WorldWideScience

Sample records for bangladesh current status

  1. Applicability of Telemedicine in Bangladesh: Current Status and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Nessa, Ahasanun; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    Telemedicine refers to the use of information and communication technology to provide and support health care mainly for the purpose of providing consultation. It is also a way to provide medical procedures or examinations to remote locations. It has the potential to improve both the quality and the access to health care services delivery while lowering costs even in the scarcity of resources. Understanding the potentiality of telemedicine, many developing countries are implementing telemedicine to provide health care facility to remote area where health care facilities are deficient. Bangladesh is not an exception to this either. In this paper we mention the reasons why Bangladesh has to move for telemedicine. We also present the past and on-going telemedicine activities and projects in Bangladesh. Analyzing these projects we have found out some factors which should be assessed carefully for successful implementation of telemedicine application. Finally we propose a prototype telemedicine network for Banglad...

  2. Current Status and Perspectives of Nuclear Reactor Based Research in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been operating the country's only research reactor, a 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II, for the last 22 years. The reactor is equipped with a number of irradiation facilities: dry central thimble (DCT), neutron beam tubes (tangential, radial piercing, radial-1 and radial-2), pneumatic transfer system, rotary specimen rack (Lazy Suzan), thermal column, etc. Since its establishment, the BAEC TRIGA reactor has been playing pioneering role in scientific research and in providing services to the people. For example, the radioisotopes produced in this reactor are being used in different nuclear medicine centers of the country for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. On the other hand, with a view to opening a new avenue of fundamental and applied research in the country, a number of different experimental facilities were installed around the reactor in early nineties of the last century. With the aim of socio economic development of the country, these facilities are being used in various fields of research and utilization, such as, isotope production, material research using neutron scattering, materials characterization by neutron radiography, qualitative and quantitative assessment of elements in variety of sample matrices and nuclear data measurements using neutron activation analysis as well as training and service as centers of excellence in Science and Technology. The aim of this article is to explore the current status of nuclear reactor based research in Bangladesh with special emphasis on neutron activation analysis and future plan of enhancing its utilization. (author)

  3. Current Status and Prospects for E-learning in the Promotion of Distance Education in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Sadeque Md. SELIM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of e-learning as an advanced system for training and educating mass people using information and communication technologies (ICTs has been received an increasing level of interest in recent years in most of the western countries. In spite of socio-economic constraints, ICTs are rapidly expanding in the developing countries, and thus offering a new scope for the use of e-learning for the promotion of distance education. In Bangladesh, e-learning was first introduced as early as 1960s as a Radiobroadcast followed by a pilot project School Broadcasting Program (SBP in 1980s and then expanded by the establishment of the National Institute of Educational Media and Technology (NIEMT, which was later transformed into Bangladesh Institute of Distance Education (BIDE in 1985. The significant progress has been done after the establishment of the Bangladesh Open University (BOU in 1992 as the first and only national distance learning university. Within a decade of its establishment, enrollment of BOU students have reached nearly 400 thousands, and thus enlisted it as one of the mega-universities. BOU has been offering a variety of formal and non-formal academic programs from certificate to Masters levels using print, TV and radio broadcasts, audio-cassettes and face to face tutorials as the media of delivering its academic courses. Considering the rapid expansion of computer and internet in Bangladesh after 1998s, it is now appropriate time to consider inclusion of some interactive ICTs i.e. e-learning in delivering course materials of BOU or other institutes to promote distance education in Bangladesh. In this paper, we discuss the current situation and future prospects for e-learning in Bangladesh considering the current trend of ICTs expansion in the country.

  4. Current Status and Prospects for E-learning in the Promotion of Distance Education in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Selim, Abu Sadeque Md.; ISLAM, Tofazzal

    2006-01-01

    The issue of e-learning as an advanced system for training and educating mass people using information and communication technologies (ICTs) has been received an increasing level of interest in recent years in most of the western countries. In spite of socio-economic constraints, ICTs are rapidly expanding in the developing countries, and thus offering a new scope for the use of e-learning for the promotion of distance education. In Bangladesh, e-learning was first introduced as early as 1960...

  5. Current status of education and training in nuclear technology in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority for the introduction, promotion and safety issues of nuclear science and technology in the country. During the last four decades, a significant development has been achieved in the field of food and agriculture, medicine, industries and environment using nuclear technology. Education and training in science and technology played a vital role to achieve the significant development in these fields. Some local public universities and BAEC training facilities at home and abroad have played mainly a key role to develop the human resource in the field of nuclear science and technology. Over the last four decades, BAEC with its various specialized establishments has played a focused role in the advancement, understanding and usage of nuclear science and technologies in the country. Through years of cumulative efforts, BAEC has developed a pool of research infrastructure, capacity and human resources having been trained extensively at home and abroad in their respective fields. The trained manpower in the different fields of science and technology are working in the country to solve some national problems like arsenic contamination in drinking water, iodine deficiency disease goitre, cancer and many others. BAEC is going to establish a Nuclear Training Institute which will also have residential facilities. Government has already assured to fund to establish the Nuclear Training Centre in the campus of AERE, Savar. BAEC placed a formal proposal for Affiliation with Jahangirnagar University for Awarding Post Graduate Degrees in different specialized fields of nuclear science and technology. As this might take some time for implementation; therefore, BAEC has decided to start the academic program immediately under the present set-up of the organization. With this view, BAEC proposes to affiliate its Nuclear Training Institute with the Jahangirnagar University for pursuing academic degree programmes i.e. post graduate diploma, M. S., M.Phil. and Ph.D. in the following specialized fields of nuclear science and technology: 1. Reactor Science and Technology; 2. Nuclear and related Analytical Science; 3. Nuclear safety and radiation control; 4. Nuclear Instrumentation and Control; 5. Nuclear Power and Energy; 6. Materials Science; 7. Radiation Medicine; 8. Nuclear Geology; 9. Radiological Science; 10. Radiation Biology; 11. Environmental and Molecular Biology

  6. Rohingyas and refugee status in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Prytz Phiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rohingya refugees from northern Rakhine Statein Myanmar are living in a precarious situation in theircountry of asylum, Bangladesh, but have seen significantimprovements in recent times.

  7. Current situation and future opportunity of telemedicine in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kalam, Abul

    2011-01-01

    Developing countries are leisurely adopter of new technologies, particularly with regards to the health services of these countries. This study explores the current health information infrastructure and future prospects of information and communication technology in health system of Bangladesh using an interpretative case study approach and proposes apply Telemedicine system to ensure health for all. This study almost certainly the first of its variety in Bangladesh; there have been some in...

  8. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  9. Achieving the Millennium Development Goal for Under-five Mortality in Bangladesh: Current Status and Lessons for Issues and Challenges for Further Improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Sayem, Amir Mohammad; Nury, Abu Taher Md. Sanaullah; Md. Delwar HOSSAIN

    2011-01-01

    The study assessed the achievements in, critically reviewed the relevant issues of, and put forward recommendations for achieving the target of the Millennium Development Goal relating to mortality of children aged less than five years (under-five mortality) in Bangladesh within 2015. To materialize the study objectives, a thorough literature review was done. Mortality of under-five children and infants decreased respectively to 65 from 151 and to 52 from 94 per 1,000 livebirths during 1990-2...

  10. Status of radiation curing in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh is a small country covering about 148 thousand square kilometer area with a population of 120 million. It has only 15% urban area; most of the people live in the rural area. It is neither industrial nor developed. It is trying hard to stand on its feet combating all damages caused by frequent natural calamities like cyclones and floods. Thus, most of the technological activities are still being carried out on turnkey basis. However, some research and development institutions have already been developed to such an extent that transfer of technology can occur and the local industries can also benefit out of this endeavour

  11. Status of Fish Disease and Health Management Practices in Rural Freshwater Aquaculture of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. R. Faruk; Alam, M. J.; M.M.R. Sarker; M.B. Kabir

    2004-01-01

    In order to examine the current status of fish disease and health management practices in rural freshwater aquaculture, a questionnaire survey and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools were used in five districts of Bangladesh namely Mymensingh, Comilla, Jessore, Natore and Dinajpur. A total of 500 farmers were interviewed and 25 PRA sessions were conducted. Most of the farmers (87.8%) interviewed had disease problem in their fishponds. Prevalence of fish disease varied with districts and...

  12. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed M. A. Hanifi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES. Objective: The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design: We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4. The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results: Analysing cause of death (CoD revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were the leading causes of deaths (37%, followed by communicable diseases (CDs (22%, perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%, and injury and accidents (6%; the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years, which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04. For adult and the elderly (15 years and older, NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%, followed by CDs (23%. For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005, and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0.001. Conclusions: Epidemiologic transition is taking place with a shift from the dominance of CDs to NCDs. SES inequity in mortality still persists – the poor suffer from CDs in all age groups, whereas those better off suffer more from NCDs than CDs. Policy makers thus need to consider the social distribution of diseases before developing any public health action targeted towards reducing mortality and the extent of disease burden in an equitable manner.

  14. Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers and development groups are interested in innovative ways to deliver cash transfer programs and make an impact where it s needed most. In Bangladesh, World Bank researchers worked with the government to evaluate a pilot social protection program that conditioned transfers on primary school attendance, monthly growth monitoring for young children and monthly nutrition sessions f...

  15. Photovoltaic Based Solar Home Systems – Current State of Dissemination in Rural Areas of Bangladesh and Future Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD RIAZUL HAMID

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently only 53 percent of total population in Bangladesh has access to electricity and per capita generation being 265 kWh is very low compared to some other developing countries. This shortage of energy hinders the growth of the country’s overall economy. However, Bangladesh has a good potential for harnessing renewable energy resources, solar and biomass in particular. Steps are taken to harness renewable sources of energy to make the country less dependent on the traditional fossil fuels. This paper presents current power generation scenario in Bangladesh, assesses the availability of solar irradiation and potential for power generation using solar PV panels. This paper also investigates into the current status of dissemination of PV based solar home systems (SHSs in the rural areas of Bangladesh. Currently approximately 94 MW of power is generated from around 2 million SHSs already installed. Average growth rate of SHSs from 2003 up to December 2012 is around 58% which is among the highest in the world.

  16. Current Status of Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Fragile, P Chris

    2013-01-01

    As the title suggests, the purpose of this chapter is to review the current status of numerical simulations of black hole accretion disks. This chapter focuses exclusively on global simulations of the accretion process within a few tens of gravitational radii of the black hole. Most of the simulations discussed are performed using general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) schemes, although some mention is made of Newtonian radiation MHD simulations and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The goal is to convey some of the exciting work that has been going on in the past few years and provide some speculation on future directions.

  17. Current Status of Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragile, P. Chris

    2014-09-01

    As the title suggests, the purpose of this chapter is to review the current status of numerical simulations of black hole accretion disks. This chapter focuses exclusively on global simulations of the accretion process within a few tens of gravitational radii of the black hole. Most of the simulations discussed are performed using general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) schemes, although some mention is made of Newtonian radiation MHD simulations and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The goal is to convey some of the exciting work that has been going on in the past few years and provide some speculation on future directions.

  18. Status of spent fuel in the 3MW BAEC MK-II research reactor facility of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh has been operating a 3 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor since 1986. The reactor is installed in the campus of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Savar, which is located about 40 km northwest of Dhaka. It is one of the main nuclear research facilities in the country. The reactor uses TRIGA LEU fuel with uranium content of 20% by weight. The enrichment level of the fuel is 19.7%. So far the reactor has been operated for 5624 hours with a total cumulative burnup (BU) of 10 690 MWh (445 MWd). The main areas of use are: training of man-power for research reactor operation and applications, radioisotope (RI) production, neutron activation analysis (NAA), neutron radiography (NR) and neutron scattering. Radioisotopes produced to date are: I-131, Sc-46 and Tc-99m. Bangladesh is a peace loving country with a strong commitment towards nuclear nonproliferation. Accordingly, it has signed several multilateral and bilateral agreements, protocols, treaties, etc. prevailing in the International Nuclear Non-proliferation regime. Bangladesh has also signed a Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with the USA on 17 September 1981, which facilitated export of nuclear technology from the USA to Bangladesh. The research reactor was procured under the provisions of this agreement. In 2003, the tenure of the Agreement was extended up to 2012. At present, there does not exist any spent fuel element in the reactor facility. However, with the recently undertaken RI production enhancement program, it is expected that the reactor will start generating spent fuels from the year 2012. It is to be mentioned that Bangladesh is aware of the US DOE's 'Take Back Program' in connection with the research reactor spent fuel of US origin, and is very much interested to take part in this program. The paper presents the current status of handling and storage facilities available for spent fuel and strategy for the safe management spent fuel to be generated from the research reactor in near future. (author)

  19. Bangladesh Sundarbans: Present status of the environment and Biota

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Aziz; Ashit Ranjan Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Sundarbans is a deltaic mangrove forest, formed about 7000 years ago by the deposition of sediments from the foothills of the Himalayas through the Ganges river system, and is situated southwest of Bangladesh and south of West Bengal, India. However, for the last 40 years, the discharge of sediment-laden freshwater into the Bay of Bengal through the Bangladesh part of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forests (BSMF) has been reduced due to a withdrawal of water during the dry period from the Farakk...

  20. REVIEWING THE STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH FROM A FOOD SECURITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghose Bishwajit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the major food security issues in Bangladesh, with a brief reference to its past trend in agricultural output, constraints, and challenges in the coming decades. Food security relates directly to nutrition and health of a population which consequently influences a nation's socio-economic status. Despite Bangladesh has changed its status from a country with chronic food shortages to a self-sufficient one, it still faces food-security challenges. Few non-agricultural factors are identified as equally responsible for aggravating the food insecurity scenario. Since its independence in 1971, the country has constantly been facing issues like high population growth, political unrest, natural disasters which are contributing to food insecurity. Though industrialization is the order of the modern economy, agriculture remains the lifeblood of food security, especially for predominantly agrarian economies like Bangladesh. And this truth must be emphasized and implemented accordingly so that the predicted food crisis in near future can be successfully avoided. This article aims to review the performance of different agricultural sectors and to identify major setbacks to achieving food security in Bangladesh. This study is based on previously published researches on various food security issues in the context of Bangladesh.

  1. Pheromone use for insect control: present status and prospect in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Azharul Islam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect’s world is filled with many odors. Insects use these odors to cue them in a variety of complex social behaviors, including courtship, mating, and egg laying. Scientists and pest control specialists have known about these complex communication systems for decades. The main aim of this study was to visualize the availability, trends and differences in the sources of pheromone control in agricultural growth of Bangladesh. It also concerned on constrains and present use of pheromone and their possible recommendation on behalf of Bangladesh agriculture. It concentrated on the data during last three decades (1980-2010, comprising status of pheromone use in Bangladesh agriculture and its future. Review revealed that Bangladesh has been enormously successful in increasing pheromone use in agricultural production (especially for vegetables. Understanding of the nature of pheromones and their potential for pest control along with the future prospective of pheromone technique in agriculture were stated. Since the pheromone, technologies for control of major crop pests in Bangladesh are still limited. So that this review emphasized on more attention to the authority to increase the research works and project facilities related to develop and promote pheromone techniques. It is highly recommended to increase availability of pheromone in market, more investment in research and development, introduction of newly identified pheromone for specific pest, to assist government and non-government organizations to work with farmers to reduce harmful insecticide use and promote pheromone tactics as one part of integrated crop management (ICM.

  2. Status of Nuclear Activities of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority for acquisition, development and application of Nuclear Science and Technology and thus is playing the pioneering role for the development of the country's nuclear research programmes and thus helping to achieve the cherished goal of self-reliance through national efforts and international co-operation. Being firmly committed to the peaceful uses of Atomic Energy, programmes have been undertaken in Physical Sciences, Biological Sciences, Engineering and Nuclear Power Sector by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and some of the results have been transferred from laboratories to hospitals, agriculture, industries and environment for practical applications. In spite of some major constrains, presently BAEC's activities have increased many folds and keeping in view of the overall power crisis of the country efforts have also been given to establish Nuclear Power Plant in the country. (author)

  3. Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hanifi, Syed M.A.; Mahmood, Shehrin S; Abbas Bhuiya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomi...

  4. Forest-based Tourism in Bangladesh: Status, Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Akter; Yasushi Furukawa; Mahbubul Alam

    2009-01-01

    Bangladesh is a land of diverse forest-based natural attractions throughout the evergreen, semi-evergreen, and mangrove forest ecosystems. The article attempts at exploring various dimensions of ecotourism industry and critically analyzes the relationship among the stakeholders, overall strength-weakness of ecotourism sector and impediments hindering its development. National Parks, Ecoparks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves, and the like have been developed in the natural forest ecosystem...

  5. Biosimilar drugs: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

    2014-01-01

    Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food D...

  6. Bangladesh: currently the worst, but possibly the future's best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Garrett

    2015-02-01

    Garment workers in Bangladesh producing clothing for international brands have experienced repeated factory fires and building collapses in the last 10 years, resulting in more than 1,600 deaths and hundreds of disabling injuries. After the Tazreen Fashion fire in December 2012 and the Rana Plaza building collapse in April 2013, more than 190 international clothing brands and retailers signed an "Accord on Fire and Building Safety" with two international union federations. Full implementation of the provisions of the Accord would change "business as usual" in Bangladesh's garment industry and set a positive example for other countries and other industries with global supply chains. The components, challenges, and controversies of the Accord are detailed in the article. PMID:25816164

  7. Health and disease status of Thai pangas, Pangasius hypophthalmus cultured in rural ponds of Mymensingh, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. R. Faruk

    2005-01-01

    Thai pangas, Pangasius hypophthalmus is one of the important aquaculture species in Bangladesh. Over the last few years spectacular development has been taking place in Thai pangas farming in Mymensingh district. Due to availability of easy breeding and culture techniques as well as quick return, more and more people are converting their rice fields into pangas farms overnight. The present study was carried out to examine health and disease status of Thai pangas mainly through clinical, histo...

  8. MR colonography: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauenstein, Thomas C. [The Emory Clinic, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) has gained access into clinical routine as a means for the assessment of the large bowel. There are widely accepted indications for MRC, especially in patients with incomplete conventional colonoscopy. Furthermore, virtual MRC is more and more propagated as a screening tool, with advantages especially inherent to the non-invasive character of this procedure and the lack of ionizing radiation exposition. Beyond a sufficiently high diagnostic accuracy, outstanding patient acceptance is a major advantage of MRC as a diagnostic modality. This review article describes indications, techniques and clinical outcome of current MRC approaches. Furthermore, the impact of fecal tagging concepts is discussed. (orig.)

  9. MR colonography: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) has gained access into clinical routine as a means for the assessment of the large bowel. There are widely accepted indications for MRC, especially in patients with incomplete conventional colonoscopy. Furthermore, virtual MRC is more and more propagated as a screening tool, with advantages especially inherent to the non-invasive character of this procedure and the lack of ionizing radiation exposition. Beyond a sufficiently high diagnostic accuracy, outstanding patient acceptance is a major advantage of MRC as a diagnostic modality. This review article describes indications, techniques and clinical outcome of current MRC approaches. Furthermore, the impact of fecal tagging concepts is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Radiation education in Bangladesh: status need and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state, the provisions of radiation education and training have expanded greatly. Still then, since it is a developing country with high population growth rate, low literacy level and located thousands of miles away from the developed ones, it is difficult to transfer and disseminate knowledge, particularly about the subject of radiation at a speed and spread as required to meet the challenge of future. So, not only professional training but also institutional and formal academic knowledge and skill development is essential in the process of acquisition and transfer of such knowledge. Accordingly the courses on radiation and radioactivity including risk perception in general have to be vigorously pursued for the sake of safety and attaining basic concepts about health effects of different levels of radiation. (author)

  11. Radiation education in Bangladesh: status need and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakht, Delawar [Titas Gas Transmission and Distribution Co. Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1999-09-01

    Since the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state, the provisions of radiation education and training have expanded greatly. Still then, since it is a developing country with high population growth rate, low literacy level and located thousands of miles away from the developed ones, it is difficult to transfer and disseminate knowledge, particularly about the subject of radiation at a speed and spread as required to meet the challenge of future. So, not only professional training but also institutional and formal academic knowledge and skill development is essential in the process of acquisition and transfer of such knowledge. Accordingly the courses on radiation and radioactivity including risk perception in general have to be vigorously pursued for the sake of safety and attaining basic concepts about health effects of different levels of radiation. (author)

  12. Synthetic ligaments. Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, F J

    1987-06-01

    Many techniques for ligamentous reconstruction have been developed in recent years. In the United States, injuries of the knee have been increasingly treated with innovative methods of surgical reconstruction, most of which have used normal structures. There are obvious theoretic advantages in using synthetic materials that might simplify surgery, spare normal tissues, and possibly facilitate stronger repairs. To these ends, several synthetic substances have been used experimentally and clinically. This is a brief summary of eight of the materials that have been or are being investigated in the United States. Some are no longer in use, others are currently being used in clinical trials. As of this writing, only the Gortex ligament has received a general device release from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). PMID:3034461

  13. Does women's status matter for food security? Evidence from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Razzaque, Mohammad A.; Toufique, Mohammad Mokammel Karim

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a survey of Bangladeshi households, this paper investigates the link between female status and food security. Employing three different indicators of female status – husband’s and wife’s assets brought at marriage, female share of household income and a composite index of women empowerment, the paper finds evidence of women’s status influencing food security. By raising the level of food security for some disadvantaged women’s groups female status is also found to be instrumen...

  14. Impact of Grameen Bank Microcrdit Programme on Changing Livelihood Status of the Rural Women in Panchagarh District of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdoushi Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rural women in Bangladesh are the most deprived part of the society and majority of them are extremely poor. They have very limited access to income generating activities and consequently less opportunity to improve their livelihood status. Microcredit programme contributes to improve the livelihood status of rural women in Bangladesh. Approach: This study examines the extent of changes in livelihood status of rural women through their involvement in the microcredit programme of Bangladesh. Results: The study reveals that the rural women, after joining the microcredit programme, have been able to engage themselves in income generating activities and consequently improved significantly their livelihood status. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that microcredit programme plays a significant role in changing and improving livelihood status among the rural poor families.

  15. Bangladesh Sundarbans: Present status of the environment and Biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sundarbans is a deltaic mangrove forest, formed about 7000 years ago by the deposition of sediments from the foothills of the Himalayas through the Ganges river system, and is situated southwest of Bangladesh and south of West Bengal, India. However, for the last 40 years, the discharge of sediment-laden freshwater into the Bay of Bengal through the Bangladesh part of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forests (BSMF has been reduced due to a withdrawal of water during the dry period from the Farakka Barrage in India. The result is two extremes of freshwater discharge at Gorai, the feeding River of the BSMF: a mean minimum monthly discharge varies from 0.00 to 170 m3·s−1 during the dry period with a mean maximum of about 4000 to 8880 m3·s−1 during the wet period. In the BSMF, about 180 km downstream, an additional low discharge results in the creation of a polyhaline environment (a minimum of 194.4 m3·s−1 freshwater discharge is needed to maintain an oligohaline condition during the dry period. The Ganges water carries 262 million ton sediments/year and only 7% is diverted in to southern distributaries. The low discharge retards sediment deposition in the forestlands’ base as well as the formation of forestlands. The increase in water flow during monsoon on some occasions results in erosion of the fragile forestlands. Landsat Satellite data from the 1970s to 2000s revealed a non-significant decrease in the forestlands of total Sundarbans by 1.1% which for the 6017 km2 BSMF is equivalent to 66 km2. In another report from around the same time, the estimated total forestland loss was approximately 127 km2. The Sundarbans has had great influence on local freshwater environments, facilitating profuse growth of Heritiera fomes (sundri, the tallest (at over 15 m and most commercially important plant, but now has more polyhaline areas threatening the sundri, affecting growth and distribution of other mangroves and biota. Landsat images and GIS data from 1989 to 2010 at the extreme northern part of Khulna and Chandpai Ranges revealed the formation of a large number of small rivers and creeks some time before 2000 that reduce the 443 km2 forestland by 3.61%, approximately 16 km2, and decreasing H. fomes by 28.75% and total tree cover by over 3.0%. The number of the relatively low-priced plants Bruguiera sexangula, Excoecaria agallocha and Sonneratia apetala, has, on the other hand, increased. Similar degradation could be occurring in other ranges, thereby putting the survivability of the Bangladesh Sundarbans at risk. The growing stock of 296 plants per ha in 1959 had been reduced to 144 by 1996. Trend analysis using “Table Curve 2D Programme,” reveals a decreased number of 109 plants by the year 2020. The degradation of the Bangladesh Sundarbans has been attributed to reduced sediment-laden freshwater discharge through the BSMF river system since commissioning the Farakka Barrage on 21 April 1975 in India. To reduce salinity and forestland erosion, the maintenance of sediment-laden freshwater discharge through its river system has been suggested to re-create its pre-1975 environment for the growth of H. fomes, a true mangrove and the highest carbon-storing plant of the Sundarbans. This may possibly be achieved by proper sharing of the Ganges water from the Farakka Barrage, forming a consortium of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China, and converting parts or whole of the Ganges River into water reservoir(s. The idea is to implement the Ganges Barrage project about 33 km downstream, dredging sediments of the entire Gorai River and distributaries in the Ganges floodplain, thus allowing uniform sediment-laden freshwater flow to maintain an oligohaline environment for the healthy growth of mangroves. The system will also create healthy hinterlands of the Ganges floodplain with increased crop production and revenue. The expenditure may be met through carbon trading, as Bangladesh is a signatory of the Copenhagen Accord, UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The total carbon reserve in the BSMF in 2010 was measured at about 56 million metric tons, valued at a minimum of US$ 280 million per year. The forest is rich in biodiversity, where over 65 species of mangroves and about 1136 wildlife species occur. The BSMF acts as a natural wall, saving property as well as millions of lives from natural disasters, the value of which is between 273 and 714 million US$. A 15 to 20 km band impact zone exists to the north and east of the BSMF, with a human settlement of about 3.5 million that is partly dependent on the forests. Three wildlife sanctuaries are to the south of the BSMF, the home of the great royal Bengal tigers, covering a total area of about 1397 km2. Construction of a coal-fired power plant at Rampal will be the largest threat to the Sundarbans. It is a reserve forest, declared as a Ramsar site of international importance and a UNESCO natural world heritage site.

  16. FOREST-BASED TOURISM IN BANGLADESH: STATUS, PROBLEMS, AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Akter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a land of diverse forest-based natural attractions throughout the evergreen, semi-evergreen, and mangrove forest ecosystems. The article attempts at exploring various dimensions of ecotourism industry and critically analyzes the relationship among the stakeholders, overall strength-weakness of ecotourism sector and impediments hindering its development. National Parks, Ecoparks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves, and the like have been developed in the natural forest ecosystems to attract tourists from home and abroad. Cheap transportation, lodging and associated costs, unique scenic beauty and wilderness of all sites and socio-cultural diversity of indigenous communities living in the forest together make up the strength of the industry as a whole. The study identifies a number of impediments, including conflict among the stakeholders and forest degradation hindering expansion of ecotourism industry. For sustainable development of forest-based tourism, traditional ‘Top-down’ management approach is suggested to avoid and voice of all stakeholders needs to be considered in decision-making.

  17. Status of Fish Disease and Health Management Practices in Rural Freshwater Aquaculture of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Faruk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the current status of fish disease and health management practices in rural freshwater aquaculture, a questionnaire survey and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA tools were used in five districts of Bangladesh namely Mymensingh, Comilla, Jessore, Natore and Dinajpur. A total of 500 farmers were interviewed and 25 PRA sessions were conducted. Most of the farmers (87.8% interviewed had disease problem in their fishponds. Prevalence of fish disease varied with districts and the size of farms. Average prevalence of fish disease was highest in Jessore district (18.2% followed by Comilla (13.4%, Mymensingh (11.4% and Dinajpur district (10.4%. Minimum prevalence (5.5% was recorded from Natore district. Small farms (0.4 ha suffered from high disease prevalence (13.8% followed by medium (0.2-0.4 ha and large (>0.4 ha farms with 12.4 and 9.3% of diseases, respectively. The most prevalent disease was tail and fin rot (20.5%, followed by epizootic ulcerative syndrome or EUS (18.9%, nutritional diseases (15.3%, red spot (13.0% and gill rot (12.3%. Other conditions like argulosis, dropsy and white spot were also reported by the farmers but with lower incidence. The diseases occurred mainly in the winter season. Overall, the knowledge of the farmers on basic fish health management was found very poor. Most of the farmers (83.8% used treatment measures in response to particular disease problem. For disease treatment, 46% farmers used combination of lime and potassium permanganate, 22.4% farmer used only lime and about 10% farmer used lime and salt together. This study identified some fish health management related problems in rural aquaculture, such as lack of assistance, poor technical knowledge and lack of suitable therapeutics and their proper uses.

  18. Current Status of Robotic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Giri, Subhasis; Sarkar, Diptendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Surgery has increasingly become a technology-driven specialty. Robotic assistance is considered one innovation within abdominal surgery over the past decade that has the potential to compensate for the drawbacks of conventional laparoscopy. The dramatic evolution of robotic surgery over the past 10 years is likely to be eclipsed by even greater advances over the next decade. We review the current status of robotic technology in surgery. The Medline database was searched for the terms “robotic...

  19. Current Status of Graphene Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Lemme, Max C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of graphene transistors as potential supplement to silicon CMOS technology. A short overview of graphene manufacturing and metrology methods is followed by an introduction of macroscopic graphene field effect transistors (FETs). The absence of an energy band gap is shown to result in severe shortcomings for logic applications. Possibilities to engineer a band gap in graphene FETs including quantum confinement in graphene Nanoribbons (GNR...

  20. Extensive Reading in EFL Classroom at Secondary Schools in Bangladesh: Current Practices and Future Possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Zulfeqar Haider; Elina Akhter

    2012-01-01

    Extensive reading is being practiced in many EFL and ESL classrooms as an effective means for developing learners’ reading as well as other related skills. This paper is based on a small-scale study that explores the current practices and future possibilities of using extensive reading in the EFL classrooms at the junior secondary schools in Bangladesh. The study reports the responses of 100 secondary English teachers on different aspects of using extensive reading tasks in the EFL classrooms...

  1. Status and decline causes of fish diversity of Baral River, Natore, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia A. Flowra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to desribe the status and decline causes of fish diversity inBaral river, Natore, Bangladesh. The study was conducted over a period from November 2010 to May2011 on the Bagatipara point of Baral river, Natore, Bangladesh. A total of 60 fish species of nine ordersand 21 families were identified. On the basis of availability the species were categorized in four statusesthat obtained as available (45%, less available (33.33%, rare (13.33% and very rare (8.33%. Resultof the study identified five species as very rare which may extinct near future resulting declination of thefish diversity. Few man made decline causes like agro-industrial wastages, different obstacles of waterflow, excess use of river water, siltation and over fishing were observed as major threats for the diversityof fishes. The present work recommends preventing water pollution, ensuring water flow, developingfishermen’s awareness, implementation of fisheries laws and declaration of fish sanctuary to save fishdiversity of the study area. Besides, counter and random survey is recommended to cross check thefishes’ status for their proper management and conservation.

  2. Adjustment disorder: Current diagnostic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bichitra Nanda Patra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adjustment disorder is a common diagnosis in psychiatric settings and carries a significant rate of morbidity. However, diagnostic criteria are vague and not much helpful in clinical practice. Also there has been relatively little research done on this disorder. In this article, we review the information that is available on the epidemiology, clinical features, validity, and current diagnostic status of adjustment disorder. In this article, the controversy surrounding the diagnosis is also highlighted. It also discusses the differential and comorbid diagnosis. The various recommendations for DSM-V and ICD-11 conclude the article.

  3. Socio-Eonomic Status of Elderly of Bangladesh: A Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nazrul Islam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to gather overall information on socio-economic and health profiles of the senior citizens of Bangladesh based on primary data of from the three selected districts of the country. Simple statistical tools and logistic regression model are used to analyze the data. The analysis shows that 46% of the physically sound elderly are jobless and 15% aren’t engaged in job due to lack of physical fitness and other causes. The logistic regression analysis reveals that respondents’ age, level of education, physical fitness are significantly associated with the current occupation of elderly people.

  4. Men's role in women's antenatal health status: evidence from rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosiur; Islam, Mohammad Touhidul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Reza, Md Shahin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to extend notions of men's role in women's antenatal care (ANC) status in rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The analyses were based on response of 480 men aged 15 to 54 years, living with at least 1 child younger than 3 years. Only 27% men accompanied their wives for ANC. Men's perception of actual roles for ANC services was low: 63% approved of women undergoing checkups; 33% discussed their wives' pregnancy with health professionals. Only 18% scored highly on the overall index of knowledge. From multivariate analysis, it was found that the number of men accompanying their wives for ANC was higher among those respondents who were married for the first time in the age-group 25 to 34 years and aged 35 years or more, had their last child at age-group 20 to 24 years or 25 to 34 years, had completed primary or secondary and higher education, and had mass media facilities. PMID:22426562

  5. Sinoprobe Datacenter Development: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y.; Dong, S.; Chen, Z.; Chen, G.; Cheng, M.

    2011-12-01

    The project of the Sinoprobe datacenter development is to build new IT infrastructures needed to store, visualize and manage all the data acquired by SinoProbe program.The SinoProbe data center is designed using service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles. More specifically, service component architecture (SCA) is used to implement sinoprobe data services. It also uses various advanced technologies such as Java/JEE for the platform, PostgresSQL/PostGIS for the data storage, ApacheDS for LDAP, CoachDB for the medadata storage, GeoServer for the GIS services, ExtJs and OpenLayer for the Ajax framework, and Apache Shiro for the security framework. Through the integration and development of various technologies used, the major services of the datacenter system are implemented including the security infrastructure services (user authentication and authorization), metadata services, data warehouse stores, data services, GIS services, and web portal. There are also visualization components including the development of a virtual globe to replace the currently used Google Earth. This poster presents the current status of the SinoProbe data center development, and the detailed discussion of the system.

  6. Current status of Japanese detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tatsumi, Daisuke; Arai, Koji; Nakagawa, Noriyasu; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Toshitaka; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Takamori, Akiteru; Bertolini, Alessandro; Sannibale, Virginio; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Marka, Szabolcs; Ando, Masaki; Tsubono, Kimio; Akutsu, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishitsuka, Hideki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Awaya, Norichika; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Araya, Akito; Telada, Souichi; Tomaru, Takayuki; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sato, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Shintomi, Takakazu

    2007-01-01

    Current status of TAMA and CLIO detectors in Japan is reported in this article. These two interferometric gravitational-wave detectors are being developed for the large cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) which is a future plan for detecting gravitational wave signals at least once per year. TAMA300 is being upgraded to improve the sensitivity in low frequency region after the last observation experiment in 2004. To reduce the seismic noises, we are installing new seismic isolation system, which is called TAMA Seismic Attenuation System, for the four test masses. We confirmed stable mass locks of a cavity and improvements of length and angular fluctuations by using two SASs. We are currently optimizing the performance of the third and fourth SASs. We continue TAMA300 operation and R&D studies for LCGT. Next data taking in the summer of 2007 is planned. CLIO is a 100-m baseline length prototype detector for LCGT to investigate interferometer performance in cryogenic condition. The key features of...

  7. Trypanosomosis in goats: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Carlos; Corbera, Juan A; Morales, Manuel; Büscher, Philippe

    2006-10-01

    Trypanosomosis is a major constraint on ruminant livestock production in Africa, Asia, and South America. The principal host species affected varies geographically, but buffalo, cattle, camels, and horses are particularly sensitive. Natural infections with Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax, T. brucei, and T. evansi have been described in goats. Trypanosomosis in goats produces acute, subacute, chronic, or subclinical forms, being T. vivax, T. congolense, and T. evansi, the most invasive trypanosomes for goats. However, the role of goats in the epidemiology of trypanosomosis is largely discussed and not well understood. Thus, it has commonly been assumed that trypanosomosis presents a subclinical course and that goats do not play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. This can partially be due to parasitemia caused by trypanosomes which has been considered low in goats. However, this assumption is currently undergoing a critical reappraisal because of goats may also serve as a reservoir of trypanosome infection for other species, including the human beings in the case of T. brucei rhodesiense. The present article describes the current status of trypanosomosis in goats in Africa, Asia, and South America. Pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of the different trypanosomes are also described. The possible role in the epidemiology of the disease in the different areas is also discussed. PMID:17135529

  8. Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh: a 14-year study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Das, Bhaskar; Murrill, Matthew; Dey, Sankar; Chandra Mukherjee, Subhas; Dhar, Ratan Kumar; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Roy, Shibtosh; Sorif, Shahariar; Selim, Mohammad; Rahman, Mahmuder; Quamruzzaman, Quazi

    2010-11-01

    Since 1996, 52,202 water samples from hand tubewells were analyzed for arsenic (As) by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) from all 64 districts of Bangladesh; 27.2% and 42.1% of the tubewells had As above 50 and 10 ?g/l, respectively; 7.5% contained As above 300 ?g/l, the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions. The groundwater of 50 districts contained As above the Bangladesh standard for As in drinking water (50 ?g/l), and 59 districts had As above the WHO guideline value (10 ?g/l). Water analyses from the four principal geomorphological regions of Bangladesh showed that hand tubewells of the Tableland and Hill tract regions are primarily free from As contamination, while the Flood plain and Deltaic region, including the Coastal region, are highly As-contaminated. Arsenic concentration was usually observed to decrease with increasing tubewell depth; however, 16% of tubewells deeper than 100 m, which is often considered to be a safe depth, contained As above 50 ?g/l. In tubewells deeper than 350 m, As >50 ?g/l has not been found. The estimated number of tubewells in 50 As-affected districts was 4.3 million. Based on the analysis of 52,202 hand tubewell water samples during the last 14 years, we estimate that around 36 million and 22 million people could be drinking As-contaminated water above 10 and 50 ?g/l, respectively. However for roughly the last 5 years due to mitigation efforts by the government, non-governmental organizations and international aid agencies, many individuals living in these contaminated areas have been drinking As-safe water. From 50 contaminated districts with tubewell As concentrations >50 ?g/l, 52% of sampled hand tubewells contained As source of safe water in these affected regions provided regular monitoring for temporal variation in As concentration. Even in the As-affected Flood plain, sampled tubewells from 22 thanas in 4 districts were almost entirely As-safe. In Bangladesh and West Bengal, India the crisis is not having too little water to satisfy our needs, it is the challenge of managing available water resources. The development of community-specific safe water sources coupled with local participation and education are required to slow the current effects of widespread As poisoning and to prevent this disaster from continuing to plague individuals in the future. PMID:20684969

  9. Current status of converter steelmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghbasialasie, H.; Holappa, L.

    1995-12-31

    This literature work is mainly focusing on the mechanisms of modern converter steelmaking and related with the evaluation of converter technology applied during the last decades and further to the future. The history of steelmaking has been briefly reviewed from bloomeries and early-steelmaking processes to the progress of modern converter process. The pneumatic converter processes were developed in the 1850`s and thereafter the basis for the rapid growth of steel industries was established for the next 100 years. The world production of steel has not continuously grown but fluctuating quite much. It reached 723 Mt in 1994. The production is believed to grow the forecast for the year 2003 being approximately 800 Mt. Electric arc furnace production is estimated to reach 280 Mt by 2003, and BOFIOH will reach 520 Mt by 2003. The current status of the converter steelmaking process is briefly described both on its theoretical bases and practical technological progresses. Developments which significantly improve the process are briefly discussed. Several more recent developments such as combined oxygen blowing process, increased scrap melting, post combustion and hot metal pretreatment are discussed. The future progress will be in further development of these process characteristics as well as in eventual emerging of the continuous converter process. (author)

  10. Current Status of JRR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JRR-3 at the Tokai-Shirakata site of JAEA was in its regular maintenance period, when the Great East Japan Earthquake took place on 11th March 2011. The reactor building with the solid foundations and the equipment important to safety survived the earthquake without serious damage, and no radioactive leakage has been occurred. Recovery works, check and test to confirm the integrity of all components and structures, and seismic assessment necessary for proving that the seismic loads which worked on a structure or component by the earthquake accommodated within its allowable stress have been carried out. After our recovery works and verification of the integrity of JRR-3, we confirmed that the integrity is ensured, and then reported the fact to the regulatory body. As another topic, the regulatory body will introduce new regulatory requirements for research reactors. Now, JRR-3 considers applying the new requirements for restart. This paper presents the current status of JRR-3 including the recovery works, seismic assessment and new regulatory requirements

  11. Robotic renal transplantation: Current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Ghosh, Prasun; Menon, Mani; Jeong, Wooju; Bhandari, Mahendra; Ahlawat, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation (KT) has traditionally been performed by open renal transplantation, but recently, a few groups including our own have described a minimally invasive approach to KT. We aim to discuss the current status of robotic kidney transplantation (RKT) and describe our technique of RKT with regional hypothermia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used the search terms “minimally invasive” OR “robotic” OR “robot assisted” AND “kidney transplantation.” Papers written in English and concerning technical and/or clinical outcomes following minimally invasive kidney transplantation were selected. Three hundred and eighteen unique articles were retrieved and nine were relevant. Comparative outcomes data following RKT with regional hypothermia versus open KT (OKT) from our own group were also included. FINDINGS: Nine papers, so far, have evaluated the role of robotic approach in KT and have conclusively established the feasibility, safety, and reproducibility of RKT, although these studies have been performed by experienced robotic surgeons/teams. The contemporary published series note that rejection rates were similar in RKT and OKT patients. Mean serum creatinine at 6 months in RKT and OKT patients was equivalent, across the three series. Most of the studies also note a dramatic reduction in the wound-related complication rates. CONCLUSION: RKT appears to be a safe surgical alternative to the standard open approach of KT. RKT is associated with reduced postoperative pain, analgesic requirement, and better cosmesis. RKT, although in its infancy, appears to be associated with lower complication rates. PMID:25598597

  12. The MAGPIE project: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Mega-Ampere Generator for Plasma Implosion Experiments (MAGPIE) is currently under construction in the Plasma Physics group at Imperial College, London. The generator is specifically designed to carry out radiative collapse experiments in hydrogen fibre Z-pinches. In order to achieve this goal, MAGPIE must be capable of delivering in excess of 1.5MA into a 150 mH load in under 200 ns. In the final generator, four 2.4 MV Marx banks charge four 5 ohm, coaxial, 100 ns single transit, water filled pulse forming lines (PFLs). The four PFLs are connected to a single coaxial vertical transfer line via four sychronously triggered trigatron switches. The vertical transfer line has an impedence of 1.25 ohm and therefore represents a matched load to the four PFLs. At the top of the transfer line a graded insulator stack makes up the vacuum-water interface. A magnetically insulated transmission line section then feeds the load. The total energy stored in the banks is 336 kJ making MAGPIE a multi terrawatt, long pulse generator. This paper reports on the general status of the programme and on details of the work carried out in characterising and optimising the trigatron switches

  13. Robotic renal transplantation: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Sood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kidney transplantation (KT has traditionally been performed by open renal transplantation, but recently, a few groups including our own have described a minimally invasive approach to KT. We aim to discuss the current status of robotic kidney transplantation (RKT and describe our technique of RKT with regional hypothermia. Material and Methods: We used the search terms "minimally invasive" OR "robotic" OR "robot assisted" AND "kidney transplantation." Papers written in English and concerning technical and/or clinical outcomes following minimally invasive kidney transplantation were selected. Three hundred and eighteen unique articles were retrieved and nine were relevant. Comparative outcomes data following RKT with regional hypothermia versus open KT (OKT from our own group were also included. Findings: Nine papers, so far, have evaluated the role of robotic approach in KT and have conclusively established the feasibility, safety, and reproducibility of RKT, although these studies have been performed by experienced robotic surgeons/teams. The contemporary published series note that rejection rates were similar in RKT and OKT patients. Mean serum creatinine at 6 months in RKT and OKT patients was equivalent, across the three series. Most of the studies also note a dramatic reduction in the wound-related complication rates. Conclusion: RKT appears to be a safe surgical alternative to the standard open approach of KT. RKT is associated with reduced postoperative pain, analgesic requirement, and better cosmesis. RKT, although in its infancy, appears to be associated with lower complication rates.

  14. Current status of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision to devote the 1984 conference to nuclear power is timely and appropriate. Illinois has a long, and distinguished history in the development of civilian nuclear power. The concept was born at the University of Chicago, developed at Argonne National Laboratory and demonstrated on the Commonwealth Edison system at our pioneer Dresden Nuclear Station. Today, Illinois ranks number one in the nation in nuclear generation. With over a quarter century of commercial operating experience, nuclear power has proven its worth and become a significant and growing component of electric power supply domestically and throughout the world. Despite its initial acceptance, however, the nuclear power industry in the U.S. is now in the midst of a difficult period of readjustment stemming largely from the economic and regulatory problems of the past decade. As a result, the costs of plants under construction have increased dramatically, causing serious financial difficulties for several projects and their owners. At the same time, the U.S. is facing hard choices concerning its future energy supplies. Conferences such as this have an important role in clarifying the issues and helping to find solutions to today's pressing energy problems. This paper summarizes the status of nuclear power both here and abroad, discussing the implications of current events in the context of national energy policy and economic development here in Illinois

  15. Nutritional Status of Settler and Indigenous Women of Reproductive Age Group in Khagrachari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Monoarul Haque

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive health is closely related with nutritional status of a country. Women are regarded as the nerve centers of the families and society, maternal nutrition and health is considered as the most important regulator of human fetal growth. Objective: This study was conducted with a view to assess the nutritional status of settler and indigenous women of reproductive age group (15--49 years in Khagrachari district. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done in the purposively selected Panchari thana of Khagrachari district in Bangladesh from 01 May to 31 August 2013. A total of 200 reproductive aged women were interviewed. Among them 100 were indigenous and 100 were settlers. Their anthropometric measurements were taken and nutritional status was determined by body mass index (BMI recommended by World Health Organization (WHO for Asian people. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 29.8 ± 11.1 years and maximum were in the age group of 15--24 years. Among the indigenous subjects Chakma, Marma, Tripura and Boisnu were 20.5%, 20.5%, 6.5% and 2.5% respectively. Among 100 indigenous reproductive aged women 17 were underweight; but among settlers 19 were underweight. Forty nine settler women were normal and in case of indigenous women 46 were normal. But regarding overweight indigenous women went ahead than settler women and obesity was found equal in both groups. Mean difference of mid upper arm circumference (MUAC was significantly different (p<0.005 between the groups. Conclusion: This study provided a vivid picture of the nutritional status of the settler and indigenous reproductive aged women.

  16. The Elderly Care Services and their Current Situation in Bangladesh: An Understanding from Theoretical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Ismail Hossain; Tahmina Akhtar; Md. Taj Uddin

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the aging problem in theoretical perspectives with their relevance in the case of elderly population in Bangladesh highlighting the needs and problems encountered by the elderly. At the same time this study reviews the services for the elderly and their limitations in Bangladesh. The latest section of this article recommends some guidelines with the emphasis on social worker`s roles for the welfare of the elderly in Bangladesh.

  17. The regulatory and waste safety infrastructure of Bangladesh: Present status and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although nuclear energy and ionizing radiation exist as this planet earth exists, the history of human use of these energies is only a little over hundred years old. Nuclear and radiological practices are of immense benefit to society. But, like all other practices, nuclear and radiological practices also involve risks of a special type and nature. People and media are particularly sensitive to the use as well as to any accident or emergency involving the practices. Necessary laws and regulatory bodies have existed in many countries for a long time to control and keep the risks within acceptable limits. Nonetheless, accidents do occur and emergencies arise, which leads to the questioning of such regulatory systems' effectiveness. International interaction and co-operation are essential to addressing societal concerns appropriately. Bangladesh, though late, has also enacted laws and established a regulatory system to control the practices. This paper focuses on the country's regulatory status, hurdles being faced in implementing the legal requirements, and future thinking to increase effectiveness and efficiency. (author)

  18. Status of compost usage and its performance on vegetable production in Monga areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K.M.M. Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the existing status of compost usage on vegetable production and determine the overall effect of household waste compost (HWC on growth and yield of vegetables and enhancement of soil fertility in the monga areas of Bangladesh. A field survey was conducted on 152 sampled farmers during 2010 to 2011. Questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions were used to assess existing production practices of vegetables using compost in both homestead and field conditions. Three field trials at Badargonj and Kawnia upazilas of Rangpur district were conducted taking four treatments i.e. control, recommended doses (RD of fertilizers, HWC at the rate of 10 tha-1, and HWC 10 t ha-1 plus RD as IPNS based with Lal shak, Palong shak, Pui shak and Tomato. Base line survey results indicated inadequate knowledge of the farmers on use and preparation of the household waste compost. Yield data of all vegetables i.e. Tomato, Lal shak, Palong shak and Pui shak indicated that the combined application of nutrients using organic and inorganic sources were significantly better than that of solitary application of inorganic fertilizers. The potential of household waste compost applied @ 10 t ha-1 along with inorganic fertilizers applied was found highly satisfactory in producing Tomato, where yield was recorded 75 t ha-1 in the study area. The fresh yield of Palong shak was found 16 t ha-1 when recommended doses of inorganic fertilizers were applied, but it was about 19 t ha-1 under combined application of HWC @ 10 t ha-1 and inorganic fertilizers following IPNS concept. The fresh yield of Pui shak was found about 49 t ha-1 under combined application of organic and inorganic nutrients. Considering the availability and costs of different composts, it is evinced that HWC contained good amount of NPK which indicates its potentiality to be used as a soil amendment, improving soil fertility and crop productivity. It can be an alternative to chemical fertilizer to increase soil microbial populations and enzyme activities and to promote the soil nutrient for horticultural crops in the unfertile areas especially in the monga areas of Bangladesh.

  19. Iodine deficiency status of school going children in coastal region of bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Bangladesh is an iodine deficient zone, affected mainly in the northern part i.e., in Himalayan belt along Brahmaputra and Jamuna River. Severity of' iodine deficiency can be assessed by prevalence of goitre and urinary iodine excretion. The latest nationwide survey of Iodine Deficiency Disorders of' Bangladesh in 1993 showed prevalence of goitre 47.1% in all age and sex group and 69% of the population had urinary iodine excretion 100 mcg/L. Conclusion: On the basis of goitre prevalence and urinary iodine excretion, coastal region of Bangladesh is a mild iodine deficient zone. (authors)

  20. Transungual drug delivery: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkeeb, Rania; AliKhan, Ali; Elkeeb, Laila; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-01-15

    Topical therapy is highly desirable in treating nail disorders due to its localized effects, which results in minimal adverse systemic events and possibly improved adherence. However, the effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through the nail plate. Current research on nail permeation that focuses on altering the nail plate barrier by means of chemical treatments, penetration enhancers as well as physical and mechanical methods is reviewed. A new method of nail sampling is examined. Finally limitations of current ungual drug permeability studies are briefly discussed. PMID:19819318

  1. Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye (sarcophagus) are described, including the following issues: the accident; the sarcophagus; the radioactive inventory; the design basis criteria; the analysis of the present state; a way forward

  2. The Current Status of Galaxy Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joe; Mamon, Gary A

    2012-01-01

    Understanding galaxy formation is one of the most pressing issues in cosmology. We review the current status of galaxy formation from both an observational and a theoretical perspective, and summarise the prospects for future advances.

  3. Current Status of RENO Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) is under construction to measure the value of the smallest and unknown neutrino mixing angle ?13. The experiment will compare the measured fluxes of electron antineutrinos at two detectors located at 290 m and 1.4 km distances from the center of the Yonggwang nuclear reactors in Korea, with world-second largest thermal power output of 16.4 GW. Construction of experimental halls and access tunnels for both near and far detector sites was completed in early 2009. The detectors are near completion, and data-taking is planned to start in mid 2010. An expected number of observed antineutrino is roughly 510 and 80 per day in the near detector and far detector, respectively. An estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.6%, and an expected statistical error is about 0.3%. With three years of data, the experiment will search for the mixing angle values of sin2(2?13) down to 0.02 in 90% C.L. limit. In this talk, the construction status will be presented. (author)

  4. Health Status, Occupational Hygiene & Safety Practices among Female Workers in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    AbulKashem Obidul HUQ; HabibunNabi Muhammad Ekramul MAHMUD; Kazi Mohammad Formuzul HAQUE

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the rising of baking industries in Bangladesh, more female workers are surprisingly engaged compared to male workers. The major aim of this study was to observe the working conditions, available safety facilities and hygiene maintained by the female workers.Methods: A cross sectional survey was carried out among the randomly selected 384 female workers from different baking industries located at Dhaka and Tangail regions in Bangladesh by a well-designed semi-structured questi...

  5. Planet X - The current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelmann, P. K.; Harrington, R. S.

    Theoretical models of solar-system dynamics which predict the existence of a 10th planet (planet X) are surveyed and compared with recent observations. The history of the discoveries of Neptune and Pluto on the basis of discrepancies in the orbit of Uranus is recalled in detail, and the persistence of such discrepancies in 9-planet computations is considered. Particular attention is given to ongoing efforts to compute the current position of planet X, and to ground-based and space-based (IRAS and Pioneer) searches. Diagrams and graphs are provided.

  6. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Current Status

    CERN Document Server

    Steigman, G

    1998-01-01

    During its hot, dense, early evolution the Universe was a primordial nuclear reactor, synthesizing the light nuclides D, 3He, 4He and 7Li in the first thousand seconds. The presently observed abundances of these relic nuclides provide a unique window on the early Universe. The implications of current observations for cosmology (the universal density of nucleons) and for particle physics (new particles beyond the standard model) will be reviewed. The present data appear to be in rough agreement with the predictions of the standard, hot big bang model for three species of light neutrinos, and a nucleon-to-photon ratio restricted to a narrow range of 3-4 parts in 10 billion. On closer inspection, however, a tension is revealed between the inferred primordial abundances of deuterium and helium-4. Although observations of deuterium in nearly primordial, high-redshift QSO absorbers may help to relieve this tension, current data appear to exacerbate the crisis. Resolution of this conflict may lie with the data (stat...

  7. Current status of rotational atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomey, Matthew I; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K

    2014-04-01

    Rotational atherectomy facilitates percutaneous coronary intervention for complex de novo lesions with severe calcification. A strategy of routine rotational atherectomy has not, however, conferred reduction in restenosis or major adverse cardiac events. As it is technically demanding, rotational atherectomy is also uncommon. At this 25-year anniversary since the introduction of rotational atherectomy, we sought to review the current state-of-the-art in rotational atherectomy technique, safety, and efficacy data in the modern era of drug-eluting stents, strategies to prevent and manage complications, including slow-flow/no-reflow and burr entrapment, and appropriate use in the context of the broader evolution in the management of stable ischemic heart disease. Fundamental elements of optimal technique include use of a single burr with burr-to-artery ratio of 0.5 to 0.6-rotational speed of 140,000 to 150,000 rpm, gradual burr advancement using a pecking motion, short ablation runs of 15 to 20 s, and avoidance of decelerations >5,000 rpm. Combined with meticulous technique, optimal antiplatelet therapy, vasodilators, flush solution, and provisional use of atropine, temporary pacing, vasopressors, and mechanical support may prevent slow-flow/no-reflow, which in contemporary series is reported in 0.0% to 2.6% of cases. On the basis of the results of recent large clinical trials, a subset of patients with complex coronary artery disease previously assigned to rotational atherectomy may be directed instead to medical therapy alone or bypass surgery. For patients with de novo severely calcified lesions for which rotational atherectomy remains appropriate, referral centers of excellence are required. PMID:24630879

  8. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which defines request types for inserting, updating and deleting coverages. A web client, designed for both novice and experienced users, is also available for the service and its extensions. The client offers an intuitive interface that allows users to work with multi-dimensional coverages by abstracting the specifics of the standard definitions of the requests. The Web Coverage Processing Service defines a language for on-the-fly processing and filtering multi-dimensional raster coverages. rasdaman exposes this service through the WCS processing extension. Demonstrations are provided online via the Earthlook website (earthlook.org) which presents use-cases from a wide variety of application domains, using the rasdaman system as processing engine.

  9. Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh

  10. Present status and future prospects of industrial applications of isotopes in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionising radiation is used for quality assurance and quality control of many industrial products. Bangladesh is actively working on the industrial application of isotopes in the fields of non-destructive testing (NDT) of material, nuclear analytical technique, radiation technology, tracer technology through the participation in the UNDP/IAEA/RCA Project for Asia and the Pacific on the industrial application of isotopes and radiation technology. Bangladesh is developing NDT technology to such an extent and standard that the country is attaining self-reliance in this field for service and human resource development and the foreign dependence is becoming greatly reduced. Examples of recent achievements are given

  11. Present status and future prospects of industrial applications of isotopes in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, M.D.S. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Ramna Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Ionising radiation is used for quality assurance and quality control of many industrial products. Bangladesh is actively working on the industrial application of isotopes in the fields of non-destructive testing (NDT) of material, nuclear analytical technique, radiation technology, tracer technology through the participation in the UNDP/IAEA/RCA Project for Asia and the Pacific on the industrial application of isotopes and radiation technology. Bangladesh is developing NDT technology to such an extent and standard that the country is attaining self-reliance in this field for service and human resource development and the foreign dependence is becoming greatly reduced. Examples of recent achievements are given

  12. Current status of the AUSTRON project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of the AUSTRON spallation source project is described with reference to the need for neutrons in Europe and - due to a certain West-East imbalance of large research facilities - especially in Central Europe. A short overview about technical aspects of proton accelerator, rapid cycling synchrotron, storage ring, target and instrumentation is presented. (author)

  13. Current Status of Radioisotope Applications in Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhatnagar

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Reviews the current status of radioisotope applications in Defence- R&D Establishments, Defence Inspectorates, Ordnance Factories, Public Sector Undertakings under the Defence Ministry, Army, Navy and Air Force Establishments and Military Hospitals. It also lists the users of film badge service in Defence. Training programmes in radioisotope applications in Defence conducted by DRDO organisations have also been highlighted.

  14. REMPAN at international level: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souchkevitch, Guennadi [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland). E-mail: souchkevitchg@who.ch

    1997-07-01

    This document describes the current status of the Radiation Emergency medical Preparedness and Assistance Network - REMPAN, for the promotion of radiation emergency medical and public health preparedness and for practical assistance and advising countries, in a case of overexposure from any sources of radiation, by initiative of the World Health Organization - WHO.

  15. ATM in Europe: analysis of current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This deliverable provides an overview of the current status of the European market for ATM services. The offer of ATM services by principal operators in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom is described. In addition, a number...

  16. Quality Assurance in Secondary Education Program of Bangladesh Open University: Present Status and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Zobaida

    2008-01-01

    In the present day in national and international perspectives, quality is the top of most agendas. Quality of education has significant impact and invaluable contribution to the area of development. Recently, the SSC & HSC program of BOU [Open School of Bangladesh Open University] have earned recognition of equivalency with the formal education…

  17. An overview of freshwater prawn fishery in Bangladesh: present status and future prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdous Ahamed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn fishery plays an important role in the economy of Bangladesh. The fishery is mainly based on the culture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The culture fishery has been growing rapidly, thus, masking the dwindling capture fishery which is faced with serious environmental issues augmented by deleterious fishing methods. Despite the high prospects of the freshwater prawn aquaculture in Bangladesh, a lot of research is needed to ensure the sustainable development of the capture fishery which forms a key source of prawn aquaculture seed as well as provide a baseline for future appraisals. Freshwater prawn aquaculture in Bangladesh is based on traditional methods with continuous adaptations by the rural fishers. However, numerous constraints to its full development are evident at all stages of its production. Lack of quality brood stock, seed, feeds and poor technical knowledge at farmers level are but some of the impediments challenging the sustainability of this industry. This paper reviews the freshwater prawn fishery of Bangladesh over the last few decades and outlines approaches for the development of an ecosystem-based management of both the culture and capture sectors of this important fishery.

  18. Intern doctors’ views on the current and future antibiotic resistance situation of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rozina Hoque,1 Asma Mostafa,2 Mainul Haque3 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Anatomy, Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College, Agrabad, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 3Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia Background: Bacterial resistance due to antibiotic misuse is reported every day. Such threat calls for a consensus to develop new strategies to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance of bacteria. Medical doctors must play a pivotal role to control and prevent the misuse of antibiotics. There were complaints that prescribers are lacking behind in updates and advancement in the field. To address such knowledge gap, a study was conducted to know the views of interns on the current antibiotic resistance situation in a teaching hospital in Bangladesh. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional, randomized, and questionnaire-based survey. Interns of the medicine, gynecology, and surgery departments of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College were the study population. Results: Out of 50 respondents, 98% would like more education on antibiotic selection. All respondents believed that prescribing inappropriate or unnecessary antibiotics was professionally unethical. Ninety percent of the participants were confident in making an accurate diagnosis of infection. Eighty-four percent of them were confident about dosage schedule. In all, 98% participants thought that antibiotic resistance is a national problem and 64% of the respondents thought that same problem also existed in their hospital. Study participants were of the view that 41%–60% of antibiotic usages are irrational in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight percent of the study population thought that antimicrobial resistance (AR would be a greater problem in the future. Conclusion: The interns believe that there is a knowledge gap on AR. More emphasis should be given to AR and its implications in the undergraduate curriculum. Latest national and international guidelines for antimicrobial therapy and resistance should be made available to the interns. Keywords: interns, antibiotic, prescribing, resistance, Bangladesh, knowledge, perception

  19. Isotope-aided studies on the nutrient status of eight Bangladesh soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this pot investigation was to identify the lack of macro- and micronutrients by cereal, leguminous and oil crops grown on typical Bangladesh soils. Radioactive and stable tracers were applied in two pot experiments, one extensive experiment with four crops rice, mungbean, mustard, and barley and with six radionuclides, 32P, 75Se, 58Co, 65Zn and 85Sr, and one small experiment with barley and 15N-enriched urea. This report contains the results of the investigation and comments of treatment effects on dry matter yields, chemical concentrations and chemical yields, in relation to soil analyses and to obtained tracer measures of soil fertility. Some conclusions are drawn as regards fertilizer measures needed to increase crop production under Bangladesh village conditions and as regards the potential value of futher soil/fertilizer/plant- investigations using tracers for evaluation and assessment of soil fertility and fertilizer efficiency. (author)

  20. Community economic status and intimate partner violence against women in bangladesh: compositional or contextual effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderEnde, Kristin E; Sibley, Lynn M; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Yount, Kathryn M

    2015-06-01

    In this research, we used a multi-level contextual-effects analysis to disentangle the household- and community-level associations between income and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in Bangladesh. Our analyses of data from 2,668 women interviewed as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women showed that household income was negatively associated with women's risk of experiencing IPV. Controlling for residence in a low-income household, living in a low-income community was not associated with women's risk of experiencing IPV. These results support a household-level, not community-level, relationship between income and IPV in Bangladesh. PMID:25845617

  1. Analysis of Financial Products of Capital Market in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Shahidul Islam; Shama Jahan

    2012-01-01

    The performance of existing financial products is an important issue in the capital market to increase the new products for reducing the risk of dependency on common stocks. The research aims are to evaluate the growth and development of existing financial instruments and to recommend for introducing new financial instruments in the capital market of Bangladesh. The data are taken from the Dhaka stock exchange for the year 1977 to 2010 for interpretation of development and the data from 2003 ...

  2. Current status of the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of the Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is summarized. The quantities of materials processed in the facility during 12 years of operation are given. TRU, a hot cell chemical processing facility, is described. Provisions have been made for changing and modifying equipment for continued updating of the plant in order to include new concepts in chemical processes and equipment design

  3. Current status of the muon g-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, A. E.; Radzhabov, A. E.; Zhevlakov, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The current status of the muon g-2 problem is briefly discussed. We briefly discuss the latest results on the muon g-2 measured in experiment and obtained theoretically within the standard model. Special attention is for the hadronic corrections and in particular the corrections due to the light by light scattering mechanism. For latter we present the results found in the leading in 1/Nc approximation with the nonlocal chiral quark model.

  4. Current status of gynecological cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kidong; Zang, Rongyu; Choi, Seok-Cheol; Ryu, Sang-Young; Kim, Jae Weon

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the current status of gynecological cancer in China focusing on epidemiological data. Epidemiological data on gynecological cancer in China is sparse. Therefore, most of the data were estimated via extrapolation based on a few available datasets. Cervical cancer is relatively rare and the incidence and mortality rate are largely decreasing. However, in young women, the incidence and mortality rates are increasing. The overall and age-specific incidence rat...

  5. Current status of finite unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) can provide predictions for parameters that are free in the Standard Model, but recent experimental data rule them out, favouring supersymmetric GUTs. The principle of finiteness in a GUT and the incorporation of supersymmetry can give a robust theoretical frame to make phenomenological reliable models. The purpose of this talk is to comment on the current status of finite unified models and its phenomenological possibilities

  6. Current status of low energy EB machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam processing systems have been in use in a variety of applications such as curing of paints and printing inks, crosslinking of PE products, treating of rubber tire and so on. Low energy electron processing systems have become popular as self-shielded machines, which are compact and easy to use and do not require special facility as an irradiation room. This manuscript introduces the status of low energy EB (electron beam) machine through Nissin's products current

  7. Hepatitis B Vaccination in Bangladesh: a Suggestion Based on Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafquat Mohammed Rafiq

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe hepatitis B virus (HBV causes up to a million deaths worldwide and 16 million health care related infections in the tropics each year(1,2, and over 350 million become chronically infected carriers who have no significant liver disease; approximately three quarters of them are in Asia and the western pacific region(3,4. HBV infection is a potentially life threatening condition as many of the affected individuals progress to chronic hepatitis,cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC(3. In infants and children, acute hepatitis B infection is nearly always asymptomatic, whereas in adults it is usually the opposite. But on the other hand, the risk of becoming chronic carriage is much greater in children than in adults; as many as 90% of infants born to Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg positive mothers become carriers themselves and, therefore, in long term are more likely to developchronic liver disease(5. Currently, though several antiviral drugs are used,there is no reliable curative treatment for HBV once it has been acquired and prevention by universal immunization remains the strategy for reducing the number of acute infections, chronic carriage and the long-term burden from diseases such as HCC(4,6. In 1991, in an attempt to reduce the global impact of HBV infection, WHO recommended that hepatitis B vaccination should be integrated into national immunization programs in all countries(7.Some Asian countries, for instance, Thailand, haveadopted the policy of immunizing children universally against the disease as early as 1992, however many others lagged behind(4.The true prevalence of Hepatitis B in Bangladesh is yet to be ascertained by a reliable study. Data available from different studies show that it ranges between 0.8 and 5.4% depending on the study design, samples and laboratory methods used(8-10.These data were based on detection of HBsAg antigen; the rates would have been higher, had they been based on anti-HBc antibody(11. Relying on these statistics Bangladesh can be categorized as an intermediate endemic zone for HBV(12. Unfortunately, despite an increased prevalence of HBV infection, the country has not incorporated hepatitis B vaccination into its national childhood immunization policy until recently, most probably because of its economic constraints. Presently it offers three doses hepatitis B vaccine to all babies. It is felt that the current regimen was drawn in on the basis of ongoing uncertainties and disagreements surrounding the vaccine all over the globe.Uncertainties Surrounding HBV ImmunizationThe rationale of HBV immunization is illustrated in the box; however uncertainties surrounding HBV immunization do exist, these are:Box: Rationale of Hepatitis B Immunization The rationale of HBV vaccination is to prevent: · Episodes of acute hepatitis B · Chronic hepatitis B surface antigenaemia · Chronic hepatitis and the need for therapy · Hepatocellular carcinoma · HBV transmission Correspondence:Dr. Harunor Rashid, Research Fellow, Academic Departmentof Child Health, Queen Mary University of London, 38 NewRoad, London, E1 2AX, UKFax: +44(02073777167E-mail: h.rashid@qmul.ac.ukHep Mon 2006; 6 (1: 41-44 - Duration of vaccine- induced immunity:It has been shown that immunization with three doses of HBV vaccine provides acceptable level of seroprotection for at least five years(13. Titersdecreased to 99% of the 14 year olds had titers of |“|10mIU/mL while one year after the booster 10mIU/mL after 1 month of first, second and third vaccinations were 58%, 70% and 94% respectively(16. However, it has been observed in other studies that two doses of recombinant HBV vaccine given over 4 or 6 months provide adequate seroprotection (|“|10mIU/mL in |“|95% of adolescent vaccines(13,17. There were small variations in vaccine response between infants and teenagers. The range of protection for different doses is shown in Table(17. If we accept that a level of 80-95% seroprotection is sufficient for Bangladesh then a strategy with only two doses would be more economical.Table:

  8. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, S. P.; Bett, A. W.; Horowitz, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the current status of the market and technology for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells and modules. Significant progress in CPV has been achieved, including record efficiencies for modules (36.7%) and cells (46%), as well as growth of large field installations in recent years. CPV technology may also have the potential to be cost-competitive on a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) basis in regions of high direct normal irradiance (DNI). The study includes an overview of all installations larger than 1 MW, information on companies currently active in the CPV field, efficiency data, and estimates of the LCOE in different scenarios.

  9. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, David; Zhao, Chunnong; Wen, Linqing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, Xingjiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N; Shannon, Ryan M; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, Zhoujian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zhang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2016-01-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravit...

  10. Current Status of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki M. Velonas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a leading cause of cancer-related death of men globally. Since its introduction, there has been intense debate as to the effectiveness of the prostate specific antigen (PSA test as a screening tool for PCa. It is now evident that the PSA test produces unacceptably high rates of false positive results and is not prognostic. Here we review the current status of molecular biomarkers that promise to be prognostic and that might inform individual patient management. It highlights current efforts to identify biomarkers obtained by minimally invasive methods and discusses current knowledge with regard to gene fusions, mRNA and microRNAs, immunology, and cancer-associated microparticles.

  11. Current status and installation of dental PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is difficult to implement in the best of situations, but evidence is growing that the benefits are significant. The aims of this study are to analyze the current status of full PACS and establish successful installation standard of dental PACS. Materials and Methods were based on the investigation of current working status and installation standard of PACS, and observation of variable issues to installation of dental PACS. By September 30, 2004, full PACS implementations in their facilities were 88.1% in specialized general hospitals (37 installations out of total 42 hospitals), 59.8% in general hospitals (144 installations out of total 241 hospitals), 12.3% in medical hospitals (116 installations out of total 941 hospitals) and 3.6% in dental hospitals (4 installations out of total 110 hospitals). Only 4 university dental hospitals currently have installed and are operating full PACS. Major obstacle to wide spread of dental PACS is initial high investments. Clinical environments of dental PACS differed from medical situation. Because of characteristic dental practice, the initial investments for dental PACS are generally much greater than those of medical PACS. Also new economic crisis makes users scruple. The best way to overcome these limitations is to establish an economic installation standard for dental PACS. Also the clear technical communication between the customer and the supplier before both sides are committed to the obstacles are critical to its success.

  12. The current status of observational cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jeremiah P Ostriker; Tarun Souradeep

    2004-10-01

    Observational cosmology has indeed made very rapid progress in recent years. The ability to quantify the universe has largely improved due to observational constraints coming from structure formation. The transition to precision cosmology has been spearheaded by measurements of the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) over the past decade. Observations of the large scale structure in the distribution of galaxies, high red-shift supernova, have provided the required complementary information. We review the current status of cosmological parameter estimates from joint analysis of CMB anisotropy and large scale structure (LSS) data. We also sound a note of caution on overstating the successes achieved thus far.

  13. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampornrat, Pantip [Nuclear Material Sciences Section, Physics Division, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2000-10-01

    The neutron scattering experiments in Thailand have been done continuously since the start up of the reactor. In 1977, Thai research reactor was modified into TRIGA MARK III core. After that, the neutron spectrometer was installed again under a development program. Installation of upgrading spectrometer was delayed because of some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. However, these problems were solved and the setup is almost completed. The paper reports the current status of neutron spectrometer, the problems and plans for the experiments. (author)

  14. Current status of the LUCIA laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albach, D; Arzakantsyan, M; Bourdet, G; Chanteloup, J-C; Hollander, P H; Vincent, B, E-mail: daniel.albach@polytechnique.ed [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CEA, UPMC University Paris 06, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2010-08-01

    The current status of the LUCIA laser program is discussed. While aiming at 100J, 10Hz, 10ns, a first milestone is set at 10 Joules with a repetition rate of 1-3 Hz. 7ns long, sub-mJ pulses generated by a cavity-dumped oscillator are first preamplified at the sub-J level. Thermal effects limit amplification and repetition rate at this stage. These pulses will be injected into the main amplifier, where amplification is limited by amplified spontaneous emission. It is expected that these pulses reach energy level of {approx}10J.

  15. Current Scenario of the Small-scale Broiler Farming in Bangladesh: Potentials for the Future Projection

    OpenAIRE

    Kaniz Quamrun Nahar Chhabi; Sasaki Takashi; Md Saiful Islam

    2010-01-01

    In Bangladesh, there are two types of broiler farming of which contract broiler farming is still under trial while independent small-scale broiler farming is dominant and performed for the development of broiler sector. The present study examined the potentials of small-scale independent broiler farms and farmers’ economic behavior in relation to farm size. Farm size is found to be closely related to farmers’ behavior and attitude. Farmers’ behavior and attitude appeared to be very crucial fa...

  16. Human Rights Violation and Political Persecution in Bangladesh: The Current Scenery

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Abdul Jalil; Muhammad Khalilur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh emerged as an independent country in the South Asia in 1971 after being separated from Pakistan. In 1971 it was a very poor country. The general people had a hope and dream that the political parties will develop the country and will eradicate poverty gradually, will provide jobs to the 50% unemployed people, will educate the 60% illiterate people; but their holy hope and dream have not been fulfilled due to frequent hostile political culture, beating, killing among the political p...

  17. The current status of hemodialysis in Baghdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali J.H. Al-Saedy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the different aspects of hemodialysis (HD in Baghdad in-cluding the population on dialysis, dialysis dose, nutritional status, and comobidities. We studied the HD patients recruited from five major hospitals in Baghdad from July 2008 to February 2009. There were 86 patients (mean age 46.05 ± 14.28 years. We evaluated their social status, co-morbidities, adequacy of dialysis, and nutritional status. The mean duration of patients on HD was 2.2 years, only 14% are currently employed, hepatitis was present in 43%, and other co-morbidities were present in 35%. Dialysis time was 6.4 ± 1.9 hours/week and Kt/V was 1.02 ± 0.2. Malnutrition was present in 63.5% of patients (moderate in 45.9% and severe in 17.6% with no significant sex difference. We conclude that dialysis in Baghdad is below the standards with low adequacy and frequency of sessions. Malnutrition is prevalent, especially the severe forms, and requires more attention and re-evaluation of the dialysis prescription.

  18. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  19. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Relationship of Intestinal Parasites, H. Pylori Infection with Anemia or Iron Status Among School age Children in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Rahman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate an association of intestinal parasites orHelicobacter pylori infection with hemoglobin, anemia or iron statusamong rural school aged children in Bangladesh.METHODS: Data and specimens from a controlled trial amongchildren aged 6-15 years old to assess the nutritional impact offortified flour were used to carry out this additional analysis onfactors which effect anemia. Stool samples from 310 children werecollected at the end of the trial and were tested for Helicobacterpylori stool antigen and intestinal parasites. Data on hematologicalparameters were obtained from endline measurements of the trial.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was84% among children with the highest prevalence for Ascaris(71% followed by Trichuris (67% and Hookworm (31%. Theprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was 39.7%. A total of26.8% children were anemic, while low iron status as defined by alow serum ferritin (5.0mg/L respectively was present in 18% and 11% of the children. Nostatistically significant association was found between Helicobacterpylori or any intestinal parasites and hemoglobin concentration,anemia or iron status among the children. However, there was asignificant association between low hemoglobin concentration andlow iron status based on serum ferritin (Coefficient: -0.28, 95% CI-0.54, -0.03 or transferrin receptor level (Coefficient: -0.89, 95% CI-1.18, -0.59 as well as anemia and low iron status based on serumtransferrin receptor (OR 3.57; p<0.01.CONCLUSION: Our results are in line with other studies fromdeveloping countries that showed no significant association betweenintestinal parasites or Helicobacter pylori infection and anemia,hemoglobin or iron status.

  1. MIRI telescope simulator (MTS) current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada, F. J.; Eiriz, V.; Alcacera, M. A.; Aricha, A.; Balado, A.; Barandiaran, J.; Berenguer, T.; Diaz, E.; Figueroa, I.; Gonzalez, L. M.; Lopez, R.; Menendez, M.; Bernardo, A. M.; Reina, M.; Sanchez, A.; Garcia, G.; Jimenez, A.; Colombo, M.; Canchal, M. R.; Rodriguez, J. A.

    2007-09-01

    MTS (MIRI telescope simulator) is the Spanish contribution to the JWST Project. MTS is a part of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the Assembly Integration and Verification (AIV) and Calibration phase of the MIRI instrument at the RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) facilities. Briefly, MTS main objetive consists on delivering a diffraction-limited test beam, including the obscuration and mask pattern, to the MIRI instrument that reproduces the output beam of the JWST in environmental conditions similar to those corresponding to the flight. In this work, the current status of the project is reported on. Mainly, after a description of the whole instrument and the optomechanical performances required, the paper will be focused on the current status of the purchase and characterization of certain critical elements belonging to the different subsystems. The first step has been the verification of the thermoelastic behaviour of its structure, employing a mass prototype. Both extensometer measurements and optical measurements with alignment mirror cubes have been carried out during a thermal vacuum test of this MTS prototype. The correlation of the measurements, optically and mechanically, will provide a better knowledge of the structure behavior and will be used to define the integration process.

  2. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  3. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-07-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub-clinically affected. SOES and DCH made a few follow-up studies in some districts to know their overall situations after 9 to 18 years of their first exposure. The overall conclusion from these follow-up studies is (a) villagers are now more aware about the danger of drinking arsenic contaminated water (b) villagers are currently drinking less arsenic contaminated water (c) many villagers in affected village died of cancer (d) arsenic contaminated water is in use for agricultural irrigation and arsenic exposure from food chain could be future danger. Since at present more information is coming about health effects from low arsenic exposure, Bangladesh Government should immediately focus on their huge surface water management and reduce their permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water. PMID:25660323

  4. Productive and reproductive efficiency of different genotypes of goat in Bangladesh influenced by nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment is being conducted in flood fed area in the western part and hilly area in the eastern part of Bangladesh covering rural and urban areas with Black Bengal and crossbred (Black Bengal X Shirohi) goats to find out the effect of nutrition on growth and reproductive performances. Pure Black Bengal goats and crossbred goats were selected from the rural area of two regions. Purity of the goats was ascertained through history of the animals as well as microsatellites test. Black Bengal goats were reared under normal grazing condition without any supplementation in both the regions. Crossbred goats were maintained in the urban area of the western part and kept on grazing as well as supplementation (green leaves and concentrates). All the experimental goats were dewormed and vaccinated against PPR regularly. The experiment started in January 2007 and still is continuing. Litter size, kidding interval, birth weight, weaning weight and yearling weight are the parameters that are being recoded. The results presented here represent the data from January 2007 to August 2008. The birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, litter size and kidding interval for different genotypes in different regions have been presented in a Table. Within the Black Bengal goats, birth weight, weaning weight and yearling weight were more in group maintained in hilly area than those reared in flood fed area. There was no significant difference of birth weight between two groups; however weaning weight and yearling weight of goats reared in hilly region were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those of goats reared in flood fed area. Reproductive parameters like litter size and kidding interval performances were also better in goats reared in hilly area. The flood fed area is inundated by floodwater every year; paddy is cultivated throughout the year and has very limited grazing land with high human population density. Animals in this area always suffer from malnutrition due to lack of sufficient forages. The hilly area remains free of flood, covered by dense forest and has a vast grazing land with low human population density. Animals in this area get sufficient forage naturally. The better performances in growth and reproduction in goats reared in hilly area is certainly for better nutrition that occurs naturally. On the hand, crossbred maintained urban area had better performances over Black Bengal goats. This may be for heterosis effect as well as supplementation of feeds. The preliminary study of this experiment indicates that nutrition as well as genotypes has significant influence in the production and reproduction performances of goats in Bangladesh. In fact, this is the first work on Black Bengal goats in the hilly area and crossbred goats of Bangladesh. Further experiment has been planned for confirming this fact. (author)

  5. Natural Gas in Pakistan and Bangladesh – current issues and trends: OIES paper: NG 77

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Ieda

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas commentary and industry focus on South Asia tends to target India, the largest gas market. Pakistan and Bangladesh in aggregate however equal India in terms of gas consumption and as such are significant markets in their own right. This paper by Ieda Gomes is an in-depth study of the genesis and present situation of these two significant gas consuming countries, including the drag on their potential economic output as a consequence of gas supply shortages and the attempts of ea...

  6. Current status of Pohang Neutron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G.N.; Lee, Y.S.; Cho, M.H. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang (KR)] [and others

    2000-03-01

    We present the current status of Pohang Neutron Facility, which is the pulsed neutron facility, based on the 70-MeV electron linear accelerator completed on Dec.1997. We have prepared the 15-m time-of-flight path, a Ta-target system, and the Data Acquisition System. Meanwhile we have measured the total cross-sections of Dy and Hf samples at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and the neutron capture cross-sections of {sup 164}Dy isotope at Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology both in Japan. We also were participated the experiment at the 122-m flight path of the IBR-30 pulsed neutron source of Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. (author)

  7. Biotechnology in Mauritius: current status and constraints

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daneshwar, Puchooa.

    2004-08-15

    Full Text Available Agriculture today faces the challenge of sustainable productivity and improved food security on a shrinking area of land under cultivation. Until recently, biotechnology has been viewed as an expensive technology affordable only by rich industrial countries. However, it is now increasingly considere [...] d as an essential tool for developing countries to tackle the numerous problems of underdevelopment. Unfortunately, to date, Mauritius, like many other countries in Africa, lags far behind in development, use and commercialisation of biotechnology. This paper outlines the current status of biotechnology in Mauritius, some important constraints faced, as well as how policy makers are planning to make Mauritius “assume the role of a service provider and know-how disseminator in the field of biotechnology by acting as a regional hub and a regional nursery”.

  8. Current status in Japan related to LMNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status of nuclear power plants in Japan is presented with the basic concepts against ageing of LWR plants which are considered to continue growing into the 21st century. Life management for aged NPPs is recognized to be important for the safe and reliable operation. In April 1996 MITI published the first report regarding the measures to cope with the aged NPPs. Two BWRs and one PWR were evaluated as aged NPPs in Phase-I Technical evaluation, which concluded that safe operation is possible with correct and adequate maintenance despite operation exceeded 30 years. The technology development items towards attaining further highly reliable management were indicated including the inspection/monitoring technology, the preventive maintenance/repair technology and ageing evaluation technology

  9. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  10. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.iaccarino@unina.it; Venetucci, Pietro [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Diagnostic Imaging Department-Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  11. Colletotrichum – current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Weir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A review is provided of the current state of understanding of Colletotrichum systematics, focusing on species-level data and the major clades. The taxonomic placement of the genus is discussed, and the evolution of our approach to species concepts and anamorph-teleomorph relationships is described. The application of multilocus technologies to phylogenetic analysis of Colletotrichum is reviewed, and selection of potential genes/loci for barcoding purposes is discussed. Host specificity and its relation to speciation and taxonomy is briefly addressed. A short review is presented of the current status of classification of the species clusters that are currently without comprehensive multilocus analyses, emphasising the orbiculare and destructivum aggregates. The future for Colletotrichum biology will be reliant on consensus classification and robust identification tools. In support of these goals, a Subcommission on Colletotrichum has been formed under the auspices of the International Commission on Taxonomy of Fungi, which will administer a carefully curated barcode database for sequence-based identification of species within the BioloMICS web environment.

  12. Context and the Gendered Status of Teachers: Women's Empowerment through Leadership of Non-Formal Schooling in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Empowering women to control and change their lives continues to be an important goal for many nations. This article examines the empowering effects of being selected and trained to lead rural schools in Bangladesh, using survey and interview data from 152 village women working with the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee education programme.…

  13. Edible vaccines: Current status and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  14. Current status of pig liver xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekser, Burcin; Markmann, James F; Tector, A Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The shortage of organs from deceased human donors is a major problem limiting the number of organs transplanted each year and results in the death of thousands of patients on the waiting list. Pigs are currently the preferred species for clinical organ xenotransplantation. Progress in genetically-engineered (GE) pig liver xenotransplantation increased graft and recipient survival from hours with unmodified pig livers to up to 9 days with normal to near-normal liver function. Deletion of genes such as GGTA1 (Gal-knockout pigs) or adding genes such as human complement regulatory proteins (hCD55, hCD46 expressing pigs) enabled hyperacute rejection to be overcome. Although survival up to 9 days was recorded, extended pig graft survival was not achieved due to lethal thrombocytopenia. The current status of GE pig liver xenotransplantation with world experience, potential factors causing thrombocytopenia, new targets on pig endothelial cells, and novel GE pigs with more genes deletion to avoid remaining antibody response, such as beta1,4-N-acetyl galactosaminyl transferase 2 (?4GalNT2), are discussed. PMID:26190837

  15. Diversity of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mohammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT of Bangladesh was considered hyperendemic for malaria. To better understand the contemporary malaria epidemiology and to develop new and innovative control strategies, comprehensive epidemiologic studies are ongoing in two endemic unions of Bandarban district of CHT. Within these studies entomological surveillance has been undertaken to study the role of the existing anopheline species involved in the malaria transmission cycle throughout the year. Methods CDC miniature light traps were deployed to collect anopheline mosquitoes from the sleeping room of the selected houses each month in a single union (Kuhalong. Molecular identification was carried out for available Anopheles species complexes. Circumsporozoite proteins (CSP for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax-210 (Pv-210 and Plasmodium vivax-247(Pv-247 were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from the female anopheline mosquitoes. To confirm CSP-ELISA results, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also performed. Results A total of 2,837 anopheline mosquitoes, of which 2,576 were female, belonging to 20 species were collected from July 2009?-June 2010. Anopheles jeyporiensis was the most abundant species (18.9%, followed by An. vagus (16.8% and An. kochi (14.4%. ELISA was performed on 2,467 female mosquitoes of 19 species. 15 (0.6% female anophelines belonging to eight species were found to be positive for Plasmodium infection by CSP-ELISA. Of those, 11 (0.4% mosquitoes were positive for P. falciparum and four (0.2% for Pv-210. No mosquito was found positive for Pv-247. An. maculatus (2.1%, 2/97 had the highest infection rate followed by An. umbrosus (1.7%, 2/115 and An. barbirostris (1.1%, 2/186. Other infected species were An. nigerrimus, An. nivipes, An. jeyporiensis, An. kochi, and An. vagus. Out of 11 P. falciparum CSP positive samples, seven turned out to be positive by PCR. None of the samples positive for Pv-210 was positive by PCR. In terms of abundance and incrimination, the results suggest that An. maculatus, An. jeyporiensis and An. nivipes play important roles in malaria transmission in Kuhalong. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that even in the presence of an insecticide impregnated bed-net intervention, a number of Anopheles species still play a role in the transmission of malaria. Further investigations are required to reveal the detailed biology and insecticide resistance patterns of the vector mosquito species in endemic areas in Bangladesh in order to assist with the planning and implementation of improved malaria control strategies.

  16. Educational Status of the Married Women and Their Participation at Household Decision Making in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sanjoy Kumar; Howlader, Hasan; Nahar, Nasrin

    2012-11-01

    The key focus of this study is to explain the level of education of married women and their participation in decision making process at different arena of rural household. To find out the nature of the reality, survey research design was used for this study. The study was conducted at Maharajpur, one of the unions of Jhenidah district in Bangladesh in 2011. The respondents of the study consisted of 120 married women who were purposively selected from the study area. Data were collected through direct interview method using an interview schedule. Data were shown on univariate, as well as bivariate statistical tables and then analyzed. The study reveals that a significant percent (93.3) of higher level of education completed women had their consent of getting married whereas no consent was made by illiterate women. In the same way 46.7 percent higher level of education completed women had high level of purchasing power in compare to illiterate (.0%) and primary (14.6%) level completed women for the same level of purchasing. In the political decision making 86.7 percent higher level of education completed women had own consent to vote for election in contrast to 77.8 percent illiterate and 70.7 percent primary level completed women were influenced by their husband to decide voting.

  17. IAEA occupational radiation protection programme: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As stated in Art.III.A.6 of its Statute, the International Atomic Energy Agency (commonly referred to as the Agency) is authorized to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operation as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision. The Agency s Occupational Radiation Protection Programme aims at harmonizing infrastructures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and for optimizing radiation protection in situation s of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation. Under its regular and technical cooperation programmes, the Agency has been assigning high priority to both the establishment of safety standards for labour conditions and for the application of these standards through, Interalia, direct assistance under its technical cooperation (TC) programme, the rendering of services, the promotion of education and training, the fostering of information exchange and the coordination of research and development. The purpose of this paper is to present the current status and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection. (authors)

  18. Current status of the CATS database

    CERN Document Server

    Verkhodanov, O V; Andernach, H; Chernenkov, V N

    2005-01-01

    We describe the current status of CATS, a publicly accessible database (web-server http://cats.sao.ru) allowing one to search in hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly laid on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 30 to 15000 MHz, secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants (SNR), pulsars, nearby galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys, like NVSS, FIRST, WENSS, VLSS, TXS, GB6, SUMSS, IRAS, 2MASS, SDSS, ROSAT, PGC, MCG, etc. In 2004 CATS comprised a total of $\\sim10^9$ records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most of RATAN--600 catalogs. CATS is being expanded and updated, both with newly published catalogs as well as older ones which we have created in electronic form for the first time. We describe the principles of organization of the database of...

  19. Tackling dengue fever: Current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedjadi, Taoufik; El-Kafrawy, Sherif; Sohrab, Sayed S; Desprès, Philippe; Damanhouri, Ghazi; Azhar, Esam

    2015-01-01

    According to recent statistics, 96 million apparent dengue infections were estimated worldwide in 2010. This figure is by far greater than the WHO prediction which indicates the rapid spread of this disease posing a growing threat to the economy and a major challenge to clinicians and health care services across the globe particularly in the affected areas.This article aims at bringing to light the current epidemiological and clinical status of the dengue fever. The relationship between genetic mutations, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the pathophysiology of disease progression will be put into perspective. It will also highlight the recent advances in dengue vaccine development.Thus far, a significant progress has been made in unraveling the risk factors and understanding the molecular pathogenesis associated with the disease. However, further insights in molecular features of the disease and the development of animal models will enormously help improving the therapeutic interventions and potentially contribute to finding new preventive measures for population at risk. PMID:26645066

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hong-Mei; Liu, Bo-Li [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals

    2014-04-01

    The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for ?-amyloid plaques, ?{sub 1} receptors, and dopamine D{sub 2} or D{sub 4} receptors; (2) {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 18}F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled glucose derivatives, ?{sub 2} receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

  1. ALOS-2 current status and operation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Osawa, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) carries the state-of-the-art L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) called PALSAR-2 which succeeds to the ALOS / PALSAR. PALSAR-2 will have enhanced performance in both high resolution and wide swath compared to PALSAR. It will allow comprehensive monitoring of disasters. Wider bandwidth and shorter revisit time will give better conference for INSAR data analysis such as crustal deformation and deforestation. The Proto Flight Test (PFT) of ALOS-2 has been conducted since June 2012. In parallel, the PFT of PALSAR-2 has been conducted since March 2012. As of August 2013, ALOS-2 system has completed the interface test with ground system and is preparing for the Vibration test, Acoustic test and Electromagnetic Compatibility test. After completing these tests, ALOS-2 will be transported to JAXA Tanegashima Space Center for launch. The initial commissioning phase of ALOS-2 is planned for six months which are comprised of LEOP (Launch and Early Orbit Phase) and initial Cal/Val phase. During the LEOP, all components will be checked with direct downlink via Xband and with data relay communication via JAXA's DRTS (Data Relay Test Satellite). During the initial Cal/Val phase, the PALSAR-2 data will be verified and calibrated by using Corner Reflectors and Geometric Calibrator at ground. The data acquisition during the commissioning phase will be consistent with the systematic acquisition strategy prepared for the routine operation. This paper describes the current status and operation plan of ALOS-2.

  2. Current Status of TRR-1/M1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1961, the first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1, having power of 1 MW was established. It was located at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) in Bangkok. TRR-1 was completely commissioned in June 1962. Plate typed high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U3O8-Al were used as fuel. Light water used as moderator and coolant. During 1975-1977, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. It is a circular hexagonal core typed reactor designed by General Atomics Company (GA). Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to Thai Research Reactor 1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. This swimming pool typed reactor uses low-enriched uranium (LEU) as fuel and light water as coolant and moderator. To date, the reactor has been operated with core No.12 that released power 1135 MWD to serve the user. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization, for example, to produce radioisotope, neutron beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. This report explains in detail regarding operational experience and current status of this reactor, for example, reactor operation and reactor utilization. (author)

  3. Current status of therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Kathleen E; Pratt, Daniel S

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing worldwide. A multi-disciplinary approach is required for its management. Screening high-risk patients allows for earlier diagnosis and the use of potentially curative therapies. Current recommendations for HCC screening for patients with cirrhosis are an abdominal ultrasound and serum alpha fetoprotein level every 6 to 12 months. Treatment choice depends on tumor stage, liver function and the patient's overall functional status. Curative therapies include surgical resection, liver transplantation (LT), transarterial chemoembolization, and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Surgical resection, either primary resection or LT, is the treatment most likely to result in cure of HCC. Which option to pursue is based on multiple factors. LT has the potential benefit of treating both HCC and the underlying cirrhosis; however, long wait times incur the risk of tumor progression. Firm recommendations regarding the role of living donor LT for HCC are not yet possible because of conflicting data. HCC recurrence after LT is 8-11% and several adjuvant therapies have been investigated to reduce this. Bridging therapy and tumor downsizing are techniques that also may be considered to deal with long waiting periods and qualification for LT, respectively. If neither LT nor primary resection is possible, loco-regional therapies such as RFA and TACE should be considered. Systemic chemotherapies have proved disappointing for the treatment of HCC; however, newer targeted therapies such as sorafenib and cetuximab have provided new hope for the future. PMID:21180533

  4. Current status of clinical breath analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risby, T. H.; Solga, S. F.

    2006-11-01

    Clinical breath analysis remains in its infancy, despite the fact that its potential has been recognized for centuries and that blood, urine, and other bodily fluids and tissues are routinely analyzed to diagnose disease or to monitor therapy. This review discusses the present status of clinical breath analysis and suggests reasons why breath analysis has not received similar widespread clinical use. Currently, a number of marker molecules have been identified in breath that could be used to identify disease, disease progression, or to monitor therapeutic intervention and this list is expected increase dramatically since the analysis of breath is ideally suited for population-based studies in the developed and underdeveloped world. Recent advances in analytical instrumentation have suggested that the use of exhaled breath in medicine should now be re-examined. In particular, the availability of real-time, portable monitors will represent a breakthrough for clinical diagnosis. Progress in clinical breath analysis will require collaboration amongst device makers, experts in breath analysis, and clinicians.

  5. Current status of JENDL-3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of JENDL-3.3 is presented. Reevaluation work toward JENDL-3.3 has started last April for three years project to supply a consolidated new versions of JENDL by JAERI NDC (Nuclear Data center) with the cooperation of JNDC (Japanese Nuclear Data Committee). The working schedule has been fixed by the careful review of the summary report, `The problems of JENDL-3.2`, submitted to JNDC last March after one year discussions by a small advisory group: `Identifying the problems of JENDL-3.2`. To cope with the problems, two new subgroups are set up in the Subcommittee of Nuclear Data of JNDC. One is Heavy Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for the re-evaluation of major actinides (Th-232, U-233,235,236,238, Pu-236,239,241,242). The other is Intermediate Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for solving the inconsistencies between calculations and integral experiments relating to the fields of fusion neutronics and shielding applications as well as new evaluations such as Er elements. Supplying covariance data for important nuclides are one of the main feature of JENDL-3.3. Re-evaluated data will be released as JENDL-3.3 in the individual bases after the reviewing process by the experts. (author)

  6. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    CERN Document Server

    Bertulani, C A

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the World. For this purpose we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last 9 decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data become available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as $^4$He, $^7$Li, $^9$Be etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei co...

  7. IAEA occupational radiation protection programme: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deboodt, P.; Mrabit, K. [PPSS/NSRW/IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    As stated in Art.III.A.6 of its Statute, the International Atomic Energy Agency (commonly referred to as the Agency) is authorized to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operation as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision. The Agency s Occupational Radiation Protection Programme aims at harmonizing infrastructures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and for optimizing radiation protection in situation s of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation. Under its regular and technical cooperation programmes, the Agency has been assigning high priority to both the establishment of safety standards for labour conditions and for the application of these standards through, Interalia, direct assistance under its technical cooperation (TC) programme, the rendering of services, the promotion of education and training, the fostering of information exchange and the coordination of research and development. The purpose of this paper is to present the current status and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection. (authors)

  8. Current status of ITER EC design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER-FEAT Electron Cyclotron System employs one equatorial launcher and three upper port launchers to inject 20 + 20 MW of mm-wave power at 170 GHz through slots in the plasma-facing neutron and radiation shield. The equatorial launcher includes 3 sets of toroidally steer-able mirrors, each collecting 8 RF beams from 24 circular cross-section corrugated wave-guides. In the upper-port launcher, eight beams, reflected in pairs by four toroidally angled (?30 angle) and poloidally steer-able (? 10 angle) mirrors focus of the RF power on the plasma m = 2 and m = 3/2 plasma flux rational surfaces, for neo-classical tearing mode(s) (NTM) control. Conceptual studies of remote steering that would possibly allow removing the beam- steering equipment from the vacuum vessel and locating them in more protected positions have been carried out. All EC wave transmission is based on low losses circular cross section corrugated and evacuated wave guides each connected to a 170 GHz, 1 MW CW Gyrotron tube oscillator featuring an overall efficiency of ? 50%, obtained by depressed-collector energy recovery. In the paper, requirements, issues and the current status of the design is reviewed. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of the impact of the voucher and accreditation approach on improving reproductive behaviors and RH status: Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Moshiur

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost of delivering reproductive health services to low-income populations will always require total or partial subsidization by the government and/or development partners. Broadly termed "Demand-Side Financing" or "Output-Based Aid", includes a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the service user rather than the service provider. Initial findings from the few assessments of reproductive health voucher-and-accreditation programs suggest that, if implemented well, these programs have great potential for achieving the policy objectives of increasing access and use, reducing inequities and enhancing program efficiency and service quality. At this point in time, however, there is a paucity of evidence describing how the various voucher programs function in different settings, for various reproductive health services. Methods/Design Population Council-Nairobi, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to address the lack of evidence around the pros and cons of 'voucher and accreditation' approaches to improving the reproductive health of low income women in five developing countries. In Bangladesh, the activities will be conducted in 11 accredited health facilities where Demand Side Financing program is being implemented and compared with populations drawn from areas served by similar non-accredited facilities. Facility inventories, client exit interviews and service provider interviews will be used to collect comparable data across each facility for assessing readiness and quality of care. In-depth interviews with key stakeholders will be conducted to gain a deeper understanding about the program. A population-based survey will also be carried out in two types of locations: areas where vouchers are distributed and similar locations where vouchers are not distributed. Discussion This is a quasi-experimental study which will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving maternal health behaviors and status and reducing inequities at the population level. We expect a significant increase in the utilization of maternal health care services by the accredited health facilities in the experimental areas compared to the control areas as a direct result of the interventions. If the voucher scheme in Bangladesh is found effective, it may help other countries to adopt this approach for improving utilization of maternity care services for reducing maternal mortality.

  10. The current status of hemodialysis in Baghdad

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saedy Ali; Al-Kahichy Hayder

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to assess the different aspects of hemodialysis (HD) in Baghdad in-cluding the population on dialysis, dialysis dose, nutritional status, and comobidities. We studied the HD patients recruited from five major hospitals in Baghdad from July 2008 to February 2009. There were 86 patients (mean age 46.05 ± 14.28 years). We evaluated their social status, co-morbidities, adequacy of dialysis, and nutritional status. The mean duration of patients on HD was 2.2 years, only 14�...

  11. Status of the shrimp sector in Bangladesh in the context of HACCP and trade issues: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Naureen, M .; Kabir, D.S.; Ali, M. S.; Kamal, M

    2006-01-01

    Shrimp culture in Bangladesh has emerged as an important aquaculture industry over the last three decades although its culture in greater parts of the farming area is done in traditional ways. In the meantime, the government of Bangladesh has taken necessary measures along with the private sectors to increase production, upgrade processing industries and to promote export performance. Long supply chain in raw material collection, inadequate infrastructure facilities, poor level of cool chain ...

  12. Gravitational wave detection: Current status, future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, S. V.

    1995-12-01

    Detectors in vogue, the largescale interferometric detectors planned and the likely sources of gravitational waves are described giving an account of the present status and future goals. The new era of gravitational wave astronomy is in the offing.

  13. Current Status of Deep Geological Repository Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk provided an overview of the current status of deep-geological-repository development worldwide. Its principal observation is that a broad consensus exists internationally that deep-geological disposal is the only long-term solution for disposition of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Also, it is now clear that the institutional and political aspects are as important as the technical aspects in achieving overall progress. Different nations have taken different approaches to overall management of their highly radioactive wastes. Some have begun active programs to develop a deep repository for permanent disposal: the most active such programs are in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. Other countries (including France and Russia) are still deciding on whether to proceed quickly to develop such a repository, while still others (including the UK, China, Japan) have affirmatively decided to delay repository development for a long time, typically for a generation of two. In recent years, a major conclusion has been reached around the world that there is very high confidence that deep repositories can be built, operated, and closed safely and can meet whatever safety requirements are imposed by the regulatory agencies. This confidence, which has emerged in the last few years, is based on extensive work around the world in understanding how repositories behave, including both the engineering aspects and the natural-setting aspects, and how they interact together. The construction of repositories is now understood to be technically feasible, and no major barriers have been identified that would stand in the way of a successful project. Another major conclusion around the world is that the overall cost of a deep repository is not as high as some had predicted or feared. While the actual cost will not be known in detail until the costs are incurred, the general consensus is that the total life-cycle cost will not exceed a few percent of the value of the electricity generated by the power reactors that have produced the waste. Of course, the current international situation is that no nation is currently willing to take any radioactive waste from another nation for deep disposal. This means that every nation will ultimately need to develop its own deep repository. This makes no sense, however--many nations have only a modest amount of waste, or do not have appropriate geological settings for a repository, or both. Ultimately, the need for one or more multi-national or international repositories will emerge, although so far this has not happened. Only one nation, Russia, has announced a policy permitting the import of radioactive wastes from other countries, but Russia's policy is not to import the wastes for deep disposal, but for chemical reprocessing. Various nations have made very different choices as to the schedule for proceeding with a repository. The rationales for each national choice differ significantly. The decision, different from country to country, comes down to balancing various seemingly conflicting values, including (a) whether the technology for deep disposal is judged to be mature enough; (b) whether surface storage during a lengthy delay is judged adequately safe against accidents and adequately secure against terrorists; (c) whether technologies for separating some of the waste constituents for re-use or recycle into reactors, or technologies for transmuting some waste constituents, are sufficiently promising to merit delaying until those technologies are more mature; (d) issues of the cost of disposal and who should bear that cost; (e) issues related to disposal of wastes from nuclear weapons programs, as distinct from wastes from reactor operations; and (f) issues about the linkage between disposal and the future of nuclear power. Finally, the decision to proceed with a repository often is governed by whether the government has the political will or ability to proceed, taking account of public opinion. In some countries, significant opposition to proceeding with repository development has led to a

  14. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in pursuing a career in nuclear physics.

  15. Status of Biodiversity and Its Conservation in the Kobadak River Basin of Maheshpur Upazila, Jhenaidah, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Jashim Md.

    2015-01-01

    This research project represents the Status of Biodiversity and Its Conservation of Kobadak River basin of Maheshpur Upazila. The study was designed to develop a set of information about the present condition of biodiversity of the study area. Both primary and secondary data have been used to fulfill the survey successfully. Primary data have been…

  16. 42 CFR 411.104 - Current employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... active employment periods; for example, based on an hours bank arrangement. (Active union members often... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current employment status. 411.104 Section 411.104... Covered Under Group Health Plans: General Provisions § 411.104 Current employment status. (a) General...

  17. The Current Status of Statewide Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Deneen; Kurshan, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Describes the status of educational telecommunications networks operated and funded by state government agencies to support K-12 programs. Summaries of a 1993 survey and other recent studies are presented together with recommendations for network infrastructure, instruction, transport, funding, and evaluation development. (Contains 12 references.)…

  18. Current status of the world's research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from the IAEA's Research Reactor Database (RRDB) provides information with respect to the status of the world's research reactors. Some summary data are given. Recent initiatives by the IAEA regarding communications and information flow with respect to research reactors are discussed. Future plans and perspectives are also introduced. (author)

  19. QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SECONDARY EDUCATION PROGRAME OF BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY: Present Status and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Zobaida AKHTER

    2008-01-01

    In the present day in national and international perspectives, quality is the top of most agendas. Quality of education has significant impact and invaluable contribution to the area of development. Recently, the SSC & HSC program of BOU have earned recognition of equivalency with the formal education sector, which has naturally raised the question of quality assurance of these programs By applying the quantitative method, the study has assessed the present status of the quality of SSC & HSC ...

  20. Current status and prospects of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The first nuclear research reactors (RR) appeared in the 1940s. Their initial purpose was to provide knowledge of the main processes associated with neutron-induced nuclear reactions. Later, the rang of problems addressed expanded substantially. Besides fundamental research in the properties of matter, such reactors are successfully used for dealing with problems in the fields of materials science, nuclear engineering, medicine, isotope production, education, etc. Over the whole period of RR fleet growth, more than six hundred nuclear research facilities were built in 70 countries of the world. As of the end of 2008, the number of Russian research reactors in service was about 20% of the globally operating RR fleet. This paper discusses the current status of the world's RR fleet and describes the capabilities of the experimental reactor facilities existing in Russia. In the 21st century, research reactors will remain in demand to solve scientific and technological problems for innovative development of society. The emerging renaissance of nuclear power, the expanding RR uses for production of isotopes and other applications, the increase in the number of countries willing to use nuclear technologies in energy production, industry and science - all contribute to a rebirth of interest in research reactors. One of the ways to improve the experimental capabilities lies in radical upgrading of the reactor facilities with qualitative changes in the main neutronic characteristics of the core. The associated design approaches are illustrated with the example of the IBR-2M reactor at the JNRI in Dubna. The imperative need restricting the spread of nuclear threat leads us to give up using highly enriched uranium in most research reactors. Development of RR fuel with reduced enrichment in uranium has been one of the priority objectives of NIKIET for many years. This paper presents the latest results obtained along these lines, as applied to pool-type research reactors. An effort of the recent years is to develop a research reactor which will have a broad range of experimental capabilities while being of as simple and economical design as possible. NIKIET specialists prepared a technical proposal for a reactor complex RUTA-IT, which combines various irradiation options with a capacity to make the best possible use of the emitted thermal energy. The characteristics and capabilities of this complex are described in the paper. The requirements for research reactors of a new generation are largely implemented in the MBIR reactor design has been under development at NIKIET since 2008. This is going to be a fundamentally new fast-neutron research reactor with uranium-plutonium fuel, liquid-metal sodium coolant, and a set of loop devices for testing of experimental products. The key reactor design features are presented in the paper. The paper ends with a conclusion that the scientific community is coming to realize that research reactors are indispensable tools for innovative development of science, power engineering, technologies and education.

  1. Association of Clinical Complications with Nutritional Status and the Prevalence of Leukopenia among Arsenic Patients in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul I. Kazi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted in Bangladesh reports the relationship of clinical complications with nutritional status and the prevalence of leukopenia among arsenic exposed patients living in the rural villages. A total of 115 exposed individuals diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were randomly selected from four known arsenic endemic villages, and age-matched 120 unexposed subjects were enrolled in the study program. The duration of arsenic exposure in about 37% of the patients was at least 10 yrs, while the population mean and range were 7.6 ± 5.2 yrs, and 1 – 25 yrs, respectively. The mean arsenic concentrations in the drinking water for the exposed and unexposed (control population were 218.1 μg/L and 11.3 μg/L, respectively. The spot urine sample of the arsenicosis patients contained an average of 234.6 μg/L arsenic. Although very few patients showed elevated WBC count, 16% had leukopenia (below normal count, and the whole population had significantly low WBC count than the control subjects. Prevalences of neutropenia and lymphocytosis were observed in patients with chronic exposure to high levels of arsenic in water. The body mass index was found to be lower than 18.5, the cut-off point for malnutrition (underweight, in about 28% of the arsenicosis cases compared to 15% of the controls. The monthly income and total calorie consumption per day showed the patients were underprivileged than the controls. Arsenical symptoms and complications were more severe in the nutritionally vulnerable (underweight patients than the overweight ones. Also, the incidences of leukopenia and anaemia were more common in the female patients who were underweight. The findings of this research demonstrate that the poor nutritional status of patients increases the complications of chronic arsenic toxicity; suggest the possibility of other sources of arsenic contamination different from drinking water in the study area; and establish a higher prevalence of leukopenia and lymphocytosis in arsenicosis patients.

  2. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  3. Management of Village Common Forests in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh: Historical Background and Current Issues in Terms of Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Jashimuddin; Makoto Inoue

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the historical management system of village common forests (VCF) in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh and observe the current issues related to their sustainability. The study on historical context was based on secondary information to establish the linkages of VCF development and management in the CHT. Field visits to four VCF in the Bandarban Hill Districts were also conducted to cross check the information collected from secondary source...

  4. The current status of neutrino mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Justin

    2011-01-01

    A brief review of the experimental status of neutrino mixing. The model of neutrino oscillations has now been established with high confidence, with many of the model parameters measured to an accuracy of a few per cent. However, some parameters still remain unknown, notably the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ and the amount of CP violation. Recently, new questions have come to light, highlighting possibilities to search for new physics in the neutrino sector.

  5. Current status of fast reactor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented.

  6. Current status of VHTR development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the program at the beginning of fiscal 1982 is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the altering of the output helium temperature of the experimental VHTR to 9500. The modification is aimed at establishing the technical basis for post-experimental VHTR output helium temperature of 10000C. Notes are given on the design of the VHTR as well as various research and development efforts in Japan on multi-purpose nuclear heat applications and HTGR technology

  7. Cardiac rehabilitation. Current status and future directions.

    OpenAIRE

    Gattiker, H.; Goins, P.; C. Dennis

    1992-01-01

    Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more than exercise training for patients with coronary artery disease and now includes all aspects of secondary prevention. Exercise training is individually prescribed based on clinical status and therapeutic goals. Smoking cessation and abstinence and the treatment of hypercholesterolemia are integral to the rehabilitation process. Education and counseling are important adjuncts to treatment, especially soon after a coronary event. Vocational rehabili...

  8. QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SECONDARY EDUCATION PROGRAME OF BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY: Present Status and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zobaida AKHTER

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present day in national and international perspectives, quality is the top of most agendas. Quality of education has significant impact and invaluable contribution to the area of development. Recently, the SSC & HSC program of BOU have earned recognition of equivalency with the formal education sector, which has naturally raised the question of quality assurance of these programs By applying the quantitative method, the study has assessed the present status of the quality of SSC & HSC program of BOU and also put some recommendations to meet the challenges for further development.

  9. The effect of women's status on infant and child mortality in four rural areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mian B; Phillips, James F; Pence, Brian

    2007-05-01

    In South Asia women are often the primary decision-makers regarding child health care, family health and nutrition. This paper examines the proposition that constraints on women's status adversely affect the survival of their children. Survey data are used to construct indices of women's household autonomy and authority, which are then linked to longitudinal data on survival of their children. Proportional hazard models indicate that enhanced autonomy significantly decreases post-neonatal mortality. Enhanced household authority significantly decreases child mortality. A simulation based on estimated effects of eliminating gender inequality suggests that achieving complete gender equality could reduce child mortality by nearly fifty per cent and post-neonatal mortality by one-third. PMID:16824255

  10. The Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: Current Practices at Polytechnics in Bangladesh and its Effects in Developing Students’ Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruque A. Haolader

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polytechnics in Bangladesh endeavour to produce quality graduates for national and international job markets. The quality of graduates depends on several factors. This study examines the implementation process of the polytechnic curriculum with the objectives of determining the current level of practices in learning/ teaching material design, in delivering curriculum content, in assessing students and its effect on students’ competence development. Data was collected through observation, opinion survey and competence test. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used for data interpretation and analysis in this descriptive type of research study. Findings revealed that the learning materials are mainly theory oriented and mostly cover those contents usually common in exams. About half of teachers are aware of the taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing, but they rarely put importance on it. In the classroom, teachers spend only a little time for delivering content at the level of apply/analyse. However, a significant number of tasks performed in labs are practical and occupation relevant and can be classified at higher levels of the taxonomy. In student assessment, the test-items assess mainly theoretical knowledge at the level of remember. The effect of these practices is reflected in demonstrating student performance in a competence test. The study concludes with some recommendations.

  11. Current status of food irradiation in the world. Trend in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes the current status of food irradiation in the world and particularly, its trends in Asia, based on the report of the economic scale investigation on the irradiation in United States and Japan (2001) and on the information of 12th International Meeting on Radiation Processing in France in 2001 and on personal communications. International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation promotes its activities of irradiation globally and 46 countries are affiliated. Food irradiation is allowed in 52 countries. In 1999, 257,000 t of food is irradiated in the world, of which 1/3 is due to spice. The facilities for the irradiation have such sources as 60Co and 137Cs γ-rays, electron beam of <10 MeV and X-ray with <5 MeV. Detection methods of irradiated foods are summarized by the project of Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Foods. The US is the most advanced country in the irradiation and, in Japan, only irradiation of potato is permitted. The detailed present status is also described of Bangladesh, China (the irradiation is most widely conducted in the world), India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. Recently Australia and New Zealand have started the irradiation. (K.H.)

  12. Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in Spent Fuel Management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation in this area, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to elaborate the general recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. This report which is a result of the third IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (the first and second were held in 1984 and 1986) is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the status of spent fuel management programmes in a number of leading countries, with a description of the past and present IAEA activities in this field of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and with the Agency's plans for the next years, based on the proposals and recommendations of Member States. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 14 papers presented at the advisory group meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Current status of water chemistry in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigure, K. [Saitama Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    At present 28 BWRs including 2 ABWRs and 23 PWRs are in operation in Japan and generated 36.8{open_square} of total electric power in 1998. Totally 4 BWRs, of which two are ABWRs, are now under construction, and one BWR together with one ABWR is in the stage of planning. One gas-cooled reactor (Tokai-1) was shut down permanently in 1998 and last year entered into decommissioning stage. According to the Japanese 2001 plan of electric power supply, 13 nuclear power plants newly constructed are to start operation in the next 10 years. In this paper the recent status of water chemistry technology in Japanese nuclear power plants is briefly summarized together with a touch upon the activities in the fundamental research. (author)

  14. Current status of water chemistry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present 28 BWRs including 2 ABWRs and 23 PWRs are in operation in Japan and generated 36.8? of total electric power in 1998. Totally 4 BWRs, of which two are ABWRs, are now under construction, and one BWR together with one ABWR is in the stage of planning. One gas-cooled reactor (Tokai-1) was shut down permanently in 1998 and last year entered into decommissioning stage. According to the Japanese 2001 plan of electric power supply, 13 nuclear power plants newly constructed are to start operation in the next 10 years. In this paper the recent status of water chemistry technology in Japanese nuclear power plants is briefly summarized together with a touch upon the activities in the fundamental research. (author)

  15. Socio-economic status of fishermen of the Marjat Baor at Kaligonj in Jhenidah district, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Banerjee Bappa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the socio-economic status of fishermen of the Marjat Baor at Kaligonj of Jhenidah district. Fifty fishermen from 50 families were interviewed. Results revealed that 94% respondents were married and age varied between 30 and 45 years. Almost all the fishermen were Hindus (96%. Most of the people of the community were illiterate (60% and among all of the school going children (58% were boys and (42% were girls. Above fifty percent people lived in nuclear family. 40% people lived in earthen house, constructed by grass leaves and mud. Only a few (18% of them were found to be use electricity. Primary occupation of 60% respondents was fishing and few were also involved in agriculture. They were often found to suffer from various diseases due to lack of pure drinking water. Majority of them got fever and receive treatment from quack. Only twelve percent (12% women were engaged in making nets for fishing. Annual household income of maximum beneficiaries (44% was below BDT 30,000 and above BDT 50,000 found in only 4% cases. In the present study, educational, organizational, and technical credit support were very crucial to develop their better socio-economic conditions.

  16. Current status of the MiniBooNE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the current status of the Fermilab mini-Booster neutrino experiment (MiniBooNE). The experiment began taking beam data in late August 2002. We describe the experiment, status of the beamline and detector, and show the first neutrino candidate events

  17. Current status of hair restoration surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, Shobit; Pathomvanich, Damkerng; Amonpattana, Kulakarn; Kumar, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Hair restoration has emerged as a subspecialty of aesthetic plastic surgery practiced by a wide range of doctors including plastic surgeons, general surgeons, dermatologists, and even general practitioners. As a current trend, most doctors practice "Ultrarefined follicular unit hair transplantation" in which the entire procedure is done precisely with minimal donor scar. In selected cases, Mega or even Giga sessions are now done with natural appearance and almost undetectable scar, in a single session with good density. This article is an attempt to review the history of hair restoration surgery, describe a novel technique currently practiced in our center, and summarize possible future innovations. PMID:22808618

  18. Current status of cold and thermal neutron radiography facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status of cold and thermal neutron radiography facilities inside and outside Japan was introduced. As one of the neutron radiography facilities, JRR-3M neutron radiography facility was introduced with R and D undergoing in the facility. (author)

  19. Cosmic rays: current status, historical context

    OpenAIRE

    Gaisser, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    The ISVHECRI conference series emphasizes the connection between high energy physics and cosmic ray physics--the study of elementary particles and nuclei from accelerators in the lab and from space. In this introductory paper on cosmic rays, I comment on several current topics in the field while also providing some historical context.

  20. Current Status of Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Corey, Kathleen E.; Pratt, Daniel S

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing worldwide. A multi-disciplinary approach is required for its management. Screening high-risk patients allows for earlier diagnosis and the use of potentially curative therapies. Current recommendations for HCC screening for patients with cirrhosis are an abdominal ultrasound and serum alpha fetoprotein level every 6 to 12 ...

  1. CURRENT STATUS OF ANEUPLOIDY TESTING IN DROSOPHILA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A committee of scientists was established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to appraise the current state of aneuploidy test methodology, to compile and analyze published data on the chemical induction of aneuploidy, and to provide guidance for additional test developme...

  2. Status of the current parabolic dish technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, C.

    1981-01-01

    Vu-graphs are presented that show that point focus distributed receiver distributed generation systems are cost competitive with current utilities. System cost caveats and typical power module costs are described. Major problems inhibiting commercialization of the parabolic dish technology were reviewed.

  3. Current Status of Radio Source Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Andernach, H

    1997-01-01

    We review the history and present status of radio-source catalogue archiving and on-line retrieval of radio source data. Large efforts were spent by the first author in collecting and restoring electronic versions of new and old source catalogues. Some 67 catalogues with ~520,000 entries were searchable via the "Einstein On-line Service" (EOLS). When EOLS lost maintenance support in 1994 a group at SAO (Russia) started building software tools to search and cross-identify objects between the major radio catalogues, maintained as the "CATalog supporting System" (CATS) at the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO, Russia). The independent efforts in east and west have recently been joined. Almost 400 different source lists with ~2,000,000 entries have been archived (and partly prepared) by us. All 5C and Penticton "P"-surveys and many of the published WSRT survey lists are now available. CATS has been developed by O. Verkhodanov, S. Trushkin, V. Chernenkov at SAO primarily to support RATAN-600 radio observation...

  4. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R. [University of Cuenca (Ecuador). Faculty of Chemical Sciences; Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Garcia-Perez, M. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Cortez, L.A.B. [Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Oscullo, J. [National Center for Energy Control - CENACE (Ecuador); Olmedo, G. [Polytechnic School of the Army - ESPE (Ecuador)

    2007-08-15

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  5. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol

  6. Current status of carcinoembryonic antigen assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein that can be measured by radioimmunoassay and other immunologic techniques. The CEA reagent is currently commercially available in kit form and has been found to be satisfactory for laboratory use. The highest percentage of elevated plasma CEA and the highest CEA titer have been found in patients with entodermally derived tumors. CEA has also been detected in patients with other tumors and in patients with nonneoplastic disease, as well as in heavy cigarette smokers. The present CEA assay cannot be used to screen for cancer in the general population. The greatest clinical usefulness of current CEA assay is in assessing prognosis, in the detection of residual tumors and recurrent disease, and in monitoring chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The use of anti-CEA antiserum as a tumor-localizing agent may be of potential value in the future. (U.S.)

  7. The current status of grazing incidence optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developments in the area of grazing incidence optics with emphasis on telescopes for use in X-ray astronomy are reviewed. The performance of existing high-resolution telescopes is outlined and compared with those expected from future missions like ROSAT and AXAF. Starting from the basic principles of X-ray reflection and scattering, an attempt is made to highlight the current understanding of X-ray mirror physics using new theoretical ideas as well as experimental laboratory results. (author)

  8. Colletotrichum – current status and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Weir, B.S; Johnston, P R; Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.

    2012-01-01

    A review is provided of the current state of understanding of Colletotrichum systematics, focusing on species-level data and the major clades. The taxonomic placement of the genus is discussed, and the evolution of our approach to species concepts and anamorph-teleomorph relationships is described. The application of multilocus technologies to phylogenetic analysis of Colletotrichum is reviewed, and selection of potential genes/loci for barcoding purposes is discussed. Host specificity and it...

  9. Current status of functional dyspepsia in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyuk; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Huh, Kyu Chan

    2014-01-01

    Dyspepsia refers to group of commonly occurring upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The majority of patients with dyspepsia suffer from functional (nonulcer) dyspepsia. Although there is a lack of epidemiological data from population-based or patient cohort studies in Korea, the current understanding of this condition has been updated using data from various recent research studies, which have facilitated the development of clinical guidelines for functional dyspepsia. According to a survey usin...

  10. Avian influenza in Croatia - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Wild birds can carry a wide range of viral and other zoonotic agents, which may be transmitted to humans. From October 2005 to March 2006 HPAI H5N1 virus was isolated from wild birds (mute swans, black-headed gulls and a mallard duck) in Croatia at five locations. After isolation of H5N1 virus at 2006 from mallard duck near City of Zagreb (capital of Croatia) Department of Poultry Diseases with Clinic at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, has conducted monitoring of avian viruses that could endanger human health. Samples (999 pharyngeal and cloacal swabs) from 23 wild bird species were taken. After year 2006 Croatia has regular monitoring for avian influenza in wild birds and poultry (especially in the backyard flocks). During 2007 (6,928 wild birds and 18,000 blood samples from poultry) and 2008 (2,486 wild birds; 20,000 blood samples and 1,500 cloacal swabs from poultry) were taken. Isolation was performed with classical virus detection method by inoculation of 10 day old chicken embryos, and molecular methods by conventional PCR and Real Time PCR (M gene, H5, H7 and N1 genes), and serological methods by antibody detection from blood samples (inhibition hemagglutination and ELISA). All samples were HPAI virus negative but investigators from the Poultry Centre of the Croatian Veterinary Institute isolated from wild birds LPAI viruses: H2N3, H3N8, H5N3 and H10N7. The results obtained by these investigations and monitoring revealed the need for permanent monitoring of wild bird's health status, especially the water birds species. Vaccination against AI is never practiced in Croatia. Quick and accurate detection of wild migratory birds infected with the H5N1 virus prevented the spread of the virus to the domestic poultry in Croatia which would have had enormous consequences. (author)

  11. Current status of SFR development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast Reactor development experiences and status in Japan are summarized. Even though international SFR circumstances were against in 1980s and 1990s, e.g. CRBRP, SNR-300 and Superphenix terminations, we kept on with our R and D activities steadily aiming at positive development targets in Japan. As results of our efforts, it has shown that our commercialized SFR concept, Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) could meet the targets in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project. Further, Monju has finally achieved restart in May 2010 after having been shut for almost 15 years. A future plan of Monju is to be determined based on a direction of the national nuclear and energy policies that will be established in 2012. The undergoing FaCT project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, feasibility of the key technologies for JSFR has been evaluated and the project is waiting for launching the phase II due to the Tohoku large earthquake. It is considered that the nuclear development policy might be affected by the Tohoku large Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan. Nevertheless the significance of nuclear energy will not be changed and thus we will focus on the issues learnt from Fukushima accidents and reflect into the improvement of the safety of Monju and the safety design criteria for the next generation Fast Reactor systems. (orig.)

  12. Current status of SFR development in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ieda, Yoshiaki; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokyo (Japan). Project Promotion Office; Kotake, Shoji [Japan Atomic Power Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Fast Reactor development experiences and status in Japan are summarized. Even though international SFR circumstances were against in 1980s and 1990s, e.g. CRBRP, SNR-300 and Superphenix terminations, we kept on with our R and D activities steadily aiming at positive development targets in Japan. As results of our efforts, it has shown that our commercialized SFR concept, Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) could meet the targets in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project. Further, Monju has finally achieved restart in May 2010 after having been shut for almost 15 years. A future plan of Monju is to be determined based on a direction of the national nuclear and energy policies that will be established in 2012. The undergoing FaCT project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, feasibility of the key technologies for JSFR has been evaluated and the project is waiting for launching the phase II due to the Tohoku large earthquake. It is considered that the nuclear development policy might be affected by the Tohoku large Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan. Nevertheless the significance of nuclear energy will not be changed and thus we will focus on the issues learnt from Fukushima accidents and reflect into the improvement of the safety of Monju and the safety design criteria for the next generation Fast Reactor systems. (orig.)

  13. Current status of neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT

  14. Sensing technology current status and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2014-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

  15. Current status of ENDF/B-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Version VI of the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B-VI) was released in 1990. For ENDF/B-VI major emphasis was placed on standards, isotopic evaluations, energy balance, improved resonance region representations, and improvement of neutronics files for important actinides. Data testing proceeds at a pace much slower than previous versions but more results are now being accumulated. Two versions have been released to data and a third is planned after the next meeting of the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), currently planned for October 1994

  16. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon Hyo; Lerman, Lilach O

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) remains a major cause of secondary hypertension and kidney failure. Randomized prospective trials show that medical treatment should constitute the main therapeutic approach in ARAS. Regardless of intensive treatment and adequate blood pressure control, however, renal and extrarenal complications are not uncommon. Yet, the precise mechanisms, accurate detection, and optimal treatment in ARAS remain elusive. Strategies oriented to early detection and targeting these pathogenic pathways might prevent development of clinical end points. Here, we review the results of recent clinical trials, current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, novel imaging techniques to assess kidney damage in ARAS, and treatment options. PMID:25908472

  17. Gender Disparities in Secondary Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Molla; Rahman, Pk Md. Motiur

    2008-01-01

    Enrolment and success rates are very crucial for any educational system in the world but they are more important for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Gender differences in enrolment and success rates are also emerging issues. This study investigated the enrolment and success rate's status in secondary educational system of Bangladesh…

  18. Current status of data on cangrelor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Arman; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2016-03-01

    P2Y12 receptor inhibition in addition to aspirin is the cornerstone of treatment in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Despite advances in contemporary antithrombotic therapy, periprocedural thrombotic complications such as myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis remain a major concern in patients treated with PCI. Current practice guidelines recommend treatment with a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor as early as possible in patients with ACS. Existing oral P2Y12 receptors inhibitors (clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor) have several limitations such as delayed onset and offset of action, interindividual variation, and only oral availability. Cangrelor, an intravenous, fast-onset, direct-acting P2Y12 receptor inhibitor offers potent platelet inhibition that is rapidly reversible. In large randomized trials, cangrelor has shown substantial reduction in ischemic events with no increase in severe bleeding compared with clopidogrel among patients undergoing PCI. Cangrelor is approved as an adjunct to PCI to reduce the risk of periprocedural MI, repeat coronary revascularization, and stent thrombosis in patients who have not been pretreated with a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor and are not receiving a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor. This review aims at providing a comprehensive analysis of the current evidence pertaining to the role of cangrelor in contemporary practice. PMID:26802900

  19. Current status of nuclear engineering education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 65 colleges and universities offering undergraduate degrees in nuclear engineering and the 15 schools offering strong nuclear engineering options are, in general, doing a good job to meet the current spectrum of job opportunities. But, nuclear engineering programs are not producing enough graduates to meet growing demands. They currently receive little aid and support from their customers --industry and government--in the form of scholarships, grants, faculty research support, student thesis and project support, or student summer jobs. There is not enough interaction between industry and universities. Most nuclear engineering programs are geared too closely to the technology of the present family of reactors and too little to the future breeder reactors and controlled thermonuclear reactors. In addition, nuclear engineering programs attract too few women and members of minority ethnic groups. Further study of the reasons for this fact is needed so that effective corrective action can be taken. Faculty in nuclear engineering programs should assume greater initiative to provide attractive and objective nuclear energy electives for technical and nontechnical students in other disciplines to improve their technical understanding of the safety and environmental issues involved. More aggressive and persistent efforts must be made by nuclear engineering schools to obtain industry support and involvement in their programs

  20. Prevalence of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in epidemic-prone border areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazib Forida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information related to malaria vectors is very limited in Bangladesh. In the changing environment and various Anopheles species may be incriminated and play role in the transmission cycle. This study was designed with an intention to identify anopheline species and possible malaria vectors in the border belt areas, where the malaria is endemic in Bangladesh. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three border belt areas (Lengura, Deorgachh and Matiranga during the peak malaria transmission season (May to August. Three different methods were used: human landing catches, resting collecting by mouth aspirator and CDC light traps. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was done to detect Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax-210 and Plasmodium vivax-247 circumsporozoite proteins (CSP from the collected female species. Results A total of 634 female Anopheles mosquitoes belonging to 17 species were collected. Anopheles vagus (was the dominant species (18.6% followed by Anopheles nigerrimus (14.5% and Anopheles philippinensis (11.0%. Infection rate was found 2.6% within 622 mosquitoes tested with CSP-ELISA. Eight (1.3% mosquitoes belonging to five species were positive for P. falciparum, seven (1.1% mosquitoes belonging to five species were positive for P. vivax -210 and a single mosquito (0.2% identified as Anopheles maculatus was positive for P. vivax-247. No mixed infection was found. Highest infection rate was found in Anopheles karwari (22.2% followed by An. maculatus (14.3% and Anopheles barbirostris (9.5%. Other positive species were An. nigerrimus (4.4%, An. vagus (4.3%, Anopheles subpictus (1.5% and An. philippinensis (1.4%. Anopheles vagus and An. philippinensis were previously incriminated as malaria vector in Bangladesh. In contrast, An. karwari, An. maculatus, An. barbirostris, An. nigerrimus and An. subpictus had never previously been incriminated in Bangladesh. Conclusion Findings of this study suggested that in absence of major malaria vectors there is a possibility that other Anopheles species may have been playing role in malaria transmission in Bangladesh. Therefore, further studies are required with the positive mosquito species found in this study to investigate their possible role in malaria transmission in Bangladesh.

  1. Current status of automated breast ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jung Shin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast ultrasonography (US is currently considered the first-line examination in the detection Epub ahead of print and characterization of breast lesions. However, conventional handheld US (HHUS has several limitations such as operator dependence and the requirement of a considerable amount of radiologist time for whole-breast US. Automated breast US (ABUS, recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for screening purposes, has several advantages over HHUS, such as higher reproducibility, less operator dependence, and less required physician time for image acquisition. In addition, ABUS provides both a coronal view and a relatively large field of view. Recent studies have reported that ABUS is promising in US screening for women with dense breasts and can potentially replace handheld second-look US in a preoperative setting.

  2. Clinical MR at 3 Telsa: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical MRI is mostly performed at field strengths up to 1.5 Tesla (T). Recently, approved clinical whole-body MR-systems with a field strength of 3 T became available. Its installation base is more rapidly growing than anticipated. While siting requirements and operation of these systems do not differ substantially from systems with lower field strength, there are differences in practical applications. Imaging applications can use the gain in signal-to-noise for increased spatial resolution or gain in speed. This comes at a trade off in increased sensitivity to field inhomogeneities and changes in relaxation times, which lead to changes in image contrast. The benefit of high field for spectroscopy consists in increased signal-to-noise-ratio and improvement in frequency resolution. The increase in energy deposition necessitates the use of special strategies to reduce the specific absorption rate (SAR). This paper summarizes the current state of MR at 3 T. (orig.)

  3. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pysz, M.A. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Gambhir, S.S. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Departments of Bioengineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Willmann, J.K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.ed [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  4. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  5. STAY HERE, GO FURTHER: The Status of Open and Distance Education in Bangladesh Open University (BOU in comparison to two other South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monira JAHAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance education has emerged out of social compulsion, the dynamics of change and new cultures. It was the failure of traditional systems to be able to meet the demand in countries, where the resources available for tertiary education are limited, which basically gave birth to the new trend of education known as open and distance education. This new and innovative system of education has received a high level of acceptance in different countries as it offers flexible educational opportunities for continuing education to a large segment of their population. The increasing number of older adult learners with varying lifestyles in the population, increasing competitiveness of getting places in tertiary institutions, higher cost of education and a shortage of teachers are the main factors for increasing the popularity of distance education (Duncan, et al., 2003. Bangladesh has also taken the opportunity to provide a uniform and mass oriented universal system of education through open and distance education establishing Bangladesh Open University (BOU in 1992. Objectives of the Study: The main objectives of this study are-? to assess the overall status of BOU in comparison with the open universities of two neighboring South Asian countries considering the following aspects:•Administrative structural functions, •Courses and instructional strategies, •Learning opportunities, and •Library, laboratory and counselling facilities to explore the potential of improvement for BOU to enable it to meet the challenges of the country’s educational needs in the next millennium.

  6. Current status of endovascular stroke treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Philip M; Schumacher, H Christian; Connolly, E Sander; Heyer, Eric J; Gray, William A; Higashida, Randall T

    2011-06-01

    The management of acute ischemic stroke is rapidly developing.Although acute ischemic stroke is a major cause of adult disability and death, the number of patients requiring emergency endovascular intervention remains unknown, but is a fraction of the overall stroke population. Public health initiatives endeavor to raise public awareness about acute stroke to improve triage for emergency treatment, and the medical community is working to develop stroke services at community and academic medical centers throughout the United States. There is an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education–approved pathway for training in endovascular surgical neuroradiology, the specialty designed to train physicians specifically to treat cerebrovascular diseases. Primary and comprehensive stroke center designations have been defined, yet questions remain about the best delivery model. Telemedicine is available to help community medical centers cope with the complexity of stroke triage and treatment. Should comprehensive care be provided at every community center, or should patients with complex medical needs be triaged to major stroke centers with high-level surgical,intensive care, and endovascular capabilities? Although the answers to these and other questions about stroke care delivery remain unanswered owing to the paucity of empirical data, we are convinced that stroke care regionalization is crucial for delivery of high-quality comprehensive ischemic stroke treatment. A stroke team available 24 hours per day, 7 days per week requires specialty skills in stroke neurology, endovascular surgical neuroradiology, neurosurgery, neurointensive care, anesthesiology, nursing, and technical support for optimal success. Several physician groups with divergent training backgrounds (i.e., interventional neuroradiology, neurosurgery,neurology, peripheral interventional radiology, and cardiology) lay claim to the treatment of stroke patients,particularly the endovascular or interventional methods. Few would challenge neurologists over the responsibility for emergency evaluation and triage of stroke victims for intra intravenous fibrinolysis, even though emergency physicians are most commonly the first to evaluate these patients. There are many unanswered questions about the role of imaging in defining best treatment. Perfusion imaging with CT or MRI appears to have relevance even though its role remains undefined and is the subject of ongoing research. Meanwhile, investigators are exploring new, and perhaps more specific,imaging methods with cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen and cellular acid-base imbalance. There are currently 6 ongoing trials of stroke intervention, many with proprietary technologies and private funding, competing for the same patient population as multicenter trials funded by the NIH. At the same time, much of the interventional stroke treatment currently occurs outside of trials in the community and academic settings without the collection of much-needed data. Market forces will certainly shape future stroke therapy, but it is unclear whether the current combination of private and public funding for these endeavors is the best method of development. PMID:21646506

  7. Current status of DFDSMA Saligny Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current nuclear power program in Romania includes: Exploiting two CANDU-6 Canadian PHWR type reactors in operation since 1996 and 2007, respectively and Operating other two similar units projected on the same Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant site to be commissioned in 2014 and 2015, respectively. For the waste generated by Cernavoda NPP, the national radioactive waste management strategy includes a new near surface type repository to be commissioned in 2014. The repository will accommodate the LILW with short lived and certain amounts of long lived radio-nuclides as accepted according to a safety assessment for long term behavior of waste and repository system. The siting process of the new repository started in 1992 and has been developed following the IAEA guidelines and standards. Within its evolution, the siting process was reviewed several times by different IAEA expert missions, mentioning that the selected sites along with a proper design have a good prospects. In 1997, the Saligny site located inside the exclusion zone of Cernavoda NPP, was preferred taking into consideration both technical and non-technical factors, including further acceptance of the project implementation by the local communities. In 2008, ANDRAD, the current owner of the new near surface repository project, obtained a partial siting license, issued by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, CNCAN, a conformance program in order to obtain the siting license. In order to issue that license, CNCAN reviewed all process and conclusive safety documentation prepared by the main organizations that supported the R and D process for the new repository between 1992 and 2007. ANDRAD coordinated the actions of that conclusive work and mainly completed it asking an IAEA WATRP expert mission, acting for addressing experts' observations and recommendations and obtaining the acceptance of the local authorities and local communities that agreed for further work on the repository project. 2009 was a very important year in the project development and preparation of the new investment. ANDRAD is the beneficiary of 2 contracts that represent 2 PHARE projects approved by the European Commission to support ANDRAD in enhancing the development of the repository project. According to the objectives of this work, the two contracts provide ANDRAD all relevant safety and design support documentation for obtaining the siting and later construction licenses for the Saligny repository. (authors)

  8. Current status of robot-assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ada T L; Tam, P C

    2014-06-01

    The introduction of robot-assisted surgery, and specifically the da Vinci Surgical System, is one of the biggest breakthroughs in surgery since the introduction of anaesthesia, and represents the most significant advancement in minimally invasive surgery of this decade. One of the first surgical uses of the robot was in orthopaedics, neurosurgery, and cardiac surgery. However, it was the use in urology, and particularly in prostate surgery, that led to its widespread popularity. Robotic surgery, is also widely used in other surgical specialties including general surgery, gynaecology, and head and neck surgery. In this article, we reviewed the current applications of robot-assisted surgery in different surgical specialties with an emphasis on urology. Clinical results as compared with traditional open and/or laparoscopic surgery and a glimpse into the future development of robotics were also discussed. A short introduction of the emerging areas of robotic surgery were also briefly reviewed. Despite the increasing popularity of robotic surgery, except in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, there is no unequivocal evidence to show its superiority over traditional laparoscopic surgery in other surgical procedures. Further trials are eagerly awaited to ascertain the long-term results and potential benefits of robotic surgery. PMID:24854139

  9. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B. [Institute of Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karsruhe - TLK, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  11. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed. PMID:25763120

  12. Photoacoustic imaging: current status and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Jiang, Jingying; Su, Yixiong; Wang, Ruikang K.; Zhang, Fan; Yao, Jianquan

    2006-09-01

    Photo-acoustic tomography(PAT) is a new ultrasound-mediated biomedical imaging technology which combines the advantages of high optical contrast and high ultrasonic resolution. In theory, PAT can image object embedded several centimeters under the surface of sample with the resolution of tens of microns. In this paper, several representative image reconstruction algorithms are discussed. Because the PA signal is wide band signal, it is hard to get the whole frequency spectrum due to the tremendous calculation needed. Therefore, the most applicable reconstruction algorithms are all performed in time domain such as "delay-and-sum" and "back projection". The current research methods have been focused on optical detecting and piezoelectric detecting. The optical method has the advantage of high spatial sensitivity due to the short wavelength of the probe laser beam. PA signal detecting using piezoelectric sensor has two main modes i.e. using unfocused transducer or transducer array or using focused transducer array or linear transducer array. When a focused transducer array is used, the "delay-and-sum" method is often used for image reconstruction. The advantage of the method is that its data acquisition time can be reduced to several minutes or even several seconds by employing the phase control linear scan technique. The future development in PAT research and its potential clinic application is also presented.

  13. Current Status of VHTR Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Richard Wright; William Windes; Steve Herring; Richard Schultz; Paul Humrickhouse

    2010-10-01

    Abstract – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900°C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950°C.

  14. Current status of neuronal cell xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadori, Marta; Aron Badin, Romina; Hantraye, Philippe; Cozzi, Emanuele

    2015-11-01

    Neural cell transplantation has long been considered as an option for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, several patients with Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases have been treated with human fetal-derived neurons with disparate results. However, the limited efficacy to date combined with the scarce availability of human fetal tissues and ethical concerns render this procedure inapplicable to a wide population scale. With a view to overcoming these shortcomings, transplantation of pig-derived cell precursors has been proposed and applied in preclinical and clinical trials. Recently long-term survival (more than 18 months) associated with clinical efficacy has been reported following transplantation of genetically engineered porcine neural precursors in fully immunosuppressed primate recipients. Despite the promising results obtained to date, several questions remain unanswered. In particular, the ideal xenogeneic cell-products to transplant, the extent of the immune response against the implanted xenograft and the most suitable therapeutic strategies to improve engraftment are all issues that still need to be thoroughly addressed. The present review describes the current knowledge in the pig-to-primate xenotransplantation field. In this context, recent data on human-to-nonhuman primate xenogeneic stem cell-based treatments for neurological disorders are discussed. PMID:26403068

  15. Current status of the LBNE neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Craig Damon; Crowley, Cory Francis; Hurh, Patrick; Hylen, James; Lundberg, Byron; Marchionni, Alberto; McGee, Mike; Mokhov, Nikolai V; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Plunkett, Rob; Reitzner, Sarah Diane; Stefanik, Andrew M; Velev, Gueorgui; Williams, Karlton; Zwaska, Robert Miles

    2015-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a neutrino beamline facility located at Fermilab. The facility is designed to aim a beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed in South Dakota. The neutrinos are produced in a three-step process. First, protons from the Main Injector hit a solid target and produce mesons. Then, the charged mesons are focused by a set of focusing horns into the decay pipe, towards the far detector. Finally, the mesons that enter the decay pipe decay into neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined by an amalgam of the physics goals, the Monte Carlo modeling of the facility, and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~700 kW, however some of the parameters were chosen to be able to deal with a beam power of 2.3 MW. The LBNE Neutrino Beam has made significant changes to the initial design through consideration of numerous Value Engineering proposals and the current design is described.

  16. Current status of the PBMR licensing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CNS is currently reviewing the PBMR conceptual design from a licensibility point of view. The PBMR concept is based on a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor - pebble bed reactor type. It is anticipated that the PBMR design will rely on inherent safety characteristics to contain fission products within fuel over the full range of design basis events. This feature combined with the high temperature integrity of the fuel and structural graphite, allows the safe use of a high coolant temperature, which allows consideration of the future development of this reactor for non-electrical applications of nuclear heat for industrial use. The CNS licensing approach requires that the licensing and design basis of the plant should respect prevailing international norms and practices and that a quantitative risk assessment should demonstrate compliance with the CNS fundamental safety standards. The first stage of the licensing process is now ongoing; this is a pre-application phase, which will result in a statement on licensibility being issued. Identification of the specific documentation requirements and information needed is required across every step of the licensing process. Top level regulatory requirements have been established for the PBMR. They include the CNS fundamental safety standard and basic licensing criteria, which describes requirements on licensees of nuclear installations regarding risk assessment and compliance with the safety criteria and define classification of licensing basis events. (author)

  17. Current status of the CLIO project

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Miyoki, S; Ohashi, M; Kuroda, K; Ishitsuka, H; Akutsu, T; Telada, S; Tomaru, T; Suzuki, T; Sato, N; Saitô, Y; Higashi, Y; Haruyama, T; Yamamoto, A; Shintomi, T; Tatsumi, D; Ando, M; Tagoshi, H; Kanda, N; Awaya, N; Yamagishi, S; Takahashi, H; Araya, A; Takamori, A; Takemoto, S; Higashi, T; Hayakawa, H; Morii, W; Akamatsu, J

    2008-01-01

    CLIO (Cryogenic Laser Interferometer Observatory) is a Japanese gravitational wave detector project. One of the main purposes of CLIO is to demonstrate thermal-noise suppression by cooling mirrors for a future Japanese project, LCGT (Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational Telescope). The CLIO site is in Kamioka mine, as is LCGT. The progress of CLIO between 2005 and 2007 (room- and cryogenic-temperature experiments) is introduced in this article. In a room-temperature experiment, we made efforts to improve the sensitivity. The current best sensitivity at 300 K is about $6 \\times 10^{-21} /\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$ around 400 Hz. Below 20 Hz, the strain (not displacement) sensitivity is comparable to that of LIGO, although the baselines of CLIO are 40-times shorter (CLIO: 100m, LIGO: 4km). This is because seismic noise is extremely small in Kamioka mine. We operated the interferometer at room temperature for gravitational wave observations. We obtained 86 hours of data. In the cryogenic experiment, it was confirmed that the...

  18. Current status of fusion reactor blanket thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies of liquid lithium have concentrated on its sorption characteristics for hydrogen isotopes and its interaction with common impurity elements. Hydrogen isotope sorption data (P-C-T relations, activity coefficients, Sieverts' constants, plateau pressures, isotope effects, free energies of formation, phase boundaries etc.) are presented in a tabular form that can be conveniently used to extract thermodynamic information for the ?-phase of the Li-LiH, Li-LiD, and Li-LiT systems and to construct complete phase diagrams. Recent solubility data for Li3N, Li2O, and Li2C2 in liquid lithium are discussed with emphasis on the prospects for removing these species by cold-trapping methods. Current studies on the sorption of hydrogen in solid lithium alloys (e.g., Li--Al and Li--Pb), made using a new technique (the hydrogen titration method), have shown that these alloys should lead to smaller blanket-tritium inventories than are attainable with liquid lithium and that the P-C-T relationships for hydrogen in Li--M alloys can be estimated from lithium activity data for these alloys

  19. Cancer care scenario in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, A. F. M. Kamal; Khan, Zohora Jameela; Islam, Johirul; Mahmud, AM

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country that is facing many challenges, especially in the health sector. Cancer management is a priority due to the current trend of increased incidence in this region. In this article, the current scenario of cancer in Bangladesh and its management with brief history is outlined. The combined effort of government and private sector is highlighted with the gradual progress in cancer management. Recent introduction of the state-of-the-art facilities and the training ...

  20. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able to expect a creation of economic added value

  1. Current surgical status of thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touzopoulos P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Touzopoulos1, Michael Karanikas1, Paul Zarogoulidis2, Alexandros Mitrakas1, Konstantinos Porpodis2, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis3, Vasilis Zervas2, Ioannis Kouroumichakis4, Theodoros C Constantinidis5, Dimitrios Mikroulis6, Konstantinos E Tsimogiannis71First Surgery Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 2Pulmonary Department, "G. Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Surgery Department (NHS, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 4Second Internal Medicine Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 5Medical School, Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Protection, Democritus University of Thrace, Regional Laboratory of Public Health, Eastern Macedonia-Thrace, Greece; 6Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 7Surgery Department, "G. Hatzikosta" General Hospital of Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem for surgeons. The clinical importance of nodules is the need to exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5%–15% of patients. If fine needle aspiration cytology is positive, or suspicious for malignancy, surgery is recommended. During the past decade, with the tendency to develop smaller incisions, an endoscopic approach has been applied to thyroid surgery, called minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy. This approach was immediately followed by other minimally invasive or scarless neck techniques, such as the breast approach, axillary-breast approach, and robot-assisted method. All these techniques follow the same principles of surgery and oncology. This review presents the current surgical management of the thyroid gland, including the surgical techniques and compares them by describing benefits and drawbacks of each one.Keywords: thyroidectomy, surgical techniques, thyroid cancer

  2. Helium: current status and future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuation of present activities and further developments in the application of superconductivity is crucially dependent on the continued availability of helium. Even the changes that are likely to occur due to the use of higher temperature superconductors will probably not affect the need for helium since in order to attain appropriate current carrying capacity in the new materials liquid helium temperatures may well be needed. World wide use of helium in 1988 is estimated to have been 2.3 to 2.4x109 std. cubic feet; up from 2.1x109 scf estimated for 1987. The 1989 use is expected to expand by ∼10%. On September 30, 1987 the date of the last report, 36x109 scf of helium was in the U.S. storage facility. One has to conclude that even with the estimated 10% annual increase in the use of helium ∼10 years of product is in reserve. Using the simplest model where a constant recovery of helium from natural gas accounts for a portion of the yearly use one still finds the U.S. reserve exhausted by the year 2001. The crisis can only be avoided by a less than 10% yearly growth in use or by new extraction plants recovering more helium from natural gas use. A critical review is presented covering the trends in other uses, estimation of reserve depletion and availability of new plants utilizing new sources. This includes an estimate of the onset of the crisis in availability and cost of helium. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

    2007-06-15

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able to expect a creation of economic added value.

  4. Lung cancer: Current status and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 32 papers. Some of the titles are: Activation of cellular ras genes in human neoplasms; The valve of definitive radiation therapy of unresectable squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the lung; Current concepts of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer, and Current status of immunotherapy for lung cancer

  5. Antisense therapeutics in oncology: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqi AA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ammad Ahmad Farooqi,1 Zia ur Rehman,2 Jordi Muntane3,4 1Laboratory for Translational Oncology and Personalized Medicine, Rashid Latif Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST, Kohat, Pakistan; 3Department of General Surgery, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS, Hospital Universitary "Virgen del Rocío"/CSIC/University of Seville, Sevilla, Spain; 4Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD o Ciberehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain Abstract: There is increasing progress in translational oncology and tremendous breakthroughs have been made as evidenced by preclinical and clinical trials. Data obtained from high-throughput technologies are deepening our understanding about the molecular and gene network in cancer cells and rapidly emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence is highlighting the role of antisense agents as specific inhibitors of the expression of target genes, thus modulating the response of cancer cells to different therapeutic strategies. Much information is continuously being added into various facets of molecular oncology and it is now understood that overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenes, oncogenic microRNAs (miRNA, and fusion proteins make cancer cells difficult to target. Delivery of antisense oligonucleotides has remained a challenge and technological developments have helped in overcoming hurdles by improving the ability to penetrate cells, effective and targeted binding to gene sequences, and downregulation of target gene function. Different delivery systems, including stable nucleic acid lipid particles, have shown potential in enhancing the delivery of cargo to the target site. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current progress in the development of antisense therapeutics and their potential in medical research. We partition this multicomponent review into introductory aspects about recent breakthroughs in antisense therapeutics. We also discuss how antisense therapeutics have shown potential in resensitizing resistant cancer cells to apoptosis by targeted inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenic miRNAs, and BCR-ABL. Keywords: antisense oligonucleotide, siRNA, miRNA, liposomes, DNAzymes, antisense therapy

  6. The current status of HANARO utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hark Rho; Lee, Choong Sung; Sohn, Jae Min; Park, Kyung Bae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    The HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) is now operating at 24 MW to meet the user's demands in a variety of utilization fields. The most active field is the neutron scattering and diffraction using the currently available HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction), FCD (Four Circle Diffraction), RSI (Residual Stress Instrument), and SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering). Using these instruments, we have been investigating such characteristics as materials' crystal structure and phase transition, residual stress, texture, and hard and soft matters. Through examination and inspection of the test specimens, NRF (Neutron Radiography Facility) is contributing to such fields as the nuclear industry, ordnance industry, aerospace industry, and archaeology. The second utilization field is the fuel and material irradiation test. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed atomized fuel powder and provided it to USA, France and Argentina. Under the RERTR program, KAERI has been contributing to the development of research reactor fuels of better quality. To test the reactor materials and fuels, instrumented and non-instrumented capsules are widely being used. To produce and supply RIs and pharmaceuticals for medical and industrial purposes, HANARO and its RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility) has been fully complying with demands so that the national welfare might be enhanced by our efforts. NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) is assisting the nuclear industry, environmental research and the promotion of the health area. To support all active utilizations, HANARO operators have been making every effort to not only improve the systems, if needed, but also to avoid the inadvertent reactor trip. Based upon this stable neutron supply, we have been developing and expanding the utilization fields and facilities. The PNS(Polarized Neutron Spectrometer) is under construction and the reflectometer is in preparation. The BNCT(Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) facility is expected to support medical doctors in their in-vitro tests by the end of next year. In the future, KAERI plans to install cold neutron source and research facilities and then HANARO would be a truly powerful neutron source in neutron beam application research. We will begin design and installation of the fuel test loop to support the Korean national nuclear energy program in accordance with the demand for nuclear fuel development. Advanced capsules will also be developed. More effective and value-added RI is also under development continuously. To increase the contribution of the NAA area, we are developing the user-oriented NAA system in HANARO. The irradiator for NTD-Si production is being designed and fabricated. We expect this service to be available for industries early next year. Through these viable activities, the number of users and tested samples, and allocatable beam times will be greatly increased. All of the related staff and groups are doing their best to satisfy the demand of users because HANARO is the Korean sole neutron source operated under the auspices of the taxpayers. (author)

  7. Ceramic materials for SOFCs: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhukharov, V.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the main parts of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs are build from ceramic materials. Namely the ceramic materials and composites, used for SOFCs manufacturing, are objects of the overview in the present work. The analysis carried out covers the last current publications in the field discussed. Special attention and examination in details have been done on patents state-of-the-art. After a background and short classification of the ceramic SOFCs materials the attention is focused on cathode, electrolyte, anode, interconnection and sealing materials. Their requirements, structure, thermal stability, composition control and behavior, processing and performance are the object of overview. A correlation has been made between the phase diagrams oxygen incorporation and transport, and SOFC advantages, generally for materials of lanthanum- base perovskite family. In order to analyze the innovative investigations regarding the patent branch of the SOFCs development and application, an object of review was patents from Japan, USA, Germany and European Union. Some examples of the inventions with accent on the ceramic materials are shown. In addition the tendency regarding R & D activities of SOFCs development materials from the leading companies in the world is analyzed. On the base of the most important technological and economical parameters of cell cathode/electrolyte/anode materials an attempt for evaluation and correlation has been made and innovative conceptions are shown.

    Es bien sabido que los componentes principales de las celdas de combustible de óxido sólido (SOFCs estan constituidos por materiales cerámicos. Dichos materiales cerámicos y materiales compuestos que se utilizan en la fabricación de SOFCs son objeto de estudio en el presente trabajo. El análisis llevado a cabo incluye la revisión de las últimas publicaciones en la materia, con una especial atención y examen minucioso sobre las patentes más relevantes. Después de una revisión y breve clasificación de los materiales SOFCs cerámicos, el estudio se centra en la descripción del cátodo, electrolito y ánodo, así como de la unión y materiales de sellado. También se han estudiado sus requisitos, estructura, estabilidad térmica, control composicional y de comportamiento, procesado y rendimiento. Se ha establecido una correlación entre los diagramas de fase de incorporación y transporte de oxígeno y las ventajas de los SOFC, generalmente para materiales de la familia de las perovsquitas basadas en lantano. Con el fin de analizar las investigaciones innovadoras que conciernen al campo del desarrollo y aplicación de SOFCs, se han revisado patentes de Japón, Estados Unidos, Alemania y la Unión Europea. Se dan algunos ejemplos de dichas patentes en las que destaca el papel de los materiales cerámicos. Además, se ha analizado la tendencia en actividades de I + D sobre los SOFCs en compañías líderes mundiales. Se ha intentado realizar una evaluación y correlación en base a los parámetros tecnológicos y económicos más importantes de los materiales de celda cátodo/electrolito/ánodo y se han mostrado conceptos innovadores.

  8. The current status of HANARO utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) is now operating at 24 MW to meet the user's demands in a variety of utilization fields. The most active field is the neutron scattering and diffraction using the currently available HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction), FCD (Four Circle Diffraction), RSI (Residual Stress Instrument), and SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering). Using these instruments, we have been investigating such characteristics as materials' crystal structure and phase transition, residual stress, texture, and hard and soft matters. Through examination and inspection of the test specimens, NRF (Neutron Radiography Facility) is contributing to such fields as the nuclear industry, ordnance industry, aerospace industry, and archaeology. The second utilization field is the fuel and material irradiation test. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed atomized fuel powder and provided it to USA, France and Argentina. Under the RERTR program, KAERI has been contributing to the development of research reactor fuels of better quality. To test the reactor materials and fuels, instrumented and non-instrumented capsules are widely being used. To produce and supply RIs and pharmaceuticals for medical and industrial purposes, HANARO and its RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility) has been fully complying with demands so that the national welfare might be enhanced by our efforts. NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) is assisting the nuclear industry, environmental research and the promotion of the health area. To support all active utilizations, HANARO operators have been making every effort to not only improve the systems, if needed, but also to avoid the inadvertent reactor trip. Based upon this stable neutron supply, we have been developing and expanding the utilization fields and facilities. The PNS(Polarized Neutron Spectrometer) is under construction and the reflectometer is in preparation. The BNCT(Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) facility is expected to support medical doctors in their in-vitro tests by the end of next year. In the future, KAERI plans to install cold neutron source and research facilities and then HANARO would be a truly powerful neutron source in neutron beam application research. We will begin design and installation of the fuel test loop to support the Korean national nuclear energy program in accordance with the demand for nuclear fuel development. Advanced capsules will also be developed. More effective and value-added RI is also under development continuously. To increase the contribution of the NAA area, we are developing the user-oriented NAA system in HANARO. The irradiator for NTD-Si production is being designed and fabricated. We expect this service to be available for industries early next year. Through these viable activities, the number of users and tested samples, and allocatable beam times will be greatly increased. All of the related staff and groups are doing their best to satisfy the demand of users because HANARO is the Korean sole neutron source operated under the auspices of the taxpayers. (author)

  9. Status of thyroidal radioiodine (I-131) uptake and urinary iodine in Bangladesh population: A re-look following implementation of universal iodination of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodide plays a central role in thyroid physiology and in the production of thyroid hormones, which are essential for normal vertebrate growth and development. Radioiodine uptake test is one of the oldest radionuclide investigations for evaluation of thyroid function. On the other hand useful information about the nutritional status of a population can be obtained by measuring the prevalence of deficiency in a population. The main aim of this study was to find out the present status of urinary iodine and thyroid uptake status of people living in and around Dhaka City (Bangladesh). The present study was carried out over a period of three years from 1999 to 2002 involving 300 subjects inclusive of 216 females and 84 males. Efforts were made to randomly include people from a broad spectrum of social and economic strata, starting from people belonging to the lowest to the highest income groups; as well as people representing the urban, rural and suburban populations. Urinary iodine levels and 24 hour percentage radioiodine uptake by the thyroid were estimated in all subjects included in this study. Subsequently patients were grouped into four categories based on the values of their percentage 24-hour radioiodine uptake; e.g., Group-A (N-99) with lowest uptake (0-5%), Group-B (N=100) with uptake ranging between 5-10%, Group-C (N=73) with uptake ranging between 10-30% and Group D (N=28) with uptake above 30%. The median 24 hours RAIU values in groups A, B, C and D were 3, 7, 23 and 34% respectively. The corresponding mean urinary iodine levels in the four groups were 43.31, 33.95, 12.97 and 9.35?gm/dl respectively. The results have shown that 1.04, 3.48, 16.72 and 78.74% people studied had levels of urinary iodine indicating severe, moderate, mild or no iodine deficiency respectively as per the WHO Criteria (Severe: <2 ?gm /dl, Moderate: 2-4.9 ?gm /dl, mild: 5.0-9.9?gm /dl, normal: ? 10 ?gm /dl). It may be noted that the normal values of Thyroidal I-131 uptake were standardized in Bangladesh about two and half decades ago. The normal range of 24 hr radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) determined at that time was 10-45%. However in the present study the mean 24 hrs RAIU has been found to be 14.12 % with a SD of 8.33. With regard to urinary iodine, a previous study conducted in the year 1993 had reported that only about 31 % of the Bangladesh population had urinary iodine levels of more than 10gm/dl. But the present study has shown significant increase in the levels of urinary iodine, with more than 78% of people evaluated in the present study having normal levels of urinary iodine (above 10gm/dl). The present study has also demonstrated inverse relationship between urinary iodine level and thyroidal uptake of radioiodine (I-131). These results reflect the effectiveness of universal iodination of common salt in Bangladesh resulting in enhanced iodine status of our population. (author)

  10. The Current Practices of Teaching Grammar in CLT at Secondary School Level in Bangladesh: Problems and Probable Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sofe Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Experience of teaching English in Bangladesh demonstrates that grammar is the least interesting learning item in ESOL classes. In other words, students often feel uninterested and bored with lectures dealing with grammar. Consequently, learners of English remain quite weak in grammar; they cannot use appropriate structures of grammar neither in spoken nor in written English even though they have completed English language programs at various levels of educational institutions. Besides, huge n...

  11. Understanding community perceptions, social norms and current practice related to respiratory infection in Bangladesh during 2009: a qualitative formative study

    OpenAIRE

    Nizame Fosiul A; Nasreen Sharifa; Unicomb Leanne; Southern Dorothy; Gurley Emily S; Arman Shaila; Kadir Mohammad A; Azziz-Baumgartner Eduardo; Luby Stephen P.; Winch Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Respiratory infections are the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh. Promoting respiratory hygiene may reduce infection transmission. This formative research explored community perceptions about respiratory infections. Methods We conducted 34 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions with community members and school children to explore respiratory hygiene related perceptions, practices, and social norms in an urban and a rural setting. We conducted uns...

  12. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  13. Multicultural Education in Australia: Historical Development and Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Rod; Hill, Bob

    The historical development and current status of multicultural education in Australia are reviewed, without, however, focusing on the education of Aboriginal people. In Australia, the term multicultural education is generally understood to exclude Aborigines, a distinction in which Aboriginal educators concur as they assert the unique identity and…

  14. Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

  15. Current status of studies on temperature fluctuation phenomena in LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the current status of studies being performed in PNC on temperature fluctuation phenomena occurring in fast reactors. The studies concentrate on four problems: thermal stratification, thermal striping, core-plenum interaction and free surface sloshing. Both experimental and analytical approaches to reveal these phenomena and to establish design and safety evaluation methods are presented together with future works. (author)

  16. The Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus: Its Historic and Current Status

    OpenAIRE

    Shelden, Kim E. W.; Rugh , David J.

    1995-01-01

    The bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus, is currently listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 and as depleted under the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972. Literature on the species is updated since 1984, and elements are reviewed that may contribute to the evaluation of the status of bowhead whale stocks.

  17. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  18. Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Pavan John

    2013-01-01

    Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

  19. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  20. Current status and future research in motion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  1. Current status and the future of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status and the future of the controlled nuclear fusion are outlined. Plasma heating methods and plasma confinement are discussed as main problems in developing nuclear fusion reactors. Present and future thermonuclear devices are briefly reviewed considering plasma temperature and the Lawson criterion. An operation scheme of a future fusion power plant is given

  2. Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Pavan John

    2013-01-01

    Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

  3. Current status and key issues of nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear liability regime has been established from the beginning of the nuclear power industry. The first nuclear accident with major transboundary consequences occurred at Chernobyl, and led to reexamination of the nuclear liability regime. Current status and key issues of the national and international nuclear liability regime are reviewed. (author)

  4. Current status of robot-assisted gastric surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Se-Jin Baek; Dong-Woo Lee; Sung-Soo Park; Seon-Hahn Kim

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the limitations of laparoscopy, a robotic surgery system was introduced, but its role for gastric cancer is still unclear. The objective of this article is to assess the current status of robotic surgery for gastric cancer and to predict future prospects. Although the current study was limited by its small number of patients and retrospective nature, robot-assisted gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer is a feasible and safe procedure fo...

  5. Current status and future direction of the MONK software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of the MONK criticality software package is summarized in terms of recent and current developments and envisaged directions for the future. The areas of the discussion are physics modeling, geometry modeling, source modeling, nuclear data, validation, supporting tools and customer services. In future development plan, MONK continues to be focused on meeting the short and long-term needs of the code user community. (J.P.N.)

  6. CMS Data Analysis: Current Status and Future Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Innocente, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of CMS data analysis architecture and describe work on future Grid-based distributed analysis prototypes. CMS has two main software frameworks related to data analysis: COBRA, the main framework, and IGUANA, the interactive visualisation framework. Software using these frameworks is used today in the world-wide production and analysis of CMS data. We describe their overall design and present examples of their current use with emphasis on interactive analysis. CMS...

  7. Does history of concussion affect current cognitive status?

    OpenAIRE

    Collie, A; McCrory, P; Makdissi, M

    2006-01-01

    The association between self reported history of concussion and current neurocognitive status is controversial. Some football studies suggest that athletes with a history of concussion display cognitive impairment relative to athletes with no history of concussion, but other studies have not been able to reproduce such findings. This study shows that there is no relation between the number of previous self reported episodes of concussion and current cognitive state, directly contradicting the...

  8. CMS Data Analysis: Current Status and Future Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Innocente, V

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of CMS data analysis architecture and describe work on future Grid-based distributed analysis prototypes. CMS has two main software frameworks related to data analysis: COBRA, the main framework, and IGUANA, the interactive visualisation framework. Software using these frameworks is used today in the world-wide production and analysis of CMS data. We describe their overall design and present examples of their current use with emphasis on interactive analysis. CMS is currently developing remote analysis prototypes, including one based on Clarens, a Grid-enabled client-server tool. Use of the prototypes by CMS physicists will guide us in forming a Grid-enriched analysis strategy. The status of this work is presented, as is an outline of how we plan to leverage the power of our existing frameworks in the migration of CMS software to the Grid.

  9. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas.It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method.The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01 lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49% in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%. Stunting (p < 0.01, wasting (p < 0.05 and underweight (p < 0.05 were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children.In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  10. Current status of the LHCf experiment and future plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider forward (= LHCf experiment has successfully finished the first phase of data taking at LHC ?s = 0.9 and 7 TeV proton-proton collisions in 2010. As current status, we concentrate on analyzing the obtained data. As the first result, the energy spectra of photon measured by LHCf during = 7 TeV p-p collision has been published recently. Also the study of the upgraded version of LHCf detector for future = 14TeV run scenario is developed with the GSO scintillator. Another possible plan of p-A(nuclear collision in LHC is also studied. In this paper, as the current status of the experiment, analyses, and works for foreseen detector upgrade are summarized.

  11. Amorphous and micromorph Si solar cells: current status and outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Avrutin, Vitaliy; IZYUMSKAYA, Natalia; Morkoç, Hadis

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the current status and prospects of thin-film Si photovoltaics, including both hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline Si as well their combination known as micromorph solar cells, with a major focus on the technological development is given. Although thin-film Si solar cells have been one of the first commercially successful photovoltaic devices, today they face a tremendous challenge from variety of bulk Si technologies (mono- and multicrystalline Si) and compound-semicon...

  12. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodiesel and future perspective of the technologies are also discussed.

  13. Current Status of Laparoscopic Liver Resection in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Joon Seong; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Dae Wook; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Cho, Jai Young; Koh, Yang-Seok; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Kim, Kyung Sik; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Hyung Chul; Chu, Chong Woo; Lee, Dong Shik; Kim, Hong-Jin; Park, Sang Jae

    2012-01-01

    Since laparoscopic liver resection was first introduced in 2001, Korean surgeons have chosen a laparoscopic procedure as one of the treatment options for benign or malignant liver disease. We distributed and analyzed a nationwide questionnaire to members of the Korean Laparoscopic Liver Surgery Study Group (KLLSG) in order to evaluate the current status of laparoscopic liver resection in Korea. Questionnaires were sent to 24 centers of KLLSG. The questionnaire consisted of operative procedure...

  14. Current status of fire protection regulations for German nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating nuclear power plants in Germany have been designed and constructed in different plant generations resulting in differences in the design and layout of fire protection features. Thus, it was necessary to assess the current fire safety status of the NPP. The systematic assessment of existing plants regarding the adequacy of their implemented fire protection features has been performed by deterministic and probabilistic methods. (author)

  15. Current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems. At this moment only one comprehensive report is available. In order to review national activities a questionnaire has been distributed amongst national societies of medical physicists. From the 23 responding countries, 8 indicated that only limited efforts are underway, 8 answered that a working group is evaluating their specific national requirements while in 5 countries a document is drafted. The highlights of these reports have been summarized. (author)

  16. Current Status of Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound for Dental Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Rego, Emanuel Braga; TAKATA, Takashi; Tanne, Kazuo; Tanaka, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, tissue engineering applied to the dental field has achieved relevant results. Tissue engineering can be described by actions taken to improve biological functions. Several methods have been described to enhance cellular performance and low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has shown to play an important role in cell metabolism. The present article provides an overview about the current status of LIPUS as a tissue engineering tool to be used to enhance tooth and peri...

  17. Review of the current status of radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the current status of radiation risk estimation for low linear energy transfer radiation. Recent statements by various national and international organisations regarding risk estimates are critically discussed. The recently published revised population risk estimates from the study of Japanese bomb survivors are also reviewed and used with some unpublished data from Japan to calculate risk figures for a general work force. (author)

  18. Current status on narrow N anti N states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to summarize the experimental status of narrow B anti B states as of mid-1979. In particular, concentration is placed on the current experimental situations and prospects regarding three serious contenders for the so-called baryonium states. Theoretical concepts of baryoniums, narrow N anti N states known as S(1935), anti pp(2020), and anti pp(2204), and some forthcoming results, and problems of the above three resonances are discussed. 31 references

  19. Nuclear liability legislation in Russia - current status and expected developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present report is provided by the experts of the Russian insurance business, a company member of the Russian Nuclear Pool, and not the experts of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation (RF Minatom). Considering the above, the following document will outline the current status of nuclear liability legislation and insurance in Russia from a viewpoint of the insurance companies and not RF Minatom. (author)

  20. Andrology in China: current status and 10 years' progress

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Kai; Xu, Qing-Quan; Zhao, Yong-Ping; Gu, Yi-Qun; Hui JIANG; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Ji-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Andrology has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. There are records of male sexual health, male sexual dysfunction and male infertility from over thousands of years ago. Modern andrology in China had a late start, with the Chinese Andrology Association founded in 1995. Within last decade, andrology in China has grown rapidly. In this review article, we summarized the progress of andrology in last 10 years and outlined the current status of Chinese andrology with a special focus on...

  1. Current status of breast cancer screening in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Tadaoki; Nagao, Taeko; Okazaki, Kenji; Kira, Misako; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Tangoku, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The mortality associated with breast cancer is decreasing in Europe and the United States. There are various reasons for these trends, including an increase in detection of early-stage breast cancers due to increased use of mammographic screening and the establishment of standardized systemic treatments based on evidence-based medicine. However, in Japanese women, both the morbidity and the mortality of breast cancer are increasing. In this manuscript, we describe the current status of mammographic screening in Europe and the United States, and the status of breast cancer screening in Japan. Quality control systems are also introduced, and the need for practical measures, such as implementation of quality control systems aimed at improving the cancer screening rate (with a target of 50%) and population-based screening (organized screening), based on the Cancer Control Act, is described. Current countermeasures for dense breasts in women in their 40s, both overseas and in Japan, are also described, together with discussions of the diagnostic capability of digital mammography, the usefulness of screening combined with computer-aided diagnosis, and the current status of screening using MRI in Europe and the United States. PMID:18841333

  2. Current Status of LHC Physics: Precision Theory View

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, B F L

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the current status of LHC physics from the perspective of precision theory predictions for the attendant QCD and EW higher order corrections. We focus on the interplay between the available data and the predictions for these data viewed in the context of the establishment of baselines for what is needed to exploit fully the discovery potential of the existing LHC data and the data expected by the end of the second LHC run (i.e., 300fb$^{-1}$). We conclude that significant improvement in the currently used theoretical predictions will be mandatory. Possible strategies to achieve such improvement are indicated.

  3. Promotion of well-switching to mitigate the current arsenic crisis in Bangladesh / Promotion de changement d'utilisation de puits afin de réduire l'exposition à l'arsenic au Bangladesh / Promoción del uso de pozos seleccionados para reducir la exposición al arsénico en Bangladesh

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexander, van Geen; Habibul, Ahsan; Allan H., Horneman; Ratan K., Dhar; Yan, Zheng; Iftikhhar, Hussain; Kazi Matin, Ahmed; Andrew, Gelman; Martin, Stute; H. James, Simpson; Sean, Wallace; Christopher, Small; Faruque, Parvez; Vesna, Slavkovich; Nancy J., LoIacono; Marck, Becker; Zhongqi, Cheng; Hassina, Momotaj; Mohammad, Shahnewaz; Ashraf Ali, Seddique; Joseph H., Graziano.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Hacer un análisis sobre los pozos y los hogares de la upazila de Araihazar (Bangladesh), a fin de sentar las bases para llevar a cabo un estudio epidemiológico a largo plazo sobre las consecuencias de la exposición crónica a arsénico. MÉTODOS: Durante un periodo de 4 meses de 2000, se obtu [...] vieron muestras de agua a partir de 4997 pozos cercanos que abastecían a una población de 55 000 personas, y se reunieron datos de los hogares próximos; la situación de cada pozo se determinó con una precisión de ± 30 m utilizando receptores del Sistema Mundial de Determinación de la Posición. Las concentraciones de arsénico se analizaron mediante espectrometría de absorción atómica en horno de grafito. Se analizó asimismo la presencia de arsénico en muestras de agua subterránea recogidas cada 2 semanas durante todo un año en seis pozos, empleando para ello la técnica de espectrometría de masas de alta resolución por plasma de acoplación. RESULTADOS: La mitad de los pozos examinados en Araihazar habían sido practicados en los 5 años anteriores, y el 94% eran privados. Sólo un 48% de los pozos suministraban agua con un contenido de arsénico inferior a 50myg/l, el límite fijado actualmente en Bangladesh para el agua potable. Al igual que en otras regiones de Bangladesh y Bengala occidental (India), la concentración de arsénico en Araihazar varía mucho de un lugar a otro (intervalo: 5-860 myg/l), y es por tanto difícil de predecir. Debido a esa variabilidad, sin embargo, casi un 90% de los habitantes vive a menos de 100 m de un pozo salubre. La vigilancia de seis pozos que actualmente se ajustan al límite mencionado de 50 myg/l no reveló ningún dato que sugiriera la existencia de un ciclo estacional de las concentraciones de arsénico paralelo al ciclo hidrológico. Esto lleva a pensar que el cambio de pozos constituye una opción viable en Araihazar, al menos como solución a corto plazo. CONCLUSIÓN: Es preciso fomentar de manera más sistemática el uso de pozos seleccionados en Araihazar y en muchas otras partes de Bangladesh y Bengala occidental (India), y hay que conocer mejor las barreras sociales con que tropieza esa iniciativa para superarlas en la medida de lo posible. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To survey tube wells and households in Araihazar upazila, Bangladesh, to set the stage for a long-term epidemiological study of the consequences of chronic arsenic exposure. METHODS: Water samples and household data were collected over a period of 4 months in 2000 from 4997 contiguous tub [...] e wells serving a population of 55 000, the position of each well being determined to within ± 30 m using Global Positioning System receivers. Arsenic concentrations were determined by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. In addition, groundwater samples collected every 2 weeks for an entire year from six tube wells were analysed for arsenic by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. FINDINGS: Half of the wells surveyed in Araihazar had been installed in the previous 5 years; 94% were privately owned. Only about 48% of the surveyed wells supplied water with an arsenic content below 50 mug/l, the current Bangladesh standard for drinking-water. Similar to other regions of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, the distribution of arsenic in Araihazar is spatially highly variable (range: 5-860 mug/l) and therefore difficult to predict. Because of this variability, however, close to 90% of the inhabitants live within 100 m of a safe well. Monitoring of six tube wells currently meeting the 50 mug/l standard showed no indication of a seasonal cycle in arsenic concentrations coupled to the hydrological cycle. This suggests that well-switching is a viable option in Araihazar, at least for the short term. CONCLUSIONS: Well-switching should be more systematically encouraged in Araihazar and many other parts of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Social barriers to well-switching need to be better understood and, if possible, overcome.

  4. Particle Physics in the Sky:. the Current Status of Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, William H.

    I discuss the current status of inflationary cosmology in light of the recent WMAP 3-year data release. The basic predictions of inflation are all supported by the data. Inflation also makes predictions which are have not been well tested by current data but can be by future experiments, most notably a deviation from a scale-invariant power spectrum and the production of primordial gravitational waves. A scale-invariant spectrum is disfavored by current data, but not conclusively. Tensor modes are currently poorly constrained, and slow-roll inflation does not make an unambiguous prediction of the expected amplitude of primordial gravitational waves. A tensor/scalar ratio of r ? 0.01 is within reach of near-future measurements.

  5. The Current Status, Evolution and Future of Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chan Wei

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructive surgery aims to establish anatomicnormality as closely as possible following disfigurement tooptimize functional and esthetic outcomes and the potential fornormal psychosocial patient reintegration. The purposes of thisarticle are to outline the current status of facial reconstructionand reflect upon possibilities for its future development.Current reconstructive methods include the use of non-vascularizedgrafts, non-microsurgical vascularized flap transfers,microvascular free tissue transplantation, and their combinations.Whatever the method chosen, the principles of reconstructionfor each facial region or esthetic subunit should berespected.Most facial defects can be addressed satisfactorily withthe described techniques. Reconstructions for total or subtotalfacial defects, however, remain disappointing. Current reconstructivetechniques and principles continue to become more refined, providing improvedoutcomes. In the future, composite tissue allotransplantation and tissue engineering of vascularizedcomposite tissue constructs may also be applicable for facial reconstruction, inparticular for total or subtotal facial defects that appear outside the limits of current reconstructivemethods.

  6. Biomonitoring of arsenic and lead in health indices (hair, blood, etc.) and their interactions and impacts on the nutritional status of Bangladesh population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka under the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission was recently awarded a research contract from the International Atomic Energy Agency to investigate the levels of micronutrients (K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn) and pollutants (As, Pb) in health indices (hair, blood, etc.) to study their interactions and impacts on the nutritional status of Bangladeshi population. The project was scheduled to start in December 2001 and to be completed by November 2002. To date, sampling and sample preparation techniques for heavy metal analysis in hair and blood using XRF/PIXE have been investigated, and some preliminary work on sample analysis has been performed. It indicates that both PIXE and XRF methods can be used for the determination of nutritionally important trace metals in health indices after a simple sample treatment for volume reduction either by oven or freeze drying. Results of Biochemical assessment of nutritional status of Bangladeshi pre-school children under normal and malnutrition conditions from a previous study has been given in the Results section of this paper. There has been found a positive correlation of malnutrition with some nutritional parameters such as fasting blood glucose, serum total protein, serum total albumin, and serum Cu and Zn levels. Hair Zn level had no significant correlation (p>0.05) with serum Zn level but hair Cu level had a positive correlation with serum Cu level. The trace element concentrations in hair of both normal and malnourished children in the age group of 1-5 years, as studied do not show any regular dependence on nutritional status of the subjects. Only the low copper content in the hair of the malnourished group can possibly be linked with nutritional disorders. (author)

  7. Gender Disparities in Secondary Education in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Molla Huq; Pk Md. Motiur Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Enrolment and success rates are very crucial for any educational system in the world but they are more important for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Gender differences in enrolment and success rates are also emerging issues. This study investigated the enrolment and success rate’s status in secondary educational system of Bangladesh along with internal efficiency rates involving completion rate, retention or survival rate, dropout rate and gender parity index. Some tests of hypothes...

  8. Investigation on Current Status of World Nuclear Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All over the world, the interest of nuclear energy is increasing and the expectations of it are getting more as one of the most practical alternative energy resources. However, since 1990s, as a lot of nuclear specialists are being retired, now the problem of manpower shortage is taken into consideration for all of us and will be continued until 2011. In this point of view, the good quality of the professional nuclear training and education systems and the nuclear education centers are requested in order to breed and supply the next generation nuclear scientists and engineers. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore the current status of world nuclear education for both of nuclear power countries and potential nuclear power utilization countries in the near future. This report introduces the importance of nuclear energy, the current status of world nuclear power plants operation and the contribution of nuclear energy. Besides, it also includes the nuclear energy development plan of potential nuclear developing countries in the near future. In addition, this study also explores the nuclear training and education systems of the nuclear development countries and the current status of nuclear education in various fields such as government, industries, nuclear power plants ect. Especially, as considering the status of nuclear education classified such as Asia, the Americas, East and West Europe, the Middle East and Africa, it shows the different characteristics of nuclear education systems in each regions aimed to identify the good practices on the nuclear education systems. Finally, through observation of international cooperation and networks of the various nuclear organizations, this will be contributed to the development of nuclear education for member states and be suggested the various of the direction of development for nuclear education in Korea. The report presents in the basis of the recent status data of the world nuclear education systems collected from the IAEA Technical Meeting in 2009. However, due to the limitation time and access to the availability of the nuclear educational systems data, there are many needs not only to update the information and data continuously, but also to explore the world nuclear training and education systems over the next few years. In conclusion, the report is expected to be useful as a reference working material for developing the nuclear education in Korea

  9. The current status of the Canadian home fitness test.

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The current status of the Canadian Home Fitness Test is reviewed. This simple procedure was originally conceived for the mass testing of fitness levels and for home use as a motivational tool in exercise programmes. The test is carried out on a double 8 inch step (such as a domestic staircase) at an age and sex-specific rhythm set by a long-playing record. Fitness is assessed from a combination of test-duration and the radial or carotid pulse count immediately following exercise. Use of the p...

  10. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

  11. The Square Kilometre Array: Current Status and Science Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert

    2015-08-01

    The Square Kilometre Array has now entered the final design phase, with construction anticipated to begin from 2018. Even in its first deployment phase, termed SKA1, the SKA Observatory will provide a quantum leap in capability at radio frequencies between 50 MHz and 15 GHz, with survey speeds exceeding the current state-of-the art by factors between 20 and 200 over this range. These capabilities enable an extremely wide range of cutting edge programs, from understanding planet formation through the first glimpses of “cosmic dawn”. The project status and opportunities for participation in the science program will be highlighted in this presentation.

  12. On the current status of Phakopsora pachyrhizi genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehrer, Marco; Vogel, Alexander; Huettel, Bruno; Reinhardt, Richard; Benes, Vladimir; Duplessis, Sébastien; Usadel, Björn; Schaffrath, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of sequencing technologies and bioinformatics allow a more rapid access to genomes of non-model organisms at sinking costs. Accordingly, draft genomes of several economically important cereal rust fungi have been released in the last 3 years. Aside from the very recent flax rust and poplar rust draft assemblies there are no genomic data available for other dicot-infecting rust fungi. In this article we outline rust fungus sequencing efforts and comment on the current status of Phakopsora pachyrhizi (Asian soybean rust) genome sequencing. PMID:25221558

  13. Laparoscopic surgery for inguinal hernia: Current status and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandarkar Deepraj

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair of inguinal hernia is one of the commonest operations performed by surgeons around the world. The treatment of this common problem has seen an evolution from the pure tissue repairs to the prosthetic repairs and in the recent past to laparoscopic repair. The fact that so many hernia repairs are practiced is a testimony to the fact that probably none is distinctly superior to the other. This review assesses the current status of surgery for repair of inguinal hernia and examines the various controversial issues surrounding the subject.

  14. ZnO growth technologies: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of new technologies for ZnO nano materials and thin films is of critical importance for further fundamental investigations and practical applications. We discuss on the main technical control of the synthesis of zinc oxide and its properties, which are of significance in understanding the growth mechanism and further developing ZnO-based devices. Next, we present a brief summary of recent research activities, current status and progress in developing improved control of technological processes for zinc oxide as advanced material.

  15. Current status of global climate change countermeasures in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After COP3 (The Third Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), many actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are now being taken by the national and local governments, industry and citizens. Japanese electric power industry has been voluntarily working to reduce CO2 emissions since the announcement of its ''Environmental Action Plan'' in November 1996. This paper overviews the current status of national government and electric power industry measures against global climate change in Japan, especially focusing on the important role of nuclear power generation in reducing CO2 emissions. 5 refs., 12 figs

  16. The MAO NASU Plate Archive Database. Current Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakuliak, L. K.; Sergeeva, T. P.

    2006-04-01

    The preliminary online version of the database of the MAO NASU plate archive is constructed on the basis of the relational database management system MySQL and permits an easy supplement of database with new collections of astronegatives, provides a high flexibility in constructing SQL-queries for data search optimization, PHP Basic Authorization protected access to administrative interface and wide range of search parameters. The current status of the database will be reported and the brief description of the search engine and means of the database integrity support will be given. Methods and means of the data verification and tasks for the further development will be discussed.

  17. Laparoscopic surgery for inguinal hernia: Current status and controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandarkar Deepraj; Shankar Manu; Udwadia Tehemton

    2006-01-01

    Repair of inguinal hernia is one of the commonest operations performed by surgeons around the world. The treatment of this common problem has seen an evolution from the pure tissue repairs to the prosthetic repairs and in the recent past to laparoscopic repair. The fact that so many hernia repairs are practiced is a testimony to the fact that probably none is distinctly superior to the other. This review assesses the current status of surgery for repair of inguinal hernia and examines the var...

  18. The current status of women in physics in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Kazmili, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Women's representation in physics in Tanzania is generally low. Various studies have shown that Tanzanian girls face obstacles to realizing their educational and intellectual capabilities. The situation is even worse in the field of physics because of the perception that the subject is too difficult. The number of women in physics at the university level is highly associated with their number in secondary school level as well as their performance. This paper analyzes the current status of women engaged in physics in Tanzania in the academic and research institutions.

  19. MONK and MCBEND: Current status and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We describe recent developments to the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCBEND. • MONK is a Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality and reactor physics analyses. • MCBEND is a Monte Carlo code for radiation shielding and dosimetry analyses. • Improvements include input; physics; scoring; variance reduction; and visualisation. • Parallelisation of MONK and multi-physics coupling are described. - Abstract: MONK® and MCBEND are Monte Carlo software packages for: nuclear criticality and reactor physics; and radiation shielding and dosimetry applications, respectively. The codes are actively developed, maintained and supported by AMEC’s ANSWERS® Software Service in line with the ANSWERS vision of providing easy-to-use software that meets the current and emerging needs of the user community. This paper summarises the current status of MONK and MCBEND and the recent developments which have been carried out to the codes, and their supporting nuclear data libraries and visualisation package

  20. Current status of the measurement of the anapole moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Dong; Perez Galvan, Adrian; Hood, Jonathan; Orozco, Luis

    2009-05-01

    We present the current status of the experimental effort towards the measurement of the anapole moment in different isotopes of francium. The anapole is a parity-violating, time-reversal conserving nuclear moment that arises from the weak interaction among nucleons. Due to the electromagnetic interaction between electrons and nucleons, atomic physics gives the unique possibility to probe the weak interaction in the low energy regime. Our experimental scheme involves driving a parity forbidden E1 transition between hyperfine ground states in a series of francium isotopes inside a blue detuned dipole trap at the electric antinode of a microwave cavity. The experiment will make use of the ISAC radioactive beam facility at TRIUMF. The system is currently being tested with rubidium.

  1. Current status of surrogacy in Japan and uterine transplantation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Iida, Takuya; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART) have made it possible to circumvent many causes of male and female infertility. The right to have a child by ART has been respected for infertile couples. However, there are currently no legal regulations concerning ART in Japan, and this has resulted in social and ethical problems. Surrogacy involves particularly complex medical, ethical, social, and legal issues, and is frequently focused on as a major social concern. Uterine transplantation (UTx) is a potential alternative for young women with uterine factor infertility due to hysterectomy for treatment of a malignant uterine tumor or massive blood loss after delivery, or because of a congenital disease such as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster syndrome. UTx has been examined in experimental animals as a basis for establishment of fecundity for young women with uterine factor infertility. In this review, we focus on surrogacy in Japan and UTx research, and discuss the current status and concerns in this field. PMID:21632170

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmess, Erin K; Naz, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

  3. Product ecodesign and materials: current status and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieux, Fabrice; Zwolinski, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the current status of ecodesign in the industry and its future implications for materials. There is today more and more focus on the environmental impacts of products during their whole life cycle. In particular, ecodesign aims at integrating environmental aspects during the product's design process as any other criterion, in order to reduce the life cycle impacts. Although a lot of product environmental impact assessment and Design for Environment tools already exist, environmental aspects are unfortunately rarely routinely integrated into product development process in the industry. This is mainly due to the fact that current ecodesign tools are little adapted to designers' practices, requirements and competencies. After the sequential and DfX paradigms, design of products is today maturing into Integrated Design, where multiple points of views and expertise have to be considered at the same time to progressively define the product.

  4. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopiña

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  5. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Calvopiña; Daniel, Romero; Byron, Castañeda; Yoshihisa, Hashiguchi; Hiromu, Sugiyama.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy [...] -makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  6. Active Debris Removal: Current Status of Activities in CNES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnal, Christophe; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Desjean, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-01

    Most of the ongoing studies led at worldwide level, mainly through IADC Actions, conclude that in order to keep a stable Low Earth Orbit environment in the coming decades, it may be necessary to retrieve some 5 to 10 large objects annually. These operations, known as Active Debris Removal (ADR), raise a huge amount of difficulties in numerous domains: political, legal, insurance, defense, financing and, last but not least, technical questions. The current paper aims at reviewing the current status of the ADR activities led by CNES both at National and Multi-lateral level. The first question which is raised is that of the high level requirements to be applied. What are the requirements coming from the operators; do we want to stabilize the environment, decrease it or could we accept some increase over the years; when do we have to act; can we baseline random reentry of such large objects or do we have to stick to controlled destructive reentries?… There may not yet be clear answers to these points, so efforts at international level are required. The second part of the paper deals with the potential solutions at system level. Numerous possibilities can be identified, depending on the size of the launcher and of the strategy selected to de-orbit the debris. Large space tugs visiting some 10 debris or small dedicated chasers launched as piggyback are among the solutions which have been traded. The currently preferred solution is described in details. The third part of the paper is devoted to the chaser-debris operations themselves, following five key functions; - the long range rendezvous, - the short range rendezvous up to contact, - the mechanical interfacing of the debris, - its control by the chaser, when required, - the de-orbiting maneuver itself. For each of these functions, the current status of available technologies is described, enabling the identification of the most critical ones requiring additional R&T effort and subsequent demonstrations. Among them, two are already identified as critical: the final rendezvous with an unprepared, non-cooperative, potentially tumbling target of unknown physical status has never been demonstrated yet; the physical interfacing between the chaser and the target during the do-orbiting boost is also far from obvious. The paper is essentially based on the on-going findings of the two significant industrial studies under CNES contract, as well as several smaller actions led by Universities and internal work.

  7. Prevalence of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in epidemic-prone border areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nazib Forida; Deloer Sharmina; Chaudhury Nurunnabi; Khan Md Gulam Musawwir; Alam Mohammad Shafiul; Bangali A Mannan; Haque Rashidul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Information related to malaria vectors is very limited in Bangladesh. In the changing environment and various Anopheles species may be incriminated and play role in the transmission cycle. This study was designed with an intention to identify anopheline species and possible malaria vectors in the border belt areas, where the malaria is endemic in Bangladesh. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three border belt areas (Lengura, Deorgachh and Matiranga) during t...

  8. Application of C-ELISA for the sero-survey of rinderpest virus antibody in cattle and goats in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim is to study the applicability of C-ELISA for seromonitoring of antibodies against RP virus in ruminants in Bangladesh. As no outbreaks of RP have been reported since 1957, a broader belt rinderpest vaccination programme is being carried out in order to protect cattle from rinderpest originating from neighbouring States of India. However, the emergence of rinderpest-like epidemics in goats has been noticed for the last three years. Thus, the use of the rinderpest competitive ELISA technique will be helpful to measure the current status of rinderpest serosurveillance as well as to confirm the rinderpest-like epidemics in goats as peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Bangladesh

  9. Current Diagnosis, Treatment and Etiology of Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin Kür?ad Akp?nar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Status Epilepticus (SE is a medical emergency that causes significant morbidity and mortality and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Although SE can be divided into two subgroups as convulsive and nonconvulsive, treatment principles are generally similar. Treatment should be prompt and underlying cause should be corrected. Although intravenous lorazepam is the first-line treatment due to a lower risk of relapse, diazepam becomes the first choice since loeazepan is not available in our country. Even though intravenous benzodiazepine stops seizures, intravenous antiepileptic drug (phenytoin, etc. should be administered at a loading dose. Patients with refractory status epilepticus should be supported with respect to vital, respiratory, metabolic and hemodynamic aspects and followed up in an intensive care unit to monitor cerebral electrical activity. The most common cause in the etiology is the cessation of antiepileptic drugs. The aim of SE treatment is to stop seizures and prevent complications and recurrence. In this paper, current diagnosis, treatment and etiology of SE are reviewed.

  10. Advanced Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Surfacing Current Status and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas Shielded Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW – a process well-known providing highest quality weld results joined though by lower performance. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW is frequently chosen to increase productivity along with broadly accepted quality. Those industry segments, especially required to produce high quality corrosion resistant weld surfacing e.g. applying nickel base filler materials, are regularly in consistent demand to comply with "zero defect" criteria. In this conjunction weld performance limitations are overcome employing advanced 'hot-wire' GTAW systems. This paper, from a Welding Automation perspective, describes the technology of such devices and deals with the current status is this field – namely the application of dual-cathode hot-wire electrode GTAW cladding; considerably broadening achievable limits.

  11. Image guided radiotherapy: Current status of soft tissue imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image guided radiotherapy has evolved from two dimensional (2D) megavoltage imaging, which allowed verification with respect to bony anatomy, to three dimensional (3D) kilovoltage imaging which enables soft tissue structures to be used for verification. Alongside the technological developments, treatment delivery techniques have become more sophisticated and the potential to adapt treatment delivery to changes in tumour and/or organs at risk is increasing. This review explores the current status of soft tissue imaging techniques in conjunction with the potential clinical impact. The common tumour sites where the new treatment techniques are being investigated are identified and it is seen that to support the implementation of these techniques, investment in capital equipment and staff training is essential

  12. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang ZHANG

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China’s coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeting China’s future energy needs. Additionally, considering the uneven distribution of China’s marine renewable energy and the influences of its exploitation on the environment, we have suggested several sites with great potential for each kind of marine energy. Furthermore, perspectives on and challenges related with marine renewable energy in China are addressed.

  13. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  14. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Il [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ki [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS). Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  15. Integrated safeguards - Current status of development and plans for implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the conceptual framework, safeguards approaches, and implementation guidelines and criteria for integrated safeguards continues to be one of the International Atomic Energy Agency's priorities. Integrated safeguards refers to the optimum combination of all safeguards measures available to the Agency under a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol to achieve maximum effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, in meeting the Agency's safeguards objectives. Over the past year, substantial progress has been made on the development of facility-type-specific integrated safeguards approaches, the State-level approach concept, and other aspects of implementation including the use of unannounced inspections, the role of State and regional systems of accounting and control, and procedures for randomization of inspections. The paper will provide a current status of the development of integrated safeguards with particular emphasis on its main elements, progress to date and plans for implementation. (author)

  16. The current status of the Korean student health examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Shin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.

  17. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ill Jang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS. Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  18. Indian fast reactor technology: Current status and future programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Chetal; P Chellapandi

    2013-10-01

    The paper brings out the advantages of fast breeder reactor and importance of developing closed nuclear fuel cycle for the large scale energy production, which is followed by its salient safety features. Further, the current status and future strategy of the fast reactor programme since the inception through 40 MWt/13 MWe Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), is highlighted. The challenges and achievements in science and technology of FBRs focusing on safety are described with the particular reference to 500 MWe capacity Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), being commissioned at Kalpakkam. Roadmap with comprehensive R&D for the large scale deployment of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs) and timely introduction of metallic fuel reactors with emphasis on breeding gain and enhanced safety are being brought out in this paper.

  19. Current status on the industrial use and regulation of NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) have been widely used for industrial raw materials and consumer goods in Japan as well as in the world. Many kinds of raw materials such as monazite, phosphate rock, and samarium oxides are used for production of health apparatus, fertilizer, magnet and so on. The Radiation Council in Japan published a report entitled exemption of naturally occurring radioactive materials'. Current status on industrial use and consumer goods of NORM in Japan was reviewed and principle for regulation of NORM with classification of the materials was shown in the report. However, it would be very difficult to show the criteria for regulation because the activity concentrations are broadly distributed from very low to high level. More information related to mechanism of elevated exposure due to use of NORM is necessary to implement the measures for reduction of exposure and system for appropriate regulation. (author)

  20. Current status of the Fastbus Micro-Vax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskind, E.J.

    1985-08-01

    The present hardware, firmware, and software design and status of the Fastbus Micro-VAX, a two board Fastbus module packaging of the DEC Micro-VAX II computing system, is described. The hardware currently features an Intel 80186, equipped with 64 kB of ROM, 32 kB of RAM, and an 82586/82501 Ethernet port, as a front end I/O processor, plus a high bandwidth Fastbus interface implemented in semi-custom ECL 100K VLSI with the Motorola MCA2500ECL macrocell array. Standard 80186 firmware implements multiple Fastbus segment drivers and interrupt receivers software compatible with the UPI, a limited Fastbus interprocessor network, and emulations of the DEC DEQNA Ethernet interface and an MSCP disk interface. Software includes device drivers for the non-DEC devices, plus appropriate standard access subroutines for the Fastbus and network devices.

  1. Current status of the Fastbus Micro-Vax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present hardware, firmware, and software design and status of the Fastbus Micro-VAX, a two board Fastbus module packaging of the DEC Micro-VAX II computing system, is described. The hardware currently features an Intel 80186, equipped with 64 kB of ROM, 32 kB of RAM, and an 82586/82501 Ethernet port, as a front end I/O processor, plus a high bandwidth Fastbus interface implemented in semi-custom ECL 100K VLSI with the Motorola MCA2500ECL macrocell array. Standard 80186 firmware implements multiple Fastbus segment drivers and interrupt receivers software compatible with the UPI, a limited Fastbus interprocessor network, and emulations of the DEC DEQNA Ethernet interface and an MSCP disk interface. Software includes device drivers for the non-DEC devices, plus appropriate standard access subroutines for the Fastbus and network devices

  2. The current status of TRR-II project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRR-II organization has been reorganized to enhance the project management and to minimize the interfaces among decommissioning, reactor reconstruction, and experimental facilities design. Several modifications suggested by the reviewing committee members to upgrade our reactor had been actualized in the present design. An extension of one year of the schedule due to the delay of old TRR removal engineering bid process was proposed by the project and approved by the authorities. The duration of the project will then be July 1998 - Dec. 2006. In the mean time, the project is able to spend more time exploring the design and construction techniques of reactor system, and training of personnel for neutron application research. The progresses of the project in the past 18 months and the current technical status of the project are described in the order of integral planning and management, TRR dismantling, TRR-II reconstruction, and TRR-II experimental facility. (orig.)

  3. Current Status of TRISO Fuel Head-End Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) is proceeding with the construction and demonstration of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, and spent TRISO fuel should be generated after 2019. Hence, it is urgent to set up the treatment concept of the spent TRISO fuel. The fuel of high temperature gas cooled reactor is different from that of conventional nuclear reactor in terms of the composition. The fuel of HTGR is consisted of more than 95% of carbon, which makes it difficult to be effectively treated. In this report the features of the TRISO fuel treatment, points to be duly considered and current status of retreatment in foreign countries were summarized. Finally future research directions to establish efficient spent TRISO treatment process have been suggested

  4. Current Status of TRISO Fuel Head-End Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Eung Ho; Shim, Joon Bo; Ahn, Byung Gil; Kwon, Sang Woon; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Park, Seong Won

    2005-12-15

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) is proceeding with the construction and demonstration of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, and spent TRISO fuel should be generated after 2019. Hence, it is urgent to set up the treatment concept of the spent TRISO fuel. The fuel of high temperature gas cooled reactor is different from that of conventional nuclear reactor in terms of the composition. The fuel of HTGR is consisted of more than 95% of carbon, which makes it difficult to be effectively treated. In this report the features of the TRISO fuel treatment, points to be duly considered and current status of retreatment in foreign countries were summarized. Finally future research directions to establish efficient spent TRISO treatment process have been suggested.

  5. HELOKA data acquisition and control system: Current development status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HELOKA experimental facility, aimed to test the test blanket modules (TBM) mock-ups and prototypes, is under construction at the Research Centre Karlsruhe. HELOKA is an '8-shape' helium loop (HL), which feeds the TBM test section with helium (1.4 kg/s, 300 deg. C, 8 MPa). The maximum temperature at the test section outlet is 500 deg. C. HELOKA data acquisition and control system (DACS) comprises the facility control system and instrumentation. In addition to DACS and working independently from it, the central interlock and safety system (CISS) ensures the facility machine protection and personnel safety, with specific interlock logic, acting upon off-normal events or conditions. The paper briefly describes HELOKA DACS and CISS and reports in detail on the current development status: the installation and commissioning of DACS stage 1 consisting of the supervisory control system (SCS) and the control and monitoring for the water cooling system (WCS) and the related power supply.

  6. Current Status, Problems and Challenges in Lithium-sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Jing-Jing, LI Guo-Ran, GAO Xue-Ping

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-sulfur battery, fabricated with metal lithium as anode and sulfur as cathode, has received more attention as the most promising high energy power sources due to its high theoretical energy density (2600 Wh/kg. However, there are some serious and unavoidable problems for lithium-sulfur battery based on the dissolution-deposition processes in organic electrolyte, including serious structure change of metallic lithium anode, the lower utilization and poor cycle performance of active materials, which become a big barrier for the research and development of lithium-sulfur battery. The current status, problems and challenges of lithium-sulfur battery are summarized, including the sulfur-based cathode composites, electrolyte and lithium anode.

  7. Current status of ultrasonic examination performance demonstration in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of ultrasonic testing performed during in-service inspection period for main components of nuclear power plant are affected by the performance of each inspector. To enhance the reliability of inspection, the more restrictive qualification is required. The ASME B and PV code section XI adopted the performance demonstration requirements (Appendix VIII) for the ultrasonic examination of nuclear power plants in the 1989 winter addenda for the first time to enhance the inspection reliability. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. LTD (KHNP) has developed Korean Performance Demonstration (KPD) system for the ultrasonic examination to apply for pressurized light-water and pressurized heavy-water reactor power plants weld in accordance with ASME code section XI. This paper describes the current status of the ultrasonic examination performance demonstration for nuclear power plant in-service inspection in Korea. (author)

  8. Current status of thermoluminescence studies on minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of thermoluminescence (TL) in geological studies is being increasingly recognized, as may be judged from the considerable volume of literature accumulated over the past couple of decades; besides, a number of seminars, conferences and specialists' meetings have also been held on the subject of applied TL. However, these publications lie scattered over several periodicals and conference proceedings and an interested worker finds it difficult to obtain the gist of the contributions in one place. The present authors felt a need for this and have, therefore, attempted to bring together in this Report the current status of TL research about different minerals; applications in the fields of geochronology, ore-prospecting, stratigraphic correlation, geothermometry and other useful areas are also included. (author)

  9. Running Vacuum in the Universe: current phenomenological status

    CERN Document Server

    Sola, Joan

    2016-01-01

    I review the excellent phenomenological status of a class of dynamical vacuum models in which the vacuum energy density, $\\rho_{\\Lambda}=\\rho_{\\Lambda}(H)$, as a function of the Hubble rate, evolves through its interaction with dark matter and/or through the accompanying running of the gravitational coupling $G$, including the possibility of being self-conserved with a nontrivial effective equation of state. Some of these models have been used to incorporate into a single vacuum structure the rapid stage of inflation, followed by the standard radiation and cold dark matter epochs all the way down until the dark energy era. Remarkably, the running vacuum models (RVM's) render an outstanding phenomenological description of the main cosmological data at a level that is currently challenging the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM model, thereby implying that present observations seem to point to a running vacuum rather than to a rigid cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ in our Universe.

  10. Current status of Nikon's F2 exposure tool development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naomasa; Owa, Soichi; Ohmura, Yasuhiro; Aoki, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukako; Hatasawa, Masato; Mori, Takashi; Tanaka, Issei

    2001-09-01

    Current status of Nikon's F2 tool development is reported. At first, the required otpical performance of F2 tools will be discussed. Image simulation results show that the required NA for 70 nm is 0.8 or more. Then Nikon's approaches to realize the optics and tools are presented. For the F2 tools, the most important elements are the projection optics and gas purging of the light path. As for the projection optics, conventional lens type may not be applicable for F2 wavelength, and new type catadioptric optics may have to be developed. In this paper, designs of some catadioptric types and some all refractive types are shown and compared. AR-coatings are very important to obtain enough illumination power. New data on Nikon's AR-coatings are presented. For the gas purging, Nikon has already achieved oxygen concentration less than 1 ppm and further improvements are now in development. Results of gas purging are also presented.

  11. Immunomonitoring in glioma immunotherapy: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamano, Jonathan B; Ampie, Leonel; Choy, Winward; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; DiDomenico, Joseph D; Oyon, Daniel E; Parsa, Andrew T; Bloch, Orin

    2016-03-01

    Given the continued poor clinical outcomes and refractory nature of glioblastoma multiforme to traditional interventions, immunotherapy is gaining traction due to its potential for specific tumor-targeting and long-term antitumor protective surveillance. Currently, development of glioma immunotherapy relies on overall survival as an endpoint in clinical trials. However, the identification of surrogate immunologic biomarkers can accelerate the development of successful immunotherapeutic strategies. Immunomonitoring techniques possess the potential to elucidate immunological mechanisms of antitumor responses, monitor disease progression, evaluate therapeutic effect, identify candidates for immunotherapy, and serve as prognostic markers of clinical outcome. Current immunomonitoring assays assess delayed-type hypersensitivity, T cell proliferation, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte function, cytokine secretion profiles, antibody titers, and lymphocyte phenotypes. Yet, no single immunomonitoring technique can reliably predict outcomes, relegating immunological markers to exploratory endpoints. In response, the most recent immunomonitoring assays are incorporating emerging technologies and novel analysis techniques to approach the goal of identifying a competent immunological biomarker which predicts therapy responsiveness and clinical outcome. This review addresses the current status of immunomonitoring in glioma vaccine clinical trials with emphasis on correlations with clinical response. PMID:26638171

  12. Current status and future tendency of lake eutrophication in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiangcan; Xu, Qiujin; Huang, Changzhu

    2005-09-01

    Current trophic status and trend of Chinese freshwater lakes were investigated in this study. The results showed that all lakes studied were commonly undergoing the eutrophication process, water quality decreased and lake's ecosystem is being declined. Most of the urban lakes are facing serious eutrophication. Many medium-sized lakes are in metrophic or eutrophic status, some local water are even approaching the hypertrophic level. The famous five freshwater lakes in China have entered into eutrophication in the condition of higher nutrient load. Lake Taihu, Hongze and Caohu are already in eutrophic state. Eutrophic lakes are mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Yungui plateau. Lake eutrophication developed rapidly. Among the 34 lakes studied in 1970's, most of lakes were in the mesotrophic status, mesotrophic water area accounted for 91.8%. With the nine year of 1978-1987 the area percentage of oligotrophic lakes decreased from 3.2% to 0.53%, and that of eutrophic lakes increased from 5.0% to 55.01%. Recent data showed 57.5% lakes were in eutrophic and hypertrophic status of the 40 surveyed lakes. Eutrophic trend of Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu in the region of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River was predicated using the ecological stress model. The results showed that in 2008 Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu might be of eutrophication, eutrophication and hypertrophication, respectively if no control measurement is taken. Provided the pollution water treatment rate is 60% in 2030, approximately 30 billion ton pollution water would still be discharged directly in the lakes. Therefore, in 2030 the urban lakes in China might be eutrophication or hypertrophication, and most of the medium-sized lakes at the urban-rural fringe might be in eutrophication or hypertrophication. The famous five biggest freshwater lakes in China might be eutrophication if control countermeasures are taken as now. Lake eutrophication has become a serious environmental problem in China. Based on the domestic and foreign experiences of the eutrophic control technologies, both nutrient pollution control and lake ecological restoration should be carried out and this may be the guidance for the eutrophic control of lakes in China. PMID:20549449

  13. Women in physics in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Shamima K.

    2013-03-01

    Bangladesh has had a glorious physics tradition since the beginning of the last century, when the physicist S.N. Bose published a groundbreaking paper with Albert Einstein on Bose-Einstein statistics. However, women in Bangladesh traditionally have not been able to make their way in the realm of science in general and physics in particular. Since Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971, the situation has gradually changed and more and more women choose physics as an academic discipline. The percentage of women students in physics rose from 10% in 1970 to almost 30% in 2010. In recent years, women physicists have actively participated in many activities promoting science and technology, creating awareness among the public about the importance of physics education. The present status of women physicists in academic, research, and administrative programs in the government and private sectors in Bangladesh is reported. The greater inclusion of women scientists, particularly physicists, in policy-making roles on important issues of global and national interest is suggested.

  14. Understanding community perceptions, social norms and current practice related to respiratory infection in Bangladesh during 2009: a qualitative formative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizame Fosiul A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory infections are the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh. Promoting respiratory hygiene may reduce infection transmission. This formative research explored community perceptions about respiratory infections. Methods We conducted 34 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions with community members and school children to explore respiratory hygiene related perceptions, practices, and social norms in an urban and a rural setting. We conducted unstructured observations on respiratory hygiene practices in public markets. Results Informants were not familiar with the term "respiratory infection"; most named diseases that had no relation to respiratory dysfunction. Informants reported that their community identified a number of 'good behaviors' related to respiratory hygiene, but they also noted, and we observed, that very few people practiced these. All informants cited hot/cold weather changes or using cold water as causes for catching cold. They associated transmission of respiratory infections with close contact with a sick person's breath, cough droplets, or spit; sharing a sick person's utensils and food. Informants suggested that avoiding such contact was the most effective method to prevent respiratory infection. Although informants perceived that handwashing after coughing or sneezing might prevent illness, they felt this was not typically feasible or practical. Conclusion Community perceptions of respiratory infections include both concerns with imbalances between hot and cold, and with person-to-person transmission. Many people were aware of measures that could prevent respiratory infection, but did not practice them. Interventions that leverage community understanding of person-to-person transmission and that encourage the practice of their identified 'good behaviors' related to respiratory hygiene may reduce respiratory disease transmission.

  15. Child Marriage in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Saalfeldt, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Child marriage is a major health and security concern that still prevails in Bangladesh. The paper attempts to investigate and tries to understand the societal and cultural context of the problem. By applying Mary Douglas’ Socio-Cultural Viability theory and her parsimonious model onto the issue of child marriage in Bangladesh the four major opposing cultural camps are pointed out (Plan Bangladesh, Bangladesh government, the garment factory owners, and the individual Bangladeshi citizen). The...

  16. Current status of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenji; Sueoka, Kou; Iino, Kotaro; Senba, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Mariko; Mizuguchi, Yuki; Izumi, Yoko; Sato, Suguru; Nakabayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    This is a retrospective study aimingto clarify the current status of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in Japan. Our data were collected from 12 facilities between September 2004 and September 2012, and entered into a database. A majority of PGD in Japan was performed for balanced structural chromosomal abnormalities in couples with recurrent miscarriage. PGD for monogenic diseases was performed only in two facilities. The average maternal age was 38 years for monogenic diseases and 40 years for chromosomal abnormalities. Overall there have been671 cycles to oocyte retrieval reported. Of these cycles, 85% (572 cycles)were for chromosomal abnormalities, and 15% (99 cycles) for monogenic diseases. Diagnosis rates in the current study were 70.8% for monogenic diseases and 94.0% for chromosomal abnormalities. Rates of embryo transfer of PGD were 62.7% for monogenic diseases and 25.5% for chromosomal abnormalities. Clinical pregnancy rates per embryo transfer were 12.0% for monogenic diseases and 35.6% for chromosomal abnormalities. Our study is the first PGD report from all facilities which had the approval of the ethics committee of the Japanese Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. We have built a basis for gathering continuous PGD data in Japan. PMID:26124570

  17. UAS FOR GEO-INFORMATION: CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Haarbrink

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent and ongoing developments of state-of-the-art sensor technologies have resulted in smaller and lighter photogrammetric cameras with IMU, lidar scanners and other sensors that can now be integrated with and mounted on the larger Light UAS. This paper describes as an example the successful automatic flight of the 50-megapixel DigiCAM with AEROcontrol IMU developed by IGI flown on Geocopter's GC-201 unmanned helicopter system. The operational and technical requirements of UAS defined in new legislation remain however the safeguard to protect people and costly sensor payload assets. The current prospects of UAS-g face additional challenges related to end-user awareness and the return on investment. The current status of UAS legislation is given in this paper. This legislation justifies UAS-g operations of mapping coastal zones, forests, agricultural fields, and open mines. Sooner return on investment happens when the UAS legislation will be opening up airspace over urban areas (Class 2 approved UAS-g, to longer distances (BLOS operations, and to higher altitudes. UAS-g flights then become feasible to the maximum extent for cadastral mapping of larger areas, oil and gas pipeline monitoring, power line surveys, dike inspection, and highway and railway mapping.

  18. Current status of RTO development and its implications for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation includes a corporate review of Powerex, a review of Order 2000, and the current status of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) efforts regarding Regional Transmission Operators (RTOs). Other topics of discussion include FERC's standard market design, an update of RTO West and implications for Canada. Powerex was incorporated in 1988 as a wholly-owned subsidiary of BC Hydro. British Columbia-based Powerex's heaviest trading is along the western-most states and Alberta, but it is slowly expanding into central and eastern markets. It evolved by selling and buying power at the United States Border. It received US FERC power marketing authorization in 1997 and has since seen sales jump from C$165 million to C$5.4 billion. Currently, the majority of power supply is from utilities other than BC Hydro. The presentation addresses issues such as the Federal Power Act, PUHCA and PURPA, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act which deals with expanded access to the power grid. Power Pool restructuring and FERC orders 888/889 are also discussed. 2 figs

  19. Astroparticles in Latin America: Current Status and Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful installation and operation of the Auger Observatory in Argentina has been a milestone in Astro particle research in Latin America, generating new regional research opportunities in the field. In this context, the LAGO (Large Aperture Gamma ray Burst) Observatory, began in 2005 with the aim of studying the high-energy component of the gamma ray bursts (GRBs). The observatory consists of different arrays of water Cherenkov detectors installed in high altitude mountains throughout Latin America. Recently, it has been demonstrated the feasibility of conducting studies on the solar modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux. Currently more than 80 scientists and students from Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Argentina are integrated into the LAGO Collaboration. The high level of regional integration in the scientific community reached thanks to this kind of major projects, has led to the recent formation of the CLES (Consorcio Latin-American de Experiment os Subterraneos). This organization promotes the creation and installation of the ANDES Underground Laboratory to be built inside the projected International Agua Negra tunnel between Argentina and Chile. The ANDES laboratory with over 1750 meters of rock cover, will be the first laboratory of its kind to be installed in the Southern Hemisphere. In this talk I will describe the current status of these enterprises in our region and its future possibilities.

  20. Current status of Horonobe URL project in construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Horonobe URL project has been pursued by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) to establish and demonstrate site characterization methodologies, engineering technologies, and safety assessment methodologies for HLW geological disposal in relevant geological environment with sedimentary rock and saline groundwater distributing in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan. In the Horonobe URL project, surface-based investigation phase (Phase I) has already completed in the year 2005, and then construction phase (Phase II) has initiated in the same year. Currently, construction of the underground facilities such as shafts/galleries which were designed in Phase I, investigations of the geological environment in the excavated shafts/galleries and confirmation of applicability of engineering technologies has been alternately carried out as Phase II activities of the project. During the construction so far, monitoring for the construction safety such as convergence measurements, tunnel wall observation, sampling of groundwater and rock, investigations for evaluating excavation damaged/disturbed zone (EDZ/EdZ) along shafts/galleries were carried out. In addition, a shotcrete construction test and a grout injection test by using low alkaline cement material were carried in the horizontal galleries. In this paper, status of the URL construction and research activities mentioned above are outlined as the current achievement of the Horonobe URL project. (author)

  1. The current status and portability of our sequence handling software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staden, R

    1986-01-10

    I describe the current status of our sequence analysis software. The package contains a comprehensive suite of programs for managing large shotgun sequencing projects, a program containing 61 functions for analysing single sequences and a program for comparing pairs of sequences for similarity. The programs that have been described before have been improved by the addition of new functions and by being made very much easier to use. The major interactive programs have 125 pages of online help available from within them. Several new programs are described including screen editing of aligned gel readings for shotgun sequencing projects; a method to highlight errors in aligned gel readings, new methods for searching for putative signals in sequences. We use the programs on a VAX computer but the whole package has been rewritten to make it easy to transport it to other machines. I believe the programs will now run on any machine with a FORTRAN77 compiler and sufficient memory. We are currently putting the programs onto an IBM PC XT/AT and another micro running under UNIX. PMID:3511446

  2. IAA multilingual space dictionary, current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Candel, Danielle; Ninomiya, Keiken; Contant, Jean-Michel

    2015-12-01

    Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Since 1986, when the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) multilingual terminology database committee on astronautics was formed, the committee and its successor IAA study groups on the IAA multilingual space dictionary have made a continuous effort to construct a multilingual dictionary database on astronautical terms. In 2002, the dictionary was computerized using a database server and some recent internet technologies. The database is accessible from all over the world via the internet. You can search for terms at your home and office using a web browser installed on the computer with an internet connection. Since then, the number of terms and languages included in the database has increased. The current version includes about 3500 terms in 22 languages. The flexibility of the database enables the addition and the revision of new terms without much effort. The computerization has also demonstrated another possibility to utilize the database. When total of four paper books about the multilingual space terminology were published on the 50th anniversary of IAA in 2010, one of the lexicon books was edited by a computer program which accessed to the database. In this paper, the authors present the current status of the IAA multilingual database as well as the future possibilities on the utilization of the database.

  3. Uas for Geo-Information Current Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarbrink, R. B.

    2011-09-01

    Recent and ongoing developments of state-of-the-art sensor technologies have resulted in smaller and lighter photogrammetric cameras with IMU, lidar scanners and other sensors that can now be integrated with and mounted on the larger Light UAS. This paper describes as an example the successful automatic flight of the 50-megapixel DigiCAM with AEROcontrol IMU developed by IGI flown on Geocopter's GC-201 unmanned helicopter system. The operational and technical requirements of UAS defined in new legislation remain however the safeguard to protect people and costly sensor payload assets. The current prospects of UAS-g face additional challenges related to end-user awareness and the return on investment. The current status of UAS legislation is given in this paper. This legislation justifies UAS-g operations of mapping coastal zones, forests, agricultural fields, and open mines. Sooner return on investment happens when the UAS legislation will be opening up airspace over urban areas (Class 2 approved UAS-g), to longer distances (BLOS operations), and to higher altitudes. UAS-g flights then become feasible to the maximum extent for cadastral mapping of larger areas, oil and gas pipeline monitoring, power line surveys, dike inspection, and highway and railway mapping.

  4. Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  5. Current status of robot-assisted gastric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Jin Baek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to minimize the limitations of laparoscopy, a robotic surgery system was introduced, but its role for gastric cancer is still unclear. The objective of this article is to assess the current status of robotic surgery for gastric cancer and to predict future prospects. Although the current study was limited by its small number of patients and retrospective nature, robot-assisted gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer is a feasible and safe procedure for experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Most studies have reported satisfactory results for postoperative short-term coutcomes, such as: postoperative oral feeding, gas out, hospital stay and complications, compared with laparoscopic surgery; the difference is a longer operation time. However, robotic surgery showed a shallow learning curve compared with the familarity of conventional open surgery; after the accumulation of several cases, robotic surgery could be expected to result in a similar operation time. Robotic-assisted gastrectomy can expand the indications of minimally invasive surgery to include advanced gastric cancer by improving the ability to perform lymphadenectomy. Moreover, ”total” robotic gastrectomy can be facilitated using a robot-sewing technique and gastric submucosal tumors near the gastroesophageal junction or pylorus can be resected safely by this novel technique. In conclusion, robot-assisted gastrectomy may offer a good alternative to conventional open or laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer, provided that long-term oncologic outcomes can be confirmed.

  6. Current Status of the LIFE Fast Reactors Fuel Performance Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LIFE series of fuel performance codes have been developed in the US to evaluate the thermo-mechanical behavior of fuel elements in a fast-reactor environment. The oxide version of the code (LIFE-4) remains to be the national reference for modeling the thermal, mechanical, and materials performance of fast-reactor oxide fuel and blanket pins during both normal and transient operations. The metallic fuel version of the code (LIFE-METAL) was under development up to the termination of the US Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program in the early 1990's, where it was calibrated and validated using large database from metallic fuel irradiated at both EBR-II and FFTF. Recent institutional and industry interest in the development of advanced sodium cooled fast reactors renewed interest in those fuel performance codes, for design and licensing activities as well as its use for verification and validation of other newly developed fuel performance codes. This paper presents the current status of both oxide and metallic versions of the LIFE code, recent applications, and ranges for its calibration and validation databases as well as current and future activities developments. (author)

  7. Personal dosimetric monitoring in Ukraine: current status and further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently Ukraine has mixed system for dosimetric monitoring. Nuclear power plants and some major nuclear facilities have their own dosimetry services, which are responsible for regular dosimetric monitoring of workers. Rest of occupationally exposed persons is monitored by dosimetry laboratories affiliated to the territorial authorities for sanitary and epidemiology supervision. In 2002-2003 Ukrainian Ministry of Health performed survey of the status of dosimetric monitoring and inventory of critical groups requiring such monitoring. Dosimetry services in Ukraine cover about 38,000 occupationally exposed workers, including 9,100 medical professionals, 16,400 employees of 5 nuclear power plants and ca.12,400 workers dealing with other sources of occupational exposure (industry, research). Territorial dosimetry services operate in 13 of 24 regions of Ukraine, using DTU-01 manual TLD readers produced with one exception in 1988-1990. The coverage of critical groups by dosimetric monitoring is variable and ranges from 38% to 100% depending on the region. Personnel of nuclear power plants (about 16,400 workers) is monitored by their own dosimetry services achieving absolute coverage of the main staff and temporary workers. Current inadequate status of dosimetric monitoring infrastructure in Ukraine demands an urgent elaboration of the united state system for monitoring and recording of individual doses. The proposed plan would allows to bring dosimetry infrastructure in Ukraine to the modern state which would be compatible with existing and future European and international radiation protection networks. Unitary structure of Ukraine, strong administrative command and good communications between regions of the country are positive factors in favour of efficient implementation of the proposed plan. Deficiencies are associated with limited funding of this effort. (authors)

  8. Acceptability of Marital Violence among College Men and Women: Does Gender and Current Relationship Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Michael J.; Williams, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender, current relationship status, and the interaction between gender and relationship status on the acceptability of marital violence among college men and women. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of marital violence acceptability and current relationship status

  9. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloska, Stephan P. [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Engelhorn, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Fiebach, Jochen B. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabi?-Stankovi? Kata M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and potentials of classical radiotherapy After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. Technological levels of radiotherapy in developed countries An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and mached to point current status. Results of analysis and discussion The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%, as well as, ADAC (43.7% and Focus (CMS (27.4% systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%, although classic ”simulation” is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%. About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CFRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.. CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day. Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. Technological aspects and conclusion In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in technology and consequent improvements, as well as wide introduction of computers in radiotherapy, radiotherapy results have not changed significantly. Vendor development strategies do not point that this trend will change in the next 5 years. On the other hand, wide introduction of the PET in each radiotherapy chain ring (diagnostics, planning, follow-up, could improve results (local and regional control, as well as quality of patients' life.

  12. Water Pollutional Status and Current in Shanghai Seacoast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Li, W.; Wang, T.; An, Y.; Fei, M.; Wu, T.; Xu, M.

    2006-12-01

    The pollutants in Shanghai sea area come mainly from Changjiang river, Huangpu river and city wastewater discharging in coast. To research the status and current of water pollution in Shanghai sea-area, the data of Shanghai water qualities are extracted from authorized communiques and reports on ocean, environment and water in 1981-2005, which include pollutant discharging of city wastewater, Changjiang river and Huangpu river. It can be found, the discharging pollutant flux in month from Changjiang Estuary was around 25.9-209.6 tons in recent years, with the minimal at the end of winter and maximal in the summer, the difference between winter and summer was 2.3-8.1 times. There was relationship between discharging pollutant flux and runoff in Changjiang river for seasons, but no relationship for years. The discharging pollutant flux from Huangpu river is about 1.2%-4% from Changjiang river contemporarily. The city wastewater, which includes industry wastewater and living wastewater, was around 1775-2420 million tons per year in past 25 years. The industry wastewater was decreasing with year. The concentrations of cyanide, heavy metal and arsenic in the industry wastewater were controlled to a low level from 2000. The living wastewater was increasing with year for past 25 years. The main pollutant in living wastewater was organic compound. There was relationship between discharging of living wastewater and population. The averaging living wastewater per person-year was increase 2.7 times in past 25 years, the largest increasing ratio in one year on living wastewater per person-year was 20%. In the pollutants discharged to Shanghai sea-area in recent years, the organic compound from city wastewater was about 8%-25% from Changjiang river; the heavy metal from city wastewater was less than 0.03% from Changjiang river. The pollutants in Shanghai sea-area were mainly nitrogen compound, phosphate and oil. The pollutional status in Shanghai sea-area was the most seriously around China coast. The pollutional current would be increasing at Shanghai sea-area with increasing population in Shanghai and around.

  13. Current status and future prospects on nuclear industry in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is ny great pleasure to have this chance of speaking at twenty-first KAIF/KNS Annual Conference, with the subject of the current status and future prospects of nuclear industry in Korea. As you all know, since the start of operation in Obninsk, the former Soviet Union, on June 26th, 1954, nuclear generation in the world has expanded continuously for the past 50 years. In 1973, when the first oil crisis hit the world, there were 147 nuclear power plants in operation, supplying only 0.8% of the world energy demand. About 30 years later, by the end of last year, 443 plants were in operation in 32 countries, supplying about 16% of the world power demand. Nuclear power generation is greatly contributing to the energy security of many countries and preservation of global environments. Recently, countries all over the world are becoming aware of the values and importance of nuclear energy which can help respond to energy crises caused by a sharp rise in oil prices and protect the earth from global warming. Due to its high energy density and ability to secure fuel supply at a lower cost, in addition to its cleanliness resulting from almost no emission of greenhouse gases, nuclear power generation is the practical alternative for energy security and the prevention of global warming. However, in the rapidly changing 21st century, the nuclear industries of the world, as well as Korea, are facing more challenges than ever before. The political and social disputes on nuclear generation are continuing while we all are facing urgent challenges, including the concerns about the safety of nuclear generation, procuring site to build nuclear power plants, and the improvement of competitiveness. Please allow me to remind you that it is very important for the world's nuclear societies to cooperate together in order to overcome diverse difficulties along our path and to contribute to the development of mankind and preservation of natural environments with nuclear power as a fundamental energy resource. Now, let me introduce you to the present the current status and future prospects of nuclear industry in Korea

  14. Recent developments and current status of air kerma standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (PSDL) usually maintain air kerma standards for kilovoltage x-rays (10 kV to 300 kV) and for 137Cs- and 60Co-? radiation. Free-air ionisation chambers (FAC) and cavity ionisation chambers are used as primary air kerma standards for kilovoltage x-rays and for 137Cs- and 60Co-? radiation, respectively. The majority of the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) signed the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of national measurement standards and of calibration and measurement certificates issued by NMIs. The MRA has been available for signature since 14th October 1999. According to the MRA, the signatories participate in CIPM key comparisons executed by the Consultative Committees or the BIPM, leading to a key comparison reference value. The degree of equivalence of a national measurement standard is expressed quantitatively in terms of its deviation from the key comparison reference value and the uncertainty of this deviation. For air kerma standards the Consultative Committee for Ionising Radiation (CCRI(I)) currently maintains three types of key comparisons and a so-called supplementary comparison. The air kerma key comparisons are organised bilaterally and are carried out between the air kerma standards of the BIPM and the participating NMIs. The radiations used are low-energy (10 kV to 50 kV) and medium energy (100 kV to 250 kV) x-ray beams and 137Cs- and 60Co-? radiation. To be entitled to enter the key comparison database with respect to air kerma an NMI has to participate in a key comparison within a time period of 10 years. In keeping with the longstanding method of presenting the data, the CCRI(I) took the decision at its meeting in 1999 to use the BIPM determination of air kerma rate as the key comparison reference value. For this reason the BIPM air kerma standards are of special importance. Due to the fact that the air kerma key comparisons have been conducted on an ongoing basis since 1966 for low-energy x-rays and since 1975 for medium-energy x-rays and 60Co-? radiation the results represent an invaluable database which can be regarded as an indicator of the status of the air kerma standards operated worldwide. Consequently, this database and the reports of the NMIs to the CCRI(I) meetings which take place periodically every two years were used for the current status report as an essential source of information. Because different techniques are used to measure the air kerma rate of kilovoltage x-rays and 137Cs- and 60Co-? radiation this status report is divided in this two parts. Undoubtedly, the most important new development was the re-evaluation of several correction factors required for cavity ionization chamber standards. However, there were also interesting developments using Monte Carlo techniques and spectrometry for the determination of x-ray quality dependent correction factors of FACs

  15. Cognitive function in older adults according to current socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P age 60 years. PMID:25565407

  16. Computational modeling of cardiac hemodynamics: Current status and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rajat; Seo, Jung Hee; Vedula, Vijay; Choi, Young J.; Liu, Hang; Huang, H. Howie; Jain, Saurabh; Younes, Laurent; Abraham, Theodore; George, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of four-dimensional imaging technologies, increasing computational speeds, improved simulation algorithms, and the widespread availability of powerful computing platforms is enabling simulations of cardiac hemodynamics with unprecedented speed and fidelity. Since cardiovascular disease is intimately linked to cardiovascular hemodynamics, accurate assessment of the patient's hemodynamic state is critical for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Unfortunately, while a variety of invasive and non-invasive approaches for measuring cardiac hemodynamics are in widespread use, they still only provide an incomplete picture of the hemodynamic state of a patient. In this context, computational modeling of cardiac hemodynamics presents as a powerful non-invasive modality that can fill this information gap, and significantly impact the diagnosis as well as the treatment of cardiac disease. This article reviews the current status of this field as well as the emerging trends and challenges in cardiovascular health, computing, modeling and simulation and that are expected to play a key role in its future development. Some recent advances in modeling and simulations of cardiac flow are described by using examples from our own work as well as the research of other groups.

  17. The ALICE DAQ Current Status and Future Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Röhrich, D; Villalobos Baillie, O; Dénes, E; Eged, B; Sulyán, J; Kiss, T; Meggyesi, Z; Soos, C; Vissy, B; Tarján, D; Tóth, N; Novák, I; Csató, P; Rubin, G; Arregui, M; Carena, W; Chapeland, S; Divià, R; Schossmaier, K; Van de Vyvre, P; Vascotto, Alessandro; Stock, Reinhard; Rademakers, F; Lindenstruth, V; Skaali, B

    2001-01-01

    Proposal of abstract for CHEP2000The ALICE DAQ system has been designed to support an aggregate eventr building bandwidth of up to 2.5 GByte/s and a storage capability o fup to 1.25 GByte/s to mass storage.A general framework called the ALICE Data Acquisition Test Environment (DATE) system has been developed as a basis for prototyping the components of the DAQ. DATE supports a wide spectrum of configurations from simple systems to more complex systems with multiple detectors and multiple event builders.Prototypes of several key components of the ALICE DAQ have been developed and integrated with the DATE system, such as the ALICE Detector Data Link, the online data monitoring from ROOT and the interface to the Mass Storage systems. Combined tests of several of these components are pursued during the ALICE Data Challenges.The architecture of the ALICE DAQ system will be presented together with the current status of the different prototypes. The recent addition of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) to ALICE h...

  18. Current Status and Tasks in Development of Cable Recycling Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezure, Takashi; Goto, Kazuhiko

    This paper shows current status and tasks in development of cable recycling technology and it’s items to be solved. Electric cable recycle system has been activated especially for copper conductor recycle in Japan. Previously removed cable coverings materials were mainly land filled. But landfill capacity is decreased and limited in recent years, at the same time, recycle technology was highly developed. A cable recycle technology has 4 tasks. (1) Applying new high efficiency separation system instead of electrostatic and gravity methods to classify mixed various kind of plastics materials including recently developed ecological material (ex PE, PVC, Rubber), (2) Removing heavy metal, especially lead from PVC material, (3) Treatment of optical glass fiber core, which has possibility going to be harmful micro particles, and (4) Establishment of social recycle system for electric wire and cable. Taking action for these tasks shall be proceeded under environmentally sensitive technology together with local government, user, manufacturer, and waste-disposal company on cost performance basis.

  19. Current status of glucosamine and chondroitin therapy in osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errol Hutagalung

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common form of arthritis. Radiographic and or pathologic changes of OA are present in most people older than 65 years old. The management of OA is divided into medical / non surgical and surgical treatment. The medical treatment consisted of pharmacologic and non pharmacologic treatment. The pharmacologic treatment of OA is still problematic for many patients, either due to a lack of efficacy or due to the toxicity of the drugs used in the treatment of OA, so that many OA patients seek for alternative medication. Glucosamine and chondroitin are the most commonly used alternative agents for the treatment in OA. Many studies had been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin in the treatment of OA. So far the result is controversial. The purpose of this article is to highlight the current status of the use of glucosamine and chondroitin in OA treatment. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 55-8Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Glucosamine, Chondroitin

  20. Current status of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality, which is becoming increasingly widespread due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has a long tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a second-generation promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we describe the current situation worldwide as far as the use of accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT is concerned (so-called Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT). In particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. (author)

  1. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting

  2. Current status of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Vento, V. Thatar; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J.M.; Valda, A.A.; Ilardo, J.C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.R.; Estrada, L.; Sandin, J.C. Suarez; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Padulo, J.; Minsky, D.M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-07-01

    The direct use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality, which is becoming increasingly widespread due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has a long tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a second-generation promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we describe the current situation worldwide as far as the use of accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT is concerned (so-called Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT). In particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. (author)

  3. The current status of radiological protection infraestructures in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Without adequate and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure, the benefits associated with safe use of nuclear technology and atomic energy might be jeopardized. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the Atomic Energy Act No. 7 of 2003 established the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission as sole regulatory body responsible for regulating and controlling the safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the country. The Atomic Energy (Protection from ionizing radiation) Regulations, 2004 further specifies practices designed to ensure that unnecessary exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is avoided, that all exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable and that all the dose limits specified in the radiation protection standards are not exceeded. This is achieved through the systems of notification, authorizations through registration and licensing, safety and security of radiation sources as well as regulatory inspections and enforcements. These activities are performed by the Commission with operational funds allocated by the Government of Tanzania. The Commission further provides other services namely individual monitoring; calibration services; education and training to radiation workers, public as well as law enforcers; and safe management of radioactive waste. Despite such achievement, still there are a lot to be done in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Tanzania. These include issues such as gaps in our legislations, regulations and guidance, security of sources, enforcement of laws, etc. This paper describes and discusses the current status of the regulatory control activities and radiation protection services provided by the Commission and suggestions for further improvement of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania. (author)

  4. Bonded permanent magnets: Current status and future opportunities (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permanent magnets play a vital role in modern society as a component in a wide range of devices utilized by many industries and consumers. In 1995, the world production of permanent magnets was estimated to be valued at $3.6 billion and growing at an annual rate of 12%. Bonded permanent magnets are the fastest growing segment of this market. Bonded magnet technology enables a wide variety of magnetic powders to be combined with several polymer and binder systems to produce magnetic components utilizing several processing options. In this article, we review the development of bonded magnet technology. The major classes of magnetic powders, binder systems, and processing technologies are described. Recent developments in magnetic material grades, e.g., anisotropic NdFeB, rare earth lean NdFeB, SmFe(N,C) are outlined. The current status of processing and binder options aimed at increasing the upper application temperature limit of these materials is highlighted. Finally, the improvements and future opportunities for bonded magnets are discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. R.

    2015-05-01

    There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC). This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  6. Current status and prospects for development of thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with results of an analysis carried out at the VNIIM with the purpose to ascertain the current status of thermometry as well as to make an attempt to determine a line of development of this field of measurements in future. The analysis was based on a survey of 150 industrial enterprises and scientific organizations. The results of the survey showed that during two last decades the accuracy of measuring instruments used in science and industry was increased almost tenfold. However, advances in the improvement of temperature measuring instruments were achieved not owing to new principles of designing thermometers, but due to rapid development of electronics, which allowed to solve the problem of accurate measurements of resistance and electromotive force and automatize measurement information processing. In most cases the contemporary measuring instruments perfectly meet the requirements to the measurement accuracy claimed by the enterprises surveyed and are provided with a necessary metrological assurance. Although there is a general understanding of the necessity to use the thermodynamic scale rather than the conditional one, we have no objective evidence with regard to how close we have to bring the international scale used in our everyday practice to the thermodynamic scale and what will be a benefit for development of science and industry. Increasing the accuracy of national standards does not affect, as a rule, the accuracy of temperature measurements in industry and scientific research since the main contribution to a total measurement error is made by components caused by an improper measurement procedure

  7. CURRENT STATUS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF RABBIT PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current status of rabbit production, challenges facing the industry and opportunities available. Rabbit farming in Botswana is in its infancy and the rabbit population is estimated to be less than 1000. However, this value is a gross underestimate due to poor monitoring by government extension services. In Botswana, rabbits are mainly kept in the backyards, indicating that intensive systems have not yet been developed. Rabbits have small body size, short gestation period, high reproductive potential, rapid growth rate and ability to utilize forages. Compared to beef, chicken, mutton, chevon and chicken, rabbit meat has low cholesterol, high protein and low fat contents. Rabbit production can be integrated into small farming systems, with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, poultry droppings, and kitchen and garden wastes. The manure can be used to fertilize soils. The major challenges in rabbit production are inadequacy of breeding stock, inadequate rabbit feeds, poor management (feeding, housing and health care, lack of research support, lack of technical support from extension services, lack of access to credit and inadequate supply of equipment. The major opportunity available to the rearers is that the market is vast due to the small rabbit population in the country. The attributes of rabbits suggest that rabbit farming is likely to play an important role in nutrition, poverty alleviation and food security, especially in countries with higher unemployment levels and HIV/AIDS prevalence rates such as Botswana.

  8. Pathological examination of breast cancer biomarkers: current status in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinobu

    2014-09-20

    This article reviews the current status of pathological evaluation for biomarkers in Japan. The introduced issues are the international trends for estimation of biomarkers considering diagnosis and treatment decision, and pathological issues under discussion, and how Japanese Breast Cancer Society (JBCS) members have addressed issues related to pathology and biomarkers evaluation. As topics of immunohistochemical study, (1) ASCO/CAP guidelines, (2) Ki67 and other markers, (3) quantification and image analysis, (4) application of cytologic samples, (5) pre-analytical process, and (6) Japan Pathology Quality Assurance System are introduced. Various phases of concepts, guidelines, and methodologies are co-existed in today's clinical practice. It is expected in near future that conventional methods and molecular procedures will be emerged, and Japanese Quality assurance/Quality control (QA/QC) system will work practically. What we have to do in the next generation are to validate novel procedures, to evaluate the relationship between traditional concepts and newly proposed ideas, to establish a well organized QA/QC system, and to standardize pre-analytical process that are the basis of all procedures using pathological tissues. PMID:25239167

  9. Radiation processing in India. Current status and future program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing in many industrial applications. In India, this technology has found extensive applications in area of healthcare, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, 6 commercial gamma irradiators housing about 1.5 million curie Co-60 and an annual turnover of over US$ 2 million and 3 commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. Five demonstration plants housing a total of 0.5 million curie Co-60 have been set up to assess the techno-commercial viability of the processes such as radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, decontamination of spices, hygienization of sewage sludge, shelf-life extension of onions. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam treated pulp for viscose-rayon process, radiation processed 'hydrogel' burn/wound dressings and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology in India is reviewed. (author)

  10. Management of reprocessed uranium. Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is worldwide interest in developing advanced and innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles, minimizing waste and environmental impacts. As of the beginning of 2003, about 171000 tonnes heavy metal spent nuclear fuel is in storage, while smaller amounts have been reprocessed. In several countries, including France, India, Japan and the Russian Federation, spent fuel has been viewed as a national energy resource. Some countries hold reprocessed uranium as the result of their commercial reprocessing service contracts for reprocessing the spent fuel of others. Reprocessed uranium has a potential value for recycling either directly or after appropriate treatment. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in the management of reprocessed uranium. It includes the technical issues involved in managing reprocessed uranium which are RepU arisings, storage, chemical conversion, re-enrichment, fuel fabrication, transport, reactor irradiation, subsequent reprocessing and disposal options, as well as assessment of holistic environmental impacts. The objective of this document is to overview the information on the current status and future trends in the management of RepU and to identify major issues to be considered for future projects

  11. Recent developments and current status of air kerma standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of air kerma standards for kilovoltage X rays and for 137Cs and 60Co gamma radiation maintained at primary standards dosimetry laboratories is reviewed using results of the bilateral key comparisons between the air kerma standards of the Bureau international des poids et mesures (BIPM) and those of national metrology institutes. Owing to the re-evaluation of kwall and kan, which are the correction factors for wall effects and axial beam non-uniformity for cavity ionization chambers, respectively, a significant increase of about 0.8% in the realization of the gray for air kerma in both 137Cs and 60Co fields is to be expected. A consistent set of free air chamber correction factors for electron loss, photon scatter, fluorescence and bremsstrahlung was calculated at the BIPM using state of the art Monte Carlo methods for all free air chamber standards in use worldwide. Consistent use of this set by all national metrology institutes would further improve the degree of equivalence of free air chamber standards. (author)

  12. Current status and prospects of radiopharmaceuticals in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiopharmaceuticals could not only serve as effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools in human diseases, but also allow the assessment of metabolism and functional processes by providing quick, non-invasive and real-time visualization of physiological and pathological processes in the living humans at the molecular level together with PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging modalities. They could provide new methods and new approaches of truly early diagnosis and therapy and possible pathways for the preventative medicine, translational medicine and personalized medicine. The present review provides an overview of current status of in vivo radiopharmaceuticals in China. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future was discussed. The addressed future trends include the following aspects. (1) Production of medical radioisotopes including 99Mo, 131I, 188/186Re and 123I. (2) Investigation on the basic radiopharmaceutical chemistry. (3) Development of receptor-based imaging agents. (4) Development of multi-modality imaging probes. (authors)

  13. Estimation of conditional cumulative distribution function from current status data

    CERN Document Server

    Plancade, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Consider a positive random variable of interest Y depending on a covariate X, and a random observation time T independent of Y given X. Assume that the only knowledge available about Y is its current status at time T: \\delta = 1_{Y \\leq T}. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the conditional cumulative distribution function F of Y given X from an independent identically distributed sample of (X,T,\\delta). A collection of finite-dimensional linear subsets of L^2(R^2) called models are built as tensor products of classical approximation spaces of L^2(R). Then a collection of estimators of F is constructed by minimization of a regression-type contrast on each model and a data driven procedure allows to choose an estimator among the collection. We show that the selected estimator converges as fast as the best estimator in the collection up to a multiplicative constant and is minimax over anisotropic Besov balls. Finally simulation results illustrate the performance of the estimation and underline paramete...

  14. CURRENT STATUS OF BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal mucosa is the preferred site for both systemic and local drug action. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it relatively permeable. The buccal region of the oral cavity is an attractive target for administration of the drug of choice, particularly in overcoming deficiencies associated with the latter mode of administration. Problems such as first-pass metabolism and drug degradation in the gastrointestinal environment can be circumvented by administering the drug via the buccal route. Moreover, rapid onset of action can be achieved relative to the oral route and the formulation can be removed if therapy is required to be discontinued. It is also possible to administer drugs to patients who unconscious and less co-operative. In buccal drug delivery systems mucoadhesion is the key element so various mucoadhesive polymers have been utilized in different dosages form. Mucoadhesion may be defined as the process where polymers attach to biological substrate or a synthetic or natural macromolecule, to mucus or an epithelial surface. When the biological substrate is attached to a mucosal layer then this phenomenon is known as mucoadhesion. The substrate possessing bioadhesive polymer can help in drug delivery for a prolonged period of time at a specific delivery site. Both natural and synthetic polymers are used for the preparation of mucoadhesive buccal patches. However, this review article provides a current status of buccal drug delivery of patches (films along with formulation development and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal patches.

  15. Soil contamination in China: current status and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; Ma, Yibing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tang, Zhong; McGrath, Steve P

    2015-01-20

    China faces great challenges in protecting its soil from contamination caused by rapid industrialization and urbanization over the last three decades. Recent nationwide surveys show that 16% of the soil samples, 19% for the agricultural soils, are contaminated based on China’s soil environmental quality limits, mainly with heavy metals and metalloids. Comparisons with other regions of the world show that the current status of soil contamination, based on the total contaminant concentrations, is not worse in China. However, the concentrations of some heavy metals in Chinese soils appear to be increasing at much greater rates. Exceedance of the contaminant limits in food crops is widespread in some areas, especially southern China, due to elevated inputs of contaminants, acidic nature of the soil and crop species or cultivars prone to heavy metal accumulation. Minimizing the transfer of contaminants from soil to the food chain is a top priority. A number of options are proposed, including identification of the sources of contaminants to agricultural systems, minimization of contaminant inputs, reduction of heavy metal phytoavailability in soil with liming or other immobilizing materials, selection and breeding of low accumulating crop cultivars, adoption of appropriate water and fertilizer management, bioremediation, and change of land use to grow nonfood crops. Implementation of these strategies requires not only technological advances, but also social-economic evaluation and effective enforcement of environmental protection law. PMID:25514502

  16. Radionuclide transport by groundwater flow through the geosphere: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geosphere is an important barrier retaining radionuclides that have been released from the near field of a waste repository and retarding their return to Man. The assessment models that are used in the current Nirex assessments to describe the groundwater flow in the vicinity of the repository and the transport of radionuclides by the groundwater are summarized, and their data requirements are set out. The Nirex research programme is designed to provide improved and additional data for these models, to deepen the understanding of the important processes and to develop improved models to describe them. This document outlines the status of the assessment models and associated research programme in the spring of 1988. The programme complements existing knowledge in this field. Key areas are measurements of the physical properties of rocks, field and modelling studies of fractured rocks, measurements of sorption onto geological materials, investigation of the possible importance of colloid transport and saline interfaces, transport of naturally occurring elements over geological time-scales in natural geochemical systems, and participation in an international model validation exercise. (author)

  17. Robot-assisted urological surgery: Current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Khurshid R.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Sammon, Jesse; Jeong, Wooju; Dabaja, Ali; Menon, Mani

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the current status of robot-assisted urological surgery. Methods We searched PubMed for articles published from 2008 using the search terms ‘advances’, ‘robotic surgery equipment’ and ‘instrumentation’. We also searched PubMed for articles describing the latest developments in reconstructive techniques for lower and upper urinary tract procedures. Finally, we searched PubMed for original articles containing the terms ‘robotic surgery training’ and ‘credentialing’. Results With each release of hardware or ancillary instrumentation, the reconstructive abilities of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) improve. Recent developments in reconstructive capabilities of robotic urological surgery include posterior reconstruction during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, barbed sutures for urethrovesical anastomosis, sliding-clip renorrhaphy for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, and repair of pelvic organ prolapse. The safe implementation of robotic surgery is aided by new guidelines in credentialing and proctoring, and the introduction of virtual reality simulators for training. Conclusion Robotic urological surgery is rapidly developing and expanding globally. To achieve the highest levels of safety for patients, surgeons must ensure that the implementation of robotic surgery is an integrative and effective process.

  18. The current status of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Without adequate and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure, the benefits associated with safe use of nuclear technology and atomic energy might be jeopardized. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the Atomic Energy Act No. 7 of 2003 established the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission as sole regulatory body responsible for regulating and controlling the safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the country. The Atomic Energy (Protection from ionizing radiation) Regulations, 2004 further specifies practices designed to ensure that unnecessary exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is avoided, that all exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable and that all the dose limits specified in the radiation protection standards are not exceeded. This is achieved through the systems of notification, authorizations through registration and licensing, safety and security of radiation sources as well as regulatory inspections and enforcements. These activities are performed by the Commission with operational funds allocated by the Government of Tanzania. The Commission further provides other services namely individual monitoring; calibration services; education and training to radiation workers, public as well as law enforcers; and safe management of radioactive waste. Despite such achievement, still there are a lot to be done in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Tanzania. These include issues such as gaps in our legislations, regulations and guidance, security of sources, enforcement of laws, etc. This paper describes and discusses the current status of the regulatory control activities and radiation protection services provided by the Commission and suggestions for further improvement of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania. (author)

  19. Current status and perspectives of brachytherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the era of breast-conserving therapy, brachytherapy implants were used to treat large inoperable breast tumors. In later years, interstitial brachytherapy with rigid needles or multiple flexible catheters has been used to deliver an additional (boost) dose to the tumor bed after breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation. Reexcision followed by reirradiation using interstitial breast implants has also been implemented as an alternative to mastectomy to treat ipsilateral breast local recurrence after previous breast-conserving therapy. In the past two decades, the new concept of accelerated partial breast irradiation opened a new perspective for breast brachytherapy. The first technique utilized in early accelerated partial breast irradiation studies was multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy. Beyond classical interstitial brachytherapy, recently, new intracavitary applicators have been developed in the United States to decrease the existing barriers against the widespread use of multicatheter brachytherapy. Furthermore, interstitial low-dose-rate seed implants have also been implemented as an alternative for stepping-source multicatheter brachytherapy. In this article, we give an overview of the past achievements, current status, and future perspectives of breast brachytherapy. (author)

  20. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China. PMID:24329743

  1. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  2. Thorium-based nuclear fuel: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until the present time considerable efforts have already been made in the area of fabrication, utilization and reprocessing of Th-based fuels for different types of reactors, namely: by FRG and USA - for HTRs; FRG and Brazil, Italy - for LWRs; India - for HWRs and FBRs. Basic research of thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycles are also being undertaken by Australia, Canada, China, France, FRG, Romania, USSR and other countries. Main emphasis has been given to the utilization of thorium fuels in once-through nuclear fuel cycles, but in some projects closed thorium-uranium or thorium-plutonium fuel cycles are also considered. The purpose of the Technical Committee on the Utilization of Thorium-Based Nuclear Fuel: Current Status and Perspective was to review the world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration, obtained experience in the utilization of Th-based fuels in different types of reactors, basic research, fabrication and reprocessing of Th-based fuels. As a result of the panel discussion the recommendations on future Agency activities and list of major worldwide activities in the area of Th-based fuel were developed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers in this proceedings series

  3. Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Uhlhaas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

  4. The UPM high temperature solar collector current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature solar energy research at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) is an attempt to study the merits of the fixed aperture optics collector for the equatorial region using the concept of the fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF). The general objective is to look for an alternative source of clean energy and a practical method of converting this energy to usable form for the projected industrialisation program of the country. The FMDF uses a stationary hemisphere bowl to capture the solar irradiance. The UPM bowl has a rim angle of 120 0 with radius of curvature of 27.9 m. This corresponds to an aperture diameter of 48 m and submerges 5.1 m in the ground. The bowl will later be tiled with 2446 square meters of mirror to form a spherical shape. And therefore will be able to collect about 1 MW of solar irradiance at the conical focus formed along the direction of the radius (high concentrated region) which then can be harnessed by different means. In this paper, we will report the current status and future works of the project, under construction at the site. We anticipate that the project will be completed and operated by the year 2000. (Author)

  5. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Casolino, M.; Garipov, G. K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Gorodetzky, P.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Sakaki, N.; Saprykin, O. A.; Sharakin, S. A.; Takizawa, Y.; Tkachev, L. G.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Yu

    2015-08-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high- transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (±4.5°), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4 • 103 km2. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (? 2 m2) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16 x 16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 m2), which allows decreasing the energy threshold. The total effective field of view will be at least ±14° to exceed the annual exposure of the existing ground-based experiments. Several configurations of the detector are being currently considered. Finally, JEM-EUSO is a wide field of view (±30°) detector. The optics is composed of two curved double-sided Fresnel lenses with 2.65 m external diameter, a precision diffractive middle lens and a pupil. The ultraviolet photons are focused onto the focal surface, which consists of nearly 5000 multi-anode photomultipliers. It is developed by a large international collaboration. All three orbital detectors have multi-purpose character due to continuous monitoring of various atmospheric phenomena. The present status of development of the TUS and KLYPVE missions is reported, and a brief comparison of the projects with JEM-EUSO is given.

  6. Current status of the UCSF second-generation PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of the second generation PACS at UCSF commenced in October 1992. The UCSF PACS is designed in-house as a hospital-integrated PACS based on an open architecture concept using industrial standards including UNIX operating system, C programming language, X-Window user interface, TCP/IP communication protocol, DICOM 3.0 image standard and HL7 health data format. Other manufacturer's PACS components which conform with these standards can be easily integrated into the system. Relevant data from HIS and RIS is automatically incorporated into the PACS using HL7 data format and TCP/IP communication protocol. The UCSF system also takes advantage of state-of-the-art communication, storage, and software technologies in ATM, multiple storage media, automatic programming, multilevel processes for a better cost-performance system. The primary PACS network is the 155 Mbits/sec OC3 ATM with the Ethernet as the back-up. The UCSF PACS also connects Mt. Zion Hospital and San Francisco VA Medical Center in the San Francisco Bay area via an ATM wide area network with a T1 line as the back-up. Currently, five MR and five CT scanners from multiple sites, two computed radiography systems, two film digitizers, one US PACS module, the hospital HIS and the department RIS have been connected to the PACS network. The image data is managed by a mirrored database (Sybase). The PACS controller, with its 1.3 terabyte optical disk library, acquires 2.5 gigabytes digital data daily. Four 2K, five, 1,600-line multiple monitor display workstations are on line in neuroradiology, pediatric radiology and intensive care units for clinical use. In addition, the PACS supports over 100 Macintosh users in the department and selected hospital sites for both images and textual retrieval through a client/server mechanism. We are also developing a computation and visualization node in the PACS network for advancing radiology research.

  7. Electricity Crisis of Bangladesh: Result of Organizational Inefficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Ziauddin Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    It is believed that the organizational inefficiency of the ‘BPDB’ and ‘Power Division’ of Ministry of Power, Energy, and Mineral Resources (MPEMR) of Bangladesh is the main cause for current electricity crisis. Although there are changes in public sector management in the electricity sector of Bangladesh due to the NPM, the organization continue to value the bureaucratic and hierarchical organizational culture. Bangladesh government has taken several programs and has adopted policies for priv...

  8. Fishing with Otters: a Traditional Conservation Practice in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Mostafa Feeroz; Sajeda Begum; Md. Kamrul Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Fishing with otters has been practiced in Bangladesh for the last two hundred years. This traditional practice plays an important role in otter conservation in Bangladesh. Among the three species of otters found in Bangladesh, only Lutra perspicillata is currently used for fishing by the fishermen in and around the Sundarbans. Noraile and Khulna districts, near the Sundarbans, are the only districts in the country where this species is bred in captivity, tamed, and used for fishing by the fis...

  9. Municipal Waste Management and Environmental Hazards in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Jahid Hasan; Md. Aktarul Islam Chowdhury

    2005-01-01

    Municipal solid waste becomes serious environmental hazard and social problem in Bangladesh. Currently a gigantic volume of solid waste is generated every day in the district towns of Bangladesh and unfortunately solid waste management is being deteriorated day by day due to the limited resources to handle the increasing rate of generated waste. In order to check the waste management situation, a detailed survey in different cities of Bangladesh has been done in this study. Although a s...

  10. The current status of cattle breeding programmes in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the South Asian and Pacific (SAP) countries have similarities in setting the policy and execution of dairy and beef cattle genetic improvement programmes, but the degree of involvement by the state and the private sectors varies with their socioeconomic priorities. Dairying plays an important role in socioeconomic development in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, while the economic output from livestock in Indonesia and Malaysia is dominated by the beef industry. Improving the productivity of cattle in SAP will required a multifaceted set of interventions that will involve not only proper management of local animal genetic resources, but also strengthening of local institutions for support of farming activities, including not only breeding-related services, but also services related to nutrition, health care, milk marketing and social services. These services are to be provided by a combination of governmental, non-governmental, and private institutions. A contribution by the government for policy setting and support in management of local resources is necessary to ensure sustainability and fair exchange of germplasm between countries

  11. Bangladesh’s dynamic coastal regions and sea-level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Brammer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical geography of Bangladesh’s coastal area is more diverse and dynamic than is generally recognised. Failure to recognise this has led to serious misconceptions about the potential impacts of a rising sea-level on Bangladesh with global warming. This situation has been aggravated by accounts giving incorrect information on current rates of coastal erosion and land subsidence. This paper describes physical conditions within individual physiographic regions in Bangladesh’s coastal area based on ground-surveyed information, and it reviews possible area-specific mitigation measures to counter predicted rates of sea-level rise in the 21st century. Two important conclusions are drawn: the adoption of appropriate measures based on knowledge of the physical geography of potentially-affected areas could significantly reduce the currently-predicted displacement of many millions of people; and the impacts of a slowly-rising sea-level are currently much less than those generated by rapidly increasing population pressure on Bangladesh’s available land and water resources and by exposure to existing environmental hazards, and the latter problems need priority attention.

  12. 20 CFR 404.120 - How we determine currently insured status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we determine currently insured status... § 404.120 How we determine currently insured status. (a) What the period is for determining currently... not counted as part of the 13-quarter period. We do not count as part of the 13-quarter period...

  13. CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Doo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered project in the direction of the government for fostering social entrepreneurs, putting emphasis on follow-up management and evaluation. Second, it must suggest a standard model for social entrepreneur promotion project. In other words, the projects with low performance should be reduced and education models appropriate for new circumstances and changes must be adopted through not only programs standardized in divisions, categories and local provinces, but also appointing expert instructors and project evaluation. Third, it’s necessary to propose specific guideline for detailed education operation according to education trainee and objectives of social entrepreneur. Fourth, it is needed to have more various contents development and distribution by strengthening support for specialized foundation, management and case studies related to fostering social entrepreneurs. Finally, it is even more required to spread awareness on social economics relating to programs for fostering social entrepreneur. With the long-term perspective, it is needed to render policy and specialization for fostering Korean-model social entrepreneurs, which is able to raise competent social entrepreneurs suitable for each stage of growth such as sourcing, incubation and launching social entrepreneurs.

  14. Genomic resources in fruit plants: an assessment of current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manoj K; Shekhawat, N S

    2015-12-01

    The availability of many genomic resources such as genome sequences, functional genomics resources including microarrays and RNA-seq, sufficient numbers of molecular markers, express sequence tags (ESTs) and high-density genetic maps is causing a rapid acceleration of genetics and genomic research of many fruit plants. This is leading to an increase in our knowledge of the genes that are linked to many horticultural and agronomically important traits. Recently, some progress has also been made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in some fruit plants. This is one of the most active research fields in plant sciences. The last decade has witnessed development of genomic resources in many fruit plants such as apple, banana, citrus, grapes, papaya, pears, strawberry etc.; however, many of them are still not being exploited. Furthermore, owing to lack of resources, infrastructure and research facilities in many lesser-developed countries, development of genomic resources in many underutilized or less-studied fruit crops, which grow in these countries, is limited. Thus, research emphasis should be given to those fruit crops for which genomic resources are relatively scarce. The development of genomic databases of these less-studied fruit crops will enable biotechnologists to identify target genes that underlie key horticultural and agronomical traits. This review presents an overview of the current status of the development of genomic resources in fruit plants with the main emphasis being on genome sequencing, EST resources, functional genomics resources including microarray and RNA-seq, identification of quantitative trait loci and construction of genetic maps as well as efforts made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in fruit plants. PMID:24649925

  15. Current status of the construction of the Angra antineutrino detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, J.C.; Azzi, G.; Barbosa, A.F.; Ferreira, W.; Gama, R.; Lima Junior, H.P.; Oliveira, A.G.; Vaz, M.; Schiapacassa, A.; Villar, A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bezerra, T.J.C.; Gonzalez, L.F.G.; Kemp, E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Chimenti, P.; Leigui, M.A. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), SP (Brazil); Farias, P.C.M.A.; Guedes, G.P. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), BA (Brazil); Nunokawa, H. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Pepe, I.M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil); Andrade Filho, L.M. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil); Valdiviesso, G.A. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: An antineutrino detector to be installed near the Angra II nuclear reactor in Angra dos Reis is currently under construction. The main goal is to measure the antineutrino flux and correlate it to the nuclear fuel fission and burn-up, developing a new tool to monitor nuclear reactors. For this purpose, a 1m{sup 3} water volume doped with 0:2% Gadolinium is implemented as the target for antineutrino interactions, in a box-shape detector. Cherenkov light produced in the target is collected by 40 photomultiplier tubes. We present the general status of the construction process, along with simulation results that validate the proposed design. All the mechanical parts of the central detector have been designed; some of them have been built and are used in an experimental setup dedicated to test the photomultiplier tubes. A study of the expected background of cosmic particles and the planned tools to deal with this background are also presented, as well as the results of background measurements performed with a prototype detector in the neutrino laboratory located in a container near the reactor. The prototype makes use of a photomultiplier tube looking at a 0:6 m{sup 3} cylindrical water volume, equipped with front-end electronics and a data acquisition module. The data acquisition software development relies on a public compiling framework and operational system. Data is acquired in a local server and transmitted to a remote machine located at the Brazilian Center for Physical Research (CBPF). A recently developed VME-standard data acquisition card equipped with 8 analog-to-digital and 8 time-to-digital conversion channels, which is now ready for production, is also presented.(author)

  16. EDIBLE VACCINES FROM GM CROPS: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE SCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doshi V

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of an edible vaccine is coming closer to reality as scientists have found a way to incorporate the protein gene with some antigen in some plants. The major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology are being overcome. In this context, genetically modified (GM plants are being investigated for the production of vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins. The development of GM crops to produce drugs and vaccines has received considerable investment and is relatively well advanced. The myth surrounding edible vaccines and 'food as pill' is the difficulty to control their intake and distribution, particularly in developing countries where education levels and literacy may be low. However, this concept suffers from the fact that the potency of this class of vaccines and drugs remains unmasked to the majority of the population, which has to be publicized and campaigned in a scientific manner, to make it realistic and useful for the common man. Creating edible vaccines involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. This process is known as "transformation," and the altered plants are called "transgenic plants." Like conventional subunit vaccines, edible vaccines are composed of antigenic proteins and are devoid of pathogenic genes. Thus, they have no way of establishing infection, assuring its safety, especially in immuno-compromised patients. Conventional subunit vaccines are expensive and technology-intensive, need purification, require refrigeration and produce poor mucosal response. In contrast, edible vaccines would enhance compliance, especially in children and because of oral administration, would eliminate the need for trained medical personnel. Their production is highly efficient and can be easily scaled up. If the technology is properly nurtured and given the right direction, it may usher into a new era where we will be asked to take “food” rather than “drugs” when we are ill. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  17. Current status of the laser diode array projector technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, D. Brett; Saylor, Daniel A.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes recent developments and the current status of the Laser Diode Array Projector (LDAP) Technology. The LDAP is a state-of-the-art dynamic infrared scene projector system capable of generating high resolution in-band infrared imagery at high frame rates. Three LDAPs are now operational at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command's (AMCOM) Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (MRDEC). These projectors have been used to support multiple Hardware-in-the-Loop test entries of various seeker configurations. Seeker configurations tested include an InSb 256 X $256 focal-plane array (FPA), an InSb 512 X 512 FPA, a PtSi 640 X 480 FPA, a PtSi 256 X 256 FPA, an uncooled 320 X 240 microbolometer FPA, and two dual field- of-view (FOV) seekers. Several improvements in the projector technology have been made since we last reported in 1997. The format size has been increased to 544 X 544, and 672 X 512, and it has been proven that the LDAP can be synchronized without a signal from the unit-under test (UUT). The control software has been enhanced to provide 'point and click' control for setup, calibration, image display, image capture, and data analysis. In addition, the first long-wave infrared (LWIR) LDAP is now operational, as well as a dual field of view LDAP which can change its FOV within 0.25 seconds. The projector is interfaced to a Silicon Graphics scene generation computer which is capable of real-time 3-D scene generation. Sample images generated with the projector and captured by an InSb FPA sensor are included in the text.

  18. Applicability of RNA interference in cancer therapy: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduri, S

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a manifestation of dysregulated gene function arising from a complex interplay of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes present in our body. Cancer has been constantly chased using various therapies but all in vain as most of them are highly effective only in the early stages of cancer. Recently, RNA interference (RNAi) therapy, a comparatively new entrant is evolving as a promising player in the battle against cancer due to its post-transcriptional gene silencing ability. The most alluring feature of this non-invasive technology lies in its utility in the cancer detection and the cancer treatment at any stage. Once this technology is fully exploited it can bring a whole new era of therapeutics capable of curing cancer at any stage mainly due to its ability to target the vital processes required for cell proliferation such as response to growth factors, nutrient uptake/synthesis, and energy generation. This therapy can also be used to treat stage IV cancer, the most difficult to treat till date, by virtue of its metastasis inhibiting capability. Recent research has also proved that cancer can even be prevented by proper modulation of physiological RNAi pathways and researchers have found that many nutrients, which are a part of routine diet, can effectively modulate these pathways and prevent cancer. Even after having all these advantages the potential of RNAi therapy could not be fully tapped earlier, due to many limitations associated with the administration of RNAi based therapeutics. However, recent advancements in this direction, such as the development of small interfering RNA (siRNA) tolerant to nucleases and the development of non-viral vectors such as cationic liposomes and nanoparticles, can overcome this obstacle and facilitate the clinical use of RNAi based therapeutics in the treatment of cancer. The present review focuses on the current status of RNAi therapeutics and explores their potential as future diagnostics and therapeutics against cancer. PMID:26837960

  19. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project-specific grants) that will be needed for a much-desired second Green Revolution. PMID:20708721

  20. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct support to RandD in line with other low emission fuel alternatives. RandD on cellulosic ethanol can also be supported by indirect measures. The most important measure in this respect is to ensure a correct pricing of fossil fuels now and in the future. Many argue that production and use of first generation biofuels will bridge the conversion to second generation biofuels. We doubt that the necessary cost reductions for second generation biofuels can be obtained from widespread use of first generation biofuels. First, the production processes are simply too different, and second, the advantage with all kinds of biofuels are that it easy to introduce into the transport market at once the technology is ripe. Some also argue that second generation biofuels need to be protected against competition from import of low cost first generation biofuels made in developing countries. However, with targeted support to second generation biofuels, there is no need to pay attention to the infant industry argument. Trade policy should only aim to correct for insufficient internalizing of GHG emission costs from the production of biofuels in countries without a price on carbon. It is by no means certain that second generation biofuels will play a central role in the decarbonizing of the transport market. Necessary cost reductions may not be achieved. The GHG emissions from land use change connected to large-scale growing of cellulosic feedstock may turn out to offset the gains from changing fuel. It is important to avoid a technological or political lock-in in biofuels. In other words, policies should be flexible, and it should be possible to terminate support programs within a short notice.(Author)

  1. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics discussed include: the status of mass-chain evaluations, remote terminal access, other US Nuclear Data Network publications, formats and procedures subcommittee report, keyword follow-up (Phys. Rev. C), and atomic data and nuclear data tables

  2. Integrated safeguards - Current status of development and plans for implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the International Atomic Energy Agency's priorities continues to be the development of concepts for integrating traditional nuclear material verification activities with new safeguards strengthening measures. Integrated safeguards refers to the optimum combination of all safeguards measures available to the Agency under a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol to achieve maximum effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, in meeting the Agency's safeguards objectives. The process of defining the optimum combination of measures is being developed on a non-discriminatory basis for all States that have comprehensive safeguards agreements and additional protocols in force. Co-ordinated by the Department of Safeguards, the development programme is being conducted with the assistance of a Group of Experts designated by the Director General, the technical advice of the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI) and the involvement of Member States. Substantial progress continues to be made on integrated safeguards as reported in two information papers prepared for the Board of Governors in March and November 2000. The concept being developed involves a State-level integrated safeguards approach designed for a State by combining safeguards approaches for the specific facility types present in the State with the implementation of measures of the additional protocol taking into account the State's nuclear fuel cycle, the interaction between facilities, a comprehensive State evaluation and other State-specific features. Guidelines have been developed which identify the conditions a State has to meet and the activities the Secretariat has to perform, in implementing a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol together, to enable the Agency to (a) draw a conclusion of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in the State as a prerequisite to implementation of integrated safeguards in that State; and (b) maintain the ability of the Agency to draw such a conclusion thereafter. The guidelines are in provisional use and will be revised as appropriate in the light of experience gained. A conclusion of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities establishes the possibility to reconsider the verification activities and implementation parameters that would subsequently be appropriate to apply to declared nuclear material at specific types of facilities. Generic approaches for implementation under integrated safeguards are currently being developed for specific facility types, which will result in less inspection effort on declared material than there is with current approaches at such facilities. Proposals have been prepared and evaluated for light water reactors (LWRs) without mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, research reactors, spent fuel storage facilities, and on-load fuelled reactors. Work is continuing on other facility types including LWRs with MOX and low enriched uranium fuel fabrication plants. Implementation-related aspects of integrated safeguards being further elaborated are conditions for conducting effective unannounced inspections, procedures for randomisation of inspections and the role of State systems of accounting and control (SSACs). The first State-level integrated safeguards approach for a Member State with an additional protocol in force has been prepared for provisional implementation in 2001. The paper will provide a current status of the development of integrated safeguards with particular emphasis on its main elements, progress to date, and plans for implementation. (author)

  3. Public acceptance, market development and commercialization of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh with respect to public acceptance, commercial application, trade development and present research and development activities are summarized in the paper. Irradiated food products are generally accepted by people. To further boost public opinion on the usefulness of the technology, two national seminars were successfully organized in 1995 and 1996 respectively with wide participation and media coverage. A number of non-traditional items such as beef casing, flour, turtle meat, macaroni, peat soil, etc. were irradiated and successfully marketed during the last 5 years. Bangladesh adopted a ''Specification for Authorisation of Irradiation by Groups/Classes of Foods'' in 1995 in line with the ICGFI Guidelines. The Bangladesh Standard is essentially similar to the Harmonised Regulations adopted for the RCA countries in April 1998. About 1300 metric tons of different food items were irradiated for commercial purposes at the Gammatech Irradiation Facility in Chittagong during the past 5 years. Present research activities in Bangladesh include irradiation disinfestations of nematodes in ginger and turmeric, and mites and thrips from cut flowers. Work on identification of fruit flies, mites and thrips by using sensitive protein markers is in progress. (author)

  4. Indus-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source: current status and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, S. K.; Singh, Gurnam; Gupta, P. D.

    2013-03-01

    Indus Synchrotron Radiation complex at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology at Indore, India houses two synchrotron radiation sources: Indus-1 and Indus-2. Indus-1 is a 450 MeV source emitting in VUV/ soft x-ray region and operating at 100 mA since 1999. Indus-2 is designed for 2.5 GeV, 300 mA operation and is operating at 2 GeV and 100 mA since March 2010 in 24x7 mode and a beam lifetime of about 22 hrs has been achieved. Operation at 2.5 GeV and 100 mA has recently been demonstrated with the addition of in-house developed solid state RF amplifiers. Indus-2 can accommodate 21 bending magnet (BM) and 5 insertion device (ID) beamlines. Sixteen BM beamlines have been planned and six BM beamlines namely i) Angle Dispersive XRD ii) Energy dispersive XRD iii) Energy dispersive EXAFS iv) Soft and deep x-ray lithography v) X-ray fluorescence micro-probe and vi) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy beamlines have been commissioned. These are being used by researchers from different universities, national institutes and laboratories for carrying out several investigations. Two more beamlines namely 'Grazing incidence x-ray scattering' and 'Protein crystallography' are nearing commissioning. A number of materials research related problems have been investigated using these beamlines and several papers have already been published. Here we will report on the current status of the source, details of the beamlines already operational, beamlines to be commissioned soon and several up-gradation schemes that are being planned. Five IDs consisting of two soft x-ray planar undulators, one superconducting wavelength shifter / wiggler, one APPLE II soft x-ray helical undulator and one hard x-ray undulator will be installed during the next few years. Three new ID based beamli-nes for Atomic and Molecular physics, Angle integrated / Angle resolved PES and Magnetic Circular Dichroism experiments will be commissioned.

  5. Oilfield microseismic monitoring - current status, challenges and opportunties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupe, A.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last 5-10 years microearthquake (microseismic) imaging has become an important diagnostic technique in the hydrocarbons industry. It is most commonly used for the 3D time-lapse imaging of fracture system development during high-pressure and flowrate hydraulic-fracturing operations, where it is commonly referred to as "frac-mapping". The technique has also seen less wide-spread, but increasing, usage in the long-term monitoring of primary-recovery (ie pressure depletion), the injection of water/steam/gas for secondary-recovery and also for subsurface disposal/storage (eg water/drill-cuttings/H2S/CO2). A significant turning point for microseismic monitoring was the successful imaging of the complex fracturing resulting from the stimulation of the Barnet Shale, Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Microseismic imaging was quickly recognized as the only technology that could provide detailed spatial-temporal information on the fracturing process, and significantly aided the development of sophisticated horizontal well completions. The commercial value of microseismic derived fracture properties, such as growth direction, height and length, has subsequently been recognized in shale and coal-seam gas developments throughout North America, and the rest of the world. The initial uptake and early development of this geophysical technology is however somewhat unusual in that it was largely driven by reservoir engineers, and is typically applied in non-ideal geophysical (wellsite) conditions, and also necessitates near real-time processing and interpretation. The geophysical problems typically faced in frac-mapping include limited network geometry, relatively poor data quality (due to small event magnitudes and ambient noise), automated processing requirements, velocity model uncertainty and incomplete geomechanical understanding of the source mechanism. Nonetheless it is an important and widely used technique. The paper considers the current status of microseismic monitoring in the oilfield. It will present typical operational scenarios, highlight the geophysical challenges already overcome and those still to be faced, and discuss some of the novel processing solutions that have been adopted to date, such as the move away from conventional arrival-time based event location methods. It will conclude by highlighting some of the outstanding challenges and opportunities that might benefit from wider scientific collaboration, including the geomechanical understanding of frac induced seismicity, and its relationship to enhanced permeability and fluid flow.

  6. Regulatory and organizational framework for safe management and disposal of radioactive waste in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste (RW) in Bangladesh is generated from various applications. The wastes are generated from research and nuclear applications mainly in medicine, agriculture, industry and research. As with all radiation sources, radioactive waste is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed in order to protect humans and the environment. All these RW needs to be safely managed at all stages up-to and including the ultimate disposal as per international and national standards. Regulation of the safe management and disposal of radioactive wastes in Bangladesh is the responsibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) Act (Act No. XXI of 1993), in force since 22 July 1993 by approval of the National Parliament, assigns to Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) to regulate and to inspect nuclear activities regarding radiological and nuclear safety, physical protection of nuclear materials, in order to verify that such materials are used exclusively for peaceful purposes. For the fulfilment of these functions the Act grants the BAEC the necessary legal competence to develop, to establish and to apply a regulatory system to all nuclear activities carried out in Bangladesh. The legal and regulatory framework employed to achieve safe management and disposal of radioactive wastes is quite detailed in the NSRC Act and NSRC Rules-97. Radioactive waste management activities are carried out in a facility at Central Radioactive Waste Storage and Processing Facility (CWSPF), Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar. This facility has been assigned to take all low-level radioactive wastes generated by nuclear applications in Bangladesh. Strategic guidelines for the management of the national nuclear activities and in particular for the radioactive waste management and decommissioning of the nuclear installations are provided in the NSRC Rules-97. Bangladesh is planning to sign the Joint Convention on the Safety of the Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of the Radioactive Waste Management. This paper describes briefly the regulatory and organizational framework in which the management of radioactive wastes is carried out in Bangladesh. It also presents the criteria developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (BAEC) to assess the long-term safety of disposal systems for radioactive wastes. The current status and future direction of the legal and regulatory framework for management and disposal of radioactive waste in Bangladesh is described. (author)

  7. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  8. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  9. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    Higher plants play an important role in closed ecological life support systems as oxygen pro-ducers, carbon dioxide and water recyclers, and as a food source. For an integration of higher plant chambers into the MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) loop, a detailed characterization and optimization of the full food production and preparation chain is needed. This implies the prediction and control of the nutritional quality of the final products consumed by the crew, the prediction of the wastes quality and quantity produced along the chain for further waste treatment (MELiSSA waste treatment) and the optimization of overall efficiencies. To reach this goal several issues have to be studied in an integrated manner: the physiological responses of crops to a range of environmental parameters, crop yield efficiencies and respective ratio and composition of edible and inedible biomass, the processability and storability of the produced food and last but not least composition of wastes in view of further degradation (fiber content). Within the Food Characterization (FC) project several compar-ative plant growth bench tests were carried out to obtain preliminary data regarding these aspects. Four pre-selected cultivars of each of the four energy-rich crops with worldwide usage -wheat, durum wheat, potato and soybean -were grown under well-characterized environmental conditions. The different cultivars of each species are screened for their performance in view of a closed loop application by parameter ranking. This comprises the characterization of edi-ble/inedible biomass ratio, nutritional quality, processability and overall performance under the specific conditions of hydroponic cultivation and artificial illumination. A second closely linked goal of the FC project is to develop a mechanistic physiological plant model, which will ease the integration of higher plants compartments in the MELiSSA concept by virtue of its predictive abilities. Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

  10. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations met at the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). All 7 panel members were present, together with 17 other individuals with various responsibilities and interests in the US Nuclear Data Network (USNDN). Status reports were presented to the panel by the five US evaluation centers, located at Brookhaven (BNL), Idaho Falls (INEL), Berkeley (LBL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and the University of Pennsylvania. The reports from the centers outlined the status of their mass chain evaluations and of a number of other projects related to this work; these areas are discussed in more detail in this report

  11. Current status of the~IAU MDC Meteor Showers Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopek, T. J.; Ka?uchová, Z.

    2014-07-01

    During the General Assembly of the IAU in Beijing in 2012, at the business meeting of Commission 22 the list of 31 newly established showers was approved and next officially accepted by the IAU. As a result, at the end of 2013, the list of all established showers contained 95 items. The IAU MDC Working List included 460 meteor showers, among them 95 had pro tempore status. The List of Shower Groups contained 24 complexes, three of them had established status. Jointly, the IAU MDC shower database contained data of 579 showers.

  12. Joint Analysis of Current Status and Marker Data: An Extension of a Bivariate Threshold Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Xingwei; He, Xin; SUN, JIANGUO; Lee, Mei-Ling T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers joint analysis of current status and marker data using a threshold model based on first hitting times. A failure time is defined as the time at which a subject's latent health status process first decreases to zero. We extend the bivariate Wiener process model in Whitmore et al. (1998) to the case when only current status data are available. We develop maximum likelihood estimation procedures and provide simulation studies. We apply our methods to a motivating example inv...

  13. Current Status of the Refurbishment of Five Semi-Hot Cells at NRI Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the procedure and current status of refurbishment of five semi-hot cells at Nuclear Research Institute Rez (NRI Rez). Reconstruction is carried out at the Mechanical Testing Department of Integrity and Technical Engineering Division. The whole procedure from the start of the project (feasibility study, work schedule) to the current status of refurbishment is depicted in this paper. (author)

  14. Current Status and Future Directions of Targeted Peptide Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is currently almost exclusively targeted at the somatostatin receptor (sst). Of the 5 receptor subtypes, sst2 is frequently very highly expressed at the cell surface of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Octreotide is a small and stable derivative of native somatostatin, which can be very well labeled with therapeutic radionuclides such as the beta-emitters ''9''0Y, ''1''7''7Lu or the Auger emitter ''1''1''1In, chelated in DTPA or DOTA, linked to the peptide. All current therapeutic octreotide derivatives are agonists that are internalized in the cell. The affinity for the sst2 receptor is better for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate than for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide or [DTPA]octreotide. ''9''0Y is a pure beta-emitter, with a half-life of 2.7 days, a high energy of 2.270 MeV, and a maximum penetration in tissue of 12mm. ''1''7''7Lu with a half-life of 6.7 days emits a low abundance of gamma photons as well as beta particles of 497 keV, with a maximum tissue penetration of 2 mm. ''1''7''7Lu-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Lu-DOTATE), ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Y-DOTATATE) and ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide (Y-DOTATOC) are today the most frequently used therapeutic radiopeptides. Main inclusion criteria: inoperable and/or metastatic NET, receptor-positivity in all known lesions demonstrated by sufficient uptake on ''1''1''1In-octreotide scintigraphy (intensity > liver parenchyma), life expectancy at least 3-6 months, sufficient bone marrow reserve (hemoglobin (HGB) ? 5 mmol/L, white blood cells (WBC) ? 2*109/L, platelets (PLT) ? 75*1012/L), sufficient renal function (serum creatinine 40 mL/min), sufficient hepatic and cardiac reserve. Karnofski score ?50. Efficacy: several groups have reported objective response rates (RECIST or WHO/SWOG; CT or MRI based). Complete remission (CR) is rarely seen, partial remission (PR; >50% shrinkage SWOG) in 7% - 37%, minor remission (MR, 25% - 50% shrinkage) in 13% - 17%, stable disease (SD) in 35% - 88% [incl. MR], and progression (PD, > 25% growth or new lesions) in around 20% of patients. Overall, better results are reported for Y-DOTATATE and Lu-DOTATATE than for Y-DOTATOC. Since cure is no feasible option in this category of advanced patients with mostly slow-growing tumors, overall survival (OS), and symptomatic relief / better quality of life, are the most important efficacy parameters. Currently there are no controlled clinical trials available comparing the effects of PRRT with the best standard of care. Nevertheless, the median OS of 4 years that was found in the Rotterdam study using Lu-DOTATATE compares favorably with the 3 years OS with Y-DOTATOC or the 1 year OS with high-dose 111In-DTPA-octreotide. Moreover, when the OS of matching subgroups in the Rotterdam Lu-DOTATATE study was compared with the OS in published studies in the literature using other treatment modalities, the OS of Lu-DOTATATE patients was always better than of their matched historic controls. Additionally, an extensive monitoring of quality of life (QOL) showed improvement of gobal health and performance scores with decrease of symptom scores in the majority of patients treated with Lu-DOTATATE. Toxicity: renal protection using commercially available solutions of mixed amino acids containing lysine and arginine, or using 1L of a mixture of 25g lysine and 25g arginine, is necessary to prevent renal damage from PRRT. Still, there is a risk of developing renal insufficiency after PRRT, expressed as a yearly percentage loss of creatinine clearance (parameter for GFR) which may continue for years after completion of PRRT. A minimum of 18 months of systematic follow-up after PRRT is required to assess the yearly percentage loss in GFR. Risk factors for renal insufficiency are a high cumulative renal radiation dose, especially if the biologic equivalent dose (BED, by applying the linear quadratic model) exceeds 35Gy - 40 Gy. Further risk factors are age over 65 yr, hypertension and diabetes. Especially patients with a combination of more than two of the above me

  15. Free-Roaming Dog Population Estimation and Status of the Dog Population Management and Rabies Control Program in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Tenzin, Tenzin; Ahmed, Rubaiya; Debnath, Nitish C.; Ahmed, Garba; Yamage, Mat

    2015-01-01

    Beginning January 2012, a humane method of dog population management using a Catch-Neuter-Vaccinate-Release (CNVR) program was implemented in Dhaka City, Bangladesh as part of the national rabies control program. To enable this program, the size and distribution of the free-roaming dog population needed to be estimated. We present the results of a dog population survey and a pilot assessment of the CNVR program coverage in Dhaka City. Free-roaming dog population surveys were undertaken in 18 ...

  16. Study of the Effect of Food Habit, Lifestyle and Daily Trip on Physical and Mental Status of Subjects at Islamic University in Kushtia, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Shahjahan Ali; Abdus Sabur; Anowar Khasru Parvez; Shahedur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    This is a qualitative (study that used framework analysis) to examine by interviews among University personnel who live inside and outside the Islamic University campus in Kushtia, Bangladesh. In the present study, we found that subjects who live inside of the University feel better physically and mentally than the nonresident subjects. It was found that residents are more fit and feel better during and after class time. Resident subjects have less stress and maintain balanced diet for which ...

  17. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  18. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September – October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2007-10-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  19. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October – November 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2007-11-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November – December 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. Current status on marine litter indicators in Nordic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Tairova, Zhanna

    Status for project on Marine litter in the Nordic waters. This includes a review of Nordic studies on marine litter indicators. Various studies as part of either research or existing monitoring have provided information on occurrence of marine litter in Nordic waters from Baltic Sea to the Arctic.

  6. Urinary tract stones - Part II: Current status of treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, C.; Anson, K.M.; Patel, U. E-mail: uday.patel@stgeorges.nhs.uk

    2003-06-01

    The majority of renal and ureteric stones are now managed by minimally invasive techniques, for example nephrostomy, ureteral stents, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy. A multi-disciplinary approach is necessary, and this review examines the status of modern stone therapy and the contribution of the radiology department.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

  12. Current status of the Mallard population in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär; Clausen, Preben; Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Elmberg, Johan; Fox, Anthony David; Holmqvist, Niklas; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Lindström, Åke; Nilsson, Leif; Pöysä, Hannu; Sigfússon, Arnór Þórir; Svenning, J.-C.

    Dabbling ducks (Anas ssp.) are cornerstone species in wetland bird communities and yet in many cases we lack sufficient data to judge the conservation status of the flyway population. In a first step to remedy this we here compile all available data on Mallard in the Nordic countries. We find...

  13. The Current Status of Women Professors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiqing

    1992-01-01

    Presents statistics on the status of female faculty members in China. Reports that in 1987, women comprised just over nine percent of the faculty. Indicates that women are most prevalent in the medical sciences and agronomy but scarcest in engineering and law. Predicts that more women will enter higher education careers. (SG)

  14. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  15. Double-blind cluster randomised controlled trial of wheat flour chapatti fortified with micronutrients on the status of vitamin A and iron in school-aged children in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ahmed S; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, Faiz; Alam, Mohammad S; Wahed, Mohammad A; Sack, David A

    2015-12-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective and sustainable strategy to prevent or correct micronutrient deficiencies. A double-blind cluster (bari) randomised controlled trial was conducted in a rural community in Bangladesh to evaluate the impact of consumption of chapatti made of micronutrient-fortified wheat flour for 6 months by school-aged children on their vitamin A, haemoglobin and iron status. A total of 43 baris (group of households) were randomly selected. The baris were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. The intervention group received wheat flour fortified with added micronutrients (including 66?mg hydrogen-reduced elemental iron and 3030??g retinol equivalent as retinyl palmitate per kilogram of flour), while the control group received wheat flour without added micronutrients. A total of 352 children were enrolled in the trial, 203 in the intervention group and 149 in the control group. Analyses were carried out on children who completed the study (191 in the intervention group and 143 in the control group). Micronutrient-fortified wheat flour chapatti significantly increased serum retinol concentration at 6 months by 0.12??mol?L(-1) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06, 0.19; P?consumption on iron status, haemoglobin levels or anaemia was observed. Consumption of fortified chapattis demonstrated a significant improvement in the vitamin A status, but not in iron, haemoglobin or anaemia status. PMID:23800099

  16. eHealth in Thailand: the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsanayotin, Boonchai; Kasitipradith, Narong; Pannarunothai, Supasit

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) defines eHealth as the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) for health. Thailand is one of the leading countries in emerging and developing economy that the use of ICT applications is pervasive including eHealth. However, the status of eHealth in Thailand hasn't been assessed. Employing the WHO global Observatory for eHealth development model and its instrument, this study describes the uptake of eHealth foundations and the extent of eHealth applications and services implemented in the country. A group of the nation 18 eHealth experts met and evaluated country eHealth status and provided recommendations. The results show that the development of the country's eHealth foundations is inadequate and need to be the priority for national eHealth development. PMID:20841712

  17. Current status and prospect of nuclear power project in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overall review is made of the nuclear power development project in Korea, illustrating its actual status and the future prospects. The inevitability of constructing nuclear power stations is emphasized in views of its techno-economics, fossil fuel deposits and fast-growing energy demand in every sector of industries in Korea. Nuclear fuel cycle, loclization aspects of architect engineering capability, components, design, management, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, training and effective development of manpower are briefly summarized. (Author)

  18. Current status of the near surface repository in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive waste management at the Cernavoda NPP is based on collection, pretreatment and storage of all solid wastes. The disposal of operational and decommissioning wastes has been evaluated, based on the results of a research and development programme. A near surface disposal facility was selected and a siting process was implemented. The status of this project and its prospective are discussed in the paper. (author)

  19. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    . .; Choi, Young Min; CHUN, SANG SIK; Han, Hyuck Dong; Hwang, Jung Hye; Hwang, Kyung Joo; Kang, In Soo; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Ki Chul; Kim, Tak; Kwon, Hyuck Chan; Lee, Won Don; Lee, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyu Sup; Lee, Gyoung Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea in the year of 1985. However, it deserve to say that the invaluable data from fertility centers may serve as a useful source to find out which factors affect successful IVF outcome and to offer applicable information to infertile patients and fertility clinics. This article intended to report the status of ART in 2009 Korean Society of Obstet...

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - August 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - December 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations met on April 6, 1979, to review the present status of nuclear data compilations. The following topics are addressed in this report: A-chain situation; ENSDF, Nuclear Structure Reference Files, and Recent References; Handbook of the Nuclides; and charged particle nuclear data. The panel made 13 recommendations, probably the most forceful being its recommendation against the use of data from unreferenced journals in ENSDF. 1 table

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  16. The current status and potential market for cogeneration in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government of the People's Republic of China has always favoured cogeneration and many local systems were built in the 1950s. By 1960, 20% of the thermal plants with an installed capacity of 0.6 MW or more were cogeneration. The article discusses cogeneration in China under the sub-headings of (i) existing status of China's cogeneration and (ii) potential market of China's cogeneration

  17. Current status of Chinese nuclear power industry and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has been carrying out active international cooperation aiming to be a country where is to be an economical super power and an advanced country in nuclear power technology by the year early 2000, and China also has begun to be recognized as the largest potential market for the construction of nuclear power plants(NPPs) expecting to construct more than thirty nuclear power units by the year 2020. China has advanced technology in the basic nuclear science including liquid metal breeder reactor technology, nuclear material, medium and small size power plants, and isotope production technology, and also China has complete nuclear fuel cycle technology. However, China still has low NPP technology. Therefore, it is expected that China may have complementary cooperative relationship with China, it is expected that Korea may have an access to the advanced Chinese nuclear science technology, and may have a good opportunity to explore the Chinese market actively exporting excellent Korean NPP technology, and further may have a good position to the neighboring Asian countries' NPP markets. From this perspective, general Chinese social status, major nuclear R and D activity status, and correct NPP and technology status have been analyzed in this report, and this report is expected to be a useful resource for cooperating with China in future. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 16 refs. (Author)

  18. Microbiological aspects of biofuel production: Current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa S. Elshahed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel research is currently an area of immense interest due to the increase in global energy demand by emerging economies and the recent increases in global oil prices. Multiple approaches are currently being researched for the use of microorganisms in the production of various biofuel (e.g. alcohols, hydrogen, biodiesel, and biogas from multiple starting materials. This review provides a brief overview on the research currently underway on laboratory and industrial scales in the area of biofuels, with specific emphasis on the economic viability of various approaches currently being utilized.

  19. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  20. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  1. Current Status and Future Technical Challenges for Tokamak Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Minervini, J; Okuno, K; Salpiero, E; Filatov, O

    2002-11-11

    Magnet technology for fusion in the last decade has been focusing mostly on the development of magnets for tokamaks--the most advanced fusion concept at the moment. The largest and the most complex tokamak under development is ITER. To demonstrate adequate design approaches to large magnets for ITER and to develop industrial capabilities, two large model coils and three insert coils, all using full-scale conductor, were built and tested by the international collaboration during 1994-2002. The status of the magnet technology and directions of future developments are discussed in this paper.

  2. Current status of the BAIKAL-GVD project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrorin, A.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Aynutdinov, V.M., E-mail: aynutdin@yandex.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Belolaptikov, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Bogorodsky, D.Yu. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Budnev, N.M. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Danilchenko, I.A.; Domogatsky, G.V.; Doroshenko, A.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Dyachok, A.N. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Dzhilkibaev, Zh-A.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Fialkovsky, S.V. [Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Gaponenko, O.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Golubkov, K.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Gress, O.A.; Gress, T.I.; Grishin, O.G. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Kebkal, K.G.; Kebkal, O.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Berlin 13355 (Germany); Klabukov, A.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-10-11

    We present a status of the Baikal-GVD Project. The objective of this project is a construction of a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Lake Baikal. As an important milestone, the first GVD engineering array has been deployed and ran in April, 2011. Application of a completely new technology gave us an opportunity to study all the basic elements of the future full detector and to finalize the GVD technical design. We discuss the configuration and the design of the engineering array as well as data performance with the preliminary results.

  3. Current status of the BAIKAL-GVD project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a status of the Baikal-GVD Project. The objective of this project is a construction of a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Lake Baikal. As an important milestone, the first GVD engineering array has been deployed and ran in April, 2011. Application of a completely new technology gave us an opportunity to study all the basic elements of the future full detector and to finalize the GVD technical design. We discuss the configuration and the design of the engineering array as well as data performance with the preliminary results

  4. Biofuel production from microalgae as feedstock: current status and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Fang; Jin, Wen-Biao; Tu, Ren-Jie; Wu, Wei-Min

    2015-06-01

    Algal biofuel has become an attractive alternative of petroleum-based fuels in the past decade. Microalgae have been proposed as a feedstock to produce biodiesel, since they are capable of mitigating CO2 emission and accumulating lipids with high productivity. This article is an overview of the updated status of biofuels, especially biodiesel production from microalgae including fundamental research, culture selection and engineering process development; it summarizes research on mathematical and life cycle modeling on algae growth and biomass production; and it updates global efforts of research and development and commercialization attempts. The major challenges are also discussed. PMID:24641484

  5. Current status and prospects of U.S. nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the U.S. nuclear enterprise is considered followed by a summary of the advanced light water reactor program. Several selected national policy issues are discussed which include high level nuclear waste management, disposition of excess weapons plutonium, and economic deregulation and competition. A summary of the following three technical issues: (1) plant aging and license renewal, (2) regulatory guidance being developed for digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, and (3) risk-informed performance based regulation is provided. A rather philosophical perspective on the topic of safety and compliance is also provided

  6. Drug eluting stents: Current status and new developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Erta?

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the favorable impact of drug eluting stents on stent restenosis, their long-term reliability is considered worrisome by some because of stent thrombosis. Often attributed to adverse reactions to the stent platform, both the drugs and polymer characteristics have been further advanced with current technologies. The present review discussed current drug eluting stents and new developments.

  7. Biofuel implementation in East Europe: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a continuously increasing interest concerning the biofuel implementation in Europe, mainly because of environmental protection and energy supply security reasons. In this context, the European Union (EU) strongly encourages the use of biofuels through a number of Directives. To that effect, EU members follow the Directives implementing various political, fiscal and technical measures and incentives. In the light of the potential created by the recently joined Eastern European countries, an increasing interest is shown in the whole biofuel supply chain within the EU. In parallel, the status of the Eastern European countries domestic market, as far as biofuels are concerned, is an interesting issue, since most of these countries present a significant potential, however still lagging in biofuel implementation. In the above context, the objective of the present work is to give a concise and up-to-date picture of the present status of biofuel implementation in East Europe. The work also aims at identifying the prospects of these countries as far as biofuels are concerned and their role in the EU framework as potential suppliers of a wider market. (author)

  8. Assessment of Current Status of Women Farmers in Japan Using Empowerment Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Sarafat A. Tijani; Izumi Yano

    2007-01-01

    This research assessed the current status of Japanese women farmers using universal measurement of women empowerment. Two prefectures, Hiroshima and Shimane were selected. Stratified sampling technique was used to select respondents from each village while structured questionnaire was employed to collect data on economic, social, familial, legal, mobility and political status of the respondents. The result shows that status of women farmers was improved in the recent time compared to years ba...

  9. Policies for second generation biofuels :current status and future challanges

    OpenAIRE

    Eggert, Håkan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (R&D) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such altern...

  10. CURRENT STATUS AND POTENTIAL FOR PRIMARY ACL REPAIR

    OpenAIRE

    MURRAY, MARTHA M.

    2009-01-01

    ACL rupture occurs in hundreds of thousands active adolescents and young adults each year. Despite current treatment, post-traumatic osteoarthritis following these injuries is commonplace within a decade of injury in these young patients. Thus, there is widespread clinical and scientific interest in improving patient outcomes and preventing osteoarthritis. The current emphasis on the removal of the torn ACL and subsequent replacement with a tendon graft (ACL reconstruction) stems from adheren...

  11. HappyFace - current status and future development plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HappyFace Project is a meta-monitoring tool, which is allow to monitor the Grid sites of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). It can also be used for any (complex) computing system, e.g. local or distributed computing resources. HappyFace provides fast access to all relevant monitoring sites and gets a complete overview about the status of all available sites on one page. It has an automatic querying system, a lot of testing modules can be plugged in and also the ability to design and add new modules is available. The project had been written in Python and PHP, but in the 3rd version of HappyFace the source code is fully migrated to Python and the web output uses only HTML templates, which makes it simpler.

  12. Current status of thermal neutron activation analysis in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the thermal neutron activation analysis by utilizing nuclear reactors was developed in 1946, ?-ray spectrometry and the instrumental neutron activation analysis with Ge(Li) detectors were developed, and the thermal neutron activation analysis has been applied for various environmental samples. Environmental pollution has been world-wide problem since last ten years, and the analyses of heavy metals, organic matters, agricultural chemicals, etc. related to the pollution were made by activation analysis method whose standardization was discussed here. The analyses of trace elements in airborne dust particles and in hairs were given in details. The present status of the following four irradiation institutes were also explained; i.e. The Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto Univ., The Atomic Energy Research Institute of Rikkyo Univ., The Atomic Energy Research Institute of Musashi Technical College and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. (Kobatake, H.)

  13. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  14. Macromolecular contrast agents for MR mammography: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macromolecular contrast media (MMCM) encompass a new class of diagnostic drugs that can be applied with dynamic MRI to extract both physiologic and morphologic information in breast lesions. Kinetic analysis of dynamic MMCM-enhanced MR data in breast tumor patients provides useful estimates of tumor blood volume and microvascular permeability, typically increased in cancer. These tumor characteristics can be applied to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, to define the angiogenesis status of cancers, and to monitor tumor response to therapy. The most immediate challenge to the development of MMCM-enhanced mammography is the identification of those candidate compounds that demonstrate the requisite long intravascular distribution and have the high tolerance necessary for clinical use. Potential mammographic applications and limitations of various MMCM, defined by either experimental animal testing or clinical testing in patients, are reviewed in this article. (orig.)

  15. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liushuai Hua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  16. Current status of IMS plasma wave research. [International Magnetospheric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a review of the status of magnetospheric plasma wave science as a result of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). The presence of an international effort has supported the development and completion of the numerous magnetospheric science spacecraft launched during the IMS, including GEOS, ISEE, and EXOS B. Ground-based VLF observations are considered along with coordinated ground-based and satellite observations. During the IMS, plasma wave research using satellite data has covered a wide range of subjects. Attention is given to magnetospheric electrostatic emissions, magnetospheric electromagnetic plasma waves, continuum radiation, auroral kilometric radiation, auroral zone plasma waves, plasma waves in the magnetosheath and near the mangetopause, and plasma waves at the bow shock.

  17. Targeting to the hair follicles: current status and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosicka, Hanna; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    The pilosebaceous unit is a complex structure that undergoes a specific growth cycle and comprises a few important drug targeting sites. For example, drugs can be targeted to the bulge region with stem cells or to the sebaceous glands. Interest in pilosebaceous units is directed towards their utilization as reservoirs for localized therapy and also as a transport pathway for systemic drug delivery. Improved investigative methods, such as differential stripping, are being developed in order to determine follicular penetration. This article reviews relevant aspects of effective follicle-targeting formulations and delivery systems as well as the activity status of hair follicles, and variations in follicle size and distribution throughout various body regions. Each of these factors strongly affects follicular permeation. We provide examples of improved penetration of particle-based formulations and of a size-dependent manner of follicular penetration. Contradictions are also discussed, indicating the need for detailed future investigations. PMID:20060268

  18. Current status of Clonorchis sinensis and clonorchiasis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, De-Hua; Hong, Xiao-Kun; Su, Bi-Xiu; Liang, Chi; Hide, Geoff; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yu, Xinbing; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2016-01-01

    The oriental liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, a pathogen causing clonorchiasis, is of major socio-economic importance in East Asia, including China, Korea and Vietnam. This parasite is now recognized as a biocarcinogen strongly linked to cholangiocarcinoma in humans. Here, we describe the status of clonorchiasis in China, where it has been estimated that more than 15 million patients are affected. This paper also summarizes the major advances in the field of clonorchiasis research during last decade, including diagnosis techniques, pathogenesis and genome/transcriptome/proteome studies in the last years. We strongly hope that our work can stimulate the governments of the countries or regions where clonorchiasis is endemic to pay more attention to this disease and establish related guidelines to prevent and control it. PMID:26740359

  19. Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a toxic metal occurring in the environment naturally and as a pollutant emanating from industrial and agricultural sources. Food is the main source of cadmium intake in the non-smoking population. The bioavailability, retention and toxicity are affected by several factors including nutritional status such as low iron status. Cadmium is efficiently retained in the kidney (half-time 10-30 years) and the concentration is proportional to that in urine (U-Cd). Cadmium is nephrotoxic, initially causing kidney tubular damage. Cadmium can also cause bone damage, either via a direct effect on bone tissue or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. After prolonged and/or high exposure the tubular injury may progress to glomerular damage with decreased glomerular filtration rate, and eventually to renal failure. Furthermore, recent data also suggest increased cancer risks and increased mortality in environmentally exposed populations. Dose-response assessment using a variety of early markers of kidney damage has identified U-Cd points of departure for early kidney effects between 0.5 and 3 ?g Cd/g creatinine, similar to the points of departure for effects on bone. It can be anticipated that a considerable proportion of the non-smoking adult population has urinary cadmium concentrations of 0.5 ?g/g creatinine or higher in non-exposed areas. For smokers this proportion is considerably higher. This implies no margin of safety between the point of departure and the exposure levels in the general population. Therefore, measures should be put in place to reduce exposure to a minimum, and the tolerably daily intake should be set in accordance with recent findings.

  20. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbron E, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe, Av. Carlos Lazo No. 100, Santa Fe, 01389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Puente E, F., E-mail: erick.zimbron@gmail.com [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project, and will be the conclusion for the analysis. (Author)

  1. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project, and will be the conclusion for the analysis. (Author)

  2. Income Inequality and Health Status in the United States: Evidence from the Current Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jennifer M.; Milyo, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Current Population Survey data on self-reported health status and income for the general population and those in poverty were analyzed. No consistent association was found between income inequality and individual health status. Previous findings of such an association were attributed to ecological fallacy or failure to control for individual…

  3. The current status of high temperature superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, B. P.; Burkhanov, G. S.

    1991-12-01

    The principal technological difficulties associated with the manufacture of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) wires based on yttrium and lanthanum ceramics are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the superconducting and mechanical properties of HTSC wires or ribbons are largely determined by their microstructure. Particular attention is given to the currently used method of producing HTSC wires whereby the ceramic powder is encased in a pipe shell and then deformed by different methods, such as rolling, drawing, or pressing. The requirements for the shell material are examined, and current densities are presented for HTSC wires produced in shells of copper, silver, aluminum, nickel, stainless steel, and zirconium.

  4. Brain perfusion CT in acute stroke: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic perfusion CT has become a widely accepted imaging modality for the diagnostic workup of acute stroke patients. Although compared with standard spiral CT the use of multislice CT has broadened the range from which perfusion data may be derived in a single scan run. The advent of multidetector row technology has not really overcome the limited 3D capability of this technique. Multidetector CT angiography (CTA) of the cerebral arteries may in part compensate for this by providing additional information about the cerebrovascular status. This article describes the basics of cerebral contrast bolus scanning with a special focus on optimization of contrast/noise in order to ensure high quality perfusion maps. Dedicated scan protocols including low tube voltage (80 kV) as well as the use of highly concentrated contrast media are amongst the requirements to achieve optimum contrast signal from the short bolus passage through the brain. Advanced pre and postprocessing algorithms may help reduce the noise level, which may become critical in unconscious stroke victims. Two theoretical concepts have been described for the calculation of tissue perfusion from contrast bolus studies, both of which can be equally employed for brain perfusion imaging. For each perfusion model there are some profound limitations regarding the validity of perfusion values derived from ischemic brain areas. This makes the use of absolute quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) values for the discrimination of the infarct core from periinfarct ischemia questionable. Multiparameter imaging using maps of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and a time parameter of the local bolus transit enables analyzing of the cerebral perfusion status in detail. Perfusion CT exceeds plain CT in depicting cerebral hypoperfusion at its earliest stage yielding a sensitivity of about 90% for the detection of embolic and hemodynamic lesions within cerebral hemispheres. Qualitative assessment of brain perfusion can be further enhanced by adding relative perfusion indices from regions of interest. Multislice CTA using a collimation of 4x1 mm and high pitch factors allows for isotropic scanning of the brain supplying arteries from the aortic arch to the vertex in a single run. Various image processing modalities such as multiplanar reformations, curved planar reconstructions, maximum intensity projections, and volume rendering techniques are available to deal with the extensive data and to bring out those vascular lesions, which are of relevance for individual stroke. With the advent of multidetector CT advanced stroke protocols combining plain CT, perfusion CT and CTA can routinely be accomplished within a very short timespan thus ensuring the role of CT in the diagnostic workup of acute stroke

  5. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  6. The Current Status of Medical Marijuana in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    McKenna, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy.

  7. Systematics of key phytopathogenic fusaria: Current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    This brief review is intended to provide plant pathologists and other scientists, especially ones in Japan, with a current overview of the most important fusarial phytopathogens and mycotoxin producers. Knowledge of Fusarium species diversity and their evolutionary relationships has increased dramat...

  8. Current Status of Nucleon Decay Searches with Super-Kamiokande

    OpenAIRE

    Viren, Brett

    1999-01-01

    Evidence for Nucleon Decay has yet to be observed. Current results from the observation of a 45 kton-year exposure of Super-Kamiokande and lifetime limits for nucleons to decay via lepton + pion, lepton + eta and lepton + kaon modes are presented.

  9. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current status and future concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jyh-Chin; Lu, Chien-Wei; Lin, Chun-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is highly associated with the occurrence of gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric inflammation, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma. Although alternative therapies, including phytomedicines and probiotics, have been used to improve eradication, current treatment still relies on a combination of antimicrobial agents, such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin, and antisec...

  10. Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance.We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples.According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country.Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years.

  11. Advanced fuel technology and performance: Current status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Division of the IAEA has been giving great attention to the collection, analysis and exchange of information in the field of reactor fuel technology. Most of these activities are being conducted in the framework of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT). The purpose of this Advisory Group Meeting on Advanced Fuel Technology and Performance was to update and to continue the previous work, and to review the experience of advanced fuel technology, its performance with regard to all types of reactors and to outline the future trends on the basis of national experience and discussions during the meeting. As a result of the meeting a Summary Report was prepared which reflected the status of the advanced nuclear fuel technology up to 1990. The 10 papers presented by participants of this meeting are also published here. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Prostate cancer chemoprevention: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemoprevention is a strategy that aims to reduce the incidence and burden of cancer through the development of agents to prevent, reverse or delay the carcinogenic process. Prostate cancer is a suitable target for prevention because it has a high incidence and prevalence, as well as a long latency and disease-related mortality, and furthermore it is a disease in which lifestyle and environmental factors may play critical roles. The development of chemoprevention strategies against prostate cancer will have a huge impact, both medically and economically. Large-scale clinical trials suggest that some agents such as selenium, lycopene, soy, green tea, vitamins D and E, anti-inflammatory and inhibitors of 5?-reductase are effective in preventing prostate cancer. Although each agent has the potential to affect the natural history of the disease, it is important to develop strategies to strategically proceed for the design and selection of test agents in order to demonstrate clinical benefit with the minimum of adverse effects. Appropriate selection of agent(s), disease stage, trial design and endpoints is critical in selecting the most promising regimens to accomplish these goals. This review highlights the present status of prostate cancer chemoprevention and discusses future prospects for chemopreventive strategies that are safe and clinically beneficial

  13. [Current status of dementia in admitions to national leprosariums nationwide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Asako; Watanabe, Kyoko; Yoshimura, Tachiko; Date, Kayoko; Yamashita, Kiyomi

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to get an overview of the following aspects of people admitted to 13 national leprosariums in Japan: the prevalence of dementia, medical and nursing systems, and facilities and equipment. Subjects included 1733 people admitted to wards for patients or disabled people in these leprosariums. Subjects were examined for cognitive function using Nishimura's behavioral rating scale for the mental states of the elderly (NMS), and for the prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We also investigated medical and nursing systems, facilities and equipment, and status of nursing education. The results showed that, 288 subjects (16.6%) had a diagnosis of dementia. According to the NMS, 47.5% of the subjects were categorized as mild to severe dementia, while cognitive dysfunction was observed in 63.5% if borderline cases were included. Non-specialist physicians managed 30.8% of the subjects in 4 institutions, and there were no certified nurses specialized in dementia management. Results from this study suggest that there is need for the placement of dementia specialists', improvement of specialized medical services, and human resource development of specialized nurses in leprosariums where many elderly people live. PMID:25826850

  14. Spent fuel management in China: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the development of nuclear power in China, its status of operating nuclear power plants and progress of on-going NPP projects are described. With the arising of spent fuel from NPPs, a national policy of a closed nuclear fuel cycle has been determined. Following storage at reactor sites for at least 5 years (generally maximum 10 years), spent fuel will be transferred to an away-from-reactor pool type centralized storage facility. Adjacent to the storage facility, a multi-purpose reprocessing pilot plant will be set up by the end of this century. An industrial scale reprocessing plant would be succeeded around the year 2020. China's spent fuel management activities include at-reactor storage, transportation, away-from-reactor storage and reprocessing. Relatively detailed description of the work done up to now on spent fuel management and plans for the future are described. It should be noted that activities related to the management of high level radioactive waste are not included here. (author)

  15. The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations

  16. Current status of training for medical radiation inspector in NIPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the prefectural government is performing medical inspection based on the Medical Service Law. The purpose of medical inspection is making it sure that medical procedures in a hospital being scientific, under suitable safety control and proper. Medical inspection is the only system where a governmental agency can go into medical institutions systematically. On the other hand, the Purpose of National Institute of Public Health is to improve public health through training public health personnel and performing research works on public health as is school of public health. In National Institute of Public Health, NIPH, it has many training courses. One of them is training course for medical radiation inspector. The purpose of this course is providing the knowledge and technology about medical radiation inspection by giving lectures and exercises on the knowledge about the radiation safety. Holding of this course is 1 time every year. A period of this course is about four weeks. The half of the contents is lectures about the foundation of radiation hygienics to the radiation safety control corresponding to new medical technology. Exercises, discussions, field training, visits to related institutes are also performed so that it can use for medical radiation inspection directly. In this presentation, the present status of education for medical radiation inspectors in Japan and the analysis of this educational course will be described

  17. Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, Julia; Casey, James; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Karavakis, Edward; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Maier, Gerhild; Rodrigues, Daniele Filipe Rocha Da Cuhna; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Sidorova, Irina [CERN, European Organisation for Nuclear Research (Switzerland); Boehm, Max [EDS, an HP Company, Plano, TX (United States); Belov, Sergey; Tikhonenko, Elena [JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Dvorak, Frantisek; Krenek, Ales; Mulac, Milas; Sitera, Jiri [CESNET, Prague (Czech Republic); Kodolova, Olga [MSU, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vaibhav, Kumar, E-mail: Julia.Andreeva@cern.c [BARC, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

    2010-04-01

    Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

  18. Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; Belov, S; Casey, J; Dvorak, F; Gaidioz, B; Karavakis, E; Kodolova, O; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Krenek, A; Lanciotti, E; Maier, J; Mulac, M; Rocha Da Cunha Rodrigues, D F; Rocha, R; Saiz, P; Sidorova, I; Sitera, J; Tikhonenko, E; Vaibhav, K; Vocu, M; 10.1088/1742-6596/219/6/062002

    2010-01-01

    Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

  19. The current status of the operator support systems. The Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of the operation support systems(OSS) for nuclear power plant in Russian Federation is described, including the following issues: regulatory foundation for the OSS development; the safety parameter display system(SPDS) creation; principal critical functions (for WWER reactors); the SPDS operating conditions; the structure of the crisis centre information system; three levels of the NPP safety control; the current status of symptom-oriented emergency manuals and the SPDS role

  20. Current status of the recirculator project at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has for several years been developing the world's first circular ion induction accelerator designed to transport space charge dominated beams. Currently, the machine extends to 90 degrees, or 10 half-lattice periods (HLP) with induction cores for acceleration placed on every other HLP. Full current transport with acceptable emittance growth without acceleration has been achieved. Recently, a time stability measurement revealed a 2% energy change with time due to a source heating effect. Correcting for this and conducting steering experiments has ascertained the energy to an accuracy of 0.2%. In addition, the charge centroid is maintained to within 0.6-mm throughout the bend section. Initial studies of matches dependencies on beam quality indicate significant effects

  1. Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing; Current Status and Future Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A. J.

    This contribution addresses the current understanding of gaseous nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics and microstructure development in iron and heat treatable steel will be explained. In these materials the nitrided/ nitrocarburized case can be subdivided in a compound layer consisting of iron (carbo-)nitrides and a diffusion zone, consisting of a dispersion of alloying element nitrides in ferrite. The compound layer provides beneficial tribological and corrosion performance, while the diffusion zone is responsible for improved fatigue performance. Furthermore, aspects of low temperature surface hardening of stainless steels in a gaseous environment will be addressed. Here, the developed case consists of expanded austenite and/or expanded martensite, which essentially is a super saturated solid solution of nitrogen/carbon in austenite/martensite. The current state of the art and necessary future research activities for improvement of the present understanding will be identified.

  2. Current status of superconducting synchronous motor in Saga University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since there are no iron cores in the rotor and stator windings of superconducting synchronous motors, some reactances are intrinsically smaller than the ones of conventional motors. So the low synchronous reactance would be expected to improve the torque-ampere ratio stability and the overload capacity. Two types of 30-kVA synchronous motors, such as rotating armature and rotating field have been constructed. The rotating armature type motor had been fabricated and tested. The results show the difficulty of holding a stator cryostat in a low-heat leak condition. The low synchronous impedance requires some control of the armature current and/or the motor field current. The rotating field type motor encountered a balancing problem due to the triple-pipe configuration of the helium supplier in the torque tube

  3. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM DEMAND IN MACEDONIA: CURRENT STATUS AND ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Petrevska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate current international tourism demand in Macedonia, as well as to make an attempt to forecast it in a short-term horizon by 2014. For this purpose, the past and current patterns are based on stylized facts obtained from secondary data spreading over a sample period from 2000-2011. Furthermore, the estimation of future trends is based on Box-Jenkins methodology. Several alternative specifications were introduced and upon the outcomes of standard indicators for accuracy testing, the research identified the most appropriate one. According to projected values, moderate, but constant increase of international tourist arrivals is expected. The paper strongly recommends this empirical evidence in a line of mitigating the potential negative impacts as well as in preparation of tourism development plan in Macedonia. Finally, its contribution lies in the fact that it enriches poorly-developed empirical academic work within this scientific area in Macedonia.

  4. Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing; Current Status and Future Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A. J.

    , aspects of low temperature surface hardening of stainless steels in a gaseous environment will be addressed. Here, the developed case consists of expanded austenite and/or expanded martensite, which essentially is a super saturated solid solution of nitrogen/carbon in austenite/martensite. The current......This contribution addresses the current understanding of gaseous nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics and microstructure development in iron and heat treatable steel will be explained. In these materials the nitrided/ nitrocarburized case can be subdivided in a...... compound layer consisting of iron (carbo-)nitrides and a diffusion zone, consisting of a dispersion of alloying element nitrides in ferrite. The compound layer provides beneficial tribological and corrosion performance, while the diffusion zone is responsible for improved fatigue performance. Furthermore...

  5. EMF health effects research: Problems and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, L.A. (Environment Division of the Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1990-07-19

    The author describes some of the current generation of research, focusing particularly on that being sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The central goal of the research program is to answer the question of whether threats to human health result from exposure to electric and magnetic fields. Several related questions are examined: Is there any epidemiological evidence of risk to those who are exposed What are the sources of exposure to EMF, and who is exposed What effects, if any, occur in laboratory animals exposed What is the biologically important parameter, or 'dose' of EMF exposure How is exposure best estimated What effects, if any, occur in laboratory animals exposed to EMF If there are effects of exposure in cells or tissues, where in the cell does that interaction occur The author describes current research to answer these questions.

  6. Current Status and Prospects for Microbubbles in Ultrasound Theranostics

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, K. Heath; Paul A. Dayton

    2013-01-01

    Encapsulated microbubbles have been developed over the past two decades to provide both improvements in imaging as well as new therapeutic applications. Microbubble contrast agents are used currently for clinical imaging where increased sensitivity to blood flow is required, such as echocardiography. These compressible spheres oscillate in an acoustic field, producing nonlinear responses which can be uniquely distinguished from surrounding tissue, resulting in substantial enhancements in imag...

  7. Current status of Tc-99m production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m is the workhorse of nuclear medicine and currently accounts for over 80% of all in vivo diagnostic procedures. In Thailand, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) had experiences in production of Technetium-99m by solvent extraction process and alternative technology for Technetium-99m generator based on zirconium molybdate and titanium molybdate gel generators were also studied. The paper describes past experiences and future plan of Technetium-99m production in Thailand. (author)

  8. Blood pool scintigraphy of the heart: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this chapter is to review procedural and technical aspects of scintigraphic methods designed to assess both left and right ventricular size and function. In addition, the current clinical applications are examined as well as recent advances in the acquisition, processing, and utilization of blood pool scintigraphy. The two basic scintigraphic methods for the evaluation of ventricular function, the first-pass and the equilibrium techniques, are discussed

  9. The Current Status of Radiology in Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Qiyong Gong

    2009-01-01

     "n"nThe availability of multimodal imaging techniques enables the acquisition of both structural and functional information of the brain, and it opens a unique window for revealing the brain activity and connectivity in neuro-psychiatric disorders.  The current lecture will review some of the most often used imaging modalities, with particular emphasis on MRI, in the research field of major neuro-psychiatric disorders from the functional perspective. Diff...

  10. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Barlati; Giacomo Deste; Luca De Peri; Cassandra Ariu; Antonio Vita

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study is aimed to review the current scientific literature on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. In particular, the main structured protocols of cognitive remediation developed for schizophrenia are presented and the main results reported in recent meta-analyses are summarized. Possible benefits of cognitive remediation in the early course of schizophrenia and in subjects at risk for psychosis are also discussed. Methods. Electronic search of the relevant studies which a...

  11. Current Status of Thermal Ablation Treatments for Lung Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuy, Damian E; Shulman, Maria

    2010-01-01

    About 75% of lung cancer patients are not surgical candidates, either due to advanced disease or medical comorbidities. Furthermore, conventional treatments that can be offered to these patients are beneficial only to a small percentage of them. Thermal ablation is a minimally invasive treatment that is commonly used in this group of patients, and which has shown promising results. Currently, the most widely used ablation techniques in the treatment of lung malignancies are radiofrequency abl...

  12. Cardiac MR imaging: current status and future direction

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Maythem; Van, Tu Anh; Krug, Roland; Hetts, Steven W.; Wilson, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is currently a worldwide epidemic with increasing impact on healthcare systems. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences give complementary information on LV function, regional perfusion, angiogenesis, myocardial viability and orientations of myocytes. T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR), fat suppression and black blood sequences have been frequently used for detecting edematous area at risk (AAR) of infarction. T2 mapping, however, indicated that the ...

  13. Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing; Current Status and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution addresses the current understanding of gaseous nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics and microstructure development in iron and heat treatable steel will be explained. In these materials the nitrided/ nitrocarburized case can be subdivided in a compound layer consisting of iron (carbo-)nitrides and a diffusion zone, consisting of a dispersion of alloying element nitrides in ferrite. The compound layer provides beneficial tribological and corrosi...

  14. The current status of public relations in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Van Heerden, Gene

    2003-01-01

    The European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA) initiated the European Body of knowledge Project (referred to as EBOK hereafter) in 1998 in order to share ideas on public relations in different European countries. The purpose of this project was firstly to compile a bibliography of European public relations literature and secondly a Delphi study was conducted in order to understand the current practice and theory of European public relations. Furthermore the authors...

  15. Current Status of Functional Imaging in Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Guido K W; Kaye, Walter H

    2012-01-01

    Eating Disorders are complex psychiatric problems that involve biologic and psychological factors. Brain imaging studies provide insights how functionally connected brain networks may contribute to disturbed eating behavior, resulting in food refusal and altered body weight, but also body preoccupations and heightened anxiety. In this article we review the current state of brain imaging in eating disorders, and how such techniques may help identify pathways that could be important in the trea...

  16. CURRENT STATUS AND POTENTIAL FOR PRIMARY ACL REPAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Martha M.

    2009-01-01

    ACL rupture occurs in hundreds of thousands active adolescents and young adults each year. Despite current treatment, post-traumatic osteoarthritis following these injuries is commonplace within a decade of injury in these young patients. Thus, there is widespread clinical and scientific interest in improving patient outcomes and preventing osteoarthritis. The current emphasis on the removal of the torn ACL and subsequent replacement with a tendon graft (ACL reconstruction) stems from adherence to a long held and widely accepted doctrine that the ACL has only a limited healing response and therefore cannot heal or regenerate with suture repair. Recent work has shown that the premature loss of the provisional scaffold in the wound site after ACL rupture with or without repair prevents healing. Additional studies have detailed findings after placement of a substitute provisional scaffold in the wound site of the ACL injury to initiate healing of the ruptured ligament after primary repair. This technique, called enhanced primary repair, has significant potential advantages over current ACL reconstruction techniques, including the preservation of the complex attachment sites and innervation of these structures, thus retaining much of the biomechanical and proprioceptive function of these tissues. This manuscript summarizes the recent in vitro and in vivo studies in the area of enhancing ACL healing using biologic supplementation. Subsequent work in this area may lead to the development of a novel approach to treatment of this important injury. PMID:19064165

  17. Current status of low-level-waste-segregation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adoption of improved waste segregation practices by waste generators and burial sites will result in the improved disposal of low-level wastes (LLW) in the future. Many of the problems connected with this disposal mode are directly attributable to or aggravated by the indiscriminate mixing of various waste types in burial trenches. Thus, subsidence effects, contact with ground fluids, movement of radioactivity in the vapor phase, migration of radionuclides due to the presence of chelating agents or products of biological degradation, deleterious chemical reactions, and other problems have occurred. Regulations are currently being promulgated which will require waste segregation to a high degree at LLW burial sites. The state-of-the-art of LLW segregation technology and current practices in the USA have been surveyed at representative facilities. Favorable experience has been reported at various sites following the application of segregation controls. This paper reports on the state-of-the-art survey and addresses current and projected LLW segregation practices and their relationship to other waste management activities

  18. Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent Fuel Management has always been one of the most important steps in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and it still is one of the most vital and common problem for all countries. Projections for spent fuel arisings by the year 2010 range between 400,000 and 450,000 t of spent nuclear fuel. It is recognized that this fuel will either be stored and later disposed of in a deep geological repository (once-through fuel cycle) or stored and then reprocessed (closed fuel cycle). While some countries have concluded which choice they will make, others are applying the ''wait and see'' attitude. This continues to place great emphasis on short and long term storage technologies since much of the spent fuel will remain in storage in the next 20 years. The nuclear community recognizes the importance that design, technological, economic and material problems in spent fuel storage concepts and continues to encourage the international cooperation in such areas. This past year several nations have made decisions which impact on the projected storage volume (the Federal Republic of Germany has cancelled their reprocessing plant) and plan to contract the reprocessing with other nations. Argentina has delayed its reprocessing efforts. At the same time, while there are plans for recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors, the plans for its use in fast reactors have been delayed. These unforeseen changes reflect the constantly changing nature of the back-end of the fuel cycle and reinforce the importance of cooperation in these activities. The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in spent fuel management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and to elaborate recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Decommissioning and demolition in the European Union. Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission pursues the environmental and energy policy goals of limiting global warming to a maximum of 2 C and, therefore, reducing CO2 emissions by at least 20%. Nuclear power, with its present 30% contribution to the Community's electricity supply and the low CO2 emissions of the entire fuel cycle, makes an important contribution to an energy mix matching the 3 factors of competitiveness, security of supply, and sustainability. The decision to use nuclear power plants in their respective countries for electricity production is left to each member state. As of mid-2008, 146 nuclear power plants were in operation in the European Union, while 74 had been shut down permanently. Two nuclear power plants had been demolished completely, showing that the European Community is just at the beginning of the learning curve in this field. The importance of nuclear power plant decommissioning and demolition will increase in the future as replacement capacity in nuclear power generation will become necessary. The European Commission's activities in decommissioning and demolition date from the 1990s: The provisions about environmental impact assessment and the recommendations to apply Article 37 (potential impacts on water, soil and air) of the Euratom Treaty demand a description of decommissioning and demolition of nuclear power plants. In a ruling of 2002, the European Court of Justice assigns to the Community the required competences in the fields of nuclear safety and, consequently, also decommissioning and demolition. The financial provisions necessary for these activities are covered in the Electricity Directive within the framework of the rules for a common single market in 2003. After a first status report, the Commission published recommendations about financing decommissioning and demolition in 2006. (orig.)

  20. Economic Development of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country in the South Asia. Its illiterate and unskilled large population is a burden to the country. Agriculture is the main source of the income of the country. Government of the country is taking various steps to decrease poverty, but yet about one-third of people of Bangladesh are living below the national poverty line. More than half of the children of Bangladesh are underweight. The gross domestic product (GDP) is hovering around 6% for the last decade. Migrate...

  1. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy: current status and issues of interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To develop and disseminate a report aimed primarily at practicing radiation oncology physicians and medical physicists that describes the current state-of-the-art of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Those areas needing further research and development are identified by category and recommendations are given, which should also be of interest to IMRT equipment manufacturers and research funding agencies. Methods and Materials. The National Cancer Institute formed a Collaborative Working Group of experts in IMRT to develop consensus guidelines and recommendations for implementation of IMRT and for further research through a critical analysis of the published data supplemented by clinical experience. A glossary of the words and phrases currently used in IMRT is given in the . Recommendations for new terminology are given where clarification is needed. Results. IMRT, an advanced form of external beam irradiation, is a type of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). It represents one of the most important technical advances in RT since the advent of the medical linear accelerator. 3D-CRT/IMRT is not just an add-on to the current radiation oncology process; it represents a radical change in practice, particularly for the radiation oncologist. For example, 3D-CRT/IMRT requires the use of 3D treatment planning capabilities, such as defining target volumes and organs at risk in three dimensions by drawing contours on cross-sectional images (i.e., CT, MRI) on a slice-by-slice basis as opposed to drawing beam portals on a simulator radiograph. In addition, IMRT requires that the physician clearly and quantitatively define the treatment objectives. Currently, most IMRT approaches will increase the time and effort required by physicians, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists, because IMRT planning and delivery systems are not yet robust enough to provide totally automated solutions for all disease sites. Considerable research is needed to model the clinical outcomes to allow truly automated solutions. Current IMRT delivery systems are essentially first-generation systems, and no single method stands out as the ultimate technique. The instrumentation and methods used for IMRT quality assurance procedures and testing are not yet well established. In addition, many fundamental questions regarding IMRT are still unanswered. For example, the radiobiologic consequences of altered time-dose fractionation are not completely understood. Also, because there may be a much greater ability to trade off dose heterogeneity in the target vs. avoidance of normal critical structures with IMRT compared with traditional RT techniques, conventional radiation oncology planning principles are challenged. All in all, this new process of planning and treatment delivery has significant potential for improving the therapeutic ratio and reducing toxicity. Also, although inefficient currently, it is expected that IMRT, when fully developed, will improve the overall efficiency with which external beam RT can be planned and delivered, and thus will potentially lower costs. Conclusion. Recommendations in the areas pertinent to IMRT, including dose-calculation algorithms, acceptance testing, commissioning and quality assurance, facility planning and radiation safety, and target volume and dose specification, are presented. Several of the areas in which future research and development are needed are also indicated. These broad recommendations are intended to be both technical and advisory in nature, but the ultimate responsibility for clinical decisions pertaining to the implementation and use of IMRT rests with the radiation oncologist and radiation oncology physicist. This is an evolving field, and modifications of these recommendations are expected as new technology and data become available

  2. Current status of the accelerator-driven LNL BNCT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accelerator-driven, thermal neutron beam facility, aimed at the Boron Neutron Capture plus Photodynamic Therapy (BNCT+PDT) experimental treatment of extended skin melanoma, is currently under construction at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL). New, boron loaded compounds have been at the purpose synthesized and a wide vitro and in vivo radiobiological investigation is under way. Special microdosimetric detectors have been developed and constructed at LNL, for properly on-line monitoring of all BNCT dose components and their qualities. Both microdosimetric and radiobiological measurements are being performed at the new, HYTHOR thermal irradiation facility at the ENEA-Casaccia TAPIRO fast reactor. (author)

  3. Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

  4. Atomic clock with nuclear transition: current status in TU Wien

    OpenAIRE

    Kazakov, G.A.; M. Schreitl; WINKLER, G.; Sterba, J. H.; Steinhauser, G; Schumm, T.

    2011-01-01

    The nucleus of 229Thorium presents a unique isomer state of very low energy and long lifetime, current estimates are around 7.8 eV and seconds to hours respectively. This nuclear transitions therefore is a promising candidate for a novel type of frequency standard and several groups worldwide have set out to investigate this system. Our aim is to construct a "solid state nuclear clock", i.e. a frequency standard where Thorium ions are implanted into Calciumfluoride crystals transparent in vac...

  5. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: Current status and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jamie R; Morrison, Gladys; Dolan, M Eileen; Fleming, Gini F

    2016-01-01

    As there are increasing numbers of cancer survivors, more attention is being paid to the long term unwanted effects patients may experience as a result of their treatment and the impact these side effects can have on their quality of life. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the most common long-term toxicities from chemotherapy. In this review we will briefly review the clinical presentation, evaluation and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, with a focus on CIPN related to platinum and taxane agents. We will then discuss current clinical models of peripheral neuropathy and ongoing research to better understand CIPN and develop potential treatment options. PMID:26556766

  6. Chemical vapor deposition modeling: An assessment of current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.

    1991-01-01

    The shortcomings of earlier approaches that assumed thermochemical equilibrium and used chemical vapor deposition (CVD) phase diagrams are pointed out. Significant advancements in predictive capabilities due to recent computational developments, especially those for deposition rates controlled by gas phase mass transport, are demonstrated. The importance of using the proper boundary conditions is stressed, and the availability and reliability of gas phase and surface chemical kinetic information are emphasized as the most limiting factors. Future directions for CVD are proposed on the basis of current needs for efficient and effective progress in CVD process design and optimization.

  7. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ab. Khalik bin Haji Wood [Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1999-10-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  8. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  9. Status and Current Sensitivity of the CELESTE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Naurois, Mathieu

    2000-01-01

    The CELESTE experiment uses the heliostats of an old solar farm in the French Pyrenees to detect gamma ray air showers by the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. CELESTE has been operating since November 1999 with an array of 40 heliostats fully instrumented with 1GHz flash ADCs. Significant advances have been made in the detector simulations and in the data analysis techniques. We report here on results from recent observations of the Crab nebula above an energy threshold of 50GeV. The results and simulations illustrate the current sensitivity of the experiment.

  10. Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Ashok D.B.; Devasagayam, Thomas P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense oppo...

  11. Current status on design ground motion for buildings in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper firstly describes the design seismic force and design ground motion currently used in Japan. In the past, the static force representing the effect of earthquake motion on the structures was used directly for design. When computer technology advanced, and a precise analytical modelling became possible, analysis using time-dependent ground motion data became more common for seismic design analysis. The design static force is given considering some uncertainties due to variations of the ground motion properties, whereas the ground motion time history is regarded as a sample data picked up from the whole data set representing the average properties of design ground motions. In general, the design seismic force should be evaluated based on the ground motions corresponding to the site conditions and the specified occurrence rate of motion. However, the consideration of such characteristics has not been possible until recently, since the earthquake data was not sufficient and the simulation technique was not fully established either. These were made possible with many experiences of structural damage, accumulation of strong motion records with the recent advances in computing technology. Here, current evaluation practice of design ground motion is introduced and some problems to be solved in near future will be added. (author)

  12. Current status of the minke whales and conflicts of interest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K. V., Singarajah.

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Minke whales - the rorqual group of the family Balaenopteridae - are widely distributed and constitute an important major harvestable living resource of the sea. Recently, the Antarctic minke whale population has been estimated to be between 150,000 and 300,000. Populations being dynamic entities, t [...] he size of the minke whale population has been changing. Currently , the minke whale population in the Antarctic has been claimed to have increased considerably. However, the minke whale stock arriving off Brazil could be regarded as only a small discrete unit of breeding stock and an integral part of the Brazilian natural resource. Data analysis based on the past 21 years shows that this stock is relatively in a steady state, but with only a few annual fluctuations which are around a constant mean value; and these departures are attributable both to environmental conditions and the local operational parameters. Further, the analysis of overall data does not suggest any decline in the Brazilian stock and a MSY at about 58.5% can be taken without depleting the stock, provided no dramatic changes occur in the native Antarctic habitat where the minke whales return to feed. This would allow Brazil a carefully controlled rational utilization of this potentially valuable sea resource since enough exploitable numbers of minke whales have been estimated to be available for Area II. The current arguments of the conflicts between the Pro -and Anti-whaling groups are also briefly discussed.

  13. Current status of the minke whales and conflicts of interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Singarajah

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Minke whales - the rorqual group of the family Balaenopteridae - are widely distributed and constitute an important major harvestable living resource of the sea. Recently, the Antarctic minke whale population has been estimated to be between 150,000 and 300,000. Populations being dynamic entities, the size of the minke whale population has been changing. Currently , the minke whale population in the Antarctic has been claimed to have increased considerably. However, the minke whale stock arriving off Brazil could be regarded as only a small discrete unit of breeding stock and an integral part of the Brazilian natural resource. Data analysis based on the past 21 years shows that this stock is relatively in a steady state, but with only a few annual fluctuations which are around a constant mean value; and these departures are attributable both to environmental conditions and the local operational parameters. Further, the analysis of overall data does not suggest any decline in the Brazilian stock and a MSY at about 58.5% can be taken without depleting the stock, provided no dramatic changes occur in the native Antarctic habitat where the minke whales return to feed. This would allow Brazil a carefully controlled rational utilization of this potentially valuable sea resource since enough exploitable numbers of minke whales have been estimated to be available for Area II. The current arguments of the conflicts between the Pro -and Anti-whaling groups are also briefly discussed.

  14. Current status of radiopharmaceuticals production at AECS laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have essential role in the field of nuclear medicine for diagnosis and treatment purposes, where technetium - 99m have been occupied more than 80% of the total application in this field. The current nuclear medicine activities reflect an expanding demands on radiopharmaceuticals frome the points of quantity and types. AECS has started large project for development and production of radiopharmaceuticals in cooperation with IAEA through several TCPs. The aim of this project was to support the development process of nuclear medicine in the country and region. Several facilities were installed for production of 99mTc genereators, 99mTc cold kits and iodinated compounds and recently a cyclotron facility (cyclone-30 IBA) was added. The current production provide more than 20 products which cover more than 90% of the demands in the region. The production process is carried out according to severe quality assurance programme in consistence with GMP requirements. A new facility is now under construction to meet the expanding demands of radiopharmaceuticals in the region and to satisfy the new GMP requirements. This facility is planned to have hot laboratories for 99mTc generator production with capacity of about 100 generators per batch, high class clean room (class A-) for cold kit production and iodination laboratory

  15. Current status of research and development of HTGR in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) for a nuclear process heat application has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1969. Looking back upon the activities, there are considerably accumulated technologies enough to construct the experimental VHTR. Recently, however, economic structure in Japan has been changed with the low growth rate of economy and the nation's energy demands have been relieved so rapidly that the needs for nuclear process heat application have been declined. This trend also has been accelerated by introducing firmly the energy-saving technologies in industry and with increasing of the electric power generation by light water reactors. In this situation, the Special Committee of Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) has recognized newly the significance of the VHTR development from the viewpoint of long future and has recommended the construction of a high-temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) to upgrade the current VHTR technologies. JAERI has started new deployment of the HTTR as a research facility to prepare for the realization of nuclear process heat application in the 21st century. This paper deals with technical background and the current design concept of the HTTR. (author). 3 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Current status of accident analysis for Korean HCCR TBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Mu-Young, E-mail: myahn74@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Hyung Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Duck Young; Park, Yi-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Shuk; Lee, Youngmin [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Korea has decided to test Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER and design of the TBM with its ancillary systems, i.e. Test Blanket System (TBS), is under progress. Since the TBM is operated at elevated temperature with high heat load, safety consideration is essential in design procedure. In this paper, preliminary accident analysis results for the current HCCR TBS design on selected scenarios are presented as an important part of safety assessments. To simulate transient thermo-hydraulic behavior, GAMMA-FR code which has been developed in Korea for fusion applications was used. The main cooling and tritium extraction circuit systems, as well as the TBM, were simulated and the main components in the TBS were modeled as the associated heat structures. The important accident scenarios were produced and summarized in the paper considering the HCCR TBS design and ITER conditions, which cover in-vessel Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), in-box LOCA, ex-vessel LOCA, Loss Of Flow Accident (LOFA), Loss Of Heat Sink Accident (LOHSA) and purge pipe rupture case. The accident analysis based on the selected scenarios was performed and it was found that the current design of the HCCR TBS meets the thermo-hydraulic safety requirements.

  17. Current Status of the SANAEM RFQ Accelerator Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Turemen, G; Ogur, S; Yildiz, V; Mete, O; Oz, S; Ozbey, A; Yildiz, H; Yaman, F; Akgun, Y; Alacakir, A; Bolukdemir, S; Bozbey, A; Sahin, A; Unel, G; Erhan, S

    2015-01-01

    The design and production studies of the proton beamline of SPP, which aims to acquire know-how on proton accelerator technology thru development of man power and serves as particle accelerator technologies test bench, continue at TAEK-SANAEM as a multi-phase project. For the first phase, 20 keV protons will be accelerated to 1.3 MeV by a single piece RFQ. Currently, the beam current and stability tests are ongoing for the Inductively Coupled Plasma ion source. The measured magnetic field maps of the Low Energy Beam Transport solenoids are being used for matching various beam configurations of the ion source to the RFQ by computer simulations. The installation of the low energy diagnostics box was completed in Q1 of 2015. The production of the RFQ cavity was started with aluminum 7075-T6 which will be subsequently coated by Copper to reduce the RF (Ohmic) losses. On the RF side, the development of the hybrid power supply based on solid state and tetrode amplifiers continues. All RF transmission components hav...

  18. Solar water heating in Lebanon: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of solar thermal collectors is an economic alternative for water heating in Lebanon. More than 100,000m2 of collector area has been installed while the market can accommodate more than 1.5 million m2. The domestic sector, which is a main energy-consuming sector, stands to benefit the most from the implementation of such systems. Despite the lack of encouraging legislation, the solar thermal market has been continuously growing over the past decade. Both local manufacturers and importers have been active in the field. In addition, advanced forced circulation and collective systems are being used in large establishments, individual house and apartment buildings. Internationally funded demonstration projects using collective systems have been implemented in recent years with promising results. Simplified initial estimates indicate a payback period of 4-5 years while advanced mathematical models (RETScreen) indicate that the most advanced evacuated tube technology has a payback period of less than 9 years at current market prices. With decreasing cost per square meter of installed collectors, payback periods are expected to rapidly decrease. Regulatory support and tax breaks, if implemented, will have a positive effect on the market. The current increases in diesel prices are increasing demand on solar thermal water heaters. [Author

  19. The role of radiotherapy in urinary bladder cancer: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nader Marta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of radiotherapy (RT in the treatment of urinary bladder cancer has undergone several modifications along the last decades. In the beginning, definitive RT was used as treatment in an attempt to preserve the urinary bladder; however, the results were poor compared to those of radical surgery. Recently, many protocols have been developed supporting the use of multi-modality therapy, and the concept of organ preservation began to be reconsidered. Although phase III randomized clinical studies comparing radical cystectomy with bladder preservation therapies do not exist, the conservative treatment may present low toxicity and high indexes of complete response for selected patients. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the subject in order to situate RT in the current treatment of urinary bladder cancer.

  20. Scintigraphic diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism - current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its principle of detection, perfusion scintigraphy can detect small and even the smallest pulmonary embolisms with a maximum degree of sensitivity. There are weaknesses in specificity, in detection of pulmonary infarction and of non-occlusive emboli. To increase specificity, perfusion scintigrams should only be interpreted in conjunction with a current chest X-ray and a ventilation scintigram. Perfusion defects with V/Q mismatch should be interpreted and treated as pulmonary embolism even without angiographic correlates. In emergencies (serious dyspnea), however, perfusion scintigraphy alone provides results which are sufficiently precise, as far as prevalence is sufficiently high. Perfusion scintigraphy is the only imaging procedure which shows directly the functional consequences of pulmonary embolism, the degree of obstruction in the pulmonary arterial circulation can be estimated semiquantitatively. (orig./MG)