Sample records for barn owl tyto

  1. Barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings vocally negotiate resources.

    Roulin, A; Kölliker, M; Richner, H.


    Current theory proposes that nestlings beg to signal hunger level to parents honestly, or that siblings compete by escalating begging to attract the attention of parents. Although begging is assumed to be directed at parents, barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocalize in the presence but also in the absence of the parents. Applying the theory of asymmetrical contests we experimentally tested three predictions of the novel hypothesis that in the absence of the parents siblings vocally settle cont...

  2. Avian pox virus infection in a common barn owl (Tyto alba in southern Brazil

    Gilberto D. Vargas


    Full Text Available A young common barn owl (Tyto alba was referred to the Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre (Nurfs, Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel, after been found in a barn of a brick factory in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The bird was apathic, weak and with crusty lesions in the featherless areas (eyes, beak, legs, and died soon after arrival at Nurfs. Necropsy and histopathological examination of the lesions were carried out. The hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the cutaneous lesions, several eosinophilic intracyto-plasmic inclusion bodies in epithelial cells (Bollinger bodies, as well as particles characteristic of poxvirus, observed by electronic microscopy, confirmed the infection by avian poxvirus, what highlights the importance of Tyto alba as carrier of the virus in the wild.

  3. Trends in North American small mammals found in common barn-owl (Tyto alba) dietary studies

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bunck, C.M.


    Data on mammals were compiled from published studies of common barn-owl (Tyto alba) pellets. Mammalian composition of pellet samples was analyzed within geographic regions in regard to year, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and number of individual mammals in the sample. Percentages of individuals in pellets that were shrews increased whereas the percentages of rodents decreased with greater mean annual precipitation, especially in northern and western areas of North America. From the 1920s through 1980s, in northern and eastern areas the percentage of species that was shrews decreased, and in northern and central areas the percentage of individuals that was murid rats and mice increased. Human alterations of habitats during these seven decades are postulated to have caused changes in available small mammals, leading to changes in the barn-owl diet.

  4. Prey selection by the Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769 in captivity

    V. Vanitha


    Full Text Available We investigated prey selection of the Barn Owl Tyto alba under captive conditions where birds were allowed to choose among individuals of varying size from four field rodent species: Bandicota bengalensis, Millardia meltada, Tatera indica and Mus booduga. Owls showed little species preference and a tendency to favour the medium weight class in all prey species except M. booduga. Preference for body parts consumed varied according to prey size, ranging from the head alone in the large weight class to the entire body in the small weight class. Biochemical measurements showed that protein, carbohydrate and lipid levels were higher respectively in the brain, liver and muscles of all three species and weight classes studied. The preference for medium weight prey despite a lower nutrient content compared to large weight prey is attributed to a greater ease of capture.

  5. Economic evaluation of biological rodent control using barn owls Tyto alba in alfalfa

    Motro, Y.


    Rodents are common pests in various agricultural cultivations. Utilization of barn owls for rodent pest control has long been used. In Israel, the indirect effect of barn owl predation pressure on alfalfa crop yield has been examined. Using radio-telemetry, barn owls were tracked to form a density-distance function, which was later used to estimate predation pressure on whole fields. This function was utilized on all barn owls nesting in the vicinity to assess accumulated predation pressure o...

  6. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals of healthy adult barn owls (Tyto alba).

    Szabo, Zoltan; Klein, Akos; Jakab, Csaba


    Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters of barn owls (Tyto alba) were studied in collaboration by the Exotic Division of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Szent Istvan University and the Eötvös Loránd University, both in Budapest, Hungary. Blood samples were taken from a total of 42 adult barn owls kept in zoos and bird repatriation stations. The following quantitative and qualitative hematologic values were determined: packed cell volume, 46.2 +/- 4%; hemoglobin concentration, 107 +/- 15 g/L; red blood cell count, 3.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(12)/L; white blood cell count, 13.7 +/- 2.7 x 10(9)/L; heterophils, 56.5 +/- 11.5% (7.8 +/- 2 x 10(9)/L); lymphocytes, 40.3 +/- 10.9% (5.5 +/- 1.9 x 10(9)/L); monocytes, 1.8 +/- 2.1% (0.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/ L); eosinophils, 1 +/- 1% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L); and basophils, 0.6 +/- 0.5% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L). The following plasma biochemistry values also were determined: aspartate aminotransferase, 272 +/- 43 U/L; L-gamma-glutamyltransferase, 9.5 +/- 4.7 U/L; lipase, 31.7 +/- 11.1 U/L; creatine kinase, 2228 +/- 578 U/L; lactate dehydrogenase, 1702 +/- 475 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 358 +/- 197 U/L; amylase, 563 +/- 114 U/L; glutamate dehydrogenase, 7.5 +/- 2.5 U/L; total protein, 30.6 +/- 5.3 g/L; uric acid, 428 +/- 102 micromol/L; and bile acids, 43 +/- 18 micromol/L. These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic and plasma biochemistry results for the species. PMID:25055626

  7. Pegasta sova Tyto alba v JV delu Prekmurja: Barn owl Tyto alba in the SE part of Prekmurje (NE Slovenia):

    Katalinič, Dane


    During 1995-1999, three localities where regular presence of Barn Owls was established were discovered in the SE part of Prekmurje covering some 225 km2.The owls inhabit the abandoned state cowsheds. V JV delu Prekmurja so bile na območju, velikem 225 km2, med letoma 1995 in 1999 najdene tri lokalitete, kjer je bilo ugotovljeno redno pojavljanj pegastih sov. Sove naseljujejo zapuščene družbene hleve.

  8. Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), with special reference to the barn owl (Tyto alba)

    The purpose of this study was to provide a reference for xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic anatomy of the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) as a representative of the avian Order Strigiformes. The head, body, wing, and pelvic limb of three adult birds were radiographed using xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Twelve xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate normal anatomy. Selected views of the barn owl (Tyto alba) were included to illustrate significant differences between this and other species of owls

  9. Developmental Changes Underlying the Formation of the Specialized Time Coding Circuits in Barn Owls (Tyto alba)

    Kubke, M. Fabiana; Massoglia, Dino P.; Carr, Catherine E.


    Barn owls are capable of great accuracy in detecting the interaural time differences (ITDs) that underlie azimuthal sound localization. They compute ITDs in a circuit in nucleus laminaris (NL) that is reorganized with respect to birds like the chicken. The events that lead to the reorganization of the barn owl NL take place during embryonic development, shortly after the cochlear and laminaris nuclei have differentiated morphologically. At first the developing owl’s auditory brainstem exhibit...

  10. Genetic divergence analysis of the Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and the Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile using COI sequence

    Colihueque, Nelson; Gantz, Alberto; Rau, Jaime Ricardo; Parraguez, Margarita


    Abstract In this paper new mitochondrial COI sequences of Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile are reported and compared with sequences from other parts of the World. The intraspecific genetic divergence (mean p-distance) was 4.6 to 5.5% for the Common Barn Owl in comparison with specimens from northern Europe and Australasia and 3.1% for the Short-eared Owl with respect to samples from north America, northern Europe and northern Asia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinctive groups for the Common Barn Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) plus Central and North America, (ii) northern Europe and (iii) Australasia, and two distinctive groups for the Short-eared Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) and (ii) north America plus northern Europe and northern Asia. The level of genetic divergence observed in both species exceeds the upper limit of intraspecific comparisons reported previously for Strigiformes. Therefore, this suggests that further research is needed to assess the taxonomic status, particularly for the Chilean populations that, to date, have been identified as belonging to these species through traditional taxonomy. PMID:26668551

  11. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola.

    Mark L L M Boumans

    Full Text Available Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola, and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

  12. Compounding effects on nest-site dispersal of Barn Owls Tyto alba

    Huffeldt, Nicholas Per; Aggerholm, Iben Næs; Brandtberg, Nathia Hass;


    Capsule Recovery distances of Barn Owls ringed as pulli are conditional on ringing date but not on population density. Aims To test whether ring recovery distances (proxy for natal dispersal distances) were conditional on population density and reproductive timing. Methods We used ringing data of...... from 0 to 100 days after ringing, being stable thereafter, and was also impacted by brood size. Owls ringed very early or late in the breeding season were more likely to be recovered < 1 km from the nest-site at a recovery time where dispersal seemed to be completed....

  13. Eco-geographical variation in the diet of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba in mountainous areas of France

    Halliez Guillaume


    Full Text Available Because of the worldwide distribution of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba and the easily way to find its pellets, it is often used to diet studies. To investigate the eco-geographical impact of mountainous areas on its diet, we conducted studies in the Jura, Alpes, Central and Pyrénées mountains and we also did pellet analysis from 8 sites in the Jura mountains. Analysis of the tooth and skull content of pellets allowed us to draw up two types of change in the diet of Tyto alba in correlation with mountain elevation. The first one concerns the Jura, Alpes and Central mountains, where the diversity of the diet declines with the increase in elevation. The second one concerns the Pyrénées mountains, where there is no change in the diversity of the diet, perhaps because of the higher diversity of small mammals caused by mediterranean influence. Thus, it seems that elevation cau ses a decrease in diet diversity of Tyto alba in continental mountains (Jura, Alpes and Central mountains probably because of more homogeneous landscapes dedicated to grass production. However, in Mediterranean mountains (Pyrénées, a more diversified small mammal guild provides a constant level of diet diversity.

  14. Phylogenetic systematics of Barn Owl (Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769 complex inferred from mitochondrial rDNA (16S rRNA taxonomic implication

    Mansour Aliabadian


    Full Text Available The Barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769, occurs worldwide and shows a considerable amount of morphological and geographical variations, leading to the recognition of many subspecies throughout the world. Yet, no comprehensive study has not been done on this species. Data from mitochondrial gene (16S Ribosomal RNA (16S with 569 bp length were analyzed for 41 individuals around the world. Maximum likelihood (ML, maximum parsimony (MP and Bayesian analysis showed two distinct clades including alba clad (old world and furcata clad (new world. The amount of genetic variation within each of these clades ranged from 0.5-1.7 but variation between clades was 3.7. This data may suggest that Barn owls of the Old World may be a separate species from those of the New World.

  15. Small mammals in the diet of barn owls, Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes along the mid-Araguaia river in central Brazil

    Rita G. Rocha


    Full Text Available We collected and analyzed 286 Barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769, pellets from two nests in different environments along the mid-Araguaia River in central Brazil. Our analyses revealed that these owls feed mainly on small mammals, especially rodents. Owls from the riverbanks at Fazenda Santa Fé had a more diverse diet, preying mainly on rodents that typically inhabit riparian grasslands - Holochilus sciureus Wagner, 1842 - and forests - Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814 and Oecomys spp., which probably also occur in forest borders or clearings. On the other hand, owls from an agroecosystem at Fazenda Lago Verde preyed mostly on rodent species common in these agrarian fields, Calomys tocantinsi Bonvicino, Lima & Almeida, 2003. Additionally, we compared small mammal richness estimates based on the analysis of owl pellets with estimates from live-trapping in the same areas. Owl pellets revealed two rodent species undetected by live traps - Euryoryzomys sp. and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758 - and four rodent species were trapped, but not found in owl pellets - Oecomys roberti Thomas, 1904, Pseudoryzomys simplex (Winge, 1887, Rhipidomys ipukensis Rocha, B.M.A. Costa & L.P. Costa, 2011, and Makalata didelphoides (Desmarest, 1817. Traps yielded higher species richness, but these two methods complement each other for surveying small rodents.

  16. Morphometric characterisation of wing feathers of the barn owl Tyto alba pratincola and the pigeon Columba livia

    Klaas Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owls are known for their silent flight. Even though there is some information available on the mechanisms that lead to a reduction of noise emission, neither the morphological basis, nor the biological mechanisms of the owl's silent flight are known. Therefore, we have initiated a systematic analysis of wing morphology in both a specialist, the barn owl, and a generalist, the pigeon. This report presents a comparison between the feathers of the barn owl and the pigeon and emphasise the specific characteristics of the owl's feathers on macroscopic and microscopic level. An understanding of the features and mechanisms underlying this silent flight might eventually be employed for aerodynamic purposes and lead to a new wing design in modern aircrafts. Results A variety of different feathers (six remiges and six coverts, taken from several specimen in either species, were investigated. Quantitative analysis of digital images and scanning electron microscopy were used for a morphometric characterisation. Although both species have comparable body weights, barn owl feathers were in general larger than pigeon feathers. For both species, the depth and the area of the outer vanes of the remiges were typically smaller than those of the inner vanes. This difference was more pronounced in the barn owl than in the pigeon. Owl feathers also had lesser radiates, longer pennula, and were more translucent than pigeon feathers. The two species achieved smooth edges and regular surfaces of the vanes by different construction principles: while the angles of attachment to the rachis and the length of the barbs was nearly constant for the barn owl, these parameters varied in the pigeon. We also present a quantitative description of several characteristic features of barn owl feathers, e.g., the serrations at the leading edge of the wing, the fringes at the edges of each feather, and the velvet-like dorsal surface. Conclusion The quantitative

  17. Increased rodenticide exposure rate and risk of toxicosis in barn owls (Tyto alba) from southwestern Canada and linkage with demographic but not genetic factors.

    Huang, Andrew C; Elliott, John E; Hindmarch, Sofi; Lee, Sandi L; Maisonneuve, France; Bowes, Victoria; Cheng, Kimberly M; Martin, Kathy


    Among many anthropogenic drivers of population decline, continual rapid urbanization and industrialization pose major challenges for the survival of wildlife species. Barn owls (Tyto alba) in southwestern British Columbia (BC) face a multitude of threats ranging from habitat fragmentation to vehicle strikes. They are also at risk from secondary poisoning of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), a suite of toxic compounds which at high doses results in a depletion of blood clotting factors leading to internal bleeding and death. Here, using long-term data (N = 119) for the hepatic residue levels of SGAR, we assessed the risk of toxicosis from SGAR for the BC barn owl population over the past two decades. We also investigated whether sensitivity to SGAR is associated with genetic factors, namely Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the CYP2C45 gene of barn owls. We found that residue concentration for total SGAR was significantly higher in 2006-2013 (141 ng/g) relative to 1992-2003 (57 ng/g). The proportion of owls exposed to multiple SGAR types was also significantly higher in 2006-2013. Those measures accordingly translate directly into an increase in toxicosis risk level. We also detected demographic differences, where adult females showed on average lower concentration of total SGAR (64 ng/g) when compared to adult males (106 ng/g). Juveniles were overall more likely to show signs of toxicosis than adults (33.3 and 6.9 %, respectively), and those symptoms were positively predicted by SGAR concentrations. We found no evidence that SNPs in the CYP2C45 gene of barn owls were associated with intraspecific variation in SGAR sensitivity. We recommend several preventative measures be taken to minimize wildlife exposure to SGAR. PMID:27151403




    Over the last decades, the Barn Owl population has markedly decreased in range and breeding numbers in The Netherlands as in most western European countries. For effective conservation and population management, it is essential to know which factors are responsible for this decline. The present stud

  19. Improvements of sound localization abilities by the facial ruff of the barn owl (Tyto alba as demonstrated by virtual ruff removal.

    Laura Hausmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When sound arrives at the eardrum it has already been filtered by the body, head, and outer ear. This process is mathematically described by the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs, which are characteristic for the spatial position of a sound source and for the individual ear. HRTFs in the barn owl (Tyto alba are also shaped by the facial ruff, a specialization that alters interaural time differences (ITD, interaural intensity differences (ILD, and the frequency spectrum of the incoming sound to improve sound localization. Here we created novel stimuli to simulate the removal of the barn owl's ruff in a virtual acoustic environment, thus creating a situation similar to passive listening in other animals, and used these stimuli in behavioral tests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HRTFs were recorded from an owl before and after removal of the ruff feathers. Normal and ruff-removed conditions were created by filtering broadband noise with the HRTFs. Under normal virtual conditions, no differences in azimuthal head-turning behavior between individualized and non-individualized HRTFs were observed. The owls were able to respond differently to stimuli from the back than to stimuli from the front having the same ITD. By contrast, such a discrimination was not possible after the virtual removal of the ruff. Elevational head-turn angles were (slightly smaller with non-individualized than with individualized HRTFs. The removal of the ruff resulted in a large decrease in elevational head-turning amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The facial ruff a improves azimuthal sound localization by increasing the ITD range and b improves elevational sound localization in the frontal field by introducing a shift of iso-ILD lines out of the midsagittal plane, which causes ILDs to increase with increasing stimulus elevation. The changes at the behavioral level could be related to the changes in the binaural physical parameters that occurred after the

  20. [Importance of Shaw's Jird Meriones shawii within the trophic components of the Barn Owl Tyto alba in steppic areas of Algeria].

    Sekour, Makhlouf; Souttou, Karim; Guerzou, Ahlem; Benbouzid, Noureddine; Guezoul, Omar; Ababsa, Labed; Denys, Christiane; Doumandji, Salaheddine


    The study of the diet of the Barn Owl in two steppic regions (M'Sila and Djelfa) located in the Algerian highlands is based on the analysis of the pellets of rejections collected in six stations. The analysis of 706 pellets resulting from the various stations made it possible to count 1380 individuals, represented by seven classes, 12 orders, 32 families, and 76 species of preys. The mammals are consumed with variable abundance rates between 59.1 % and 90.0 % whose predominance is assigned to the rodents (relative abundance: AR > 58 %). The latter constitute the most advantageous preys in biomass (61.4 ≤ B % ≤ 99.2). The most consumed prey is Meriones shawii, with variable rates between 31.9 % and 76.6 %. Generally, Tyto alba presents a diversified diet in the majority of the stations (0.69 ≤ E ≤ 0.76), except the station of Ain El-Hadjel (E = 0.35), with a low diversity and dominance of M. shawii (AR = 76.6 %). PMID:24961561

  1. Effects of hatching asynchrony on sibling negotiation, begging, jostling for position and within-brood food allocation in the barn owl Tyto alba

    Roulin A.


    When siblings differ markedly in their need for food, they may benefit from signalling to each other their willingness to contest the next indivisible food item delivered by the parents. This sib-sib communication system, referred to as 'sibling negotiation', may allow them to adjust optimally to investment in begging. Using barn owl (Two alba) broods. I assessed the role of within-brood age hierarchy on sibling negotiation, and in turn on jostling for position where parents predictably deliv...

  2. Behavioral responses to frequency specific head related transfer functions as filtered by the facial ruff in the Barn owl (Tyto alba)

    Hausmann, Elena Laura


    The barn owl is, due to its numerous morphological and neuronal adaptations to sound localization, a long-established model animal for the auditory system. Besides extensive research on the topic within the last decades, it is still unclear how direction- and frequency-dependent physical cues (interaural time differences (ITDs), level differences (ILDs) and monaural spectra) contribute to sound localization especially in the elevational plane. A further open question is to what extent frequen...

  3. 巴基斯坦旁遮普中部仓鸮食性的季节性变化%Seasonal variation in the diet of the barn owl Tyto alba stertens in central Punjab, Pakistan

    Muhammad MAHMOOD-UL-HASSAN; Mirza Azhar BEG; Habib ALI


    在巴基斯坦对仓鸮食性的季节变化进行了研究.通过分析连续3年在6个地区搜集的2 360个仓鸮回吐食物团,发现其食物主要是小型哺乳动物(95.6%).其中,家鼩(Suncus murinus)有最高的比例,达65.6%(冬季最多78%,夏季最少27%).就生物量而言,小型哺乳动物占仓鸮食物总生物量的99%[动物学报 53(3):431-436,2007].%Seasonal and climatic changes influence the diet of the barn owl Tyto alba throughout its range. We conducted the first long-term study in Pakistan to understand seasonal changes in the diet of this raptor. Regurgitated pellets (n=2 360) were collected for three years from six districts of central Punjab. An analysis of these pellets revealed that the barn owl depended mainly on small mammals (95.6%) for its food. The house shrew Suncus murinus was the main food item (65.6%) in its diet. It was the most common prey item in winter (78%) and was consumed the least during summer (27%). This seasonal rise and fall in the frequency of shrews in the diet was related to an inverse pattern of rise and fall in the frequency of rodents, birds and bats. Small mammals contributed 99% of the biomass consumed by the barn owl[Acta Zoologica Sinica 53(3):431-436,2007].

  4. Small mammal communities of the "Monte Rufeno" Natural Reserve (Latium, Italy: data from Barn Owl Tyto alba pellets / I popolamenti di micromammiferi della Riserva Naturale "Monte Rufeno" (Lazio: dati da borre di barbagianni Tyto alba

    Gaetano Aloise


    Full Text Available Abstract A high number of preys (7,147 specimens from barn owl pellets were collected in 15 sites of Monte Rufeno Natural Reserve. The 97.42% were small mammals, belonging to at least 6 species of Insectivora, 3 species of Chiroptera and 8 of Rodentia. The use of adequate indexes showed as expected, a high faunistic and biocenotic affinity among all sites of the Natural Reserve. Moreover, the values of trophic leve1 are analogous to the mean values found by others in the province of Rome. The biotic diversity is low and this result can be explained with predation of the barn owls over the most anthropizated areas out of the Natural Reserve. Faunistic and biocenotic indexes were utilized to compare the study area with other localities of Centra1 Italy characterized by typical mediterranean or temperate bioclimate. In one of the sites studied (Podernovo, seasonal changes of predation were analyzed. Riassunto In 15 siti posti all'interno della Riserva Naturale "Monte Rufeno" sono state raccolte numerose borre di Barbagianni Tyto alba in cui sono state rinvenute 7147 prede di cui il 97.42% costituito da micromammiferi. Alcuni indici ecologici (affinità biocenotica e faunistica, diversità biotica, termoxerofilia, antropizzazione, livello trofico sono stati applicati ai dati relativi ai micromammiferi terragnoli. Un confronto faunistico e biocenotico è stato effettuato tra i siti del comprensorio ed alcune località dell'Italia centrale caratteristiche di ambienti a bioclima mediterraneo o temperato. In uno dei siti studiati (Podernovo è stato possibile analizzare l'andamento stagionale della predazione.

  5. The occurrence of reptiles in Barn Owl diet in Europe

    Roulin A.; Dubey S


    Capsule We present a review of the propensity to eat reptiles in the Barn Owl Tyto alba in Europe. Based on the analysis of 591 published studies reporting 3.07 million prey items identified in pellets, only 2402 reptiles (0.08%) were found. Reptiles were most often captured in southern parts of the European continent and on islands. A large proportion of the 1304 identified reptiles to the species level were nocturnal Gekkonidae (77.1%).

  6. La dieta de la lechuza (Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes en hábitats naturales y antropogénicos de la región central de Cuba Diet of Barn Owl (Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes in natural and anthropogenic habitat in central Cuba

    Abel Hernández-Muñoz


    Full Text Available Para determinar los hábitos tróficos de la lechuza, Tyto alba, se analizaron 1232 egagrópilas recolectadas entre 1994 y 2001 en 24 localidades de la región central de Cuba. Se encontraron 3943 presas; los roedores exóticos (Mus musculus y Rattus spp. fueron las presas dominantes y representaron 80% del total. Otros tipos de presas fueron de menor frecuencia; por ejemplo, insectos (6.1%, murciélagos (5%, anfibios (4.8%, aves (3.6% y reptiles (0.2%. Se agruparon las localidades de recolecta de egagrópilas en 2 categorías de hábitat: antropogénicos y naturales, para explorar el efecto de los disturbios antrópicos en la dieta de la lechuza. Contrario a lo esperado, no se encontró variación significativa en el índice de amplitud trófica de Levins (Bantropogénicos= 1.32 ± 0.3 vs Bnaturales = 1.38 ± 0.4. La composición de la dieta en ambos hábitats no difiere, al menos en la proporción de las diferentes clases, aunque existe la tendencia a depredar más aves en hábitats naturales que en sitios perturbados donde los insectos son más frecuentes. Los resultados sugieren que tanto en hábitats antropogénicos como naturales, las lechuzas se comportan como depredadores efectivos de las poblaciones de roedores múridos introducidos.To determine food habits of Barn Owl, Tyto alba, we analyzed 1232 pellets collected from 24 localities in central Cuba from 1994 to 2001. The pellets yielded 3943 prey items, with introduced rodents (Mus musculus and Rattus spp. being the primary prey, accounting for 80% of items in the diet. Other prey classes were of minor frequency; e.g., insects (6.1%, bats (5%, amphibians (4.8%, birds (3.6%, and reptiles (0.2%.We grouped pellet collection localities into 2 habitat categories: "anthropogenic" and "natural," to explore the effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the diet Barn Owl. Contrary to our expectation, we found no significant difference in the Levin's niche-breadth index (B, calculated for the

  7. Rodenticides in British barn owls.

    Newton, I; Wyllie, I; Freestone, P


    Out of 145 Barn Owls found dead through accidents (66%), starvation (32%), shooting (2%) and poisoning (difenacoum or brodifacoum, in their livers. Difenacoum was in the range 0.005-0.106 microg g(-1) fresh weight, and brodifacoum was in the range 0.019-0.515 microg g(-1). Minimum levels of detection were about 0.005 microg g(-1) for both chemicals. Mice fed for 1 day on food containing difenacoum and brodifacoum died after 2-11 days. Within these mice residues were present at greater concentration in the liver than in the rest of the carcass. The mean mass of residue in a whole 35g mouse was estimated at 10.17 microg (range 4.73-20.65 microg) for difenacoum and 15.36 microg (range 8.07-26.55) for brodifacoum. Such poisoned mice were fed to Barn Owls for successive periods of 1, 3 and 6 days. All six owls fed on difenacoum-dosed mice survived all three treatments, in which up to an estimated 101.7 microg of difenacoum was consumed, and the coagulation times of their blood returned to near normal in less than 5-23 days. Four of the six owls fed on brodifacoum-dosed mice died 6-17 days after the 1-day treatment, but the survivors also survived the 3-day and 6-day treatments. Those that died had each eaten 3 mice, with a combined weight of about 105g and a total brodifacoum content of about 46.07 microg, which was equivalent to a dose of 0.150-0.182 mg kg(-1) of owl body weight. After death these owls had 0.63-1.25 micro g(-1) of brodifacoum in their livers. Blood from the survivors would not coagulate at 9 days post-treatment, but did so at 16 days in one bird and between 38 and 78 days in the other. It is concluded that: (1) Barn Owls in Britain are now widely exposed to second-generation rodenticides; (2) not all owls exposed to these chemicals are likely to receive a lethal dose; (3) brodifacoum is more toxic to owls than difenacoum; and (4) while there is yet no evidence that rodenticides have had any appreciable effect on Barn Owl populations in Britain, further

  8. Early blindness results in a degraded auditory map of space in the optic tectum of the barn owl.

    Knudsen, E I


    The optic tectum of the barn owl (Tyto alba) contains a neural map of auditory space consisting of neurons that are sharply tuned for sound source location and organized precisely according to their spatial tuning. The importance of vision for the development of this auditory map was investigated by comparing space maps measured in normal owls with those measured in owls raised with both eyelids sutured closed. The results demonstrate that owls raised without sight, but with normal hearing, d...

  9. A specimen of Sorex cfr. samniticus in Barn Owl's pellets from Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy / Su di un Sorex cfr. samniticus (Insectivora, Soricidae rinvenuto in borre di Tyto alba delle Murge (Puglia, Italia

    Giovanni Ferrara


    Full Text Available Abstract In a lot of Barn Owl's pellets from the Murge plateau a specimen of Sorex sp. was detected. Thank to some morphological and morphometrical features, the cranial bones can be tentatively attributed to Sorex samniticus Altobello, 1926. The genus Sorex was not yet included in the Apulia's fauna southwards of the Gargano district; the origin and significance of the above record is briefly discussed, the actual presence of a natural population of Sorex in the Murge being not yet proved. Riassunto Viene segnalato il rinvenimento di un esemplare di Sorex cfr. samniticus da borre di Tyto alba delle Murge. Poiché il genere non era stato ancora segnalato nella Puglia a sud del Gargano, viene discusso il significato faunistico del reperto.

  10. Food habits of common barn-owls along an elevational gradient in Andean Argentine Patagonia

    Travaini, Alejandro; Donázar, José A.; Ceballos, Olga; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Hiraldo, F.; Delibes, M.


    We evaluated the diet of Common Barn-owls (Tyto alba) along an elevational gradient in Argentine Patagonia. Small mammals (mainly rodents) were the main prey accounting for 93.2% of total prey items. Consumption of rodents appeared to be dependent on their availability. Sizes of mam­ malian prey were variable but most ranged from 10—100 g in body mass. We concluded that the diet of these barn owls could be used as an index of cricetid rodent populations along ...

  11. Ring recoveries of dead birds confirm that darker pheomelanic Barn Owls disperse longer distances

    Roulin A.


    Variation in melanin coloration is widespread and often associated with other phenotypic traits. A recent study showed that darker-reddish pheomelanic Barn Owls (Tyto alba) move longer distances between birth and breeding sites. Because this study considered only individuals recovered within a limited study area, it remains unclear whether the association between melanism and dispersal applies to a larger geographic scale. I analysed an independent dataset of birds ringed in the same study ar...

  12. Systematics and distribution of the giant fossil barn owls of the West Indies (Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae).

    Suárez, William; Olson, Storrs L


    After reviewing the systematics and distribution of the extinct West Indian taxa of Tytonidae (Tyto) larger than the living barn owl Tyto alba (Scopoli), we reached the following conclusions: (1) the species T. ostologa Wetmore (1922) is the only giant barn owl known so far from Hispaniola; (2) T. pollens Wetmore (1937) was a somewhat larger and even more robust representative of T. ostologa known from the Great Bahama Bank and Cuba; (3) the very rare species T. riveroi Arredondo (1972b) is here synonymized with T. pollens; (4) the smallest taxon of these giant barn owls is T. noeli Arredondo (1972a), which is widespread and abundant in Quaternary deposits of Cuba and is here reported for the first time from two cave deposits in Jamaica; (5) the only large barn owl named so far from the Lesser Antilles is T. neddi Steadman & Hilgartner (1999), which is here synonymized with T. noeli; (6) a new taxon from Cuba, T. cravesae new species, which in size approached the linear dimensions of T. ostologa, is named and described herein. PMID:26624114

  13. Prey composition modulates exposure risk to anticoagulant rodenticides in a sentinel predator, the barn owl.

    Geduhn, Anke; Esther, Alexandra; Schenke, Detlef; Gabriel, Doreen; Jacob, Jens


    Worldwide, small rodents are main prey items for many mammalian and avian predators. Some rodent species have pest potential and are managed with anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs). ARs are consumed by target and non-target small mammals and can lead to secondary exposure of predators. The development of appropriate risk mitigation strategies is important and requires detailed knowledge of AR residue pathways. From July 2011 to October 2013 we collected 2397 regurgitated barn owl (Tyto alba) pellets to analyze diet composition of owls on livestock farms in western Germany. 256 of them were fresh pellets that were collected during brodifacoum baiting. Fresh pellets and 742 liver samples of small mammals that were trapped during baiting in the same area were analyzed for residues of ARs. We calculated exposure risk of barn owls to ARs by comparing seasonal diet composition of owls with AR residue patterns in prey species. Risk was highest in autumn, when barn owls increasingly preyed on Apodemus that regularly showed AR residues, sometimes at high concentrations. The major prey species (Microtus spp.) that was consumed most frequently in summer had less potential to contribute to secondary poisoning of owls. There was no effect of AR application on prey composition. We rarely detected ARs in pellets (2 of 256 samples) but 13% of 38 prey individuals in barn owl nests were AR positive and substantiated the expected pathway. AR residues were present in 55% of 11 barn owl carcasses. Fluctuation in non-target small mammal abundance and differences in AR residue exposure patterns in prey species drives exposure risk for barn owls and probably other predators of small mammals. Exposure risk could be minimized through spatial and temporal adaption of AR applications (avoiding long baiting and non-target hot spots at farms) and through selective bait access for target animals. PMID:26657360

  14. Visual search in barn owls: from feature to conjunction search

    Orlowski, Julius


    Visual search is the process of searching for something interesting in a cluttered environment. It is well studied in humans, but not in non-primate species. This study provides a comprehensive overview of visual search in barn owls using a novel methodology: the OwlCam. The OwlCam is a tiny, lightweight camera that can be mounted onto the head of barn owls to record first person videos from these birds. Due to the very limited eye movements of barn owls this provides an easy method of gaze t...

  15. Individual vocal signatures in barn owl nestlings: does individual recognition have an adaptive role in sibling vocal competition?

    Dreiss A.N.; Ruppli C.A.; Roulin A.


    To compete over limited parental resources, young animals communicate with their parents and siblings by producing honest vocal signals of need. Components of begging calls that are sensitive to food deprivation may honestly signal need, whereas other components may be associated with individual-specific attributes that do not change with time such as identity, sex, absolute age and hierarchy. In a sib-sib communication system where barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocally negotiate priority ac...

  16. A Dominance Hierarchy of Auditory Spatial Cues in Barn Owls

    Witten, Ilana B.; Phyllis F Knudsen; Knudsen, Eric I.


    BACKGROUND: Barn owls integrate spatial information across frequency channels to localize sounds in space. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented barn owls with synchronous sounds that contained different bands of frequencies (3-5 kHz and 7-9 kHz) from different locations in space. When the owls were confronted with the conflicting localization cues from two synchronous sounds of equal level, their orienting responses were dominated by one of the sounds: they oriented toward the locatio...

  17. Sleep and vigilance linked to melanism in wild barn owls.

    Scriba, M F; Rattenborg, N C; Dreiss, A N; Vyssotski, A L; Roulin, A


    Understanding the function of variation in sleep requires studies in the natural ecological conditions in which sleep evolved. Sleep has an impact on individual performance and hence may integrate the costs and benefits of investing in processes that are sensitive to sleep, such as immunity or coping with stress. Because dark and pale melanic animals differentially regulate energy homeostasis, immunity and stress hormone levels, the amount and/or organization of sleep may covary with melanin-based colour. We show here that wild, cross-fostered nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) born from mothers displaying more black spots had shorter non-REM (rapid eye movement) sleep bouts, a shorter latency until the occurrence of REM sleep after a bout of wakefulness and more wakefulness bouts. In male nestlings, the same sleep traits also correlated with their own level of spotting. Because heavily spotted male nestlings and the offspring of heavily spotted biological mothers switched sleep-wakefulness states more frequently, we propose the hypothesis that they could be also behaviourally more vigilant. Accordingly, nestlings from mothers displaying many black spots looked more often towards the nest entrance where their parents bring food and towards their sibling against whom they compete. Owlets from heavily spotted mothers might invest more in vigilance, thereby possibly increasing associated costs due to sleep fragmentation. We conclude that different strategies of the regulation of brain activity have evolved and are correlated with melanin-based coloration. PMID:25056556

  18. Optimal models of sound localization by barn owls

    Fischer, Brian J


    Sound localization by barn owls is commonly modeled as a matching procedure where localization cues derived from auditory inputs are compared to stored templates. While the matching models can explain properties of neural responses, no model explains how the owl resolves spatial ambiguity in the localization cues to produce accurate localization for sources near the center of gaze. Here, I examine two models for the barn owl’s sound localization behavior. First, I consider a maximum likeli...

  19. La dieta de la lechuza (Tyto alba) (Aves: Strigiformes) en hábitats naturales y antropogénicos de la región central de Cuba Diet of Barn Owl (Tyto alba) (Aves: Strigiformes) in natural and anthropogenic habitat in central Cuba

    Abel Hernández-Muñoz; Carlos A. Mancina


    Para determinar los hábitos tróficos de la lechuza, Tyto alba, se analizaron 1232 egagrópilas recolectadas entre 1994 y 2001 en 24 localidades de la región central de Cuba. Se encontraron 3943 presas; los roedores exóticos (Mus musculus y Rattus spp.) fueron las presas dominantes y representaron 80% del total. Otros tipos de presas fueron de menor frecuencia; por ejemplo, insectos (6.1%), murciélagos (5%), anfibios (4.8%), aves (3.6%) y reptiles (0.2%). Se agruparon las localidades de recolec...

  20. Social huddling and physiological thermoregulation are related to melanism in the nocturnal barn owl.

    Dreiss, Amélie N; Séchaud, Robin; Béziers, Paul; Villain, Nicolas; Genoud, Michel; Almasi, Bettina; Jenni, Lukas; Roulin, Alexandre


    Endothermic animals vary in their physiological ability to maintain a constant body temperature. Since melanin-based coloration is related to thermoregulation and energy homeostasis, we predict that dark and pale melanic individuals adopt different behaviours to regulate their body temperature. Young animals are particularly sensitive to a decrease in ambient temperature because their physiological system is not yet mature and growth may be traded-off against thermoregulation. To reduce energy loss, offspring huddle during periods of cold weather. We investigated in nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) whether body temperature, oxygen consumption and huddling were associated with melanin-based coloration. Isolated owlets displaying more black feather spots had a lower body temperature and consumed more oxygen than those with fewer black spots. This suggests that highly melanic individuals display a different thermoregulation strategy. This interpretation is also supported by the finding that, at relatively low ambient temperature, owlets displaying more black spots huddled more rapidly and more often than those displaying fewer spots. Assuming that spot number is associated with the ability to thermoregulate not only in Swiss barn owls but also in other Tytonidae, our results could explain geographic variation in the degree of melanism. Indeed, in the northern hemisphere, barn owls and allies are less spotted polewards than close to the equator, and in the northern American continent, barn owls are also less spotted in colder regions. If melanic spots themselves helped thermoregulation, we would have expected the opposite results. We therefore suggest that some melanogenic genes pleiotropically regulate thermoregulatory processes. PMID:26552377

  1. Otoacoustic interrelationships of the barn owl

    Bergevin, Christopher; Manley, Geoffrey A.; Köppl, Christine


    Significant debate still exists about the biophysical mechanisms at work in otoacoustic emission (OAE) generation and how such may differ between mammals and non-mammals given gross morphological differences (e.g., existence of basilar membrane traveling waves, degree of tectorial membrane coupling). To further elucidate general principles at work, we examined the barn owl for interrelationships between spontaneous emissions (SOAEs) and those evoked using a single tone (SFOAEs). First, most ears exhibited SOAEs as a stable periodic `rippling' whose peak-to-peak spacing was relatively constant (˜0.4 kHz). Some ears showed substantially larger narrowband peaks, although their statistical distributions were highly noisy. Second, significant interactions between a low-level tone and SOAE activity were observed via an interference pattern as the tone frequency was swept. Using a suppression paradigm to extract SFOAEs as the residual, the magnitude exhibited a stable pattern of peaks and valleys unique to each ear. Third, SFOAE phase exhibited significant accumulation as frequency was swept, with a phase-gradient delay of approximately 2 ms that was constant across frequency. The amount of SFOAE phase accumulation between adjacent SOAE peaks tended to cluster about an integral number of cycles, as previously observed for humans. Taken together, our data suggest that the principles underlying how active hair cells work together (e.g., entrainment, phase coherence) are shared between widely different inner ear morphologies, leading to the generation of OAEs with similar properties.

  2. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) advertise good genes

    Roulin, A; Jungi, T.W; Pfister, H; Dijkstra, C.


    The good genes hypothesis of sexual selection postulates that ornamentation signals superior genetic quality to potential mates. Support for this hypothesis comes from studies on male ornamentation only, while it remains to be shown that female ornamentation may signal genetic quality as well. Femal

  3. Divorce in the barn owl: securing a compatible or better mate entails the cost of re-pairing with a less ornamented female mate.

    Dreiss A.N.; Roulin A.


    Two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses can explain why divorce is an adaptive strategy to improve reproductive success. Under the 'better option hypothesis', only one of the two partners initiates divorce to secure a higher-quality partner and increases reproductive success after divorce. Under the 'incompatibility hypothesis', partners are incompatible and hence they may both increase reproductive success after divorce. In a long-term study of the barn owl (Tyto alba), we address the question ...

  4. Barn owl productivity responses to fluctuating vole populations

    Pavluvčík, P.; Poprach, K.; Machar, I.; Losík, J.; Gouveia, A.; Tkadlec, Emil

    Brno: Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2015 - (Bryja, J.; Řehák, Z.; Zukal, J.). s. 187 ISBN 978-80-87189-18-4. [Zoologické dny. 12.02.2015-13.02.2015, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : barn owl * common vole Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  5. Moving Objects in the Barn Owl's Auditory World.

    Langemann, Ulrike; Krumm, Bianca; Liebner, Katharina; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M


    Barn owls are keen hunters of moving prey. They have evolved an auditory system with impressive anatomical and physiological specializations for localizing their prey. Here we present behavioural data on the owl's sensitivity for discriminating acoustic motion direction in azimuth that, for the first time, allow a direct comparison of neuronal and perceptual sensitivity for acoustic motion in the same model species. We trained two birds to report a change in motion direction within a series of repeating wideband noise stimuli. For any trial the starting point, motion direction, velocity (53-2400°/s), duration (30-225 ms) and angular range (12-72°) of the noise sweeps were randomized. Each test stimulus had a motion direction being opposite to that of the reference stimuli. Stimuli were presented in the frontal or the lateral auditory space. The angular extent of the motion had a large effect on the owl's discrimination sensitivity allowing a better discrimination for a larger angular range of the motion. In contrast, stimulus velocity or stimulus duration had a smaller, although significant effect. Overall there was no difference in the owls' behavioural performance between "inward" noise sweeps (moving from lateral to frontal) compared to "outward" noise sweeps (moving from frontal to lateral). The owls did, however, respond more often to stimuli with changing motion direction in the frontal compared to the lateral space. The results of the behavioural experiments are discussed in relation to the neuronal representation of motion cues in the barn owl auditory midbrain. PMID:27080662

  6. Visual-auditory integration for visual search: a behavioral study in barn owls

    Yael eHazan; Inna eYarin; Yonatan eKra; Hermann eWagner; Yoram eGutfreund


    Barn owls are nocturnal predators that rely on both vision and hearing for survival. The optic tectum of barn owls, a midbrain structure involved in selective attention, has been used as a model for studying visual- auditory integration at the neuronal level. However, behavioral data on visual- auditory integration in barn owls are lacking. The goal of this study was to examine if the integration of visual and auditory signals contributes to the process of guiding attention towards salient st...

  7. Comparison between barn owl pellet and fox scat analysis in small mammal survey / Analisi di borre di barbagianni e di feci di volpe: confronto tra due metodologie per il rilevamento di piccoli mammiferi

    Paolo Agnelli; Anna De Marinis


    Abstract In the course of a small mammal survey 100 barn owl (Tyto alba Scop.) pellets and 50 fox (Vulpes vulpes L.) scats were collected at "Villa Demidoff Park" (Florence, Italy) during six weekly samp1ings in the spring. Scat and pellet analyses were compared in order to point out advantages and disadvantages of these techniques as a tool in small mammal surveys. Riassunto In uno studio s...

  8. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su Soricidae, Talpidae ed Arvicolidae d'Italia predati da Tyto alba (Scopoli 1769

    Longino Contoli


    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning Tyto alba diets in peninsular Italy about: - Sorex minutus, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - Sorex araneus (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - Crocidura suaveolens and - Suncus etruscus, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - Talpa caeca, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - Talpa romana

  9. An Overlooked Cost for the Velvety Plumage of Owls: Entanglement in Adhesive Vegetation

    Rodríguez, Airam; Siverio, Felipe; Barone, Rubén; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Negro, Juan J.


    We used data collected during 1995– 2007 at the only Wildlife Rehabilitation Center on Tenerife Island (Canary Islands) to quantify entangle- ment mortality of owls. At least 66 of 1,206 Long- eared (Asio otus) and 5 of 231 Barn (Tyto alba) owls admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation Center were en- tangled in burr bristlegrass (Setaria adhaerens). Twelve (18.2%) of the 66 Long-eared Owls died as a result of entanglement while one of five Barn Owls ...

  10. Reciprocal preening and food sharing in colour-polymorphic nestling barn owls.

    Roulin, A; Des Monstiers, B; Ifrid, E; Da Silva, A; Genzoni, E; Dreiss, A N


    Barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings preen and offer food items to one another, behaviours that can be considered prosocial because they benefit a conspecific by relieving distress or need. In experimental broods, we analysed whether such behaviours were reciprocated, preferentially exchanged between specific phenotypes, performed to avoid harassment and food theft or signals of hierarchy status. Three of the results are consistent with the hypothesis of direct reciprocity. First, food sharing was reciprocated in three-chick broods but not in pairs of siblings, that is when nestlings could choose a partner with whom to develop a reciprocating interaction. Second, a nestling was more likely to give a prey item to its sibling if the latter individual had preened the former. Third, siblings matched their investment in preening each other. Manipulation of age hierarchy showed that food stealing was directed towards older siblings but was not performed to compensate for a low level of cooperation received. Social behaviours were related to melanin-based coloration, suggesting that animals may signal their propensity to interact socially. The most prosocial phenotype (darker reddish) was also the phenotype that stole more food, and the effect of coloration on prosocial behaviour depended upon rank and sex, suggesting that colour-related prosociality is state dependent. PMID:26563617

  11. Natural selection in a postglacial range expansion: the case of the colour cline in the European barn owl.

    Antoniazza, Sylvain; Kanitz, Ricardo; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Burri, Reto; Gaigher, Arnaud; Roulin, Alexandre; Goudet, Jérôme


    Gradients of variation--or clines--have always intrigued biologists. Classically, they have been interpreted as the outcomes of antagonistic interactions between selection and gene flow. Alternatively, clines may also establish neutrally with isolation by distance (IBD) or secondary contact between previously isolated populations. The relative importance of natural selection and these two neutral processes in the establishment of clinal variation can be tested by comparing genetic differentiation at neutral genetic markers and at the studied trait. A third neutral process, surfing of a newly arisen mutation during the colonization of a new habitat, is more difficult to test. Here, we designed a spatially explicit approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) simulation framework to evaluate whether the strong cline in the genetically based reddish coloration observed in the European barn owl (Tyto alba) arose as a by-product of a range expansion or whether selection has to be invoked to explain this colour cline, for which we have previously ruled out the actions of IBD or secondary contact. Using ABC simulations and genetic data on 390 individuals from 20 locations genotyped at 22 microsatellites loci, we first determined how barn owls colonized Europe after the last glaciation. Using these results in new simulations on the evolution of the colour phenotype, and assuming various genetic architectures for the colour trait, we demonstrate that the observed colour cline cannot be due to the surfing of a neutral mutation. Taking advantage of spatially explicit ABC, which proved to be a powerful method to disentangle the respective roles of selection and drift in range expansions, we conclude that the formation of the colour cline observed in the barn owl must be due to natural selection. PMID:25294501

  12. New early Pliocene owls from Langebaanweg, South Africa, with first evidence of Athene south of the Sahara and a new species of Tyto

    Marco Pavia; Albrecht Manegold; Pippa Haarhoff


    The fossiliferous Upper Varswater Formation at Langebaanweg (South Africa) produced remains of at least five species of owls (Strigiformes). Tyto richae sp. nov. is the first palaeospecies of Tytonidae described from an African fossil site, though indeterminate remains referable to the genus Tyto are known from the Middle Miocene of Morocco, the early Pliocene of Ethiopia, and the Pliocene of Tanzania. Athene inexpectata sp. nov. is not only the earliest documented fossil evidence for the gen...

  13. Improvement of directionality and sound-localization by internal ear coupling in barn owls

    Wagner, Hermann; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kettler, Lutz;

    Mark Konishi was one of the first to quantify sound-localization capabilities in barn owls. He showed that frequencies between 3 and 10 kHz underlie precise sound localization in these birds, and that they derive spatial information from processing interaural time and interaural level differences....... However, despite intensive research during the last 40 years it is still unclear whether and how internal ear coupling contributes to sound localization in the barn owl. Here we investigated ear directionality in anesthetized birds with the help of laser vibrometry. Care was taken that anesthesia and the...... time difference in the low-frequency range, barn owls hesitate to approach prey or turn their heads when only low-frequency auditory information is present in a stimulus they receive. Thus, the barn-owl's sound localization system seems to be adapted to work best in frequency ranges where interaural...

  14. Causes of owl mortality in Hawaii, 1992-1994

    Work, T.M.; Hale, J.


    Eighty-one barn owls (Tyto alba) and five Hawaiian owls or pueo (Asio flammeus sandwichensis) from Kauai, Oahu, Lanai, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii (USA) were evaluated for cause of death, November 1992 through August 1994. The most common cause of death in barn owls was trauma (50%) followed by infectious disease (28%) and emaciation (22%). Most traumas apparently resulted from vehicular collisions. Trichomoniasis was the predominant infectious disease and appeared to be a significant cause of death in barn owls in Hawaii. Pasteurellosis and aspergillosis were encountered less commonly. No predisposing cause of emaciation was detected. Stomach contents from 28 barn owls contained mainly insects (64%) of the family Tetigoniidae and Gryllidae, and rodents (18%); the remainder had mixtures of rodents and insects or grass. Three pueo died from trauma and one each died from emaciation and pasteurellosis. We found no evidence of organochlorine, organophosphorus, or carbamate pesticides as causes of death in pueo or barn owls.

  15. Barn owl feathers as biomonitors of mercury: sources of variation in sampling procedures.

    Roque, Inês; Lourenço, Rui; Marques, Ana; Coelho, João Pedro; Coelho, Cláudia; Pereira, Eduarda; Rabaça, João E; Roulin, Alexandre


    Given their central role in mercury (Hg) excretion and suitability as reservoirs, bird feathers are useful Hg biomonitors. Nevertheless, the interpretation of Hg concentrations is still questioned as a result of a poor knowledge of feather physiology and mechanisms affecting Hg deposition. Given the constraints of feather availability to ecotoxicological studies, we tested the effect of intra-individual differences in Hg concentrations according to feather type (body vs. flight feathers), position in the wing and size (mass and length) in order to understand how these factors could affect Hg estimates. We measured Hg concentration of 154 feathers from 28 un-moulted barn owls (Tyto alba), collected dead on roadsides. Median Hg concentration was 0.45 (0.076-4.5) mg kg(-1) in body feathers, 0.44 (0.040-4.9) mg kg(-1) in primary and 0.60 (0.042-4.7) mg kg(-1) in secondary feathers, and we found a poor effect of feather type on intra-individual Hg levels. We also found a negative effect of wing feather mass on Hg concentration but not of feather length and of its position in the wing. We hypothesize that differences in feather growth rate may be the main driver of between-feather differences in Hg concentrations, which can have implications in the interpretation of Hg concentrations in feathers. Finally, we recommend that, whenever possible, several feathers from the same individual should be analysed. The five innermost primaries have lowest mean deviations to both between-feather and intra-individual mean Hg concentration and thus should be selected under restrictive sampling scenarios. PMID:26718850

  16. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su Soricidae, Talpidae ed Arvicolidae d'Italia predati da Tyto alba (Scopoli 1769)

    Longino Contoli


    Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the l...

  17. Overt attention toward oriented objects in free-viewing barn owls

    Harmening, Wolf Maximilian; Orlowski, Julius; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Wagner, Hermann


    Visual saliency based on orientation contrast is a perceptual product attributed to the functional organization of the mammalian brain. We examined this visual phenomenon in barn owls by mounting a wireless video microcamera on the owls’ heads and confronting them with visual scenes that contained one differently oriented target among similarly oriented distracters. Without being confined by any particular task, the owls looked significantly longer, more often, and earlier at the target, thus...

  18. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    Nichols, Grant S.; DeBello, William M.


    Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII) in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII e...

  19. Comparison between barn owl pellet and fox scat analysis in small mammal survey / Analisi di borre di barbagianni e di feci di volpe: confronto tra due metodologie per il rilevamento di piccoli mammiferi

    Paolo Agnelli


    Full Text Available Abstract In the course of a small mammal survey 100 barn owl (Tyto alba Scop. pellets and 50 fox (Vulpes vulpes L. scats were collected at "Villa Demidoff Park" (Florence, Italy during six weekly samp1ings in the spring. Scat and pellet analyses were compared in order to point out advantages and disadvantages of these techniques as a tool in small mammal surveys. Riassunto In uno studio sul popolamento di piccoli mammiferi nel "Parco di Villa Demidoff" (Firenze, Italia realizzato durante il periodo primaverile, sono state analizzate 100 borre di barbagianni (Tyto alba Scop. e 50 feci di volpe (Vulpes vulpes L., raccolte nel corso di sei campionamenti a frequenza settimanale. Queste due metodologie sono state messe a confronto evidenziandone applicabilità e funzionalità come strumento di indagine per il rilevamento di piccoli mammiferi.

  20. Visual-auditory integration for visual search: a behavioral study in barn owls

    Yael eHazan


    Full Text Available Barn owls are nocturnal predators that rely on both vision and hearing for survival. The optic tectum of barn owls, a midbrain structure involved in selective attention, has been used as a model for studying visual- auditory integration at the neuronal level. However, behavioral data on visual- auditory integration in barn owls are lacking. The goal of this study was to examine if the integration of visual and auditory signals contributes to the process of guiding attention towards salient stimuli. We attached miniature wireless video cameras on barn owls' heads (OwlCam to track their target of gaze. We first provide evidence that the area centralis (a retinal area with a maximal density of photoreceptors is used as a functional fovea in barn owls. Thus, by mapping the projection of the area centralis on the OwlCam's video frame, it is possible to extract the target of gaze. For the experiment, owls were positioned on a high perch and four food items were scattered in a large arena on the floor. In addition, a hidden loudspeaker was positioned in the arena. The positions of the food items and speaker were changed every session. Video sequences from the OwlCam were saved for offline analysis while the owls spontaneously scanned the room and the food items with abrupt gaze shifts (head saccades. From time to time during the experiment, a brief sound was emitted from the speaker. The fixation points immediately following the sounds were extracted and the distances between the gaze position and the nearest items and loudspeaker were measured. The head saccades were rarely towards the location of the sound source but to salient visual features in the room, such as the door knob or the food items. However, among the food items, the one closest to the loudspeaker had the highest probability of attracting a gaze shift. This result supports the notion that auditory signals are integrated with visual information for the selection of the next visual search

  1. Low frequency eardrum directionality in the barn owl induced by sound transmission through the interaural canal

    Kettler, Lutz; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Larsen, Ole Næsbye;


    The middle ears of birds are typically connected by interaural cavities that form a cranial canal. Eardrums coupled in this manner may function as pressure difference receivers rather than pressure receivers. Hereby, the eardrum vibrations become inherently directional. The barn owl also has a la...

  2. New early Pliocene owls from Langebaanweg, South Africa, with first evidence of Athene south of the Sahara and a new species of Tyto

    Marco Pavia


    Full Text Available The fossiliferous Upper Varswater Formation at Langebaanweg (South Africa produced remains of at least five species of owls (Strigiformes. Tyto richae sp. nov. is the first palaeospecies of Tytonidae described from an African fossil site, though indeterminate remains referable to the genus Tyto are known from the Middle Miocene of Morocco, the early Pliocene of Ethiopia, and the Pliocene of Tanzania. Athene inexpectata sp. nov. is not only the earliest documented fossil evidence for the genus worldwide, but also the first record of a species of Athene in Africa south of the Sahara. Proportions of its hind limb indicate that At. inexpectata sp. nov. probably has been as terrestrial as its modern relative At. cunicularia. A few additional remains represent the earliest fossil evidence for the genera Asio and Bubo on the African continent, though the poor preservation of these bones prevents more detailed identifications. A distal tibiotarsus of a small owl about the size of At. inexpectata sp. nov. indicates the presence of a fifth, as yet indeterminate, species of owl at Langebaanweg. Biogeographical and palaeoecological implications of this assemblage of owls are discussed.

  3. Sibling rivalry and vocal negotiation in the barn owl Tyto alba

    Ruppli C.-A.


    Chez les animaux, les jeunes dépendant des parents durant leur développement sont en compétition pour obtenir la nourriture, qu'ils quémandent par des cris et postures ostentatoires et se disputent physiquement. Les frères et soeurs n'ont pas la même compétitivité, en particulier s'ils diffèrent en âge, et leur niveau de faim fluctue dans le temps. Comme dans tout type de compétition, chacun doit ajuster son investissement aux rivaux, c'est à dire aux besoins et comportements de ses frères et...

  4. Computational Diversity in the Cochlear Nucleus Angularis of the Barn Owl

    Köppl, Christine; Carr, Catherine E.


    The cochlear nucleus angularis (NA) is widely assumed to form the starting point of a brain stem pathway for processing sound intensity in birds. Details of its function are unclear, however, and its evolutionary origin and relationship to the mammalian cochlear-nucleus complex are obscure. We have carried out extracellular single-unit recordings in the NA of ketamine-anesthetized barn owls. The aim was to re-evaluate the extent of heterogeneity in NA physiology because recent studies of cell...

  5. Darker eumelanic barn owls better withstand food depletion through resistance to food deprivation and lower appetite.

    Dreiss A.; Henry I.; Ruppli C.; Almasi B.; Roulin A.


    The intensity of selection exerted on ornaments typically varies between environments. Reaction norms may help to identify the conditions under which ornamented individuals have a selective advantage over drab conspecifics. It has been recently hypothesized that in vertebrates eumelanin-based coloration reflects the ability to regulate the balance between energy intake and expenditure. We tested two predictions of this hypothesis in barn owl nestlings, namely that darker eumelanic individuals...

  6. Individual vocal signatures in barn owl nestlings: does individual recognition have an adaptive role in sibling vocal competition?

    Dreiss, A N; Ruppli, C A; Roulin, A


    To compete over limited parental resources, young animals communicate with their parents and siblings by producing honest vocal signals of need. Components of begging calls that are sensitive to food deprivation may honestly signal need, whereas other components may be associated with individual-specific attributes that do not change with time such as identity, sex, absolute age and hierarchy. In a sib-sib communication system where barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocally negotiate priority access to food resources, we show that calls have individual signatures that are used by nestlings to recognize which siblings are motivated to compete, even if most vocalization features vary with hunger level. Nestlings were more identifiable when food-deprived than food-satiated, suggesting that vocal identity is emphasized when the benefit of winning a vocal contest is higher. In broods where siblings interact iteratively, we speculate that individual-specific signature permits siblings to verify that the most vocal individual in the absence of parents is the one that indeed perceived the food brought by parents. Individual recognition may also allow nestlings to associate identity with individual-specific characteristics such as position in the within-brood dominance hierarchy. Calls indeed revealed age hierarchy and to a lower extent sex and absolute age. Using a cross-fostering experimental design, we show that most acoustic features were related to the nest of origin (but not the nest of rearing), suggesting a genetic or an early developmental effect on the ontogeny of vocal signatures. To conclude, our study suggests that sibling competition has promoted the evolution of vocal behaviours that signal not only hunger level but also intrinsic individual characteristics such as identity, family, sex and age. PMID:24266879

  7. Agricultural land use and human presence around breeding sites increase stress-hormone levels and decrease body mass in barn owl nestlings.

    Almasi, Bettina; Béziers, Paul; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni, Lukas


    Human activities can have a suite of positive and negative effects on animals and thus can affect various life history parameters. Human presence and agricultural practice can be perceived as stressors to which animals react with the secretion of glucocorticoids. The acute short-term secretion of glucocorticoids is considered beneficial and helps an animal to redirect energy and behaviour to cope with a critical situation. However, a long-term increase of glucocorticoids can impair e.g. growth and immune functions. We investigated how nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) are affected by the surrounding landscape and by human activities around their nest sites. We studied these effects on two response levels: (a) the physiological level of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, represented by baseline concentrations of corticosterone and the concentration attained by a standardized stressor; (b) fitness parameters: growth of the nestlings and breeding performance. Nestlings growing up in intensively cultivated areas showed increased baseline corticosterone levels late in the season and had an increased corticosterone release after a stressful event, while their body mass was decreased. Nestlings experiencing frequent anthropogenic disturbance had elevated baseline corticosterone levels, an increased corticosterone stress response and a lower body mass. Finally, breeding performance was better in structurally more diverse landscapes. In conclusion, anthropogenic disturbance affects offspring quality rather than quantity, whereas agricultural practices affect both life history traits. PMID:25903390

  8. Avian wing geometry and kinematics of a free-flying barn owl in flapping flight

    Wolf, Thomas; Konrath, Robert


    This paper presents results of high-resolution three-dimensional wing shape measurements performed on free-flying barn owls in flapping flight. The applied measurement technique is introduced together with a moving camera set-up, allowing for an investigation of the free flapping flight of birds with high spatial and temporal resolution. Based on the three-dimensional surface data, a methodology for parameterizing the wing profile along with wing kinematics during flapping flight has been developed. This allowed a description of the spanwise varying kinematics and aerodynamic parameters (e.g. effective angles of attack, camber, thickness) of the wing in dependence on the flapping phase. The results are discussed in detail using the data of a single flight, whereas a comparison of some kinematic parameters obtained from different flights is given too.

  9. Independence of echo-threshold and echo-delay in the barn owl.

    Brian S Nelson

    Full Text Available Despite their prevalence in nature, echoes are not perceived as events separate from the sounds arriving directly from an active source, until the echo's delay is long. We measured the head-saccades of barn owls and the responses of neurons in their auditory space-maps while presenting a long duration noise-burst and a simulated echo. Under this paradigm, there were two possible stimulus segments that could potentially signal the location of the echo. One was at the onset of the echo; the other, after the offset of the direct (leading sound, when only the echo was present. By lengthening the echo's duration, independently of its delay, spikes and saccades were evoked by the source of the echo even at delays that normally evoked saccades to only the direct source. An echo's location thus appears to be signaled by the neural response evoked after the offset of the direct sound.

  10. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    Grant S. Nichols


    Full Text Available Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII expression between prism-wearing and control juveniles within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX, the major site of plasticity. For prism-wearing adults that hunted live mice and are capable of adaptation, expression of pCaMKII was increased relative to prism-wearing adults that fed passively on dead mice and are not capable of adaptation. This effect did not bear the hallmarks of instructive information: it was not localized to rostral ICX and did not exhibit a patchy distribution reflecting discrete bimodal stimuli. These data are consistent with a role for CaMKII as a permissive rather than an instructive factor. In addition, the paucity of pCaMKII expression in passively fed adults suggests that the permissive default setting is “off” in adults.

  11. Divorce in the barn owl: securing a compatible or better mate entails the cost of re-pairing with a less ornamented female mate.

    Dreiss, A N; Roulin, A


    Two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses can explain why divorce is an adaptive strategy to improve reproductive success. Under the 'better option hypothesis', only one of the two partners initiates divorce to secure a higher-quality partner and increases reproductive success after divorce. Under the 'incompatibility hypothesis', partners are incompatible and hence they may both increase reproductive success after divorce. In a long-term study of the barn owl (Tyto alba), we address the question of whether one or the two partners derive fitness benefits by divorcing. Our results support the hypothesis that divorce is adaptive: after a poor reproductive season, at least one of the two divorcees increase breeding success up to the level of faithful pairs. By breeding more often together, faithful pairs improve coordination and thereby gain in their efficiency to produce successful fledglings. Males would divorce to obtain a compatible mate rather than a mate of higher quality: a heritable melanin-based signal of female quality did not predict divorce (indicating that female absolute quality may not be the cause of divorce), but the new mate of divorced males was less melanic than their previous mate. This suggests that, at least for males, a cost of divorce may be to secure a lower-quality but compatible mate. The better option hypothesis could not be formally rejected, as only one of the two divorcing partners commonly succeeded in obtaining a higher reproductive success after divorce. In conclusion, incompatible partners divorce to restore reproductive success, and by breeding more often together, faithful partners improve coordination. PMID:24773174

  12. Input clustering in the normal and learned circuits of adult barn owls.

    McBride, Thomas J; DeBello, William M


    Experience-dependent formation of synaptic input clusters can occur in juvenile brains. Whether this also occurs in adults is largely unknown. We previously reconstructed the normal and learned circuits of prism-adapted barn owls and found that changes in clustering of axo-dendritic contacts (putative synapses) predicted functional circuit strength. Here we asked whether comparable changes occurred in normal and prism-removed adults. Across all anatomical zones, no systematic differences in the primary metrics for within-branch or between-branch clustering were observed: 95-99% of contacts resided within clusters (<10-20 μm from nearest neighbor) regardless of circuit strength. Bouton volumes, a proxy measure of synaptic strength, were on average larger in the functionally strong zones, indicating that changes in synaptic efficacy contributed to the differences in circuit strength. Bootstrap analysis showed that the distribution of inter-contact distances strongly deviated from random not in the functionally strong zones but in those that had been strong during the sensitive period (60-250 d), indicating that clusters formed early in life were preserved regardless of current value. While cluster formation in juveniles appeared to require the production of new synapses, cluster formation in adults did not. In total, these results support a model in which high cluster dynamics in juveniles sculpt a potential connectivity map that is refined in adulthood. We propose that preservation of clusters in functionally weak adult circuits provides a storage mechanism for disused but potentially useful pathways. PMID:25701706

  13. Predator facilitation or interference: a game of vipers and owls.

    Embar, Keren; Raveh, Ashael; Hoffmann, Ishai; Kotler, Burt P


    In predator-prey foraging games, the prey's reaction to one type of predator may either facilitate or hinder the success of another predator. We ask, do different predator species affect each other's patch selection? If the predators facilitate each other, they should prefer to hunt in the same patch; if they interfere, they should prefer to hunt alone. We performed an experiment in a large outdoor vivarium where we presented barn owls (Tyto alba) with a choice of hunting greater Egyptian gerbils (Gerbillus pyramidum) in patches with or without Saharan horned vipers (Cerastes cerastes). Gerbils foraged on feeding trays set under bushes or in the open. We monitored owl location, activity, and hunting attempts, viper activity and ambush site location, and the foraging behavior of the gerbils in bush and open microhabitats. Owls directed more attacks towards patches with vipers, and vipers were more active in the presence of owls. Owls and vipers facilitated each other's hunting through their combined effect on gerbil behavior, especially on full moon nights when vipers are more active. Owls forced gerbils into the bushes where vipers preferred to ambush, while viper presence chased gerbils into the open where they were exposed to owls. Owls and vipers took advantage of their indirect positive effect on each other. In the foraging game context, they improve each other's patch quality and hunting success. PMID:24481981

  14. Theoretical foundations of the sound analog membrane potential that underlies coincidence detection in the barn owl.

    Ashida, Go; Funabiki, Kazuo; Carr, Catherine E


    A wide variety of neurons encode temporal information via phase-locked spikes. In the avian auditory brainstem, neurons in the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) send phase-locked synaptic inputs to coincidence detector neurons in the nucleus laminaris (NL) that mediate sound localization. Previous modeling studies suggested that converging phase-locked synaptic inputs may give rise to a periodic oscillation in the membrane potential of their target neuron. Recent physiological recordings in vivo revealed that owl NL neurons changed their spike rates almost linearly with the amplitude of this oscillatory potential. The oscillatory potential was termed the sound analog potential, because of its resemblance to the waveform of the stimulus tone. The amplitude of the sound analog potential recorded in NL varied systematically with the interaural time difference (ITD), which is one of the most important cues for sound localization. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying ITD computation in the NM-NL circuit, we provide detailed theoretical descriptions of how phase-locked inputs form oscillating membrane potentials. We derive analytical expressions that relate presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic factors to the signal and noise components of the oscillation in both the synaptic conductance and the membrane potential. Numerical simulations demonstrate the validity of the theoretical formulations for the entire frequency ranges tested (1-8 kHz) and potential effects of higher harmonics on NL neurons with low best frequencies (<2 kHz). PMID:24265616

  15. Sub-lethal effects of the anticoagulant rodenticides bromadiolone and chlorophacinone on breeding performances of the barn owl (Tyto alba in oil palm plantations

    Salim Hasber


    Full Text Available Štúdia skúma vplyv prvej generácie antikoagulacného rodenticídu chlórofacinonu a druhej generácie bromadiolonu na parametre hniezdenej úspešnosti plamienky driemavej na plantážach palmy olejovej. Založili sa tri pokusné plochy: jedna ošetrená chlórofacinonom, dalšia s bromadiolonom a tretia kontrolná bez rodenticídu. Na chemicky ošetrených plochách sa pocas hniezdnej sezóny rodenticíd vykladal štyri krát. Obsadenost hniezdnych búdok, velkost znášky, pocet vyliahnutých mládat a podiel vyletených mládat plamienky sa zistovali v týždenných intervaloch. Z obsadených hniezd sa tiež v týždenných intervaloch zbierali vývržky. Z výsledkov vyplýva, že podiel obsadených búdok bol štatisticky významne vyšší na chemicky neošetrenej ploche než na plochách s vyloženou otrávenou návnadou. Rovnako aj parametre hniezdenia - velkost znášky, pocet vyliahnutých mládat a pocet vyletených mládat - dosahovali vyšších hodnôt na neošetrenej ploche. Z výsledkov z vysokoúcinnej kvapalinovej chromatografie (HPLC vyplýva, že 20,56 % (priemerná koncentrácia rezíduí: 1 ,335 ± 0,073 lg/g a 28,89 % (priemerná koncentrácia rezíduí: 0,777 ± 0,032 lg/g z vývržkov zozbieraných v rodenticídom ošetrených plochách obsahovalo rezíduá bromadiolonu alebo chlórofacinonu. Priemerná velkost znášky a pocet vyletených mládat negatívne korelovali s priemernou koncentráciou rezíduí rodenticídov vo vývržkoch a s relatívnym podielom vývržkov obsahujúcich tieto rezíduá (R2 k 0.44, P 0.05. Zovšeobecnujúc možno konštatovat, že cím vyššie bolo množstvo chemických rezíduí vo vývržkoch, tým nižšie boli parametre hniezdnej úspešnosti

  16. What do predators really want? The role of gerbil energetic state in determining prey choice by Barn Owls.

    Embar, Keren; Mukherjee, Shomen; Kotler, Burt P


    In predator-prey foraging games, predators should respond to variations in prey state. The value of energy for the prey changes depending on season. Prey in a low energetic state and/or in a reproductive state should invest more in foraging and tolerate higher predation risk. This should make the prey more catchable, and thereby, more preferable to predators. We ask, can predators respond to prey state? How does season and state affect the foraging game from the predator's perspective? By letting owls choose between gerbils whose states we experimentally manipulated, we could demonstrate predator sensitivity to prey state and predator selectivity that otherwise may be obscured by the foraging game. During spring, owls invested more time and attacks in the patch with well-fed gerbils. During summer, owls attacked both patches equally, yet allocated more time to the patch with hungry gerbils. Energetic state per se does not seem to be the basis of owl choice. The owls strongly responded to these subtle differences. In summer, gerbils managed their behavior primarily for survival, and the owls equalized capture opportunities by attacking both patches equally. PMID:24669722

  17. To dare or not to dare? Risk management by owls in a predator-prey foraging game.

    Embar, Keren; Raveh, Ashael; Burns, Darren; Kotler, Burt P


    In a foraging game, predators must catch elusive prey while avoiding injury. Predators manage their hunting success with behavioral tools such as habitat selection, time allocation, and perhaps daring-the willingness to risk injury to increase hunting success. A predator's level of daring should be state dependent: the hungrier it is, the more it should be willing to risk injury to better capture prey. We ask, in a foraging game, will a hungry predator be more willing to risk injury while hunting? We performed an experiment in an outdoor vivarium in which barn owls (Tyto alba) were allowed to hunt Allenby's gerbils (Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi) from a choice of safe and risky patches. Owls were either well fed or hungry, representing the high and low state, respectively. We quantified the owls' patch use behavior. We predicted that hungry owls would be more daring and allocate more time to the risky patches. Owls preferred to hunt in the safe patches. This indicates that owls manage risk of injury by avoiding the risky patches. Hungry owls doubled their attacks on gerbils, but directed the added effort mostly toward the safe patch and the safer, open areas in the risky patch. Thus, owls dared by performing a risky action-the attack maneuver-more times, but only in the safest places-the open areas. We conclude that daring can be used to manage risk of injury and owls implement it strategically, in ways we did not foresee, to minimize risk of injury while maximizing hunting success. PMID:24810326

  18. Acanthocephalans of the genus Centrorhynchus (Palaeacanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) of birds of prey (Falconiformes) and owls (Strigiformes) in Slovakia.

    Komorová, P; Špakulová, M; Hurníková, Z; Uhrín, M


    Three species of thorny-headed worms of the genus Centrorhynchus were found to parasitize birds of prey and owls in the territory of the Slovakia during the years 2012-2014. Out of 286 examined bird individuals belonging to 23 species, only Buteo buteo, Buteo rufinus, Falco tinnunculus (Falconiformes), Asio otus, Strix aluco, Strix uralensis and Tyto alba (Strigiformes) were infected by acanthocephalans. All the bird species except for S. aluco represent new host records for Slovakia. The most prevalent acanthocephalan Centrorhynchus aluconis was detected in all 15 examined birds of non-migratory Ural owl S. uralensis (P = 100%); however, it was found occasionally also in two individuals of the tawny owl S. aluco (P = 20%), one long-eared owl A. otus (P = 7.7%), one barn owl T. alba (P = 33.3%) and the common buzzard B. buteo (P = 0.8%). Two other thorny-headed worms occurred exclusively in Falconiformes in raw or mixed infections: Centrorhynchus buteonis was found in 11 individuals of B. buteo (P = 9.2%), and two birds (B. buteo and B. rufinus) were parasitized simultaneously by C. buteonis and the species Centrorhynchus globocaudatus. Moreover, the latest, relatively rare acanthocephalan was found alone in two common kestrels F. tinnunculus (P = 2.7%). Regarding intensity of infection, it ranged from a single female of C. buteonis, C. globocaudatus or C. aluconis per host (four cases) to a maximum of 82 C. aluconis per an Ural owl. The difference in acanthocephalan species spectrum between birds of prey and owls in Slovakia was apparent. PMID:25786606

  19. Barn owls do not interrupt their siblings

    Dreiss A.N.; Ruppli C.A.; Oberli F.; Antoniazza S.; Henry I; Roulin A.


    Animals communicate with conspecifics to resolve conflicts over how resources are shared. Since signals reflect individuals' resource-holding potential and motivation to compete, it is crucial that opponents efficiently transmit and receive information to adjust investment optimally in competitive interactions. Acoustic communication is particularly flexible as it can be quickly modulated according to background noise and audience. Diverse mechanisms have evolved to minimize acoustic signal i...

  20. Outrageous Owls

    Walkup, Nancy


    The author's encounter with a live owl and her purchase of a Peruvian folk art gourd inspired a new interdisciplinary experience for the author's fourth grade students. In this article, she describes how her students explored owls through clay sculpture. (Contains 2 resources and 1 online resource.)

  1. Essai synécologique sur les micromammifères d'Europe atlantique et ouest méditerranéenne: étude par analyse du régime alimentaire de Tyto alba (Scopoli)

    Libois, Roland


    Methods: owl pellets in Belgium, Corsica and in East Pyrenees. Quality of the samples: exhaustivity and representativity. Habitat evaluation in the barn owl home range: climate, orography, vegetation. Discussion for the method. Landscape structure and the mammal communities. Interspecific competition in island biocoenoses. Peer reviewed

  2. Schleiereule Tyto alba: extreme Scheidungshäufigkeit bei einem Weibchen

    Seeler, Horst; Kniprath, Ernst


    Ein Schleiereulen Weibchen hat in drei Jahren fünf erfolgreiche Bruten mit fünf verschiedenen Männchen gemacht und ist jedes Mal umgezogen. Um die Umstände der Scheidungen besser beurteilen zu können, werden die Herkunft der Männchen, deren Verbleib nach der Scheidung und auch die Herkunft von deren neuen Partnerinnen beschrieben. Der Vogel hatte nachweislich 22 Nachkommen der 1., 18 der 2. und 12 der 3. Generation. Within 3 years a female barn owl had 5 successful broods with 5 different ...

  3. Elf Owl [ds14

    California Department of Resources — This data set contains a database of all known positive observations of elf owls in California. This data set is a companion to Elf Owl Surveys which portrays the...

  4. Are owl pellets good estimators of prey abundance?

    Analia Andrade


    Full Text Available Some ecologists have been skeptics about the use of owl pellets to estimate small mammal’s fauna. This is due to the assumptions required by this method: (a that owls hunt at random, and (b that pellets represent a random sample from the environment. We performed statistical analysis to test these assumptions and to assess the effectiveness of Barn owl pellets as a useful estimator of field abundances of its preys. We used samples collected in the arid Extra-Andean Patagonia along an altitudinal environmental gradient from lower Monte ecoregion to upper Patagonian steppe ecoregion, with a mid-elevation ecotone. To test if owls hunt at random, we estimated expected pellet frequency by creating a distribution of random pellets, which we compared with data using a simulated chi-square. To test if pellets represent a random sample from the environment, differences between ecoregions were evaluated by PERMANOVAs with Bray–Curtis dissimilarities. We did not find evidence that owls foraged non-randomly. Therefore, we can assume that the proportions of the small mammal’s species in the diet are representative of the proportions of the species in their communities. Only Monte is different from other ecoregions. The ecotone samples are grouped with those of Patagonian steppes. There are no real differences between localities in the small mammal’s abundances in each of these ecoregions and/or Barn owl pellets cannot detect patterns at a smaller spatial scale. Therefore, we have no evidence to invalidate the use of owl pellets at an ecoregional scale.

  5. Unravelling a biogeographical knot: origin of the 'leapfrog' distribution pattern of Australo-Papuan sooty owls (Strigiformes) and logrunners (Passeriformes).

    Norman, J A; Christidis, L; Joseph, L; Slikas, B.; Alpers, D


    Molecular analysis of two Australo-Papuan rainforest birds exhibiting correlated 'leapfrog' patterns were used to elucidate the evolutionary origin of this unusual pattern of geographical differentiation. In both sooty owls (Tyto) and logrunners (Orthonyx), phenotypically similar populations occupy widely disjunct areas (central-eastern Australia and upland New Guinea) with a third, highly distinctive population, occurring between them in northeastern Queensland. Two mechanisms have been prop...

  6. Owls On Silent Wings. The Wonder Series.

    Cooper, Ann C.

    This curriculum guide is all about owls and provides information on the folklore related to owls, present populations, explanations of physical characteristics, exploring owl pellets, burrowing owls, snowy owls, and great horned owls. Included are eight activities using owl cards, owl pellets, puzzles, and origami. This guide aims to increase…

  7. Integration of OWL-S into IRS-III

    Hakimpour, Farshad; Domingue, John; Motta, Enrico; Cabral, Liliana; Lei, Yuangui


    IRS-III is the first WSMO compliant system for supporting the Semantic Web Services technologies and it is based on the IRS-II [3]. This paper presents how we integrated the OWL-S [5] service description ontology to IRS-III. We describe how the underlying model of IRS-III supports OWL-S.

  8. Barn owl productivity response to variability of vole populations

    Pavluvčík, P.; Poprach, K.; Machar, I.; Losík, J.; Gouveia, A.; Tkadlec, Emil


    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2015), e0145851. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : animal experiment * correlation coefficient * Czech Republic * fledgling * life history * nonhuman * productivity * specialization * stochastic model * theoretical model * time series analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  9. Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil.

    da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G


    The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection. PMID:19005679

  10. Det postmoderne barn

    Hansen, Ole Henrik


    Den nye psykologi fokuserer på dynamik og intersubjektivitet, mens den gamle var optaget af faser og udviklingstrin. Den postmoderne forståelse af det lille barn opfatter ikke faserne som aflåste, historiske sandheder, men som levende narrativer. Og så får det nye børnesyn indflydelse på Frode og...

  11. Barred Owl [ds8

    California Department of Resources — These data define the current range of Barred and hybrid Barred/Spotted Owls in California. The current range includes the coastal mountains of northern California...

  12. Mixed-Media Owls

    Schultz, Kathy


    The fun of creating collages is there are unlimited possibilities for the different kinds of materials one can use. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students created an owl using mixed media.

  13. OWL-S Atomic services composition with SWRL rules

    Redavid, Domenico; Iannone, Luigi; Payne, Terry


    This paper presents a method for encoding OWL-S atomic processes by means of SWRL rules and composing them using a backward search planning algorithm. A description of the preliminary prototype implementation is also presented.

  14. Using OWL-S to annotate services with ancillary behaviour

    Belecheanu, R A; Jacyno, M; Payne, T.


    This paper introduces the concept of services with ancillary behaviour and illustrates the use of OWL-S to semantically describe them. The OWL-S syntax used reflects the dynamic and core-function independent nature of ancillary behaviour. The approach is illustrated on the case of a ubiquitous computing system designed to offer care in the home of a cardiac patient. Here one of the challenges is to ensure service availability, team awareness and transaction atomicity. The concept of commitmen...

  15. Assessment of toxicity and coagulopathy of brodifacoum in Japanese quail and testing in wild owls.

    Webster, Kirstin H; Harr, Kendal E; Bennett, Darin C; Williams, Tony D; Cheng, Kimberly M; Maisonneuve, France; Elliott, John E


    Based on detection of hepatic residues, scavenging and predatory non-target raptors are widely exposed to second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs). A small proportion, generally owl PT (17-29 s) and quail PT were different. The proportion of brodifacoum-exposed quail with hemorrhage was not correlated with liver residues, but was correlated with PT, suggesting that this assay is a useful indicator of avian anticoagulant rodenticide exposure. PTs measured in free-living barn owls sampled between April 2009 and August 2010 in the lower Fraser Valley of BC do not suggest significant exposure to SGARs. PMID:25827684

  16. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.


    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  17. Owl Pellet Paleontology

    McAlpine, Lisa K.


    In this activity for the beginning of a high school Biology 1 evolution unit, students are challenged to reconstruct organisms found in an owl pellet as a model for fossil reconstruction. They work in groups to develop hypotheses about what animal they have found, what environment it inhabited, and what niche it filled. At the end of the activity,…

  18. Owl Research that's Good for the Birds.

    Cristol, Daniel A.


    Describes and illustrates how to build nest boxes to provide city homes for screech owls to reestablish a healthy ecological balance. Outlines how to conduct a pellet analysis of an owl's diet and how to study screech owl territoriality. (NEC)

  19. All about Owls: Studying Owls, State Birds, and Endangered Species.

    Rivard, Leonard P.


    Activities are included that acquaint students with the parts of birds and the structure of feathers; that identify the prey of owls by opening owl pellets; working with information about threatened and endangered species of birds; and follow-up activities for bird study. A list of state and provincial birds of the United States and Canada and…

  20. OWL-S Atomic services composition with SWRL rules

    Redavid, Domenico; Ianone, Luigi; Payne, Terry; Semeraro, Giovanni


    This paper presents a method for encoding OWL-S atomic processes by means of SWRL rules and composing them using a backward search planning algorithm. A description of the preliminary prototype implementation and a grounding in BPEL are also presented.

  1. Owl Pellets and Crisis Management.

    Anderson, Tom


    Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…

  2. OWL 2 Web Ontology Language: XML serialization

    B. Motik; P. Patel-Schneider; S. Bechhofer; B. Cuenca Grau; A. Fokoue; R. Hoekstra; B. Parsia


    The OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, informally OWL 2, is an ontology language for the Semantic Web with formally defined meaning. OWL 2 ontologies provide classes, properties, individuals, and data values and are stored as Semantic Web documents. OWL 2 ontologies can be used along with information writ

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from barn animals

    Ninety six per cent of the carbon dioxide produced by barn animals is generated through the act of breathing, with the remainder generated through their droppings. The author examined various sources of carbon dioxide emissions associated with barn animals, including the animals themselves, their droppings and heating systems for barns. A similar review was conducted for emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The author proposed ways to reduce the production of carbon dioxide and methane by barn animals. 8 refs., 1 tab

  4. Barn i den fortettede byen

    Cederkvist, Kjersti Prytz


    Problemstillingen i denne masteroppgaven er en liten del av det store problemkomplekset omkring bokvalitet og fortetting. Jeg har ønsket å undersøke sammenhengen mellom fortetting og oppvekstvilkår for barn i Oslo, og tatt for meg uterom i tilknytning til nye boligprosjekter. Utgangspunktet for oppgaven er en antagelse (hypotese) om at barn ofte blir den tapende part ved de prioriteringer som blir foretatt når nye boligprosjekter realiseres i en by under fortetting. Plan- og bygningsetaten(PB...

  5. Blood parasites in Owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

    Ishak, H.D.; Dumbacher, J.P.; Anderson, N.L.; Keane, J.J.; Valkiunas, G.; Haig, S.M.; Tell, L.A.; Sehgal, R.N.M.


    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis courina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n=17) and unique lineages (n=12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. ?? 2008 Ishak et al.

  6. Blood parasites in owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis.

    Heather D Ishak

    Full Text Available The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis caurina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia. An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp. or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.. California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%. Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n = 17 and unique lineages (n = 12. This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one Leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15% when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79% and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%. Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls.

  7. Bringing Semantics to Web Services: The OWL-S Approach

    Martin, David; Paolucci, Massimo; McIlraith, Sheila; Burnstein, Mark; McDermott, Drew; McGuinness, Deborah; Parsia, Bijan; Payne, Terry R.; Sabou, Marta; Solanki, Monika; Srinivasan, Naveen; Sycara, Katia


    Service interface description languages such as WSDL, and related standards, are evolving rapidly to provide a foundation for interoperation between Web services. At the same time, Semantic Web service technologies, such as the Ontology Web Language for Services (OWL-S), are developing the means by which services can be given richer semantic specifications. Richer semantics can enable fuller, more flexible automation of service provision and use, and support the construction of more powerful ...

  8. An analysis of Apulian micromammal populations by studying owl's pellets

    Michele Bux


    Full Text Available Abstract The study contains data from 3302 preys found in Barn owl pellets from 15 sites within the Provinces of Foggia and Bari (Apulia, Southern Italy. Eleven micromammal species were identified. Microtus savii and Apodemus sylvaticus were the most frequents preys. No specimen of Clethrionomys glareolus and Apodemus flavicollis were found which is probably due to the habitat typology examined (all thermoxerophilous phytocoenosis. The Sorensen Index showed a high faunistic affinity among all the sites studied and other localities of Apulia. However, by applying the index of biocenotic differences (Renkonen a difference in some localities, in relation to Microtus savii and Insectivores abundance, was found.

  9. Maps of interaural delay in the owl's nucleus laminaris.

    Carr, Catherine E; Shah, Sahil; McColgan, Thomas; Ashida, Go; Kuokkanen, Paula T; Brill, Sandra; Kempter, Richard; Wagner, Hermann


    Axons from the nucleus magnocellularis form a presynaptic map of interaural time differences (ITDs) in the nucleus laminaris (NL). These inputs generate a field potential that varies systematically with recording position and can be used to measure the map of ITDs. In the barn owl, the representation of best ITD shifts with mediolateral position in NL, so as to form continuous, smoothly overlapping maps of ITD with iso-ITD contours that are not parallel to the NL border. Frontal space (0°) is, however, represented throughout and thus overrepresented with respect to the periphery. Measurements of presynaptic conduction delay, combined with a model of delay line conduction velocity, reveal that conduction delays can account for the mediolateral shifts in the map of ITD. PMID:26224776

  10. OWL-S的形式语义%The Formal Semantics of OWL-S

    蒋运承; 史忠植


    本文分析了目前语义Web服务的研究现状和存在的问题,特别是语义Web服务描述本体OWL-S的形式语义研究中存在的问题,在Srini Narayanan等人研究的基础上,用情景演算理论进一步研究了OWL-S中组合服务描述的形式语义,从而完善了OWL-S的形式语义,为语义Web服务提供了合理的理论基础.

  11. Burrowing Owls, Pulex irritans, and Plague.

    Belthoff, James R; Bernhardt, Scott A; Ball, Christopher L; Gregg, Michael; Johnson, David H; Ketterling, Rachel; Price, Emily; Tinker, Juliette K


    Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are small, ground-dwelling owls of western North America that frequent prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) towns and other grasslands. Because they rely on rodent prey and occupy burrows once or concurrently inhabited by fossorial mammals, the owls often harbor fleas. We examined the potential role of fleas found on burrowing owls in plague dynamics by evaluating prevalence of Yersinia pestis in fleas collected from burrowing owls and in owl blood. During 2012-2013, fleas and blood were collected from burrowing owls in portions of five states with endemic plague-Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, and South Dakota. Fleas were enumerated, taxonomically identified, pooled by nest, and assayed for Y. pestis using culturing and molecular (PCR) approaches. Owl blood underwent serological analysis for plague antibodies and nested PCR for detection of Y. pestis. Of more than 4750 fleas collected from owls, Pulex irritans, a known plague vector in portions of its range, comprised more than 99.4%. However, diagnostic tests for Y. pestis of flea pools (culturing and PCR) and owl blood (PCR and serology) were negative. Thus, even though fleas were prevalent on burrowing owls and the potential for a relationship with burrowing owls as a phoretic host of infected fleas exists, we found no evidence of Y. pestis in sampled fleas or in owls that harbored them. We suggest that studies similar to those reported here during plague epizootics will be especially useful for confirming these results. PMID:26367482

  12. Optimal Prediction of Moving Sound Source Direction in the Owl.

    Weston Cox


    Full Text Available Capturing nature's statistical structure in behavioral responses is at the core of the ability to function adaptively in the environment. Bayesian statistical inference describes how sensory and prior information can be combined optimally to guide behavior. An outstanding open question of how neural coding supports Bayesian inference includes how sensory cues are optimally integrated over time. Here we address what neural response properties allow a neural system to perform Bayesian prediction, i.e., predicting where a source will be in the near future given sensory information and prior assumptions. The work here shows that the population vector decoder will perform Bayesian prediction when the receptive fields of the neurons encode the target dynamics with shifting receptive fields. We test the model using the system that underlies sound localization in barn owls. Neurons in the owl's midbrain show shifting receptive fields for moving sources that are consistent with the predictions of the model. We predict that neural populations can be specialized to represent the statistics of dynamic stimuli to allow for a vector read-out of Bayes-optimal predictions.

  13. Blood Parasites in Owls with Conservation Implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

    Ishak, Heather D.; Dumbacher, John P.; Nancy L Anderson; Keane, John J.; Gediminas Valkiūnas; Haig, Susan M.; Tell, Lisa A.; Ravinder N M Sehgal


    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis caurina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not...

  14. Burrowing owls, Pulex irritans and plague

    Belthoff, James R.; Bernhardt, Scott A; Ball, Christopher; Gregg, Michael; Johnson, David H.; Ketterling, Rachel; Price, Emily; Tinker, Juliette K.


    Western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are small, ground-dwelling owls ofwestern North America that frequent prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) towns and other grasslands.As they rely on rodent prey and occupy burrows once or concurrently inhabited by fossorialmammals, the owls often harbor fleas. We examined the potential role of fleas found onburrowing owls in plague dynamics by evaluating prevalence of Yersinia pestis in fleas and inowl blood. During 2012-2013 fleas and blood were ...

  15. On a new Owl from Liberia

    Büttikofer, J.


    Amongst the last birds received from Mr. Stampfli, there was a very peculiar new Owl, which I propose to name Bubo lettii, after its discoverer Mr. Lett, our former landlord and huntsman at Schieffelinsville. This Owl shows no affinity to any of the Owls at present known from the old world, but migh

  16. Fast Mapping Algorithm from WSDL to OWL-S

    Ashraf B. El-Sisi


    Full Text Available Recently semantic web services represent the most technology developed for machine to machine interaction. The problem of discovering and selecting the most suitable web service represents a challenge for semantic web services. In this paper performance evaluation of mapping algorithm from web services annotations (WSDL to semantic annotations (OWL-S based on ontology search engine is presented. During mapping process primitive type remains without change. The complex type are converted to OWL ontology by extracted them and passing to ontology search and standardization process without need of conversion into temporary ontology. The keywords extracted in the linguistic search phase and are extended using word net. The mapping algorithm and its modification are implemented in Java and evaluated by 310 files WSDL. The output results of two algorithms are identical. But the proposed modified algorithm is faster than mapping algorithm.

  17. Dynamic web service composition based on OWL-S

    Jing DONG; Yongtao SUN; Sheng YANG; Kang ZHANG


    Composing existing web services for enterprise applications may enable higher level of reuse. However the composition processes are mostly static and lack of support for runtime redesign. In this paper, we describe our approach to the extension of the OWL-S ontology framework for dynamic web service composition. We raise the level of abstraction and propose an abstract service layer so that web services can be composed at the abstract service level instead of the concrete level. Each abstract service is attached with an instance pool including all instances of the abstract service to facilitate fail-over and dynamic compositions.

  18. Til forsvar for barns spontane lek

    Einar Sundsdal


    Full Text Available Barndommens far, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778, og senere, barnehagens grunnlegger, Friedrich Frøbel (1782-1852, var begge opptatt av barndom og barns mulighet til å tape tid. Dette ble betegnet som negativ pedagogikk og innebar blant annet at barn skulle fordrive tiden med det som passet for barn: lek. Barna skulle få holde på for seg selv, voksne skulle ikke bedrive undervisning, men la barn oppdage verden selv. Disse tankene har vært sentrale for vår moderne forestilling om barndom, og de har vært premissgivende for Barnekonvensjonen som slår fast at alle barn har rett til å leke. Også i dag har leken en sentral posisjon når vi snakker om barndom, men nå knyttes den til en forestilling om å vinne tid. Barn blir nå skjøvet fremover slik at de ikke skal kaste bort tiden - tape tiden - men utnytte den mest mulig effektivt med tanke på et fremtidig resultat. Denne logikken har bidratt til at FN i 2013 gikk ut og advarte om at barns rett til lek er truet. I denne artikkelen vil vi forfølge FNs forsvar for barns spontane lek. Vi vil gjøre dette blant annet ved å vise at lekens egenverdi står stadig sterkere innen en rekke forskningstradisjoner.

  19. Brutbiologie und Wanderungen einer Schleiereulenpopulation (Tyto alba) im hessischen Main-Kinzig-Kreis

    Jahnel, Mathias


    Die Schleiereule (Tyto alba) ist eine in fast allen Regionen der Erde vorkommende Eulenart. In Mitteleuropa erreicht sie die nördlichste Grenze ihres Verbreitungsgebiets. Man trifft sie hier in tiefergelegenen, waldarmen Gegenden an. Eine Arbeitsgruppe der Hessischen Gesellschaft für Ornithologie und Naturschutz (HGON) und des Deutschen Bund für Vogelschutz (DBV) führt im hessischen Main-Kinzig-Kreis seit 1976 Maßnahmen zum Schutz der Schleiereulen durch. Dazu gehören das Anbringen von Brutki...

  20. OWL-S到Z规格说明的转换%Transformation from OWL-S Model to Z

    王毅俊; 缪淮扣; 许庆国; 曹晓夏


    OWL-S是重要的Semantic Web Service描述框架,但缺乏有效的形式化验证工具.Z语言是基于集合论和一阶谓词逻辑的形式化规格说明语言,比OWL-S具有更强的表达力.该文研究基于Z的0WI-S形式化方法,提出从OWL-S到z规格说明的模型转换规则.基于这些规则,用z定义OWL-S中概念的形式化语义,并开发了从OWL-S描述到Z规格说明的自动转换工具OWLS2Z.

  1. Extension of UDDI to support OWL-S%扩展UDDI以支持OWL-S

    王巍; 闫新庆; 李文锋; 陈定方


    在对UDDI和OWL-S研究的基础上,提出扩展UDDI,以支持用OWL-S描述的Web服务的推广和请求.OWL-S可以通过服务提供功能的语义信息来描述服务,以实现更好的服务发现.而且,也提出了一种基于服务的输入输出描述本体的匹配机制.通过扩展JUDDI实现了OWL-S信息的存储和匹配机制.实验证明这是实现语义Web服务注册和发现的一种合理机制.%According to the research of UDDI and OWL-S, the extension of UDDI to support the advertisement and request of web service described with OWL-S is discussed. OWL-S permits the service to be specified with semantic information in term of the capability offered for better service discovery. A match mechanism is also presented for the semantic match of services by the inputs and outputs ontology. Based on JUDDI, the store of OWL-S information and the match mechanism are implemented. The experimental shows that this is a reasonable approach for semantic web service registry and discovery.

  2. Ernæring til premature barn

    Von Køppen, Karin Helene


    Studien konkluderer med at ernæring er et område som er av stor betydning for premature barn. Metoder som NIDCAP har en positiv innvirkning på ernæringsstatusen til premature barn fordi overgangen fra sondeernæring til oral ernæring går lettere. Behovet for norske anbefalinger er nødvendig for å kunne tilby premature barn den optimale omsorgen som gjør at de har det beste utgangspunktet for å overleve utenfor mors liv.

  3. Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) Research Report

    Salvo, Michael; Brizee, H. Allen; Driscoll, Dana Lynn; Sousa, Morgan


    This report outlines the history of the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) and details the OWL Usability Project through the summer of 2006. The paper also discusses test methodologies, describes test methods, provides participant demographics, and presents findings and recommendations of the tests. The purpose of this report is to provide researchers, administrators, and pedagogues interested in usability and Writing Labs access to information on the Purdue OWL Usability Project. We hope our fi...

  4. Particle-image velocimetry investigation of the fluid-structure interaction mechanisms of a natural owl wing.

    Winzen, A; Roidl, B; Schröder, W


    The increasing interest in the development of small flying air vehicles has given rise to a strong need to thoroughly understand low-speed aerodynamics. The barn owl is a well-known example of a biological system that possesses a high level of adaptation to its habitat and as such can inspire future small-scale air vehicle design. The combination of the owl-specific wing geometry and plumage adaptations with the flexibility of the wing structure yields a highly complex flow field, still enabling the owl to perform stable and at the same time silent low-speed gliding flight. To investigate the effects leading to such a characteristic flight, time-resolved stereoscopic particle-image velocimetry (TR-SPIV) measurements are performed on a prepared natural owl wing in a range of angles of attack 0° ≤ α ≤ 6° and Reynolds numbers 40,000 ≤ Re(c) ≤ 120,000 based on the chord length at a position located at 30% of the halfspan from the owl's body. The flow field does not show any flow separation on the suction side, whereas flow separation is found on the pressure side for all investigated cases. The flow field on the pressure side is characterized by large-scale vortices which interact with the flexible wing structure. The good agreement of the shedding frequency of the pressure side vortices with the frequency of the trailing-edge deflection indicates that the structural deformation is induced by the flow field on the pressure side. Additionally, the reduction of the time-averaged mean wing curvature at high Reynolds numbers indicates a passive lift-control mechanism that provides constant lift in the entire flight envelope of the owl. PMID:26372422

  5. Extending OWL with Explicit Dependency

    Calbimonte, Jean-Paul; Porto, Fabio


    Functional Dependency has been extensively studied in database theory. It provides an elegant formalism for specifying key constraints and is the basis for normalization theory used in Relational database design. Given its known axiomatization through logical implications it is expected that the ontology community would be interested in investigating its applicability to conceptual modeling. This paper investigates the extension of OWL ontologies with functional dependencies. In particular, ...

  6. Competitive interactions and resource partitioning between northern spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon

    Wiens, J. David; Anthony, Robert G.; Forsman, Eric D.


    The federally threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is the focus of intensive conservation efforts that have led to much forested land being reserved as habitat for the owl and associated wildlife species throughout the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Recently, however, a relatively new threat to spotted owls has emerged in the form of an invasive competitor: the congeneric barred owl (S. varia). As barred owls have rapidly expanded their populations into the entire range of the northern spotted owl, mounting evidence indicates that they are displacing, hybridizing with, and even killing spotted owls. The range expansion by barred owls into western North America has made an already complex conservation issue even more contentious, and a lack of information on the ecological relationships between the 2 species has hampered recovery efforts for northern spotted owls. We investigated spatial relationships, habitat use, diets, survival, and reproduction of sympatric spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon, USA, during 2007–2009. Our overall objective was to determine the potential for and possible consequences of competition for space, habitat, and food between these previously allopatric owl species. Our study included 29 spotted owls and 28 barred owls that were radio-marked in 36 neighboring territories and monitored over a 24-month period. Based on repeated surveys of both species, the number of territories occupied by pairs of barred owls in the 745-km2 study area (82) greatly outnumbered those occupied by pairs of spotted owls (15). Estimates of mean size of home ranges and core-use areas of spotted owls (1,843 ha and 305 ha, respectively) were 2–4 times larger than those of barred owls (581 ha and 188 ha, respectively). Individual spotted and barred owls in adjacent territories often had overlapping home ranges, but interspecific space sharing was largely restricted to broader foraging areas in the home range

  7. OWL: Yet to arrive on the Web of Data?

    Glimm, Birte; Krötzsch, Markus; Polleres, Axel


    Seven years on from OWL becoming a W3C recommendation, and two years on from the more recent OWL 2 W3C recommendation, OWL has still experienced only patchy uptake on the Web. Although certain OWL features (like owl:sameAs) are very popular, other features of OWL are largely neglected by publishers in the Linked Data world. This may suggest that despite the promise of easy implementations and the proposal of tractable profiles suggested in OWL's second version, there is still no "right" standard fragment for the Linked Data community. In this paper, we (1) analyse uptake of OWL on the Web of Data, (2) gain insights into the OWL fragment that is actually used/usable on the Web, where we arrive at the conclusion that this fragment is likely to be a simplified profile based on OWL RL, (3) propose and discuss such a new fragment, which we call OWL LD (for Linked Data).

  8. What Do Great Horned Owls Eat?

    Bandelier, Kenneth J.


    Presents an activity to determine the identity of animals that owls ingest. Students dissect and examine the contents of "owl pellets" which are the indigestible parts of animals that are regurgitated after eating. Provides instructions for implementing and extending the activity. (MDH)

  9. Killing One Owl Species to Save Another


    In Jun. 2011, American wildlife officials released a controversial new plan to protect the spotted owls eliminating their cousins. In the past 20 years, much has been done to bring the spotted owls back, but they are still on the decline.

  10. Visualization of OWL DL using ORM

    Pan, Wen-lin; Liu, Da-xin


    The OWL (Web Ontology Language) is the de facto standard ontology description language used by the Semantic Web. Because OWL is mainly designed for use by applications that need to process the content of information, it is difficult to read and understand by domain experts to build or verify domain ontologies expressed by OWL. ORM (Object Role Modeling) is a conceptual modeling language with graphical notations, its models/schemas can be translated into pseudo natural language that make it easier, also for domain experts who is a non-IT specialist, to create, check and adapt the knowledge about the UoD (Universe of Domain). Based on formal logic analysis of OWL DL and ORM and extending ORM notations, mapping rules has been presented to visualize OWL DL ontologies with ORM.

  11. A female melanin ornament signals offspring fluctuating asymmetry in the barn owl

    Roulin, A; Ducrest, AL; Balloux, F; Dijkstra, Cornelis; Riols, C


    Sexual selection theory predicts that males advertise quality by displaying extravagant ornaments. By contrast, whether phenotypic variation in females has a signalling function remains an open question. Here, to our knowledge, we provide the first evidence that a female plumage trait can signal flu

  12. Population Coding of Interaural Time Differences in Gerbils and Barn Owls

    Lesica, Nicholas A; Lingner, Andrea; Grothe, Benedikt


    Interaural time differences (ITDs) are the primary cue for the localization of low-frequency sound sources in the azimuthal plane. For decades, it was assumed that the coding of ITDs in the mammalian brain was similar to that in the avian brain, where information is sparsely distributed across individual neurons, but recent studies have suggested otherwise. In this study, we characterized the representation of ITDs in adult male and female gerbils. First, we performed behavioral experiments t...

  13. Major Roads Have a Negative Impact on the Tawny Owl Strix aluco and the Little Owl Athene noctua Populations

    Silva, Clara C.; Lourenço, Rui; Godinho, Sérgio; GOMES, Edgar; Sabino-Marques, Helena; Medinas, Denis; Neves, Vânia; Silva, Carmo; Rabaça, João E.; Mira, António


    The increasing road networks threaten ecosystems by direct effects such as increased mortality due to collision with vehicles and by various indirect effects leading to road avoidance. We censused Tawny Owls Strix aluco and Little Owls Athene noctua in 2005, 2007 and 2009 in a rural landscape in Southern Portugal in order to study the effects of roads and habitat characteristics on Tawny Owl density and Little Owl presence. The presence of both owl species in the 70 census locations was cohe...

  14. Kvinnors reflektioner kring beslutet att skaffa barn

    Sandell, Annie


    Att bli mamma har alltid setts som ett självklart val för majoriteten av kvinnor. Det tillhör normen att en dag föda barn. Syftet med denna studie var att studera kvinnors reflektioner kring deras beslut att skaffa barn. Resultatet baserades på fem halvstrukturerade intervjuer som tolkades med induktiv tematisk analysmetod. Ett bekvämlighetsurval användes och de informanter som deltog var kvinnor som hade ett seriöst förhållande med en man. De hade ännu inte några barn men hade bestämt sig fö...

  15. OWL 2 web ontology language document overview

    World Wide Web Consortium


    OWL 2 es un lenguaje de representación del conocimiento que permite desarrollar ontologías: clases, propiedades, tipos, valores de datos que son automatizados como documentos de Web Semántica. Las ontologías de OWL 2 tiene como objetivo facilitar un modelo de marcado construido sobre RDF (Resource Description Framework) y codificado en XML. Este documento incluye una introducción a OWL 2 y otros documentos que describen la sintaxis, los diferentes tipos de semántica, los perfiles disponible...

  16. Barred owls and landscape attributes influence territory occupancy of northern spotted owls

    Sovern, Stan G; Forsman, Eric D; Olson, Gail S; Biswell, Brian L; Taylor, Margaret; Anthony, Robert G.


    We used multi-season occupancy analyses to model 2 fates of northern spotted owl territories in relation to habitat amount, habitat fragmentation, and the presence of barred owls in Washington State, USA, 1989–2005. Local colonization is the probability a territory unoccupied by a spotted owl in year i would be occupied in year i + 1, and local extinction is the probability a territory that was occupied by a spotted owl in year i would be unoccupied in year i + 1. We found a negative relation...

  17. Respiratory symptoms and functions in barn workers

    Ege Gulec Balbay; Emine Banu Cakiroglu; Peri Arbak; Öner Balbay; Fatma Avcıoğlu; Abdullah Belada


    Introduction and aim. The presented study was undertaken to investigate the respiratory health problems in family barns with one or more cows and at least one family member working in the barn. Methods. 150 workers (128 female, 22 male) from 4 villages of Yığılca district near the city of Düzce in north-west Turkey were enrolled in this study between October – December 2011. An Occupational and Environmental Chest Diseases questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society, pulmonary...

  18. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    California Department of Resources — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is...

  19. Owl Mountain Partnership : An external assessment

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — External review of the Owl Mountain Partnership (OMP) to identify benefits and successes associatedwith collaborative work through the perceptions of participating...

  20. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS


    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, get ready to release two great horned owls at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  1. Owls and larks in mice.

    Pfeffer, Martina; Wicht, Helmut; von Gall, Charlotte; Korf, Horst-Werner


    Humans come in different chronotypes and, particularly, the late chronotype (the so-called owl) has been shown to be associated with several health risks. A number of studies show that laboratory mice also display various chronotypes. In mice as well as in humans, the chronotype shows correlations with the period length and rhythm stability. In addition, some mouse models for human diseases show alterations in their chronotypic behavior, which are comparable to those humans. Thus, analysis of the behavior of mice is a powerful tool to unravel the molecular and genetic background of the chronotype and the prevalence of risks and diseases that are associated with it. In this review, we summarize the correlation of chronotype with free-running period length and rhythm stability in inbred mouse strains, in mice with a compromised molecular clockwork, and in a mouse model for neurodegeneration. PMID:26029157

  2. Owls and larks in mice

    Martina ePfeffer


    Full Text Available Humans come in different chronotypes and, particularly, the late chronotype (the so-called owl has been shown to be associated with a number of health risks. Recent studies indicate that laboratory mice also display various chronotypes. In mice as well as in humans, the chronotype shows correlations with the period length and rhythm stability. In addition, some mouse models for human diseases show alterations in their chronotypic behavior which are comparable to those humans. Thus, analysis of the behavior of mice is a powerful tool to unravel the molecular and genetic background of the chronotype and the prevalence of risks and diseases that are associated with it. In this review, we summarize the correlation of chronotype with free-running period length and rhythm stability in the most commonly used inbred mouse strains, in mice with a compromised molecular clockwork and in a mouse model for neurodegeneration.

  3. 78 FR 57171 - Experimental Removal of Barred Owls To Benefit Threatened Northern Spotted Owls; Record of...


    ... (55 FR 26114, p. 26190). Competition from barred owls is identified as one of the main threats to the... conservation benefit of threatened northern spotted owls (notice of intent) in the Federal Register (74 FR....C. 1531 et seq.; Act) in 1990, based primarily on habitat loss and degradation (55 FR 26114). As...

  4. Improving strategies to assess competitive effects of barred owls on northern spotted owls in the Pacific Northwest

    Wiens, J. David; Weekes, Anne


    A scientific study has determined that survey methods designed for spotted owls do not always detect barred owls that are actually present in spotted owl habitat. The researchers suggest that strategies to address potential interactions between spotted owls and barred owls will require carefully designed surveys that account for response behaviors and imperfect detection of both species. Species-specific sampling methods, which are proposed, can be used by forest managers to determine the occurrence and distribution of barred owls with high confidence. This fact sheet provides highlights of the research (Wiens and others, 2011).

  5. New records of some rare rodents (Mammalia: Rodentia) from South-East Bulgaria

    Nedko Nedyalkov


    New records of three rare rodent species from SE Bulgaria are reported, as follows: European Snow Vole (Chionomys nivalis) – Madzharovo Town, Eastern Rhodope Mountains (UTM MG01); Gray Dwarf Hamster (Cricetulus migratorius) –Matochina Village (UTM MG 63); and Roach's Mouse-tailed Dormouse (Myomimus roachi) –Malki Voden Village, Eastern Rhodope Mountains (UTM MG11). All three species were found in the food remains of two owl species: the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco), an...

  6. 基于智能体的OWL-S过程模型验证%The agent-based verification of OWL-S process model

    骆灵洁; 骆翔宇; 邹蒙蒙


    The atomic process as agent and the semantic web service composition as multi-agent were abstracted) a formal model OWL-S2FSM for modeling OWL-S was proposed to ensure the correctness and reliability of the semantic web service composition. The proposed method supports temporal properties and epistemic properties. Two algorithms OWL-S2FSM and FSM2M were developed and implemented to translate OWL-S into FSM and FSM into the input language of MCTK. The experimental results show the MCTK is effective.%为保证基于OWL-S的web服务组合的正确性和可靠性,对OWL-S过程模型进行时态和认知属性的验证.将原子过程视为单个服务作为Agent,将组合过程抽象为多智能体系统,把对OWL-S过程模型的验证转换成对多智能体系统的验证.提出了OWL-S语言的形式化模型OWL-S2FSM,设计从OWL-S2FSM到模型检测工具MCTK输入语言之间的转换算法,并应用MCTK对多智能体系统的规范进行验证.实验结果表明,该方法可以有效地验证多智能体系统的时态属性和认知属性.

  7. Do Great Grey Owls Comprehend Means–end Relationships?

    Obozova, T. A.; Zorina, Z. A.


    Cognitive abilities of the Great Grey Owl (Strix nebulosa) were tested with a means–end problem. Owls were presented the single baited string task and the string discrimination task. Our results suggest that owls failed to comprehend the physics underlying the object relationships involved in the tasks presented

  8. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers in the Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus, Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus and Snowy Owl B. scandiacus for use in population genetics, individual identification and parentage studies

    Dial, Cody R.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.; Seidensticker, M.T.; Holt, D.W.


    Using DNA from blood and feathers, we screened twenty-four microsatellite primer pairs initially developed for six strigid owls, and four primer pairs shown to be polymorphic across avian taxa, for their utility in Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus), Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus), and Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus). Eight of these primers reliably amplified polymorphic fragments in Great Horned Owl, eleven in Short-eared owl, and ten in Snowy Owl. Analyses of results from presumably unrelated owls demonstrate the utility of these loci for individual identification, parentage assignment, and population genetics studies.

  9. Habitat displacement effect between two competing owl species in fragmented forests

    Kajtoch, Łukasz; Zmihorski, Michal; Wieczorek, Paweł


    Many owl species use the same nesting and food resources, which causes strong interspecific competition and spatio-temporal niche separation. We made use of a recent colonisation of Ural Owls (Strix uralensis) in southern Poland to compare habitat preferences of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) allopatry and sympatry with Ural Owls. We investigated spatial niche segregation of Ural Owl and the Tawny Owl in sympatry and compared habitat preferences of Tawny Owls breeding in allopatry and sympatry. Taw...


    Gajanan N. Katkar


    Julian Barnes was born in Leicester, England's East midland, on January 19,1946 in the family of a teacher. His father, Albert taught French at st. Clement Danesfrom 1937 onwards till his retirement in 1971. His mother, Keye, also taught French. Hiselder brother, Jonathan is now a Professor of Philosophy in Geneva. He married PatKavanagh in 1979, and now lives with her in North London.

  11. Julian Barnes: A Significant Contmporary Novelist

    Gajanan N. Katkar


    Julian Barnes was born in Leicester, England's East midland, on January 19, 1946 in the family of a teacher. His father, Albert taught French at st. Clement Danes from 1937 onwards till his retirement in 1971. His mother, Keye, also taught French. His elder brother, Jonathan is now a Professor of Philosophy in Geneva.He married Pat Kavanagh in 1979, and now lives with her in North London.

  12. Det sunde, overvægtige barn

    From, Ditte-Marie

    kommunale sundhedskurser. Men hvad sker der, når en biomedicinsk sundhedsopfattelse møder det overvægtige barn i en hverdagslivssammenhæng? Hvor meget handler sundhed f.eks. om at besidde tilstrækkelige mængder af viden om mad og motion? Og hvad er mulighederne for at være en god borger, selvom man er et...

  13. Moonlight makes owls more chatty.

    Vincenzo Penteriani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lunar cycles seem to affect many of the rhythms, temporal patterns and behaviors of living things on Earth. Ambient light is known to affect visual communication in animals, with the conspicuousness of visual signals being largely determined by the light available for reflection by the sender. Although most previous studies in this context have focused on diurnal light, moonlight should not be neglected from the perspective of visual communication among nocturnal species. We recently discovered that eagle owls Bubo bubo communicate with conspecifics using a patch of white throat plumage that is repeatedly exposed during each call and is only visible during vocal displays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we provide evidence that this species uses moonlight to increase the conspicuousness of this visual signal during call displays. We found that call displays are directly influenced by the amount of moonlight, with silent nights being more frequent during periods with no-moonlight than moonlight. Furthermore, high numbers of calling bouts were more frequent at moonlight. Finally, call posts were located on higher positions on moonlit nights. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the idea that moon phase affects the visual signaling behavior of this species, and provide a starting point for examination of this method of communication by nocturnal species.

  14. Barnkonventionen och ansvarsfördelningen mellan barn och vuxna

    Stolz, Pauline


    Barn- och utbildningspolitik är, precis som andra former av politik, redskap som politiker använder sig av för att uppnå social förändring. Barn används därmed av politiker och andra vuxna i utbildningspolitiska sammanhang för att förändra samhället i en viss riktning. Barn kan i politiska diskus...

  15. OWL Full表示的顶级本体到OWL DL的转换研究%Translating of Top Ontology Expression from OWL Full to OWL DL

    苏晓路; 李景; 孟宪学; 胡海燕; 钱平


    为使领域本体利用顶级本体中的常识知识进行有效的推理,开展将OWL Full表示的顶级本体SUMO和OpenCyc转换为由OWL DL表示的研究,在尽可能保持原逻辑关系的前提下,针对类、属性及实例的定义在转换中出现的各种问题进行了相应的处理,使转换后的顶级本体符合OWL DL语言标准.

  16. F-OWL: An Inference Engine for Semantic Web

    Zou, Youyong; Finin, Tim; Chen, Harry


    Understanding and using the data and knowledge encoded in semantic web documents requires an inference engine. F-OWL is an inference engine for the semantic web language OWL language based on F-logic, an approach to defining frame-based systems in logic. F-OWL is implemented using XSB and Flora-2 and takes full advantage of their features. We describe how F-OWL computes ontology entailment and compare it with other description logic based approaches. We also describe TAGA, a trading agent environment that we have used as a test bed for F-OWL and to explore how multiagent systems can use semantic web concepts and technology.

  17. Population trajectory of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in eastern Washington

    Conway, C.J.; Pardieck, K.L.


    Anecdotal evidence suggests that burrowing owls have declined in Washington. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife is currently conducting a status review for burrowing owls which will help determine whether they should be listed as threatened or endangered in the state. To provide insights into the current status of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia), we analyzed data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey using two analytical approaches to determine their current population trajectory in eastern Washington. We used a one-sample t-test to examine whether trend estimates across all BBS routes in Washington differed from zero. We also used a mixed model analysis to estimate the rate of decline in number of burrowing owls detected between 1968 and 2005. The slope in number of burrowing owls detected was negative for 12 of the 16 BBS routes in Washington that have detected burrowing owls. Numbers of breeding burrowing owls detected in eastern Washington declined at a rate of 1.5% annually. We suggest that all BBS routes that have detected burrowing owls in past years in eastern Washington be surveyed annually and additional surveys conducted to track population trends of burrowing owls at finer spatial scales in eastern Washington. In the meantime, land management and regulatory agencies should ensure that publicly managed areas with breeding burrowing owls are not degraded and should implement education and outreach programs to promote protection of privately owned areas with breeding owls.

  18. Modeling interactions betweenspotted owl and barred owl populations in fire-prone forests

    Background / Question / Methods Efforts to conserve northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascades of Washington must merge the challenges of providing sufficient structurally complex forest habitat in a fire-prone landscape with the limitations impos...

  19. A Fast Semantic Web Services Matchmaker for OWL-S Services

    Jing Li


    Bringing semantics to Web Services description and matching remarkably improves the recall and precision ratios of Service discovery. Though there are many effective semantic based Web Services matchmakers, they have poor time efficiency for consuming time in the semantic reasoning step. To shorten service matching time, this paper presents a fast matchmaker for OWL-S services, called XServices Semantic Service Discovery (XSSD). It executes the Semantics Pretreatment Algorithm (SPA) in servic...

  20. A Method of Mapping OWL-S to OPM%一种OWL-S到OPM的映射转换方法

    熊旖旎; 何克清; 刘进


    OWL-S表示Web服务的复杂性性严重制约了智能Web过程建模的易操作性.该文将OWL-S映射到OPM(Object-Process Methodology)作为缓解上述矛盾的关键技术,定义了OPM建模元素与OWL-S语法元素之间的映射关系.一个购票示例说明使用该方法能够直观、清晰地进行OWL-S过程建模,促进Web服务建立的易操作性.

  1. Diagnostic findings in 132 great horned owls

    Franson, J.C.; Little, S.E.


    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N = 10), and Wisconsin (N = 9). Forty-two birds were emaciated but presumptive causes of emaciation, including old injuries, chronic lesions in various organs, and exposure to dieldrin, were found in only 16. A greater proportion of juveniles (56%) than adults (29%) were emaciated. Twelve owls were shot and 35 died from other traumatic injuries. Poisonings were diagnosed in 11 birds, including five associated with hydrogen sulfide exposure in oil fields and six cases of agricultural pesticide poisonings. Electrocution killed nine birds and infectious diseases were found in six. Miscellaneous conditions, including egg impaction, drowning, and visceral gout were diagnosed in three of the birds and the cause of death was undetermined in 14 owls. While this review identifies major diagnostic findings in great horned owls, sample bias prevents definitive conclusions regarding actual proportional causes of mortality.

  2. Sherry Red Owl, Stands at Dawn Woman

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl


    This article introduces Sherry Red Owl, also known as "Stands at Dawn Woman," because she greets each day as a new opportunity and has spent her life working at new things. She worked at Sinte Gleska University (SGU) during its founding years, taught at an elementary school when few Native teachers were employed in the school systems,…

  3. A Second Look at Douglas Barnes's "From Communication to Curriculum"

    Yarker, Patrick


    This article revisits Douglas Barnes's book-length exploration of the implications for teachers of a constructivist epistemology, notably in relation to the importance of small-group talk in classrooms. Empirically based consideration of small-group exploratory pupil-pupil talk enabled Barnes to reveal the learning strategies such a context…

  4. How siblings adjust sib-sib communication and begging signals to each other

    Dreiss A.; Lahlah N.; Roulin A.


    Parents allocate food resources to their offspring in proportion to the intensity of begging behaviour. Begging encompasses several activities including vocalizations that should honestly signal need and jostling for the position in the nest where parents predictably deliver food items. Although siblings are known to adjust begging level to each other, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We examined this issue in experimental two-chick broods of the barn owl, Tyto alba, a species in whi...

  5. Relative age determination of Rattus tiomanicus using allometric measurements

    Verwilghen, Aude; Rabillard, Marie-Agnes; Chaval, Yannick; Rieffel, Dominique; Sinaga, Martua Hasiholan; Naim, Mohd; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis


    For sustainable oil palm production, barn owl (Tyto alba) predation should be enhanced and monitored to better understand its impact on rodent population dynamics, notably for selective predation based on age or size. Our aim was to assess the best combination of osteometric variables that predict eye lens weight and thus the relative age of an individual Rattus tiomanicus based on pellet remains. We captured 161 individuals in an oil palm plantation in Indonesia and measured 15 osteometric v...

  6. Multiple Manifestations of Microstimulation in the Optic Tectum: Eye Movements, Pupil Dilations, and Sensory Priming

    Netser, Shai; Ohayon, Shay; Gutfreund, Yoram


    It is well established that the optic tectum (or its mammalian homologue, the superior colliculus) is involved in directing gaze toward salient stimuli. However, salient stimuli typically induce orienting responses beyond gaze shifts. The role of the optic tectum in generating responses such as pupil dilation, galvanic responses, or covert shifts is not clear. In the present work, we studied the effects of microstimulation in the optic tectum of the barn owl (Tyto alba) on pupil diameter and ...

  7. A survey of Italian compost dairy barns

    Lorenzo Leso


    Full Text Available Compost-bedded pack barns (CBPB, generally known as compost dairy barns, are alternative housing systems for dairy cows. In these barns, the whole surface of the resting area is covered with a deepbedded pack that is frequently stirred in order to incorporate fresh manure into the pack and to enhance the evaporation of water. Experiences with CBPB for dairy cows are reported in literature from the US, Israel, the Netherlands and Austria. Potential advantages of these housing systems regard animal welfare and manure management. Since 2006, this housing system has been widely applied in Italy. However, there is still little scientific knowledge available about Italian CBPB. This study aims to describe the housing system, assess producers’ satisfaction and measure performance of dairy cows housed in CBPB. Ten commercial dairy farms in northern Italy were involved in the study. All pens in each farm were surveyed to determine the total available surface area, bedded area and pack depth. A questionnaire was submitted to each farm manager in order to investigate management practices, labour requirement, amount of bedding materials used and producers’ satisfaction. The temperature of the bedded pack was measured in summer and in winter. Data from the Italian Dairy Association were collected for each herd over a period of one year (from September 2011 to September 2012. In the barns involved in the study, the average total available area was 10.9 m2/cow and the average pack area was 6.7 m2/cow. The bedded pack was aerated 1.4 times per day.The most commonly used bedding material in these farms was dry sawdust. The consumption of bedding materials was 8.1 m3/cow per year. A tendency towards inverse correlation was found between the space per cow and the amount of bedding needed per cow (R2=0.395; P=0.051. Operations related to pack management required 4.1 hours of labour per cow per year. A direct relationship was found between the bedded area space

  8. Midwest cousins of Barnes-Wall lattices

    Griess Jr., Robert L.


    Given a rational lattice and suitable set of linear transformations, we construct a cousin lattice. Sufficient conditions are given for integrality, evenness and unimodularity. When the input is a Barnes-Wall lattice, we get multi-parameter series of cousins. There is a subseries consisting of unimodular lattices which have ranks $2^{d-1}\\pm 2^{d-k-1}$, for odd integers $d\\ge 3$ and integers $k=1,2, ..., \\frac {d-1}2$. Their minimum norms are moderately high: $2^{\\lfloor \\frac d2 \\rfloor -1}$.

  9. Rural culture and the conservation of Mackinders eagle owls (Bubo capensis mackinderi) in Kenya.

    Ogada, Darcy L


    The author describes her fieldwork studying a population of Mackinders eagle owls that live adjacent to small-scale farms in rural Kenya. Her study investigated the effects of farming practices on the diet and breeding ecology of the owls. She documented local people's attitudes toward owls since owls are taboo throughout Africa. She describes a typical day in the field, the community aspect of her project, her unique experiences studying owls in Kenya, and promotion of owl tourism. PMID:18689078

  10. Membership Function Assignment for Elements of Single OWL Ontology

    Verhodubs, Olegs


    This paper develops the idea of membership function assignment for OWL (Web Ontology Language) ontology elements in order to subsequently generate fuzzy rules from this ontology. The task of membership function assignment for OWL ontology elements had already been partially described, but this concerned the case, when several OWL ontologies of the same domain were available, and they were merged into a single ontology. The purpose of this paper is to present the way of membership function ass...

  11. Representation of RDF-oriented Composition with OWL DL Ontology

    Nguyen, Thi Hoa Hue; Le Thanh, Nhan


    International audience This paper introduces a solution for representing RDF-oriented compositions with OWL DL ontologies. Firstly, we present an overview of RDF-oriented Composition Definition Language (RDFCDL), which is defined for creating/composing RDF manipulation operations. Secondly, we propose an approach for representing RDFNet with OWL DL ontology. We focus on translating some key components of the RDFCDL language into classes, properties and axioms of OWL DL ontology.

  12. Infestation of an owl (Bubo bubo) with Lucilia spp.

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Cheraghchi-Bashi, Mehdi; Navidpour, Shahrokh


    Myiasis is an infestation of tissue with the larval stage of dipterous flies. This condition mostly affects the skin but may also occur in certain body cavities. It can occur in either animals or humans and is caused by parasitic dipterous fly larvae feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue. This disease rarely effects birds especially owls. In this study, infestation of an owl with cutaneous myiasis is reported. In October 2008, a wounded owl was referred by the environmental departme...

  13. Using Relational Model to Store Owl Ontologies and Facts

    Tarek Bourbia; Mahmoud Boufaida


    The storing and the processing of OWL instances are important subjects in database modeling. Many research works have focused on the way of mana ging OWL instances efficiently. Some systems store and manage OWL instances using relati onal models to ensure their persistence. Nevertheless, several approaches keep only RDF trip lets as instances in relational tables explicitly, and the manner of structuring instances as graph a...

  14. A Fast Semantic Web Services Matchmaker for OWL-S Services

    Jing Li


    Full Text Available Bringing semantics to Web Services description and matching remarkably improves the recall and precision ratios of Service discovery. Though there are many effective semantic based Web Services matchmakers, they have poor time efficiency for consuming time in the semantic reasoning step. To shorten service matching time, this paper presents a fast matchmaker for OWL-S services, called XServices Semantic Service Discovery (XSSD. It executes the Semantics Pretreatment Algorithm (SPA in service publishing phase and implements a multi-feature based Semantic Web services matching method when queries coming. SPA extracts part of semantic description in the OWL-S files and creates matrixes which we call service feature matrixes to express service semantics. By shifting part of the reasoning process from service matching stage to service publishing stage, XSSD reduces the waiting time for the matchmaker clients. The results of the evaluation on a well-annotated Semantic Web Services set OWLS-TC4 show that while XSSD offers the comparable recall and precision ratios, the time efficiency of XSSD outperforms existing similar matchmakers.

  15. An OWL-based WordNet lexical ontology

    HUANG Xiao-xi; ZHOU Chang-le


    This paper discribes a data representation for WordNet 2.1 based on Web Ontology Language (OWL). The main components of WordNet database are transformed as classes in OWL, and the relations between synsets or lexcial words are transformed as OWL properties. Our conversion is based on the data file of WordNet instead of the Prolog database. This work can be used to enrich the work in progress of standard conversion of WordNet to the RDF/OWL representation at W3C.

  16. 基于OWL-S扩展UDDI的研究

    焦方俊; 陈维斌


    在对OWL-S与WSDL研究的基础上,利用OWL-S对Web服务建模,并结合WSDL(Web Service Definition Language)详细描述服务接口.基于OWL-S扩展标准UDDI(Universal Description,Discovery and Integration),利用OWL-S的语义描述能力弥补UDDI在Web服务功能描述方面的不足,使得扩展后的UDDI具备基于功能内容语义的服务匹配能力.

  17. Detecting Burrowing Owl Bloodmeals in Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Graham, Christine B; Eisen, Rebecca J; Belthoff, James R


    Pulex irritans L. is a cosmopolitan flea species that infests a wide variety of hosts. In North America it generally parasitizes large wild mammals, but in the Pacific Northwest an association has emerged between P. irritans and the western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea). While investigators have recognized this association for decades, it has not been clear if P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls, or if the owls serve exclusively as phoretic hosts. Here we describe using a real-time assay that was originally developed to identify bloodmeals in Ugandan cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis Bouché) to detect burrowing owl DNA in P. irritans collected from burrowing owls in southern Idaho. Of 50 fleas tested, 12 had no detectable vertebrate bloodmeal. The remaining 38 (76%) contained burrowing owl DNA. The assay did not detect vertebrate DNA in unfed fleas exposed to owl or mouse pelts and is therefore unlikely to detect DNA in fleas from vertebrates that have served exclusively as phoretic hosts. We conclude that P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls. We discuss the potential implications of this finding for burrowing owl conservation and enzootic plague dynamics. PMID:26545716

  18. Geographic variation and genetic structure in Spotted Owls

    Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.; Forsman, E.D.; Mullins, Thomas D.


    We examined genetic variation, population structure, and definition of conservation units in Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis). Spotted Owls are mostly non-migratory, long-lived, socially monogamous birds that have decreased population viability due to their occupation of highly-fragmented late successional forests in western North America. To investigate potential effects of habitat fragmentation on population structure, we used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to examine genetic variation hierarchically among local breeding areas, subregional groups, regional groups, and subspecies via sampling of 21 breeding areas (276 individuals) among the three subspecies of Spotted Owls. Data from 11 variable bands suggest a significant relationship between geographic distance among local breeding groups and genetic distance (Mantel r = 0.53, P Owls as a distinct clade. RAPD analyses did not clearly differentiate Northern Spotted Owls from California Spotted Owls. Among Northern Spotted Owls, estimates of population differentiation (FST) ranged from 0.27 among breeding areas to 0.11 among regions. Concordantly, within-group agreement values estimated via multi-response permutation procedures of Jaccarda??s distances ranged from 0.22 among local sites to 0.11 among regions. Pairwise comparisons of FST and geographic distance within regions suggested only the Klamath region was in equilibrium with respect to gene flow and genetic drift. Merging nuclear data with recent mitochondrial data provides support for designation of an Evolutionary Significant Unit for Mexican Spotted Owls and two overlapping Management Units for Northern and California Spotted Owls.

  19. Does petroleum development affect burrowing owl nocturnal space-use?

    Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email:, email:, email:


    Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.

  20. 基于OWL-S扩展UDDI的研究

    焦方俊; 陈维斌


    在对OWL-S与WSDL研究的基础上,利用OWL-S对Web服务建模,并结合WSDL(Web Service Definition Language)详细描述服务接口。基于OWL-S扩展标准UDDI(Universal Description,Discovery and Integration),利用OWL-S的语义描述能力弥补UDDI在Web服务功能描述方面的不足,使得扩展后的UDDI具备基于功能内容语义的服务匹配能力。

  1. Live trapping of hawks and owls

    Stewart, R.E.; Cope, J.B.; Robbins, C.S.


    1. Hawks of six species (80 individuals) and owls of five species (37 individuals) were trapped for banding from November 1, 1943, to. May 26,1944. 2. In general, pole traps proved better than hand-operated traps or automatic traps using live bait. 3. Verbail pole traps proved very efficient, and were much more humane than padded steel traps because they rarely injured a captured bird. 4: Unbaited Verbail traps took a variety of raptors, in rough proportion to their local abundance, although slightly more of beneficial species were caught than of harmful types. 5. Hawks and owls were retrapped more readily in Verbail traps than in other types tried. 6. The number of song birds caught in Verbail traps was negligible. 7. Crows and vultures were not taken in Verbail traps, but possibly could be caught with bait.

  2. Efficient Query Answering for OWL 2

    Pérez-Urbina, Héctor; Horrocks, Ian; Motik, Boris

    The QL profile of OWL 2 has been designed so that it is possible to use database technology for query answering via query rewriting. We present a comparison of our resolution based rewriting algorithm with the standard algorithm proposed by Calvanese et al., implementing both and conducting an empirical evaluation using ontologies and queries derived from realistic applications. The results indicate that our algorithm produces significantly smaller rewritings in most cases, which could be important for practicality in realistic applications.

  3. Change Representation For OWL 2 Ontologies

    Palma, R.; Haase, Peter; Corcho, Oscar; A. GÓMEZ-PÉREZ


    Ontologies are entities that evolve over time; therefore it is essential to represent and manage changes to ontologies along with the ontologies themselves. In this paper we propose a change ontology for the OWL 2 ontology language. This change ontology comprises a fine-grained taxonomy of ontology changes that considers the lowest-level atomic operations that can be performed in an ontology, but in addition also on other abstraction levels (ontology entity, composite). It thus allows to descr...

  4. Justification Patterns for OWL DL Ontologies

    Nguyen, Tu Anh T.; Power, Richard; Piwek, Paul; Williams, Sandra


    For debugging OWL-DL ontologies, natural language explanations of inconsistencies and undesirable entailments are of great help. From such explanations, ontology developers can learn why an ontology gives rise to specific entailments. Unfortunately, commonly used tableaux-based reasoning services do not provide a basis for such explanations, since they rely on a refutation proof strategy and normalising transformations that are difficult for human ontology editors to understand. For this reas...

  5. Owl, werewolf, firefly: Animal trace narrator

    Raquel Wandelli Loth


    Full Text Available The route by a network of narrators from different eras finds a trace of animality in the look and in the flâneur writing, since Restif de La Bretonne proposed, in the eighteenth century, the similarity between the reporter/narrator and a night bird. This track permits that one proposes the category of the owl-narrator, which puts into practice an inhuman method of looking at the shadow areas of the cities. Here considered as narratives of the dark, this cartography runs several textualities intertwined by the desire to see what is beneath the everyday life – from Bretonne and Mercier, through Poe, Baudelaire, João do Rio and arriving to Clarice Lispector. Sometimes, the owl narrative disappears to resurge in every city where there is a stubborn wanderer who overcomes the invisibility spot on the human eye. The crowds go ahead inattentively, overshadowed by the proliferation of signs and advertisements, they march to the future without looking back. The owl does not; it retains the time to envision the disappearance of singularities and to foresee what the today story points out as more clandestine. As claims Benjamin (1994, p. 231, “thinking not only includes the movement of ideas, but also their immobilization”. The walk by the early writer-reporters allows us to consider that the owl-flâneur inaugurates not only himself, but also this kind of narrative based on a poetic of looking to the rubble. The physical roaming characterizes it, but does not determine the narrative, as it does not determine the trip, the inner displacement. Mostly, the impulse to see the unknown awakens other obscured powers, reintegrating them to the perception of the urban movements and driving the narrative to walk, to hear, to smell, to feel. In the nightly flight by means of a pivoting look, literature announces the survivals that do not cease to disappear in front of the contemporary life.

  6. Geographical assemblages of European raptors and owls

    López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara


    In this work we look for geographical structure patterns in European raptors (Order: Falconiformes) and owls (Order: Strigiformes). For this purpose we have conducted our research using freely available tools such as statistical software and databases. To perform the study, presence-absence data for the European raptors and owl species (Class Aves) were downloaded from the BirdLife International website. Using the freely available "pvclust" R-package, we applied similarity Jaccard index and cluster analysis in order to delineate biogeographical relationships for European countries. According to the cluster of similarity, we found that Europe is structured into two main geographical assemblages. The larger length branch separated two main groups: one containing Iceland, Greenland and the countries of central, northern and northwestern Europe, and the other group including the countries of eastern, southern and southwestern Europe. Both groups are divided into two main subgroups. According to our results, the European raptors and owls could be considered structured into four meta-communities well delimited by suture zones defined by Remington (1968) [Remington, C.L., 1968. Suture-zones of hybrid interaction between recently joined biotas. Evol. Biol. 2, 321-428]. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Ages could explain at least in part the modern geographical distribution of the group.

  7. Genetic identification of spotted owls, barred owls, and their hybrids: Legal implications of hybrid identity

    Haig, Susan M.; Wennerberg, L.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Forsman, E.D.; Trail, P.


    Recent population expansion of Barred Owls ( Strix varia) into western North America has led to concern that they may compete with and further harm the Northern Spotted Owl ( S. occidentalis caurina), which is already listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Because they hybridize, there is a legal need under the ESA for forensic identification of both species and their hybrids. We used mitochondrial control-region DNA and amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses to assess maternal and biparental gene flow in this hybridization process. Mitochondrial DNA sequences (524 base pairs) indicated large divergence between Barred and Spotted Owls (13.9%). Further, the species formed two distinct clades with no signs of previous introgression. Fourteen diagnostic AFLP bands also indicated extensive divergence between the species, including markers differentiating them. Principal coordinate analyses and assignment tests clearly supported this differentiation. We found that hybrids had unique genetic combinations, including AFLP markers from both parental species, and identified known hybrids as well as potential hybrids with unclear taxonomic status. Our analyses corroborated the findings of extensive field studies that most hybrids genetically sampled resulted from crosses between female Barred Owls and male Spotted Owls. These genetic markers make it possible to clearly identify these species as well as hybrids and can now be used for research, conservation, and law enforcement. Several legal avenues may facilitate future conservation of Spotted Owls and other ESA-listed species that hybridize, including the ESA similarity-of-appearance clause (section 4[e]) and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. The Migratory Bird Treaty Act appears to be the most useful route at this time.

  8. 22 Matt Barnes 再出发



    太阳队·前锋·201厘米·28岁上季成绩·6.7分·42.3%投篮·4.4篮板如果你是我们的忠实读者,就会发现巴恩斯(Matt Barnes)在过去13个月内已经第三度登上这个单元了。究竟,这位生涯单季平均得分从没超过10分的球员,有何值得我们一再报导的地方呢?

  9. OWL-S based Service Composition of Three-dimensional Geometry Modeling

    Jiangning Yu


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an OWL-S framework for distributed CAD system based on the combination of semantic web service and CAD technology. Service ontology mapping mechanism is analyzed in detail and semantic model is built with the study of the correlation across the geometry modeling service. On the purpose of accommodating the design pattern of network modeling, this framework supports the service composition of three-dimensional geometry modeling and achieves further integration of service information. At last, a case study from the developed prototype system shows the feasibility and flexibility of this method under distributed CAD environment.

  10. OWL DL的UML建模方法%Modeling Method of UML Based on OWL DL

    钟凌燕; 陈岗


    描述了一种OWL DL的UML建模方法,针对OWL DL定义了一种UML概要文件,描述了各种元素及元素之间的关系.实验表明,只要遵循该概要文件,就可以利用任何UML工具来进行本体论的开发,降低大型本体论建立与维护的复杂性.


    Wills, Sarah; Pinard, Chantale; Nykamp, Stephanie; Beaufrère, Hugues


    This study established ophthalmic reference values and characterized ocular lesions in two captive populations of boreal owls, including 46 eyes of 23 great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) and 38 eyes from 19 snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus). A complete ophthalmologic exam was conducted, including neuro-ophthalmic reflexes, Schirmer tear test I (STT-I), intraocular pressure (IOP) using rebound tonometry, fluorescein staining, horizontal corneal measurements using Jameson calipers, direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, and ocular ultrasound biometry. Eyes with an STT of owls and snowy owls (IOP: 9.6 ± 2.6 mm Hg and 9.1 ± 1.9 mm Hg, respectively, and STT-I: 9.8 ± 2.8 mm/min and 9.8 ± 2.4 mm/min, respectively). However, snowy owls overall had a significantly larger eye than did great grey owls, reflected in corneal diameters (23.4 ± 1 vs. 20.0 ± 0.8 mm, respectively) and sonographic biometry. In both species, the most common ocular lesions included keratitis, cataracts, chorioretinal lesions, and abnormal pecten. Establishment of reference ocular parameters will help wildlife veterinarians and rehabilitators determine an appropriate treatment plan and will aid in correctly identifying the presence of ocular disease. PMID:27010284

  12. Marknadsföring till barn : Etik och ansvar

    Haire, Miranda


    Detta examensarbete handlar om marknadsföring till barn, samt etiken och ansvaret kring ämnet. Ansvaret ligger mestadels hos marknadsförarna och föräldrarna. Marknadsföring till barn bedöms strängare av juridiska bestämmelser än vanlig marknadsföring, eftersom att barn är mera mottagliga och inte har samma erfarenhet som vuxna. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att få fram allmänt om marknadsföring till barn, etiska frågeställningar, samhällsansvaret samt ansvaret hos marknadsförare, föräldra...

  13. Carol A. Barnes: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.


    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2014 award winners is Carol A. Barnes, who received this award for her "groundbreaking work on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying memory changes in normal aging." Barnes' award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486138

  14. The Application of OWL-S in Discovery of Semantic Web Services%OWL-S在语义Web服务发现中的应用

    赵娟; 李延香



  15. A revision of the Australian Owls (Strigidae and Tytonidae)

    Mees, G.F.


    INTRODUCTION When in December 1960 the R.A.O.U. Checklist Committee was reorganised and the various tasks in hand were divided over its members, the owls were assigned to the author. While it was first thought that only the Boobook Owl, the systematics of which have been notoriously confused, would

  16. Species boundaries in non-tropical Northern Hemisphere Owls

    Voous, K.H.


    A survey is presented of the status of species boundaries in nontropical Northern Hemisphere owls in order to investigate the reality of the biological and geographical species concept applied to these owls in current handbooks. At the same time the practicability of evolutionary systematics as opposed to phylogenetic synthesis is elaborated on.

  17. Species boundaries in non-tropical Northern Hemisphere Owls

    Voous, K.H.


    A survey is presented of the status of species boundaries in nontropical Northern Hemisphere owls in order to investigate the reality of the biological and geographical species concept applied to these owls in current handbooks. At the same time the practicability of evolutionary systematics as oppo

  18. Using Relational Model to Store Owl Ontologies and Facts

    Tarek Bourbia


    Full Text Available The storing and the processing of OWL instances are important subjects in database modeling. Many research works have focused on the way of mana ging OWL instances efficiently. Some systems store and manage OWL instances using relati onal models to ensure their persistence. Nevertheless, several approaches keep only RDF trip lets as instances in relational tables explicitly, and the manner of structuring instances as graph and keeping links between concepts is not taken into account. In this paper, we prop ose an architecture that permits relational tables behave as an OWL model by adapting relationa l tables to OWL instances and an OWL hierarchy structure. Therefore, two kinds of tables are used: facts or instances relational tables. The tables hold instances and the OWL table holds a specification of how the concepts are structured. Instances tables should conform to OWLt able to be valid. A mechanism of construction of OWLtable and instances tables is de fined in order to enable and enhance inference and semantic querying of OWL in relationa l model context.

  19. XOEM plus OWL-based STEP Product Information Uniform Description and Implementation

    Chengfeng Jian


    Full Text Available Aimed at the current inconsistencies in the OWL-based STEP description, the mapping rules between EXPRESS and OWL are established on the base of uniform semantic model named XOEM+OWL, then the implementation method of STEP-OWL converter is put forward and the corresponding examples are shown.

  20. XOEM plus OWL-based STEP Product Information Uniform Description and Implementation

    Chengfeng Jian; Haizhong Meng


    Aimed at the current inconsistencies in the OWL-based STEP description, the mapping rules between EXPRESS and OWL are established on the base of uniform semantic model named XOEM+OWL, then the implementation method of STEP-OWL converter is put forward and the corresponding examples are shown.

  1. 78 FR 44588 - Experimental Removal of Barred Owls To Benefit Threatened Northern Spotted Owls; Final...


    ... loss and degradation (55 FR 26114). As a result, conservation efforts for the northern spotted owl have... largely unknown at that time (55 FR 26114, p. 26190). The Recovery Plan summarized information available... Register (74 FR 65546), to solicit participation of: Federal, State, and local agencies; Tribes; and...

  2. Hva kan barnehagen bidra med til barn som har opplevd samlivsbrudd?

    Størksen, Ingunn


    Hvert år opplever mange norske barn samlivsbrudd. Internasjonale og norske studier viser at barn som har opplevd samlivsbrudd er i større risiko for ulike psykososiale problemer enn andre barn. Tidligere norske studier og tiltak omkring barn og samlivsbrudd har i hovedsak vært rettet mot barn og ungdom i skolen. På bakgrunn av forskning fra andre land vil jeg i denne artikkelen presentere mulige konsekvenser blant yngre barn som har opplevd samlivsbrudd. Videre vil jeg gå igjennom noen mulige...

  3. Realizing Semantic Web Services Description with OWL-S Ontology%应用OWL-S实现Web服务的语义描述

    王欣; 张晓林



  4. Pre–release training of juvenile little owls Athene noctua to avoid predation

    Alonso, R.; Orejas, P.; Lopes, F.; Sanz, C.


    Anti–predator training of juvenile little owls was tested in a sample of recovered owls raised in captivity in Brinzal Owl Rescue Center (Madrid, Spain). Mortality caused by predators has been described previously in released individuals. Nine little owls were conditioned during their development to a naturalized goshawk and a large live rat, whose presence was paired to the owl’s alarm call. All nine owls and seven non–trained individuals were then released during the late summer and autumn ...

  5. Fuzzy Ontology Representation using OWL 2

    Bobillo, Fernando


    The need to deal with vague information in Semantic Web languages is rising in importance and, thus, calls for a standard way to represent such information. We may address this issue by either extending current Semantic Web languages to cope with vagueness, or by providing a procedure to represent such information within current standard languages and tools. In this work, we follow the latter approach, by identifying the syntactic differences that a fuzzy ontology language has to cope with, and by proposing a concrete methodology to represent fuzzy ontologies using OWL 2 annotation properties. We also report on the prototypical implementations.

  6. Nestling barn owls beg more intensely in the presence of their mother than in the presence of their father

    Roulin, Alexandre; Bersier, Louis-Félix


    Nestling begging behaviour may be an honest signal of need used by parents to adjust optimally both feeding rate and within-brood food allocation. Although several studies showed that mothers and fathers can be differentially responsive to nestling begging behaviour with one parent showing a stronger tendency to feed the offspring that beg the most, little information is yet available on whether offspring beg for food at different intensities from the mother than father. In the present study,...

  7. Genetic and environmental components of variation in eumelanin and phaeomelanin sex-traits in the barn owl

    Roulin, A; Dijkstra, C


    Knowledge of the mechanism underlying the expression of melanin-based sex-traits may help us to understand their signalling function. Potential sources of inter-individual variation are the total amount of melanins produced but also how biochemical precursors are allocated into the eumelanin and pha

  8. 基于领域本体和OWL-S的Web服务组合方法%Web Service Composition Method Based on Domain Ontology and OWL-S

    吴善明; 沈建京; 韩强


    针对Web服务普遍存在服务描述的语义异构问题,提出基于领域本体和OWL-S的语义Web服务组合方法.该方法采用本体概念实现Web服务的语义标注,在OWL-S语言基础上,通过定制组俞过程,实现语义Web服务的组合.实例采用Protégé及O-L.S Editor工具,结果证明领域本体和OWE-S能够实现优势互补.%Aiming at the ubiquitous problem of semantic heterogeneity in the description of Web service, this paper proposes a Web service composition method based on domain ontology and OWL-S. It takes the ontology concept to annotate Web service at semantic, and achieves tools, result proves that domain ontology and OWL-S can realize to complement each other's advantages.

  9. Adaptation potential of naturally ventilated barns to high temperature extremes: The OptiBarn project

    Menz, Christoph


    Climate change interferes with various aspects of the socio-economic system. One important aspect is its influence on animal husbandry, especially dairy faming. Dairy cows are usually kept in naturally ventilated barns (NVBs) which are particular vulnerable to extreme events due to their low adaptation capabilities. An effective adaptation to high outdoor temperatures for example, is only possible under certain wind and humidity conditions. High temperature extremes are expected to increase in number and strength under climate change. To assess the impact of this change on NVBs and dairy cows also the changes in wind and humidity needs to be considered. Hence we need to consider the multivariate structure of future temperature extremes. The OptiBarn project aims to develop sustainable adaptation strategies for dairy housings under climate change for Europe, by considering the multivariate structure of high temperature extremes. In a first step we identify various multivariate high temperature extremes for three core regions in Europe. With respect to dairy cows in NVBs we will focus on the wind and humidity field during high temperature events. In a second step we will use the CORDEX-EUR-11 ensemble to evaluate the capability of the RCMs to model such events and assess their future change potential. By transferring the outdoor conditions to indoor climate and animal wellbeing the results of this assessment can be used to develop technical, architectural and animal specific adaptation strategies for high temperature extremes.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns

    Joo, H. S.; Ndegwa, P. M.; Heber, A. J.; Ni, J.-Q.; Bogan, B. W.; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J. C.; Cortus, E.


    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from two naturally-ventilated dairy freestall barns measured for a total of 21 d, one week each in May, July, and September 2009, are presented in this article. The holding capacity of Barn 1 (B1) was 400 Holstein cows, while that for Barn 2 (B2) was 850 cows. Air samples were taken from inlets and outlets of the barns via a custom made multiplexer gas sampling system for measurement of gas concentrations using a photoacoustic infrared multigas analyzer. Barn ventilation rates were based on air velocity measured with arrays of 3-D ultrasonic anemometers at inlets and outlets. Gas concentrations (10 min means) in the barns ranged from: 443-789 ppm for CO2, 0.0-39.4 ppm for CH4, and 0.25-0.39 ppm for N2O; with mean concentrations ranging from 6 to 20%, 0 to 4%, and 26 to 180% above the average background concentrations for CO2, N2O, and CH4, respectively. The correlations between CO2 and CH4 enhanced concentrations were relatively stronger (R of 0.67-0.74) than between CO2 and N2O enhanced concentrations (R of 0.10-0.20). Environmental conditions did not significantly (p = 0.46) impact the enhanced concentrations of N2O in the barns. All three parameters (T, RH, and v) had significant (p CO2 enhanced concentrations; while only T (p CO2 and CH4 correlated negatively with all three parameters. The influence of the temperature-humidity index (THI) on CO2 enhanced concentrations was higher than that of v; while the effect v had on CH4 enhanced concentrations was slightly higher than that of the temperature-humidity index. The average emissions, based on hourly means, ranged from 5.3 to 10.7 kg d-1 AU-1 for CO2; 0.3 to 2.5 g d-1 AU-1 for N2O; and between 67 and 252 g d-1 AU-1 for CH4. Nitrous oxide emissions from the smaller barn, B1 (0.4-2.5 g d-1 AU-1), were significantly higher than from the larger barn, B2 (0.3-0.5 g d-1 AU-1) most probably because 50% of B1 was open (no stalls) loose dirt floor.

  11. Mapping relational database into OWL Structure with data semantic preservation

    Gherabi, Noreddine; Bahaj, Mohamed


    This paper proposes a solution for migrating an RDB into Web semantic. The solution takes an existing RDB as input, and extracts its metadata representation (MTRDB). Based on the MTRDB, a Canonical Data Model (CDM) is generated. Finally, the structure of the classification scheme in the CDM model is converted into OWL ontology and the recordsets of database are stored in owl document. A prototype has been implemented, which migrates a RDB into OWL structure, for demonstrate the practical applicability of our approach by showing how the results of reasoning of this technique can help improve the Web systems.

  12. MBsums. A Mathematica package for the representation of Mellin-Barnes integrals by multiple sums

    Ochman, Michal; Riemann, Tord


    Feynman integrals may be represented by the Mathematica package AMBRE and MB as multiple Mellin-Barnes integrals. With the Mathematica package MBsums we transform these Mellin-Barnes integrals into multiple sums.

  13. MBsums - a Mathematica package for the representation of Mellin-Barnes integrals by multiple sums

    Ochman, Michal


    Feynman integrals may be represented by the Mathematica packages AMBRE and MB as multiple Mellin-Barnes integrals. With the Mathematica package MBsums these Mellin-Barnes integrals are transformed into multiple sums.




    Full Text Available In Zimbabwe two types of barns are commonly used for tobacco curing, namely the traditional and Rocket barns. The traditional barn and the Rocket Barn loose 98.5% and 55.6% of the energy supplied respectively. The latter is 43.6% more thermally efficient than the traditional barn. There is, however, potential of increasing the energy efficiency of both barns. In this study, a design that incorporates structural changes to reduce heat loss as well as recovery of heat was developed. The design is a combination of commercially available components, and allows for ventilation heat re-use and increased heat transfer from furnace ducts to the drying chamber. The structure was found to be 54.7% more thermally efficient than the Rocket barn and 74.2% more efficient than the traditional barn. The new design needs to be field-tested so that it can be adopted by tobacco farmers.

  15. Lung responses to secondary endotoxin challenge in rats exposed to pig barn air

    Townsend Hugh GG; Aulakh Gurpreet K; Keet Taryn; Charavaryamath Chandrashekhar; Singh Baljit


    Abstract Background Swine barn air contains endotoxin and many other noxious agents. Single or multiple exposures to pig barn air induces lung inflammation and loss of lung function. However, we do not know the effect of exposure to pig barn air on inflammatory response in the lungs following a secondary infection. Therefore, we tested a hypothesis that single or multiple exposures to barn air will result in exaggerated lung inflammation in response to a secondary insult with Escherichia coli...

  16. Modeling and Analysis for the Process Formal Semantics of OWL-S Based on Extended CPN%基于扩展CPN的OWL-S过程语义建模及分析方法研究

    鲍爱华; 王晓璇; 文艾; 丁科; 刘鹏


    The process formal semantics of OWL-S is a key issue in the research on semantic Web service This paper analyzed the current work and existing problem of research on OWL-S process formal semantics,and proposed an extended Colored Petri net,which is called Process Model net(PM_net),to model and analyze the process formal semantics of OWL-S.According to the characteristic of OWL-S process model, PM_net extended the transition and fire rule of basicCPN, so that, the atomic process, composite process and data flow of OWL-S process model can be mapped to PM_net equally.The method to check consistency of OWL-S process formal semantics based on PM_net was also introduced.The work of this paper provided reasonable theroy foundation for the evolution of OWL-S, semantic Web service composition and verification.%OWL-S过程语义的建模与分析是语义Web服务相关领域需要重点研究的问题.分析了目前OWL-S过程语义研究中存在的问题,提出了一种扩展的着色Petri网PM_net(过程模型网,Process Model net)来对OWL-S的过程语义进行转化与分析.结合OWL-S过程模型元素的特点,PM_net对基本着色Petri网的变迁和触发规则进行了扩履,使OWL-S的原子过程、组合过程和数据流等核心元素能够等价映射到PM_net.同时说明了如何基于PM_net对OWL-S的过程语义一致性进行分析,为OWL-S本体演化、语义Web服务组合和验证提供了合理的理论基础.

  17. OWL 2 learn profile: an ontology sublanguage for the learning domain.

    Heiyanthuduwage, Sudath R; Schwitter, Rolf; Orgun, Mehmet A


    Many experimental ontologies have been developed for the learning domain for use at different institutions. These ontologies include different OWL/OWL 2 (Web Ontology Language) constructors. However, it is not clear which OWL 2 constructors are the most appropriate ones for designing ontologies for the learning domain. It is possible that the constructors used in these learning domain ontologies match one of the three standard OWL 2 profiles (sublanguages). To investigate whether this is the case, we have analysed a corpus of 14 ontologies designed for the learning domain. We have also compared the constructors used in these ontologies with those of the OWL 2 RL profile, one of the OWL 2 standard profiles. The results of our analysis suggest that the OWL 2 constructors used in these ontologies do not exactly match the standard OWL 2 RL profile, but form a subset of that profile which we call OWL 2 Learn. PMID:27066328

  18. Modeling co-occurrence of northern spotted and barred owls: accounting for detection probability differences

    Bailey, Larissa L.; Reid, Janice A.; Forsman, Eric D.; Nichols, James D.


    Barred owls (Strix varia) have recently expanded their range and now encompass the entire range of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). This expansion has led to two important issues of concern for management of northern spotted owls: (1) possible competitive interactions between the two species that could contribute to population declines of northern spotted owls, and (2) possible changes in vocalization behavior and detection probabilities of northern spotted owls induced by presence of barred owls. We used a two-species occupancy model to investigate whether there was evidence of competitive exclusion between the two species at study locations in Oregon, USA. We simultaneously estimated detection probabilities for both species and determined if the presence of one species influenced the detection of the other species. Model selection results and associated parameter estimates provided no evidence that barred owls excluded spotted owls from territories. We found strong evidence that detection probabilities differed for the two species, with higher probabilities for northern spotted owls that are the object of current surveys. Non-detection of barred owls is very common in surveys for northern spotted owls, and detection of both owl species was negatively influenced by the presence of the congeneric species. Our results suggest that analyses directed at hypotheses of barred owl effects on demographic or occupancy vital rates of northern spotted owls need to deal adequately with imperfect and variable detection probabilities for both species.

  19. Design methodology for the robotic milking barn : modelling, simulation, validation and optimization

    Halachmi, I.


    The traditional barn design is a milking parlour oriented. To integrate a milking robot the barn should be redesigned according to the robotic milking concept. The entire system (barn design, feeding and cow-traffic routines, management practices) should encourage 'voluntary milking', i.e., it shoul

  20. Towards OWL-based Knowledge Representation in Petrology

    Shkotin, Alex; Kudryavtsev, Dmitry


    This paper presents our work on development of OWL-driven systems for formal representation and reasoning about terminological knowledge and facts in petrology. The long-term aim of our project is to provide solid foundations for a large-scale integration of various kinds of knowledge, including basic terms, rock classification algorithms, findings and reports. We describe three steps we have taken towards that goal here. First, we develop a semi-automated procedure for transforming a database of igneous rock samples to texts in a controlled natural language (CNL), and then a collection of OWL ontologies. Second, we create an OWL ontology of important petrology terms currently described in natural language thesauri. We describe a prototype of a tool for collecting definitions from domain experts. Third, we present an approach to formalization of current industrial standards for classification of rock samples, which requires linear equations in OWL 2. In conclusion, we discuss a range of opportunities arising ...

  1. Pragmatiske ferdigheter hos barn med cochleaimplantat : - belyst ved et kasusstudie


    Pragmatiske ferdigheter hos barn med cochleaimplantat - belyst ved et kasusstudie. Bakgrunn: Cochleaimplantat (CI) er et høreapparat som gir sterkt hørselshemmede muligheten til å oppfatte lyd. Elektroder implanteres i sneglehuset (cochlea) og stimulerer hørselsnerven direkte (MED-EL 2006, Waltzman 2005). Forskning rundt barn med CI og deres språkutvikling har hovedsakelig vært konsentrert rundt de lingvistiske sidene ved språket (Thoutenhoofd m. fl. 2005). Like viktig vil det være å se p...

  2. Combined particle-image velocimetry and force analysis of the three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction of a natural owl wing.

    Winzen, A; Roidl, B; Schröder, W


    Low-speed aerodynamics has gained increasing interest due to its relevance for the design process of small flying air vehicles. These small aircraft operate at similar aerodynamic conditions as, e.g. birds which therefore can serve as role models of how to overcome the well-known problems of low Reynolds number flight. The flight of the barn owl is characterized by a very low flight velocity in conjunction with a low noise emission and a high level of maneuverability at stable flight conditions. To investigate the complex three-dimensional flow field and the corresponding local structural deformation in combination with their influence on the resulting aerodynamic forces, time-resolved stereoscopic particle-image velocimetry and force and moment measurements are performed on a prepared natural barn owl wing. Several spanwise positions are measured via PIV in a range of angles of attack [Formula: see text] 6° and Reynolds numbers 40 000 [Formula: see text] 120 000 based on the chord length. Additionally, the resulting forces and moments are recorded for -10° ≤ α ≤ 15° at the same Reynolds numbers. Depending on the spanwise position, the angle of attack, and the Reynolds number, the flow field on the wing's pressure side is characterized by either a region of flow separation, causing large-scale vortical structures which lead to a time-dependent deflection of the flexible wing structure or wing regions showing no instantaneous deflection but a reduction of the time-averaged mean wing curvature. Based on the force measurements the three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction is assumed to considerably impact the aerodynamic forces acting on the wing leading to a strong mechanical loading of the interface between the wing and body. These time-depending loads which result from the flexibility of the wing should be taken into consideration for the design of future small flying air vehicles using flexible wing structures. PMID:27033298

  3. Nanostructures Enabled by On-Wire Lithography (OWL)

    Braunschweig, Adam B.; Schmucker, Abrin L.; Wei, Wei David; Mirkin, Chad A.


    Nanostructures fabricated by a novel technique, termed On-Wire-Lithography (OWL), can be combined with organic and biological molecules to create systems with emergent and highly functional properties. OWL is a template-based, electrochemical process for forming gapped cylindrical structures on a solid support, with feature sizes (both gap and segment length) that can be controlled on the sub-100 nm length scale. Structures prepared by this method have provided valuable insight into the plasm...

  4. Semantically-Rigorous Systems Engineering Modeling Using Sysml and OWL

    Jenkins, J. Steven; Rouquette, Nicolas F.


    The Systems Modeling Language (SysML) has found wide acceptance as a standard graphical notation for the domain of systems engineering. SysML subsets and extends the Unified Modeling Language (UML) to define conventions for expressing structural, behavioral, and analytical elements, and relationships among them. SysML-enabled modeling tools are available from multiple providers, and have been used for diverse projects in military aerospace, scientific exploration, and civil engineering. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) has found wide acceptance as a standard notation for knowledge representation. OWL-enabled modeling tools are available from multiple providers, as well as auxiliary assets such as reasoners and application programming interface libraries, etc. OWL has been applied to diverse projects in a wide array of fields. While the emphasis in SysML is on notation, SysML inherits (from UML) a semantic foundation that provides for limited reasoning and analysis. UML's partial formalization (FUML), however, does not cover the full semantics of SysML, which is a substantial impediment to developing high confidence in the soundness of any conclusions drawn therefrom. OWL, by contrast, was developed from the beginning on formal logical principles, and consequently provides strong support for verification of consistency and satisfiability, extraction of entailments, conjunctive query answering, etc. This emphasis on formal logic is counterbalanced by the absence of any graphical notation conventions in the OWL standards. Consequently, OWL has had only limited adoption in systems engineering. The complementary strengths and weaknesses of SysML and OWL motivate an interest in combining them in such a way that we can benefit from the attractive graphical notation of SysML and the formal reasoning of OWL. This paper describes an approach to achieving that combination.

  5. Introgression and dispersal among spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies

    Funk, W Chris; Forsman, Eric D; Mullins, Thomas D; Haig, Susan M.


    Abstract Population genetics plays an increasingly important role in the conservation and management of declining species, particularly for defining taxonomic units. Subspecies are recognized by several conservation organizations and countries and receive legal protection under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Two subspecies of spotted owls, northern (Strix occidentalis caurina) and Mexican (S. o. lucida) spotted owls, are ESA-listed as threatened, but the California (S. o. occidentalis) ...

  6. Ectoparasites of Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) wintering in southern Texas

    Skoruppa, M.K.; Pearce, B.; Woodin, M.C.; Hickman, G.C.


    Fifteen Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) were captured over two winters (2001-2003) in southern Texas and examined for ectoparasites. Four of the 15 owls (27%) harbored feather lice, and the maximum number of lice found on any individual was ??? three. Two species of feather lice were found: Colpocephalum pectinatum occurred on three of the owls, and Strigiphilus speotyti was found on four owls. No fleas or other ectoparasites were found on any of the Burrowing Owls. The low diversity and numbers of ectoparasites suggest that ectoparasites are not threatening the health of wintering Burrowing Owls in southern Texas.

  7. Diet and breeding success of long-eared owls in a semi-arid environment

    Charter M.; Izhaki I.; Leshem Y.; Roulin A.


    Only a few studies, and mostly in temperate climates in Europe, have examined the breeding and diet of long-eared owls (Asia otus) compared to studies of cavity-breeding owls, possibly because of the difficulties in reaching the nests of the former. Here we studied a population of long-eared owls, monitoring the diet of breeding owls and that of owls at a communal roost, every two to three months during 2006 -2009, in a semi-arid region in Israel. It was found that the studied owls produced m...

  8. California spotted owls: Chapter 5 in Managing Sierra Nevada forests

    Roberts, Suzanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.


    California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) are habitat specialists that are strongly associated with late-successional forests. For nesting and roosting, they require large trees and snags embedded in a stand with a complex forest structure (Blakesley et al. 2005, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, Verner et al. 1992b). In mixedconifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California spotted owls typically nest and roost in stands with high canopy closure (≥75 percent) [Note: when citing studies, we use terminology consistent with Jennings et al. (1999), however, not all studies properly distinguish between canopy cover and closure and often use the terms interchangeably (see chapter 14 for clarification)] and an abundance of large trees (>24 in (60 cm) diameter at breast height [d.b.h.]) (Bias and Gutiérrez 1992, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, LaHaye et al. 1997, Moen and Gutiérrez 1997, Verner et al. 1992a). The California spotted owl guidelines (Verner et al. 1992b) effectively summarized much of the information about nesting and roosting habitat. Since that report, research on the California spotted owl has continued with much of the new information concentrated in five areas: population trends, barred owl (Strix varia) invasion, climate effects, foraging habitat, and owl response to fire.

  9. John Dewey's Socially Instrumental Practice at the Barnes Foundation and the Role of "Transferred Values" in Aesthetic Experience

    Johnson, Margaret Hess


    When Albert Barnes established an art education program at the Barnes Foundation in 1924, he asked John Dewey to become the first president and director of education. Barnes and Dewey enjoyed a sustained and fruitful relationship with regard to aesthetic experience and scientific theory as applied to education. Barnes and Dewey shared a serious…

  10. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Gross, Philip, 1952-


    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  11. Aeroallergens in dairy barns near Cooperstown, New York and Rochester, Minnesota

    We sampled atmospheric barn air using a volumetric air sampler in ten barns near Cooperstown, NY and six barns near Rochester, MN, and, with radioimmunoassays, measured allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Micropolyspori faeni, short ragweed, rye grass group I pollen, Alternaria (Alt-1), Dermatophagoides sp. Lepidoglyphus destructor, common insect allergen, mouse urine, rat urine, and cattle epithelium. The most abundant allergen present was A. fumigatus followed by L. destructor. This study provides initial data on barn aerobiology and demonstrates for the first time the abundance of L. destructor allergens in North American dairy barns. More comprehensive study of barns, poultry houses, confinement houses for swine, and other agricultural environments from various geographic locations is needed to define the allergen levels to which millions of farm workers are exposed each day. While most of the allergens were expected, the presence of airborne allergens reactive with antisera to Dermatophagoides suggests indirectly that substantial amounts of pyroglyphid mites are present in some barns

  12. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Michael Krauß


    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  13. Notas sobre la alimentación de Tyto alba (Lechuza común) en aspe (Alicante), a 21 de septiembre de 1954

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003


    Notas sobre la alimentación de Tyto alba (Lechuza común) en Aspe (Alicante), a 21 de septiembre de 1954. Se incluyen un dibujo de la ubicación del nido y datos del análisis de 141 egagrópilas y diversos restos dispersos en el nido. Entre las presas se hallaron escarabajos, lagartijas, los siguientes mamíferos: Apodemus sp. (Ratón), Crocidura sp. (Musaraña), Eliomys sp. (Lirón), Microtinae, Miniopterus schreibersi (Murciélago de cueva), Mus spicilegus (Ratón), Pipistrellus sp. (Murciélago), Ra...

  14. Dismantling of Biological Agricultural Reactor Netherlands (BARN)

    The Biological Agricultural Reactor (BARN) was built in 1962 by government order through the Institute for Atomic Science in Agriculture (ITAL) in the Netherlands. The idea to build this nuclear reactor especially for biological research purposes was grown out of the first international conference about peaceful application of atomic energy hold in 1955. The construction composed of a basin reactor with light water as moderator and cooling medium. Up to 90% enriched Uranium was used as fuel. The maximal power was 100 kW. The reactor was used for research in the field of plant reproduction and other biological research. Mainly because of disappointing scientific results in 1978, 15 years after the start, the decision was made to terminate the reactor process following by dismantling. Alternative techniques proved to give comparative results at lower costs. In the decision making process political considerations played an important role. Prior to dismantling the reactor the 26 fuel elements were removed. Beside the uranium-235 each element contains about 1.3 TBq of fission and activation products. In 1982 the elements were shipped tot the Savannah River Plant in United States. An extensive analyze was carried out to map out the activation products on basis of neutron flux data, radiation history and composition of the materials. Results of this study was used to predict the dose rate of the different activated items and consequently to reduce risks of handling the items. For several reasons (e.g. control of building, knowledge of the plant) in 1996 a project has been initiated to remove all the active materials form the building and to recover the place to the original state, i.e. forest. High radioactive items with large dimensions were transferred to the so-called 'hot cells' of the ECN and were cut into small pieces. Finally all the activated material was brought to the COVRA for end storage. Parts of the basin construction were highly activated and were removed

  15. Eighteen microsatellite loci developed from western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)

    Faircloth, Brant C; Title, Alexandra; Tan, Kevin; Welty, Justin; Belthoff, James R.; Gowaty, Patricia Adair


    Western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are ground-dwelling owls distributed throughout western North America. Because of population declines, this species is considered endangered in Canada, and burrowing owls are listed as a species of conservation concern in states of the western USA. Korfanta et al. (2002) previously presented primers for seven microsatellite loci in burrowing owls. Parentage and relatedness studies require a larger number of markers for accuracy and precisio...

  16. 75 FR 63800 - Information Collection; Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol


    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol AGENCY: Forest Service... currently approved information collection, Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol. DATES: Comments must be...: Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol. OMB Number: 0596-0087. Expiration Date of Approval: 04/30/2011....

  17. Habitat selection by owls in a seasonal semi-deciduous forest in southern Brazil.

    Menq, W; Anjos, L


    This paper tested the hypothesis that the structural components of vegetation have impact over the distribution of owl species in a fragment of a semi-deciduous seasonal forest. This paper also determined which vegetation variables contributed to the spatial distribution of owl species. It was developed in the Perobas Biological Reserve (PBR) between September and December 2011. To conduct the owl census, a playback technique was applied at hearing points distributed to cover different vegetation types in the study area. A total of 56 individual owls of six species were recorded: Tropical Screech-Owl (Megascops choliba), Black-capped Screech-Owl (Megascops atricapilla), Tawny-browed Owl (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana), Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum), Mottled Owl (Strix virgata) and Stygian Owl (Asio stygius). The results suggest that the variables of vegetation structure have impact on the occurrence of owls. The canopy height, the presence of hollow trees, fallen trees and glades are the most important structural components influencing owl distribution in the sampled area. PMID:26602354

  18. Ecotoxicological suitability of floodplain habitats in the Netherlands for the little owl (Athene noctua vidalli)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Groen, N.M.; Jonge, de J.; Bosveld, A.T.C.


    This study describes the actual risks of exposure to contaminants, which little owls (Athene noctua vidalli) face in Dutch river floodplains. The results indicate that PCBs pose a risk: not only are levels in little owls from floodplains higher than levels found in little owls from a reference site

  19. Spike timing precision changes with spike rate adaptation in the owl's auditory space map.

    Keller, Clifford H; Takahashi, Terry T


    Spike rate adaptation (SRA) is a continuing change of responsiveness to ongoing stimuli, which is ubiquitous across species and levels of sensory systems. Under SRA, auditory responses to constant stimuli change over time, relaxing toward a long-term rate often over multiple timescales. With more variable stimuli, SRA causes the dependence of spike rate on sound pressure level to shift toward the mean level of recent stimulus history. A model based on subtractive adaptation (Benda J, Hennig RM. J Comput Neurosci 24: 113-136, 2008) shows that changes in spike rate and level dependence are mechanistically linked. Space-specific neurons in the barn owl's midbrain, when recorded under ketamine-diazepam anesthesia, showed these classical characteristics of SRA, while at the same time exhibiting changes in spike timing precision. Abrupt level increases of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) noise initially led to spiking at higher rates with lower temporal precision. Spike rate and precision relaxed toward their long-term values with a time course similar to SRA, results that were also replicated by the subtractive model. Stimuli whose amplitude modulations (AMs) were not synchronous across carrier frequency evoked spikes in response to stimulus envelopes of a particular shape, characterized by the spectrotemporal receptive field (STRF). Again, abrupt stimulus level changes initially disrupted the temporal precision of spiking, which then relaxed along with SRA. We suggest that shifts in latency associated with stimulus level changes may differ between carrier frequency bands and underlie decreased spike precision. Thus SRA is manifest not simply as a change in spike rate but also as a change in the temporal precision of spiking. PMID:26269555

  20. OWL扩展方法研究%OWL Extension Method

    刘家益; 张学福; 孙巍


    在分析OWL扩展原理的基础上,提出扩展OWL前须明确的两个问题,以此为出发点,对OWL扩展研究现状进行调研,分析当前OWL扩展方法的特点和不足之处。针对这些不足,提出OWL扩展优化的两点要求,讨论OWL词汇、句法、语义扩展优化的具体方法。给出此方法的应用实例,用优化方法扩展了OWL的类相关关系表示能力,得到了较好效果。%On the basis of the analysis of OWL extension principle, the authors propose two questions which should be answered before the extension of OWL. Taking these two questions as a starting point, the authors conduct a survey on the current OWL expansion method and analyze their characteristics and shortcomings. To conquer these shortcomings, the authors propose two requirements for OWL exten- sion optimization and discuss the details of optimization methods of OWL vocabulary, syntax, semantic extension. Finally, the authors give an application example of this method, using this method to extend the OWL's ability to represent related classes and get a good result.


    Rohallah Benaboud


    Full Text Available Service-oriented computing (SOC is an interdisciplinary paradigm that revolutionizes the very fabric ofdistributed software development applications that adopt service-oriented architectures (SOA can evolveduring their lifespan and adapt to changing or unpredictable environments more easily. SOA is builtaround the concept of Web Services. Although the Web services constitute a revolution in Word Wide Web,they are always regarded as non-autonomous entities and can be exploited only after their discovery. Withthe help of software agents, Web services are becoming more efficient and more dynamic.The topic of this paper is the development of an agent based approach for Web services discovery andselection in witch, OWL-S is used to describe Web services, QoS and service customer request. We developan efficient semantic service matching which takes into account concepts properties to match concepts inWeb service and service customer request descriptions. Our approach is based on an architecturecomposed of four layers: Web service and Request description layer, Functional match layer, QoScomputing layer and Reputation computing layer.

  2. A high absorption coefficient DL-MPP imitating owl skin

    Guo, Lijun; Zhao, Zhan; Kong, Deyi; Wu, Shaohua; Du, Lidong; Fang, Zhen


    This paper proposes a high absorption coefficient micro-perforated panel (MPP) imitating owl skin structure for acoustic noise reduction. Compared to the traditional micro-perforated panel, this device has two unique characteristics-simulating the owl skin structure, its radius of perforated apertures even can be as small as 55μ, and its material is silicon and fabricated by micro-electrical mechanical system (MEMS) technology; So that its absorption coefficients of acoustic noise for normal incidence sound wave whose frequencies arrange from 1.5 kHz to 6.0 kHz are all above 0.8 which is the owl's hunts sensitivity frequency band. Double leaf MPP fabricated by MEMS technology is an absolutely bionic success in functional-imitation.

  3. Variation in working effort in Danish Little Owls Athene noctua

    Holsegård-Rasmussen, Miriam H.; Sunde, Peter; Thorup, K.;


    extinction. The study is based on 143 one-hour surveys of breeding and 274 surveys of non-breeding Little Owls (27 territorial individuals on 14 territories). Working effort is calculated as the total linear distance between all observed consecutive telemetry fixes during one-hour surveys (Minimum Flight...... Distance, MFD). The effort peaked during the post-hatching dependency period with males flying longer distances and having fewer inactivity periods than females. This might suggest that also after hatching, males provide more food to the nest than females. Non-breeding owls were completely inactive in 13......% of all surveys. Probability of inactivity increased with heavy rain and was highest in the middle of the night. During the non-breeding season, MFD of active owls varied with a peak in March and a low in December, possibly reflecting seasonal variation in metabolic needs and social activity. During...

  4. First observed instance of polygyny in Flammulated Owls

    Linkhart, B.D.; Evers, E.M.; Megler, J.D.; Palm, E.C.; Salipante, C.M.; Yanco, S.W.


    We document the first observed instance of polygyny in Flammulated Owls (Otus flammeolus) and the first among insectivorous raptors. Chronologies of the male's two nests, which were 510 m apart, were separated by nearly 2 weeks. Each brood initially consisted of three owlets, similar to the mean brood size in monogamous pairs. The male delivered considerably fewer prey to the secondary nest, compared with prey-delivery rates at nests of monogamous males during the nestling period. Evidence suggested that all owlets fledged from the primary brood, but only one fledged from the secondary brood. We were uncertain of the cause of polygyny, but a possible explanation is the Hayman Fire shifted the operational sex ratio of the owls in favor of females. The extent of polygyny in Flammulated Owls may be limited by costs to the reproductive success of secondary females.

  5. Representing lexical components of medical terminologies in OWL.

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Chute, Christopher G; Solbrig, Harold


    Medical Terminologies play a vital role in clinical data capture, reporting, information integration, indexing and retrieval. The Web Ontology language (OWL) provides an opportunity for the medical community to leverage the capabilities of OWL semantics and tools to build formal, sound and consistent medical terminologies, and to provide a standard web accessible medium for inter-operability,access and reuse. One of the tasks facing the medical community today is to represent the extensive terminology content that already exists into this new medium. This paper addresses one aspect of this challenge - how to incorporate multilingual, structured lexical information such as definitions, synonyms, usage notes, etc. into the OWL ontology model in a standardized, consistent and useful fashion. PMID:16779134

  6. Bias in little owl population estimates using playback techniques during surveys

    ZUBEROGOITIA, I., ENRIQUE MARTÍNEZ, J., ZABALA, J.; Zabala, J.; J. E. Martínez


    To test the efficiency of playback methods to survey little owl (Athene noctua) populations we carried out two studies: (1) we recorded the replies of radio–tagged little owls to calls in a small area; (2) we recorded call broadcasts to estimate the effectiveness of the method to detect the presence of little owl. In the first study, we detected an average of 8.12 owls in the 30′ survey period, a number that is close to the real population; we also detected significant little owl movements fr...

  7. Practical considerations for ventilating calf barns in winter.

    Nordlund, Kenneth V


    The use of air sampling devices to measure the concentrations of airborne bacteria in clinical investigations and research trials in calf barns has indicated that traditional systems of ventilation are problematic in cold weather. Individual pen designs should have two solid sides, but the front and rear should be as open as possible. Thermal stress should be managed by providing deep bedding and not by enclosing the pen. Air hygiene can be improved by reducing stocking density and using supplemental positive-pressure ventilation systems to deliver small amounts of air to each pen. Implementation of these recommendations can produce calf barns that seem to equal calf hutches in minimizing disease and provide better working conditions for the caregivers. PMID:18299031

  8. Barns bilder av staden : Minecraft, preferenser och lek

    Karlsson, Eva


    Barnperspektivet inom fysisk planering har fått större uppmärksamhet de senaste decennierna, och då barns åsikter om miljöer har visat sig vara viktiga men svåra för planerare att tolka testas ständigt nya dialogmetoder för att kommunicera med barn. De senaste åren har datorspelet Minecraft börjat användas för detta, där barnen själva får visualisera och gestalta sina stadsbilder. Detta innebär att tolkningen av dessa bilder sker senare i skaparprocessen än vid annan dialog, varvid frågor om ...

  9. Morphological Variations of Leading-Edge Serrations in Owls (Strigiformes.

    Matthias Weger

    Full Text Available Owls have developed serrations, comb-like structures, along the leading edge of their wings. Serrations were investigated from a morphological and a mechanical point of view, but were not yet quantitatively compared for different species. Such a comparative investigation of serrations from species of different sizes and activity patterns may provide new information about the function of the serrations.Serrations on complete wings and on tenth primary remiges of seven owl species were investigated. Small, middle-sized, and large owl species were investigated as well as species being more active during the day and owls being more active during the night. Serrations occurred at the outer parts of the wings, predominantly at tenth primary remiges, but also on further wing feathers in most species. Serration tips were oriented away from the feather rachis so that they faced into the air stream during flight. The serrations of nocturnal owl species were higher developed as demonstrated by a larger inclination angle (the angle between the base of the barb and the rachis, a larger tip displacement angle (the angle between the tip of the serration and the base of the serration and a longer length. Putting the measured data into a clustering algorithm yielded dendrograms that suggested a strong influence of activity pattern, but only a weak influence of size on the development of the serrations.Serrations are supposed to be involved in noise reduction during flight and also depend on the aerodynamic properties that in turn depend on body size. Since especially nocturnal owls have to rely on hearing during prey capture, the more pronounced serrations of nocturnal species lend further support to the notion that serrations have an important function in noise reduction. The differences in shape of the serrations investigated indicate that a silent flight requires well-developed serrations.

  10. Complete OWL-DL Reasoning Using Relational Databases

    Del Mar Roldan-Garcia, Maria; Aldana-Montes, Jose F.

    Real Semantic Web applications, such as biological tools, use large ontologies, that is, ontologies with a large number (millions) of instances. Due to the increasing development of such applications, it is necessary to provide scalable and efficient ontology querying and reasoning systems. DBOWL is a Persistent and Scalable OWL reasoner which stores ontologies and implements reasoning using a relational database. In this paper we present an extension of DBOWL that implements all inference rules for OWL-DL. Furthermore, we describe briefly the reasoning algorithms and their completeness proofs.