In real world, a market functioning is not perfect. Usually, there is one party in a contract that has weaker position than the other one. In a consumer contract it is a consumer who does not have sufficient information and knowledge. In developed countries, a consumer protection is therefore a part of law regulation. The thesis deals with the consumer protection in banking. It focuses on general topics as well as specific topics, such as banking accounts, electronic fund transfers and consum...
Large capacitor banks, as used in many pulsed plasma experiments, are subject to catastrophic failure in the event of a short in the output or in an individual capacitor. Methods are described for protecting such banks to minimize the damage and down-time caused by such a failure
The objective of the article is legal instruments protecting uninsured depositor in bank insolvency. The paper is focused and reviews issues relating to the unprofessional depositor with typology of insolvent Lithuanian bank “Snoras”. According to this view, the paper analyses legal aspects of the bank’s specific obligations to the depositor under Lithuania’s bank insolvency rules and regulations. The purpose is, by means of different methods, to investigate depositor’s rights protection conc...
Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a well-developed and established banking system which compares favourably with those in many developed countries (e.g. USA, but also sets South Africa apart from many other emerging market countries like Egypt and Brazil. Four dominant banks, namely the Amalgamated Banks of South Africa (ABSA, Standard Bank, Nedcor and First National Bank (FNB influence the South African banking environment. Internet banking has slowly been taking off in South Africa since 1996 as consumers are attracted to the convenience, safety and lower costs of doing banking online. Trust is a significant component of Internet banking and online services and products.Objectives: This article has reported on the results of a survey (a close-ended questionnaire that was conducted by alumni of the University of Johannesburg (UJ. The research problem for this study has been formulated as ‘what are Internet banking customers’ perception on information protection when using Internet banking services and products?’Method: The methodology for this study falls on quantitative research. The research study consisted of a detailed literature review, followed by an empirical component which consisted of a quantitative questionnaire. The questionnaire used in this study consisted of eight sections covering biographical information, financial institution and Internet banking, Internet banking service quality and delivery, Internet banking functionality, Internet banking costs, Internet banking convenience and relationships, Internet banking trust and Internet banking security and information technology (IT.Results: It was established that the findings of this research could assist financial institutions with fostering and building greater value adding relationships with their customers. These value-adding endeavours will ensure that customers experience and perceive their Internet banking experience to be enriching. Education and awareness campaigns are
Full Text Available The objective of the article is legal instruments protecting uninsured depositor in bank insolvency. The paper is focused and reviews issues relating to the unprofessional depositor with typology of insolvent Lithuanian bank “Snoras”. According to this view, the paper analyses legal aspects of the bank’s specific obligations to the depositor under Lithuania’s bank insolvency rules and regulations. The purpose is, by means of different methods, to investigate depositor’s rights protection concept covering uninsured bank’s product - deposit certificates. This paper reveals the content of legal norms regulating uninsured depositors in bank insolvency (laws, secondary legislation, especially court decisions of Lithuania, analyzes what problems arise in an attempt to ensure depositor rights and discusses the impact for uninsured depositor ex ante and ex post bank insolvency. The main issue of the paper: what are the legal techniques protecting uninsured depositor rights under bank insolvency frameworks? The issue based on the typology of insolvent bank “Snoras” which actively disseminated deposit certificates to the customers in order to improve the bank's financial stability, without increasing the share capital of the bank, for that reason, bank misinformed the owners of deposit certificates that such a product is treated as insurance object. The paper is written from the Lithuanian law perspective. Purpose – to investigate depositors’ rights protection terms covering uninsured bank’s product- deposit certificates. Design/methodology/approach – Purposely to explore the actual meaning of legal norms and legislations as well as content and to analyze the literature and jurisprudence the systematic, analyses, synthesis, comparative methods were used. Findings – all depositors have full interest to be treated as insured with the consequent of compensation. Deposit protection is designed to compensate some classes of depositors
André Redlinghuis; Chris Rensleigh
Background: South Africa has a well-developed and established banking system which compares favourably with those in many developed countries (e.g. USA), but also sets South Africa apart from many other emerging market countries like Egypt and Brazil. Four dominant banks, namely the Amalgamated Banks of South Africa (ABSA), Standard Bank, Nedcor and First National Bank (FNB) influence the South African banking environment. Internet banking has slowly been taking off in South Africa since 1996...
Gersbach, Hans; Wenzelburger, Jan
This paper studies the question to what extent premia for macroeconomic risks in banking are sufficient to avoid banking crises. We investigate a competitive banking system embedded in an overlapping generation model subject to repeated macroeconomic shocks. We show that even if banks fully incorporate macroeconomic risks in their pricing of loans, a banking system may enter bankruptcy with a probability of one. A major cause for this default is that risk premia of a competitive banking syste...
Full Text Available Along with the rapid development of bank financial products in our country, the situation where financial consumers’ interests are encroached on is never new in the market. The major manifestation is that banks infringe upon consumers’ property right, information right, privacy right and the right of fair trade when selling financial products. As to the defects in the protection for consumers of financial products provided by the existing laws and regulations in our country, the author suggests segmenting the information disclosure and implementing the suitability principle in sales to safeguard the legitimate interests of consumers of bank financial products.Key words: Bank financial products; Financial consumers; Information disclosure; Suitability of investors
... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION... Integrity and Protection Data Bank § 61.12 Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank. (a) Who may request information and what information may be available. Information...
The goal of my work is to approximate frauds with money, with a focus on money laundering and falsification of banknotes and coins. I explore the largest and most interesting frauds in practice and protective steps of banks. Although money laundering is a global problem, I focuse my attention especially on the Czech Republic, although the legislation will ever connect with international standards. I think that money frauds are on the mend, so they should be given greater attention.
In the context of the planned near - natural restructuring of the river Isar in the southern part of Munich the results which were obtained from the 2d hydrodynamic model had to be validated by a physical model.In addition to the hydraulics the investigations of the physical model are including the shape and stability of the redesigned gently sloping banks, the formation and dynamics of aggradation zones, the stability of islands as well as the structure of the ramps. This paper is mainly focused on a special kind of bank protection which is hidden in the flood plains. Thus the safety of the dams is guaranteed as well as an area for natural morphological dynamic processes is available. The model also proved to be a very useful public relations tool for this spectacular project.
Full Text Available Contractual relationships between individuals and credit institutions are increasingly lower in the sphere of lendingactivity. Implementation of the new Civil Procedure Code starting with February, 2013, strengthened even moreconsumer protection which has disturbed some commercial banks. Trust between banks and customers is an essentialrequirement for developing banking businesses. As a result of occurrence of new legislation is necessary to know themain elements that strengthen bank-client contractual relationship.
Rawlings, Laura; Murthy, Sheila; Winder, Natalia
The recently released United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) social protection strategic framework and the World Bank social protection and labor strategy call for taking a systems approach to social protection as a way to help countries, communities, families and children enhance resilience, equity and opportunity.This note outlines common ground in the World Bank and UNICEF approaches to building social protection systems, using a focus on children to illustrate the...
Narayana, Galla; Venkateswarlu, Tammineni; Kumar, G. S. P.; Padmavathamma, Mokkala; Sreekanth, G.; Delhibabu, K.; Prasad, A. R.
Securing Online Banking transactions for customer is the primary goal of financial institutions that provides Internet banking facility. Mobile phones play an important role in our society as more and more functions having been integrated within mobile phones, such as Internet browsing, mobile banking, and shopping. Mobiles phones can be used to secure ATM card pins by sending to the customer directly rather than in emails or by other means which has a possibility of hacking. In this paper we have proposed method of generating a Private Key Security Token by bank authentication servers which uses IMSI registers and IMEI number of client's mobile registered. The key is generated by implementing RIPE MD160 and Hex Encode Algorithm. Token received is valid only for that client mobile only and can be generated upon request by customer dynamically. The client is given a PIN and a Master Key when registered to the Online Banking Services. If in case a client's mobile is lost, authentication is done using Unique Master Key, else the Private Key Token is used there by making transactions secured and simple without the need of carrying any USB Tokens. The additional functionality provides the client more security on their transactions. Due to this Phishing attacks by the hackers is avoided.
Information security is the protection of information from a wide range of threats in order to ensure success business continuity by minimizing risks and maximizing the return of investments and business opportunities. In this paper, we study and discuss the software vulnerabilities, banking threats, botnets and propose the malware self-protection technologies.
This article describes a process for skills upgrading in relay engineers at a network company on the West Bank. The article also discusses selected topics from protection theory and describes briefly some methods for relay planning and documentation that also apply to other network companies
Grosen, Anders; Jessen, Pernille; Kokholm, Thomas
We examine a specific portfolio credit derivative, an Asset Protection Scheme (APS), and its applicability as a discretionary regulatory tool to reduce asymmetric information and help restore the capital base of troubled banks. The APS can be a fair-valued contract with an appropriate structure of...
... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS Disclosure of Information by the Healthcare Integrity... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity...
Shi Chen; Ku-Jun Lin
The barrier options theory of corporate security valuation is applied to the contingent claims of a regulated bank. The regulator/insurer of the bank owns a down-and-in call option on the bank¡¯s assets which can be balanced against the expected coverage cost. This paper examines how the bank¡¯s credit risk hedging operation affects its spread behavior and performance and how these effects vary at various levels of the regulatory insurance fund protection. We find that an increase in the bank...
This paper investigates the role of banks’ foreign asset holdings in transmitting credit risk internationally. Foreign exposure in risky assets might severely affect the solvability of credit institutions. Credit risk, in turn, transfers from banks to public accounts as a consequence of implicit or explicit bailout guarantees to distressed banking systems. This paper articulates this mechanism with a simple model where governments choose to fill banks' capital gaps to self-protect from the se...
Radio frequency interference (RFI) will provide one of the most difficult challenges to systematic Searches for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) at microwave frequencies. The SETI-specific equipment is being optimized for the detection of signals generated by a technology rather than those generated by natural processes in the universe. If this equipment performs as expected, then it will inevitably detect many signals originating from terrestrial technology. If these terrestrial signals are too numerous and/or strong, the equipment will effectively be blinded to the (presumably) weaker extraterrestrial signals being sought. It is very difficult to assess how much of a problem RFI will actually represent to future observations, without employing the equipment and beginning the search. In 1983 a very high resolution spectrometer was placed at the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories at Jodrell Bank, England. This equipment permitted an investigation of the interference environment at Jodrell Bank, at that epoch, and at frequencies within the 21 cm band. This band was chosen because it has long been "protected" by international agreement; no transmitters should have been operating at those frequencies. The data collected at Jodrell Bank were expected to serve as a "best case" interference scenario and provide the minimum design requirements for SETI equipment that must function in the real and noisy environment. This paper describes the data collection and analysis along with some preliminary conclusions concerning the nature of the interference environment at Jodrell Bank.
Seed, R.B.; Bea, R.G.; Athanasopoulos-Zekkos, A.; Boutwell, G.P.; Bray, J.D.; Cheung, C.; Cobos-Roa, D.; Cohen-Waeber, J.; Collins, B.D.; Harder, L.F., Jr.; Kayen, R.E.; Pestana, J.M.; Riemer, M.F.; Rogers, J.D.; Storesund, R.; Vera-Grunauer, X.; Wartman, Joseph
This paper addresses damage caused by Hurricane Katrina to the main Orleans East Bank protected basin. This basin represented the heart of New Orleans, and contained the main downtown area, the historic French Quarter, the Garden District, and the sprawling Lakefront and Canal Districts. Nearly half of the loss of life during this hurricane, and a similar fraction of the overall damages, occurred in this heavily populated basin. There are a number of important geotechnical lessons, as well as geo-forensic lessons, associated with the flooding of this basin. These include the difficulties associated with the creation and operation of regional-scale flood protection systems requiring federal and local cooperation and funding over prolonged periods of time. There are also a number of engineering and policy lessons regarding (1) the accuracy and reliability of current analytical methods; (2) the shortcomings and potential dangers involved in decisions that reduced short-term capital outlays in exchange for increased risk of potential system failures; (3) the difficulties associated with integrating local issues with a flood risk reduction project; and (4) the need to design and maintain levees as systems; with each of the many individual project elements being required to mesh seamlessly. These lessons are of interest and importance for similar flood protection systems throughout numerous other regions of the United States and the world. ?? 2008 ACSE.
... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS Disclosure of Information by the Healthcare... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How to dispute the accuracy of...
The protective banks arranged around an artificial island type nuclear power station and the reclaimed ground behind them are the important structures for ensuring the safety of nuclear reactor facilities and others, therefore, the establishment of the technology for evaluating their aseismatic safety becomes a subject. In this research, in order to grasp the change of ground characteristics at the time of the occurrence of liquefaction and the dynamic interaction of structures and reclaimed ground, caisson type protective banks and the ground behind them were modeled, and the centrifugal loading model experiment was carried out. Next, by the FEM analysis using effective stress method, the numerical simulation of this experiment was performed, and it was shown that this analysis method is the effective technique for evaluating the displacement of protective banks, and the liquefaction and the residual subsidence of ground. The experimental method and the analysis of the experimental results of the model vibration experiment are reported. The analysis technique using the effective stress analysis code STADAS is explained. The numerical simulation of the experimental results is reported on the analysis model, the values of the properties used and the results. (K.I.)
Waterhouse, E. K.; Lane, S. N.; Ferguson, R. I.
A combined field based and modelling approach is used to explore the current and future impacts of river management along a 6 km reach of sinuous upland gravel-bed river. The Upper River Wharfe in the UK Yorkshire Dales, has been subjected to a range of river management schemes in response to concerns over unwanted bank erosion and an increase in flood risk; notably bank protection since the 1980's. Field monitoring, including a 6-year high resolution cross-sectional resurveying program, bank erosion study and estimated bedload transport rates from sediment impact sensors, are used to characterise vertical and lateral channel change in the river and compare protected and unprotected reaches. With the channel laterally confined in many places, sediment accumulates in the channel unable to be stored in the floodplain through the natural channel migration process. This sediment builds up, reduces the channel's capacity to hold flow and flood risk increases. Field results demonstrate that rates of accumulation in the Wharfe are having a large impact on flood-risk and are attributed to the bank restrictions. The field data are also applied and used to calibrate a quasi-2D model of channel adjustment for the reach. The model is an extension of a one-dimensional sediment routing model. By splitting the channel and solving the hydraulic and sediment transport equations for each channel side, lateral variability in vertical and downstream aggradation and degradation is simulated. A curvature function is used to redistribute shear stress around meander bends and bank erosion is simulated as a function of excess shear stress. The calibrated model is used to explore the impacts of human intervention including exploring channel restoration options. Current discussions are in place for engineering work on an unprotected but severely eroding 200 m reach. Modelling scenarios are used to explore the possible impacts of installing hard engineering schemes along this reach. The most
Grosen, Anders; Jessen, Pernille; Kokholm, Thomas Sander
We examine a specific portfolio credit derivative, an Asset Protection Scheme (APS), and its applicability as a tool to restore financial stability and reduce asymmetric information. As opposed to most governmental bailout packages implemented across the world recently, the APS can be a fair valued...
The Abrolhos coral reefs are home to the most productive reef fisheries on the entire Brazilian coast and attract tourists each year with their natural beauty. Yet, Brazilians have failed to respect the intrinsic functionality of this unique coral reef ecosystem. The human demand for the unlimited production of goods is leading to the decline of the most diverse coral reef ecosystem in the South Atlantic Ocean. A network of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) designed to maintain the resilience of...
contract with an appropriate structure of incentives. Within the structural credit risk modeling framework, we apply two alternative multivariate default risk models: the classical Gaussian Merton model and a model based on Normal Inverse Gaussian (NIG) processes. Exchanging the normal factors in the......We examine a specific portfolio credit derivative, an Asset Protection Scheme (APS), and its applicability as a tool to restore financial stability and reduce asymmetric information. As opposed to most governmental bailout packages implemented across the world recently, the APS can be a fair valued...
White, Eugene N.
During the 1920-1921 recession, the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta resisted the deflationary policy sanctioned by the Federal Reserve Board and pursued by other Reserve banks. By borrowing gold reserves from other Reserve banks, it facilitated a reallocation of liquidity to its district during the contraction. Viewing the collapse of the price of cotton, the dominant crop in the region, as a systemic shock to the Sixth District, the Atlanta Fed increased discounting and enabled capital infus...
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 91.205 Section 91.205... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.205 Banking. (a... banking. (i) For outboard engines in model year (MY) 1997, a manufacturer may bank positive...
Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.
The aim of this bachelor thesis is to introduce the Islamic banking. Describing historical and religious background of Islam, the Islamic banking and Shari'ah law. Then presenting financing techniques used in the Islamic banking. Eventually describing and analysing the Islamic banking in Malaysia. Comparison between the Islamic banking and the conventional banking is given throughout the bachelor thesis.
A discharge of the 67 MJ and 50 kV capacitor bank used as a pulsed power system for flashlamp pumping of ISKRA-5's high-power iodine laser, involves control and diagnostic equipment being subjected to significant electromagnetic fields and electrical interference that will further develop through conductive circuits. The paper describes and validates design approaches to the grounding system, signal carriage and decoupling circuits that would result in lower interference both for the capacitor bank's control and diagnostics systems. A summary is also given of the ten-years' practice in operating the control and diagnostics equipment during the facility experiments. (author). 1 tab., 3 refs
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 96.55 Section 96.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET... Tracking System § 96.55 Banking. (a) NOX allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in...
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.155 Section 97.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Banking. (a) CAIR NOX allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in a compliance account or...
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.355 Section 97.355 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... System § 97.355 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances may be banked for future use or transfer...
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 96.355 Section 96.355 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET... Allowance Tracking System § 96.355 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances may be banked for...
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 96.255 Section 96.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET... Tracking System § 96.255 Banking. (a) CAIR SO2 allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in...
... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 60.4155 Section 60.4155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF... Generating Units Hg Allowance Tracking System § 60.4155 Banking. (a) Hg allowances may be banked for...
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.255 Section 97.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Banking. (a) CAIR SO2 allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in a compliance account or...
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 96.155 Section 96.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET... Tracking System § 96.155 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in...
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.55 Section 97.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Banking. NOX allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in a compliance account, an...
Grosen, Anders; Jessen, Pernille; Kokholm, Thomas
-Nielsen (1997). The Danish agricultural sector is an example of a financially troubled industry, which currently suffers under what appears to be the burst of a price bubble on farmland. Using a unique data set on yearly, farm level data from 2003 to 2009 we form an agricultural loan portfolio, which will serve...... as the underlying in the valuation of the corresponding APS in order to demonstrate the applicability of the APS as a regulatory tool. The contribution to the financial literature on credit risk is the empirical analysis of agricultural loans using our unique data set. The contribution to the banking...... literature is the suggestion of how to use the specific type of credit derivative in a manner which retains an appropriate structure of incentives for banks to tend and maintain their loan portfolios. Finally, the contribution to the Danish society is a specific suggestion of how to address the serious...
The retail banking plays more and more important role in polish banking sector. There are several targets of this article. First of all is retail banking identification, both in Euroland and Poland. The next one – trends, especially household deposits and credits and last – retail banking in particular banks.
The article surveys the establishment of a legislative framework providing for banking regulation in Czechoslovakia during 1918?1938. The state intervened in bank sanitation twice during economic recessions in the early 1920s and 1930s. The shocks resulted in the adoption of banking laws to strengthen the stability of the banking sector. The laws interfered with the internal organization of banks, compelled personal responsibility on the part of bank management, protected creditors, and suppo...
Banking institution plays an important and strategic role in an attempt to protect and to manage the environment. In protecting the environment, the banking institution can do it through the pattern of green banking. Green banking is a financial institution prioritizing sustainability in its business practice. The policy on credit at green banking can increase its competitiveness and own superiority in business strategy. Participation of banking in supporting green banking management is in li...
Full Text Available Internet Banking (known also as online banking allows performing transactions and payments over the internet through a bank's secure website. This can be very useful, especially for banking outside bank hours (which tend to be very short and banking from anywhere where internet access is available. In most cases a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox is utilized and any normal internet connection is suitable. No special software or hardware is usually needed.
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking emission credits. 1042.715 Section 1042.715 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION..., Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1042.715 Banking emission credits. (a) Banking is the...
本文结合实务总结了商业银行在商业秘密保护方面存在的问题,在对商业秘密进行法律分析的基础上,提出了商业银行保护商业秘密的应对之策。%After a legal analysis on problems arose in business secret protection in commercial banks,the paper attempts to propose countermeasures for commercial banks to protect their business secrets.
Pieslak, Raymond F.
The student manual for high school level special needs students was prepared to provide deaf students with the basic fundamentals of banking. Five units are presented covering the topics of banks and banking services, checking accounts, other services of banks, savings accounts, and other investments. Each lesson was carefully written for easy…
Juan Carlos Levesque
Full Text Available The demand on our marine resources is increasing at unsustainable rates; however, marine policy and management is complex, political, and time consuming. One tool that resource managers in the United States use for managing, protecting, and conserving fragile marine resources is the designation of Marine Protected Areas. Presently, the public is concerned with the status and health of the fish and fisheries associated with the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS. Given these conservation and social issues, the main goal of this study was to provide an evaluation of the recreational fisheries associated with the FGBNMS. Findings showed that recreational landings were dominated by red snapper, vermilion snapper, and gray triggerfish; landings varied significantly by month and location. The highest fishing effort was in summer and the highest catch rates were in spring and fall; catch rates varied significantly by species and location in some areas. The mean weight of the primary recreational species taken was correlated negatively with time, but statistical similar. Proposed management measures for the FGBNMS are expected to impact some recreational fisheries, but long-term outcomes should benefit the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.
Florence Bonnet; Catherine Saget; Axel Weber
Using data from standardized questionnaires on 77 countries, this document reviews policy response to the global crisis that was initiated in 2008, in the area of social protection. The most prevalent measure consists of changes to existing schemes, while few new schemes were initiated in the wake of the crisis. Partial unemployment systems have also been used outside Europe in emerging economies. Pension schemes were reformed in one-third of countries, at various stages of development. Middl...
Rose M. Prasad
Community banks are the smallest of the commercial banks in the United States. They have been bracing to cope with the impact of interstate banking, with the distinct possibility of large banks encroaching on their hitherto protected market territories. The challenge for these banks has been one of survival in an environment dominated by ÒmegaÓ banks and non-bank financial firms able to provide the customers with an array of services at lower cost. In this environment, information technology ...
Pozsar, Zoltan; Adrian,Tobias; Ashcraft, Adam; Boesky, Hayley
The rapid growth of the market-based financial system since the mid-1980s changed the nature of financial intermediation in the United States profoundly. Within the market-based financial system, "shadow banks" are particularly important institutions. Shadow banks are financial intermediaries that conduct maturity, credit, and liquidity transformation without access to central bank liquidity or public sector credit guarantees. Examples of shadow banks include finance companies, asset-backed c...
Investment banking is a generic term for transactional activities involving financial intermediation conducted through open markets. It was long associated with a legal demarcation in the US and Japan that separated banks that made loans and took deposits from those that traded in securities, but now denotes risk-based activities in banks of any kind. This paper explains investment banking practices in terms of reputational capital, and contrasts the transactional skills and innovation found ...
@@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.
Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta
To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 73.36 Section 73.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.36 Banking. (a) Compliance accounts. Any allowance in...
There is no doubt that China’s banking system is a calm port in the global financial storm. Moreover, a great regulatory firewall and an easing monetary environment have enabled Chinese banks to increase lending and help shrug off the economic downturn. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed this topic in a recent article in the Shanghai Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow:
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 90.205 Section 90.205... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 90.205 Banking. (a)(1) Beginning August 1, 2007, a manufacturer of a Class I...
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 89.205 Section 89.205... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.205 Banking. (a) Requirements for Tier 1 engines rated at or above 37 kW. (1) A...
In my bachelor paper I focus on the issue of shadow banking. The paper is theoretically oriented. Its main goal is to provide overview on the shadow banking system. The text is divided into four parts. The first part includes the definition of shadow banking and the description of its characteristics. The credit intermediation in shadow banking and the process of securitization is explained in the second part. The third part is aimed at mapping of situation in the area of implementation of re...
In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...
Full Text Available The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of financial - banking commitments with various practical issues which are occurred by the use of those. From the legal point of view, the bank guarantees are not under an own legal regulation and are based on the common law, used in the guarantees domain. Through the new aspects of the actual Civil Code it are the legal regulation of the letter of bank guarantee and of the comfort letter, which shall constitute the main regulation in the negotiation and conclusion of a letter of bank guarantee or a bank comfort letter. For the legal reports with foreign elements, the parties can also use the Uniform Rules regarding the Guarantees at Request (URGR Publish no.758/2010.
Bunn, DA; Moyle, PB; Johnson, CK
In 1995, California established the first conservation banking program in the United States to provide a new financial mechanism to conserve wildlife and natural communities in rapidly developing regions. Conservation banks are lands protected and managed for conservation of species of concern. Developers may purchase species credits from a conservation bank to offset adverse impacts of development at another site. Conservation banks facilitate pooling of mitigation resources from multiple de...
Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.
The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking emission credits. 1033.715... CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1033.715 Banking emission credits. (a) Banking is the retention of emission credits by the...
介绍了西门子7U微机发电机&变压器组保护装置的基本功能,对西门子7U发变组保护的原理:差动保护,失磁保护,定子一点接地和转子一点接地保护进行了分析.并对大型发变组保护提出了7U的配置方案.%The basic functions of Siemens LSA7 microprocessor-based protection devices for generator-transformer bank are presented. The configuration of LSA7 protection devices for high rating generator-transformer bank are put forward. At the same time, the principles of Siemens LSA7 protection series such as differential protection, field-loss protection, stator one point grounding fault protection and rotor one point grounding fault protection are analyzed in detail.
Bell, Venetia; Butt, Nick; Talbot, James
In order to improve understanding of the role of bank liabilities in driving credit and monetary conditions, the Bank of England began conducting a formal Bank Liabilities Survey last year. This survey is intended to supplement the data collected on the asset side of bank balance sheets by the Bank of England’s quarterly survey of credit conditions, which was introduced in 2007. The first results of the Bank Liabilities Survey will be published on 26 March. This article introduces the survey.
Ahmad Y. Areiqat
Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims to highlight the role of information technology in reducing risk of electronic banking services in the Jordanian banking sector. The study was conducted on three banks as a sample representative of the Jordanian banking sector. Approach: Data collection was through conducting personal interviews with the operations managers in the three banks (HBTF, JC Bank and Audi Bank. Results: The results showed that Jordanian banks showed highest attention toward risk management of e-banking, through their commitment to Basel Standards on risk management. Conclusion: Through the study, it will be clear that Jordanian banks committed to the standards of the Basel committee on safety and security of electronic banking services. These banks take into account all the potential risks before applying any system of electronic services. It is irrefutable evidence on the banks of Jordan keenness on protecting themselves and their customers from risk of theft through electronic means, the banks included their websites with detailed instructions to ensure that no customer fall prey to hackers.
The Bank of Lithuania (BoL), the Central Bank, was established in 1990. BoL has the exclusive right to grant and revoke licenses to local and foreign banks and to supervise their activities. Private commercial banking boomed from 1991 to 1994 while bank regulation was lax. In late 1995, a bank crisis caused failures of most of the Lithuanian banks, and the remaining banks resulted in better ...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...
Current topics: district bank performance; modeling complex products; student loans; the expansion of vendor management risk; consumer financial protection bureau issues final rules impacting mortgage servicing
The Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago's supervision group follows current and emerging risk trends on an on-going basis. This Risk Perspectives newsletter is designed to highlight a few current risk topics and some potential risk topics on the horizon for the Seventh District and its supervised financial institutions. The newsletter is not intended as an exhaustive list of the current or potential risk topics and should not be relied upon as such. We encourage each of our supervised financial i...
Bunn, David; Lubell, Mark; Christine K Johnson
California pioneered the first conservation banking program in the nation in 1995. In contrast to the regulatory approach that penalizes landowners for harming protected species, conservation banking creates a market incentive for landowners to conserve wildlife. We investigated the implementation of the California Conservation Banking Program including a preliminary assessment of factors that limit the program's potential, both as an effective approach to conserving wildlife and as an...
Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…
Ist die Bank der Zukunft noch eine Bank? Ist sie noch eine Bank mit Menschen, oder wird die virtuelle Bank das Modell der Zukunft sein? Haben die Filialen noch eine Chance, oder werden künftig alle Bankgeschäfte über Computer abgewickelt? Umfragen unter Kreditinstituten bestätigen, dass die gegenwärtig drängendste Frage ist, auf welchem Weg die Bank und der Mensch zusammenkommen.
This research aims to unveil whether the tremendous banking sector reforms within the dynamic nature of the EU economic environment have achieved one of the catalyst EU goals, increase financial institutions’ cost efficiency. Using a single stage stochastic frontier approach, cost efficiency of the enlarged EU is estimated and evaluated for the period 2005-2011. The results suggest that EU pursuits have been successful but that stronger controls are needed.
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 91.1305 Section 91.1305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1305...
The National Dosimetry Bank (BDN) was designed to be a useful instrument for the protection of exposed workers. On the basis of individual doses, in conjunction with the type of facility where they were received and the type of work involved, it is possible to monitor and control the individual conditions of an exposed worker. In addition to this primary objective, the BDN's structure and utilities are such that it can be used for applications such as determining the suitability of the working conditions in various areas of ionizing radiation applications, evaluating exposure trends and the most affected areas, and supplying statistical data that can be used for legal studies
The relations between the bank and the customers are the relations of market transactions. As two opposite sides, they are often in an antagonistic relation. The banks, however, in seeking their own benefits in business, besides getting into clashes with the interest of the customers, they can also cause some mutual promotion with the consumers. There is an internal unity between the bank＇ s goal of safe and steady business running and the protection of the consumers＇ interest.%银行与消费者之间存在的是市场交易关系,作为交易的相对方,两者往往存在一定的对立关系,但银行追求利益的经营与消费者权益保护有冲突也有相互促进的方面,银行安全稳健经营的目标与消费者权益保护具有内在统一性。
The subject of article consists in banking deposit insurance system and in international experiences set the principles of efficient banking deposit insurance system for modern banking systems in global financial market. The recommended design of deposit insurance system is explicit insurance with broad client’s protection, which is comparable with systems in other countries where clients can easy transfer their deposit.
Full Text Available Indonesia banking based on Article 4 of Act No.10, 1998, aims at supporting the implementation of national development in order to improve equity, economic growth and national stability in the direction of improving people’s welfare. Therefore, to show how important is banking role in supporting the implementation of development, the 6 (six Strategic Dimensions as the foundation of Banking Standards Contract are: (1. Prudent Banking Supervision and Good Corporate Governance (GCG in banking activities, (2. Refunctionalization the principle of Contract Law in Banking Standards Contract, (3. Ethics Value in Business, (4. The Act No. 8, 1999 on Consumer Protection, (5. Enforcement of Human Rights Principles in banking activities, (6. Abuse of Circumstances implementations (Misbruik van Omstandigheden in banking Contract. Based on the 6 (six Strategic Dimension as the foundation of Banking Standard Contract, it will undoubtedly create justice, equity and assurance of the rights and obligations of the parties framed in the contractual and law bonds.
Georgia's banking system restructure began in 1991 when Soviet Union collopsed.This paper tries to compare and constract the performance of banks and banking system between 1999 and 2004 with banks in other transition countries. Although Georgia banking system showed a long processing in banking sector, it is still lags behind other transition countries Central and Eastern Europe. Neverthless.An efficient financial institution and performance will not come without further economic development...
Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.
Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.
Internal control system is the important element in management of a bank. I's a basic system to do a safe and healthy bank operational that can develop properly. Internal control system can help the managerial of bank to protect bank asset, to guarantee certified financial report and reliable accurate managerial. Accounting system information is a series of formal procedures which is every financial transaction collected and processed due to be applicable accounting information for user. ...
Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K
Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.
Constantin Marian MATEI; Catalin Ionut SILVESTRU; Dragos Stefan SILVESTRU
Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture). SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system....
Full Text Available The global economic crisis in the 1890s affected the economy of Greece severely, and in 1893 the Greek State had to stop servicing its foreign debt. Part of theproblem was the lack of diversity of Greek agricultural production, which was focused on raisins and currants (especially flavourful raisins, grown exclusively in the area around Corinth for export. The collapse of market prices for this good seriously affected the Greek treasury and society in the growing regions. The Greek government responded by trying to withhold part of the harvest in fertile years to stabilise world market prices. Plans to organise a monopoly company for the currant trade necessitated high sums of capital from abroad. This article investigates the question of how foreign bankers in London (Hambro & Son, Emile Erlanger and Paris (Banque de l’Union Parisienne could be convinced to participate in the project. Which factors allowed foreign bankers to trust in the Greek national economy despite its poor reputation? What factors influenced their risk management? The focus is on the role of Greek brokers in persuading the foreigners to invest in Greece, especially the role played by Ioannis Pesmazoglou, the director of the young and innovative Bank of Athens.
This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of customer information. 568.5 Section 568.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITY PROCEDURES § 568.5 Protection of customer information. Savings associations and their subsidiaries...
The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking) against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking) were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking ...
N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg
Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure...
Stijn Claessens; Lev Ratnovski
There is much confusion about what shadow banking is. Some equate it with securitization, others with non-traditional bank activities, and yet others with non-bank lending. Regardless, most think of shadow banking as activities that can create systemic risk. This paper proposes to describe shadow banking as â€œall financial activities, except traditional banking, which require a private or public backstop to operateâ€. Backstops can come in the form of franchise value of a bank or insurance c...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...
Transformer bank has some advantages, such as simple in wiringand distribution, economic in investment, little in occupy floor. The paper discusses the feasibility of transformer bank used in small-scale heat power plant in coal mine and its relaying protection distribution.%线路变压器组具有接线及布置简单、节省投资和占地少的优点。文章论述了线路变压器组在煤矿小型热电厂应用的可行性及继电保护配置。
Ananthakrishnan Prasad; Pierluigi Bologna
This note assesses the impact of the global financial risks on Oman's banking system and highlights the remaining risks. It concludes that the liquidity and prudential measures introduced by the authorities mitigated the adverse effects of the crisis on the banking system. Banks continue to make profits despite higher provisioning. Stress tests confirm the resilience of the banking system to credit and market risks. Banks have limited exposure to derivatives and the majority of the off-balanc...
Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian
The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...
The banking literature documents various roles for banks in financial systems. Banks are both ‘liquidity providers’ and ‘information producers’. Banks are especially important for small and medium-size enterprises and represent these firms' principal source of external finance. Hence, the banks’ role is relevant for the smooth functioning and growth of an economy as well. Moreover, when banks and firms enter into a relationship, they are able to overcome problems of asymmetric information and...
Adrian,Tobias; Adam B. Ashcraft; Cetorelli, Nicola
We provide a framework for monitoring the shadow banking system. The shadow banking system consists of a web of specialized financial institutions that conduct credit, maturity, and liquidity transformation without direct, explicit access to public backstops. The lack of such access to sources of government liquidity and credit backstops makes shadow banks inherently fragile. Shadow banking activities are often intertwined with core regulated institutions such as bank holding companies, secur...
Chinese banks expands its "going out" strategy but faces challenges in establishing a presence in foreign markets The world’s biggest lender by market value, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), and the Hong Kong-based Bank of East Asia signed an agreement in which ICBC would pay $140.23 million to buy an 80-percent inter- est in Bank of East Asia USA, the Hong Kong bank said on January 23.
<正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within
Lawrence J. Radecki; John Wenninger; Daniel Orlow
The largest U.S. commercial banks are restructuring their retail operations to reduce the cost disadvantage resulting from a stagnant deposit base and stiffer competition. As part of this effort, some banks are opening "supermarket," or "in-store," branches: a new type of banking office within a large retail outlet. An alternative to the traditional bank office, the supermarket branch enables banks to improve the efficiency of the branch network and offer greater convenience to customers.
Wilko Bolt; Leo de Haan; Marco Hoeberichts; Maarten van Oordt; Job Swank
This paper estimates the relation between bank profitability and economic downturns using a theoretical model that takes into account the bank's lending history as well as amortization and losses on outstanding loans. We focus on total bank profits and its components: net interest income, other income, and net provisioning plus other costs. Using both aggregate and individual bank panel datasets, our results confirm that pro-cyclicality of bank profits is stronger for deep recessions than dur...
Juel, Steinar; Molnar, Krisztina Molnar; Røed, Knut
Norges Bank has gone a long way in being open about its decisions and it is one of the most transparent central banks; this report makes a few recommendations about further improving the bank in this respect. Since Norges Bank already has a history of many years of transparency about its decisions and the principles used to make these decisions, it is possible to make a retrospective analysis and evaluate the bank. We think that evaluating and discussing the monetary policy of ...
Joao Granja; Gregor Matvos; Amit Seru
We study the recent episode of bank failures and provide simple facts to better understand who acquires failed banks and which forces drive the losses that the FDIC realizes from these sales. We document three distinct forces related to the allocation of failed banks to potential acquirers. First, a geographically proximate bank is significantly more likely to acquire a failed bank: only 15% of acquirers do not have branches within the state. Sales are more local in regions with more soft inf...
Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg , Clas
The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervision can be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI) in the banking sector if political nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could...
Linda S. Goldberg
This article profiles the recent evolution and consequences of banking sector globalization. After presenting trends in international banking, the article overviews macroeconomic consequences of banking sector globalization, including the role of banks in the international transmission of shocks, comovements of business cycles, financial crises, and economic growth. Other consequences of banking globalization have parallels with the effects of real-side foreign direct investment, including te...
Han Guiying; Xiao Jiajun
@@ The global financial crisis is striking the international financial market severely. Since July 2007, foreign banks and brokers have been suffering an enormous loss caused by the financial crisis. More than 160 thousand jobs have been cut this year by financial institutions like Citibank, HSBC and Morgan Stanly, etc. However, what shows a strong contrast with global job cutting is that these foreign banks are rapidly expanding their business in China. According to the data of related market,seven foreign banks have opened more than nine new branches in two months after September 17, the day that Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy protection. November 17, HSBC issued China UnionPay debt cards in 17 cities of China. At the same time, several new services of foreign banks were supposed to be authorized by CBRC (China Banking Regulatory Commission), including loan corporation of Citibank and credit cards of BEA.
Full Text Available A credit institution liquidity managing, concerns on currency flows and operative funding needs, for customer satisfaction. Correlating bank liabilities and assets reflects the overall picture of the liquidity situation. The purpose of an efficient management of bank liquidity is to ensure the normal course of banking intermediation, to protect the interests of customers on one side and of the shareholders on the other side. Through an efficient bank liquidity management, are ensured reserve requirements and especially reasonable banking capacity of deposits reimbursement to customers, correlated with period in which they are or there are not returned to the credit institution, investments in the loans and other assets.
Gentiana Gjino; Orkida Ilollari (Findiku)
Banks are now being prepared to take advantage of another profit opportunity which is another product usable by all of us, the 'Mobile phone'. The interest over 'Mobile Banking' product is becoming increasingly intense. Applications and new technologies are spreading through European banks mobilized to embrace this profitable product. It is common knowledge that many users of mobile telephony are actively shifted from PC to mobile devices. It still remains to understand: to what extent this n...
Full Text Available The paper analyzes specific features of establishment of new regulatory standards of systemically important banks as one of the most priority directions of post-crisis improvement of supranational financial regulation. The essense of active and prearranged initiatives to secure constant activity of global and domestic powerful super-big banking institutions is investigated as well as some approaches as to recovery measures implementation without involvement of taxpayers' funds in case of their financial failure are considered. In particular, the main points are focused on introduction of additional requirements to the sufficiency of capital of global systemically important banks, development of the regulatory mechanisms of domestic systemically important banks by domestic authorities taking into account the specific peculiarities of certain national economies, structural reforms as to separation of traditional banking from the securities transactions for the depositors protection (Volcker rule, USA; Vickers rule, UK, establishment of the Single Supervisory Mechanism for the Eurozone banks, and declaration of necessity to form the Single mechanism for bank bankruptcy resolution etc. Some proposals concerning transformation of domestic system of financial regulation and supervision in Ukraine, like strengthening control of systemically important banks activity and introduction of mega-regulator model are characterized.
This paper examines the 1931 German banking crisis using a bank-level data set. It specifically focuses on the link between banking structure and financial stability. The universality of banks, a key characteristic of the German banking system, is shown to increase the probability of bank failure after controlling for other bank-level characteristics and macroeconomic variables.
Miranda Petronella VLAD; Mariana Rodica TIRLEA
E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accoun...
Σκοπός της εργασίας είναι η μελέτη της Τραπεζικής του Διαδικτύου. Ειδικότερα η διερεύνηση των μελλοντικών εξελίξεων του Internet Banking αλλά και των επιπτώσεων που αναμένεται να επιφέρει η περαιτέρω ανάπτυξή του στην παραδοσιακή Τραπεζική και τον ευρύτερο Τραπεζικό και χρηματοοικονομικό τομέα. Η εργασία είναι οργανωμένη σε τρεις θεματικές ενότητες-κεφάλαια. Στο πρώτο κεφάλαιο γίνεται αναφορά σε θεμελιώδη θέματα που αφορούν την Τραπεζική του Διαδικτύου. Πέρα από τους ορισμούς των Τραπεζικ...
Specificità e modelli di governo delle banche: un’analisi degli assetti proprietari dei gruppi bancari italiani (Specificity and Models of Banking Governance: An Analysis of the Ownership Structure of the Italian Banking Groups
Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the specificity of the banking governance and analysing the ownership structure of the Italian banking groups. Summing up, the theses here argued are: 1 the specificity of the banking activity restricts the role of stockholders, creditors and markets as channels of governance, while magnifying the role of regulation and authorities; 2 it is not possible to define a sole optimal model of banking governance; however, the market in which the bank is called to operate and the interests judged deserving of protection make some models of governance less suitable than others; 3 the models of banking governance currently more diffused in Italy are those of public banks, controlled by banking foundations, and of mutual and co-operative banks; 4 among the larger Italian banking groups there are heavy cross shareholdings, whereas they are weak among the regional banking groups; the sharing by Italian regional banks of larger banks' capital is increasing.
Kashmari A; Nejad AHG; Nayebyazdi A
Development and diversity of electronic banking services is one of the aspects of financial innovation of banks. In Iran’s banking system, the development of multiple channels representing electronic banking services such as SWIFT system, ATM, POS, PIN pads, internet banking, mobile banking and telephone banking are made for more facility in paying money, so today, the development of this channels is one of the most competitive areas between banks for attracting resources. The main purpose of...
@@ Nine years of controversy regarding a national postal savings bank is expected to finally conclude this year. In April, the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC)announced the establishment of a new department, one of the main functions of which will be to supervise postal savings.
Perbankan merupakan pokok dari sistem keuangan setiap negara, karena perbankan merupakan salah satu motor penggerak pembangunan seluruh bangsa. Krisis perbankan berdampak pada turunnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan. Berbagai masalah di sektor perbankan yang tidak terdeteksi secara dini akan mengakibatkan runtuhnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan, Skripsi mi mengemukakan bagaimana penilaian kesehatan bank umum yang dilakukan oleh Bank Indonesia, bagai...
Honoring its WTO commitments, China has begun to allow local incorporation by foreign banks, endowing them with the same status as their Chinese counterparts in an attempt to encourage diversified development in the Chinese banking sector On March 18, Wi
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...
Stuart I. Greenbaum; Anjan V. Thakor
We examine a bank's choice of whether to fund the loans it originates by emitting deposits or to sell the loans to investors. With common knowledge of loan quality and laissez faire banking, we find that the choice is irrelevant. With asymmetric information but without government intervention, we find that better quality assets will be sold (securitized) and poorer quality assets will be funded with deposits. Public regulation can influence the bank's choice; subsidies can cause a bank to fav...
Danish bank, Danske Bank, during the 2008 financial crisis and hence in shaping its image projected to the public. Through the study of a number of semantic frames adopted by the Danish print press and those adopted by the Bank, this article will argue for the constructions of the press putting...... considerable strain on the Bank and its image, leading it to reconsider its previous strategy of denial of responsibility...
Casu, B; Clare, A; Sarkisyan, A.; Thomas, S.
Using predominantly precrisis U.S. commercial bank data, this paper employs a propensity score matching approach to analyze whether individual banks did improve their performance through securitization. On average, our results show that securitizing banks tend to be more profitable institutions, with higher credit risk exposure. Despite a more diversified funding structure, they face higher funding costs. We also find that securitizing banks tend to hold larger and less diversified loan portf...
Randall Morck; Fan Yang
The remote inland province of Shanxi was late Qing dynasty China's paramount banking center. Its remoteness and China's almost complete isolation from foreign influence at the time lead historians to posit a Chinese invention of modern banking. However, Shanxi merchants ran a tea trade north into Siberia, travelled to Moscow and St. Petersburg, and may well have observed Western banking there. Nonetheless, the Shanxi banks were unique. Their dual class shares let owners vote only on insiders'...
Roberds, William; Velde, François R.
Publicly owned or commissioned banks were common in Europe from the fifteenth century. This survey argues that while the early public banks were characterized by great experimentation in their design, a common goal was to create a liquid and reliable monetary asset in environments where such assets were rare or unavailable. The success of these banks was however never guaranteed, and even well-run banks could become unstable over time as their success made them susceptible to fiscal exploitat...
The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...
Daniel Ferreira; Tom Kirchmaier; Daniel Metzger
We show that country characteristics explain most of the cross-sectional variation in bank board independence. In contrast, country characteristics have little explanatory power for the fraction of outside bank directors with experience in the banking industry. Exploiting the time-series dimension of the sample, we show that changes in bank characteristics are not robustly associated with changes in board independence, while changes in board experience are positively related to changes in ban...
Technology has transformed the banking industry with the introduction of mobile banking services that offer unprecedented convenience and accessibility to customers. This Asia Focus report describes the various approaches to mobile banking in Asia, and examines how particular countries have addressed regulatory issues.
Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.
Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…
Regulators issue policies to guide China’s banks as massive loans compromise the banking sector’s ability to contain future risks R egulatory departments are strengthening their supervision over financial institutions to prevent an incomprehensible financial scenario from unfolding: the failure of the Chinese banking
My name is Jane Carson and I'm the manager of savings bank in Portland,Oregon,My bank is open every day from8:30 in the moming until 4:00 in the aftermoon.On Fridays the bank remains oper until 6:30 in the evening.
The opening up of China’s banking sector took another giant step forward on March 20 when the first four foreign banks gained approval to incorporate locally. After going through commercial registration formalities, the banks will be able to con- duc
Brian Lang; John Barry
On 3 May 1999 the Bank issued a new $20 bank note into circulation that had been printed on a polymer substrate. This article traces the history of polymer, briefly describes the process of production, and highlights the benefits of the substrate and the implications for the future of bank note handling within the country.
Internet Research, 1996
Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…
The country's banking watchdog says that to engage in the retail renminbi business, foreign banks must become Chinese legal entities According to China's commitment at its accession to the WTO, as of December 11 this year, it will fully open renminbi business to foreign-funded banks. However, this does not mean that the 103 China branches of foreign
Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas
The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if politica...
Craig, Steven G.; Hardee, Polly T.
With the passage of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996, many small banks throughout the United States became eligible to reorganize as a Subchapter S corporation. This allows these banks to eliminate double taxation, and increase shareholder value. Consequently, employing this entrepreneurial survival tool extends â€œnew lifeâ€ to the small bank. Accompanying this strategy are differences in corporate governance, primarily more concentration of ownership. Thus, this paper examines ...
The World Bank or, in other words, World Bank Group is an international finance institution whose primary goal is to decrease poverty and promote sustainable development in third world countries. Other goals include granting loans to governments for financing development projects, reform of economic policy and technical support. World Bank involvement in terms of environment protection is expressed by linking main tasks pertaining to financing of economic development a...
Ross Levine; Chen Lin; Wensi Xie
Do stock markets act as a “spare tire” during banking crises, providing an alternative corporate financing channel and mitigating the economic severity of banking crises? Using firm-level data in 36 countries from 1990 through 2011, we find that the adverse consequences of banking crises on firm profitability, employment, equity issuances, and investment efficiency are smaller in countries with stronger shareholder protection laws. These findings are not explained by the development of stock ...
Christophe J. Godlewski; Frédéric Lobez; Jean-Christophe Statnik
We investigate the relationship between borrower quality and the structure of the pool of banks. First, we develop a theoretical model where the size of the banking pool is a credible signal of firm quality. We argue that better borrowers seek to disclose their quality in a credible way through the structure of the banking pool involving fewer banks. Second, we test our prediction using a sample of more than 3,000 loans from 19 European countries. We perform regressions of the number of bank ...
Kay, Benjamin S.; Manuszak, Mark D.; Vojtech, Cindy M.
The Durbin Amendment to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 alters the competitive structure of the debit card payment processing industry and caps debit card interchange fees for banks with over $10 billion in assets. Market participants predicted that debit card issuers would offset the reduction in debit interchange revenue by increases in customer account fees. Some participants also predicted that banks would cut costs in response to the law by reducing ...
Richard S.Grossman; Masami Imai
The recent financial turmoil highlights the incentive of highly leveraged financial institutions to take excessive risk, given the protection of limited liability. During the nineteenth and early twentieth century, many banks operated under liability rules which obligated shareholders to bear larger costs of bank insolvency in the form of contingent, or even unlimited liability. This paper examines the empirical relationship between the size of banks’ contingent liability and their risk-takin...
Paraschiv, Florentina; Qin, Minzi
The current financial crisis brought light to a large banking sector that existed for decades within the "darkness" of the financial system - the shadow banking sector. Shadow bank assets are widely traded in the financial markets and shadow banking activities are intertwined with the daily business of regular banks. This unregulated banking sector has become systematically important. Its failure affected the entire banking system. We present a model based on multivariate extreme value theory...
The paper examines how the banking system is organised in Romania. By comparing the organization of the banking system in Romania with banking systems of certain countries in the European Union, banks typology is highlighted at the international level. The aim of this paper is to highlight the factors influencing the Romanian banking system, the banking system role in the economy as well as the objectives of Romanian banking system. This paper examines indicators as: return on equity, return ...
Cargill, Thomas F.
This Economic Letter addresses central bank capital and financial strength in the context of Bank of Japan policy (Cargill 2005). Specifically, it reviews general considerations about central bank capital and financial strength, discusses recent Bank of Japan policy in the context of capital structure, evaluates the Bank of Japan's concern in the context of the broader issue of central bank independence, and draws some lessons from recent Bank of Japan policy.
Bartelings, H.; Hamon, K.G.; Oostenbrugge, van J.A.E.
In 2008, the Minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality notified four proposed Sites of Community In-terest (pSCIs) to the European Commission (for protection as Special Conservation Areas (SCAs) under the Habitats Directive). These areas are the Dogger Bank, Cleaver Bank, the Coastal Zone and
Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg
The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure....... The FDIC's experience teaches us three important lessons: First, systemically important financial institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be...
Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg
The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure....... The FDIC’s experience teaches us three important lessons: first, systemically important institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be sufficient to...
This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concepts are essential for avoiding harmful problems, development stable and solvent banking system. These developments include the more effective regulation of the entry and exit of banks, removal of ob...
G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; Betty A. Dankwah
This study looks at the benefits, challenges and barriers in adopting Internet banking at a major bank in Ghana. The development of the Internet is changing the way financial services are provided in Ghana. The Internet banking facility has resulted in new ways of delivering banking services. The research is a case study based on the staffs that has worked with the bank for more than three years. In evaluating benefits, challenges and barriers to the bank in adopting Internet banking, intervi...
This thesis analyzes the field of Customer Experience. The goal is to apply these issues to the banking market and understand what role has the relationship between the bank and the customer due to the prosperity of the bank. The paper describes the current Czech banking market, its trends in recent years and segmentation of bank clients. One of the major changes on the Czech banking market concerns ever increasing competition between banks and increase competition for consumers. Customer Exp...
Kooi Guan CHEAH
Full Text Available Internet banking has been increasingly used as a delivery channel in retail consumer banking. As far as the provision of internet banking services in developing countries is concerned, foreign banks definitely enjoy distinct advantages over domestic banks due to their experiences in other, more advanced financial markets. This paper reports a study that examined the levels of retail internet banking services provided by foreign and domestic commercial banks in Malaysia over a period of two years. The study found that while foreign banks are marginally more sophisticated at information provision level, domestic banks offer a significantly higher level of transactional facilities in both years.
..., DC, and should be addressed as follows: Accounting and Securities Disclosure Section, Division of..., Accounting and Securities Disclosure Section, Division of Supervision and Consumer Protection, 550 17th... securities disclosure regulations applicable to state nonmember banks with securities required to...
Rekola, Maija Kaarina
This work analyzes the interaction between privacy, biometrics and banks. The purpose is to by researching biometrics in the light of privacy and data protection to recognize the possible need to amend the legislation.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV) is responsible for preparing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for auditing sampling and sample bank activities performed under the Resource Conservation and Reco...
Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.
AlFarra, Diaa M. S.
Islamic Banking and Finance has been growing rapidly during the last decades. Descriptive analysis has been used in order to introduce the Islamic banking and finance and how it works. On other hand, clarify the Islamic Banking and Finance Systems and show how it works in part of liability and also profit and loss sharing basis. In addition to that, the main similarities and differences were properly identified, introduced and discussed in the paper. It is obvious that there are many similari...
Cabiles, Neil Adrian
This PhD Thesis is composed of three chapters, each discussing a specific type of risk that banks face. The first chapter talks about Systemic Risk and how banks get exposed to it through the Interbank Funding Market. Exposures in the said market have Systemic Risk implications because the market creates linkages, where the failure of one party can affect the others in the market. By showing that CDS Spreads, as bank risk indicators, are positively related to their Net Interbank Funding ...
Since there is not a special common framework for valuation banks and it gives possibilities to create establishment, improvement and adaptation of various approaches to measuring the value of banks and financial institutions. Most approaches banks valuation note the strong dependence of financial institutions value from market interest rates (Mishkin, F., Miller, WD, Copeland, T., Koller, T., Damodaran, A., and others). Each approache reflects greater or lesser degree of accuracy depending o...
Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix
ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is A...
Jeffrey Fear; Christopher Kobrak
As part of a series of related papers, the authors examine the conceptual foundations of German and American corporate governance, specifically highlighting the role of banks' relationships to corporations and the stock market. This paper focuses on how the regulatory and macroeconomic environments of the two countries helped shape how banks, especially money-centred bankers, actually interacted with their clients. Prior to 1914, despite many regulatory obstacles, American banks wielded more ...
Seibel, Hans Dieter
Agricultural development banks (AgDBs), which are not viable, should either be closed, or transformed into self-reliant, sustainable financial intermediaries. Experience shows that reform is possible. Among the prominent cases are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC, Thailand) as well as ADB/Nepal, which has been transforming its small farmer credit program into financially self-reliant local financial intermediaries owned and managed by th...
It seems impossible to drive a general rule concerning the outcomes of privatization that would be applicable to each country or sector. Privatization may lead to better use of resources but also to extraction of profit overseas and growing industrial concentration. Privatization of banking is more delicate an issue because of the potential to undermine confidence in the system. Moreover, there is the problem of obtaining data on bank privatization as public banks have always been an importan...
..., trading, and banking program. 86.1817-08 Section 86.1817-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program. Section 86.1817-08 includes text that...-cycle vehicles may participate in an NMHC averaging, banking and trading program to show compliance...
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of... ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.111 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions. Regulations regarding the availability of an averaging, banking, and trading...
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.103 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits. Regulations regarding averaging, banking, and trading provisions along with applicable...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...
The work undertaken in this study empirically explores the determinants of regulatory bank capital bu®ers, and how they in°uence bank decisions. Focusing on bank capital management under the Basel I framework, this thesis serves to address some of the con- cerns that have been voiced regarding the implementation of the new regulation (Basel II) and the broader economic e®ects that could result. In particular, the research chapters of this thesis examine the cyclical behavior of European bank ...
Full Text Available Islamic Banking Liquidity Management. this article is about management of liquidity which discuss about the position of cash money in the company and its ability to fulfill the obligation (pay the debt on time. Management of liquidity is one of the essential function which is done by banking institution and inside its efficient management, is needed instrument and finance market which is taking not only short term but also long term, and not only conventional banking but also syariat. Through that natural necessity (placement and fulfillment of short term need, for Islamic banking in Indonesia has been availabled some instruments such as (IMA certificate of Mudhorobah Investment between bank, (PUAS market banking regulations between syariat bank, (SWBI Bank of Indonesia Wadiah certificate, (FPJPS provision about short term cost facility for Islamic banks.DOI:10.15408/ijies.v6i1.1371
This note considers why a banking union is an essential component of a well-functioning monetary union. I describe some the consequences of banking union for the euro area. I describe how the European banking union should be designed.
Full Text Available This article summarizes the main requirements of the "Basel III" new standards in the context of banks capital regulation and identifies prospects for implementation of domestic banks based on analysis of international experience. The urgency of the problem is formulated in the need to restore the stability of the banking system of Ukraine with the new standards, which purpose is to increase the stability of banks and to protect the rights of financial services consumers. The main threats faced by the banking systems of developed countries and possible for the Ukrainian financial system were determined. The ways of achieving maximum benefits of new banking reform introduction were proposed.
IMOLA DRIGĂ; DORINA NIŢĂ; IOAN CUCU
The paper examines the features of private banking business focusing on the substantial growth in private banking over the last decade as commercial banks have targeted upmarket high net worth individuals. The accumulation of wealth has prompted the development of private banking services for high net worth individuals, offering special relationships and investment services. Private banking is about much more than traditional banking services of deposits and loans. It's about providing a one-...
World Bank Group
This pamphlet presents the World Bank Group and World Bank Corporate Scorecards updated with latest data available for Tier 3 (Performance Tier) as of December 31, 2015. Tiers 1 and 2 present data from end of fiscal year 2015. The World Bank Group Corporate Scorecard monitors the implementation of the World Bank Group Strategy. The Scorecard provides an apex view of the results and performance indicators of the three World Bank Group institutions—the World Bank (WB), ...
Miranda Petronella VLAD
Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profitability of 112 rural banks (special unit banks created to promote rural financial intermediation in Ghana. The results generally show that bank size, funding risk, diversification, liquidity risk, and bank stability are significant predictors of rural bank profitability. Whereas an improvement in the funding risk of a rural bank in a particular period portends a drop in its profitability in the future, an improvement in the size, diversification, liquidity risk, and stability of a rural bank signifies an improvement in the future profitability of the bank.
The rather straightforward restructuring of the Bank of Beijing became more arresting in January after Deutsche Bank was reported to be competing with its Dutch rival ING to purchase a stake in the local city commercial bank.
The working group discusses the establishment of an international bank for nuclear fuels. The statements by representatives of seven countries discuss the specific features of a bank of this kind which is set up to facilitate access to nuclear fuels but also to permit a more rigid control in the sense of the non-proliferation philosophy
Full Text Available The article deals with the specifics of banking innovations, the global trends of innovative strategies in the banking sector was described, analyzed the necessary methodology for their implementation, proposed plan of innovative activities and its possible application in Ukraine.
In May 1999 the Reserve Bank issued its first polymer bank notes into circulation. By March 2000 all denominations had been converted from paper to polymer. By the end of 2001 approximately 110 million polymer notes had been issued into circulation. This article assesses the performance of polymer notes compared with our expectations at the time they were introduced.
Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation
Full Text Available In the article it is determined the specificity of bank innovations. Level of their introduction in Ukraine is analyse. General tendencies in development of marketing of bank innovations are proved and the scientifically-methodical approach to an estimation of its efficiency is offered.
Full Text Available Sustainable enlargement can best be achieved by permitting markets to work within an appropriate framework of cost efficient regulations and economic instruments. One of the major economic agents influencing overall industrial activity and economic growth is the financial institutions such as banking sector. In a globalised economy, the industries and firms are vulnerable to stringent environmental policies, severe law suits or consumer boycotts. Since banking sector is one of the major stake holders in the Industrial sector, it can find itself faced with credit risk and liability risks. Further, environmental impact might affect the quality of assets and also rate of return of banks in the long-run. Thus the banks should go green and play a pro-active role to take environmental and ecological aspects as part of their lending principle, which would force industries to go for mandated investment for environmental management, use of appropriate technologies and management systems. This paper explores the importance of Green Banking, sites international experiences and highlights important lessons for sustainable banking and development in India. However, we find that there has not been much initiative in this regard by the banks and other financial institutions in India though they play an active role in India's emerging economy. Therefore, we suggest possible policy measures and initiative to promote green banking in India.
Bermundo, Cesar B.; Bermundo, Alex B.; Ballester, Rex C.
iBank is a project that utilizes a software to create an item Bank that store quality questions, generate test and print exam. The items are from analyze teacher-constructed test questions that provides the basis for discussing test results, by determining why a test item is or not discriminating between the better and poorer students, and by…
Dean Baker; Travis McArthur
One outcome of the TARP and other bank rescue efforts following the collapse of Lehman Brothers in September of 2008 is that the United States has essentially formalized a commitment to a “too big to fail” (TBTF) policy for major banks. This paper uses data from the FDIC on the relative cost of funds for TBTF banks and other banks, before and after the crisis, to quantify the value of the government protection provided by the TBTF policy.
The Solar Bank is proposed to be established as a multinational wholesale lending institution supporting the adoption of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems by as much as 40% of the world's population. It would supply capital resources to local lending institutions such as banks, credit unions, cooperatives, and rural lending organizations in the developing countries, and to financial institutions in the developed countries. The Solar Bank is intended to be global in scope, with operations in the major countries. The Solar Bank will bring a degree of standardization to the process of making small loans to many people for the purchase of PV systems, and it will provide technical support and training to its participating financial institutions. 'Solar Bank International' is likely to be headquartered in Europe. (orig.)
Gobert, Karine; González, Patrick; Poitevin, Michel
We propose a valuation model for a bank which faces a bankruptcy risk. Banks are identified with a possibly infinite random sequence of net benefits. A bank is solvent as long as its benefits remain non-negative. To preserve distressed banks from destruction, banks will be pooled within a financial coalition. When possible, those with current positive balance sheet will refinance those in need of liquidity. Banks are refinanced to the extent that their current needs for liquidity do not excee...
Timothy Rice; Cyril Peter
This exploratory study set out to understand the true value of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the banking sector. Businesses, including banks, actively participate in CSR but the question of value still persists. What does the bank receive in return for participating in CSR? Do banks get more customers as a result of their CSR programmes? Do banks have a better customer retention rate because of their CSR programme? Will customers change banks purely because they disagree with their...
Joe Peek; Rosengren, Eric S.
Derivatives have become an essential instrument for hedging risks, yet moral hazard can lead to their misuse by problem banks. Given that the absence of comprehensive data on bank derivatives activities prevents an accurate assessment of bank risk-taking, banks have an opportunity to take unmonitored second bets. Thus , troubled banks have the motive to increase risk, and derivatives provide the means to do so. The role of bank supervisors should be to limit the opportunity through more compr...
Bremus, Franziska M.; Lambert, Claudia
Despite the most recent period of calm on the financial markets, the long-term resilience of the European financial system is not yet assured, even several years after the financial crisis began. However, the stability of the financial system playsa crucial role for real economic development and consequently for growth and prosperity. The financial crisis has shown that stricter regulation is required to improve the stability and resilience of the banking system. Further, it has become eviden...
Norhazlin Ismail; Zarehan Selamat; Ong Hway Boon
The process customers go through in choosing a bank has been studied for several decades using different approaches. Understanding the needs and analyzing how the customers select their banks are crucial steps towards the improvement of customer satisfaction. In this study, an attempt is made to identify the determinants of bank selection and customers’ perception of banks in Malaysia.
Brown, Martin; Döbeli, Barbara; Sauré, Philip
We examine the origin of deposits with Swiss banks on a country-by-country basis for the period 1987-2007. We relate the volume of Swiss bank deposits for 99 countries to the taxation of personal income as well as to political governance in these countries. Our results suggest that higher taxation in origin countries is not associated with a larger volume of deposits with Swiss banks. Our results do show however that countries with weak political governance, e.g. corruption, internal conflict...
Islamic Banking Liquidity Management. this article is about management of liquidity which discuss about the position of cash money in the company and its ability to fulfill the obligation (pay the debt) on time. Management of liquidity is one of the essential function which is done by banking institution and inside its efficient management, is needed instrument and finance market which is taking not only short term but also long term, and not only conventional banking but also syariat. Thr...
Full Text Available This study aims to identify perceptual barriers of Internet banking adoption among Malaysian retail banking customers. The per ceptual barrier factors that analyzed were difficulty to operate, hassle to use, unreliable, perceived risk and high connection fees. This study employs a quantitative approach using questionnaire survey at selected banks in Malaysia. The results indicate that there are significant barriers exist in the perception of Internet banking adoption among Malaysian retail banking customers. The results indicate several implications for bank managers to change the perceptions of retail internet banking customers.
Full Text Available The banking industry has undergone tremendous changes with the introduction of information technology (IT. Electronic banking (EB is a new paradigm in banks’ product and service delivery. Electronic banking products and services have become increasingly popular in the past three decades as the banking industry operating in a complex and competitive environment has experienced the awareness to serve its customers electronically. Online banking has become the preferred way for many Americans to conduct financial activities. This paper explores a few published articles that reported on the impacts of electronic banking on the banking industry. The articles vary in their findings. Impacts on the banking industry from the points of view of consumers and bank employees were reported. This paper examines the study of few other articles to propose that more research be conducted utilizing a different research methodology such as qualitative method to fully understand how EB impacts the banking industry and address cyber crime threats.
Full Text Available Banking products are undergoing major changes due to extensive use of it and changing demands of the customers in current scenario. This study basically focuses on the changes came into banking industry and its impact on customers base and bank profits. Data is collected from 50 employees of both private and public sector banks with the help of questionnaire. Hence we can conclude that all banks are providing almost similar products and services to satisfy their customers fully. The continous metamorphsis of banking products not only results in improvement of customer base but also has positive impact on the profits of the bank. Private sector banks are earning more profits as a result of metamorphosis of traditional banking products in comparison to public sector bank.
Mohd. Azmi Omar; Abdul Rahim Abdul Rahman; Rosylin Mohd. Yusof; M. Shabri Abd. Majid; Mohd. Eskandar Shah Mohd. Rasid
This study investigates the change in the productivity of banking industry during the period of 2000 to 2004. The data consists of a panel of 11 commercial banks in Malaysia namely Malayan Banking, Bumiputra-Commerce, Public Bank, RHB Bank, Hong Leong Berhad, EON Bank, Affin Bank, Southern Bank Berhad, Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB), Ambank and Bank Muamalat. Productivity is measured by the Malmquist index, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique. The Malmquist productivity measu...
The new information technologies adoption and e-commerce emergence change the role of financial intermediaries in new E-conomy. During the last years, the banks have started an expansion to the web – they offer broad range of traditional bank products and services via Internet. The remote banking becomes one of the main channels for bank services distribution. This paper presents results from a research, which aims to describe actual picture of remote banking products and services offered by ...
The diploma thesis describes the current situation in the market of commercial banks in the Czech Republic, analyzes products offer in selected banks depending on the client preferences of individual commercial banks, and evaluates the influences and circumstances that determine the behavior of clients in relation to banks and financial products. Furthermore, it assesses the impact of demographic, social and economic factors on the usage of offered banking products. The thesis also includes a...
The second annual report describes specific environmental strategies and environmental lending in the Bank's four operational regions: Africa; Asia; Europe, Middle East, and North Africa; and Latin America and the Caribbean. It details the Bank's progress in eight environmental categories: energy and the environment, pollution, urban environment, water resources management, forest and land management, social and cultural, environmental economics, and the global environment. One chapter is devoted exclusively to tropical forests, studying ways in which the Bank is dealing with deforestation as a part of the constant review of its forest policies. Suggestions are made for decreasing the degradation of tropical forests while meeting demands for forest products. This chapter reflects a shift in Bank emphasis from commercial ventures to conservation measures. The publication reports on other initiatives by the Bank during fiscal 1991, including the launching of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)--a pilot program to oversee reduction of global warming, preservation of biological diversity, protection of international waters, and prevention of ozone depletion
1. Introduction 2. The role of banks and what is different in banks? 3. Corporate Governance and risk management 4. Risk taking and executive board composition 5. Compensation structures – how to improve models for banks? 6. Banking supervision and regulation 7. Reform of European institutions for financial stability
Chebira, Amina; Mixon, Dustin G
In this paper we characterize and construct novel oversampled filter banks implementing fusion frames. A fusion frame is a sequence of orthogonal projection operators whose sum can be inverted in a numerically stable way. When properly designed, fusion frames can provide redundant encodings of signals which are optimally robust against certain types of noise and erasures. However, up to this point, few implementable constructions of such frames were known; we show how to construct them using oversampled filter banks. In this work, we first provide polyphase domain characterizations of filter bank fusion frames. We then use these characterizations to construct filter bank fusion frame versions of discrete wavelet and Gabor transforms, emphasizing those specific finite impulse response filters whose frequency responses are well-behaved.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...
Ravn Sørensen, Anders
In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... the appropriateness and desirability of their decisions and policies. In these debates, interpretations and reproductions of Danish national identity were central to the governors' claims to legitimacy. I argue that past narratives of the Danish central bank and its governors enabled and framed future...... legitimacy claims and that the central bank and its governors gradually became embedded in national identity. Thus, the article highlights the historical development of the co-configuring relationship between Danish national identity and the legitimacy of monetary organization....
Bolster, Carole J
New technology is being used by banks to help providers improve their revenue cycle through: Digital lockbox service. Remote deposit. Web-based payment. Automated payment processing at the point of service. PMID:17427461
Michael Keen; Ruud A. de Mooij
Understanding the impact of the asymmetric tax treatment of debt and equity on the capital structures of financial institutions is critical to shaping and assessing responses to the problem of excessive leverage that underlay the 2009 financial crisis - but there is no empirical evidence to draw on. Guided by a simple model of banks? financing decisions in the presence of both regulatory constraints and tax asymmetries, this paper explores the impact of corporate tax bias on bank leverage, th...
Vasile DEDU; Tiberiu STOICA
In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR) has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disin...
The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze the sector of the Cyprus economy that deals with the International Banking or Offshore Banking as otherwise is being called in Cyprus. During the last two decades the island of Cyprus has managed to establish itself as a reputable international financial centre. Therefore the literature review of this paper examines the research theme from two different aspects. First it examines the financial system of Cyprus as related to international ban...
Di Cesare, Antonio
This paper analyzes the effects of CDO issuance on the risk of default of banks. Previous literature showed that the overall riskiness of a bank can increase when it sells part of the loans in its portfolio by issuing a CDO of which it retains the equity tranche. Using Monte Carlo simulations, this paper confirms previous results but also highlights that they can change substantially if one modifies the hypothesis regarding how the proceeds of securitizations are reinvested. The assessment of...
Ekeli, Thomas; Haug, Anne Kari; Houg, Kjetil; Steigum, Erling, Jr
The Centre for Monetary Economics (CME) at the BI Norwegian School of Management has for the fourth time invited a committee of economists to participate on Norges Bank Watch, with the objective of evaluating the monetary policy regime in Norway and Norges Bank’s conduct of monetary policy. This time the committee has focused on the conduct of policy rather than addressing institutional issues. The committee refers to Norges Bank Watch 2002 for a detailed assessment of the mone...
Svensson, Lars E.O.; Houg, Kjetil; Solheim, Haakon O. Aa.; Steigum, Erling, Jr
The Centre for Monetary Economics (CME) at the Norwegian School of Management BI has for the third time invited a committee of economists for Norges Bank Watch, with the objective to evaluate the monetary-policy regime in Norway and Norges Bank’s conduct of monetary policy. The committee for Norges Bank Watch 2002 consists of Professor Lars E.O. Svensson (chair), Princeton University, Chief Economist Kjetil Houg, Alfred Berg, Doctorate Student Haakon O.Aa. Solheim, Norwegian ...
VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA
Banking structure is redesigned to make India a fully digital nation and to usher in 100% E-governance. Multi dimensional and multipurpose savings account - It is the main keel of this restructured banking. Purpose of this multi dimensional account 1. This savings account can be used for receiving, storing and spending of money. 2. It can be used for buying, selling and holding property rights of immovable properties like lands, plots, flats and commercial establishments. 3...
The recurrent banking panics of the 19th century and the Great Depression of the 1930s are widely viewed as failures of our economic system. A simple version of Samuelson’s overlapping generations model is used to generate such failures of Walrasian equilibrium. The spontaneous “panics” generated involve a collapse of bank credit, causing in turn a drop in investment demand. The model suggests that both the recent technological advances in the intermediation industry and the current move towa...
Tchana Tchana, Fulbert
This paper empirically assesses whether banking regulation is effective at preventing banking crises. We use a monthly index of banking system fragility, which captures almost every source of risk in the banking system, to estimate the effect of regulatory measures (entry restriction, reserve requirement, deposit insurance, and capital adequacy requirement) on banking stability in the context of a Markov-switching model. Our methodology is less prone to selection and simultaneity bias which a...
Mohsin S. Khan
Deregulation, technology, and financial innovation are transforming banking. Indeed, banking is no longer the business it was even a few decades ago. The way banking services are provided has changed dramatically, and in many countries they are even offered by institutions that are quite different from traditional banks. As the old institutional demarcations become increasingly irrelevant, increased competition from other intermediaries has led to a decline in traditional banking in which ban...
Helmut Elsinger; Alfred Lehar; Martin Summer
In this paper we suggest a new approach to risk assessment for banks. Rather than looking at them individually we try to undertake an analysis at the level of the banking system. Such a perspective is necessary because the complicated network of mutual credit obligations can make the actual risk exposure of banks invisible at the level of individual institutions. We apply our framework to a cross section of individual bank data as they are usually collected at the central bank. Using standard...
Eduardo Levy Yeyati; Tito Cordella
This paper analyses the impact of public disclosure of banks’ risk exposure on banks’ risk taking incentives and its implications in terms of soundness of the banking system. We find that, when banks have a complete control over the volatility of their loan portfolio, public disclosure reduces the probability of banking crises. When asset risk is driven largely by exogenous factors beyond the control of bank managers, however, information disclosure may increase banking sector fragility, as t...
The globalisation of banking markets has raised important issues regarding corporate governance regulation for banking institutions. This research paper addresses some of the major issues of corporate governance as it relates to banking regulation. The traditional principal-agent framework will be used to analyse some of the major issues involving corporate governance and banking institutions. It begins by analysing the emerging international regime of bank corporate governance. This has been...
Romanian banking system has known in the last years significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements and governance principles on one hand and assimilation of the EU Directives for the banking sector on the other hand. The function of internal audit is new in the Romanian banks, being implemented as a result of the new regulation established by the Romanian National Bank in the effort to aligne the Romanian banking legislation to the international regulations and ...
Galema, Rients; Koetter, Michael; Liesegang, Caroline
We adapt a theoretical model from the goods trade literature to test whether banks with a comparative cost advantage are more likely to enter foreign markets by means of foreign direct investment. We combine detailed proprietary bank-level data on the international activities of all German banks with publicly available bank micro data from possible destination markets to show that the decision to go abroad is driven by relative cost differences. Banks enter markets where they are cost leaders...
This paper focuses on the role of the banks in supporting sustainable development. Its objective is to examine recent trends in banking and sustainable development, as well as to assess the implementation and application of the sustainable development policies adopted by the banks in the banking sector in Republic of Macedonia. For that purpose it is made a comprehensive analysis on the trends of “sustainable finance”, as well as research on the practices in the Macedonian banking sector in s...
Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.
Villa, Jesus Simeon Villa
Abstract Banks have a central role and importance in all commerce and hence in all societies. This thesis investigates the ethical basis of banking practice with the aim of developing an account of the virtues appropriate to bankers and banking. One central issue concerns a conflict between the interests of banks and their customers, and how this conflict plays out in relation to the lending policies and fee structure of banks. Such lending policies can have a significant effect on ban...
Geoffrey P. Miller
Do central banks control the business cycle? Should price stability be their only monetary policy goal? Do politicians give up a degree of power and gain nothing personally when they grant central banks independence? This Commentary argues that none of these widely held notions is true. The Commentary is based on a speech presented to participants at the conference on the Origins and Evolution of Central Banking, sponsored by the Central Bank Institute of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland...
Full Text Available The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking which totaled 19.9 million customers with the size of the sample being 400 respondents. The sampling method used nonprobability sampling by incidental sampling. The results by using a structural equation modeling (SEM found significant influences between service quality of mobile banking (m-banking partially and simultaneously to customer satisfaction.
Full Text Available The systems through which cross-border financial transactions are being accomplished are much more complex than domestic funds transfer systems, because it involves one or more intermediate institutions, networks using different compensation from countries that have different currencies and even performed, including operations exchange. The European Community is constantly concerned about efficient cross-border payments but also about the consumer protection of these services, so as to ensure the same conditions for cross-border services, but also for national services and to stimulate cross-border investment was adopted Directive 97/5/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 1997 on cross-border credit transfers, repealed by Directive 2007/64/EC. Article 10 of Directive 97/5/EC established a series of minimum requirements and measures relating to cross-border credit transfers. Thus Member States shall ensure that there are adequate and effective complaints and redress procedures for the settlement of disputes between an originator and his institution or between a beneficiary and his institution in case of failure transfers. In Romania, the provisions of Directive 2007/64/EC were transposed by the adoption of Emergency Ordinance no. 113/2009 which repeals the Government Ordinance no. 6 / 2004 on cross-border transfers. This document provides that each institution must have appropriate procedures for resolving customer complaints in connection with the execution of a cross border institution or commitments in connection with such transfer. In the legal doctrine prior to the adoption of Government Ordinance no. 6 / 2004, it was proposed that the National Bank of Romania, as banking supervisory authority, in some specialized structures, ensure procedures to enforce the settlement of disputes between consumers and financial service providers of banking and insurance. The solution was acquired by the Romanian legislature, so the
Li, Gan; Wen-Yao, Wang
Abstract: Countries with deposit insurances differ significantly on how much protection their insurance provides. We study the optimal coverage limit in a model of deposit insurance with capital requirements and risk sensitive premia to prevent moral hazard. Depositors have incentives to monitor the bank’s risk taking behavior, thus threatening banks with withdrawals of deposits if necessary. We find that either banking regulations or market discipline is insufficient to reduce bank’s risk. I...
The European Community has passed the European Insider Directive which prohibits insider trade in common stock and debt securities. Hence banks are not allowed to sell debt securities when they recieve unfavorable inside information on their borrowers. Until now, German banks have not only been allowed, but even have been expected to collect inside information and to react fast on unfavorable information to protect their solvency and hence the stability of the financial system. This paper ana...
Alberto Bennardo; Marco Pagano; Salvatore Piccolo
Multiple bank lending creates an incentive to overborrow and default. When creditor rights are poorly protected and collateral value is volatile, this incentive leads to rationing and non-competitive interest rates. If banks share information about past debts via credit reporting systems, the incentive to overborrow is mitigated: interest and default rates decrease; credit access improves if the value of collateral is not very volatile, but worsens otherwise. If credit reporting also allows b...
Lyons, Richard K.; Chatman, Jennifer A.; Joyce, Caneel K.
The article discusses service innovation in the investment banking industry. Service industry innovations differ from innovations in industries that produce physical products because they rarely have intellectual property and patent protections. However, investment banking services are typically a series of interrelated businesses such as consulting, wealth management and accounting, and innovations require a business wide coordinated approach. The authors argue that a strong corporate cultur...
..., and banking for heavy-duty engines. 86.007-15 Section 86.007-15 Protection of Environment... § 86.007-15 NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines. Section 86.007... in an NMHC averaging, banking and trading program to show compliance with the standards specified...
Kurt Von Mettenheim
Full Text Available Since financial liberalization in the 1980s, non-profit maximizing, stakeholder-oriented banks have outperformed private banks in Europe. This article draws on empirical research, banking theory and theories of the firm to explain this apparent anomaly for neo-liberal policy and contemporary market-based banking theory. The realization of competitive advantages by alternative banks (savings banks, cooperative banks and development banks has significant implications for conceptions of bank change, regulation and political economy.
Full Text Available Romanian banking system has known in the last years significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements and governance principles on one hand and assimilation of the EU Directives for the banking sector on the other hand. The function of internal audit is new in the Romanian banks, being implemented as a result of the new regulation established by the Romanian National Bank in the effort to aligne the Romanian banking legislation to the international regulations and practice in the field. In the dynamic banking environment the internal audit has to define and strengthen its statute and role. We can say that in the new context – regulatory environment for banking system and professional requirements – internal audit become one of the most influential and value added function in the bank. The present paper presents the role of internal audit in the Romanian banks and its major areas of interest.
Narayan, R P
The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240
A major concern in the design of weapons systems is compatibility of materials with each other and with the enclosed environment. Usually these systems require long-term storage and must have high reliability at the end of this storage period. Materials selection is thus based on past experience and on laboratory-accelerated testing to assure this long-term reliability. To assist in materials selection, a computerized materials data bank has been established. In addition to references on personnel and documents, this data bank provides annotated information on materials so that the designer and materials engineer can draw on it for guidance in selecting materials. The primary purpose of the data bank is to provide materials compatibility data. However, the structure of the system permits the data bank to be used for storage and retrieval of general materials information. The data bank storage and information retrieval philosophy is discussed and procedures for information gathering are outlined. Examples of data entries and a list of search routines are presented to demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of the system
R P Narayan
Full Text Available The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole.
Full Text Available Quality has become the basicfactor of economic efficiency and the basicprinciple of business activities of successfulorganizations. Its consequence is revolution in thearea of quality that has comprised all kinds ofproducts and services including the bank servicesas well. To understand the present and future needsof clients and to know how to fulfill and try toexceed their expectations is the task of everyefficient economy. Therefore, the banks in thedeveloped economies try to re-orientateorganizationally, technologically andinformatically their business activities placing theclient in the core of this business activity.Significant indicators of quality services that banksoffer are measured by the time clients wait for theprovision of the desired service and the number ofclients who give up to enter the bank due to thelong waiting for provision of the desired serviceand the number of clients who give up to enter thebank due to the long waiting queues. Dissatisfiedclient is the worst result of the bank's work andactivity. The great effort is made to improve thequality of services, which means professionalismand communication of personnel with whom theclients come in contact, giving punctual and clearinformation and short waiting period of standing inthe queues. The aim of this paper is to present anddescribe the functioning of the bank system underthe conditions of establishing quality in provision ofservices to clients and to recognize basic guidelinesfor improvement of quality in the work of thebanking sector.
A major concern in the design of weapons systems is compatibility of materials with each other and with the enclosed environment. Usually these systems require long-term storage and must have high reliability at the end of this storage period. Materials selection is thus based on past experience and on laboratory-accelerated testing to assure this long-term reliability. To assist in materials selection, a computerized materials data bank has been established. In addition to references on personnel and documents, this data bank provides annotated information on materials so that the designer and materials engineer can draw on it for guidance in selecting materials. The primary purpose of the data bank is to provide materials compatibility data. However, the structure of the system permits the data bank to be used for storage and retrieval of general materials information. The data bank storage and information retrieval philosophy is discussed and procedures for information gathering are outlined. Examples of data entries and a list of search routines are presented to demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of the system.
Full Text Available Development and diversity of electronic banking services is one of the aspects of financial innovation of banks. In Iran’s banking system, the development of multiple channels representing electronic banking services such as SWIFT system, ATM, POS, PIN pads, internet banking, mobile banking and telephone banking are made for more facility in paying money, so today, the development of this channels is one of the most competitive areas between banks for attracting resources. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate this innovation, which needs a heavy cost in terms of money and time, on the share of each bank in attracting deposit as one of the most important goals and competitive tools of a bank. By using Panel Data Vector Autoregressive methods (Panel-VAR and Granger causality test, data of 23 Iranian banks in the 7 years (2007-2013 has been studied. The results show that based on the Granger Causality Test, the number of ATM machines, POS, PIN pad, SWIFT system and amount of banking facilities provided by each bank, has causal relation in explaining the increase of the bank’s share in attracting deposits; but the Market Share was recognized as the cause of the innovation. Also, the causality direction of deposits’ share and the amount of facilities were noticed to be bilateral.
The coordination of nuclear data compilation within the OECD countries was initiated in 1964, with the creation of the Neutron Data Compilation Centre (CCDN) at Saclay close to Paris, France. This centre participated from the start in the 4-centre network. The NEA Data Bank was established at Saclay in 1978, by merging the CCDN and the Computer Program Library (CPL), Ispra, Italy. NEA Data Bank activities have evolved beyond nuclear data and computer programs, and now also include projects such as the coordination of the Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion (JEFF) library of nuclear data, the compilation and critical review of chemical thermodynamic data for waste management applications, and the compilation of information relevant to computer code validation in the areas of: integral experiments, shielding, criticality safety, fuel behaviour, reactor physics and reactor safety. The Executive Group of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee manages the work programme of the NEA Data Bank.
Jeffrey E Jarrett
Full Text Available The purpose is to note the likelihood of continued growth of internet banking and commerce as individual consumers purchase more and more products to access the internet and complete both financial and consumer transactions. The growth is commercial and banking services on-line will grow as long as the hardware producers innovate with new faster and easy to use products. The pitfalls include attacks by savage interventionists who attempt to steal information and prevent end-users from employing the internet for purposes with good intentions. A challenge is made to software and hardware producers to use modern methods and techniques to predict where problems exist in internet banking and commerce. Serious solutions are necessary.
Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is ASP.NET and the programming language used to develop this project is C and the IDE used is Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 professional in designing the front end while the back end uses Microsoft SQL Server 2012.
Neither "out of poverty first, and then solve environmental problems" nor "first to protect the environment, and then solve the problem of poverty" are true proposition. How to link environmental protection with poverty alleviation is vital to achieve the purpose of environmental protection, and it represents the development direction of environmental law under the guide of rule of livelihood. World Bank whose ultimate goal is to eliminate poverty in the world has realized a high degree of relevance between poverty alleviation and environmental protection and the positive role of environmental policies and its implementation in poverty alleviation, and has gradually brought "environmental protection" into their mainstream work and achieve a win-win situation. The environmental policies of World Bank provides some useful inspiration for the development of environmental law, including to persist in "people-oriented" sustainable development concept, to develop pro-poor function of environmental law and the establishment of systems which focuses on empowerment, which are useful for achieving mutual assistance between environmental protection and poverty reduction.%“先脱贫,再解决环境问题”抑或“先保护环境,再解决贫困问题”都是徒劳无功的假命题.如何搭建环境保护与扶贫之间的桥梁,关系到环境保护目的的真正实现,是民生法治观指导下环境法的发展方向.以消除世界贫困为终极目标的世界银行在扶贫实践的过程中意识到扶贫与环境保护的高度关联性以及环境政策及其实施对减缓贫困的积极作用,逐步将“环境保护”纳入其主流工作并实现了双赢.世界银行的环境政策为环境法的发展提供了有益的启示,包括坚持“以人为本”的可持续发展观、开拓环境法的益贫功能以及设立重在“赋权”的制度体系等等,实现环保与扶贫之间的良性互助.
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...
The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities
An earlier version of this paper won the Best Paper Award of the Corporate Governance SIG at EURAM. Abstract We construct a comprehensive data set with detailed biographic data on 12,010 board directors working for 740 large banks from 41 countries over the period 2000-2008. The data allow us to create a novel and reliable measure of director independence. We report many new findings. Bank board independence increases rapidly and substantially in the pre-crisis period, peaking at abou...
Klaus Duellmann; Martin Erdelmeier
In this paper we stress-test credit portfolios of twenty-eight German banks based on a Merton-type multifactor credit-risk model. The stress scenario is an economic downturn in the automobile sector. Although the percentage of loans in the automobile sector is relatively low for all banks in the sample, the expected loss conditional on the stress event increases substantially by 70–80 percent for the total portfolio. This result confirms the need to account for hidden sectoral concentration r...
Dr. Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq
Full Text Available Banking sectors of Bangladesh are not going well in terms of investment. Among different banks in Bangladesh, Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL is running good for the modes of investment. So this study is conducted of the investment modes of this bank. Study is based on secondary information of the IBBL and opinion survey among twenty clients which has been done through convenient sampling on a purposively selected branch. It concludes that trend of investment of the IBBL runs well.
Ahmad Z. Siam
Problem statement: This study is conducted to present benefits and consequences of latest technology used in banking industries. In addition, it has focused on the dynamics of banking sector, electronic banking services and new courses especially with mergers that constitute most of these mechanisms. Approach: The study discussed this new activity and the extent of response level of services while the need, wants and demands of customers are met. Furthermore, how banks deal with such services...