  13. Modelling for post-dryout heat transfer and droplet sizes at low pressure and low flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A correlation describing the initial droplet size just after the CHF position at low mass flux is suggested through regression analysis. The history-dependent post-dryout model of Varone and Rohsenow replaced by the Webb-Chen model for wall-vapor heat transfer is used as a reference model in the analysis. In the post-dryout region at low pressure and low flow, it is found that the suggested one-dimensional mechanistic model is valid only in the churn-turbulent flow regime (j*g = 0.5 ? 4.5). It is also suggested that the droplet size generated from the churn-turbulent surface is dependent not only on the pressure but also on the vapor velocity. It turns out that the present model can predict the measured cladding and vapor temperatures within 20% and 15%, respectively

  14. Siderite at lower mantle conditions and the effects of the pressure-induced spin-pairing transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavina, B.; Dera, P.; Downs, R.T.; Prakapenka, V.; Rivers, M.; Sutton, S.; Nicol, M.; (UNLV); (UC); (Ariz)

    2010-05-04

    Siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) forms a complete solid solution with magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}), the most likely candidate for a mantle carbonate. Our experiments with natural siderite reveal spin pairing of d-orbital electrons of Fe{sup 2+} at 43 GPa, as evidenced by a sharp volume collapse of about 10%. The initially colorless crystals assume an intense green color after the transition, which progressively turns to red above 60 GPa. We present clear evidence for the instability of an intermediate spin state in siderite at ambient temperature. At the transition pressure, domains of high and low spin siderite coexist. The unit cell volume difference between magnesite and siderite is significantly decreased by the spin transition, enhancing the solubility between the two calcite-type minerals. A siderite component in magnesite at lower mantle pressure would significantly increase its density and slightly increase the carbonate bulk modulus.

  15. Results of calculation investigation into accidental conditions with an open relief valve in the pressurizer of the WWER-440 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hypothetical accident with an open relief valve of the pressurizer is considered for the Kozlodyj NPP reactor. The valve opens as a result of small breaks in the reactor primary circuit. The numerical computation study was conducted with the use of the RELAP4/MOD program. The investigation was carried out in the supposition that the accident proceeds with the design protection system operating. The studies have shown that no violation in the primary circuit natural circulation takes place when the valve opens and design protection system actuates. Cool-down of the primary circuit with the use of a fast-response reduction-cooling facility is reasonable for the accident in question; that would reduce coolant losses with a decrease in the primary circuit pressure and enable to turn on the emergency filling pumps of the reactor core later on

  16. A new application of cell-free bone regeneration: immobilizing stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth-conditioned medium onto titanium implants using atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Omori, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Shuhei; Hara, Kenji; Kuroda, Kensuke; Hibi, Hideharu; Okido, Masazumi; Ueda, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Surface modification of titanium (Ti) implants promotes bone formation and shortens the osseointegration period. The aim of this study was to promote bone regeneration and stability around implants using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) pretreatment. This was followed by immobilization of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth-conditioned medium (SHED-CM) on the Ti implant surface. Methods Ti samples (implants, discs, powder) were treated with APP for 30 seconds. Subse...

  17. Optimization of hydrostatic pressure at varied sonication conditions – power density, intensity, very low frequency – for isothermal ultrasonic sludge treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Delmas, Henri; Le, Ngoc Tuan; Barthe, Laurie; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine

    2015-01-01

    This work aims at investigating for the first time the key sonication (US) parameters: power density (DUS), intensity (IUS), and frequency (FS) - down to audible range, under varied hydrostatic pressure (Ph) and low temperature isothermal conditions (to avoid any thermal effect). The selected application was activated sludge disintegration, a major industrial US process. For a rational approach all comparisons were made at same specific energy input (ES, US energy per solid weight) which is a...

  18. Cooldown to residual heat removal entry conditions using atmospheric dump valves and auxiliary pressurizer spray following a loss-of-offsite power at Calvert Cliffs, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of cooldown using atmospheric dump valves (ADVs) and auxiliary pressurizer spray (APS) following loss-of-offsite power at Calvert Cliffs-1 showed residual heat removal entry conditions could not be reached with the plant ADVs alone. Use of APS with the plant ADVs enhanced depressurization, but still provided insufficient cooldown. Effective cooldown and depressurization was shown to occur when rated steady state flow through the ADVs was increased by a factor of four. 6 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs

  19. CO{sub 2}/water interfacial tensions under pressure and temperature conditions of CO{sub 2} geological storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiquet, Pierre [Laboratoire des fluides complexes, UMR 5150, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, 64013 Pau-Cedex (France); Centre Scientifique et Technique Jean Feger, TOTAL, avenue Larribau, 64018 Pau Cedex (France); Daridon, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire des fluides complexes, UMR 5150, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, 64013 Pau-Cedex (France); Broseta, Daniel [Laboratoire des fluides complexes, UMR 5150, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, 64013 Pau-Cedex (France)]. E-mail: daniel.broseta@univ-pau.fr; Thibeau, Sylvain [Centre Scientifique et Technique Jean Feger, TOTAL, avenue Larribau, 64018 Pau Cedex (France)

    2007-03-15

    CO{sub 2} storage in aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the most promising options for reducing CO{sub 2} atmospheric concentration. However, its implementation in a given reservoir requires demonstration that CO{sub 2} leakage through the reservoir seal (caprock) is extremely limited. One possible cause of rapid leakage is capillary failure of the caprock, which is to a large extent controlled by the CO{sub 2}/water interfacial tension (IFT). This paper presents pendant drop measurements of IFTs between water and CO{sub 2} in a range of temperatures (308-383 K) and pressures (5-45 MPa) relevant to CO{sub 2} storage in deep geological formations. Phase densities were measured simultaneously, allowing precise IFT determinations. Increasing the pressure along a given isotherm, IFTs were observed to decrease sharply, then to level off and reach, for pressures above 20 MPa, a pseudo-plateau that decreases slightly with temperature, from around 30 mN/m at 308 K to 23 mN/m at 383 K. The presence of salt (20 g/l NaCl) in the water phase has a negligible effect on the IFT. An important conclusion for CO{sub 2} storage is that CO{sub 2}/brine IFTs have low but reasonable values (higher than 20 mN/m) even at the highest pressures and temperatures examined, and that, neglecting all other possible effects, CO{sub 2} storage can, therefore, be considered even in deep geological formations.

  20. Influence of operating conditions and ammonia injection on the emission of nitrogenous gases from pressurized fluidized bed combustion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coal-fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor at the Delft University of Technology is being used to study fuel conversion and related environmental aspects. This 'semi-technical' scale combustion test rig with an operating pressure up to 10 bar and a maximum thermal capacity of 1,6 MW is being used to investigate environmental aspects of coal combustion like limiting fly ash concentrations in the flue gas by high temperature/high pressure gas cleaning techniques and the influence of fuel related and operation-dependent parameters on the formation and reduction of noxious oxides, in particular nitrogenous species. The fuels investigated so far were anthracites, bituminous coals and brown coals. The influence of different operating parameters such as coal type, freeboard temperature, pressure and excess air on N2O emissions has been investigated and the effect of Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) using ammonia injection in the exhaust of the combustor on the emission of NO, NO2, CO, NH3 and N2O was determined for a number of mol ratios, injection locations and temperatures using 2 British and 2 German coals. Gas concentrations have been determined at different locations of the PFBC test rig, among others in tile freeboard and downstream of the first cyclone using 'conventional' gas analysis instruments, a Gas Chromatograph (GC) and a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer. The paper describes the PFBC test rig, the ammonia injection system, the sampling systems and the GC and FTIR gas analysis systems. Practical experience gained so far with these measuring systems will be presented and results of the measurements will be given and discussed

  1. Improvement of Coenzyme Q10 Production: Mutagenesis Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yahong Yuan; Yuting Tian; Tianli Yue

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, ubiquinone), a potent antioxidative dietary supplement, was produced by submerged fermentation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens instead of chemical synthesis or solvent extraction. Agrobacterium tumefaciens 1.2554 was subjected to mutagenesis using a series of treatments including high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment, UV irradiation, and diethyl sulfate (DES) treatment to obtain mutant strains showing higher CoQ10 production than wild-type strains. A mutant strain PK3...

  2. Transient film boiling under transient conditions related to vapor explosion (effects of transient flow and fragmentation under a shock pressure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two fundamental phenomena are significant when a shock pressure interacts with the large scale coarse mixing state. One is an intensive flow and the other is the surface area enhancement due to the disintegration of the hot drops. The effects of these phenomena on the transient heat transfer and behavior of vapor film under a shock pressure are investigated. Transient heat transfer of film boiling from an electrically heated platinum ribbon 2.5 mm wide and 0.15 mm thick was measured immediately after passage of a shock pressure from 0.1 to 0.7 MPa. The heater was set horizontally in a vertical shock tube which was filled with vapor liquid bubbly mixture and kept initially in the film boiling state. That is, the heater corresponds to a typical hot drop and the bubbles around it correspond to the coarse mixture around the drop. The liquid was Freon-113 with an initial void fraction in the range from 0 to 3%. When the shock wave arrives at the heater, intensive transient flow occurs due to collapse of bubbles around the heater. First, the effects of the initial void fraction, the intensity of the shock and the heated wall temperature on the transient heat fluxes and collapse of the vapor film were investigated experimentally and analytically under the shock pressure. Compared with a heated wall in the liquid alone, the transient heat flux at the heated wall increases and the collapse of the vapor film becomes easier in the bubbly mixture due to the transient flow. Effects of surface enhancement during the fragmentation process on the heat transfer rate and transient behavior of vapor film are investigated analytically by application of the newly proposed surface stretch model. It is made clear when the surface area is increasing, the vapor film is apt to collapse and the transient heat transfer is enhanced by the surface stretch. (orig.)

  3. Neural reflex regulation of arterial pressure in pathophysiological conditions: interplay among the baroreflex, the cardiopulmonary reflexes and the chemoreflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Vasquez

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of arterial pressure at levels adequate to perfuse the tissues is a basic requirement for the constancy of the internal environment and survival. The objective of the present review was to provide information about the basic reflex mechanisms that are responsible for the moment-to-moment regulation of the cardiovascular system. We demonstrate that this control is largely provided by the action of arterial and non-arterial reflexes that detect and correct changes in arterial pressure (baroreflex, blood volume or chemical composition (mechano- and chemosensitive cardiopulmonary reflexes, and changes in blood-gas composition (chemoreceptor reflex. The importance of the integration of these cardiovascular reflexes is well understood and it is clear that processing mainly occurs in the nucleus tractus solitarii, although the mechanism is poorly understood. There are several indications that the interactions of baroreflex, chemoreflex and Bezold-Jarisch reflex inputs, and the central nervous system control the activity of autonomic preganglionic neurons through parallel afferent and efferent pathways to achieve cardiovascular homeostasis. It is surprising that so little appears in the literature about the integration of these neural reflexes in cardiovascular function. Thus, our purpose was to review the interplay between peripheral neural reflex mechanisms of arterial blood pressure and blood volume regulation in physiological and pathophysiological states. Special emphasis is placed on the experimental model of arterial hypertension induced by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME in which the interplay of these three reflexes is demonstrable

  4. Research on the influence of the technical conditions of a homogenizer pump on the quality of the process of pressure homgenization

    OpenAIRE

    Popko H.; Komsta H..; Popko R.; Hys L.

    2002-01-01

    The research presented in this paper refers to the role of the technical condition of the plunger pump’s working units vis-a-vis the quality of homogenized emulsion. Technical condi- tion was determined ‘on line’ by analysing the measured value of the signal of homogenization pressure. This signal contains - among other things - some information about the condition of the plunger pump’s valve unit. The process quality was determined by the process affecting value changes ...

  5. Probabilistic structural integrity assessment of reactor coolant pressure boundary piping. 1. The scatter of welding conditions and welding residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual stress by welding would be one of the most significant factors in evaluating failure probabilities of PLR piping since the SCC growth behavior is strongly affected by residual stress distribution. The residual stress distribution is well known to change caused by varying of welding conditions such as groove shape, electrical voltage and current, inter-pass temperature, etc. Therefore, to evaluate the scatter of welding condition and their influence on residual stress is important to assess the structural integrity of PLR piping. In present work, the scatters of welding conditions were evaluated by producing some series of butt-welding pipe specimens made of stainless steel. Residual stress distributions due to welding were measured by applying X-ray diffraction method and stress relief method. Measured welding conditions and residual stress distributions are provided to determine the conditions of welding residual stress simulations and to confirm an accuracy of the simulation described in the following paper. (author)

  6. Analysis of the critical heat flux in round vertical tubes under low pressure and flow oscillation conditions. Applications of artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) for predicting critical heat flux (CHF) under low pressure and oscillation conditions have been trained successfully for either natural circulation or forced circulation (FC) in the present study. The input parameters of the ANN are pressure, mean mass flow rate, relative amplitude, inlet subcooling, oscillation period and the ratio of the heated length to the diameter of the tube, L/D. The output is a nondimensionalized factor F, which expresses the relative CHF under oscillation conditions. Based on the trained ANN, the influences of principal parameters on F for FC were analyzed. The parametric trends of the CHF under oscillation obtained by the trained ANN are as follows: the effects of pressure below 500 kPa are complex due to the influence of other parameters. F will increase with increasing mean mass flow rate under any conditions, and will decrease generally with an increase in relative amplitude. F will decrease initially and then increase with increasing inlet subcooling. The influence curves of mean mass flow rate on F will be almost the same when the period is shorter than 5.0 s or longer than 15 s. The influence of L/D will be negligible if L/D>200. It is found that the minimum number of neurons in the hidden layer is a product of the number of neurons in the input layer and in the output layer

  7. High-pressure crystal structure of elastically isotropic CaTiO3 perovskite under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural evolution of orthorhombic CaTiO3 perovskite has been studied using high-pressure single-crystal x-ray diffraction under hydrostatic conditions up to 8.1 GPa and under a non-hydrostatic stress field formed in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to 4.7 GPa. Under hydrostatic conditions, the TiO6 octahedra become more tilted and distorted with increasing pressure, similar to other 2:4 perovskites. Under non-hydrostatic conditions, the experiments do not show any apparent difference in the internal structural variation from hydrostatic conditions and no additional tilts and distortions in the TiO6 octahedra are observed, even though the lattice itself becomes distorted due to the non-hydrostatic stress. The similarity between the hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic cases can be ascribed to the fact that CaTiO3 perovskite is nearly elastically isotropic and, as a consequence, its deviatoric unit-cell volume strain produced by the non-hydrostatic stress is very small; in other words, the additional octahedral tilts relevant to the extra unit-cell volume associated with the deviatoric unit-cell volume strain may be totally neglected. This study further addresses the role that three factors-the elastic properties, the crystal orientation and the pressure medium-have on the structural evolution of an orthorhombic perovskite loaded in a DAC under non-hydrostatic conditions. The influence of these factors can be clearly visualized by plotting the three-dimensional distribution of the deviatoric unit-cell volume strain in relation to the cylindrical axis of the DAC and indicates that, if the elasticity of a perovskite is nearly isotropic as it is for CaTiO3, the other two factors become relatively insignificant. (paper)

  8. Leaf injury characteristics of grassland species exposed to ozone in relation to soil moisture condition and vapour pressure deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of plant species typical of semi-natural grasslands were tested for their sensitivity to short-term ozone injury under normal and reduced irrigation, and in relationship to air vapour pressure deficit. Potted specimens of 24 herbs, legumes and grasses were exposed during two seasons to four O3 treatments in open-top chambers. The ozone treatments were: (a) charcoal-filtered air; (b) charcoal-filtered air plus ozone to match ambient levels; (c) charcoal-filtered air plus O3 to ambient levels 1.5 and (d) charcoal-filtered air with ozone added to twice ambient levels during selected episodes of 7–13 d. During these ozone episodes, half of the plants in each ozone treatment received reduced irrigation (dry treatment) while the rest was kept under full irrigation (wet treatment). Type and date of first occurrence of leaf injury were noted during individual growth periods. Plants were harvested three times per year, and the percentage of injured leaves was recorded. Depending on species, injury symptoms were expressed as flecking (O3-specific injury), leaf yellowing or anthocyanin formation. Carum carvi and most species of the Fabaceae family (Onobrychis sativa, Trifolium repens, Trifolium pratense) were found to be most responsive to O3, injury occurring after only a few days of exposure in treatment (b). An episodic reduction in irrigation tended to reduce the expression of O3-specific symptoms, but only in species for which a reduction in soil moisture potential and an associated reduction in stomatal conductance during the dry episodes were observed. In other species, the protection from O3 injury seemed to be of little importance. Using artificial neural networks the injury response of nine species was analysed in relation to Species, stomatal conductance, ozone as AOT40 (accumulated exposure above a threshold of 0.04 ppm for periods with global radiation ≥ 50 W m−2 (Fuhrer et al., 1997)), mean relative growth rate, air vapour pressure deficit and global radiation. In the model with all factors, Species was most important, and when Species was omitted, stomatal conductance was the most important determinant for leaf injury to occur, whereas mean relative growth rate was less important. With no plant-related factors included, air vapour pressure deficit and AOT40 were of highest importance. Only in eight species was a positive relationship found between these two factors during the five days before the onset of injury, indicating increasing protection from ozone with increasing air vapour pressure deficit in some but not all species. These data show that across a range of grassland species, leaf injury caused by elevated levels of ozone is most likely to occur in species with high stomatal conductance and that protection from ozone during dry periods is species-specific and depends on a reduction in stomatal conductance due to a decrease in soil moisture potential. Protection under increased vapour pressure deficit can occur in some but not all species, depending on the relationship between stomatal conductance and air vapour pressure deficit. (author)

  9. Film boiling heat transfer from a vertical cylinder in forced flow of liquids under saturated and subcooled conditions at pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forced convection film boiling heat transfer on a vertical 3 mm-dia. and 180 mm length platinum test cylinder located in the center of the 40 mm inner diameter test channel was measured. Saturated water, and saturated and subcooled R113 were used as the test liquids that flowed upward along the cylinder in the test channel. Flow velocities ranged from 0 to 3 m/s, pressures from 102 to 490 kPa, and liquid subcoolings for R113 from 0 to 60 K. The heat transfer coefficients for a certain pressure and liquid subcooling are almost independent of flow velocity and of a vertical position on the cylinder for the flow velocities lower than about 1 m/s (the first range), and they become higher for the velocities higher than about 1 m/s (the second range). Slight dependence on a vertical position being nearly proportional to z-1/4, where z is the height from the leading edge of the test cylinder, exists for the flow velocities in the second range. The heat transfer coefficients at each velocity in the first and second ranges are higher for higher pressure and liquid subcooling. Correlation for the forced convection film boiling heat transfer with radiation contribution on a vertical cylinder was derived by modifying an approximate analytical solution for a two-phase laminar boundary layer model to agree better with the experimental data. It was confirmed that the experimental data of film boiling heat transfer coefficients in water and R113 were described by the correlation within ±20 % difference. (author)

  10. Muon capture probability of carbon and oxygen for CO, CO2, and COS under low-pressure gas conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a negatively charged muon is stopped in a substance, it is captured by an atom of the substance, and the muonic atom is formed. The muon capture process is significantly affected by the chemical environment of the atom and factors such as molecular structure (chemical effect). In this study, we performed muon irradiation for low-pressure CO, CO2, and COS molecules and measured the muonic X-rays emitted immediately after muon capture by an atom. In this paper, we quantitatively discuss the muon capture probability of each type of atom using the LMM model. (author)

  11. XPS study of Ni-base alloys oxide films formed in primary conditions of pressurized water reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Loc; Miserque, Frdric; Perrin, Stphane; Pijolat, Michle

    2015-01-01

    The oxide scales formed on alloy 690 during its exposure to pressurized water reactor primary simulated media at 325?C for different periods, ranging between 24 and 858?h have been characterized through XPS analysis. These results have been compared with the data obtained on Cr2O3, NiCr2O4, NiFe2O4, and Ni(OH)2 reference compounds. This comparison leads to the following conclusions about the scale formed on alloy 690: (i) the deconvolution of Cr-2p3/2 core level spectra seems to show that th...

  12. Unique rod lens/video system designed to observe flow conditions in emergency core coolant loops of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques and equipment are described which are used for video recordings of the single- and two-phase fluid flow tests conducted with the PKL Spool Piece Measurement System designed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and EG and G Inc. The instrumented spool piece provides valuable information on what would happen in pressurized water reactor emergency coolant loops should an accident or rupture result in loss of fluid. The complete closed-circuit television video system, including rod lens, light supply, and associated spool mounting fixtures, is discussed in detail. Photographic examples of test flows taken during actual spool piece system operation are shown

  13. Research on the influence of the technical conditions of a homogenizer pump on the quality of the process of pressure homgenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popko H.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper refers to the role of the technical condition of the plunger pump’s working units vis-a-vis the quality of homogenized emulsion. Technical condi- tion was determined ‘on line’ by analysing the measured value of the signal of homogenization pressure. This signal contains - among other things - some information about the condition of the plunger pump’s valve unit. The process quality was determined by the process affecting value changes of the dispersion phase characteristic dimension. The particle size was measured using a microscope. The influence of the pump’s working condition estimates on a homogenized product’s quality was researched by a correlation- regression analysis. As a result of that procedure a strong stochastic relationship between the product quality and the values of the chosen estimates of the pump’s technical condition was found. Among many factors of major importance influencing product quality, the mean value of homogenization pressure is not alone; the energy distribution observed in the signal’s amplitude spectrum also is of considerable importance. Exponential regression models were obtained for the relationships investigated.

  14. Macroscopic electric field and osmotic pressure in ultracentrifugal sedimentation-diffusion equilibria of charged colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedimentation-diffusion (SD) equilibria from analytical ultracentrifugation of well-characterized charged silica spheres in ethanol deviate strongly from a barometric profile and demonstrate the existence and substantial effects of a recently predicted internal macroscopic electric field (van Roij 2003 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15 S3569). Experimental SD-profiles yield the gradient of the electrostatic potential energy of the colloids, which clearly manifests an almost homogeneous macroscopic electric field. Electrochemical Donnan potential measurements confirm a difference in electrical potential between the top and bottom of the profiles. A 'non-barometric' limiting law derived from electroneutrality explains the trends in the SD-profiles quite well. Our analysis of osmotic pressures (obtained from integrating SD-profiles) beyond this simple law includes, among other things, colloid-ion attractions and extra volume terms in the free energy

  15. Externally controlled pressure and temperature microreactor for in situ x-ray diffraction, visual and spectroscopic reaction investigations under supercritical and subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microreactor has been developed for in situ, spectroscopic investigations of materials and reaction processes with full external pressure and temperature control from ambient conditions to 400 deg. C and 310 bar. The sample chamber is in direct contact with an external manifold, whereby gases, liquids or fluids can be injected and their activities controlled prior to and under investigation conditions. The microreactor employs high strength, single crystal moissanite windows which allow direct probe beam interaction with a sample to investigate in situ reaction processes and other materials properties. The relatively large volume of the cell, along with full optical accessibility and external temperature and pressure control, make this reaction cell well suited for experimental investigations involving any combination of gas, fluid, and solid interactions. The microreactor's capabilities are demonstrated through an in situ x-ray diffraction study of the conversion of a meta-serpentine sample to magnesite under high pressure and temperature. Serpentine is one of the mineral candidates for the implementation of mineral carbonation, an intriguing carbon sequestration candidate technology

  16. Performance of a hydrogen burner to simulate air entering scramjet combustors. [simulation of total temperature, total pressure, and volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russin, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the performance of a hydrogen burner used to produce a test gas that simulates air entering a scramjet combustor at various flight conditions. The test gas simulates air in that it duplicates the total temperature, total pressure, and the volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions. The main objective of the tests was to determine the performance of the burner as a function of the effective exhaust port area. The conclusions were: (1) pressure oscillations of the chugging type were reduced in amplitude to plus or minus 2 percent of the mean pressure level by proper sizing of hydrogen, oxygen, and air injector flow areas; (2) combustion efficiency remained essentially constant as the exhaust port area was increased by a factor of 3.4; (3) the mean total temperature determined from integrating the exit radial gas property profiles was within plus or minus 5 percent of the theoretical bulk total temperature; (4) the measured exit total temperature profile had a local peak temperature more than 30 percent greater than the theoretical bulk total temperature; and (5) measured heat transfer to the burner liner was 75 percent of that predicted by theory based on a flat radial temperature profile.

  17. Simulation of flow excursion and thermal siphon under natural circulation condition with lower pressure and lower quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the experiments performed in HRTL-5, the system was in static instability under some conditions. In this paper, based on the drift flow model, the simulation of flow excursion phenomenon was achieved under HTRL-5 condition. In the same time, the mechanism analysis and the simulation of thermal siphon process were also performed. The result shows that the program can be used to to simulate the static instability of natural circulation system, and the simulation of the excursion phenomenon matches up to the experiment result basically. (authors)

  18. Precise evaluation of corrosion environments of structural materials under complex water flow condition, (1). Estimation of corrosion potentials in reactor pressure vessel bottom of BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the corrosion potentials of structural materials under complex water flow condition, such as reactor pressure vessel (RPV) bottom region of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs), a method was newly developed. Three-dimensional water flow analysis was performed and corrosion potentials of structural materials were calculated on the basis of the flow analysis results. Water flow analysis showed the velocities in the RPV bottom region varied from about 0.1 ms-1 to 4.5 ms-1. From the corrosion potential estimation under hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) condition, at the jet pump outlet and shroud support leg, a rather large amount of hydrogen had to be added to reduce the potential because of high flow velocity condition. Conversely, a small amount of hydrogen was sufficient in the case of the stub tube of the control rod drive (CRD) guide tubing located in the center of the bottom region. (author)

  19. Unsteady turbulent flow of a gas suspension in a channel under conditions of injection and forced pressure oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, K. N.

    2013-03-01

    A turbulent flow of a suspension of solid particles in a gas is considered. The suspension is located in a channel with permeable walls (the pressure at the left end face of the channel follows a sinusoidal law). The flow considered here reflects the principal features of the flow in the combustion chamber of a solid-propellant rocket motor. The unsteady flow of the gas suspension is described by using the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. A stochastic variant of the discrete-trajectory approach is used for modeling the particle motion. The influence of the condensed phase on the turbulence characteristics and acoustic oscillations of the parameters of the working medium in the channel in the case of injection is discussed. The calculated results are compared with data obtained in a physical experiment.

  20. High temperature post-irradiation performance of spent pressurized-water-reactor fuel rods under dry-storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-irradiation studies on failure mechanisms of well characterized PWR rods were conducted for up to a year at 482, 510 and 5710C in unlimited air and inert gas atmospheres. No cladding breaches occurred even though the tests operated many orders of magnitude longer in time than the lifetime predicted by Blackburn's analyses. The extended lifetime is due to significant creep strain of the Zircaloy cladding which decreases the internal rod pressures. The cladding creep also contributes to radial cracks, through the external oxide and internal FCCI layers, which propagated into and arrested in an oxygen stabilized α-Zircaloy layer. There were no signs of either additional cladding hydriding, stress-corrosion cracking or fuel pellet degradation. Using the Larson-Miller formulization, a conservative maximum storage temperature of 4000C is recommended to ensure a 1000-year cladding lifetime. This accounts for crack propagation and assumes annealing of the irradiation-hardened cladding

  1. Aqueous size-exclusion chromatographic separations of intact proteins under native conditions: Effect of pressure on selectivity and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Jelle; Kaal, Erwin R; Swart, Remco; Baca, Martyna; Heyden, Yvan Vander; Eeltink, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-01

    The selectivity and separation efficiency of aqueous size-exclusion chromatographic separations of intact proteins were assessed for different flow rates, using columns packed with 3 and 5 μm silica particles containing 150 and 290 Å stagnant pores. A mixture of intact proteins with molecular weights ranging between 17 000 and 670 000 Da was used to construct the calibration curves. Both the model fit and the predictive properties, using a leave-one-out strategy, of different polynomial models (up to fifth order) were evaluated for different flow rates. The best compromise between model fit and predictive properties was obtained using a third-order polynomial model. The accuracy of the predictive properties decreased with 10% with an eightfold increase in the flow rate. No changes in retention factors (hence selectivity) were observed in the flow-rate range applied. A strong correlation between molecular weight and plate height was observed. Exclusion of large-molecular-weight proteins led to a significant reduction in the stationary-phase mass-transfer contribution to the total plate-height value, and this effect was also independent of the flow rate applied. The kinetic-performance limits, in terms of plate number and time, and optimal column-length particle-size combinations were determined at the maximum recommended operating pressure of the size-exclusion chromatography columns (20 MPa). Finally, the possibilities of method speed-up using ultra-high-pressure size-exclusion chromatography in combination with columns packed with sub-2 μm particles are discussed. PMID:26549319

  2. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today. PMID:26573709

  3. The Costs of Parental Pressure to Express Emotions: Conditional Regard and Autonomy Support as Predictors of Emotion Regulation and Intimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Guy; Assor, Avi

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on offspring's perceptions of their parents' usage of conditional regard and autonomy-supportive practices in response to the offspring's experiences of negative emotion. Participants were 174 college students (60% were females). As predicted from self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), students' perceptions of parents…

  4. Structural Phase Transition in CdSb + 3 % MnSb Composite at a High Hydrostatic Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Dzhamamedov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In CdSb + 3 % MnSb composite, structural properties have been studied, specific resistance ρ and Hall coefficient RH are measured at a high hydrostatic pressure of up to P ≤ 9 GPa. An irreversible structural phase transition is found at barometric dependencies p(P and RH(P. From our experimental data, barometric dependencies of carrier concentration and their mobility are calculated. On the basis of the heterophase structure – effective medium model, characteristic points and parameters of the phase transition, and also dynamics of variation of the initial phase volume C1 as a function of pressure are computed. The latter dependence is in agreement with the investigation results of Raman scattering before and after application of pressure.

  5. Asymmetric Hollow Fiber Membranes for Separation of CO 2 from Hydrocarbons and Fluorocarbons at High-Pressure Conditions Relevant to C 2 F 4 Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Kosuri, Madhava R.

    2009-12-02

    Separation of high-pressure carbon dioxide from fluorocarbons is important for the production of fluoropolymers such as poly(tetrafluoroethylene). Typical polymeric membranes plasticize under high CO2 partial pressure conditions and fail to provide adequate selective separations. Torlon, a polyamide-imide polymer, with the ability to form interchain hydrogen bonding, is shown to provide stability against aggressive CO2 plasticization. Torlon membranes in the form of asymmetric hollow fibers (the most productive form of membranes) are considered for an intended separation of CO 2/C2F4. To avoid safety issues with tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4), which could detonate under testing conditions, safer surrogate mixtures (C2H2F 2 and C2H4) are considered in this paper. Permeation measurements (at 35 °C) indicate that the Torlon membranes are not plasticized even up to 1250 psi of CO2. The membranes provide mixed gas CO2/C2H2F2 and CO 2/C2H4 selectivities of 100 and 30, respectively, at 1250 psi partial pressures of CO2. On the basis of the measured separation performances of CO2/C2H 2F2 and CO2/C2H4 mixtures, the selectivity of the CO2/C2F4 mixture is expected to be greater than 100. Long-term stability studies indicate that the membranes provide stable separations over a period of 5 days at 1250 psi partial pressures of CO2, thereby making the membrane approach attractive. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  6. Effect of Reynolds Number and Periodic Unsteady Wake Flow Condition on Boundary Layer Development, Separation, and Intermittency Behavior Along the Suction Surface of a Low Pressure Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobeiri, M. T.; Ozturk, B.; Ashpis, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.

  7. A comparison of experimental and numerical studies performed on a low-pressure turbine blade cascade at high-speed conditions, low reynolds numbers and various turbulence intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Jan; Straka, Petr

    2013-10-01

    This paper focuses on a comparison of experimental and numerical investigations performed on a low-pressure mid-loaded turbine blade at operating conditions comprised of a wide range of Mach numbers (from 0.5-1.1), Reynolds numbers (from 0.4e+5-3.0e+5), flow incidence (-15-15 degrees) and three levels of free-stream turbulence intensities (2, 5 and 10%). The experimental part of the work was performed in a high-speed linear cascade wind tunnel. The increased levels of turbulence were achieved by a passive grid placed at the cascade inlet. A two-dimensional flow field at the center of the blade was traversed pitch-wise upstream and downstream the cascade by means of a five-hole probe and a needle pressure probe, respectively. The blade loading was measured using the surface pressure taps evenly deployed at the blade mid-span along the suction and the pressure side. The inlet turbulence was investigated using the constant temperature anemometer technique with a dual sensor probe. Experimentally evaluated values of turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate were then used as inputs for the numerical simulations. An in-house code based on a system of the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation closed by a two-equation k-? turbulence model was adopted for the predictions. The code utilizes an algebraic model of bypass transition valid both for attached as for separated flows taking in account the effect of free-stream turbulence and pressure gradient. The resulting comparison was carried out in terms of the kinetic energy loss coefficient, distributions of downstream wakes and blade velocity. Additionally a flow visualization was performed by means of the Schlieren technique in order to provide a further understanding of the studied phenomena. A few selected cases with a particular interest in the attached and separated flow transition are compared and discussed.

  8. The role of water chemistry for environmentally assisted cracking in low-alloy reactor pressure vessel and piping steels under boiling reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmentally assisted initiation and propagation of cracks in structural materials is one of the most important degradation and ageing mechanisms in light water reactors (LWR) and may seriously affect plant availability and economics. In the first part of this paper a short general introduction on environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) and its significance for LWR is given. Then the important role of water chemistry control in reducing the EAC risk in LWR is illustrated by current research results about the effect of chloride transients and hydrogen water chemistry on the EAC crack growth behaviour of low-alloy reactor pressure vessel and piping steels under boiling water reactor conditions. (author)

  9. Volume reduction on all particle size of the contaminated soil. Continuous processing technology of attrition, chemical wash under an ambient temperature and pressure condition and magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination was conducted in order to establish a practical purification system that could largely reduce the storage volume of radioactive waste in the Intermediate Storage Facility. The examination consists of a 3-step washing treatment of contaminated soil, which includes “Milling Washing” of removed contaminated soil, chemical extraction of fine soil fraction resulted from the “Milling Washing” under an ambient temperature and pressure condition, and magnetic separation of cesium from the extracted solution. As a result of the examination, we succeeded in development of a safe system with low initial cost and running cost. (author)

  10. Reaction kinetics and solubilities of corrosion products in the physicochemical conditions of the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors (PWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A better understanding of the behavior of the corrosion products at operating conditions of PWR is required. This study aims to collect new thermodynamic data on the species composing the corrosion products. The experimental work, described in this paper, focuses on the study of two solid phases: nickel oxide NiO and nickel ferrite NiFe2O4. Dissolution rate of nickel oxide has been measured to 130 C in acidic conditions (pH 3 to 5). A kinetic model has been used to describe the measured dissolution rates. This calculation allowed us to determine the real activation energy of the dissolution reaction of nickel oxide which is equal to 56,5 ± 3,7 kJ.mol-1. The dissolution rates of nickel oxide are slow and as a consequence, only a limited amount of nickel oxide can be dissolved during reactor shutdown. Solubility of a stoichiometric nickel ferrite, experimentally synthesized, has been measured from 100 to 200 C in acidic conditions with a hydrogen electrode concentration cell. The results show a non-congruent dissolution of nickel ferrite with an iron excess. The speciation of soluble iron and nickel was studied based on the available thermodynamic data at high temperature and the measured concentrations were compared with the equilibrium constants with the MULTEQ code. The solubility of nickel ferrite in a reducing acidic solution is reasonably well described by the available thermodynamic data. A new high temperature solubility measurement cell was designed and built. This paper describes in detail the design of the cell and the first tests that have been conducted. (author)

  11. Heat pump control method based on direct measurement of evaporation pressure to improve energy efficiency and indoor air temperature stability at a low cooling load condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: New heat pump control method was developed. Experimental investigation on performance of heat pump with various control method. New control method appeared to improve the stability of indoor air temperature. New control method appeared to have a potential to reduce power consumption. - Abstract: The control systems of conventional heat pumps have an input of refrigerant temperature at the evaporator outlet to maintain superheat at proper level. In order to develop a control method that can be used to achieve better indoor thermal comfort and energy efficiency at a low cooling load condition than the current control method, a new method of the evaporation pressure control based on the evaporator outlet pressure reading (EPCP) was developed. The changes in the stability of indoor air temperature and power consumption were measured while changing the compressor frequency in accordance with the new control method. Compared with the evaporation pressure control based on the evaporator outlet temperature reading, the EPCP control method appeared to improve the stability of room air temperature or occupant thermal comfort significantly

  12. An analytical study of azimuthal temperature distribution in pressurized water reactor fuel rods under steady-state and blowdown conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conductedcolsquantify the azimuthal temperature variations that might occur around a light water reactor nuclear fuel rod under steady-state and loss-of-coolant accident blowdown conditions. Significant azimuthal temperature variations on the cladding surface will result in a reduction in coolant blockage. Power skewing and off-center location of the pellet are considered as causes for and asymmetrical temperature distribution. Off-center location of a pellet produces significant azimuthal temperature variations in the fuel during steady-state operation and small circumferential temperature differences in the cladding during the LOCA blowdown. Highly localized small strains-to failure in zircaloy out-of-pile ballooning experiments may not be representative of in-pile results where cladding temperatures are calculated to be relatively uniform. (Author)

  13. Large eddy simulation of pressure fluctuations at off-design condition in a Francis turbine based on cavitation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the instability of a Francis turbine at off-design operating condition, a hydraulic model was established and the flow characteristics at the off-design point were studied based on large eddy simulation (LES). The simulation was conducted for both single phase model and cavitation model. The results were compared with the experimental data. Results show that the simulation based on cavitation model can capture more channel vortex structures than single phase calculation. The result of vortex rope by cavitation model is similar to the experimental result. The dominant frequency can be obtained by these two methods, while the result based on cavitation model can capture the high frequency component at the inlet of draft tube. Great difference can be seen from the internal flow of the two simulation results. These conclusions can provide a basis for the study of instability of Francis turbine

  14. Using Atmospheric Pressure Tendency to Optimise Battery Charging in Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems for Telecoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Daniels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Off grid telecom base stations in developing nations are powered by diesel generators. They are typically oversized and run at a fraction of their rated load for most of their operating lifetime. Running generators at partial load is inefficient and, over time, physically damages the engine. A hybrid configuration uses a battery bank, which powers the telecoms’ load for a portion of the time. The generator only operates when the battery bank needs to be charged. Adding a wind turbine further reduces the generator run hours and saves fuel. The generator is oblivious to the current wind conditions, which leads to simultaneous generator-wind power production. As the batteries become charged by the generator, the wind turbine controller is forced to dump surplus power as heat through a resistive load. This paper details how the relationship between barometric pressure and wind speed can be used to add intelligence to the battery charger. A Simulink model of the system is developed to test the different battery charging configurations. This paper demonstrates that if the battery charger is aware of upcoming wind conditions, it will provide modest fuel savings and reduce generator run hours in small-scale hybrid energy systems.

  15. Pulse radiolysis study on temperature and pressure dependence of the yield of solvated electron in methanol from room temperature to supercritical condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept of nuclear reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), has been proposed, which is based on the success of the use of supercritical water (SCW) in fossil fuel power plants for more than three decades. This new concept reactor has advantages of higher thermal conversion efficiency, simplicity in structure, safety, etc, and it has been selected as one of the reactor concepts for the next generation nuclear reactor systems. In these reactors, the same as in boiling water reactors (BWR) and pressurized water reactors (PWR), water is used not only as a coolant but also as a moderator. It is very important to understand the behavior of the radiolysis products of water under the supercritical condition, since the water is exposed to a strong radiation field under very high temperature condition. Usually, in order to predict the concentrations of water decomposition products with carrying out some kinds of computer simulations, knowledge of the temperature and/or pressure dependent G-values (denoting the experimentally measured radiolytic yields) as well as of the rate constants of a set of reactions becomes very important. Therefore, in recent years, two groups from Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Tokyo, simultaneously conducted two projects aimed at obtaining basic data on radiolysis of SCW. However, it is still lack of reliable radiolytic yields of water decomposition products in very high temperature region. As we known, the properties of solvated electrons in polar liquid are very helpful for our understanding how they play a central role in many processes, such as solvation and reducing reactions. The solvated electron can also be used as a probe to determine the dynamic nature of the polar liquid systems. Comparing to water, the primary alcohols have much milder critical points, for example, for water and methanol, the critical temperature and pressure are 374 deg. C and 22.1 MPa and 239.5 deg. C and 8.1 MPa, respectively. Therefore, it was suggested that the supercritical primary alcohols, for example methanol, as the simplest alcohol and an analogue of water, might become a promising substitute of water in a radiolysis study. As our knowledge, the yield of solvated electron in methanol at high temperatures and pressures, especially at supercritical condition, is still unknown now. In this work, the yield of solvated electron in methanol has been investigated at different temperatures from room temperature to supercritical condition by a method of nanosecond pulse radiolysis. By using 4,4'-bipyridyl as a scavenger, the temperature-, pressure- and density-dependent yields of solvated electron, i.e., G-values, have been measured for the first time, which revealing a special density effect on the yield in supercritical methanol. With increasing temperature under 9 MPa, the yield just changes slightly below 230 deg. C, and increases dramatically to peak at around 250 deg. C, after that decreases again. The pressure and density dependence of the yields at elevated temperatures are also measured and discussed. The results imply that, in supercritical region, especially near to critical point, the density effect becomes predominant influence on the yield of radiolysis products. (authors)

  16. Preparation and Formation Mechanism of New PdHx-Pd/C Catalyst through Hydrazine-reducing Method under Atmospheric Pressure and H2-free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUAN Chang-Yong, MA Lei, L- De-Yi, ZHENG Yi-Fan, JI Lai-Jun, LI Xiao-Nian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PdHx is an important reactive species for the Pd/C catalyst. Without H2, it can not exist stably at room temperature. This species is usually prepared through reaction of Pd with H2 under certain pressure. PdHx-Pd/C catalyst was prepared through hydrazine-reducing method under atmospheric pressure and H2-free conditions. The microstructure, morphology and chemical state of PdHx and Pd particles were investigated by XRD, TEM and XPS characterization methods. The formation mechanism of PdHx particles in the hydrazine-reducing method was proposed. Experimental results show that the average particle size of PdHx is 3.9 nm, and the d spacing of PdHx(111 is slightly larger than that of Pd(111. The PdHx particles derive from the reduction process of PdO by hydrazine. Their particle size is closely related to the particle size and structural imperfection of PdO. The PdHx-Pd/C catalyst demonstrates better catalytic performance than the conventional Pd/C catalyst in the amination reaction to produce 2, 6-dimethylaniline under H2-free condition.

  17. A theoretical critical heat flux model for low-pressure, low-mass-flux, and low-steam quality conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The critical heat flux (CHF) is the maximum heat flux just before a boiling crisis; its importance as a measurement of nuclear reactor power capability design as well as in the safety of reactors has been recognized. With emphasis on CHF behavior under subcooled and low-quality (i.e., 2s), an improved model that uses the sublayer dry out theory has been developed. Based on experimental observations of CHF, the model assumes that CHF under such conditions is of the departure from nucleate boiling type. Based on the postulation that CHF is triggered by Helmholtz instability in the sublayer steam-liquid system, the model was developed by a simple energy balance of liquid sublayer evaporation as the vapor blanket tends to disturb the balance between the buoyancy force and the drag force exerted upon it. The model is compared with the well-known Biasi et al. correlation as well as the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited lookup table against 102 uniformly heated round tube CHF data and 34 nonuniformly heated round tube CHF data. The comparison shows that the model provides better accuracy and a reasonable agreement between the predicted values and experimental CHF data

  18. Application of Structural Reliability to support deterministic integrity analyses of Reactor Pressure Vessel subjected to transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benefits of a probabilistic approach compared to the more conventional deterministic method are the clear treatment of uncertainties and the possibility to perform sensitivity studies from which it is possible to identify and quantify the effect of key factors and mitigative actions. They thus provide information to support optimal decisions related to in-service inspection planning and maintenance strategies, lifetime prediction or reassessment, integrity assessment of degradation and definition of in-service acceptability criteria. Apart from a clear modelling of fracture mechanics concept and detailed knowledge of the input data, application of this type of analysis requires a tool capable of making a reasonably easy numerical estimate of the probability of failure. For this purpose a benchmark problem has been performed by EDF, Framatome and CEA to clarify the difficulties and differences in numerical processes. In this study, general state-of-the-art structural reliability methods known as First and Second Order Reliability Methods (FORM/SORM) along with Monte Carlo Simulation and Importance Sampling were tested on a rather complex mechanical model. This model concerns the risk of brittle rupture of a PWR vessel subjected to transient conditions. The objective of this paper is to present the results of this benchmark exercises used also to validate the probabilistic model and its input random parameters. By performing sensitivity studies and analyzing the coordinate value of the design point (most probable failure point given by FORM method), the most influential parameters have been identified on this case study. Special data base have therefore been collected and sophisticated statistical treatment performed to update more precisely the probability distribution of these parameters (the fracture toughness transition curve, the irradiation-induced shift prediction, the flaw size, the reliability of NDE...). Results from these probabilistic analyses can now be used to calibrate explicit safety factors in relation to implicit safety margins, and define in-service acceptability criteria. The 'deterministic' approach is then treated as a special case of the more detailed 'probabilistic' formulation of the problem

  19. Effect of surface conditions on transient critical heat fluxes for a horizontal cylinder in a pool of water at pressures due to exponentially increasing heat inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transient critical heat fluxes, CHFs, on 1.2-mm horizontal cylinders with mirror finished surface (MS) and Emery-3 finished rough one (RS) in a pool of water due to exponentially increasing heat inputs, Q0et/τ, with the periods, τ, ranged from 20 s down to 2 ms at pressures ranging from atmospheric up to 2 MPa for the subcoolings ranging from 0 to 80 K were measured. A heat input with the period of 20 s corresponds to quasi-steadily increasing one. The obtained data compared with the corresponding data for a cylinder with commercial surface (CS) which were already published in other papers. The trend of CHFs for the periods was generally as follows: the CHF first increases with a decrease in period up to a certain maximum CHF, then it decreases down to a minimum CHF and finally again increases with a decrease in period; namely the CHFs for the periods are separated into the first, second and third groups for longer, shorter and intermediate periods, respectively. The three groups of the CHFs for the periods tested were clearly observed for the cylinders with MS and RS, though the CHFs values for the shorter periods belonging to the second group were not observed for the cylinder with CS except those for the saturation condition at around atmospheric pressure, and those for high subcoolings at higher pressures. At the CHFs belonging to the second group the direct or semi-direct transition clearly occurs from transient conduction regime to film boiling without or with the vapor bubbles for a while with instantaneous increasing of heat flux for both cylinders of MS and RS. It was assumed that the transitions at the CHFs occur due to the explosive-like heterogeneous spontaneous nucleation (HSN) in originally flooded cavities similar to the assumption for the cylinder with CS previously published. It should be noted that as a typical example the minimum CHFs for the periods of 10 ms on the MS and RS cylinders at the pressure of 1 MPa for the subcooling of 40 K were ∼40% of the corresponding steady-state CHF. It was observed that the trends of CHFs for the periods belonging to the second and third groups are significantly affected by the cylinder surface conditions.

  20. Effect of surface conditions on transient critical heat fluxes for a horizontal cylinder in a pool of water at pressures due to exponentially increasing heat inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transient critical heat fluxes, CHFs, on 1.2mm horizontal cylinders with mirror finished and Emery-3 finished rough surfaces(MS, RS) in a pool of water due to exponentially increasing heat inputs, Qoet/τ, with the periods, τ, ranged from 20s down to 2ms at the pressures ranging from atmospheric up to about 2MPa for the subcoolings ranging from zero up to 80K were measured: the heat input with the period of 20s corresponds to quasi-steadily increasing one. The data compared with the corresponding data for the cylinder with commercial surface(CS). The trend of CHFs for the periods was generally as follows: the CHF first increases with the decrease in period up to a certain maximum CHF, then it decreases down to a minimum CHF and again increases with the decrease in period; namely the CHFs for the periods are separated into the 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups for longer, shorter and intermediate periods respectively. The three groups of the CHFs were clearly observed for the cylinders with MS and RS though the CHFs values for the shorter periods were not observed for the cylinder with CS except those for the saturation condition at around atmospheric pressure, and those for high subcoolings at higher pressures. At the CHFs belonging to the 2nd group the direct or semi-direct transition clearly occurs from transient conduction regime to film boiling without or with the vapor bubbles for a while with instantaneous increasing of heat flux for both cylinders of MS and RS; at the CHFs the transitions occur due to the explosive-like heterogeneous spontaneous nucleation in originally flooded cavities. It should be noted that as a typical example the minimum CHFs for the periods of 10ms on the MS and RS cylinders at the pressure of 1MPa for the subcooling of 40K were about 40% of the corresponding steady-state CHF. It was observed that the trend of CHFs for the 2nd and 3rd groups are significantly affected by the cylinder surface conditions. (J.P.N.)

  1. The Impact of Atmospheric Conditions on the Baseball Totals Market

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney J. Paul; Weinbach, Andrew P.; Chris Weinbach

    2014-01-01

    A study of the physics of baseball has shown that air density plays a significant role in the distance a batted baseball will travel. Air density is a function of altitude, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. This paper tests if air density impacts the totals market in Major League Baseball by influencing the number of runs in a game above and beyond the betting market total. Through regression analysis and betting simulations of the 2012 season, it is shown that air density has a...

  2. A priori and a posteriori investigations for developing large eddy simulations of multi-species turbulent mixing under high-pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, Giulio; Bellan, Josette

    2015-03-01

    A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database was created representing mixing of species under high-pressure conditions. The configuration considered is that of a temporally evolving mixing layer. The database was examined and analyzed for the purpose of modeling some of the unclosed terms that appear in the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) equations. Several metrics are used to understand the LES modeling requirements. First, a statistical analysis of the DNS-database large-scale flow structures was performed to provide a metric for probing the accuracy of the proposed LES models as the flow fields obtained from accurate LESs should contain structures of morphology statistically similar to those observed in the filtered-and-coarsened DNS (FC-DNS) fields. To characterize the morphology of the large-scales structures, the Minkowski functionals of the iso-surfaces were evaluated for two different fields: the second-invariant of the rate of deformation tensor and the irreversible entropy production rate. To remove the presence of the small flow scales, both of these fields were computed using the FC-DNS solutions. It was found that the large-scale structures of the irreversible entropy production rate exhibit higher morphological complexity than those of the second invariant of the rate of deformation tensor, indicating that the burden of modeling will be on recovering the thermodynamic fields. Second, to evaluate the physical effects which must be modeled at the subfilter scale, an a priori analysis was conducted. This a priori analysis, conducted in the coarse-grid LES regime, revealed that standard closures for the filtered pressure, the filtered heat flux, and the filtered species mass fluxes, in which a filtered function of a variable is equal to the function of the filtered variable, may no longer be valid for the high-pressure flows considered in this study. The terms requiring modeling are the filtered pressure, the filtered heat flux, the filtered pressure work, and the filtered species mass fluxes. Improved models were developed based on a scale-similarity approach and were found to perform considerably better than the classical ones. These improved models were also assessed in an a posteriori study. Different combinations of the standard models and the improved ones were tested. At the relatively small Reynolds numbers achievable in DNS and at the relatively small filter widths used here, the standard models for the filtered pressure, the filtered heat flux, and the filtered species fluxes were found to yield accurate results for the morphology of the large-scale structures present in the flow. Analysis of the temporal evolution of several volume-averaged quantities representative of the mixing layer growth, and of the cross-stream variation of homogeneous-plane averages and second-order correlations, as well as of visualizations, indicated that the models performed equivalently for the conditions of the simulations. The expectation is that at the much larger Reynolds numbers and much larger filter widths used in practical applications, the improved models will have much more accurate performance than the standard one.

  3. A priori and a posteriori investigations for developing large eddy simulations of multi-species turbulent mixing under high-pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghesi, Giulio [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Bellan, Josette, E-mail: josette.bellan@jpl.nasa.gov [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109-8099 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database was created representing mixing of species under high-pressure conditions. The configuration considered is that of a temporally evolving mixing layer. The database was examined and analyzed for the purpose of modeling some of the unclosed terms that appear in the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) equations. Several metrics are used to understand the LES modeling requirements. First, a statistical analysis of the DNS-database large-scale flow structures was performed to provide a metric for probing the accuracy of the proposed LES models as the flow fields obtained from accurate LESs should contain structures of morphology statistically similar to those observed in the filtered-and-coarsened DNS (FC-DNS) fields. To characterize the morphology of the large-scales structures, the Minkowski functionals of the iso-surfaces were evaluated for two different fields: the second-invariant of the rate of deformation tensor and the irreversible entropy production rate. To remove the presence of the small flow scales, both of these fields were computed using the FC-DNS solutions. It was found that the large-scale structures of the irreversible entropy production rate exhibit higher morphological complexity than those of the second invariant of the rate of deformation tensor, indicating that the burden of modeling will be on recovering the thermodynamic fields. Second, to evaluate the physical effects which must be modeled at the subfilter scale, an a priori analysis was conducted. This a priori analysis, conducted in the coarse-grid LES regime, revealed that standard closures for the filtered pressure, the filtered heat flux, and the filtered species mass fluxes, in which a filtered function of a variable is equal to the function of the filtered variable, may no longer be valid for the high-pressure flows considered in this study. The terms requiring modeling are the filtered pressure, the filtered heat flux, the filtered pressure work, and the filtered species mass fluxes. Improved models were developed based on a scale-similarity approach and were found to perform considerably better than the classical ones. These improved models were also assessed in an a posteriori study. Different combinations of the standard models and the improved ones were tested. At the relatively small Reynolds numbers achievable in DNS and at the relatively small filter widths used here, the standard models for the filtered pressure, the filtered heat flux, and the filtered species fluxes were found to yield accurate results for the morphology of the large-scale structures present in the flow. Analysis of the temporal evolution of several volume-averaged quantities representative of the mixing layer growth, and of the cross-stream variation of homogeneous-plane averages and second-order correlations, as well as of visualizations, indicated that the models performed equivalently for the conditions of the simulations. The expectation is that at the much larger Reynolds numbers and much larger filter widths used in practical applications, the improved models will have much more accurate performance than the standard one.

  4. A priori and a posteriori investigations for developing large eddy simulations of multi-species turbulent mixing under high-pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database was created representing mixing of species under high-pressure conditions. The configuration considered is that of a temporally evolving mixing layer. The database was examined and analyzed for the purpose of modeling some of the unclosed terms that appear in the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) equations. Several metrics are used to understand the LES modeling requirements. First, a statistical analysis of the DNS-database large-scale flow structures was performed to provide a metric for probing the accuracy of the proposed LES models as the flow fields obtained from accurate LESs should contain structures of morphology statistically similar to those observed in the filtered-and-coarsened DNS (FC-DNS) fields. To characterize the morphology of the large-scales structures, the Minkowski functionals of the iso-surfaces were evaluated for two different fields: the second-invariant of the rate of deformation tensor and the irreversible entropy production rate. To remove the presence of the small flow scales, both of these fields were computed using the FC-DNS solutions. It was found that the large-scale structures of the irreversible entropy production rate exhibit higher morphological complexity than those of the second invariant of the rate of deformation tensor, indicating that the burden of modeling will be on recovering the thermodynamic fields. Second, to evaluate the physical effects which must be modeled at the subfilter scale, an a priori analysis was conducted. This a priori analysis, conducted in the coarse-grid LES regime, revealed that standard closures for the filtered pressure, the filtered heat flux, and the filtered species mass fluxes, in which a filtered function of a variable is equal to the function of the filtered variable, may no longer be valid for the high-pressure flows considered in this study. The terms requiring modeling are the filtered pressure, the filtered heat flux, the filtered pressure work, and the filtered species mass fluxes. Improved models were developed based on a scale-similarity approach and were found to perform considerably better than the classical ones. These improved models were also assessed in an a posteriori study. Different combinations of the standard models and the improved ones were tested. At the relatively small Reynolds numbers achievable in DNS and at the relatively small filter widths used here, the standard models for the filtered pressure, the filtered heat flux, and the filtered species fluxes were found to yield accurate results for the morphology of the large-scale structures present in the flow. Analysis of the temporal evolution of several volume-averaged quantities representative of the mixing layer growth, and of the cross-stream variation of homogeneous-plane averages and second-order correlations, as well as of visualizations, indicated that the models performed equivalently for the conditions of the simulations. The expectation is that at the much larger Reynolds numbers and much larger filter widths used in practical applications, the improved models will have much more accurate performance than the standard one

  5. Analysis of fuel rod behaviour within a rod bundle of a pressurized water reactor under the conditions of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) using probabilistic methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of fuel rod behaviour under PWR LOCA conditions aims at the evaluation of the peak cladding temperatures and the (final) maximum circumferential cladding strains. Moreover, the estimation of the amount of possible coolant channel blockages within a rod bundle is of special interest, as large coplanar clad strains of adjacent rods may result in strong local reductions of coolant channel areas. Coolant channel blockages of large radial extent may impair the long-term coolability of the corresponding rods. A model has been developed to describe these accident consequences using probabilistic methodology. This model is applied to study the behaviour of fuel rods under accident conditions following the double-ended pipe rupture between collant pump and pressure vessel in the primary system of a 1300 MW(el)-PWR. Specifically a rod bundle is considered consisting of 236 fuel rods, that is subjected to severe thermal and mechanical loading. The results obtained indicate that plastic clad deformations with circumferential clad strains of more than 30% cannot be excluded for hot rods of the reference bundle. However, coplanar coolant channel blockages of significant extent seem to be probable within that bundle only under certain boundary conditions which are assumed to be pessimistic. (orig./RW)

  6. Comparison of Surfactant Distributions in Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive Films Dried from Dispersion under Lab-Scale and Industrial Drying Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baesch, S; Siebel, D; Schmidt-Hansberg, B; Eichholz, C; Gerst, M; Scharfer, P; Schabel, W

    2016-03-30

    Film-forming latex dispersions are an important class of material systems for a variety of applications, for example, pressure-sensitive adhesives, which are used for the manufacturing of adhesive tapes and labels. The mechanisms occurring during drying have been under intense investigations in a number of literature works. Of special interest is the distribution of surfactants during the film formation. However, most of the studies are performed at experimental conditions very different from those usually encountered in industrial processes. This leaves the impact of the drying conditions and the resulting influence on the film properties unclear. In this work, two different 2-ethylhexyl-acrylate (EHA)-based adhesives with varying characteristics regarding glass transition temperature, surfactants, and particle size distribution were investigated on two different substrates. The drying conditions, defined by film temperature and mass transfer in the gas phase, were varied to emulate typical conditions encountered in the laboratory and industrial processes. Extreme conditions equivalent to air temperatures up to 250 °C in a belt dryer and drying rates of 12 g/(m(2)·s) were realized. The surfactant distributions were measured by means of 3D confocal Raman spectroscopy in the dry film. The surfactant distributions were found to differ significantly with drying conditions at moderate film temperatures. At elevated film temperatures the surfactant distributions are independent of the investigated gas side transport coefficients: the heat and mass transfer coefficient. Coating on substrates with significantly different surface energies has a large impact on surfactant concentration gradients, as the equilibrium between surface and bulk concentration changes. Dispersions with higher colloidal stability showed more homogeneous lateral surfactant distributions. These results indicate that the choice of the drying conditions, colloidal stability, and substrates is crucial to control the surfactant distribution. Results obtained under lab-scale drying conditions cannot be transferred directly to the industrial application. The results were similar for both tested adhesive material systems, despite their different properties. This indicates that other properties, such as the particle size distribution and glass transition temperature, have surprisingly little effect on the development of the surfactant distribution. PMID:26953641

  7. Defect formation in aqueous environment: Theoretical assessment of boron incorporation in nickel ferrite under conditions of an operating pressurized-water nuclear reactor (PWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rk, Zs.; Bucholz, E. W.; Brenner, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    A serious concern in the safety and economy of a pressurized water nuclear reactor is related to the accumulation of boron inside the metal oxide (mostly NiFe2O4 spinel) deposits on the upper regions of the fuel rods. Boron, being a potent neutron absorber, can alter the neutron flux causing anomalous shifts and fluctuations in the power output of the reactor core. This phenomenon reduces the operational flexibility of the plant and may force the down-rating of the reactor. In this work an innovative approach is used to combine first-principles calculations with thermodynamic data to evaluate the possibility of B incorporation into the crystal structure of NiFe2O4, under conditions typical to operating nuclear pressurized water nuclear reactors. Analyses of temperature and pH dependence of the defect formation energies indicate that B can accumulate in NiFe2O4 as an interstitial impurity and may therefore be a major contributor to the anomalous axial power shift observed in nuclear reactors. This computational approach is quite general and applicable to a large variety of solids in equilibrium with aqueous solutions.

  8. Radionuclides release from re-irradiated fuel under high temperature and pressure conditions. Gamma-ray measurements of VEGA-5 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidaka, Akihide; Kudo, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Takehiko; Kanazawa, Toru; Kiuchi, Toshio; Uetsuka, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The VEGA (Verification Experiments of radionuclides Gas/Aerosol release) program is being performed at JAERI to clarify mechanisms of radionuclides release from irradiated fuel during severe accidents and to improve source term predictability. The fifth VEGA-5 test was conducted in January 2002 to confirm the reproducibility of decrease in cesium release under elevated pressure that was observed in the VEGA-2 test and to investigate the release behavior of short-life radionuclides. The PWR fuel of 47 GWd/tU after about 8.2 years of cooling was re-irradiated at Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) for 8 hours before the heat-up test. After that, the two pellets of 10.9 g without cladding were heated up to about 2,900 K at 1.0 MPa under the inert He condition. The experiment reconfirmed the decrease in cesium release rate under the elevated pressure. The release data on short-life radionuclides such as Ru-103, Ba-140 and Xe-133 that have never been observed in the previous VEGA tests without re-irradiation was obtained using the {gamma} ray measurement. (author)

  9. Investigation of nonlinear inviscid and viscous flow effects in the analysis of dynamic stall. [air flow and chordwise pressure distribution on airfoil below stall condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, P.

    1974-01-01

    A method for analyzing unsteady airfoil stall was refined by including nonlinear effects in the representation of the inviscid flow. Certain other aspects of the potential-flow model were reexamined and the effects of varying Reynolds number on stall characteristics were investigated. Refinement of the formulation improved the representation of the flow and chordwise pressure distribution below stall, but substantial quantitative differences between computed and measured results are still evident for sinusoidal pitching through stall. Agreement is substantially improved by assuming the growth rate of the dead-air region at the onset of leading-edge stall is of the order of the component of the free stream normal to the airfoil chordline. The method predicts the expected increase in the resistance to stalling with increasing Reynolds number. Results indicate that a given airfoil can undergo both trailing-edge and leading-edge stall under unsteady conditions.

  10. Regulated In Situ Generation of Molecular Ions or Protonated Molecules under Atmospheric-Pressure Helium-Plasma-Ionization Mass Spectrometric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangam, Rekha; Pavlov, Julius; Attygalle, Athula B.

    2015-07-01

    In an enclosed atmospheric-pressure helium-plasma ionization (HePI) source engulfed with dehumidified ambient gases, molecular cations are generated from compounds such as toluene, bromobenzene, and iodobenzene. Evidently, the ionization is effected by a direct Penning mechanism attributable to interactions of the gas-phase analyte with metastable helium atoms. It is widely known that secondary ions generated from ambient gases also play an important role in the overall ionization process. For example, when the ambient gases bear even traces of moisture, the analytes are ionized by proton transfer reactions with gaseous H3O+. In this study, we demonstrate how a controlled variation of experimental conditions can manipulate the abundance of molecular ions and protonated molecules in a HePI source.

  11. Regulated In Situ Generation of Molecular Ions or Protonated Molecules under Atmospheric-Pressure Helium-Plasma-Ionization Mass Spectrometric Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangam, Rekha; Pavlov, Julius; Attygalle, Athula B

    2015-07-01

    In an enclosed atmospheric-pressure helium-plasma ionization (HePI) source engulfed with dehumidified ambient gases, molecular cations are generated from compounds such as toluene, bromobenzene, and iodobenzene. Evidently, the ionization is effected by a direct Penning mechanism attributable to interactions of the gas-phase analyte with metastable helium atoms. It is widely known that secondary ions generated from ambient gases also play an important role in the overall ionization process. For example, when the ambient gases bear even traces of moisture, the analytes are ionized by proton transfer reactions with gaseous H3O(+). In this study, we demonstrate how a controlled variation of experimental conditions can manipulate the abundance of molecular ions and protonated molecules in a HePI source. PMID:25804892

  12. New antiferromagnetic perovskite CaCo3V4O12 prepared at high-pressure and high-temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikov, Sergey V; Zainulin, Yury G; Kadyrova, Nadezda I; Tyutyunnik, Alexander P; Semenova, Anna S; Kasinathan, Deepa; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Karkin, Alexander E

    2013-10-21

    A new perovskite, CaCo(2+)3V(4+)4O12, has been synthesized at high-pressure and high-temperature (HP-HT) conditions. The properties of this perovskite were examined by a range of techniques. CaCo3V4O12 was found to adopt a double-perovskite cubic lattice [a = 7.3428(6) ] with Im3 symmetry. We have established that this new perovskite is stable at ambient conditions, and its oxidation and/or decomposition at ambient pressure begins above 500 C. It undergoes an abrupt antiferromagnetic transition around 98 K. Electrical resistivity data suggest semimetallic conductivity in the temperature range of 1.6-370 K. We have established that the Co(2+) ions in CaCo3V4O12 are in the high-spin state with a sizable orbital moment, even though their square-planar oxygen coordination could be more suitable for the low-spin state, which is prone to Jahn-Teller distortion. Electrical resistivity curves also exhibit a distinct steplike feature around 100 K. CaCo3V4O12 is a first example of perovskite in which the sites A' are fully occupied by Co(2+) ions, and hence its synthesis opens the door to a new class of double perovskites, ACo3B4O12, that may be derived by chemical substitution of the A sublattice by lanthanides, sodium, strontium, and bismuth and by other elements and/or of the B sublattice by some other transition metals. PMID:24083336

  13. Effect of SG Modeling on Primary Side Pressure and Temperature Trend During Long Term Station Black Out Conditions in VVER Using RELAP5 and CATHARE2 System Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although station black out conditions (i.e. loss of off-site power with simultaneous failure of all diesel generators) over a period of several hours are very unlikely, analysis of station black out transients and possible countermeasures are important. A well planned emergency operating procedure, utilizing just equipment powered by batteries, can extend the grace period considerably, and mitigate severe accident progression. Until the occurrence of core damage best estimate thermal hydraulic system codes like Relap5 or Cathare2 can give a good picture of the development of the transient. Heat transfer from the primary to the secondary side is one of the dominant phenomena during the first hours of a station black out transient. Primary side pressure stays high, and the decay heat is transferred by natural circulation to the secondary side. The steam generator inventory boils off, and the steam generator level decreases. Modelling of the steam generator therefore is of special importance. The current paper presents an analysis for VVER-1000 type steam generators (horizontal) with different nodalization detail and different codes (Cathare2 and Relap5). The nodalization approach has been verified by comparing calculated results to PSB-VVER steam generator experiments. The results show that codes like Relap5 and Cathare2, by assuming uniform bulk flow properties over the flow cross section and within volume units, introduce a distortion compared to the real physics in case station black out conditions. The reason lies in the specifics of the horizontal steam generator. While the heat transfer surface decreases continuously in the actual steam generator, the necessity of modelling the steam generator with nodes of finite volume creates a step-wise reduction of the heat transfer surface. The effects on the primary side temperature and pressure trends are not negligible, and decrease with increasing detail of modelling.(author)

  14. An experimental study of the effects of the mixing vane on the CHF in the low-pressure, low-flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the spacer grid and mixing vane on the critical heat flux (CHF) have been experimentally investigated under low-pressure, low-flow and high-quality conditions using two types of test sections: an annulus and a round tube. In the annulus test section (0.7m long, 19 mm I.D., 33.5 mm O.D.,) the ring type spacer grid was used to know the variation of the CHF and the first location of the CHF according to the axial location of the spacer grid. The transparent outer tube was used to observe the mechanism of the CHF and the flow patterns when the CHF occurred. In the tube test section (0.7 m long, 10.8 mm I.D.), the split vane type mixing vane was invented and installed in the tube. The test conditions were atmospheric pressure, low mass flux and constant inlet subcooling. Experimental results shows that (1) the spacer grid usually increases the CHF although gives no effect on, or decreases the CHF in some cases, depending on the mass velocity and its axial location, (2) especially in the lower mass flux (G 2s), the spacer grid or the mixing vane can not increase the CHF, on the contrary it decreases the CHF, (3) the location of the first CHF is usually just upstream of the spacer grid, but it is same to the bare test section's when the flow is low or the spacer grid is located far from the downstream end of the test section. The major mechanisms of the effects of the mixing vane on the CHF are discussed. They may be (1) directing the entrainments to the heated wall to increase droplet deposition at the wall (an increasing effect), and (2) breakup of the liquid film in annular flow at the wall (a decreasing effect)

  15. Pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain gauges pressure transducers types are presented. Models, characteristics and calibration procedures were also analysed. Initially, a theoretical study was accomplished to evaluate metallic alloys behavior on sensing elements manufacturing, and diaphragm was used as deflecting elements. Electrical models for potenciometric transducers were proposed at the beginning and subsequently comproved according our experiments. Concerning bridge transducers, existing models confirmed the conditions of linearity and sensitivity related to the electrical signal. All the work done was of help on the calibration field and pressure measurements employing unbounded strain gauge pressure transducers

  16. Effects of pre- or post-processing storage conditions on high-hydrostatic pressure inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mu; Huang, Yaoxin; Gurtler, Joshua B; Niemira, Brendan A; Sites, Joseph E; Chen, Haiqiang

    2013-05-15

    The effects of storage conditions on subsequent high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in oysters were investigated. Live oysters were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus to ca. 7-8 log MPN/g by feeding and stored at varying conditions (i.e., 21 or 35 C for 5h, 4 or 10 C for 1 and 2 days and -18 C for 2 weeks). Oyster meats were then treated at 225-300 MPa for 2 min at 4, 21 or 35 C. HHP at 300 MPa for 2 min achieved a >5-log MPN/g reduction of V. parahaemolyticus, completely inactivating V. vulnificus (negative by enrichment) in oysters. Treatment temperatures of 4, 21 and 35 C did not significantly affect pressure inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus (P>0.05). Cold storage at -18, 4 and 10 C, prior to HHP, decreased V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus populations by 1.5-3.0 log MPN/g, but did not increase their sensitivity to subsequent HHP treatments. The effects of cold storage after HHP on inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters were also determined. Oysters were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus and stored at 21 C for 5h or 4 C for 1 day. Oyster meats were then treated at 250-300 MPa for 2 min at 21 or 35 C and stored for 15 days in ice or in a freezer. V. parahaemolyticus populations in HHP-treated oysters gradually decreased during post-HHP ice or frozen storage. A validation study using whole-shell oysters was conducted to determine whether the presence of oyster shells influenced HHP inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus. No appreciable differences in inactivation between shucked oyster meat and whole-shell oysters were observed. HPP at 300 MPa for 2 min at 21 C, followed by 5-day ice storage or 7-day frozen storage, and HPP at 250 MPa for 2 min at 21 C, followed by 10-day ice or 7-day frozen storage, completely inactivated V. parahaemolyticus in whole-shell oysters (>7 log reductions). The combination of HHP at a relatively low pressure (e.g., 250 MPa) followed by short-term frozen storage (7 days) could potentially be applied by the shellfish industry as a post-harvest process to eliminate V. parahaemolyticus in oysters. PMID:23545264

  17. Role of pore fluid pressure on transient strength changes and fabric development during serpentine dehydration at mantle conditions: Implications for subduction-zone seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Brooks; Hirth, Greg

    2015-07-01

    To further investigate the dehydration embrittlement hypothesis and its possible link to subduction-zone seismicity, we conducted deformation experiments on antigorite serpentinite in a Griggs-type apparatus at conditions below and above antigorite stability. Temperature ramps (crossing the antigorite thermal stability) were used in conjunction with a new experimental method that allows fluid produced during dehydration reactions to be drained, partially drained or undrained. During temperature ramps, weakening coupled with transient slip initiated at ˜ 650 °C, coincident with the predicted phase transition of antigorite to olivine and talc at ˜ 1 GPa. The weakening-rate and steady-state strength were dependent on drainage conditions; undrained samples weakened over a few minutes and supported the lowest shear stress (˜ 50 MPa), while drained samples weakened over a few hours and supported the highest shear stress (˜ 210 MPa). The coefficient of friction (shear stress over normal stress) in drained samples decreased from ˜0.4 to ˜0.16 after the temperature ramp. The strengths of samples that were first annealed at 700 °C for ˜ 12 h, then deformed, were similar to those observed in the temperature ramp experiments. Strain localization along fractures occurred in all samples during temperature ramping, regardless of the drainage conditions. However, microstructural observations indicate deformation by ductile mechanisms at higher strain under both undrained and drained conditions. The rheology and microstructures suggest dehydrating serpentinite deforms via semibrittle flow with grain-scale ductile deformation more active at high pore fluid pressures. Our results suggest that earthquakes in serpentinized mantle do not nucleate as a direct result of unstable frictional sliding along fractures generated at the onset of dehydration reactions.

  18. Optimisation of the hot conditioning of carbon steel surfaces of primary heat transport system of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot conditioning operation of the primary heat transport system is an important step prior to the commissioning of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors. One of the major objectives of the operation is to develop a stable and protective magnetite layer on the inner surfaces of carbon steel piping. The correlation between stable magnetite film growth on carbon steel surfaces and the period of exposure to hot conditioning environment is generally established by a combination of weight change measurements and microscopic/morphological observations of the specimens periodically removed during the operation. In the present study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at room temperature is demonstrated as an alternate, quantitative technique to arrive at an optimal duration of the exposure period. Specimens of carbon steel were exposed for 24, 35 and 48 h during hot conditioning of primary heat transport system of two Indian PHWRs. The composition and morphology of oxide films grown during exposure was characterized by X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Further, ex situ electrochemical impedance spectra of magnetite films formed after each exposure were measured, in 1 ppm Li+ electrolyte at room temperature as a function of potential in a range of -0.8 to +0.3 VSCE. The defect density of the magnetite films formed after each exposure was estimated by Mott-Schottky analysis of capacitances extracted from the impedance spectra. Further the ionic resistance of the oxide was also extracted from the impedance spectra. Defect density was observed to decrease with increase in exposure time and to saturate after 35 h, indicating stabilisation of the barrier layer part of the magnetite film. The values of the ionic transport resistance start to increase after 35-40 h of exposure. The quantitative ability of EIS technique to assess the film quality demonstrates that it can be used as a supplementary tool to the thickness and morphological characterizations of samples during hot conditioning.

  19. Real-world operation conditions and on-road emissions of Beijing diesel buses measured by using portable emission measurement system and electric low-pressure impactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Johnson, Kent C; Shah, Asad Naeem; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao

    2011-03-15

    On-road measurement is an effective method to investigate real-world emissions generated from vehicles and estimate the difference between engine certification cycles and real-world operating conditions. This study presents the results of on-road measurements collected from urban buses which propelled by diesel engine in Beijing city. Two widely used Euro III emission level buses and two Euro IV emission level buses were chosen to perform on-road emission measurements using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for gaseous pollutant and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for particulate matter (PM) number emissions. The results indicate that considerable discrepancies of engine operating conditions between real-world driving cycles and engine certification cycles have been observed. Under real-world operating conditions, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions can easily meet their respective regulations limits, while brake specification nitrogen oxide (bsNO(x)) emissions present a significant deviation from its corresponding limit. Compared with standard limits, the real-world bsNO(x) emission of the two Euro III emission level buses approximately increased by 60% and 120% respectively, and bsNO(x) of two Euro IV buses nearly twice standard limits because Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system not active under low exhaust temperature. Particle mass were estimated via particle size distribution with the assumption that particle density and diameter is liner. The results demonstrate that nanometer size particulate matter make significant contribution to total particle number but play a minor role to total particle mass. It is suggested that specific certified cycle should be developed to regulate bus engines emissions on the test bench or use PEMS to control the bus emissions under real-world operating conditions. PMID:21295821

  20. Description of original endoscopic findings and respiratory functional assessment using barometric whole-body plethysmography in dogs suffering from brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaerts, Frdrique; Talavera, Jess; Leemans, Jrme; Hamaide, Annick; Claeys, Stphanie; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Clercx, Ccile

    2010-01-01

    The clinical features of brachycephalic airway obstructive disease in 11 brachycephalic dogs are described in this study. The respiratory strategy was assessed before (n=11) and after (n=6) surgery using barometric whole-body plethysmography (BWBP), with the relationship between BWBP variables and the severity of the clinical signs assessed by the use of a respiratory score based on clinical, radiographic and endoscopic findings. Partial collapse of the left main bronchus was a common finding not previously described as part of the brachycephalic airway obstructive disease syndrome. Epiglottic cysts, laryngeal granulomas and nasopharyngeal turbinates in English Bulldogs were other previously unreported findings. No significant correlation between the respiratory score and any of the BWBP variables was detected. Compared to healthy dogs, brachycephalic dogs had a significantly lower Te/Ti ratio (expiratory time over inspiratory time), peak inspiratory flow (PIF) per kg bodyweight (BW), significantly higher peak expiratory flow (PEF) per kgBW, PEF/PIF, and enhanced pause. These variations are compatible with upper airway obstructions primarily in the extrathoracic airways. Following surgery, a significant decrease in PEF/PIF was detected. The study showed that BWBP could be used to characterise the respiratory strategy in brachycephalic dogs before and after surgery. PMID:18952471

  1. Modelling the chemical behaviour of tellurium species in the reactor pressure vessel and the reactor cooling system under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This state of the art report contains information on the behaviour of tellurium and its compounds in the reactor pressure vessel and the reactor coolant system under light water reactor severe accident conditions. To characterise tellurium behaviour, it is necessary the previous knowledge of the species of tellurium released from the core, and simultaneity of its release with that of other materials which can alter the transport, for instance, control rod and structural materials. Release and transport experiments have been reviewed along with the models implemented in the codes which are used in the international community: TRAPMELT, RAFT, VICTORIA and SOPHIE. From the experiments, it can be concluded that other species different to Te2, such as tin telluride and cesium telluride, may be released from the fuel. That is why they must be considered in the transport phenomena. There is also experimental evidence of the strong interaction of Te2 with Inconel 600 and stainless steel of the pipe walls and structures, however this strong interaction is in competition with the interaction of tellurium with aerosols, which under severe accident conditions may represent an area greater than that of the primary system. It is for the absence of significant tellurium species in the transport models, and also for the interaction of tellurium with aerosols, for which some codes show the greatest deficiencies

  2. Steady state and stability characteristics of natural circulation loops operating with carbon dioxide at supercritical pressures for open and closed loop boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Natural circulation experiments conducted with supercritical carbon dioxide. The instability observed in the pseudo-critical temperature range of operation. Instability is found for small power range bounded by upper and lower stable zones. NOLSTA code predicts very large unstable zone compared to experimental data. Thermal capacitance model included in NOLSTA code to simulate experimental data. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted in a closed supercritical pressure natural circulation loop (SPNCL) with carbon dioxide as working fluid. Instability was observed in a narrow window of power with the loop operating in the pseudo-critical temperature range (heater inlet temperature in the range of 2731 C and heater outlet temperature oscillating from 29 to 45 C). Only horizontal heater horizontal cooler orientation exhibited instability and that too at low secondary side chilled water mass flow rate, i.e. 1015 lpm. A computer code NOLSTA has been developed to carry out steady state and stability analysis of open and closed loop natural circulation at supercritical conditions. The code adequately predicts steady state natural circulation performance for both open and closed loop boundary conditions. However, code predicts very large unstable zone for SPNCL, hence pipe wall thermal capacitance models were incorporated in NOLSTA code to simulate the experimental results. The stability predictions by NOLSTA code (with pipe wall thermal capacitance model) have been compared with experimental data available in open literature and experiments conducted in SPNCL

  3. An application of liquid sublayer dryout mechanism to the prediction of critical heat flux under low pressure and low velocity conditions in round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on several experimental evidences for nucleate boiling in annular film and the existence of residual liquid film flow rate at the critical heat flux (CHF) location, the liquid sublayer dryout (LSD) mechanism under annular film is firstly introduced to evaluate the CHF data at low pressure and low velocity (LPLV) conditions, which would not be predicted by a normal annular film dryout (AFD) model. In this study, the CHF occurrence due to annular film separation or breaking down is phenomenologically modelled by applying the LSD mechanism to this situation. In this LSD mechanism, the liquid sublayer thickness, the incoming liquid velocity to the liquid sublayer, and the axial distance from the onset of annular flow to the CHF location are used as the phenomena-controlling parameters. From the model validation on the 1406 CHF data points ranging over P = 0.1 - 2 MPa, G = 4 - 499 kg/m2s, L/D = 4 - 402, most of CHF data (more than 1000 points) are predicted within ±30% error bounds by the LSD mechanism. However, some calculation results that critical qualities are less than 0.4 are considerably overestimated by this mechanism. These overpredictions seem to be caused by inadequate CHF mechanism classification criteria and an insufficient consideration of the flow instability effect on CHF. Further studies for a new classification criterion screening the CHF data affected by flow instabilities and a new bubble detachment model for LPLV conditions are needed to improve the model accuracy. (author)

  4. Evaluation of pH control agents influencing on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary water chemistry condition of pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of various pH agents on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel was investigated under a simulated secondary water chemistry condition of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in a laboratory, and the steel's corrosion performance was compared with the field data obtained from Uljin NPP unit 2 reactor. All tests were carried out at temperatures of 50 degrees C-250 degrees C and pH of 8.5 - 10. The pH at a given temperature was controlled by adding different agents. Laboratory data indicate that the corrosion rate of carbon steel decreased as the pH increased under the test conditions and the highest corrosion rate was measured at 150 degrees C. This high corrosion rate may be related to high dissolution and instability of Fe oxide (Fe3O4) at 150 degrees C. It was also found that an addition of ethanolamine (ETA) to ammonia was more effectivefor anticorrosion than ammonia alone, and that mixed treatment reduced 50% of iron or more at pHs of 9.5 or higher, especially in the steam generator (SG) and the moisture separator and re-heater

  5. The influence of radiative heat exchange on the character of gasdynamic flows under conditions of pulsed discharge in high-pressure cesium vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, F. G.; Lapshin, V. F.

    2015-01-01

    The gasdynamics of pulse-periodic radiative discharge in high-pressure cesium vapor has been studied in the framework of a two-temperature multifluid model. It is established that, at a limited volume of the gas-discharge tube, the character of gasdynamic flows depends on the conditions of radiative heat exchange in discharge plasma. In cases in which the main contribution to radiative energy losses is related to a spectral region with optical thickness ? R (?) 1, there is nonlocal radiative heat exchange in discharge plasma, which is uniformly heated over the entire tube volume and moves from the discharge axis to tube walls during the entire pulse of discharge current. Under the conditions of radiative losses determined by the spectral region where ? R (?) ? 1, the reabsorption of radiation is absent and discharge plasma is nonuniformly heated by the current pulse. This leads to the appearance of reverse motions, so that the heated plasma is partly pushed toward the tube walls and partly returned to the discharge axis.

  6. Tunnel construction work under high earth pressure and springwater flouing condition. Construction details of a pioneer drift for Hida tunnel, Tokai-Hokuriku expressway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnels such as those planned for the International Linear Collider (ILC) Project are long and narrow structures under the ground. In the construction of these tunnels, various circumstances sometimes restrict the initial surveys from obtaining detailed geological information. In Japan, complicated geological structure composed of discontinuous plate tectonics can be found. Therefore, in order to ensure effective construction planning and execution, it is important that precise geological information be acquired through initial survey and then verified with investigation results during the construction. Hida Tunnel of Tokai Hokuriku Expressway, which is 10.7 km long and took more than 11 years to finish, is the second longest highway tunnel in Japan. The tunnel was constructed using the TBM method in the beginning. Later the method was replaced with NATM because of hostile construction conditions, which include existences of springwater and massive earth pressure due to more than 1000 m of earth loading on top, as well as weak zones consisted of active faults. This paper reports on the geological structure and construction details of a pioneer drift for Hida Tunnel, which was completed by overcoming complicated and poor geological conditions. At the same time, we will mention the ideal method of the geological survey in future ILC plan. (author)

  7. An utilization of liquid sublayer dryout mechanism in predicting critical heat flux under low pressure and low velocity conditions in round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a theoretical assessment of extensive critical heat flux (CHF) data under low pressure and low velocity (LPLV) conditions, it was found out that lots of CHF data would not be well predicted by a normal annular film dryout (AFD) mechanism, although their flow patterns were identified as annular-mist flow. To predict these CHF data, a liquid sublayer dryout (LSD) mechanism has been newly utilized in developing the mechanistic CHF model based on each identified CHF mechanism. This mechanism postulates that the CHF occurrence is caused by dryout of the thin liquid sublayer resulting from the annular film separation or breaking down due to nucleate boiling in annular film or hydrodynamic fluctuation. In principle, this mechanism well supports the experimental evidence of residual film flow rate at the CHF location, which can not be explained by the AFD mechanism. For a comparative assessment of each mechanism, the CHF model based on the LSD mechanism is developed together with that based on the AFD mechanism. The validation of these models is performed on the 1406 CHF data points ranging over P=0.1-2 MPa, G=4-499 kg m-2 s-1, L/D=4-402. This model validation shows that 1055 and 231 CHF data are predicted within ±30 error bound by the LSD mechanism and the AFD mechanism, respectively. However, some CHF data whose critical qualities are <0.4 or whose tube length-to-diameter ratios are <70 are considerably overestimated by the CHF model based on the LSD mechanism. These overestimations seem to be caused by an inadequate CHF mechanism classification and an insufficient consideration of the flow instability effect on CHF. Further studies for a new classification criterion screening the CHF data affected by flow instabilities as well as a new bubble detachment model for LPLV conditions, are needed to improve the model accuracy.

  8. Study on critical heat flux enhancement in flow boiling of SiC nano-fluids under low pressure and low flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is the thermal limit of a phenomenon in which a phase change occurs during heating (such as bubbles forming on a metal surface used to heat water), which suddenly decreases the heat transfer efficiency, thus causing localized overheating of the heating surface. The enhancement of CHF can increase the safety margins and allow operation at higher heat fluxes; thus, it can increase the economy. A very interesting characteristics of nano-fluids is their ability to significantly enhance the CHF. nano-fluids are nano-technology-based colloidal dispersions engineered through stable suspending of nanoparticles. All experiments were performed in round tubes with an inner diameter of 0.01041 m and a length of 0.5 m under low pressure and low flow (LPLF) conditions at a fixed inlet temperature using water, 0.01 vol. % Al2O3/water and SiC/water nano-fluids. It was found that the CHF of the nano-fluids was enhanced and the CHF of the SiC/water nano-fluid was more enhanced than that of the Al2O3/water nano-fluid. (authors)

  9. Critical heat flux and heat transfer above mixture level under high-pressure boil-off conditions in PWR type and tight-lattice type fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat transfer tests were conducted in PWR 17x17 type and tight-lattice type fuel bundles under high-pressure boil-off (very-low flow, mass fluxes lower than 100 kg/m2 s) conditions. There is almost no significant difference in both critical heat flux (CHF) (or dryout point) data and convective heat transfer data above the mixture level between the PWR type and tight-lattice type bundles. The 'complete vaporization equation' predicts well the CHF data, i.e. the dryout occurs nearly at the elevation where the thermal-equilibrium quality reaches 1.0. The Groeneveld CHF table used in the RELAP5/MOD3 code should be improved in the region of mass flux between 10 and 100 kg/m2 s. The radiative heat transfer has an important contribution to total heat transfer above the mixture level. The Dittus-Boelter correlation, with use of the film temperature in evaluating steam properties, predicts well the convective heat transfer above the mixture level. (orig.)

  10. Non-Complexing Anions for Quantitative Speciation Studies Using Raman Spectroscopy in Fused Silica High-Pressure Optical Cells Under Hydrothermal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegarth, Lucas M S G A; Alcorn, Christopher; Bissonette, Katherine; Nol, John; Tremaine, Peter R

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports methods for obtaining time-dependent reduced isotropic Raman spectra of aqueous species in quartz capillary high-pressure optical cells under hydrothermal conditions, as a means of determining quantitative speciation in hydrothermal fluids. The methods have been used to determine relative Raman scattering coefficients and to examine the thermal decomposition kinetics of the non-complexing anions bisulfate (HSO4(-)), perchlorate (CIO4(-)), perrhenate (ReO4(-)), and trifluoromethanesulfonate, or "triflate" (CF3SO3(-)) in acidic and neutral solutions at temperatures up to 400C and 30 MPa. Arrhenius expressions for calculating the thermal decomposition rate constants are also reported. Thermal stabilities in the acidic solutions followed the order HSO4(-) (stable) > ReO4(-) > CIO4(-) > CF3SO3(-), with half-lives (t1/2) > 7 h at 300C. In neutral solutions, the order was HSO4(-) (stable) > CF3SO3(-) > ReO4(-) > CIO4(-), with t1/2 > 8 h at 350C. CF3SO3(-) was extremely stable in neutral solutions, with t1/2 > 11 h at 400C. PMID:26162934

  11. Fault of the correction factor for pressure and temperature kPT in the atmospheric conditions of Dosimetric Calibration Lab. - LSCD of ININ - Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The realization of the operational quantities H*, Hp y/0 H'(0.07) for estimating the effective dose E, usually is done by measuring the air kerma Ka air within the field of ionizing radiation of interest and was subsequently applied appropriate conversion factors for both the quality of radiation and the operational quantity of interest. However, the SSDL in performing the Ka to environmental conditions of ININ (3000 m above sea level, P ∼ 710 hPa) with ionization chambers has found that the pressure correction factor and kPT temperature is not sufficient to correct the change in air density. Indeed, in the case of 60Co the discrepancy between the measurement of a primary standard graphite walls Ka (BEV CC01 be 131) and a side of the plastic walls (Exradin A12) is on the order of 0.4% for the case of the RX BIPM qualities to 100,135, 180 and 250 kV. It was found that for a camera model 30001 PTW (PMMA graphite wall) is needed an additional correction factor k PT ranging from 0.4% to 1.5%, correction factor calculated by MC simulation. For Sk of 125I brachytherapy sources was given an additional correction lower in 11% compared to conventional kPT value measured with a well chamber Standard Imaging HDR 1000 plus. Finally, it is in the process of studying the behavior of this additional correction factor to the case of 137Cs

  12. Study on critical heat flux enhancement in flow boiling of SiC nano-fluids under low pressure and low flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. W.; Park, S. D.; Kang, S.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology UNIST, 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulasn Metropolitan City, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (KAERI), Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, I. C. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology UNIST, 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulasn Metropolitan City, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is the thermal limit of a phenomenon in which a phase change occurs during heating (such as bubbles forming on a metal surface used to heat water), which suddenly decreases the heat transfer efficiency, thus causing localized overheating of the heating surface. The enhancement of CHF can increase the safety margins and allow operation at higher heat fluxes; thus, it can increase the economy. A very interesting characteristics of nano-fluids is their ability to significantly enhance the CHF. nano-fluids are nano-technology-based colloidal dispersions engineered through stable suspending of nanoparticles. All experiments were performed in round tubes with an inner diameter of 0.01041 m and a length of 0.5 m under low pressure and low flow (LPLF) conditions at a fixed inlet temperature using water, 0.01 vol. % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water and SiC/water nano-fluids. It was found that the CHF of the nano-fluids was enhanced and the CHF of the SiC/water nano-fluid was more enhanced than that of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nano-fluid. (authors)

  13. Determining the microwave coupling and operational efficiencies of a microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor under high pressure diamond synthesis operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microwave coupling efficiency of the 2.45 GHz, microwave plasma assisted diamond synthesis process is investigated by experimentally measuring the performance of a specific single mode excited, internally tuned microwave plasma reactor. Plasma reactor coupling efficiencies (η) > 90% are achieved over the entire 100–260 Torr pressure range and 1.5–2.4 kW input power diamond synthesis regime. When operating at a specific experimental operating condition, small additional internal tuning adjustments can be made to achieve η > 98%. When the plasma reactor has low empty cavity losses, i.e., the empty cavity quality factor is >1500, then overall microwave discharge coupling efficiencies (ηcoup) of >94% can be achieved. A large, safe, and efficient experimental operating regime is identified. Both substrate hot spots and the formation of microwave plasmoids are eliminated when operating within this regime. This investigation suggests that both the reactor design and the reactor process operation must be considered when attempting to lower diamond synthesis electrical energy costs while still enabling a very versatile and flexible operation performance

  14. In vitro pressure manifolding distribution evaluation of ABThera Active Abdominal Therapy System, V.A.C. Abdominal Dressing System, and Barkers vacuum packing technique conducted under dynamic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Angel; Sammons, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Temporary abdominal closure methods allow for management of open abdomens where immediate primary closure is not possible and/or where repeat abdominal entries are necessary. We assessed pressure mapping and fluid extraction efficiency of three open abdomen dressing systems: ABThera Active Abdominal Therapy System, V.A.C. Abdominal Dressing System, and Barkers vacuum packing technique. Methods: An in vitro test model was designed to simulate physical conditions present in an open abdomen. The model consisted of a rigid rest platform with elevated central region and a flexible outer layer with centrally located incision. Constant ?125?mmHg negative pressure was applied according to the type of system, under simulated dynamic conditions, using albumin-based solution with a viscosity of 14?cP. Data were collected by pressure sensors located circumferentially into three concentric zones: Zone 1 (closest to negative pressure source), Zone 2 (immediately outside of manifolding material edge), and Zone 3 (area most distal from negative pressure source). Each value was the result of approximately 100 pressure readings/zone/experiment with a total of three experiments for each system. Results: Pressure distribution of ABThera Therapy was significantly (p?pressure distribution was significantly (p?pressure distribution differences in Zone 1 between ABThera Therapy and V.A.C. Abdominal Dressing System; however, in Zones 2 and 3, ABThera Therapy was significantly (p?pressure therapy for open abdomen treatment are not equal. Additional research should be conducted to elucidate clinical implications of data demonstrated here.

  15. Effect of chloride transients on the corrosion behavior of low-alloy steels in cladding flaws of reactor pressure vessels under oxygenated high-temperature water conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojinov, Martin [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia (Bulgaria). Dept. of Physical Chemistry; Nowak, Erika; Stanislowski, Michael [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Saario, Timo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). VTT Materials and Building

    2014-04-15

    Strain-induced corrosion cracking in low alloy steels (LAS) has been extensively investigated during the last decades. One finding from recent investigations is the detrimental role of even small amounts of chlorides, which has been shown to increase the cracking susceptibility of LAS. In order to evaluate this finding a demanding research programme has been established. In light water reactor plants, the pressure vessel and in some cases also the piping is made of LAS, covered with welded stainless steel cladding for improved corrosion protection. In structural failure assessments of primary circuits, penetrating cladding flaws have to be assumed, which could locally expose the underlying LAS to the cooling water. Due to the narrow opening of such weld defects the aqueous solution in contact with the underlying LAS would have a different composition from that of the bulk cooling water. In this paper, first detailed calculations of the water chemistry prevailing in such conditions revealed that oxygen concentration decreases rapidly when going from the mouth of the cladding flaw towards the bottom, bringing the redox potential to values, much lower than those typical for oxygenated high temperature water (HTW). Also, chloride was found to enrich into the cladding flaw volume by a factor of x30. The material studied was 20MnMoNi55 used for the reactor coolant line of a German NPP. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that chloride transients up to 50 ppb in the bulk HTW, resulting in an enrichment of chloride in a penetrating cladding flaw up to 1,500 ppb, do not result in any serious consequences for the corrosion of LAS at the bottom of the cladding flaw. (orig.)

  16. Laser ablation for membrane processing of AlGaN/GaN- and micro structured ferroelectric thin film MEMS and SiC pressure sensors for extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetner, J.; Vanko, G.; Dzuba, J.; Ryger, I.; Lalinsky, T.; Benkler, Manuel; Lucki, Michal

    2015-05-01

    AlGaN/GaN based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), Schottky diodes and/or resistors have been presented as sensing devices for mechanical or chemical sensors operating in extreme conditions. In addition we investigate ferroelectric thin films for integration into micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS). Creation of appropriate diaphragms and/or cantilevers out of SiC is necessary for further improvement of sensing properties of such MEMS sensors. For example sensitivity of the AlGaN/GaN based MEMS pressure sensor can be modified by membrane thickness. We demonstrated that a 4H-SiC 80μm thick diaphragms can be fabricated much faster with laser ablation than by electrochemical, photochemical or reactive ion etching (RIE). We were able to verify the feasibility of this process by fabrication of micromechanical membrane structures also in bulk 3C-SiC, borosilicate glass, sapphire and Al2O3 ceramic substrates by femtosecond laser (520nm) ablation. On a 350μm thick 4H-SiC substrate we produced an array of 275μm deep and 1000μm to 3000μm of diameter blind holes without damaging the 2μm AlN layer at the back side. In addition we investigated ferroelectric thin films as they can be deposited and micro-patterned by a direct UV-lithography method after the ablation process for a specific membrane design. The risk to harm or damage the function of thin films was eliminated by that means. Some defects in the ablated membranes are also affected by the polarisation of the laser light. Ripple structures oriented perpendicular to the laser polarisation promote creation of pin holes which would perforate a thin membrane. We developed an ablation technique strongly inhibiting formation of ripples and pin poles.

  17. A computational study of syngas auto-ignition characteristics at high-pressure and low-temperature conditions with thermal inhomogeneities

    KAUST Repository

    Pal, Pinaki

    2015-07-30

    A computational study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of auto-ignition in a syngas mixture at high-pressure and low-temperature conditions in the presence of thermal inhomogeneities. Highly resolved one-dimensional numerical simulations incorporating detailed chemistry and transport were performed. The temperature inhomogeneities were represented by a global sinusoidal temperature profile and a local Gaussian temperature spike (hot spot). Reaction front speed and front Damköhler number analyses were employed to characterise the propagating ignition front. In the presence of a global temperature gradient, the ignition behaviour shifted from spontaneous propagation (strong) to deflagrative (weak), as the initial mean temperature of the reactant mixture was lowered. A predictive Zel\\'dovich–Sankaran criterion to determine the transition from strong to weak ignition was validated for different parametric sets. At sufficiently low temperatures, the strong ignition regime was recovered due to faster passive scalar dissipation of the imposed thermal fluctuations relative to the reaction timescale, which was quantified by the mixing Damköhler number. In the presence of local hot spots, only deflagrative fronts were observed. However, the fraction of the reactant mixture consumed by the propagating front was found to increase as the initial mean temperature was lowered, thereby leading to more enhanced compression-heating of the end-gas. Passive scalar mixing was not found to be important for the hot spot cases considered. The parametric study confirmed that the relative magnitude of the Sankaran number translates accurately to the quantitative strength of the deflagration front in the overall ignition advancement. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

  18. The Accelerated Weathering of a Radioactive Low-Activity Waste Glass Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions: Experimental Results from a Pressurized Unsaturated Flow Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To predict the long-term fate of low- and high-level waste forms in the subsurface over geologic time scales, it is important to understand how the formation of an alteration phase or phases will affect radionuclide release from the corroding waste forms under repository-relevant conditions. To generate data to conduct performance assessment calculations for the low-activity waste (LAW) integrated disposal facility at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington state, accelerated weathering experiments are being conducted with the pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) test method to evaluate the long-term release of radionuclides from immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses. The radionuclide release rate is a key parameter affecting the overall performance of the LAW disposal facility. Currently, there are three other accelerated weathering test methods being used to evaluate the long-term durability of glasses: product consistency test, vapor hydration test, and unsaturated drip test. In contrast to these test methods, PUF test mimic the near-field vadose zone environment, allow the corroding waste form to achieve its final reaction state, and accelerate the hydrolysis and aging processes by as much as 50 times over conventional static tests run at the same temperature. In this paper, we discuss the results of an accelerated weathering experiment conducted with the PUF apparatus to evaluate the corrosion rate of an ILAW glass, LAWAN102, made with actual Hanford waste taken from Tank 241-AN-102 (U). Results from this PUF test with LAWAN102 glass showed that after one and a half years of testing, the corrosion rate, based on B release, reached a steady-state release of 0.010 ?0.003 g m-2 d-1, which is approximately eight times lower than the HLP glass series previously tested. These results indicate that LAWAN102 glass performs well and is a durable ILAW glass. These results also highlight the importance of being able to predict, with some level of certainty, the alteration phase or phases that will form under repository-relevant conditions

  19. An experimental study of relative permeability hysteresis, capillary trapping characteristics, and capillary pressure of CO2/brine systems at reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Suthanthiraraj, Pearlson Prashanth

    We present the results of an extensive experimental study on the effects of hysteresis on permanent capillary trapping and relative permeability of CO2/brine and supercritical (sc)CO2+SO2/brine systems. We performed numerous unsteady- and steady-state drainage and imbibition full-recirculation flow experiments in three different sandstone rock samples, i.e., low and high-permeability Berea, Nugget sandstones, and Madison limestone carbonate rock sample. A state-of-the-art reservoir conditions core-flooding system was used to perform the tests. The core-flooding apparatus included a medical CT scanner to measure in-situ saturations. The scanner was rotated to the horizontal orientation allowing flow tests through vertically-placed core samples with about 3.8 cm diameter and 15 cm length. Both scCO2 /brine and gaseous CO2 (gCO2)/brine fluid systems were studied. The gaseous and supercritical CO2/brine experiments were carried out at 3.46 and 11 MPa back pressures and 20 and 55°C temperatures, respectively. Under the above-mentioned conditions, the gCO2 and scCO2 have 0.081 and 0.393 gr/cm3 densities, respectively. During unsteady-state tests, the samples were first saturated with brine and then flooded with CO2 (drainage) at different maximum flow rates. The drainage process was then followed by a low flow rate (0.375 cm 3/min) imbibition until residual CO2 saturation was achieved. Wide flow rate ranges of 0.25 to 20 cm3/min for scCO2 and 0.125 to 120 cm3min for gCO2 were used to investigate the variation of initial brine saturation (Swi) with maximum CO2 flow rate and variation of trapped CO2 saturation (SCO2r) with Swi. For a given Swi, the trapped scCO2 saturation was less than that of gCO2 in the same sample. This was attributed to brine being less wetting in the presence of scCO2 than in the presence of gCO 2. During the steady-state experiments, after providing of fully-brine saturated core, scCO2 was injected along with brine to find the drainage curve and as a consequence the Swi, then it was followed by the imbibition process to measure SCO2r. We performed different cycles of relative permeability experiments to investigate the effect of hysteresis. The Swi and SCO2r varied from 0.525 to 0.90 and 0.34 to 0.081, respectively. Maximum CO2 and brine relative permeabilities at the end of drainage and imbibition and also variation of brine relative permeability due to post-imbibition CO2 dissolution during unsteady-state experiment were also studied. We co-injected SO2 with CO2 and brine into the Madison limestone core sample. The sample was acquired from the Rock Springs Uplift in southwest Wyoming. The temperature and pressure of the experiments were 60°C and 19.16 MPa, respectively. Each drainage-imbibition cycle was followed by a dissolution process to establish Sw=1. The results showed that about 76% of the initial CO2 was trapped by capillary trapping mechanism at the end of imbibition test. We also investigated the scCO2+SO2/brine capillary pressure versus saturation relationship through performing primary drainage, imbibition, and secondary drainage experiments. The results indicated that the wettability of the core sample might have been altered owing to being in contact with the scCO 2+SO2/brine system. During primary drainage CO2 displaced 52.5% of brine, i.e., Swi = 0.475. The subsequent imbibition led to 0.329 CO2 saturation. For all series of experiments, the ratio of SCO2r to initial CO2 saturation (1- S wi) was found to be much higher for low initial CO2 saturations. This means that greater fractions of injected CO2 can be permanently trapped at higher initial brine saturations. The results illustrated that very promising fractions (about 49 to 83 %) of the initial CO2 saturation can be trapped permanently. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  20. Structure and optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) - MX2 (M = Mo, W & X = S, Se) under high pressure and high temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaru, Nirup

    Layered structured materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have gained immense interest in recent times due to their exceptional structural, electrical and optical properties. Recent studies show semiconducting TMDs such as MX2 (M= Mo, W & X = S, Se) could be used as potential shock absorbing material, which has resulted in extensive studies on structural stability of these materials under the influence of high pressure. Understanding the structural stability of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 under high pressure has been very challenging due to contradicting observations and interpretations reported in the past. Hence, the main objective of this work is to study the crystal structure and optical properties of bulk MX 2 at high hydrostatic pressures up to 51 GPa using a diamond anvil cell with synchrotron radiation in addition to high pressure Raman spectroscopic and high temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments. Crystal structures of MX2 materials are observed to be stable up to 500 °C with nonlinear thermal coefficients of expansion. Results of high pressure experiments show a pressure induced isostructural hexagonal distortion to a 2Ha-hexagonal P63/mmc phase, in MoS2 around 26 GPa as predicted by theoretical calculations reported earlier. No pressure induced phase transformation is observed in other MX2 (MoSe2, WS2, WSe 2). A semi empirical model based on the energy of interaction of bond electrons is proposed to explain the observed inconsistency between MoS 2 and other TMDs studied. Using this model, it is shown that except MoS2, no other MX2 within the scope of this study undergoes pressure induced phase transition in the pressure range 0 -- 50 GPa. High pressure Raman results show continuous red shifts in dominant vibrational modes with increase in pressure in MX2. Additionally, emergence of a new peak, namely 'd - band' associated with 2Ha structure in MoS2 supports the observation of a isostructural phase transition in high pressure X-ray diffraction experiments. In addition to the studies on bulk MoS2 material, thin film (approximately 100 nm thicknesses) is successfully fabricated via DC magnetron sputtering system and sulfurization technique.

  1. Optimal Pressure Conditions for Unbiased External Ion Accumulation in a Two-Dimensional Radio Frequency Quadrupole for Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When combined with capillary LC, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR) provides a powerful tool for proteomic studies. The sensitivity, dynamic range, and duty cycle provided by FTICR has been shown to be increased by ion trapping and accumulation in a 2D rf-only multipole positioned externally to an FTICR cell. However, it is important that ions be detected across the desired m/z range without a significant bias. In this work we found that pressure inside of the accumulation rf-quadrupole plays an important role in obtaining''unbiased'' ion accumulation. Pressure optimization was performed in both pulsed and continuous modes. It was found that unbiased accumulation in a 2D rf-only quadrupole could be achieved in the pressure range of 5 x 10-4 to 5 x 10-3 torr. External ion accumulation performed at the optimal pressure resulted in an increase in both the duty cycle and dynamic range

  2. De Haas-Van Alphen experiments under extreme conditions of low temperature, high field and high pressure, for high-quality cerium and uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When pressure is applied to cerium and uranium compounds, the magnetic ordering temperature is suppressed and becomes zero at a critical pressure Pc. Around Pc, non-Fermi liquid and/or superconductivity are observed. We clarified a change of the electronic state via a de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) experiment when pressure crosses Pc. The dHvA experiment under pressure was done for the antiferromagnets CeRh2Si2 and CeRhIn5, and for a ferromagnet UGe2. We found an abrupt change of the Fermi surface for CeRh2Si2 and UGe2 when crossing Pc, indicating a first-order like phase transition. For CeRhIn5, the topology of the Fermi surface was unchanged, but the cyclotron mass increased steeply above 1.6 Gpa, where superconductivity sets in

  3. Development of eddy current test techniques for condition monitoring of pressure tube/calandria tube assemblies of Indian pressurised heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressurized heavy water reactors are the mainstay of the nuclear power programme in India. This article describes how eddy current non-destructive techniques are used to test the integrity of pressure tube and calandria tube assemblies. A computer model has been developed, which uses the finite element method, to understand eddy current effects and to arrive at optimum probe design parameters. Garter spring location data from various reactors is presented from various inspection campaigns. (UK)

  4. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathyrn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2004-08-31

    Cathryn H. Greenberg and George W. Tanner. 2004. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions. J. Herp. 38(4):569-577. Abstract: Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) require fish-free, isolated, ephemeral ponds for breeding but otherwise inhabit the surrounding uplands, commonly xeric longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ?wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana). Hence both pond and upland conditions can potentially affect their breeding biology, and population persistence. Hardwood invasion due to fire suppression in sandhills could alter upland and pond suitability by higher hardwood density and increased transpiration. In this paper we explore breeding and neonatal emigration movements in relation to weather, hydrological conditions of ponds, and surrounding upland matrices. We use 9 years of data from continuous monitoring with drift fences and pitfall traps at 8 ephemeral ponds in 2 upland matrices: regularly-burned, savanna-like sandhills (n = 4), and hardwood-invaded sandhills (n = 4). Neither adult nor neonate captures differed between ponds within the 2 upland matrices, suggesting that they are tolerant of upland heterogeneity created by fire frequency. Explosive breeding occurred during 9 periods and in all seasons; adults were captured rarely otherwise. At a landscape-level rainfall, maximum change in barometric pressure, and an interaction between those 2 variables were significant predictors of explosive breeding. At a pond-level, rainfall, change in pond depth during the month prior to breeding, and days since a pond was last dry were significant predictors of adult captures. Transformation date, rather than weather, was associated with neonatal emigrations, which usually were complete within a week. Movement by first-captured adults and neonates was directional, but adult emigrations were apparently not always toward their origin. Our results suggest that Spadefoot Toads are highly adapted to breeding conditions and upland habitat heterogeneity created by weather patterns and fire frequency in Florida sandhills.

  5. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn H. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Tanner, George W. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2004-08-31

    Cathryn H. Greenberg and George W. Tanner. 2004. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions. J. Herp. 38(4):569-577. Abstract: Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) require fish-free, isolated, ephemeral ponds for breeding but otherwise inhabit the surrounding uplands, commonly xeric longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana). Hence both pond and upland conditions can potentially affect their breeding biology, and population persistence. Hardwood invasion due to fire suppression in sandhills could alter upland and pond suitability by higher hardwood density and increased transpiration. In this paper we explore breeding and neonatal emigration movements in relation to weather, hydrological conditions of ponds, and surrounding upland matrices. We use 9 years of data from continuous monitoring with drift fences and pitfall traps at 8 ephemeral ponds in 2 upland matrices: regularly-burned, savanna-like sandhills (n = 4), and hardwood-invaded sandhills (n = 4). Neither adult nor neonate captures differed between ponds within the 2 upland matrices, suggesting that they are tolerant of upland heterogeneity created by fire frequency. Explosive breeding occurred during 9 periods and in all seasons; adults were captured rarely otherwise. At a landscape-level rainfall, maximum change in barometric pressure, and an interaction between those 2 variables were significant predictors of explosive breeding. At a pond-level, rainfall, change in pond depth during the month prior to breeding, and days since a pond was last dry were significant predictors of adult captures. Transformation date, rather than weather, was associated with neonatal emigrations, which usually were complete within a week. Movement by first-captured adults and neonates was directional, but adult emigrations were apparently not always toward their origin. Our results suggest that Spadefoot Toads are highly adapted to breeding conditions and upland habitat heterogeneity created by weather patterns and fire frequency in Florida sandhills.

  6. Bio fuels barometer; Barometre biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-07-15

    With almost 10 million tons of oil equivalent, biofuels consumption in 2008 represented a 3,3% share of the total consumption of fuels devoted to transport in the European Union. The rate of progression of the sector marked time however with growth of 28,5% between 2007 and 2008 compared to 45,7% between 2006 and 2007. Certain EU countries will have to redouble efforts in the next two years to come into line with the European biofuels directive which aims for an incorporation rate of 5,75% by 2010.

  7. Territorial characterisation considering geo morphological properties of subsoil as well as climatic and meteorological conditions for the evaluation of the effects of radiological nature on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition and origin of the rocky substratum, the permeability of the ground, its degree of humidity and the particle size are the main factors that influence radon concentration in the subsoil and in the water stratums as well as its upward migration. The climatic and meteorological conditions, particularly the moisture, the barometric pressure and the temperature, can influence more or less directly the underground emanation and diffusion properties of radon and thoron giving rise to short-term modifications of radiological nature in the subsoil, closely related to the presence of these elements. The great concentration of some radioisotopes, in some particular areas, can also induce high dose rates caused by the radiation coming from emergent rocks, due for instance to activities related to building works, with consequent possible exposure of the personnel involved in underground excavations. In such situations it is possible to carry out systematical radiometric measurements, which provide instantaneous and time integrated data, using fixed or movable instrumentation. The stratigraphical structure of the subsoil and the related variations of lithological nature as well as the lack of homogeneity in the land, due also to the unevenness of the ground outline and to the presence of fault planes, increase considerably the complexity of analytical evaluations based upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the subsoil and upon the meteorological and climatic properties

  8. Effects of pressure and temperature at deformation in conditions of uniform compression on physical-mechanical properties of titanium in the range of 77...800 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of deformation at 25% under uniform compression at pressure of 22 and 16.5 kbar at 77 K and 12 and 8 kbar at 300 K by using quasi hydroextrusion with counter pressure (QHEC) and without counter pressure (QHE) on physical-mechanical properties of titanium VT1-0 in the range of 77...800 K was investigated. It was shown, that two-stage character of dependence mechanical properties versus temperature in initial state (temperature-dependent in the range of 77...600 K and athermal in the range of 600...800 K) after deformation QHE and QHEP changed to one-stage and temperature-dependent character in the entire temperature range. It was shown that deformation under uniform pressure result in increase of strength in the range of 77...800 K and decrease the stacking fault energy of titanium. That is an addition factor of hardening besides increasing the density of deformation defects. It was found that uniform compression realized under higher pressures leads to less hardening and less accumulation of deformation defects. This associated with activation of recovery processes

  9. Thermal-hydraulic instability of the natural circulation BWR. 6. Occurrence condition and mechanism of the instability at the higher system pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate thermal-hydraulic instabilities at the higher system pressure ranging from 1.0 to 7.2 MPa in a boiling natural circulation loop with a chimney. A test facility used in this experiments was designed and constructed to have non-dimensional values which are nearly equal to those of natural circulation BWR flow dynamics. Stability maps in reference to the system pressure, the channel inlet subcooling, and heat flux are presented. This instability mechanism is classified into the density wave oscillations that oscillation period is one to two times the time required for a bubble generated in the channel to travel through the chimney, and different from the flashing induced instability at the lower system pressure. The difference from other phenomena such as flow pattern transient oscillations and natural circulation oscillations are discussed by investigating the transient flow pattern and the response of momentum energy to driving force of the circulation. (author)

  10. Electrical resistivity of YbRh2Si2 and EuT2Ge2 (T=Co,Cu) at extreme conditions of pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation addresses the effect that pressure, p, and temperature, T, have on 4f states of the rare-earth elements in the isostructural YbRh2Si2, EuCo2Ge2, and EuCu2Ge2 compounds. Upon applying pressure the volume of the unit cell reduces, enforcing either the enhancement of the hybridization of the 4f localized electrons with the ligand or a change in the valence state of the rare-earth ions. Here, we probe the effect of a pressure-induced lattice contraction on these system by means of electrical-resistivity measurements, ρ(T), from room temperature down to 100 mK. (orig.)

  11. design of a high-temperature and high-pressure liquid flow cell for x-ray absorption fine structure measurements under catalytic reaction conditions

    OpenAIRE

    T. Kawai; Chun, W. J.; Asakura, K; Koike, Y.; M. Nomura; Bando, K. K.; Oyama, S. T.; Sumiya, H.

    2008-01-01

    The design and performance of a new high-pressure and high-temperature cell for measurement of x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of solid catalysts working in a flowing liquid are presented. The cell has flat, high-purity sintered cubic boron nitride (c-BN) windows which can tolerate high temperature (900 K) and high pressure (10 MPa). The c-BN is a new material which has the highest tensile strength, second only to diamond, and is also chemically and thermally stable. The use of...

  12. Experience of HP 'Termoelektro' in production of universal program for overhaul and following the condition of high pressure steam pipes, with special turn on TPP 'Oslomej' Kichevo - Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an universal programme for revitalization of the high pressure steam lines in power plants is developed. All this aimed toward providing maximal working cycle continuation as well as better reliability and safety in the exploitation regime. In addition a special turn on the overhaul of the main steam lines and feedwater pipeline at Thermal Power Plant 'Oslomej' (Macedonia) is presented

  13. First evidence of P21/n to P21/c structural transformation in pyroxene-type LiAlGe2O6 under high-pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-pressure behavior of the pyroxene-type compound LiAlGe2O6, the unique representative of a P21/n-pyroxene, was investigated by in-situ X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy on single-crystal samples hydrostatically pressurized in a diamond-anvil cell. The structure was found to undergo a first-order phase transition on compression, with a critical transition at 5.23±0.02 GPa. Together with a strong volume discontinuity of −ΔV/V0=−4.1% the transition shows a remarkable hysteresis loop over at least 0.70 GPa pressure interval. The bulk modulus of the low- and high-pressure polymorphs corresponds to K0=114(1) and 123(2) GPa, respectively, as described by a 2nd order Birch–Murnaghan equation of state. Based on the systematic extinctions the transition was identified as a P21/n-to-P21/c transformation. The mechanism of structural transformation was identified to be controlled by the stereochemistry of the Li atoms at the M2 site, which changes its coordination number from 5 to 6. The formation of new Li–O bonds involves the co-operative folding of Ge2O6-chains, which explains the anisotropy of axial elasticities and the spontaneous strain across the transformation. Simultaneously the distortion correction of AlO6 units associated with the transition further explains the preference of the P21/c structure under pressure. - Graphical abstract: Detail of the crystal structures of LP-LAG at 3.48 GPa (left) and HP-LAG at 4.51 GPa (right). Li on M2 are green; AlO6 octahedra (Al at M1) are orange; tetrahedra sites in LP-LAG: T1 (yellow) and T2 (blue); tetrahedra sites in HP-LAG: A-chains (yellow), B-chains (blue). - Highlights: • A new high-pressure phase transition P21/n–P21/c was found for LaAlGe2O6. • The transition was also followed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. • The high-pressure polymorph shows a higher bulk modulus. • The structural evolution of the two symmetries was determined

  14. First evidence of P21/n to P21/c structural transformation in pyroxene-type LiAlGe2O6 under high-pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Fabrizio; Artac, Andreas; Pippinger, Thomas; Miletich, Ronald; Secco, Luciano; Milani, Sula; Redhammer, Günther J.

    2015-08-01

    The high-pressure behavior of the pyroxene-type compound LiAlGe2O6, the unique representative of a P21/n-pyroxene, was investigated by in-situ X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy on single-crystal samples hydrostatically pressurized in a diamond-anvil cell. The structure was found to undergo a first-order phase transition on compression, with a critical transition at 5.23±0.02 GPa. Together with a strong volume discontinuity of -ΔV/V0=-4.1% the transition shows a remarkable hysteresis loop over at least 0.70 GPa pressure interval. The bulk modulus of the low- and high-pressure polymorphs corresponds to K0=114(1) and 123(2) GPa, respectively, as described by a 2nd order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Based on the systematic extinctions the transition was identified as a P21/n-to-P21/c transformation. The mechanism of structural transformation was identified to be controlled by the stereochemistry of the Li atoms at the M2 site, which changes its coordination number from 5 to 6. The formation of new Li-O bonds involves the co-operative folding of Ge2O6-chains, which explains the anisotropy of axial elasticities and the spontaneous strain across the transformation. Simultaneously the distortion correction of AlO6 units associated with the transition further explains the preference of the P21/c structure under pressure.

  15. Effect of amiloride and spironolactone on renal tubular function and central blood pressure in patients with arterial hypertension during baseline conditions and after furosemide: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthesen, Solveig K; Larsen, Thomas; Vase, Henrik; Lauridsen, Thomas G; Jensen, Janni M; Pedersen, Erling B

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the increased potassium content in the body seems to change both the blood pressure and renal tubular function. We wanted to test the hypotheses that amiloride and spironolactone induced potassium retention reduces ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and central blood pressure (CBP) during baseline conditions and after furosemide and that the tubular transport via the epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels was increased by furosemide in arterial hypertension. Each of three 28-day treatment periods (placebo, amiloride, and spironolactone) was completed by a 4-day period with standardized diet regarding calories and sodium and water intake. At the end of each period, we measured pulse wave velocity (PWV), central systolic blood pressure (CSBP), central diastolic blood pressure (CDBP), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), free water clearance (CH2O), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) and potassium (FEK), urinary excretion of AQP2 (u-AQP2), urinary excretion of ?-fraction of the ENaC (u-ENaC?), and plasma concentrations of renin (PRC), angiotensin II (p-Ang II), and aldosterone (p-Aldo) at baseline conditions and after furosemide bolus. Ambulatory blood pressure and CBP were significantly lowered by amiloride and spironolactone. During 24-hour urine collection and at baseline, GFR, CH2O, FENa, FEK, u-AQP2 and u-ENaC? were the same. After furosemide, CH2O, FENa, FEK, u-AQP2, u-ENaC?, PRC, p-Ang II, p-Aldo, PWV and CDBP increased after all treatments. However, during amiloride treatment, FEK increased to a larger extent than after spironolactone and during placebo after furosemide, and CSBP was not significantly reduced. The increases in water and sodium absorption via AQP2 and ENaC after furosemide most likely are compensatory phenomena to antagonize water and sodium depletion. Amiloride is less effective than spironolactone to reduce renal potassium excretion. PMID:22966789

  16. Qualification concept for lifetime and safety assessment of PE pressure pipes for arbitrary installation conditions; Konzept zur Nachweisfuehrung fuer Nutzungsdauer und Sicherheit von PE-Druckrohren bei beliebiger Einbausituation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, R.W.; Balika, W. [Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH, Leoben (Austria); Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Pruefung der Kunststoffe, Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria); Pinter, G. [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Pruefung der Kunststoffe, Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    2005-02-01

    The current discussion and future situation in the field of polyethylene (PE) pressure pipes for water and gas supply may be characterized by the following aspects and topics: continuous developments by polymer suppliers in the last decades have resulted in improved PE material grades, which in turn led to a significant rise in maximum operating pressures for pipes, with further enhancements perhaps to be expected. Moreover, based on cost reasons an increase in minimum service life from currently 50 to possibly 100 years has been proposed most recently by some for the last generation PE materials of the PE 100 type. Simultaneously, and also due to increasing cost pressure, considerations have been put forth for the installation of buried PE pressure pipes without sand embedding, which have led to some controversy. A main problem in this regard concerns the reliability of such pressure pipes with significant additional local or regional loads, particularly the safety against the formation and slow growth of cracks which may induce ultimate pipe failure. The present paper describes the main elements of a novel concept for lifetime and safety assessment of PE pressure pipes for arbitrary installation conditions based on modern methods of fracture mechanics. It is considered as proposal by the authors to the PE pipe community, which needs further refinement and development. At the core of the proposed concept is the accelerated generation of so-called ''synthetic'' crack growth curves and corresponding material laws for crack growth initiation and slow crack growth for service-near temperature conditions without the use of stress cracking liquids. (orig.)

  17. Maintaining Optimal Surgical Conditions With Low Insufflation Pressures is Possible With Deep Neuromuscular Blockade During Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Hwa; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Kang-Young; Min, Byung-Soh; Yoo, Young Chul

    2016-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption and increased intra-abdominal pressure can adversely affect perioperative physiology and postoperative recovery. Deep muscle relaxation is known to improve the surgical conditions during laparoscopic surgery. We aimed to compare the effects of deep and moderate neuromuscular block in laparoscopic colorectal surgery, including intra-abdominal pressure.In this prospective, double-blind, parallel-group trial, 72 adult patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery were randomized using an online randomization generator to achieve either moderate (1-2 train-of-four response, n = 36) or deep (1-2 post-tetanic count, n = 36) neuromuscular block by receiving a continuous infusion of rocuronium. Adjusted intra-abdominal pressure, which was titrated by a surgeon with maintaining the operative field during pneumoperitoneum, was recorded at 5-minute intervals. Perioperative hemodynamic parameters and postoperative outcomes were assessed.Six patients from the deep and 5 from the moderate neuromuscular block group were excluded, leaving 61 for analysis. The average adjusted IAP was lower in the deep compared to the moderate neuromuscular block group (9.3 vs 12 mm Hg, P water time (P = 0.005) were shorter in the deep neuromuscular block than in the moderate neuromuscular block group.Deep neuromuscular blocking showed several benefits compared to conventional moderate neuromuscular block, including a greater intra-abdominal pressure lowering effect, whereas surgical conditions are maintained, less severe postoperative pain and faster bowel function recovery. PMID:26945393

  18. Bridging the pressure gap: In situ atomic-level investigations of model platinum catalyst surfaces under reaction conditions by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, B.J.

    1994-05-01

    Results of this thesis show that STM measurements can provide information about the surfaces and their adsorbates. Stability of Pt(110) under high pressures of H2, O2, and CO was studied (Chap. 4). In situ UHV and high vacuum experiments were carried out for sulfur on Pt(111) (Chap.5). STM studies of CO/S/Pt(111) in high CO pressures showed that the Pt substrate undergoes a stacking-fault-domain reconstruction involving periodic transitions from fcc to hcp stacking of top-layer atoms (Chap.6). In Chap.7, the stability of propylene on Pt(111) and the decomposition products were studied in situ with the HPSTM. Finally, in Chap.8, results are presented which show how the Pt tip of the HPSTM was used to locally rehydrogenate and oxidize carbonaceous clusters deposited on the Pt(111) surface; the Pt tip acted as a catalyst after activation by short voltage pulses.

  19. Intraosseous phlebography, intraosseous pressure measurements and sup(99m)Tc-polyphosphate scintigraphy in patients with various painful conditions in the hip and knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five patients with pain in the knee or hip were examined by means of bilateral intraosseous phlebography, intraosseous pressure measurements and sup(99m) technetium polyphosphate scintigraphy. All patients with typical rest pain - either due to osteoarthritis or to the intraosseous engorgement-pain syndrome - showed venous statis and increased pressure in the bone marrow near the painful joint and abnormally high uptake of the radiotracer. In patients with other types of pain this correlation was absent. The results indicate that sup(99m)technetium polyphosphate scintigraphy can be used as a screening method in the diagnosis of the intraosseous engorgement-pain syndrome in patients with a typical history. However, increased isotope uptake in a joint region may be due to a variety of other causes. The identical findings with all three methods of investigation in patients with the intraosseous engorgement-pain syndrome and osteoarthritis suggest a common pathomechanism. (author)

  20. Oxidation state and reducibility of supported VOx catalysts under ambient pressure and ultra-high-vacuum conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Klose, F; Wolff, T.; Suchorski, Y.; Weiß, H.

    2005-01-01

    Temperature programmed reduction/oxidation (TPR/TPO) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are two different fundamental techniques to acquire information on the oxidation state of metal oxide catalysts. In TPR experiments the consumption of hydrogen by a catalyst sample is measured as a function of the catalyst temperature. TPR works under ambient pressure, and the amount of hydrogen consumed can be correlated to the decrease of the oxidation state of the analyzed sample. In contrast to...

  1. Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Condition, Viscosity, and Volume on Pharyngeal and Upper Esophageal Sphincter Pressure and Temporal Measurements during Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Susan G.; Stuart, Andrew; Castell, Donald; Russell, Gregory B.; Koch, Kenneth; Kemp, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of trial (i.e., Trial 1 vs. Trial 2); viscosity (i.e., saliva, thin, nectar-thick, honey-thick, and pudding-thick water); volume (i.e., 5 mL vs. 10 mL); age (i.e., young vs. older adults); and gender on pharyngeal (i.e., upper and lower) and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressures,…

  2. The Deep-Sea Bacterium Photobacterium profundum SS9 Utilizes Separate Flagellar Systems for Swimming and Swarming under High-Pressure Conditions ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Eloe, Emiley A.; Lauro, Federico M; Vogel, Rudi F.; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2008-01-01

    Motility is a critical function needed for nutrient acquisition, biofilm formation, and the avoidance of harmful chemicals and predators. Flagellar motility is one of the most pressure-sensitive cellular processes in mesophilic bacteria; therefore, it is ecologically relevant to determine how deep-sea microbes have adapted their motility systems for functionality at depth. In this study, the motility of the deep-sea piezophilic bacterium Photobacterium profundum SS9 was investigated and compa...

  3. Qualitative analysis of land use change pressures, conditions and drivers in rural-urban fringes: A case of Nairobi rural-urban fringe, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Aggrey Daniel Maina Thuo

    2013-01-01

    This paper is grounded on the truism that the planet's future is urban. However, urban growth process is bringing rapid economic, social and physical changes. These changes are bringing rapid transformations in areas concerned, especially on land uses in rural-urban fringes. While this is happening, the pressures and drivers are not well documented and understood, particularly so for rural-urban fringes in developing countries such as Kenya.This paper is based on a qualitative research approa...

  4. Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Condition, Viscosity, and Volume on Pharyngeal and Upper Esophageal Sphincter Pressure and Temporal Measurements during Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Susan G.; Stuart, Andrew; Castell, Donald; Russell, Gregory B.; Koch, Kenneth; Kemp, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of trial (i.e., Trial 1 vs. Trial 2); viscosity (i.e., saliva, thin, nectar-thick, honey-thick, and pudding-thick water); volume (i.e., 5 mL vs. 10 mL); age (i.e., young vs. older adults); and gender on pharyngeal (i.e., upper and lower) and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressures,

  5. Qualitative analysis of land use change pressures, conditions and drivers in rural-urban fringes: A case of Nairobi rural-urban fringe, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggrey Daniel Maina Thuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is grounded on the truism that the planet's future is urban. However, urban growth process is bringing rapid economic, social and physical changes. These changes are bringing rapid transformations in areas concerned, especially on land uses in rural-urban fringes. While this is happening, the pressures and drivers are not well documented and understood, particularly so for rural-urban fringes in developing countries such as Kenya.This paper is based on a qualitative research approach and used Nairobi rural-urban fringe as a case study in its attempt to document and analyse pressures and drivers of land use changes. The paper concludes that land use changes are contingent upon many pressures and drivers, primary of which is population increase through natural growth and immigration. The process that produces population growth is however a subset of the structuration processes that produces land use changes in the rural-urban fringe. In suggesting ways of reconciling the likely to emerge multiple perspectives and differences in managing rural-urban fringes, the paper observes that there are always sufficient points of intersection to support dialogue and collaboration. However, this requires a strategy that looks for intersections among different positioning and rationalities and enters into a dialogue at such situated moments is needed. This entails going beyond scientific or technical forms of knowledge to involve emotional sensitivity and judgment, practical wisdom, ethics and deliberation that touches on values with reference to praxis.

  6. Design of an in-house ambient pressure AP-XPS using a bench-top X-ray source and the surface chemistry of ceria under reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Franklin Feng

    2012-04-21

    A new in-house ambient pressure XPS (AP-XPS) was designed for the study of surfaces of materials under reaction conditions and during catalysis. Unique features of this in-house AP-XPS are the use of monochromated Al Kα and integration of a minimized reaction cell, and working conditions of up to 500 °C in gases of tens of Torr. Generation of oxygen vacancies on ceria and filling them with oxygen atoms were characterized in operando. PMID:22403765

  7. Accurate procedure for calculation of compressible fluid pressure drops in isothermal conditions of widely varying pressures like of which are encountered at discharge of safety relief valves, vent and flare headers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy Water Plant, Kota employs H2S - H2O exchange for extraction of deuterium from natural water. There is an operating inventory of 160 MT of H2S gas distributed in ten exchange towers. For reasons of safety all possible release routes of H2S gas have been piped to closed vent systems leading to tall flares of 18 inches dia for low releases and 26 inches dia for sudden tower dumping requirements. It was subsequently realised that only one flare of bigger diameter can handle all the loads, and this has become the standard operating practice. While the subject of suitability of smaller flare for dumping loads has been covered in a separate report, a need was felt to have accurate procedures for estimation of gas pressure drops in vent and flare headers. Such piping configurations are common in chemical plants and this problem has been addressed in chemical engineering literature by giving nomograms. However this paper gives an accurate method based on solution of differential equations starting from open end of flare. At open end the pressure is atmospheric. It was used by writing a simple computer program. It is recommended to use this method for sizing of vent and flare headers

  8. Effects of weather conditions on emergency ambulance calls for acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencloviene, Jone; Babarskiene, Ruta; Dobozinskas, Paulius; Siurkaite, Viktorija

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between weather conditions and daily emergency ambulance calls for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The study included data on 3631 patients who called the ambulance for chest pain and were admitted to the department of cardiology as patients with ACS. We investigated the effect of daily air temperature (T), barometric pressure (BP), relative humidity, and wind speed (WS) to detect the risk areas for low and high daily volume (DV) of emergency calls. We used the classification and regression tree method as well as cluster analysis. The clusters were created by applying the k-means cluster algorithm using the standardized daily weather variables. The analysis was performed separately during cold (October-April) and warm (May-September) seasons. During the cold period, the greatest DV was observed on days of low T during the 3-day sequence, on cold and windy days, and on days of low BP and high WS during the 3-day sequence; low DV was associated with high BP and decreased WS on the previous day. During June-September, a lower DV was associated with low BP, windless days, and high BP and low WS during the 3-day sequence. During the warm period, the greatest DV was associated with increased BP and changing WS during the 3-day sequence. These results suggest that daily T, BP, and WS on the day of the ambulance call and on the two previous days may be prognostic variables for the risk of ACS. PMID:25344902

  9. Effects of weather conditions on emergency ambulance calls for acute coronary syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencloviene, Jone; Babarskiene, Ruta; Dobozinskas, Paulius; Siurkaite, Viktorija

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between weather conditions and daily emergency ambulance calls for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The study included data on 3631 patients who called the ambulance for chest pain and were admitted to the department of cardiology as patients with ACS. We investigated the effect of daily air temperature ( T), barometric pressure (BP), relative humidity, and wind speed (WS) to detect the risk areas for low and high daily volume (DV) of emergency calls. We used the classification and regression tree method as well as cluster analysis. The clusters were created by applying the k-means cluster algorithm using the standardized daily weather variables. The analysis was performed separately during cold (October-April) and warm (May-September) seasons. During the cold period, the greatest DV was observed on days of low T during the 3-day sequence, on cold and windy days, and on days of low BP and high WS during the 3-day sequence; low DV was associated with high BP and decreased WS on the previous day. During June-September, a lower DV was associated with low BP, windless days, and high BP and low WS during the 3-day sequence. During the warm period, the greatest DV was associated with increased BP and changing WS during the 3-day sequence. These results suggest that daily T, BP, and WS on the day of the ambulance call and on the two previous days may be prognostic variables for the risk of ACS.

  10. In situ study of mass transfer in aqueous solutions under high pressures via Raman spectroscopy: A new method for the determination of diffusion coefficients of methane in water near hydrate formation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.J.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.; Yang, M.Z.

    2006-01-01

    A new method was developed for in situ study of the diffusive transfer of methane in aqueous solution under high pressures near hydrate formation conditions within an optical capillary cell. Time-dependent Raman spectra of the solution at several different spots along the one-dimensional diffusion path were collected and thus the varying composition profile of the solution was monitored. Diffusion coefficients were estimated by the least squares method based on the variations in methane concentration data in space and time in the cell. The measured diffusion coefficients of methane in water at the liquid (L)-vapor (V) stable region and L-V metastable region are close to previously reported values determined at lower pressure and similar temperature. This in situ monitoring method was demonstrated to be suitable for the study of mass transfer in aqueous solution under high pressure and at various temperature conditions and will be applied to the study of nucleation and dissolution kinetics of methane hydrate in a hydrate-water system where the interaction of methane and water would be more complicated than that presented here for the L-V metastable condition. ?? 2006 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  11. The accuracy of the crystal chemical parameters at high-pressure conditions from single-crystal X-ray diffraction in diamond-anvil cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Periotto, Benedetta

    applications also in the materials science as it can provide useful information about the properties and performance of new materials. Over the past decades, the research in this field has been strongly developed due to the advances in computer capabilities and to the technological improvements of X...... started with a comparison between two different DACs, in order to define the capabilities of one of the most common types of pressure device, the ETH-type DAC. Application examples of data quality analysis have been conducted on pyroxenes (NaInSi2O6, orthoenstatite MgSiO3 and LiCrSi2O6), which are...

  12. Temperature- and magnetic-field-dependences of normal state resistivity of MgB$_{2}$ prepared at high temperature and high pressure condition

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, C U; Kang, W N; Kim, M S; Lee, S Y; Lee, S I; Park, Min-Seok; Kim, Mun-Seog; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2001-01-01

    We report the temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent resistivity of the recently discovered binary superconductor MgB$_{2}$. The superconducting transition width for the resistivity measurement was about 0.4 K, and the low-field magnetization showed a sharp superconducting transition with a transition width of about 1 K. The resistivity in the normal state followed $T^{2}$ behavior rather than $T^{3}$ as previously reported. Also, the resistivity did not change with the applied magnetic field, which was opposite to a previous report. Our reliable measurement was possible because we used a hard, dense sample prepared at high temperature and high pressure.

  13. Conditional stability for thermal convection in a rotating couple-stress fluid saturating a porous medium with temperature and pressure dependent viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonlinear stability threshold for rotation in a couple-stress fluid heated from below saturating a porous medium with temperature and pressure dependent viscosity is exactly the same as the linear instability boundary. This optimal result is important because it shows that linearized instability theory has captured completely the physics of the onset of convection. The effects of couple-stress parameter, variable dependent viscosity, medium permeability, Taylor number and Darcy–Brinkman number on the onset of convection are also analysed. (paper)

  14. Development of an autoclave with zirconia crystal windows for in-situ observation of sample surface under primary water conditions of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elucidating the mechanism for primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is important for improving the reliability of structural materials in the primary system of pressurized water reactors (PWR). For this purpose, visualization of corrosion material surface in the primary coolant environment is effective, but it was impossible because of lack of suitable window material. Yttria stabilized zirconia was newly selected as a candidate for in-situ window material in the primary coolant environment of PWR. Its sufficient corrosion resistance was proved by measuring the transmissivity of light after being immersed in the primary coolant environment. A new autoclave with two windows of yttria-stabilized zirconia was developed. The corrosion material surfaces of Alloy600 and SUS304 in the primary coolant environment were clearly observed with this autoclave. Observations of cracks generated on the surface of SUS304 specimen, suggest that its generation time depends on temperature. (author)

  15. Design of an R.F. Excited Helium Neon Visible Gas Laser and Study of the Optimal Conditions for Gas Mixtures and Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Juyal

    1972-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of a continuous were helium-neon visible gas laser has been described. Brewster angle window of fused quartz and external concave mirrors of B.S.C. glass have been used in the fabrication of resonant cavity. An RF oscillator having variable frequency in the range of 20-30 MHz and an out-put power of about 50 watts served as excitation source. Different mixture ratios of He and Ne have been tried and for each ratio power output was measured versus total pressure inside the discharge tube keeping cavity length constant. The optimum power output has been obtained for 5:1 mixture at 1.4 torr for a tube of length 55 cm and internal diameter 0.5 cm. Laser action at 1.53 meu has been achieved.`

  16. 1-Dimensional simulation of thermal annealing: Experiments to provide heat transfer boundary conditions and reactor pressure vessel response data to benchmark thermal/stress models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper was a review of a proof-of-principle annealing process conducted on a RV section. Test conditions and set-up were described, and photographs of the test setup were presented. Results of various temperature measurements were also presented

  17. Effect of Reynolds Number and Periodic Unsteady Wake Flow Condition on Boundary Layer Development, Separation, and Re-attachment along the Suction Surface of a Low Pressure Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, B.; Schobeiri, M. T.; Ashpis, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.

  18. An investigation of the heat transfer and static pressure on the over-tip casing wall of an axial turbine operating at engine representative flow conditions. (I). Time-mean results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The over-tip casing of the high-pressure turbine in a modern gas turbine engine is subjected to strong convective heat transfer that can lead to thermally induced failure (burnout) of this component. However, the complicated flow physics in this region is dominated by the close proximity of the moving turbine blades, which gives rise to significant temporal variations at the blade-passing frequency. The understanding of the physical processes that control the casing metal temperature is still limited and this fact has significant implications for the turbine design strategy. A series of experiments has been performed that seeks to address some of these important issues. This article reports the measurements of time-mean heat transfer and time-mean static pressure that have been made on the over-tip casing of a transonic axial-flow turbine operating at flow conditions that are representative of those found in modern gas turbine engines. Time-resolved measurements of these flow variables (that reveal the details of the blade-tip/casing interaction physics) are presented in a companion paper. The nozzle guide vane exit flow conditions in these experiments were a Mach number of 0.93 and a Reynolds number of 2.7 x 106 based on nozzle guide vane mid-height axial chord. The axial and circumferential distributions of heat transfer rate, adiabatic wall temperature, Nusselt number and static pressure are presented. The data reveal large axial variations in the wall heat flux and adiabatic wall temperature that are shown to be primarily associated with the reduction in flow stagnation temperature through the blade row. The heat flux falls by a factor of 6 (from 120 to 20 kW/m2). In contrast, the Nusselt number falls by just 36% between the rotor inlet plane and 80% rotor axial chord; additionally, this drop is near to linear from 20% to 80% rotor axial chord. The circumferential variations in heat transfer rate are small, implying that the nozzle guide vanes do not produce a strong variation in casing boundary layer properties in the region measured. The casing static pressure measurements follow trends that can be expected from the blade loading distribution, with maximum values immediately upstream of the rotor inlet plane, and then a decreasing trend with axial position as the flow is turned and accelerated in the relative frame of reference. The time-mean static pressure measurements on the casing wall also reveal distinct circumferential variations that are small in comparison to the large pressure gradient in the axial direction

  19. Experimental investigations of uncovered-bundle heat transfer and two-phase mixture-level swell under high-pressure low heat-flux conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported from a series of uncovered-bundle heat transfer and mixture-level swell tests. Experimental testing was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF). The THTF is an electrically heated bundle test loop configured to produce conditions similar to those in a small-break loss-of-coolant accident. The objective of heat transfer testing was to acquire heat transfer coefficients and fluid conditions in a partially uncovered bundle. Testing was performed in a quasi-steady-state mode with the heated core 30 to 40% uncovered. Linear heat rates varied from 0.32 to 2.22 kW/m.rod (0.1 to 0.68 kW/ft.rod). Under these conditions peak clad temperatures in excess of 1050 K (14300F) were observed, and total heat transfer coefficients ranged from 0.0045 to 0.037 W/cm2.K (8 to 65 Btu/h.ft2.0F). Spacer grids were observed to enhance heat transfer at, and downstream of, the grid. Radiation heat transfer was calculated to account for as much as 65% of total heat transfer in low-flow tests

  20. Experiments on Corn Pressure in Silo Cells -- Translation and Comment of Janssen's Paper from 1895

    CERN Document Server

    Sperl, M

    2006-01-01

    The German engineer H.A. Janssen gave one of the first accounts of the often peculiar behavior of granular material in a paper published in German in 1895. From simple experiments with corn he inferred the saturation of pressure with height in a granular system. Subsequently, Janssen derived the equivalent of the barometric formula for granular material from the main assumption that the walls carry part of the weight. The following is a translation of this article. The wording is chosen as close as possible to the original. While drawings are copied from the original, figures displaying data are redone for better readability. The translation is complemented by some bibliographical notes and an assessment of earlier work, wherein Hagen predicted the saturation of pressure with depth in 1852, and Huber-Burnand demonstrated that saturation qualitatively as early as in 1829. We conclude with a brief discussion of more recent developments resting on Janssen's work.

  1. A multipurpose ultra-high vacuum-compatible chamber for in situ X-ray surface scattering studies over a wide range of temperature and pressure environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, P.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Heyman, C.; Esteban-Betegón, F.; Castro, G. R.

    2013-03-01

    A low/high temperature (60-1000K) and pressure (10-10-3x103 mbar) "baby chamber", specially adapted to the grazing-incidence X-ray scattering station, has been designed, developed and installed at the Spanish CRG BM25 SpLine beamline at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The chamber has a cylindrical form with 100 mm of diameter, built on a 360° beryllium nipple of 150 mm height. The UHV equipment and a turbo pump are located on the upper part of the chamber to leave a wide solid angle for exploring reciprocal space. The chamber features 4 CF16 and 5 CF40 ports for electrical feed through and leak valves, ion gun, etc. The heat exchanger is a customized compact LN2 (or LHe) continuous flow cryostat. The sample is mounted on a Mo support on the heat exchanger, which has in the back side a BORALECTRIC® Heater Elements. Experiments of surfaces/interfaces/ multilayer materials, thin films or single crystals in a huge variety of environments can be performed, also in situ studies of growth or evolution of the samples. Data measurement can be collected with a punctual and a bi-dimensional detector, being possible to simultaneously use them.

  2. Application of LITGs diagnostics to trace detection of NOx in high pressure combustors: a propedeutic study in a cell at controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of the interference pattern of two laser beams, either on or off resonance with an allowed transition in a medium, generates spatial modulations of its complex refractive index called Laser Induced Gratings (LIGs). After the excitation, the subsequent release of internal energy in the form of heat, in gases, due to collisional relaxation, may lead to the formation of thermal gratings (LITGs). The temporal evolution of a LIG can be investigated by using a CW laser as a probe. The temporal behavior of LITGs depends on the rate of the energy thermalization, e.g. a fast energy release generates a standing acoustic wave and a stationary density modulation with equal amplitudes, whereas a slow energy release favours the formation of the stationary density modulation whereas the development of the acoustic contribution is suppressed. In case of a multi-step thermalization process, with different time constants involved, oscillatory and stationary contributions to LITGs can be observed. LITGs experiments have been performed with NO2 molecules diluted in different buffer gases in order to establish the possibilities to trace this species at high pressure and high temperature in combustion exhaust pipes

  3. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain medicines Exposure to illegal drugs such as cocaine Certain tumors Inherited conditions (problems that run in ... you get pregnant if you have a family history of: Congenital heart disease High blood pressure Kidney ...

  4. Examination of metal condition of the reactor pressure vessel and the core barrel at Rostov NPP unit 1 by nondestructive magnetic-hardness testing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveillance programs of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials are necessary to assert the changes in the mechanical properties. The program can be achieved through 2 complementary ways: 1) mechanical tests on surveillance specimens irradiated inside the reactor vessel and 2) the use of specimen-free non-destructive methods that require in-site periodic routine inspection campaigns. This article is dedicated to the monitoring of mechanical properties of RPV steels through 2 specimen-free methods, one based on kinetic hardness and the other on magnetic structure analysis. The first method consists in refunding the complete diagram of penetration of a ball indentor into the investigated material, the adequate mathematical processing allows to draw standard diagram of mono-axial tension and to define strength characteristics. This method has been improved through the continuous registration of the indentation process, performed with the use of a 3-coordinates diagram: on-indentor loading, the material's surface indentation depth, and a current indentation velocity. Possessing an integral form, the diagram provides information about physical-mechanical properties of materials. Kinetic hardness method, however is unacceptable for monitoring clad RPV materials from PWR, as the presence of a stainless steel austenitic cladding whose thickness oscillates between 6-8 mm, closes access to investigated material. Magnetic structure analysis relies on a correlation between magnetic properties of RPV steels due to their ferromagnetic nature. Different comparisons between measured values of the coercive force and changes in yield stress are discussed. A correlation between ductile to brittle transition temperature and coercive force is shown for specimen of metal from welded joints. The measuring device (Magnetest) has been optimized for monitoring metal properties through a layer of austenitic cladding up to 10 mm thick

  5. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lee, E-mail: leeli@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, HuaZhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-01-14

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  6. Probabilistic structural integrity assessment of reactor coolant pressure boundary piping. 2. Residual stress analyses of the effect of scatter of welding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in primary loop recirculation piping made of austenitic stainless steel has been observed near welding joints. The SCC grows near the welding zone mainly due to high tensile residual stress by welding as well as the other contributing factors of material and environment. The residual stress analysis due to welding of austenitic stainless piping is important and has been already conducted by many researchers. In present work, the effect of scatters of welding conditions such as heat input and welding speed on residual stress have been evaluated by parametric FEM analyses considering the variation of some parameters based on the welding experiments. The effects of welding conditions on crack growth behavior have been also evaluated by SCC growth simulations using calculated residual stress distributions and a procedure in the fitness-for-service code. Welding parameters such as heat input and welding speed have a strong influence on crack growth rate since residual stress is also affected by scatter of these welding parameters. (author)

  7. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  8. Upgrading of existing NPPs with 440 and 1000 MW WWER type pressurized water reactors for severe external loading conditions. Proceedings. Working material. V. 1, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seminar was intended to provide the opportunity for the exchange of updated information concerning the state-of-the-art related to structural safety of the WWER 440 and 1000 MW nuclear power plants operating or under construction in the Russian Federation and several Eastern European countries. Codes and standards, design assumptions, seismic upgrading and requalification activities, recent verification by experimental methods as well as the corresponding reanalysis and reevaluation procedures were included in the scope. Also presented and discussed were the results of recent studies of typical structures and components under seismic loading. The Seminar was divided into five working sessions. Each session consisted of several presentations by invited speakers and extensive discussions. The topic of discussions involved the following: standards used during design phase, input load definitions and criteria, evaluation of as-built conditions and walk down information, site-specific dynamic response of structures based on recent studies and evaluation of results, capacity evaluations of components and systems based on updated acceptance criteria and strengthening concepts, functional qualification of active mechanical and electrical components and systems

  9. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Heart & Blood Vessels > ... can lead an active, normal life. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force that blood puts ...

  10. Management of the coastal biophysical environment in tropical Queensland under conditions of heavy developmental pressure: the case of tourist resorts and acid sulphate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Erfurt-Haupt

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La côte tropicale du Queensland est confrontée à un accroissement rapide de la population. Les fortes pressions anthropiques pèsent sur le milieu biophysique, qui comprend notamment a plus grande île de sable du monde, un site classé Patrimoine de l’Humanité, Port Hinchinbrook et Fraser Island.  Malgré l’existence d’une législation nationale orientée vers la préservation de l’environnement, il est manifeste que peu d’attention est accordée aux effets à long terme des sites touristiques et du développement de l’urbanisation sur ces franges côtières sensibles. L’aspect massif des flux de visiteurs et leurs impacts sur le milieu naturel a été identifié comme un sujet d’inquiétude particulier dans certaines régions. La connaissance des impacts sur la géomorphologie côtière souterraine est très réduite et les choix de développement sont souvent faits dans l’ignorance ou au mépris de la présence répandue de terrains de sulfate d’acide dans ce milieu côtier. Des sols réactifs comme ceux-là peuvent affecter, et affectent, grandement les résultats géophysiques d’un développement lorsqu’ils sont connus. Des études de cas sur le problème des sols de sulfate d’acide suggèrent qu’une partie de la solution pour le gouvernement de l’Etat du Queensland est d’imposer des normes obligatoires pour le développement du tourisme dans la zone côtière.The tropical coast of Queensland, Australia is experiencing rapid population and tourism growth. Heavy development pressure is being placed on the biophysical environment, which includes the largest sand island in the world (World Heritage listed, Fraser Island. Despite the existence of State planning legislation oriented towards environmental sustainability, it is apparent that little, if any, regard is being paid to the long-term effects of resort and canal-estate development on the underlying biophysical environment of the coast and islands.  While the remarkable surface features of the tropical coastal environment such as the surf beaches, the unique dune lakes, and the coastal vegetation, as well as the prolific wildlife, are used as selling points for new settlement and above all tourism, little is known or apparently of major concern with respect to the long term environmental impact of coastal development. While the crowding effect of large numbers of visitors and their impact on the natural environment - through significant degradation, site hardening or lack of proper on-site management – has been identified as a particular problem in certain areas, there is little knowledge of impacts on the underlying coastal geomorphology. In particular, developmental choices are often made in ignorance of, or disregard of, the widespread existence of tropical acid sulfate soils in that coastal environment. Reactive soils such as these can, and do, greatly affect the biophysical outcomes of a development if they are exposed. This paper documents such impacts in the form of a case study of the acid sulfate soil problem in relation to the development of tourist resorts, and suggests that part of the solution is for the State Government to insist on enforceable standards relating to their development for tourism in the coastal zone. These would reduce the use by many resort owners of fancy golf course developments as an environmental cover up to make it look as if they put a lot of effort into protecting the environment ….

  11. Evaluation of conditions leading to inundation of the airstrip serving the remote village of Kaktovik, North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, L. H.; Richmond, B. M.; Gibbs, A.; Jones, B.

    2010-12-01

    Transportation of goods and people to the Native coastal village of Kaktovik, Alaska (population leading to the village. Transport via sea is economically prohibitive and limited by rough seas and ice cover for most of the year and as such the people of Kaktovik rely heavily on scheduled commercial and charter flights. Limited records and anecdotal evidence indicate that landings have been cancelled more frequently in recent years during the open water season (July-September/October) due to overwash and inundation of the runway which is located on a low lying spit partially protected by a barrier island. In this study we investigate the primary meteorological conditions responsible for overwash of the runway by applying a numerical model to simulate waves and storm surge levels due to winds and barometric pressure gradients. High resolution elevation data obtained with aerial lidar (USGS 2009) and acoustic bathymetry measurements collected in August 2010 are used for model boundaries. Atmospheric forcing conditions are defined with spatial- and time-varying hind-cast winds and pressure gradients (NCEP reanalysis 3). Measured water levels obtained in 2008 (NOAA) and 2010 (USGS) are used to calibrate and validate the model as are simulations of reported overwash events. The validated model is used to explore the types and effect of variations in the forcing parameters on runway inundation. Results indicate that inundation and overwash of the spit is primarily due to the combined effect of storm surge and wave runup, but that storm surge has a proportionally greater effect as compared to wave runup. Simulation results also indicate that the storm surge is mostly driven by wind-induced setup and less by reductions in sea level pressure. Sustained west/northwest winds in excess of 12 m/s are shown to generate storm surge levels capable of inundating the runway at its present elevation above sea level. Trends in the frequency of occurrence of overwash caused by winds are assessed by an analysis of hind-cast NCEP r3 wind data for the region.

  12. Pressure locking test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, open-quotes Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.close quotes Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions

  13. Pressure locking test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  14. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and dry Changing position every two hours Using pillows and products that relieve pressure Pressure sores have a variety of treatments. Advanced sores are slow to heal, so early treatment is best.

  15. Pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Deborah

    2016-04-13

    My nursing experience is in acute care. Acute medical nurses are well placed to assess skin integrity, identify patients at risk of pressure ulcer development, and commence appropriate interventions to prevent or treat pressure ulcers. PMID:27073966

  16. Pressure ulcer