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Applicability of Telemedicine in Bangladesh: Current Status and Future Prospects  

CERN Multimedia

Telemedicine refers to the use of information and communication technology to provide and support health care mainly for the purpose of providing consultation. It is also a way to provide medical procedures or examinations to remote locations. It has the potential to improve both the quality and the access to health care services delivery while lowering costs even in the scarcity of resources. Understanding the potentiality of telemedicine, many developing countries are implementing telemedicine to provide health care facility to remote area where health care facilities are deficient. Bangladesh is not an exception to this either. In this paper we mention the reasons why Bangladesh has to move for telemedicine. We also present the past and on-going telemedicine activities and projects in Bangladesh. Analyzing these projects we have found out some factors which should be assessed carefully for successful implementation of telemedicine application. Finally we propose a prototype telemedicine network for Banglad...

Nessa, Ahasanun; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

2009-01-01

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Current Status and Perspectives of Nuclear Reactor Based Research in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been operating the country's only research reactor, a 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II, for the last 22 years. The reactor is equipped with a number of irradiation facilities: dry central thimble (DCT), neutron beam tubes (tangential, radial piercing, radial-1 and radial-2), pneumatic transfer system, rotary specimen rack (Lazy Suzan), thermal column, etc. Since its establishment, the BAEC TRIGA reactor has been playing pioneering role in scientific research and in providing services to the people. For example, the radioisotopes produced in this reactor are being used in different nuclear medicine centers of the country for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. On the other hand, with a view to opening a new avenue of fundamental and applied research in the country, a number of different experimental facilities were installed around the reactor in early nineties of the last century. With the aim of socio economic development of the country, these facilities are being used in various fields of research and utilization, such as, isotope production, material research using neutron scattering, materials characterization by neutron radiography, qualitative and quantitative assessment of elements in variety of sample matrices and nuclear data measurements using neutron activation analysis as well as training and service as centers of excellence in Science and Technology. The aim of this article is to explore the current status of nuclear reactor based research in Bangladesh with special emphasis on neutron activation analysis and future plan of enhancing its utilization. (author)

2011-05-01

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Current Status and Prospects for E-learning in the Promotion of Distance Education in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of e-learning as an advanced system for training and educating mass people using information and communication technologies (ICTs has been received an increasing level of interest in recent years in most of the western countries. In spite of socio-economic constraints, ICTs are rapidly expanding in the developing countries, and thus offering a new scope for the use of e-learning for the promotion of distance education. In Bangladesh, e-learning was first introduced as early as 1960s as a Radiobroadcast followed by a pilot project School Broadcasting Program (SBP in 1980s and then expanded by the establishment of the National Institute of Educational Media and Technology (NIEMT, which was later transformed into Bangladesh Institute of Distance Education (BIDE in 1985. The significant progress has been done after the establishment of the Bangladesh Open University (BOU in 1992 as the first and only national distance learning university. Within a decade of its establishment, enrollment of BOU students have reached nearly 400 thousands, and thus enlisted it as one of the mega-universities. BOU has been offering a variety of formal and non-formal academic programs from certificate to Masters levels using print, TV and radio broadcasts, audio-cassettes and face to face tutorials as the media of delivering its academic courses. Considering the rapid expansion of computer and internet in Bangladesh after 1998s, it is now appropriate time to consider inclusion of some interactive ICTs i.e. e-learning in delivering course materials of BOU or other institutes to promote distance education in Bangladesh. In this paper, we discuss the current situation and future prospects for e-learning in Bangladesh considering the current trend of ICTs expansion in the country.

Abu Sadeque Md. SELIM

2006-01-01

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Current status of education and training in nuclear technology in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority for the introduction, promotion and safety issues of nuclear science and technology in the country. During the last four decades, a significant development has been achieved in the field of food and agriculture, medicine, industries and environment using nuclear technology. Education and training in science and technology played a vital role to achieve the significant development in these fields. Some local public universities and BAEC training facilities at home and abroad have played mainly a key role to develop the human resource in the field of nuclear science and technology. Over the last four decades, BAEC with its various specialized establishments has played a focused role in the advancement, understanding and usage of nuclear science and technologies in the country. Through years of cumulative efforts, BAEC has developed a pool of research infrastructure, capacity and human resources having been trained extensively at home and abroad in their respective fields. The trained manpower in the different fields of science and technology are working in the country to solve some national problems like arsenic contamination in drinking water, iodine deficiency disease goitre, cancer and many others. BAEC is going to establish a Nuclear Training Institute which will also have residential facilities. Government has already assured to fund to establish the Nuclear Training Centre in the campus of AERE, Savar. BAEC placed a formal proposal for Affiliation with Jahangirnagar University for Awarding Post Graduate Degrees in different specialized fields of nuclear science and technology. As this might take some time for implementation; therefore, BAEC has decided to start the academic program immediately under the present set-up of the organization. With this view, BAEC proposes to affiliate its Nuclear Training Institute with the Jahangirnagar University for pursuing academic degree programmes i.e. post graduate diploma, M. S., M.Phil. and Ph.D. in the following specialized fields of nuclear science and technology: 1. Reactor Science and Technology; 2. Nuclear and related Analytical Science; 3. Nuclear safety and radiation control; 4. Nuclear Instrumentation and Control; 5. Nuclear Power and Energy; 6. Materials Science; 7. Radiation Medicine; 8. Nuclear Geology; 9. Radiological Science; 10. Radiation Biology; 11. Environmental and Molecular Biology

2007-07-01

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Wind energy status in Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bangladesh is a rural agricultural country lying in South Asia. Having a vast sea to the south and a long coast line, Bangladesh has a promising prospect for wind energy. For the last few decades all wind energy studies were based on Meteorological Department data that seemed to be insufficient due to inappropriate height for wind power generation. In recent years advanced technologies have been adopted to find the important wind areas of Bangladesh, especially for the study of electric power generation. Different initiatives from the government and non-government sectors have further strengthened the target through direct involvement in wind velocity measurement and a number of national workshops and international seminars. The revised wind speed data not only show a bright prospect of wind energy in Bangladesh but also bear an important value in rural electrification and irrigation programmes, the two vital sectors of socio-economic development of Bangladesh. (author)

Mohammad Upal Mahfuz [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

2001-07-01

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Determinants of the Current Use of Contraceptive Methods in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study used the, 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey, the 1993-94 and the 1996-97 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS to investigate the determinants of contraceptive use among the currently married women under 50 years of age. Bi-variate analysis were used to assess the differentials and multivariate analysis used to find the determinants of the current contraceptive use. The results indicate that improvement of the status of women, access to mass media and reduction of child mortality are important determinants of contraceptive use.

Ahmad Kabir

2001-01-01

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Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

1999-09-01

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Achieving the Millennium Development Goal for Under-five Mortality in Bangladesh: Current Status and Lessons for Issues and Challenges for Further Improvements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study assessed the achievements in, critically reviewed the relevant issues of, and put forward recommendations for achieving the target of the Millennium Development Goal relating to mortality of children aged less than five years (under-five mortality) in Bangladesh within 2015. To materialize the study objectives, a thorough literature review was done. Mortality of under-five children and infants decreased respectively to 65 from 151 and to 52 from 94 per 1,000 livebirths during 1990-2...

Sayem, Amir Mohammad; Nury, Abu Taher Md Sanaullah; Hossain, Md Delwar

2011-01-01

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Status of Fish Disease and Health Management Practices in Rural Freshwater Aquaculture of Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to examine the current status of fish disease and health management practices in rural freshwater aquaculture, a questionnaire survey and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools were used in five districts of Bangladesh namely Mymensingh, Comilla, Jessore, Natore and Dinajpur. A total of 500 farmers were interviewed and 25 PRA sessions were conducted. Most of the farmers (87.8%) interviewed had disease problem in their fishponds. Prevalence of fish disease varied with districts and...

2004-01-01

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Status of antithyroid antibodies in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study autoimmunity among thyroid diseases, 397 thyroid patients (age 30 (13) years; M/F 75/322) from two referral centres in Bangladesh and 94 healthy controls (age 30 (13) years; M/F 24/70) were studied for antimicrosomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies. Thyroid patients were clinically grouped as suspected autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), non-autoimmune, or indeterminate groups (where no decision could be reached). Antimicrosomal antibody was strongly positive in 19.4% and weakly positive in 7.3% of patients but only 4.3% and 2.1% respectively in the controls (chi(2) = 17.852; p = 0.000) whereas strong and weak positivity were 27.2% and 6. 8% in patients compared with 8.5% and 4.3% respectively in the controls (chi(2) = 16.916; p = 0.000) for antithyroglobulin antibody. Antibodies were positive in 63.0% with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 36.4% with Graves' disease, and 44.7% with atrophic thyroiditis among the autoimmune group. In the non-autoimmune group antibodies were positive in 100% with multinodular hypothyroidism, 46.7% with subacute thyroiditis, 40.0% with suspected iodine deficiency goitre, 31.3% with toxic multinodular goitre, 30.8% with non-toxic solitary nodules, and 19.4% with simple diffuse goitre. None was positive for antimicrosomal antibody without being positive for antithyroglobulin antibody. The two antibodies strongly correlated in both patients (r = 0.977, p = 0.000) and controls (r = 0.986, p = 0.000). About 9% (36/397) of patients were mismatched with the final diagnosis on antibody measurement; most of them had Hashimoto's thyroiditis (33/36). Prevalence of AITD among thyroid patients was 48.36%. Specificity of antimicrosomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies were 93% and 87%. It was concluded that AITD is not uncommon in Bangladesh; antimicrosomal antibody is a useful marker for AITD and unless antibodies are checked, an appreciable number of patients with AITDs will remain undetected. PMID:10824048

Hasanat, M A; Rumi, M A; Alam, M N; Hasan, K N; Salimullah, M; Salam, M A; Fariduddin, M; Mahtab, H; Khan, A K

2000-06-01

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Urinary iodine status and thyroid dysfunction: a Bangladesh perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iodine deficiency is endemic in Bangladesh. Compulsory iodization of table salt was introduced since 1993 to prevent and improve thyroid disorders in the country. Urinary iodine status, thyroid function and antithyroid antibodies were studied in 397 newly diagnosed thyroid patients and 94 age-sex matched controls. Among thyroid patients, 96 were hyperthyroid, 185 euthyroid and 116 hypothyroid. Mean and median urinary iodine were higher (p=0.075) in thyroid patients (26.13+/-0.91 and 23.03) than controls (22.65+/-1.47 and 18.59); in hyperthyroid and euthyroid than hypothyroid (p=0.020); in multinodular (28.08+/-2.80 and 26.94) and diffuse (27.35+/-1.19 and 26.71) goitre than uninodular (23.91+/-2.37 and 19.14) and nongoitrous (NG, 21.5+/-2.05 and 18.27) (p=0.098) patients but no sex difference (p=0.466). Antimicrosomal (26.7%) and antithyroglobulin (34%) antibodies were more frequently positive among thyroid patients than controls (6.4% and 12.8% respectively) (p=0.00002 and p=0.00005 respectively). Antibody positivity was higher in diffuse (82/228) and multinodular (20/47) goitre than nongoitrous (20/56) and uninodular (13/66) goitre (p=0.046) as well as in hypothyroid (55.2%) and hyperthyroid (36.5%) than euthyroid (19.5%) patients (P<0.001). Urinary iodine correlated neither with antimicrosomal (thyroid patients: p=0.597 and control: p=0.112) nor with antithyroglobulin (thyroid patients: p=0.388 and control: p=0.195) antibody. Thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction seems common; and interaction of salt iodization with iodine status and thyroid disorders may be important in Bangladesh. PMID:15376465

Hasanat, M A; Rumi, M A K; Alam, M N; Ahmed, S; Hasan, K N; Khan, A Y M H; Salimullah, M; Mahtab, H; Khan, A K A

2004-04-01

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Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report gives a review of the major work that has been done in Bangladesh on climate change and its impacts on Bangladesh. It also outlines the progress so far made towards the preparation of Bangladesh national communication under UNFCCC and recommendations for future studies, adaptation, mitigation and policy issues. Issues being studied by the Government of Bangladesh for greenhouse gas reduction in the energy sector include the integration of energy and land use issues in the planning of development schemes, efficient management of biomass energy sources, commercial fuel substitutes for fuel wood, and increasing availability and use of natural gas. Mitigation measures include crop diversification, and improving food production techniques. Adaptation strategies to mitigate sea level rise include constructing or modifying embankments. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

Qayyum, M.F.; Hossain, M.E.; Karmakar, S.; Karim, Z.; Ali, A.; Reazuddin, M. [Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

1998-12-31

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Current state of traffic pollution in Bangladesh and metropolitan Dhaka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Limited resources, invested for the development of transport facilities, such as infrastructure and vehicles, coupled with the rapid rise in transport demand, existence of a huge number of non-motorized vehicles on roads, lack of application of adequate and proper traffic management schemes are producing severe transport problems in almost all the urban areas of Bangladesh. Worsening situation of traffic congestion in the streets and sufferings of the inhabitants from vehicle emissions demand extensive research in this field. However, no detailed study concerning traffic congestion and pollution problems for urban areas of Bangladesh has yet been done. Therefore, it has become increasingly important to examine the present state of the problem. This research is a preliminary evaluation of the current situation of traffic pollution problem in Bangladesh. The daily total emissions of NO{sub x}, HC, CO, PM, and SO{sub x} are estimated using the daily fuel consumption and total traffic flows in Dhaka city. Estimated daily emissions are 42, 39, 314, 14, and 42 t/d for NO{sub x}, HC, CO, PM, and SO{sub x}, respectively. The emissions estimated using two different methods revealed good correlation. Daily average concentration of NO{sub x} (NO{sub 2}, NO) were measured at 30 street locations in Dhaka city during September and November, 1996. The results showed extremely high concentrations of NO{sub 2} and NO in these locations.

Karim, Masud; Matsui, Hiroshi [Nagoya Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Ohno, Takashi [Nagoya City Environmental Science Research Inst. (Japan); Hoque, S. [Bangladesh Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

1997-12-31

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Serum magnesium status among acute myocardial infarction patients in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case control cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Mymensingh Medical College in collaboration with Cardiology Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh during the period of July 2004 to June 2005. The aim of the study was to explore the status of serum magnesium among acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients as a means to monitor the possibility of management of these patients. A total of 100 subjects were selected and were grouped as Group I (50 healthy control subjects) and Group II (50 subjects of AMI Cases). Serum magnesium was estimated by colorimetric method from each sample. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS windows package. Among the groups, mean±SD (Standard Deviation) of Group I and Group II serum magnesium were 2.16±0.25 and 1.71±0.17mg/dl respectively. By comparing Group I with Group II highly significant difference were found in case of serum magnesium (pmagnesium level significantly decreases among acute myocardial infarction patients in Bangladesh. PMID:24584371

Chakraborty, P K; Islam, M R; Paul, U K; Husain, F

2014-01-01

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Photovoltaic Based Solar Home Systems – Current State of Dissemination in Rural Areas of Bangladesh and Future Prospect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently only 53 percent of total population in Bangladesh has access to electricity and per capita generation being 265 kWh is very low compared to some other developing countries. This shortage of energy hinders the growth of the country’s overall economy. However, Bangladesh has a good potential for harnessing renewable energy resources, solar and biomass in particular. Steps are taken to harness renewable sources of energy to make the country less dependent on the traditional fossil fuels. This paper presents current power generation scenario in Bangladesh, assesses the availability of solar irradiation and potential for power generation using solar PV panels. This paper also investigates into the current status of dissemination of PV based solar home systems (SHSs in the rural areas of Bangladesh. Currently approximately 94 MW of power is generated from around 2 million SHSs already installed. Average growth rate of SHSs from 2003 up to December 2012 is around 58% which is among the highest in the world.

MUHAMMAD RIAZUL HAMID

2013-02-01

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Current Status of Simulations  

CERN Multimedia

As the title suggests, the purpose of this chapter is to review the current status of numerical simulations of black hole accretion disks. This chapter focuses exclusively on global simulations of the accretion process within a few tens of gravitational radii of the black hole. Most of the simulations discussed are performed using general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) schemes, although some mention is made of Newtonian radiation MHD simulations and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The goal is to convey some of the exciting work that has been going on in the past few years and provide some speculation on future directions.

Fragile, P Chris

2013-01-01

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Status of spent fuel in the 3MW BAEC MK-II research reactor facility of Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bangladesh has been operating a 3 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor since 1986. The reactor is installed in the campus of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Savar, which is located about 40 km northwest of Dhaka. It is one of the main nuclear research facilities in the country. The reactor uses TRIGA LEU fuel with uranium content of 20% by weight. The enrichment level of the fuel is 19.7%. So far the reactor has been operated for 5624 hours with a total cumulative burnup (BU) of 10 690 MWh (445 MWd). The main areas of use are: training of man-power for research reactor operation and applications, radioisotope (RI) production, neutron activation analysis (NAA), neutron radiography (NR) and neutron scattering. Radioisotopes produced to date are: I-131, Sc-46 and Tc-99m. Bangladesh is a peace loving country with a strong commitment towards nuclear nonproliferation. Accordingly, it has signed several multilateral and bilateral agreements, protocols, treaties, etc. prevailing in the International Nuclear Non-proliferation regime. Bangladesh has also signed a Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with the USA on 17 September 1981, which facilitated export of nuclear technology from the USA to Bangladesh. The research reactor was procured under the provisions of this agreement. In 2003, the tenure of the Agreement was extended up to 2012. At present, there does not exist any spent fuel element in the reactor facility. However, with the recently undertaken RI production enhancement program, it is expected that the reactor will start generating spent fuels from the year 2012. It is to be mentioned that Bangladesh is aware of the US DOE's 'Take Back Program' in connection with the research reactor spent fuel of US origin, and is very much interested to take part in this program. The paper presents the current status of handling and storage facilities available for spent fuel and strategy for the safe management spent fuel to be generated from the research reactor in near future. (author)

2008-08-01

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Radwaste disposal strategy in Bangladesh: Present status and future trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Significant amounts of radioactive solid liquid and mixed wastes are generated in Bangladesh from peaceful uses of atomic energy including disused sealed sources and spent fuel from the research reactor and other hot laboratories in the country. At present these wastes are being collected, segregated, labeled and stored in an interim safe storage. A Central Waste Processing and Storage Facility (CWPSF) is fast nearing completion in the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar campus where the TRIGA Research Reactor, Isotope Production Laboratory, 14 MeV Neutron Generator, 37 x 10"2 TBq commercial irradiator and other hot facilities are situated. A national strategy exists for the management and disposal of various types of radioactive wastes. Gaseous and liquid wastes are discharged in the environment in a controlled manner following delay decay procedure. Short-lived low and intermediate level wastes (SL-LILW) and disused/spent sealed radioactive sources are being stored in an interim storage before storage in the CWPSF following short treatment and conditioning. As regards their disposal, the currently preferred option is engineered near surface repository. Site investigation work has progressed far enough toward the goal of establishing a demonstration repository at AERE, Savar by the year 2010. For small amount of long-lived highly active problem wastes including spent radium needles and disused radioactive sources, the safe management option is a long-term storage in the CWPSF after conditioning and treatment. But this is not considered as a sustainable solution. The real emphasis is placed on the development of inexpensive disposal methods and availing regional/international repositories. (author)

2002-12-09

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Impact of Grameen Bank Microcrdit Programme on Changing Livelihood Status of the Rural Women in Panchagarh District of Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Rural women in Bangladesh are the most deprived part of the society and majority of them are extremely poor. They have very limited access to income generating activities and consequently less opportunity to improve their livelihood status. Microcredit programme contributes to improve the livelihood status of rural women in Bangladesh. Approach: This study examines the extent of changes in livelihood status of rural women through their involvement in the micro...

2011-01-01

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Pheromone use for insect control: present status and prospect in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The insect’s world is filled with many odors. Insects use these odors to cue them in a variety of complex social behaviors, including courtship, mating, and egg laying. Scientists and pest control specialists have known about these complex communication systems for decades. The main aim of this study was to visualize the availability, trends and differences in the sources of pheromone control in agricultural growth of Bangladesh. It also concerned on constrains and present use of pheromone and their possible recommendation on behalf of Bangladesh agriculture. It concentrated on the data during last three decades (1980-2010, comprising status of pheromone use in Bangladesh agriculture and its future. Review revealed that Bangladesh has been enormously successful in increasing pheromone use in agricultural production (especially for vegetables. Understanding of the nature of pheromones and their potential for pest control along with the future prospective of pheromone technique in agriculture were stated. Since the pheromone, technologies for control of major crop pests in Bangladesh are still limited. So that this review emphasized on more attention to the authority to increase the research works and project facilities related to develop and promote pheromone techniques. It is highly recommended to increase availability of pheromone in market, more investment in research and development, introduction of newly identified pheromone for specific pest, to assist government and non-government organizations to work with farmers to reduce harmful insecticide use and promote pheromone tactics as one part of integrated crop management (ICM.

Md. Azharul Islam

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Present status on the use of antibiotics and chemicals in shrimp hatcheries and grow-out ponds and their environmental implications in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to document the current status on the use of antibiotics, chemicals and biological products used in shrimp hatcheries and grow-out ponds in Bangladesh. In the last decade, coastal aquaculture practised traditionally in south western and south eastern parts of Bangladesh has developed into a big industry. With the rapid expansion of shrimp grow-out facilities, the hatchery industry has progressed rapidly during the last five years. A major disease outbreak, namely white spot disease in 1995 struck the shrimp aquaculture throughout the country and resulted in increased use of chemotherapeutics for disinfection and treatment. Among the 50 operating hatcheries of Bangladesh, 40 (80% were surveyed in which 7 different antibiotics, 6 disinfectants and 2 different biological products were used for controlling common diseases. The study also covered 50 grow-out ponds of which 30 were in southwestern and 20 were in southeastern part of Bangladesh. The study included 8 semi-intensive and 42 extensive farms. Diseases were treated with 15 commercial products belonging to 3 antibiotics classes. The antibiotics currently used in shrimp aquaculture in Bangladesh are chloramphenicol in the name of CL-33, prefuran, oxytetracycline, furazolidone, erythromycin, neomycin sulphate, kenamycin sulphate and ciprofloxacin.

Sheikh Aftabuddin

2009-10-01

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Socio-Psychological Status of Female Heads of Households in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study describes and examines the resource position and socio-psychological status of female heads of household in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh. For this, 120 households led by females were selected by convenience sampling from Rajshahi city, Bangladesh. The women heads were individually interviewed with semi-structured questionnaire method, focusing on access to resources and socio-psychological problems of the women who lead and run their households. The results of descriptive analysis and in-depth interviews suggest that absence of a male breadwinner and the lack of tangible resources led to a situation of increased vulnerability for the female heads of households in Rajshahi city, Bangladesh that, in turn, affect socio-psychological status of the female heads adversely. The study also suggests that the intangible resources like informal social support had, to some extent, compensated the scarcity of tangible resources for the female heads. In order to overcome the situations of female heads of households some policy implications are suggested. Based on probability sampling further research on this issue should be conducted in Bangladesh.

Tanzima Zohra Habib

2010-12-01

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Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP) knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upa...

Islam MR; Thorvaldsen G

2012-01-01

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Infant Anemia and Micronutrient Status : Studies of Early Determinants in Rural Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in infancy are common in low-income settings. These are partly due to maternal malnutrition and may impair child health and development. We studied the impact of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation, duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), growth and infection on infant anemia and micronutrient status. In the MINIMat trial in Matlab, Bangladesh, pregnant women were randomized to Early or Usual promotion of enrolment in a food supplementation...

2011-01-01

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Radiation education in Bangladesh: status need and opportunities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state, the provisions of radiation education and training have expanded greatly. Still then, since it is a developing country with high population growth rate, low literacy level and located thousands of miles away from the developed ones, it is difficult to transfer and disseminate knowledge, particularly about the subject of radiation at a speed and spread as required to meet the challenge of future. So, not only professional training but also institutional and formal academic knowledge and skill development is essential in the process of acquisition and transfer of such knowledge. Accordingly the courses on radiation and radioactivity including risk perception in general have to be vigorously pursued for the sake of safety and attaining basic concepts about health effects of different levels of radiation. (author)

1999-09-01

26

Impact of Grameen Bank Microcrdit Programme on Changing Livelihood Status of the Rural Women in Panchagarh District of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Rural women in Bangladesh are the most deprived part of the society and majority of them are extremely poor. They have very limited access to income generating activities and consequently less opportunity to improve their livelihood status. Microcredit programme contributes to improve the livelihood status of rural women in Bangladesh. Approach: This study examines the extent of changes in livelihood status of rural women through their involvement in the microcredit programme of Bangladesh. Results: The study reveals that the rural women, after joining the microcredit programme, have been able to engage themselves in income generating activities and consequently improved significantly their livelihood status. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that microcredit programme plays a significant role in changing and improving livelihood status among the rural poor families.

Ferdoushi Ahmed

2011-01-01

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Contraceptive Effectiveness of Breastfeeding and Current Contraceptive Practice in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the opinion about reproductive behavior commodity participation in contraceptive mothers opinion about suitable contraceptive method during breastfeeding in Bangladesh. For this purpose secondary data were collected from Bangladesh Institute of Research for Promotion of Essential and Reproductive Health and Technologies (BIRPERHT, in Bangladesh in the year 1995. The contraceptive effectiveness of lactational amenorrhoea during exclusive breastfeeding the baby, 35.6% mentioned that this period is fully protective from risk of contraception; about 37.9% stated that there is a partial risk of pregnancy. The suckling of the infant appears to trigger the chain of events. Stimulating the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to release some hormones and inhibit the release of mothers. This has the total effect of suppressing ovulation with contraceptive effect being strongest during lactational period. Mothers in rural and urban area may choose to adopt a contraceptive method during breastfeeding and that is suitable method in this period oral pill 33% and condom 28% by their opinions. The overall distribution of opinion about risk of conception reflects that significantly larger proportion with 99% confidence level of urban mothers think that lactational period does not provide adequate protection from conception. Mothers should be informed about the maternal health benefit of breastfeeding including lactational period and its contraceptive effect, which increases birth interval and maintain good health of the mothers.

M. S. Mazumder

2001-01-01

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Health and Nutritional Status of Young Foster Children Attending a Diarrhea Treatment Hospital in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is scarcity of evidence-based information about socio-demographic as well as ailment factors associated with foster children in Bangladesh. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine the socio-economic, health and nutritional status of young foster children in urban Dhaka. A total of 208 (1%; n = 208/28,948) under-5 foster children were enrolled in the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System of icddr,b between 1993-2012. Randomly selected under-5 children (n = ...

Durdana Akhter; Sumon Kumar Das; Mohammod Jobayer Chisti; Gazi Imran; Fahmida Dil Farzana; Shahnawaz Ahmed; Farzana Ferdous; Mohammad Abdul Malek; Abu Syed Golam Faruque

2013-01-01

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Status of Fish Disease and Health Management Practices in Rural Freshwater Aquaculture of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to examine the current status of fish disease and health management practices in rural freshwater aquaculture, a questionnaire survey and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA tools were used in five districts of Bangladesh namely Mymensingh, Comilla, Jessore, Natore and Dinajpur. A total of 500 farmers were interviewed and 25 PRA sessions were conducted. Most of the farmers (87.8% interviewed had disease problem in their fishponds. Prevalence of fish disease varied with districts and the size of farms. Average prevalence of fish disease was highest in Jessore district (18.2% followed by Comilla (13.4%, Mymensingh (11.4% and Dinajpur district (10.4%. Minimum prevalence (5.5% was recorded from Natore district. Small farms (0.4 ha suffered from high disease prevalence (13.8% followed by medium (0.2-0.4 ha and large (>0.4 ha farms with 12.4 and 9.3% of diseases, respectively. The most prevalent disease was tail and fin rot (20.5%, followed by epizootic ulcerative syndrome or EUS (18.9%, nutritional diseases (15.3%, red spot (13.0% and gill rot (12.3%. Other conditions like argulosis, dropsy and white spot were also reported by the farmers but with lower incidence. The diseases occurred mainly in the winter season. Overall, the knowledge of the farmers on basic fish health management was found very poor. Most of the farmers (83.8% used treatment measures in response to particular disease problem. For disease treatment, 46% farmers used combination of lime and potassium permanganate, 22.4% farmer used only lime and about 10% farmer used lime and salt together. This study identified some fish health management related problems in rural aquaculture, such as lack of assistance, poor technical knowledge and lack of suitable therapeutics and their proper uses.

M.A.R. Faruk

2004-01-01

30

The WIMP Paradigm: Current Status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The WIMP paradigm is the glue that joins together much of the high energy and cosmic frontiers. It postulates that most of the matter in the Universe is made of weakly-interacting massive particles, with implications for a broad range of experiments and observations. I will review the WIMP paradigm's underlying motivations, its current status in view of rapid experimental progress on several fronts, and recent theoretical variations on the WIMP paradigm theme.

Feng, Jonathan (University of California, Irvine)

2011-03-23

31

Current status of Japanese detectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current status of TAMA and CLIO detectors in Japan is reported in this article. These two interferometric gravitational-wave detectors are being developed for the large cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) which is a future plan for detecting gravitational wave signals at least once per year. TAMA300 is being upgraded to improve the sensitivity in low frequency region after the last observation experiment in 2004. To reduce the seismic noises, we are installing ne...

Tatsumi, Daisuke; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Arai, Koji; Nakagawa, Noriyasu; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Toshitaka; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-katsu; Takamori, Akiteru; Bertolini, Alessandro; Sannibale, Virginio; Desalvo, Riccardo; Marka, Szabolcs; Ando, Masaki; Tsubono, Kimio

2007-01-01

32

Status and decline causes of fish diversity of Baral River, Natore, Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to desribe the status and decline causes of fish diversity inBaral river, Natore, Bangladesh. The study was conducted over a period from November 2010 to May2011 on the Bagatipara point of Baral river, Natore, Bangladesh. A total of 60 fish species of nine ordersand 21 families were identified. On the basis of availability the species were categorized in four statusesthat obtained as available (45%, less available (33.33%, rare (13.33% and very rare (8.33%. Resultof the study identified five species as very rare which may extinct near future resulting declination of thefish diversity. Few man made decline causes like agro-industrial wastages, different obstacles of waterflow, excess use of river water, siltation and over fishing were observed as major threats for the diversityof fishes. The present work recommends preventing water pollution, ensuring water flow, developingfishermen’s awareness, implementation of fisheries laws and declaration of fish sanctuary to save fishdiversity of the study area. Besides, counter and random survey is recommended to cross check thefishes’ status for their proper management and conservation.

Fawzia A. Flowra

2013-07-01

33

Contributing variables for sustainable livelihood status of the char women in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of variables to the sustainable livelihood status of char women. The sustainable livelihood status of a char woman was measured by computing a “sustainable livelihood status score” which is considering six major aspects of her livelihoods: food security, ability to provide family education, health and sanitation, shelter and family assets, clothing condition and social upliftment. Data were collected from 200 randomly selected char women by using interview schedule in two Upazilla of Jamalpur district in Bangladesh during November 2006 to March 2007. More than two-fifths (67.5 per cent of the char women were found under “medium sustainable livelihood status” compared to more than one-fifth (20.5 per cent of them belongs to ‘low sustainable livelihood status’ and only 12 per cent to “high sustainable livelihood status”. Pearson correlation test depicted that out of 16 variables, 13 had significant positive relationships with the sustainable livelihood status. Results of stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that five variables namely, annual income, agricultural knowledge, income generating activities, family education and organizational participation contributed significantly which combindly explained 76.3 per cent of total variation to the sustainable livelihood status. Path analysis indicated that these variables had both direct and indirect effects to the sustainable livelihood status. Women who had more annual income, better agricultural knowledge, participation in income generating activities, more family education and more organizational participation were found to better sustainable livelihood status in char area. Government or concern other authorities need to give attention to these variables for any sustainable livelihood upliftment programme.

S. Al-Amin

2012-03-01

34

Determinants of Current Account Deficit in Developing Countries: The Case of Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Co-integration and Error Correction Model (ECM) are employed to study the behavior of Current Account Deficit (CAD) of Bangladesh and its determinants. The determinants of CAD include budget surplus, domestic saving, domestic income growth, foreign income growth, foreign interest rate, terms of trade, export and real exchange rate. A long-run equilibrium (co-integration) relationship is found between CAD and its determinants, although some variables are non-stationary. Out of eight independen...

Kamrul Hassanm A. F. M.

2006-01-01

35

Human Rights Violation and Political Persecution in Bangladesh: The Current Scenery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bangladesh emerged as an independent country in the South Asia in 1971 after being separated from Pakistan. In 1971 it was a very poor country. The general people had a hope and dream that the political parties will develop the country and will eradicate poverty gradually, will provide jobs to the 50% unemployed people, will educate the 60% illiterate people; but their holy hope and dream have not been fulfilled due to frequent hostile political culture, beating, killing among the political party members, no patriotism among the political leaders, massive corruption, unnecessary frequent strike, unnecessary opposition to the government policy etc. This paper has narrated the past and current social and political situation in Bangladesh briefly with the help of data collected from newspapers and statements given by intellectuals and political leaders. Descriptive and analytical research methodology has been applied in this paper to narrate the situation.

Md. Abdul Jalil

2011-01-01

36

Current status of pulmonary metastasectomy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Malignant disease's ability to metastasize remains one of the major obstacles when treating patients with cancer. The change from loco-regional to systemic disease usually renders the patient beyond surgical treatment, as local treatment with surgery in a systemic disease is usually considered without benefit. However, numerous retrospective studies have demonstrated that resection of metastases limited to the lungs may be associated with prolonged survival. No prospective, randomized studies have been published, and most series compare highly selected patients with historical data for unresected patients. In this article, we discuss the current status on pulmonary metastasectomy. Preoperative assessment and selection of surgical candidates is covered. The different surgical strategies including surgical approach, unilateral versus bilateral exploration, lymph node dissection, and repeat surgery are discussed. Finally, we review some of the common tumors that metastasize to the lungs, the role of metastasectomy in their treatment and the prognostic factors with impact on survival.

Hornbech, KÃ¥re; Ravn, Jesper

2011-01-01

37

Health and Nutritional Status of Young Foster Children Attending a Diarrhea Treatment Hospital in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is scarcity of evidence-based information about socio-demographic as well as ailment factors associated with foster children in Bangladesh. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine the socio-economic, health and nutritional status of young foster children in urban Dhaka. A total of 208 (1%; n = 208/28,948 under-5 foster children were enrolled in the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System of icddr,b between 1993-2012. Randomly selected under-5 children (n = 624 with a ratio of 1:3 were extracted and constituted as comparison group. Forty-three percent (n = 90 foster children were male. Lack of formal schooling of mother was higher among foster children compared to non-foster children (52% vs. 35%; p

Abu Syed Golam Faruque

2013-07-01

38

Correlates of Family Cultural Background and Family Status and Role Between Muslim and Santal Communities in Rural Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Family status and role, fundamental building block of family structure, are influenced and determined by family cultural background factors. The purpose of this study is to examine and compare how family cultural background factors influence family status and role between Muslim and Santal communities in rural Bangladesh. In so doing, the village Kalna, situated in the Talonda union of Tanore Upazila of Rajshahi district of Bangladesh, was purposefully selected for this study where two distinct cultural communities: Muslim amd Santal were living side by side as neighbors in the same geographical setting. In this village there wereabout 380 families: 300 families were Muslim’s and the rest of them were Santal’s. For this study 70 couples from Muslim community and 30 couples from Santal community were selected through cluster random sampling and then structure questionnaire method with close and open ended questions was applied for data collection on family cultural background factors and family status and role. The results of Pearson correlation without significant test of the study reveal that family cultural background factors are differentially positively or negatively related to family status and role. It is argued that there are differences in family cultural background factors that are differentially correlated to or influence on family status and role between Muslim and Santal communities in rural Bangladesh.

Emaj Uddin

2009-06-01

39

Current status of Japanese detectors  

CERN Multimedia

Current status of TAMA and CLIO detectors in Japan is reported in this article. These two interferometric gravitational-wave detectors are being developed for the large cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) which is a future plan for detecting gravitational wave signals at least once per year. TAMA300 is being upgraded to improve the sensitivity in low frequency region after the last observation experiment in 2004. To reduce the seismic noises, we are installing new seismic isolation system, which is called TAMA Seismic Attenuation System, for the four test masses. We confirmed stable mass locks of a cavity and improvements of length and angular fluctuations by using two SASs. We are currently optimizing the performance of the third and fourth SASs. We continue TAMA300 operation and R&D studies for LCGT. Next data taking in the summer of 2007 is planned. CLIO is a 100-m baseline length prototype detector for LCGT to investigate interferometer performance in cryogenic condition. The key features of...

Tatsumi, Daisuke; Arai, Koji; Nakagawa, Noriyasu; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Toshitaka; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Takamori, Akiteru; Bertolini, Alessandro; Sannibale, Virginio; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Marka, Szabolcs; Ando, Masaki; Tsubono, Kimio; Akutsu, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishitsuka, Hideki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Awaya, Norichika; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Araya, Akito; Telada, Souichi; Tomaru, Takayuki; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sato, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Shintomi, Takakazu

2007-01-01

40

Current status of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decision to devote the 1984 conference to nuclear power is timely and appropriate. Illinois has a long, and distinguished history in the development of civilian nuclear power. The concept was born at the University of Chicago, developed at Argonne National Laboratory and demonstrated on the Commonwealth Edison system at our pioneer Dresden Nuclear Station. Today, Illinois ranks number one in the nation in nuclear generation. With over a quarter century of commercial operating experience, nuclear power has proven its worth and become a significant and growing component of electric power supply domestically and throughout the world. Despite its initial acceptance, however, the nuclear power industry in the U.S. is now in the midst of a difficult period of readjustment stemming largely from the economic and regulatory problems of the past decade. As a result, the costs of plants under construction have increased dramatically, causing serious financial difficulties for several projects and their owners. At the same time, the U.S. is facing hard choices concerning its future energy supplies. Conferences such as this have an important role in clarifying the issues and helping to find solutions to today's pressing energy problems. This paper summarizes the status of nuclear power both here and abroad, discussing the implications of current events in the context of national energy policy and economic development here in Illinois

1984-11-01

 
 
 
 
41

Applicability of Telemedicine in Bangladesh: Current Status and Future Prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Telemedicine refers to the use of information and communication technology to provide and support health care mainly for the purpose of providing consultation. It is also a way to provide medical procedures or examinations to remote locations. It has the potential to improve both the quality and the access to health care services delivery while lowering costs even in the scarcity of resources. Understanding the potentiality of telemedicine, many developing countries are impl...

Nessa, Ahasanun; Ameen, M. A.; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

2009-01-01

42

Current status of diuretic renography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Percutaneous antegrade perfusion studies constitute a valuable contribution to the investigation of obstructive uropathy. In 1978, the first report of application of diuretic renogram techniques to this problem appeared in the literature. This was the first systematic report of a standardized protocol to be applied to a specific surgical problem. The purpose of the procedure, as with perfusion pressure-flow studies, is to help distinguish between a dilated urinary tract that is obstructed and requires surgery and a nonobstructed system in which urographic dilation and stasis mimic obstruction, but no genuine impedance to urine flow exists, and surgery is not required. The technique provides dual information. It gives quantitative data on individual renal function that perfusion pressure-flow studies do not, and it gives time-activity curves reflecting the urodynamics through the individual upper urinary tracts at normal and high urinary flow rates. In the early days, this information was obtained from probe studies, but the procedure is now almost exclusively performed using the gamma camera, images from which give additional information on the site of any suspected obstruction. In some ways, the development of diuretic renography and that of perfusion pressure-flow studies have proceeded in a competitive fashion, both attempting to answer the same questions by different means. In practice, however, the two tests would be regarded as complementary, as will be shown later in this chapter. The following sections describe the technique of diuretic renography, its current clinical application and status in surgical and nuclear medicine practice, and its role in comparison with other available tests for management of the dilated upper urinary tract

1987-01-01

43

Current status of zirconia restoration.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past decade, zirconia-based ceramics have been successfully introduced into the clinic to fabricate fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), along with a dental computer-aided/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. In this article (1) development of dental ceramics, (2) the current status of dental CAD/CAM systems, (3) CAD/CAM and zirconia restoration, (4) bond between zirconia and veneering ceramics, (5) bond of zirconia with resin-based luting agents, (6) surface finish of zirconia restoration and antagonist enamel wear, and (7) clinical evaluation of zirconia restoration are reviewed. Yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) showed better mechanical properties and superior resistance to fracture than other conventional dental ceramics. Furthermore, ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline and alumina nanocomposites (Ce-TZP/A) had the highest fracture toughness and had resistance to low-temperature aging degradation. Both zirconia-based ceramics have been clinically available as an alternative to the metal framework for fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Marginal adaptation of zirconia-based FDPs is acceptable for clinical application. The most frequent clinical complication with zirconia-based FDPs was chipping of the veneering porcelain that was affected by many factors. The mechanism for the bonding between zirconia and veneering ceramics remains unknown. There was no clear evidence of chemical bonding and the bond strength between zirconia and porcelain was lower than that between metal and porcelain. There were two alternatives proposed that might avoid chipping of veneering porcelains. One was hybrid-structured FDPs comprising CAD/CAM-fabricated porcelain parts adhering to a CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia framework. Another option was full-contour zirconia FDPs using high translucent zirconia. Combined application of silica coating and/or silane coupler, and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate is currently one of the most reliable bonding systems for zirconia. Adhesive treatments could be applied to luting the restorations and fabricating hybrid-structured FDPs. Full-contour zirconia FDPs caused concern about the wear of antagonist enamel, because the hardness of Y-TZP was over double that of porcelain. However, this review demonstrates that highly polished zirconia yielded lower antagonist wear compared with porcelains. Polishing of zirconia is possible, but glazing is not recommended for the surface finish of zirconia. Clinical data since 2010 are included in this review. The zirconia frameworks rarely got damaged in many cases and complications often occurred in the veneering ceramic materials. Further clinical studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are required to investigate the possible influencing factors of technical failures. PMID:24140561

Miyazaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsumura, Hideo; Ban, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taira

2013-10-01

44

Extensive Reading in EFL Classroom at Secondary Schools in Bangladesh: Current Practices and Future Possibilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extensive reading is being practiced in many EFL and ESL classrooms as an effective means for developing learners’ reading as well as other related skills. This paper is based on a small-scale study that explores the current practices and future possibilities of using extensive reading in the EFL classrooms at the junior secondary schools in Bangladesh. The study reports the responses of 100 secondary English teachers on different aspects of using extensive reading tasks in the EFL classrooms of Bangladeshi schools. It is found that though the teachers of Bangladesh express positive beliefs about the benefits of extensive reading, the techniques they follow in their classrooms at present mostly encourage intensive reading. It is also evident that teachers who deal with extensive reading do not often follow the best practices in the classrooms. It is suggested in this study that extensive reading needs to be promoted in the Bangladeshi schools through coordinated efforts of all the stakeholders in the secondary education system. It is stressed that a combination of initiatives such as teacher training, awareness raising, curriculum reform and changing existing assessment format can promote the practices of extensive reading activities among the young learners.

Md Zulfeqar Haider

2012-04-01

45

Present Status of Field Disease and Morphological Characteristics of Recommended Potato Varieties in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the present status of ten recommended potato varieties in Bangladesh. It was found that incidence of potato leaf roll virus (PLRV, potato Y potyvirus (PYV, scab, tuber rot and cutworm were significantly different in different varieties. Similarly, dry matter and starch percentage, number of tuber per plant and yield per plant varied significantly with the varieties. The variety Ailsa showed lowest infection of PLRV followed by Dheera and Cardinal and the highest infection was recorded in Patrones. The varieties Arinda, Chamak, Dheera, Heera and Kuroda were free from PYV infection. Whereas, Multa showed the highest infection of PYV. Lowest infection of scab was recorded in the variety Dheera and it was highest in Ailsa. The appearance of foliage was good looking in all varieties except the varieties Multa, Patrones and Ailsa. Varieties Ailsa, Chamak and Dheera showed late maturity as compared to other varieties. The highest dry matter and starch content were recorded in variety Dheera and it was lowest in Kuroda. The highest yield per plant was obtained from Chamak followed by Ailsa, Dheera, Heera and Cardinal and it was lowest in variety Patrones. Considering all aspects in both the seasons, two varieties namely, Chamak and Dheera were noted best performers in terms of disease severity, plant growth and yield.

M. Hossain

2002-01-01

46

Composition and Status of Undergrowth of a Deforested Area in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study described the composition and status of undergrowth (shrubs, herbs and grasses in a degraded deforested area of Chittagong (South forest division, Chittagong, Bangladesh. A stratified random quadrat method was used in the study. The area on the whole consists of 45 species of undergrowth of 31 families. Shrubs layer includes 14 species of 12 families and herbs and grasses include 31 species of 19 families. Among the shrubs Clerodendrum viscosum shows the highest density (94 plants/100 m2 and Cassia alata shows the lowest density (8 plants/100 m2. The highest frequency was found in Clerodendrum viscusum (50% and lowest frequency was found in Corcorus capsularis (5%. The highest abundance was recorded in Corcorus capsularis (13 followed by Ipomoea fistulosa (11 and Lantana camara (11. Among the herbs and grasses Imperata cylindrica shows the highest density, frequency and abundance (7638 plants/100 m2, 77% and 394, respectively followed by Cynodon dactylon (687 plants/100 m2, Unidentified-4 (265 plants/100 m2. The lowest frequency (5% and abundance (3 were recorded in Pueraria sp. and Musa paradisiaca, respectively. Abundance frequency ratio of each shrubs, herbs and grasses are >0.05 showing the contagious nature of each species distribution.

M. Al-Amin

2004-01-01

47

Iodine deficiency status of school going children in coastal region of bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: Bangladesh is an iodine deficient zone, affected mainly in the northern part i.e., in Himalayan belt along Brahmaputra and Jamuna River. Severity of' iodine deficiency can be assessed by prevalence of goitre and urinary iodine excretion. The latest nationwide survey of Iodine Deficiency Disorders of' Bangladesh in 1993 showed prevalence of goitre 47.1% in all age and sex group and 69% of the population had urinary iodine excretion 100 mcg/L. Conclusion: On the basis of goitre prevalence and urinary iodine excretion, coastal region of Bangladesh is a mild iodine deficient zone. (authors)

2004-10-09

48

The Current Status of Galaxy Formation  

CERN Document Server

Understanding galaxy formation is one of the most pressing issues in cosmology. We review the current status of galaxy formation from both an observational and a theoretical perspective, and summarise the prospects for future advances.

Silk, Joe

2012-01-01

49

Current Status of RENO Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) is under construction to measure the value of the smallest and unknown neutrino mixing angle ?13. The experiment will compare the measured fluxes of electron antineutrinos at two detectors located at 290 m and 1.4 km distances from the center of the Yonggwang nuclear reactors in Korea, with world-second largest thermal power output of 16.4 GW. Construction of experimental halls and access tunnels for both near and far detector sites was completed in early 2009. The detectors are near completion, and data-taking is planned to start in mid 2010. An expected number of observed antineutrino is roughly 510 and 80 per day in the near detector and far detector, respectively. An estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.6%, and an expected statistical error is about 0.3%. With three years of data, the experiment will search for the mixing angle values of sin2(2?13) down to 0.02 in 90% C.L. limit. In this talk, the construction status will be presented. (author)

2010-07-22

50

The role of micro credit in life status improvement process of rural poor people in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Bangladesh is a developing country located in the southern part of Asia. Almost eighty percent of the total population of Bangladesh lives in rural areas and most of them are poor. These poor people are not qualified to get loan facilities from the formal financial sector due to the collateral requirements. And informal financial sector also make them unattractive due to their tendency of higher profit making. Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank jointly awarded Nobel Peace Prize 2006 ...

2011-01-01

51

Status and socio-economic significance of wetland in the tropics: a study from Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out in the adjacent communities of the Hakaluki haor, the largest inland freshwater wetland of Bangladesh to explore their socio-economic status and haor-based livelihood dependency. Hakaluki haor is a poverty stricken region with 37% households falling into extreme poor group having monthly income of Tk 2 000.00 only. More than half of the community view Hakaluki haor as the vital source of livelihoods. The surrounding community is dependent on the haor in varying degree (15% totally dependent, 32% moderately and 53% less with a variety of livelihood activities like fishing and related profession (32%, duck rearing (29%, cattle rearing (28%, fuel wood collection (6%, sand extraction (3% and reed collection (2%. The average annual household incomes from fishing of naturally available fish, pisciculture and NTFPs collection are Tk 21 701.35, Tk 31 524.83 and Tk 2 704.80, respectively. The haor serves as the source of fuel for cooking to a majority of the community (48%. The respondents identified over-exploitation of fish resources, use of excessive pesticides and gradual increase of human settlement in and around the haor as the most threatened events. With the designation as Ecologically Critical Area (ECA by the government, immediate attempts should be taken to ensure sustainable utilization of the haor resources. Development of integrated management plan with a provision of the participation of local stakeholders may become the possible way of conserving this wetland.This study was carried out in the adjacent communities of the Hakaluki haor, the largest inland freshwater wetland of Bangladesh to explore their socio-economic status and haor-based livelihood dependency. Hakaluki haor is a poverty stricken region with 37% households falling into extreme poor group having monthly income of Tk 2 000.00 only. More than half of the community view Hakaluki haor as the vital source of livelihoods. The surrounding community is dependent on the haor in varying degree (15% totally dependent, 32% moderately and 53% less with a variety of livelihood activities like fishing and related profession (32%, duck rearing (29%, cattle rearing (28%, fuel wood collection (6%, sand extraction (3% and reed collection (2%. The average annual household incomes from fishing of naturally available fish, pisciculture and NTFPs collection are Tk 21 701.35, Tk 31 524.83 and Tk 2 704.80, respectively. The haor serves as the source of fuel for cooking to a majority of the community (48%. The respondents identified over-exploitation of fish resources, use of excessive pesticides and gradual increase of human settlement in and around the haor as the most threatened events. With the designation as Ecologically Critical Area (ECA by the government, immediate attempts should be taken to ensure sustainable utilization of the haor resources. Development of integrated management plan with a provision of the participation of local stakeholders may become the possible way of conserving this wetland.

Rana MP

2009-10-01

52

PET/CT - Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From autoradiography to planar X rays, computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR), morphology and structure has been the mainstay of biological and medical imaging for over a century. While structural changes may suggest the presence of disease, functional changes are more sensitive indicators of early-stage pathology, and with cancer, early detection is the key to a favorable prognosis. Since molecular imaging offers the potential to quantitatively image functional changes in vivo, it is assuming an increasingly important role in the identification, staging and re-staging of human disease. Specifically, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) are sensitive techniques to map human physiology non-invasively through the use of high-resolution imaging devices and appropriate radioactively-labeled biomarkers. However, such metabolic maps do not offer the structural detail associated with anatomical imaging techniques such as CT and MR and therefore dual modality devices such as PET/CT, SPECT/CT or PET/MR that combine both structural and functional information offer a more complete and accurate assessment of the status of disease. PET/CT instrumentation, for example, was first introduced into the clinic in 2001 and since then, progress has been rapid. Technological advances in each modality, CT and PET, have been consistently incorporated into the combined device ensuring state-of-the-art performance for PET/CT. Recent advances in CT include an increase in the number of detector rows or slices (from 1 to 64), a reduction in rotation times (to less than 0.5 s), and the emergence of the first CT scanner incorporating dual X ray sources. Paralleling these advances, PET instrumentation has witnessed the introduction of new faster scintillators, higher resolution detectors, increased sensitivity through extended axial coverage, and the resurgence of time-of-flight information to improve image signal-to-noise. A major advance in image reconstruction techniques has been the introduction of statistically-based algorithms into clinical routine, with progressive refinement of the system model to more accurately represent the imaging process. Most of the independent advances in CT and PET instrumentation have been rapidly incorporated into state-of-the-art PET/CT designs and over the past six years, the development, introduction and rapid adoption of PET/CT technology has significantly impacted the medical imaging field. For oncology in particular, PET/CT has become the preferred imaging modality with over 1600 scanners now installed in clinical practice worldwide, progressively replacing PET-only tomographs

2007-11-10

53

Current status of pacemaker technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the first cardiac pacemaker was implanted twenty years ago, advances rendered have provided patients with increased reliability and therapeutic efficiency as well as subsequent incrementation in their life expectancy. Technological developments have yielded improvement in the main components such as electrode, the energy source and the electronic circuitry. A variety of leads are available to effect pacing requirements at ventricular and, in part, atrial levels. The introduction of lithium energy sources has prolonged the usefull life of pacemakers to more than 8 years. Consumption of current has been reduced by decreasing electrode surface area, shortening of pulse duration and employment of hybrid circuits. Microprocessing of the electronic components have enabled reduced size of pulse generators while providing increased reliability and capabilities for additional functions. Amelioration of electrophysiologic disturbances has been specifically approaches through increasing use of atrial and bifocal pacemakers, external programmability and overdrive pacing. (orig.)

1978-01-01

54

Engineered barriers: current status 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain substantially the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg "1"3"7Cs), since they can provide a measure of containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

1989-01-01

55

Current status of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC is a rare primary liver cancer with a global increasing trend in recent years. Symptoms tend to be vague and insidious in development, often are diagnosed at an advanced stage when only palliative approaches can be used with a median survival rate of months. Comparing with HCC, ICC tends to spread to lymph nodes early, and is rarely limited to the regional lymph nodes, with a frequent postoperative recurrence. Surgery is the only choice of curative therapy for ICC, but recently no consensus has been established for operation. Thus, more data from multiple centers and more cases are needed. Generally speaking, current adjunctive therapy cannot clearly improve survival. Further research is needed to find more effective radio- and chemotherapeutic regimens.

Jian Yang, Lu-Nan Yan

2008-11-01

56

Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh:a multivariate analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP) knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh. Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts) of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate ...

2012-01-01

57

Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP) knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh. Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts) of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate ...

2012-01-01

58

Nanodosimetry: Principle and Current Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the success of theoretical track structure Monte Carlo simulations, showing that features of ionization patterns on the nanometer level are important for the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, several new methods for experimental track structure investigations have been developed in recent years. These methods all use the principle of density scaling in low-pressure gas to probe track structure in macroscopic dimensions, ideally with single-ionization resolution. The new field of experimental track structure investigation, which has been called nanodosimetry, can be approached in two ways: (1) the number of ionizations in a defined, ideally wall-less, sensitive volume is registered per single primary particle and cluster size distributions are obtained, or (2) the full track structure of an ion track segment is 'imaged'. Existing nanodosimetric methods are based on the first approach, but a track structure imaging detector is currently under development at Loma Linda University. This contribution will review the principle and existing technical approaches to nanodosimetry and will give an outlook on future developments and applications.

2011-05-05

59

The status of neutral currents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The situation of particle physics today is quite puzzling. On the one hand, the Standard Model (SM) of strong and electroweak interactions is consistent with all confirmed experimental data but theoretically rather unsatisfactory. On the other hand, none of the many theoretical speculations which try to go beyond the SM has (yet) received the slightest experimental support. The solution to this dilemma can only come from new data: either from the detection of a new particle threshold at high energy colliders, or from the appearance of some small discrepancy in high-precision experiments. A crucial sector for testing the SM and its extensions is that of neutral currents (NC), where an impressive amount of data has been collected in recent years. While waiting for the next generation of experiments, it is certainly useful to take stock of our knowledge, determining the NC parameters as precisely as we can and putting limits on possible deviations from the SM. The present talk contains the results of a recent analysis along these lines: the first part illustrates how a set of 'model-independent' parameters can be extracted from the available NC data, the second part particularizes the analysis to the SM and to some superstring-inspired models with an additional Z' in their low-energy spectrum. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

1987-08-03

60

The status of neutral currents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The situation of particle physics today is quite puzzling. On the one hand, the Standard Model (SM) of strong and electroweak interactions is consistent with all confirmed experimental data but theoretically rather unsatisfactory. On the other hand, none of the many theoretical speculations which try to go beyond the SM has (yet) received the slightest experimental support. The solution to this dilemma can only come from new data: either from the detection of a new particle threshold at high energy colliders, or from the appearance of some small discrepancy in high-precision experiments. A crucial sector for testing the SM and its extensions is that of neutral currents (NC), where an impressive amount of data has been collected in recent years. While waiting for the next generation of experiments, it is certainly useful to take stock of our knowledge, determining the NC parameters as precisely as we can and putting limits on possible deviations from the SM. The present talk contains the results of a recent analysis along these lines: the first part illustrates how a set of 'model-independent' parameters can be extracted from the available NC data, the second part particularizes the analysis to the SM and to some superstring-inspired models with an additional Z' in their low-energy spectrum. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Zwirner, F.

1987-11-01

 
 
 
 
61

Current status of rotational atherectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rotational atherectomy facilitates percutaneous coronary intervention for complex de novo lesions with severe calcification. A strategy of routine rotational atherectomy has not, however, conferred reduction in restenosis or major adverse cardiac events. As it is technically demanding, rotational atherectomy is also uncommon. At this 25-year anniversary since the introduction of rotational atherectomy, we sought to review the current state-of-the-art in rotational atherectomy technique, safety, and efficacy data in the modern era of drug-eluting stents, strategies to prevent and manage complications, including slow-flow/no-reflow and burr entrapment, and appropriate use in the context of the broader evolution in the management of stable ischemic heart disease. Fundamental elements of optimal technique include use of a single burr with burr-to-artery ratio of 0.5 to 0.6-rotational speed of 140,000 to 150,000 rpm, gradual burr advancement using a pecking motion, short ablation runs of 15 to 20 s, and avoidance of decelerations >5,000 rpm. Combined with meticulous technique, optimal antiplatelet therapy, vasodilators, flush solution, and provisional use of atropine, temporary pacing, vasopressors, and mechanical support may prevent slow-flow/no-reflow, which in contemporary series is reported in 0.0% to 2.6% of cases. On the basis of the results of recent large clinical trials, a subset of patients with complex coronary artery disease previously assigned to rotational atherectomy may be directed instead to medical therapy alone or bypass surgery. For patients with de novo severely calcified lesions for which rotational atherectomy remains appropriate, referral centers of excellence are required. PMID:24630879

Tomey, Matthew I; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K

2014-04-01

62

Temporary Movement of Natural Persons (TMNP: Prospects and Constraints of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Temporary Movement of Natural Persons (TMNP known as Mode-4 under the General Agreements of Trade inService (GATS is the real interest for Bangladesh in service negotiation. The research reveals the significanceof TMNP and its impact on the living standard of households and economic development of Bangladesh. It hasdemonstrated the scope for future diversification in profession and market to expand volume of labor exportfrom Bangladesh. In addition, this article has shown the constraints faced by Bangladesh in TMNP. The analysisis based on the secondary information and comprehensive database. Finally, the study depicts measures toimprove the current status of TMNP in light of major market access barriers.

Zahidul Karim

2011-01-01

63

Present status and future prospects of industrial applications of isotopes in Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ionising radiation is used for quality assurance and quality control of many industrial products. Bangladesh is actively working on the industrial application of isotopes in the fields of non-destructive testing (NDT) of material, nuclear analytical technique, radiation technology, tracer technology through the participation in the UNDP/IAEA/RCA Project for Asia and the Pacific on the industrial application of isotopes and radiation technology. Bangladesh is developing NDT technology to such an extent and standard that the country is attaining self-reliance in this field for service and human resource development and the foreign dependence is becoming greatly reduced. Examples of recent achievements are given

Ullah, M.D.S. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Ramna Dhaka (Bangladesh)

1997-10-01

64

Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh

Islam MR

2012-02-01

65

Current status of the AUSTRON project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of the AUSTRON spallation source project is described with reference to the need for neutrons in Europe and - due to a certain West-East imbalance of large research facilities - especially in Central Europe. A short overview about technical aspects of proton accelerator, rapid cycling synchrotron, storage ring, target and instrumentation is presented. (author)

2001-03-01

66

Current status of methods for shielding analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current methods used in shielding analysis and recent improvements in those methods are discussed. The status of methods development is discussed based on needs cited at the 1977 International Conference on Reactor Shielding. Additional areas where methods development is needed are discussed.

Engle, W.W.

1980-01-01

67

Quality Assurance in Secondary Education Program of Bangladesh Open University: Present Status and Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present day in national and international perspectives, quality is the top of most agendas. Quality of education has significant impact and invaluable contribution to the area of development. Recently, the SSC & HSC program of BOU [Open School of Bangladesh Open University] have earned recognition of equivalency with the formal education…

Akhter, Zobaida

2008-01-01

68

Current status of high-Tc wire  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is the result of the work of a SCENET (The European Network for Superconductivity) material working group's efforts on giving values for present and future expected performance of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires and tapes. The purpose of the work is to give input to the design of HTS applications like power cables, motors, current leads, magnets, transformers and generators. The current status performance values are supposed to be used in the design of today's prototypes and the future values for the design of fully commercial HTS applications of the future. We focus on what is expected to be the relevant parameters for HTS application design. The most successful technique by far for making HTS tapes has been on the (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) material by the powder-in-tube (PIT) technique and this paper therefore focuses on giving the current status and expected future performance for Bi-2223 tapes. (author)

2000-07-01

69

Isotope-aided studies on the nutrient status of eight Bangladesh soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this pot investigation was to identify the lack of macro- and micronutrients by cereal, leguminous and oil crops grown on typical Bangladesh soils. Radioactive and stable tracers were applied in two pot experiments, one extensive experiment with four crops rice, mungbean, mustard, and barley and with six radionuclides, 32P, 75Se, 58Co, 65Zn and 85Sr, and one small experiment with barley and 15N-enriched urea. This report contains the results of the investigation and comments of treatment effects on dry matter yields, chemical concentrations and chemical yields, in relation to soil analyses and to obtained tracer measures of soil fertility. Some conclusions are drawn as regards fertilizer measures needed to increase crop production under Bangladesh village conditions and as regards the potential value of futher soil/fertilizer/plant- investigations using tracers for evaluation and assessment of soil fertility and fertilizer efficiency. (author)

1980-01-01

70

Current status of low energy EB machine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron beam processing systems have been in use in a variety of applications such as curing of paints and printing inks, crosslinking of PE products, treating of rubber tire and so on. Low energy electron processing systems have become popular as self-shielded machines, which are compact and easy to use and do not require special facility as an irradiation room. This manuscript introduces the status of low energy EB (electron beam) machine through Nissin's products current

1999-08-24

71

Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring withi...

Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Go?ran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

2005-01-01

72

Assessment of energy status for irrigation technology in Bangladesh: A GIS approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Planning sustainable development projects requires comprehensive and reliable information to serve as the base for making timely and reasonable decisions. A Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used to obtain such information in a comparatively quick and easy way using specialized maps and numeric data. In this study, a GIS approach is established to enhance the development of a useful energy scenario for the selection of irrigation technologies in Bangladesh, based on the irrigated cropped area. The irrigation technologies considered were shallow tubewell, force mode tubewell, low lift pump, manual operated pump units, and traditional systems as power sources. The objective of this approach was to develop the energy scenario of irrigation technology during two cropping seasons in Bangladesh. The model estimated the amounts of energy used, the amounts needed, and shortages for the selected irrigation technologies. Mapping algebra in avenue request, and spatial analysis was done for multi-layered model development. The spatial distribution of the uses, needs, and shortages of energy was analyzed for 64 districts of Bangladesh. (author)

Ahamed, T.; Takigawa, T.; Koike, M. [Institute of Agricultural and Forest Engineering, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8572 (Japan); Hossain, M.M.; Huq, M.M. [Department of Farm Power and Machinery, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Faruk, M.O. [Environmental and GIS Support Project, House No 49, Road 27, Banani, Dhaka-1213 (Bangladesh)

2006-11-15

73

Status of current neutron dosimeter performance analyses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken a large program to develop a new neutron dosimetry concepts that offer improvements over current practices. The development efforts are being directed toward providing devices that are suitable as personnel dosimeters. In conjunction with the development projects, performance data are being accumulated for the personnel dosimeters now used by major DOE contractors. These data are to provide a basis for evaluating the new personnel dosimeters under development. The status of gathering the data for current dosimeters is described in this consistent for doses above 80 mrem. This ovservation is not expected to change as the project progresses

1981-10-01

74

Hepatitis B Vaccination in Bangladesh: a Suggestion Based on Current Evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionThe hepatitis B virus (HBV causes up to a million deaths worldwide and 16 million health care related infections in the tropics each year(1,2, and over 350 million become chronically infected carriers who have no significant liver disease; approximately three quarters of them are in Asia and the western pacific region(3,4. HBV infection is a potentially life threatening condition as many of the affected individuals progress to chronic hepatitis,cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC(3. In infants and children, acute hepatitis B infection is nearly always asymptomatic, whereas in adults it is usually the opposite. But on the other hand, the risk of becoming chronic carriage is much greater in children than in adults; as many as 90% of infants born to Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg positive mothers become carriers themselves and, therefore, in long term are more likely to developchronic liver disease(5. Currently, though several antiviral drugs are used,there is no reliable curative treatment for HBV once it has been acquired and prevention by universal immunization remains the strategy for reducing the number of acute infections, chronic carriage and the long-term burden from diseases such as HCC(4,6. In 1991, in an attempt to reduce the global impact of HBV infection, WHO recommended that hepatitis B vaccination should be integrated into national immunization programs in all countries(7.Some Asian countries, for instance, Thailand, haveadopted the policy of immunizing children universally against the disease as early as 1992, however many others lagged behind(4.The true prevalence of Hepatitis B in Bangladesh is yet to be ascertained by a reliable study. Data available from different studies show that it ranges between 0.8 and 5.4% depending on the study design, samples and laboratory methods used(8-10.These data were based on detection of HBsAg antigen; the rates would have been higher, had they been based on anti-HBc antibody(11. Relying on these statistics Bangladesh can be categorized as an intermediate endemic zone for HBV(12. Unfortunately, despite an increased prevalence of HBV infection, the country has not incorporated hepatitis B vaccination into its national childhood immunization policy until recently, most probably because of its economic constraints. Presently it offers three doses hepatitis B vaccine to all babies. It is felt that the current regimen was drawn in on the basis of ongoing uncertainties and disagreements surrounding the vaccine all over the globe.Uncertainties Surrounding HBV ImmunizationThe rationale of HBV immunization is illustrated in the box; however uncertainties surrounding HBV immunization do exist, these are:Box: Rationale of Hepatitis B Immunization The rationale of HBV vaccination is to prevent: · Episodes of acute hepatitis B · Chronic hepatitis B surface antigenaemia · Chronic hepatitis and the need for therapy · Hepatocellular carcinoma · HBV transmission Correspondence:Dr. Harunor Rashid, Research Fellow, Academic Departmentof Child Health, Queen Mary University of London, 38 NewRoad, London, E1 2AX, UKFax: +44(02073777167E-mail: h.rashid@qmul.ac.ukHep Mon 2006; 6 (1: 41-44 - Duration of vaccine- induced immunity:It has been shown that immunization with three doses of HBV vaccine provides acceptable level of seroprotection for at least five years(13. Titersdecreased to 99% of the 14 year olds had titers of |“|10mIU/mL while one year after the booster 10mIU/mL after 1 month of first, second and third vaccinations were 58%, 70% and 94% respectively(16. However, it has been observed in other studies that two doses of recombinant HBV vaccine given over 4 or 6 months provide adequate seroprotection (|“|10mIU/mL in |“|95% of adolescent vaccines(13,17. There were small variations in vaccine response between infants and teenagers. The range of protection for different doses is shown in Table(17. If we accept that a level of 80-95% seroprotection is sufficient for Bangladesh then a strategy with only two doses would be more economical.Table:

Shafquat Mohammed Rafiq

2006-12-01

75

Current Status of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a leading cause of cancer-related death of men globally. Since its introduction, there has been intense debate as to the effectiveness of the prostate specific antigen (PSA test as a screening tool for PCa. It is now evident that the PSA test produces unacceptably high rates of false positive results and is not prognostic. Here we review the current status of molecular biomarkers that promise to be prognostic and that might inform individual patient management. It highlights current efforts to identify biomarkers obtained by minimally invasive methods and discusses current knowledge with regard to gene fusions, mRNA and microRNAs, immunology, and cancer-associated microparticles.

Vicki M. Velonas

2013-05-01

76

The ENIQ pilot study: current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

1998-11-01

77

Nutrition and Oxidative Parameters in Pregnancy, Size at Birth and Metabolic Status of the Offspring at 4.5 Years : The MINIMat Trial in Rural Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Undernutrition and oxidative stress in fetal life and infancy may lead to adverse health outcomes in the offspring. We studied nutrition and oxidative parameters in pregnancy and their associations with birth anthropometry and metabolic status in the children. In Matlab in rural Bangladesh, women were randomized to either early (Early) invitation to food supplementation or to start at their own liking (Usual). Women were also allocated to either; 1) 60 mg iron and 400 µg folic acid (Fe60F), ...

Lindstro?m, Emma

2012-01-01

78

Current Scenario of the Small-scale Broiler Farming in Bangladesh: Potentials for the Future Projection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Bangladesh, there are two types of broiler farming of which contract broiler farming is still under trial while independent small-scale broiler farming is dominant and performed for the development of broiler sector. The present study examined the potentials of small-scale independent broiler farms and farmers’ economic behavior in relation to farm size. Farm size is found to be closely related to farmers’ behavior and attitude. Farmers’ behavior and attitude appeared to be very cruc...

Md. Saiful Islam; Sasaki Takashi; Kaniz Quamrun Nahar Chhabi

2010-01-01

79

Status of Tc-99m and 99Mo/99mTc generator production in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotope Production Division (RIPD) produced instant technetium-99m by solvent extraction method for several years. On R and D basis, the division produced portable sterile Tc-99m sublimation generator by irradiating titanium molybdate in the reactor. The division produced (4/batch) from imported fission Mo-99 till June 2005. Since August 2005, as per demand of the government hospitals, the division have been producing 12-14 pieces of 15 GBq chromatographic 99mTc-generators weekly by using the new generator production plant installed last year having online Mo-99 loading system with the of producing 50 generator per batch. Development of PZC and (n,?)99Mo based generator holds potential in Bangladesh. (author)

2007-09-01

80

Biotechnology in Mauritius: current status and constraints  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Agriculture today faces the challenge of sustainable productivity and improved food security on a shrinking area of land under cultivation. Until recently, biotechnology has been viewed as an expensive technology affordable only by rich industrial countries. However, it is now increasingly considere [...] d as an essential tool for developing countries to tackle the numerous problems of underdevelopment. Unfortunately, to date, Mauritius, like many other countries in Africa, lags far behind in development, use and commercialisation of biotechnology. This paper outlines the current status of biotechnology in Mauritius, some important constraints faced, as well as how policy makers are planning to make Mauritius “assume the role of a service provider and know-how disseminator in the field of biotechnology by acting as a regional hub and a regional nursery”.

Daneshwar, Puchooa.

2004-08-15

 
 
 
 
81

Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for ?-amyloid plaques, ?1 receptors, and dopamine D2 or D4 receptors; (2) 99mTc- and 18F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, 99mTc-labeled glucose derivatives, ?2 receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

2014-01-01

82

Current status of the LORD experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status of the Lunar Orbit Radio Detector (LORD) experiment to search for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR), using the Moon as both a target for the UHECR interaction and radiator for production Cherenkov radio emission. The scientific potential of this new technology is estimated for a reasonable configuration of experiment by analytic modeling. It is shown that such radio wave experiment can be competitive with modern projects in this field. The simplest technically realizable architecture for the first generation of the LORD instrument, disposed on a standard lunar space platform designed by Lavochkin association, is elaborated. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed, including effects associated with the finite depth of the regolith layer. The signature of the cascade signal is different from the background, and discrimination between CR and neutrino cascades might be possible.

Gusev, G. A.; Chechin, V. A.; Lomonosov, B. N.; Pichkhadze, K. M.; Polukhina, N. G.; Ryabov, V. A.; Sysoev, V. K.; Tsarev, V. A.

2009-06-01

83

Data Hiding: Current Status and Key Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image steganography is a covert communication method that uses an image as the cover to hide the truth from potential attackers that some secret message hidden in the image is being transported. When we appreciate the astonishing beauty of a world famous picture in its digital form on the computer, it is hard to imagine that the picture might actually be working as a messenger, carrying some invisible important secret message along with it. In other words, steganography is a collection of cryptographic techniques that provide protection to the secret message by offering it the appearance of an image. In this survey paper, our focus is on the development and current status of steganographic techniques for grayscale images. We shall separately introduce schemes with high hiding capacities and schemes with high imperceptibility. The advantages and disadvantages of those schemes will be closely analyzed, offering directions for our future research efforts.

Nan-I Wu

2007-01-01

84

Current status of Pohang Neutron Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present the current status of Pohang Neutron Facility, which is the pulsed neutron facility, based on the 70-MeV electron linear accelerator completed on Dec.1997. We have prepared the 15-m time-of-flight path, a Ta-target system, and the Data Acquisition System. Meanwhile we have measured the total cross-sections of Dy and Hf samples at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and the neutron capture cross-sections of {sup 164}Dy isotope at Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology both in Japan. We also were participated the experiment at the 122-m flight path of the IBR-30 pulsed neutron source of Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. (author)

Kim, G.N.; Lee, Y.S.; Cho, M.H. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang (KR)] [and others

2000-03-01

85

Current status of NDC fuel hot laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear Development Corporation (NDC) fuel hot laboratory was established to investigate the causes for leaked rods and to confirm the integrity of the precedence irradiation fuels, in 1986. After that, it obtained a license to conduct PIE of the structural materials, such as stainless steels, inside the reactor in addition to fuels. So far we have conducted PIE of fuels and metallic materials including fuel assembly components and reactor internal components irradiated in Japanese PWR plants or some test reactors. To meet these PIE needs, we are making efforts to improve facilities and to install high advanced equipments. This paper describes current status of the facilities and PIE techniques in NDC fuel hot laboratory. (author)

1999-09-01

86

Current status of the Qatar Exoplanet Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

The Qatar Exoplanet Survey (QES) is conducting a wide-field transit search program using a 6-camera CCD imaging system designed design to go at least 0.5 magnitudes fainter than most current wide-angle surveys such as SuperWASP and HATNet. QES uses two overlapping wide field 135mm and 200mm lenses along with four 400mm lenses mosaiced to cover the same 11x11 degree field of view. The higher angular resolution and large aperture doubles the sampling volume for low-mass stars, compared to WASP and HAT. Saturn and Neptune sized planets are more easily detected if they orbit smaller stars, therefore by extending the transit search to stars with smaller radii QES is well position to plug the gap, between SuperEarths and Hot Jupiters, left between Kepler and the current wide-angle surveys. QES detections are nonetheless still bright enough for radial-velocity follow up with 2-m and 4-m class telescopes. We present the current status of the Qatar Exoplanet Survey, along with information of the first transiting exoplanets, Qatar-1b and Qatar-2b, to be found using the instrument, which were both detected orbiting K-dwarfs stars.

Parley, Neil; Collier Cameron, A.; Horne, K.; Alsubai, K. A.; QES Consortium

2011-09-01

87

South Asian Free Trade Area: Implications for Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current thesis has analyzed the impact of South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) on Bangladesh in terms of export generation within member countries. A standard gravity model has been used to analyze Bangladesh’s export potential using cross section data. From the estimated result, it is observed that Bangladesh has huge export potential to South Asia in general, and India in particular. If SAFTA agreement is properly implemented then Bangladesh’s exports within this region would be much...

2009-01-01

88

Current status of human papillomavirus vaccines  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm arising from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. It is the second most prevalent cancer among women. It can have several causes; an infection with some type of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer. Over 100 types of HPVs have been identified, and more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region. Among these, a number of HPVs types, containing types 16 and 18, are classified as "high-risk" HPVs that can cause cervical cancer. The HPVs vaccine prevents infection with certain species of HPVs associated with the development of cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers. Two HPVs vaccines are currently on the global market: quadrivalent HPVs vaccine and bivalent HPV vaccine that use virus-like particles as a vaccine antigen. This review discusses the current status of HPVs vaccines on the global market, clinical trials, and the future of HPVs vaccine development.

Yi, Seokjae

2014-01-01

89

Contributing variables for sustainable livelihood status of the char women in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of variables to the sustainable livelihood status of char women. The sustainable livelihood status of a char woman was measured by computing a “sustainable livelihood status score” which is considering six major aspects of her livelihoods: food security, ability to provide family education, health and sanitation, shelter and family assets, clothing condition and social upliftment. Data were collected from 200 randomly selecte...

2012-01-01

90

Diversity of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT of Bangladesh was considered hyperendemic for malaria. To better understand the contemporary malaria epidemiology and to develop new and innovative control strategies, comprehensive epidemiologic studies are ongoing in two endemic unions of Bandarban district of CHT. Within these studies entomological surveillance has been undertaken to study the role of the existing anopheline species involved in the malaria transmission cycle throughout the year. Methods CDC miniature light traps were deployed to collect anopheline mosquitoes from the sleeping room of the selected houses each month in a single union (Kuhalong. Molecular identification was carried out for available Anopheles species complexes. Circumsporozoite proteins (CSP for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax-210 (Pv-210 and Plasmodium vivax-247(Pv-247 were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from the female anopheline mosquitoes. To confirm CSP-ELISA results, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also performed. Results A total of 2,837 anopheline mosquitoes, of which 2,576 were female, belonging to 20 species were collected from July 2009?-June 2010. Anopheles jeyporiensis was the most abundant species (18.9%, followed by An. vagus (16.8% and An. kochi (14.4%. ELISA was performed on 2,467 female mosquitoes of 19 species. 15 (0.6% female anophelines belonging to eight species were found to be positive for Plasmodium infection by CSP-ELISA. Of those, 11 (0.4% mosquitoes were positive for P. falciparum and four (0.2% for Pv-210. No mosquito was found positive for Pv-247. An. maculatus (2.1%, 2/97 had the highest infection rate followed by An. umbrosus (1.7%, 2/115 and An. barbirostris (1.1%, 2/186. Other infected species were An. nigerrimus, An. nivipes, An. jeyporiensis, An. kochi, and An. vagus. Out of 11 P. falciparum CSP positive samples, seven turned out to be positive by PCR. None of the samples positive for Pv-210 was positive by PCR. In terms of abundance and incrimination, the results suggest that An. maculatus, An. jeyporiensis and An. nivipes play important roles in malaria transmission in Kuhalong. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that even in the presence of an insecticide impregnated bed-net intervention, a number of Anopheles species still play a role in the transmission of malaria. Further investigations are required to reveal the detailed biology and insecticide resistance patterns of the vector mosquito species in endemic areas in Bangladesh in order to assist with the planning and implementation of improved malaria control strategies.

Alam Mohammad

2012-07-01

91

Current Scenario of the Small-scale Broiler Farming in Bangladesh: Potentials for the Future Projection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Bangladesh, there are two types of broiler farming of which contract broiler farming is still under trial while independent small-scale broiler farming is dominant and performed for the development of broiler sector. The present study examined the potentials of small-scale independent broiler farms and farmers’ economic behavior in relation to farm size. Farm size is found to be closely related to farmers’ behavior and attitude. Farmers’ behavior and attitude appeared to be very crucial factor for the development of broiler production. The primary data were collected from the independent small-scale farms in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. The results showed that independent small-scale broiler farming is a profitable venture for rural farmers. Farmers are involving in this sector because of lower investment, less space requirement, utilization of family labor and quick returns. To examine the farmers’ behavior, farmers were classified into two income goal groups in terms of total per capita income: a First Income Goal Group (FIGG and b Second Income Goal Group (SIGG. The economic behaviors of the farmers were differed by income goal groups. Most of the farmers belonging to the FIGG were interested to enlarge their farm size, the opposed trend has been observed in farmers of SIGG. Economic behavior and attitude should be considered in making any suggestion and recommendation for changing the existing level of small-scale broiler farming.

Kaniz Quamrun Nahar Chhabi

2010-01-01

92

Evaluation of the impact of the voucher and accreditation approach on improving reproductive behaviors and RH status: Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost of delivering reproductive health services to low-income populations will always require total or partial subsidization by the government and/or development partners. Broadly termed "Demand-Side Financing" or "Output-Based Aid", includes a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the service user rather than the service provider. Initial findings from the few assessments of reproductive health voucher-and-accreditation programs suggest that, if implemented well, these programs have great potential for achieving the policy objectives of increasing access and use, reducing inequities and enhancing program efficiency and service quality. At this point in time, however, there is a paucity of evidence describing how the various voucher programs function in different settings, for various reproductive health services. Methods/Design Population Council-Nairobi, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to address the lack of evidence around the pros and cons of 'voucher and accreditation' approaches to improving the reproductive health of low income women in five developing countries. In Bangladesh, the activities will be conducted in 11 accredited health facilities where Demand Side Financing program is being implemented and compared with populations drawn from areas served by similar non-accredited facilities. Facility inventories, client exit interviews and service provider interviews will be used to collect comparable data across each facility for assessing readiness and quality of care. In-depth interviews with key stakeholders will be conducted to gain a deeper understanding about the program. A population-based survey will also be carried out in two types of locations: areas where vouchers are distributed and similar locations where vouchers are not distributed. Discussion This is a quasi-experimental study which will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving maternal health behaviors and status and reducing inequities at the population level. We expect a significant increase in the utilization of maternal health care services by the accredited health facilities in the experimental areas compared to the control areas as a direct result of the interventions. If the voucher scheme in Bangladesh is found effective, it may help other countries to adopt this approach for improving utilization of maternity care services for reducing maternal mortality.

Rahman Moshiur

2011-04-01

93

Current status of ITER EC design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ITER-FEAT Electron Cyclotron System employs one equatorial launcher and three upper port launchers to inject 20 + 20 MW of mm-wave power at 170 GHz through slots in the plasma-facing neutron and radiation shield. The equatorial launcher includes 3 sets of toroidally steer-able mirrors, each collecting 8 RF beams from 24 circular cross-section corrugated wave-guides. In the upper-port launcher, eight beams, reflected in pairs by four toroidally angled (?30 angle) and poloidally steer-able (? 10 angle) mirrors focus of the RF power on the plasma m = 2 and m = 3/2 plasma flux rational surfaces, for neo-classical tearing mode(s) (NTM) control. Conceptual studies of remote steering that would possibly allow removing the beam- steering equipment from the vacuum vessel and locating them in more protected positions have been carried out. All EC wave transmission is based on low losses circular cross section corrugated and evacuated wave guides each connected to a 170 GHz, 1 MW CW Gyrotron tube oscillator featuring an overall efficiency of ? 50%, obtained by depressed-collector energy recovery. In the paper, requirements, issues and the current status of the design is reviewed. (authors)

2002-05-13

94

IAEA occupational radiation protection programme: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As stated in Art.III.A.6 of its Statute, the International Atomic Energy Agency (commonly referred to as the Agency) is authorized to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operation as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision. The Agency s Occupational Radiation Protection Programme aims at harmonizing infrastructures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and for optimizing radiation protection in situation s of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation. Under its regular and technical cooperation programmes, the Agency has been assigning high priority to both the establishment of safety standards for labour conditions and for the application of these standards through, Interalia, direct assistance under its technical cooperation (TC) programme, the rendering of services, the promotion of education and training, the fostering of information exchange and the coordination of research and development. The purpose of this paper is to present the current status and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection. (authors)

2006-05-15

95

Current Status of the PIPER Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the expected signature of primordial gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch shortly after the Big Bang. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, one sensitive to the Q Stokes parameter and the other to U. Sky signals will be detected with 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers distributed in four rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 100 mK. To maximize the sensitivity of the instrument, both telescopes are mounted within a single open bucket dewar and are maintained at 1.5 K throughout flight, with no ambient-temperature windows between the sky and the detectors. To mitigate the effects of systematic errors, the polarized sky signals will be modulated using a variable-delay polarization modulator. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission within the Galaxy. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce nearly full-sky maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. I will discuss the current status and potential science returns from the PIPER project.

Johnson, Bradley; Ade, P.; Benford, D.; Bennett, C.; Chuss, D.; Dotson, J.; Eimer, J.; Fixsen, D.; Halpern, M.; Hilton, G.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G.; Irwin, K.; Jethava, N.; Jhabvala, C.; Kogut, A.; Lazear, J.; Lowe, L.; Miller, T.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, H.; Rodriguez, S.; Rostem, K.; Sharp, E.; Staguhn, J.; Tucker, C.; Voellmer, G.; Wollack, E.; Zeng, L.

2011-01-01

96

ALOS-2 current status and operation plan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) carries the state-of-the-art L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) called PALSAR-2 which succeeds to the ALOS / PALSAR. PALSAR-2 will have enhanced performance in both high resolution and wide swath compared to PALSAR. It will allow comprehensive monitoring of disasters. Wider bandwidth and shorter revisit time will give better conference for INSAR data analysis such as crustal deformation and deforestation. The Proto Flight Test (PFT) of ALOS-2 has been conducted since June 2012. In parallel, the PFT of PALSAR-2 has been conducted since March 2012. As of August 2013, ALOS-2 system has completed the interface test with ground system and is preparing for the Vibration test, Acoustic test and Electromagnetic Compatibility test. After completing these tests, ALOS-2 will be transported to JAXA Tanegashima Space Center for launch. The initial commissioning phase of ALOS-2 is planned for six months which are comprised of LEOP (Launch and Early Orbit Phase) and initial Cal/Val phase. During the LEOP, all components will be checked with direct downlink via Xband and with data relay communication via JAXA's DRTS (Data Relay Test Satellite). During the initial Cal/Val phase, the PALSAR-2 data will be verified and calibrated by using Corner Reflectors and Geometric Calibrator at ground. The data acquisition during the commissioning phase will be consistent with the systematic acquisition strategy prepared for the routine operation. This paper describes the current status and operation plan of ALOS-2.

Suzuki, Shinichi; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Osawa, Yuji

2013-10-01

97

Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for ?-amyloid plaques, ?{sub 1} receptors, and dopamine D{sub 2} or D{sub 4} receptors; (2) {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 18}F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled glucose derivatives, ?{sub 2} receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

Jia, Hong-Mei; Liu, Bo-Li [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals

2014-04-01

98

Current status of JENDL-3.3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current status of JENDL-3.3 is presented. Reevaluation work toward JENDL-3.3 has started last April for three years project to supply a consolidated new versions of JENDL by JAERI NDC (Nuclear Data center) with the cooperation of JNDC (Japanese Nuclear Data Committee). The working schedule has been fixed by the careful review of the summary report, `The problems of JENDL-3.2`, submitted to JNDC last March after one year discussions by a small advisory group: `Identifying the problems of JENDL-3.2`. To cope with the problems, two new subgroups are set up in the Subcommittee of Nuclear Data of JNDC. One is Heavy Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for the re-evaluation of major actinides (Th-232, U-233,235,236,238, Pu-236,239,241,242). The other is Intermediate Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for solving the inconsistencies between calculations and integral experiments relating to the fields of fusion neutronics and shielding applications as well as new evaluations such as Er elements. Supplying covariance data for important nuclides are one of the main feature of JENDL-3.3. Re-evaluated data will be released as JENDL-3.3 in the individual bases after the reviewing process by the experts. (author)

Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

1998-03-01

99

Counseling in Turkey: Current Status and Future Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article a special emphasis is placed on the current status and the future challenges of counseling in Turkey. A brief history of counseling in Turkey, current developments, and the basic issues in this field are pointed out. Finally, the future challenges and recommendations to improve the current status of counseling are discussed.

Suleyman Dogan

1998-01-01

100

Counseling in Turkey: Current Status and Future Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article a special emphasis is placed on the current status and the future challenges of counseling in Turkey. A brief history of counseling in Turkey, current developments, and the basic issues in this field are pointed out. Finally, the future challenges and recommendations to improve the current status of counseling are discussed.

Suleyman Dogan

1998-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Management of Village Common Forests in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh: Historical Background and Current Issues in Terms of Sustainability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the historical management system of village common forests (VCF in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT of Bangladesh and observe the current issues related to their sustainability. The study on historical context was based on secondary information to establish the linkages of VCF development and management in the CHT. Field visits to four VCF in the Bandarban Hill Districts were also conducted to cross check the information collected from secondary sources to observe the current status and management pattern of these VCF through semi-structured interviews, group discussion, key-informant interviews and biodiversity assessment. VCF in the CHT undoubtedly play an important role in biodiversity conservation and as well as supporting daily necessities of the community people. We found that VCF still are the source of fuel wood, herbs, roots, bamboo shoots, wild fruits, vines or leaves for cooking or medicinal use necessary to sustain the lives of the indigenous communities in the CHT. Field visits to different VCF show that the VCF are necessarily small in size (57 ha and around 108 families are dependent on these community managed village forests. A total of 163 plant species from 60 families were also recorded from these VCF including some rare plant and animal species which are not usually found in the reserve forests and the un-classed state forests due to continued deforestation and land degradation. However, population pressure combined with improved marketing facilities, ignorance, over exploitation, personal greed, tenure insecurity, faulty government policies regarding settlement of land and breakdown of the traditional systems exerting pressures on these VCF and the overall condition of these important biodiversity rich areas are degrading or shrinking in size and number gradually. Recognizing the traditional and customary resource rights of the indigenous communities in the CHT, acknowledging resource management system, providing tenure security, encouraging communities through legal and financial incentives in protecting these VCF or any other state owned forest areas solely for the conservation of biodiversity following an intensive management plan, resolving long lasting land related conflicts, and at the same time upholding the spirit of CHT Peace Accord 1997 could be important policy tools for the sustainability of these VCF in the CHT. Lessons learned from this study will be useful in formulating effective policies for community based forest management in Bangladesh and other developing countries.

Mohammed Jashimuddin

2012-07-01

102

Current Status of Deep Geological Repository Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This talk provided an overview of the current status of deep-geological-repository development worldwide. Its principal observation is that a broad consensus exists internationally that deep-geological disposal is the only long-term solution for disposition of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Also, it is now clear that the institutional and political aspects are as important as the technical aspects in achieving overall progress. Different nations have taken different approaches to overall management of their highly radioactive wastes. Some have begun active programs to develop a deep repository for permanent disposal: the most active such programs are in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. Other countries (including France and Russia) are still deciding on whether to proceed quickly to develop such a repository, while still others (including the UK, China, Japan) have affirmatively decided to delay repository development for a long time, typically for a generation of two. In recent years, a major conclusion has been reached around the world that there is very high confidence that deep repositories can be built, operated, and closed safely and can meet whatever safety requirements are imposed by the regulatory agencies. This confidence, which has emerged in the last few years, is based on extensive work around the world in understanding how repositories behave, including both the engineering aspects and the natural-setting aspects, and how they interact together. The construction of repositories is now understood to be technically feasible, and no major barriers have been identified that would stand in the way of a successful project. Another major conclusion around the world is that the overall cost of a deep repository is not as high as some had predicted or feared. While the actual cost will not be known in detail until the costs are incurred, the general consensus is that the total life-cycle cost will not exceed a few percent of the value of the electricity generated by the power reactors that have produced the waste. Of course, the current international situation is that no nation is currently willing to take any radioactive waste from another nation for deep disposal. This means that every nation will ultimately need to develop its own deep repository. This makes no sense, however--many nations have only a modest amount of waste, or do not have appropriate geological settings for a repository, or both. Ultimately, the need for one or more multi-national or international repositories will emerge, although so far this has not happened. Only one nation, Russia, has announced a policy permitting the import of radioactive wastes from other countries, but Russia's policy is not to import the wastes for deep disposal, but for chemical reprocessing. Various nations have made very different choices as to the schedule for proceeding with a repository. The rationales for each national choice differ significantly. The decision, different from country to country, comes down to balancing various seemingly conflicting values, including (a) whether the technology for deep disposal is judged to be mature enough; (b) whether surface storage during a lengthy delay is judged adequately safe against accidents and adequately secure against terrorists; (c) whether technologies for separating some of the waste constituents for re-use or recycle into reactors, or technologies for transmuting some waste constituents, are sufficiently promising to merit delaying until those technologies are more mature; (d) issues of the cost of disposal and who should bear that cost; (e) issues related to disposal of wastes from nuclear weapons programs, as distinct from wastes from reactor operations; and (f) issues about the linkage between disposal and the future of nuclear power. Finally, the decision to proceed with a repository often is governed by whether the government has the political will or ability to proceed, taking account of public opinion. In some countries, significant opposition to proceeding with repository development has led to a

2005-08-20

103

Counselling International Students in Turkish Universities: Current Status and Recommendations  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the current status of international students and counselling services provided at Turkish universities is addressed. Firstly, a brief history of counselling and counselling services in Turkish universities is examined, leading to a consideration of the current status of international students and counselling services.…

Bektas, Dilek Yelda

2008-01-01

104

Association between Infant and Child-feeding Index and Nutritional Status: Results from a Cross-sectional Study among Children Attending an Urban Hospital in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Integration of infant and child-feeding index (ICFI) addressing the multidimensional child-feeding practices into one age-specific summary index is gaining importance. This cross-sectional study was aimed at understanding the association between the ICFI and the nutritional status of 259 children, aged 6-23 months, who attended the paediatric outpatient department of the Dhaka Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh. The mean length-for-age z-score (LAZ) of children aged 12-23 months was signi...

Khatoon, Tahmina; Mollah, Md Abid Hossain; Choudhury, Ahmed Murtaza; Islam, M. Munirul; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur

2011-01-01

105

Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Preeclamptic and Uncomplicated Pregnancies in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To investigate the changes in plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in Bangladeshi pregnant women and their potential involvement in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, we performed a case-control study consisting of randomly selected women (20-30 years) with preeclampsia (PE, n = 25) as compared to uncomplicated normal pregnant (UP, n = 22) and nonpregnant (NC, n = 25) women. The study was conducted in the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory of Dhaka University. Serum...

2007-01-01

106

Current status of the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Several recent advances have been made in the procedure and presentation of the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data. We summarize the present status of the catalogue, and the available forms of the access to the data and images of sunspot groups. We also report the present and further steps to speed up the procedure of evaluation.

Györi, L.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.; Mezö, G.

2003-09-01

107

QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SECONDARY EDUCATION PROGRAME OF BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY: Present Status and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present day in national and international perspectives, quality is the top of most agendas. Quality of education has significant impact and invaluable contribution to the area of development. Recently, the SSC & HSC program of BOU have earned recognition of equivalency with the formal education sector, which has naturally raised the question of quality assurance of these programs By applying the quantitative method, the study has assessed the present status of the quality of SSC & HSC program of BOU and also put some recommendations to meet the challenges for further development.

Zobaida AKHTER

2008-04-01

108

Bangladesh - OCDE  

... 5-juin-2013 Français Déclaration du Secrétaire général concernant les événements survenus au Bangladesh L’OCDE est profondément attristée par la tragédie de l’effondrement du Rana Plaza qui s’est produite au Bangladesh. Nous sommes de tout cœur avec ceux qui sont concernés par cette catastrophe. Also Available OECD Secretary-General statement on events in Bangladesh 19-February-2013 English Aid Statistics, Recipient Aid at a glance The charts show for each of the following ...

109

The Current Status of STEM Education Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

Brown, Josh

2012-01-01

110

Current status of fast reactor physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented

1979-10-05

111

Cardiac rehabilitation. Current status and future directions.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more than exercise training for patients with coronary artery disease and now includes all aspects of secondary prevention. Exercise training is individually prescribed based on clinical status and therapeutic goals. Smoking cessation and abstinence and the treatment of hypercholesterolemia are integral to the rehabilitation process. Education and counseling are important adjuncts to treatment, especially soon after a coronary event. Vocational rehabili...

Gattiker, H.; Goins, P.; Dennis, C.

1992-01-01

112

Current status of the Brazilian AMS program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status and the near future plans for the Brazilian AMS program are described. The 8 MV Tandem accelerator at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) is ready to measure standard AMS samples. A recently installed 1.7 MV Tandem at the University of Rio de Janeiro will have a 14C AMS line. Together with external laboratories, we developed some projects on paleoclimatic and maritime geology. During these studies we have also learned sample preparation procedures

2000-10-01

113

Current status of the Brazilian AMS program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The status and the near future plans for the Brazilian AMS program are described. The 8 MV Tandem accelerator at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) is ready to measure standard AMS samples. A recently installed 1.7 MV Tandem at the University of Rio de Janeiro will have a {sup 14}C AMS line. Together with external laboratories, we developed some projects on paleoclimatic and maritime geology. During these studies we have also learned sample preparation procedures.

Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Anjos, R.M.; Acquadro, J.C.; Santos, G.M.; Macario, K.D.; Liguori Neto, R.; Added, N.; Coimbra, M.M.; Appoloni, C.R.; Castro Faria, N.V. de; Magalhaes, S.D.; Donangelo, R

2000-10-01

114

Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Preeclamptic and Uncomplicated Pregnancies in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the changes in plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in Bangladeshi pregnant women and their potential involvement in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, we performed a case-control study consisting of randomly selected women (20-30 years with preeclampsia (PE, n = 25 as compared to uncomplicated normal pregnant (UP, n = 22 and nonpregnant (NC, n = 25 women. The study was conducted in the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory of Dhaka University. Serum lipid profile, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, lipid hydroperoxide (LHP, Total Antioxidant Status (TAS and vitamin C levels were measured using standard methods. Serum total cholesterol levels of PE and UP groups were significantly higher (p<0.001 compared to Nonpregnant Control (NC group. But there was no significant difference between the total cholesterol levels of PE and UP groups. Serum TG level of PE group was significantly higher compared to UP (p<0.01 and NC (

Md. Zakir H. Howlader

2007-01-01

115

Current status of food irradiation in the world. Trend in Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review describes the current status of food irradiation in the world and particularly, its trends in Asia, based on the report of the economic scale investigation on the irradiation in United States and Japan (2001) and on the information of 12th International Meeting on Radiation Processing in France in 2001 and on personal communications. International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation promotes its activities of irradiation globally and 46 countries are affiliated. Food irradiation is allowed in 52 countries. In 1999, 257,000 t of food is irradiated in the world, of which 1/3 is due to spice. The facilities for the irradiation have such sources as 60Co and 137Cs ?-rays, electron beam of <10 MeV and X-ray with <5 MeV. Detection methods of irradiated foods are summarized by the project of Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Foods. The US is the most advanced country in the irradiation and, in Japan, only irradiation of potato is permitted. The detailed present status is also described of Bangladesh, China (the irradiation is most widely conducted in the world), India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. Recently Australia and New Zealand have started the irradiation. (K.H.)

2002-11-01

116

Mapping the human genome: Current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The human genome has already been the subject of extensive research activity even though the Human Genome Project is only just officially starting. This review attempts to provide an integrated, quantitative, and detailed summary of the status of knowledge on the human genome in mid-1990. The analysis has highlighted the rudimentary nature of many of the information links needed for the task. While this overview could not be fully comprehensive and required simplifying assumptions, the results have provided estimates of relative progress on a region-by-region basis throughout the genome.

Stephens, J.C. (National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (USA)); Gradie, M.I.; Mador, M.L.; Kidd, K.K. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA)); Cavanaugh, M.L.

1990-10-12

117

Current status of Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogens responsible for a wide variety of severe nosocomial and community acquired infections. Numerous vaccine candidates and several monoclonal antibodies have been developed over the past 40 years but only a few have reached clinical trials and none of these vaccine candidates has obtained market authorization. The understanding of P. aeruginosa pathogenesis and its virulence factors is essential in the identification of immunogens that can be used for a P. aeruginosa vaccine. This review summarizes the present status of vaccine development for this important pathogen. PMID:24372247

Michelim, Lessandra; Medeiros, Gregory Saraiva; Zavascki, Alexandre P

2014-11-01

118

Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in Spent Fuel Management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation in this area, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to elaborate the general recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. This report which is a result of the third IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (the first and second were held in 1984 and 1986) is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the status of spent fuel management programmes in a number of leading countries, with a description of the past and present IAEA activities in this field of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and with the Agency's plans for the next years, based on the proposals and recommendations of Member States. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 14 papers presented at the advisory group meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

1988-03-15

119

Current status of irradiated heat-shrinkable tubing in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation processing is now an expanding area in the field of electronic wires, foamed polyethylene and heat-shrinkable tubing. In this paper, a summary of current status on irradiated, heat-shrinkable tubing in Japan was introduced. (author)

1980-10-30

120

Current status of water chemistry in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At present 28 BWRs including 2 ABWRs and 23 PWRs are in operation in Japan and generated 36.8{open_square} of total electric power in 1998. Totally 4 BWRs, of which two are ABWRs, are now under construction, and one BWR together with one ABWR is in the stage of planning. One gas-cooled reactor (Tokai-1) was shut down permanently in 1998 and last year entered into decommissioning stage. According to the Japanese 2001 plan of electric power supply, 13 nuclear power plants newly constructed are to start operation in the next 10 years. In this paper the recent status of water chemistry technology in Japanese nuclear power plants is briefly summarized together with a touch upon the activities in the fundamental research. (author)

Ishigure, K. [Saitama Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

2002-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Current Status of the GBM Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the scientific goals of the Large-Area Telescope (LAT) on GLAST is the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the energy range from ?20 MeV to ?300 GeV. In order to extend the energy measurement towards lower energies a secondary instrument, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM), will measure GRBs from ?10 keV to ?30 MeV and will therefore allow the investigation of the relation between the keV and the MeV-GeV emission from GRBs over more than six energy decades. These unprecedented measurements will furthermore permit the exploration of the unknown aspects of the high-energy burst emission. The status of the GBM project approximately one year before launch is reported here

2007-05-01

122

Current status of water chemistry in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present 28 BWRs including 2 ABWRs and 23 PWRs are in operation in Japan and generated 36.8? of total electric power in 1998. Totally 4 BWRs, of which two are ABWRs, are now under construction, and one BWR together with one ABWR is in the stage of planning. One gas-cooled reactor (Tokai-1) was shut down permanently in 1998 and last year entered into decommissioning stage. According to the Japanese 2001 plan of electric power supply, 13 nuclear power plants newly constructed are to start operation in the next 10 years. In this paper the recent status of water chemistry technology in Japanese nuclear power plants is briefly summarized together with a touch upon the activities in the fundamental research. (author)

2002-04-22

123

CURRENT STATUS OF ANEUPLOIDY TESTING IN DROSOPHILA  

Science.gov (United States)

A committee of scientists was established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to appraise the current state of aneuploidy test methodology, to compile and analyze published data on the chemical induction of aneuploidy, and to provide guidance for additional test developme...

124

Supersymmetry: Current status and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors review the most recent data from e+e- and p anti p colliders and discuss the resulting constraints on the parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and their implications for future supersymmetry searches. They review the patterns of cascade decays of squarks and gluinos, and discuss the present status of supersymmetry event generators for hadron colliders. They present the results of detailed simulations of ET and same sign dilepton events from supersymmetry at the Tevatron. Although the ET signal continues to be viable, it is concluded that the same sign dilepton signal may be too small unless squarks and gluinos are approximately degenerate. The ET and same-sign dilepton signals from supersymmetry and the Standard Model backgrounds at the SSC are also discussed in detail. They also discuss other promising ways of searching for supersymmetry at the SSC including events containing Z0 bosons, and events containing n isolated leptons (n ? 3). Finally, they discuss how supersymmetry searches might be modified if the Higgs sector is more complicated or if R-parity is not conserved due to baryon number violating interactions

1990-07-13

125

Supersymmetry: Current status and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the most recent data from e"+e"- and p bar p colliders and discuss the resulting constraints on the parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and their implications for future supersymmetry searches. We review the patterns of cascade decays of squarks and gluinos and discuss the present status of supersymmetry event generators for hadron colliders. We present the results of detailed simulations of E_T and same sign dilepton events from supersymmetry at the Tevatron. Although the E_T signal continues to be viable, it is concluded that the same sign dilepton signal may be too small unless squarks and gluinos are approximately degenerate. The E_T and the same-sign dilepton signals from supersymmetry and the Standard Model backgrounds at the SSC are also discussed in detail. We also discuss other promising ways of searching for supersymmetry at the SSC including events containing Z degree bosons, and events containing n isolated leptons (n ? 3). Finally, we discuss how supersymmetry searches might be modified if the Higgs sectors is more complicated or if R-parity is not conserved due to baryon number violating interactions. 49 refs., 12 figs

1990-07-13

126

Antithrombotic therapy: current status and future developments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thrombosis is one of the major causes of death worldwide and is a socioeconomic burden to the society. Continuous increase in the knowledge about the (patho-physiological changes associated with thrombosis led to the development of effective therapies (antiplatelet, anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapy for the prevention and the treatment of the disease. However, better understanding of the underlying processes is still crucial for the development of more effective and safer antithrombotic drugs. The aim of the current review is to provide an updated overview of the causes and classes of thrombosis, to summarize currently available treatment and problems associated with it; and to highlight new antithrombotic agents in the developmental stages with future prospective.

Mishra N

2012-01-01

127

Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol

2007-08-01

128

Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R. [University of Cuenca (Ecuador). Faculty of Chemical Sciences; Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Garcia-Perez, M. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Cortez, L.A.B. [Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Oscullo, J. [National Center for Energy Control - CENACE (Ecuador); Olmedo, G. [Polytechnic School of the Army - ESPE (Ecuador)

2007-08-15

129

Sensing technology current status and future trends  

CERN Multimedia

This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

2014-01-01

130

Ceramic materials for SOFCs: Current status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is well known that the main parts of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are build from ceramic materials. Namely the ceramic materials and composites, used for SOFCs manufacturing, are objects of the overview in the present work. The analysis carried out covers the last current publications in the field discussed. Special attention and examination in details have been done on patents state-of-the-art. After a background and short classification of the ceramic SOFCs materials the attention is f...

Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.; Ivanova, M.; Carda, J.; Machkova, M.

2002-01-01

131

Transperitoneal laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy: Current status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient with end stage renal disease. Unfortunately, the supply of donor organs is greatly exceeded by demand. In many countries the use of kidneys from living donors has been widely adopted as a partial solution. Traditionally donor nephrectomy has been performed via a open flank incision however with some morbidity like pain and a loin scar. Currently, the donor nephrectomy is increasingly being performed laparoscopically with ...

Srivastava, A.; Gupta, N.; Kumar, Anant; Kapoor, Rakesh; Dubey, Deepak

2007-01-01

132

Current Status of Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Brachytherapy was developed to treat prostate cancer 50 years ago. Current advanced techniques using transrectal ultrasonography were established 25 years ago. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) has enabled the prostate to be viewed with improved resolution with the use of modern ultrasound machines. Moreover, the development of software that can provide images captured in real time has improved treatment outcomes. Other new radiologic imaging technologies or a combination of magnetic resonance an...

Park, Dong Soo

2012-01-01

133

Pharmacotherapy of Sexual Dysfunctions : Current Status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sexual dysfunctions are one of the most prevalent conditions. Sexual dysfunctions can have profound effect on the psychological well-being of an individual and the psychosexual relationship of a couple. Management of the sexual dysfunction should be preceded by an accurate diagnosis reached after a complete medical and sexual history and physical examination. Current focus of researchers has been on understanding the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and other...

Avasthi, Ajith; Biswas, Parthasarathy

2004-01-01

134

Novel products for haemostasis - current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, new clotting factor concentrates are becoming available or are in advanced clinical studies that will significantly improve the treatment of patients with Haemophilia A or Haemophilia B. Various technologies are applied to extend half-life and/or allow for alternative routes of administration, e.g. subcutaneous route. Today, the advances for recombinant factor IX are significantly with half-life extensions to up to 100 h, allowing substitution intervals of 1-2 weeks. For recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) products the effect so far is only moderate, as the half-life extension is limited to about 15-18 h by the clearance of FVIII through its binding to von Willebrand factor. However, novel products applying new technologies with significantly extended half-life are already at the horizont, as a bispecific antibody that mimics FVIII. The pharmacokinetic improvements of the new products will lead to a revision of our current treatment regimens, with regard to intended trough levels, number of tolerated bleeds and likely will drive a greater individualization of regimens. Clearly, the potential of anti drug antibody response for these modified proteins must not be higher than with our current products. Another challenge are the increasingly diverse biochemical characteristics of the new products, that have to be considered when determining potencies and also when monitoring treatment in patients with the various available assays. Despite these challenges, the new products will significantly improve treatment and quality of life for our patients with haemophilia. PMID:24762271

Oldenburg, J; Albert, T

2014-05-01

135

Current status of neutron capture therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT

2001-01-01

136

RBMK fuel assemblies: Current status and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety enhancement measures implemented since 1986 have led to substantial burnup reduction in the RBMK fuel assemblies and consequently to economical losses. With the purpose to compensate the losses, computer analysis and experiments were performed during the last decade. The works were aimed at the RBMK fuel charge perfection to reduce void reactivity effect and to increase fuel burnup. The paper presents principle results of the studies which are currently under implementation or are supposed to be implemented in the nearest future. (author)

1998-01-01

137

Current status of ENDF/B-VI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Version VI of the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B-VI) was released in 1990. For ENDF/B-VI major emphasis was placed on standards, isotopic evaluations, energy balance, improved resonance region representations, and improvement of neutronics files for important actinides. Data testing proceeds at a pace much slower than previous versions but more results are now being accumulated. Two versions have been released to data and a third is planned after the next meeting of the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), currently planned for October 1994

1994-05-09

138

Prevalence of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in epidemic-prone border areas of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Information related to malaria vectors is very limited in Bangladesh. In the changing environment and various Anopheles species may be incriminated and play role in the transmission cycle. This study was designed with an intention to identify anopheline species and possible malaria vectors in the border belt areas, where the malaria is endemic in Bangladesh. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three border belt areas (Lengura, Deorgachh and Matiranga during the peak malaria transmission season (May to August. Three different methods were used: human landing catches, resting collecting by mouth aspirator and CDC light traps. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was done to detect Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax-210 and Plasmodium vivax-247 circumsporozoite proteins (CSP from the collected female species. Results A total of 634 female Anopheles mosquitoes belonging to 17 species were collected. Anopheles vagus (was the dominant species (18.6% followed by Anopheles nigerrimus (14.5% and Anopheles philippinensis (11.0%. Infection rate was found 2.6% within 622 mosquitoes tested with CSP-ELISA. Eight (1.3% mosquitoes belonging to five species were positive for P. falciparum, seven (1.1% mosquitoes belonging to five species were positive for P. vivax -210 and a single mosquito (0.2% identified as Anopheles maculatus was positive for P. vivax-247. No mixed infection was found. Highest infection rate was found in Anopheles karwari (22.2% followed by An. maculatus (14.3% and Anopheles barbirostris (9.5%. Other positive species were An. nigerrimus (4.4%, An. vagus (4.3%, Anopheles subpictus (1.5% and An. philippinensis (1.4%. Anopheles vagus and An. philippinensis were previously incriminated as malaria vector in Bangladesh. In contrast, An. karwari, An. maculatus, An. barbirostris, An. nigerrimus and An. subpictus had never previously been incriminated in Bangladesh. Conclusion Findings of this study suggested that in absence of major malaria vectors there is a possibility that other Anopheles species may have been playing role in malaria transmission in Bangladesh. Therefore, further studies are required with the positive mosquito species found in this study to investigate their possible role in malaria transmission in Bangladesh.

Nazib Forida

2010-01-01

139

STAY HERE, GO FURTHER: The Status of Open and Distance Education in Bangladesh Open University (BOU in comparison to two other South Asian Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distance education has emerged out of social compulsion, the dynamics of change and new cultures. It was the failure of traditional systems to be able to meet the demand in countries, where the resources available for tertiary education are limited, which basically gave birth to the new trend of education known as open and distance education. This new and innovative system of education has received a high level of acceptance in different countries as it offers flexible educational opportunities for continuing education to a large segment of their population. The increasing number of older adult learners with varying lifestyles in the population, increasing competitiveness of getting places in tertiary institutions, higher cost of education and a shortage of teachers are the main factors for increasing the popularity of distance education (Duncan, et al., 2003. Bangladesh has also taken the opportunity to provide a uniform and mass oriented universal system of education through open and distance education establishing Bangladesh Open University (BOU in 1992. Objectives of the Study: The main objectives of this study are-? to assess the overall status of BOU in comparison with the open universities of two neighboring South Asian countries considering the following aspects:•Administrative structural functions, •Courses and instructional strategies, •Learning opportunities, and •Library, laboratory and counselling facilities to explore the potential of improvement for BOU to enable it to meet the challenges of the country’s educational needs in the next millennium.

Monira JAHAN

2012-01-01

140

On the current status of Modified Gravity  

CERN Document Server

We revisit the cosmological viability of the Hu $\\&$ Sawicki modified gravity scenario. The impact of such a modification on the different cosmological observables, including gravitational waves, is carefully described. The most recent cosmological data, as well as constraints on the relationship between the clustering parameter $\\sigma_8$ and the current matter mass-energy density $\\Omega_m$ from cluster number counts and weak lensing tomography, are considered in our numerical calculations. The strongest bound we find is $|f_{R0}| < 3.8 \\times 10^{-8}$ at $95\\%$ CL. Forthcoming cluster surveys covering 10,000 deg$^2$ in the sky, with galaxy surface densities of $\\mathcal{O}(10)$ arcmin$^{-2}$ could improve the precision in the $\\sigma_8$-$\\Omega_m$ relationship, tightening the above constraint.

Boubekeur, Lotfi; Mena, Olga; Ramirez, Hector

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

Paul Saenger

2009-01-01

142

Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

Saenger Paul

2009-08-01

143

Current Status of Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Brachytherapy was developed to treat prostate cancer 50 years ago. Current advanced techniques using transrectal ultrasonography were established 25 years ago. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) has enabled the prostate to be viewed with improved resolution with the use of modern ultrasound machines. Moreover, the development of software that can provide images captured in real time has improved treatment outcomes. Other new radiologic imaging technologies or a combination of magnetic resonance and TRUS could be applied to brachytherapy in the future. The therapeutic value of brachytherapy for early-stage prostate cancer is comparable to that of radical prostatectomy in long-term follow-up. Nevertheless, widespread application of brachytherapy cannot be achieved for several reasons. The treatment outcome of brachytherapy varies according to the skill of the operator and differences in patient selection. Currently, only three radioactive isotopes are available for use in low dose rate prostate brachytherapy: I-125, Pd-103, and Cs-131; therefore, more isotopes should be developed. High dose rate brachytherapy using Ir-192 combined with external beam radiation, which is needed to verify the long-term effects, has been widely applied in high-risk patient groups. Recently, tumor-selective therapy or focal therapy using brachytherapy, which is not possible by surgical extraction, has been developed to maintain the quality of life in selected cases. However, this new application for prostate cancer treatment should be performed cautiously because we do not know the oncological outcome, and it would be an interim treatment method. This technique might evolve into a hybrid of whole-gland treatment and focal therapy.

2012-01-01

144

An overview of the current status of CMB observations  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we briefly review the current status of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations, summarising the latest results obtained from CMB experiments, both in intensity and polarization, and the constraints imposed on the cosmological parameters. We also present a summary of current and future CMB experiments, with a special focus on the quest for the CMB B-mode polarization.

Barreiro, R B

2009-01-01

145

Transperitoneal laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy: Current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient with end stage renal disease. Unfortunately, the supply of donor organs is greatly exceeded by demand. In many countries the use of kidneys from living donors has been widely adopted as a partial solution. Traditionally donor nephrectomy has been performed via a open flank incision however with some morbidity like pain and a loin scar. Currently, the donor nephrectomy is increasingly being performed laparoscopically with the objective of reducing the morbidity. It is also hoped that this will lead to increasing acceptance of living donation. The first minimally invasive living donor nephrectomy was carried out in 1995 at the Johns Hopkins Medical Center and since then many centers have undertaken laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy. The laparoscopic approach substantially reduces the donor morbidity and wound related problems associated with open nephrectomy. The laparoscopic techniques thus have the potential to increase the number of living kidney donors. The present article attempts to review the safety and efficacy of transperitoneal laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. PMID:19718333

Srivastava, A; Gupta, N; Kumar, Anant; Kapoor, Rakesh; Dubey, Deepak

2007-07-01

146

Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs

1995-01-01

147

Current status of development of lasertron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following its establishment in April 1986, the Linear Collider Study Group started a five-year program with the objectives as follows: (1) development of an acceleration tube with an acceleration magnetic field strength of 100 MV/m or greater, (2) development of a high-output pulsed-microwave source to drive the acceleration tube, and (3) research in beam dynamics, centering on beam-beam effect, low emittance beam, emittance growth and final focusing system, and (4) alignment of the acceleration tube and control of beam at collision point. Requirements for microwave sources for linear collider are outlined first. The second part of the report is focused on a 2 MW lasertron which is currently being tested. Gallium arsenide is selected as material for the photo-cathode. This is a P+ semiconductor and Zn is used as dopant. This GaAs photo-cathode is high in quantum efficiency and can be re-activated by heat cleaning. Major parameters of the laser, 'frequency doubled modelocked Nd: YAG laser' supplied by Nippon Electric Co., Ltd., are described. A simulation study is made to investigate the beam motion near the cathode and anode. Some results of a diode test are shown and applications of the lasertron are also discussed. (Nogami, K.)

1987-09-01

148

Piezoelectric microgenerators--current status and challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manuscript reviews the developments made in design and fabrication of piezoelectric microgenerators and presents a method for making a comparative study within various vibration energy harvesting mechanisms. Current generation vibration energy harvesters have power density in the range of 0.8 microW/mm3. The manuscript also reports our results on synthesis of barium titanate (BT) thin films for MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) based energy harvester. BT sol-gel was synthesized by aqueous process using barium acetate and titanium bis (ammonium lacto) dihydroxide with PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone). After optimizing the annealing temperature and time, textured BT films with 600 nm thickness were obtained on (111) Pt/Ti/SiO2 wafer. A MEMS fabrication process flow was designed to produce microcantilever chips from BT films constituting 6 cantilevers connected in series with an interdigital electrode pattern. We also present some concepts for further improvement of the power density of vibration energy harvesters by incorporating 3-D structure, magnetoelectric material, and a multimodal scheme. PMID:19686971

Kim, Hyun-Uk; Lee, Woo-Ho; Dias, H V Rasika; Priya, Shashank

2009-08-01

149

Current status of PHOBOS at sign RHIC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four experiments are currently approved for the first measurements with colliding heavy ion beams from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) which is scheduled to come into operation in Spring 1999. These experiments are named STAR, Phoenix, PHOBOS and Brahms. It is expected that central collisions of 100 GeV/u Au + Au at RHIC will lead to energy densities far above any so far attained in the laboratory and it is suspected and hoped that this situation will lead to qualitatively new physics perhaps associated with the creation of a large volume containing a plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons. All four experiments attempt to search for signatures of new physics through combinations of measurements of quantities such as the multiplicity of produced particles, the average transverse momentum of these particles, fluctuations in their multiplicity distribution, their flavor composition, the size scales of the volume from which they are emitted, mass shifts and changes in the decay widths of resonances which decay inside the high energy density volume etc. The PHOBOS detector addresses these issues with a Multiplicity Array which covers the pseudo-rapidity region -5.3 ? ? ? 5.3 with a coverage of 85% of 4? and also incorporates a Vertex Detector. The Multiplicity Array is complemented by two Multi-Particle Spectrometers, each of which cover the range 0.5 ? ? ? 1.5 and azimuthal angle range ?? = 11 degree. Various trigger and monitor detectors complete PHOBOS

1996-02-05

150

Current status of the PBMR licensing project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CNS is currently reviewing the PBMR conceptual design from a licensibility point of view. The PBMR concept is based on a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor - pebble bed reactor type. It is anticipated that the PBMR design will rely on inherent safety characteristics to contain fission products within fuel over the full range of design basis events. This feature combined with the high temperature integrity of the fuel and structural graphite, allows the safe use of a high coolant temperature, which allows consideration of the future development of this reactor for non-electrical applications of nuclear heat for industrial use. The CNS licensing approach requires that the licensing and design basis of the plant should respect prevailing international norms and practices and that a quantitative risk assessment should demonstrate compliance with the CNS fundamental safety standards. The first stage of the licensing process is now ongoing; this is a pre-application phase, which will result in a statement on licensibility being issued. Identification of the specific documentation requirements and information needed is required across every step of the licensing process. Top level regulatory requirements have been established for the PBMR. They include the CNS fundamental safety standard and basic licensing criteria, which describes requirements on licensees of nuclear installations regarding risk assessment and compliance with the safety criteria and define classification of licensing basis events. (author)

2000-11-01

151

Current status of surgery in dermatology.  

Science.gov (United States)

An article titled "Current issues in dermatologic office-based surgery" was published in the JAAD in October 1999 (volume 41, issue 4, pp. 624-634). The article was developed by the Joint American Academy of Dermatology/American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Liaison Committee. A number of subjects were addressed in the article including surgical training program requirements for dermatology residents and selected advances in dermatologic surgery that had been pioneered by dermatologists. The article concluded with sections on credentialing, privileging, and accreditation of office-based surgical facilities. Much has changed since 1999, including more stringent requirements for surgical training during dermatology residency, and the establishment of 57 accredited Procedural Dermatology Fellowship Training Programs. All of these changes have been overseen and approved by the Residency Review Committee for Dermatology and the Accreditation Committee for Graduate Medical Education. The fertile academic environment of academic training programs with interaction between established dermatologic surgeons and fellows, as well as the inquisitive nature of many of our colleagues, has led to the numerous major advances in dermatologic surgery, which are described herein. PMID:24099730

Hanke, C William; Moy, Ronald L; Roenigk, Randall K; Roenigk, Henry H; Spencer, James M; Tierney, Emily P; Bartus, Cynthia L; Bernstein, Robert M; Brown, Marc D; Busso, Mariano; Carruthers, Alastair; Carruthers, Jean; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Kauvar, Arielle N B; Kent, Kathryn M; Krueger, Nils; Landau, Marina; Leonard, Aimee L; Mandy, Stephen H; Rohrer, Thomas E; Sadick, Neil S; Wiest, Luitgard G

2013-12-01

152

Current status of functional dyspepsia in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dyspepsia refers to group of commonly occurring upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The majority of patients with dyspepsia suffer from functional (nonulcer) dyspepsia. Although there is a lack of epidemiological data from population-based or patient cohort studies in Korea, the current understanding of this condition has been updated using data from various recent research studies, which have facilitated the development of clinical guidelines for functional dyspepsia. According to a survey using the Rome III criteria, more than 40% of respondents who visited primary clinics and tertiary hospitals were defined as having functional dyspepsia, most of who were within a subgroup of patients with postprandial distress syndrome. In addition, a population-based cross-sectional survey revealed considerable overlap between functional dyspepsia and other functional gastrointestinal disorders, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (especially nonerosive reflux disease) and irritable bowel syndrome. In contrast to the results of Western trials, there is insufficient evidence to recommend a Helicobacter pylori test-and-treat strategy as an initial management approach to functional dyspepsia in Korea, suggesting the need for early endoscopic evaluation. Additional studies are necessary to adjust the cutoff age for implementation of immediate endoscopic evaluation of patients without alarm symptoms. Considering the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the limited efficacy of symptomatic relief after its eradication, further well-qualified studies in Korea are warranted. PMID:24648796

Lee, Hyuk; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Huh, Kyu Chan

2014-03-01

153

MUSTANG. First light and current status  

Science.gov (United States)

MUSTANG is a 90 GHz bolometer camera built for use as a facility instrument on the 100 m Green Bank radio telescope (GBT). MUSTANG has an 8 by 8 focal plane array of transition edge sensor bolometers read out using time-multiplexed SQUID electronics. On the GBT each pixel has an 8" beam size. In one hour we expect to be able to map a 15' square of sky to 0.2 mjy/beam RMS making MUSTANG on the GBT a very competitive instrument capable of a wide range of galactic and extragalactic science. In September 2006 MUSTANG had first light and became the first instrument to use the GBT at 90 GHz. During two months of subsequent testing we showed that MUSTANG behaved as well on the telescope as it did in the lab. Observations were made of many astronomical sources including Saturn and the star forming region W3. We were able to confirm our beam shape and different observing strategies were tested. Procedures were put in place for pointing and focusing and a data analysis pipeline was set up. Several problems were identified during commissioning and are currently being addressed. One of these, excessive 1/f noise, has already been solved and we plan to take our first science observations in late 2007.

Dicker, S. R.; Mason, B. S.; Korngut, P. M.; Abrahams, J. H.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, J.; Ames, T. J.; Benford, D. J.; Chen, T. C.; Chervenak, J. A.; Cotton, W. D.; Devlin, M. J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Irwin, K. D.; Maher, S.; Mello, M.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J.; Norrod, R. D.; Tally, D. J.; Tucker, C.; Werner, B. A.; White, S. D.

2007-09-01

154

Current status of adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the current use of adrenalectomy in the treatment of Cushing's disease, we reviewed seven consecutive patients who have undergone adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease at this medical center during 1983 to 1984. Seventy-one percent (5/7) had pituitary, or type I, Cushing's disease, while 29% (2/7) had adrenal, or type II, Cushing's disease from either an adenoma or an adrenocortical carcinoma. Presenting signs and symptoms, either initially or at the time of recurrence, were typical of Cushing's syndrome. Four of five patients with type I disease had recurrent disease after transphenoidal hypophysectomy, bilateral adrenalectomy, or unilateral adrenalectomy. In three of five patients, medical therapy of hypercortisolism was abandoned because of adverse side effects. Preoperative evaluation in all patients included cortisol and ACTH levels, dexamethasone suppression tests, and computerized tomography (both abdominal and head). In patients with a prior history of adrenalectomy, radiocholesterol scans were also performed and were useful. Angiographic procedures were not required in these patients. In patients with type I disease, posterior operative approaches were used. In patients with type II disease, an anterolateral approach was used. Posterolateral incisions are preferred over Hugh-Young incisions and provide better exposure with a reduced risk of poor wound healing. Morbidity and mortality included one death and three nonhealing wounds. In the six surviving patients, symptoms resolved with variable frequency. Findings suggestive of Nelson's syndrome (hyperpigmentation) have occurred in two patients; serial computerized tomographic scans fail to reveal evidence of pituitary tumors

1985-01-01

155

Current surgical status of thyroid diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Panagiotis Touzopoulos1, Michael Karanikas1, Paul Zarogoulidis2, Alexandros Mitrakas1, Konstantinos Porpodis2, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis3, Vasilis Zervas2, Ioannis Kouroumichakis4, Theodoros C Constantinidis5, Dimitrios Mikroulis6, Konstantinos E Tsimogiannis71First Surgery Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 2Pulmonary Department, "G. Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Surgery Department (NHS, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 4Second Internal Medicine Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 5Medical School, Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Protection, Democritus University of Thrace, Regional Laboratory of Public Health, Eastern Macedonia-Thrace, Greece; 6Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 7Surgery Department, "G. Hatzikosta" General Hospital of Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem for surgeons. The clinical importance of nodules is the need to exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5%–15% of patients. If fine needle aspiration cytology is positive, or suspicious for malignancy, surgery is recommended. During the past decade, with the tendency to develop smaller incisions, an endoscopic approach has been applied to thyroid surgery, called minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy. This approach was immediately followed by other minimally invasive or scarless neck techniques, such as the breast approach, axillary-breast approach, and robot-assisted method. All these techniques follow the same principles of surgery and oncology. This review presents the current surgical management of the thyroid gland, including the surgical techniques and compares them by describing benefits and drawbacks of each one.Keywords: thyroidectomy, surgical techniques, thyroid cancer

Touzopoulos P

2011-12-01

156

Current Status and Facility Operation for KSTAR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: KSTAR began high magnetic field (Toroidal Field: 3.5 T) and reliable performance plasma operation, which required implementation of safe and stable KSTAR operation including superconducting magnets. Reliable tokamak operation was conducted to achieve the goal for the 2010 KSTAR campaign to produce D-shaped plasma with the targeted current of 500 kA maintained for 5 seconds in duration. For conditioning of the vacuum vessel environment, it was expected that the 2010 KSTAR campaign includes a PFC baking operation with a designed maximum temperature of 350''oC to improve the wall condition of the vacuum vessel. The Tokamak Monitoring System (TMS) for the cryogenic and superconducting magnet system and the Quench Detection System (QDS) for the detection of quench events were carefully inspected. The final goal of operating the KSTAR Integrated Control System (KICS) is to perform the roles of tokamak operation and plasma experiments with sustained stability, higher availability and security. Control systems were upgraded and added in order to provide a reliable control environment, and so they could contribute to achieving the goal of reliable performance plasma and supporting international collaboration work. The cryoplant is one of the most important systems among KSTAR's utilities because it supplies liquid helium to the superconducting magnet, which requires continuous operational capabilities of maintaining a cool-down of the system. The faults during the campaign of 2010 were analyzed for hardware, software and interlock systems in order to reduce operation errors during future campaigns and to protect the machine including the superconducting magnets. The analysis also showed what kinds of spare components were needed to prepare for emergency situation. Systematic KSTAR operational procedure is also required in order to unify various individual systems. (author)

2010-10-01

157

Current radiological status of Utirik Atoll  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A preliminary radiological survey was conducted at Utirik Atoll in 1978 as part of the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS). A dose assessment based on these limited data indicated a relatively low dose of about 0.12 mSv to people living on Utirik in 1978 (Robison et al., 1982). A much more detailed radiological survey was conducted in April of both 1993 and 1994. Aerial photos of the islands of Utirik Atoll were taken as part of the 1978 NMIRS. The sampling grids for the 1993 and 1994 surveys are shown overlaid on these aerial photos in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. External gamma measurements and a collection of either drinking coconuts or copra coconuts were made at each location. Pandanus, breadfruit, lime, and banana were collected where available. Ground water was collected in 1993/94 from four wells on Utirik Island and two wells on Aon Island. Surface soil and soil profiles were collected at some of the grid points on each of the islands at the atoll in 1993/94. A comparison of the number of samples collected in 1978 and 1993/94 are shown in Table 1. A detailed listing of the samples collected in the 1993/94 radiological survey at Utirik Atoll is given in Table 2. The number of vegetation samples collected in 1993/94 is nearly a factor of 7 greater than in 1978. Soil samples collected in 1993/94 exceeded the number collected in 1978 by more than a factor of 4. Consequently, extensive data are now available for the islands at Utirik Atoll and form the basis for the current dose assessment for the atoll.

Robison, W L

1998-08-01

158

Status of thyroidal radioiodine (I-131) uptake and urinary iodine in Bangladesh population: A re-look following implementation of universal iodination of salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodide plays a central role in thyroid physiology and in the production of thyroid hormones, which are essential for normal vertebrate growth and development. Radioiodine uptake test is one of the oldest radionuclide investigations for evaluation of thyroid function. On the other hand useful information about the nutritional status of a population can be obtained by measuring the prevalence of deficiency in a population. The main aim of this study was to find out the present status of urinary iodine and thyroid uptake status of people living in and around Dhaka City (Bangladesh). The present study was carried out over a period of three years from 1999 to 2002 involving 300 subjects inclusive of 216 females and 84 males. Efforts were made to randomly include people from a broad spectrum of social and economic strata, starting from people belonging to the lowest to the highest income groups; as well as people representing the urban, rural and suburban populations. Urinary iodine levels and 24 hour percentage radioiodine uptake by the thyroid were estimated in all subjects included in this study. Subsequently patients were grouped into four categories based on the values of their percentage 24-hour radioiodine uptake; e.g., Group-A (N-99) with lowest uptake (0-5%), Group-B (N=100) with uptake ranging between 5-10%, Group-C (N=73) with uptake ranging between 10-30% and Group D (N=28) with uptake above 30%. The median 24 hours RAIU values in groups A, B, C and D were 3, 7, 23 and 34% respectively. The corresponding mean urinary iodine levels in the four groups were 43.31, 33.95, 12.97 and 9.35?gm/dl respectively. The results have shown that 1.04, 3.48, 16.72 and 78.74% people studied had levels of urinary iodine indicating severe, moderate, mild or no iodine deficiency respectively as per the WHO Criteria (Severe: <2 ?gm /dl, Moderate: 2-4.9 ?gm /dl, mild: 5.0-9.9?gm /dl, normal: ? 10 ?gm /dl). It may be noted that the normal values of Thyroidal I-131 uptake were standardized in Bangladesh about two and half decades ago. The normal range of 24 hr radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) determined at that time was 10-45%. However in the present study the mean 24 hrs RAIU has been found to be 14.12 % with a SD of 8.33. With regard to urinary iodine, a previous study conducted in the year 1993 had reported that only about 31 % of the Bangladesh population had urinary iodine levels of more than 10gm/dl. But the present study has shown significant increase in the levels of urinary iodine, with more than 78% of people evaluated in the present study having normal levels of urinary iodine (above 10gm/dl). The present study has also demonstrated inverse relationship between urinary iodine level and thyroidal uptake of radioiodine (I-131). These results reflect the effectiveness of universal iodination of common salt in Bangladesh resulting in enhanced iodine status of our population. (author)

2007-01-01

159

Ceramic materials for SOFCs: Current status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that the main parts of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs are build from ceramic materials. Namely the ceramic materials and composites, used for SOFCs manufacturing, are objects of the overview in the present work. The analysis carried out covers the last current publications in the field discussed. Special attention and examination in details have been done on patents state-of-the-art. After a background and short classification of the ceramic SOFCs materials the attention is focused on cathode, electrolyte, anode, interconnection and sealing materials. Their requirements, structure, thermal stability, composition control and behavior, processing and performance are the object of overview. A correlation has been made between the phase diagrams oxygen incorporation and transport, and SOFC advantages, generally for materials of lanthanum- base perovskite family. In order to analyze the innovative investigations regarding the patent branch of the SOFCs development and application, an object of review was patents from Japan, USA, Germany and European Union. Some examples of the inventions with accent on the ceramic materials are shown. In addition the tendency regarding R & D activities of SOFCs development materials from the leading companies in the world is analyzed. On the base of the most important technological and economical parameters of cell cathode/electrolyte/anode materials an attempt for evaluation and correlation has been made and innovative conceptions are shown.

Es bien sabido que los componentes principales de las celdas de combustible de óxido sólido (SOFCs estan constituidos por materiales cerámicos. Dichos materiales cerámicos y materiales compuestos que se utilizan en la fabricación de SOFCs son objeto de estudio en el presente trabajo. El análisis llevado a cabo incluye la revisión de las últimas publicaciones en la materia, con una especial atención y examen minucioso sobre las patentes más relevantes. Después de una revisión y breve clasificación de los materiales SOFCs cerámicos, el estudio se centra en la descripción del cátodo, electrolito y ánodo, así como de la unión y materiales de sellado. También se han estudiado sus requisitos, estructura, estabilidad térmica, control composicional y de comportamiento, procesado y rendimiento. Se ha establecido una correlación entre los diagramas de fase de incorporación y transporte de oxígeno y las ventajas de los SOFC, generalmente para materiales de la familia de las perovsquitas basadas en lantano. Con el fin de analizar las investigaciones innovadoras que conciernen al campo del desarrollo y aplicación de SOFCs, se han revisado patentes de Japón, Estados Unidos, Alemania y la Unión Europea. Se dan algunos ejemplos de dichas patentes en las que destaca el papel de los materiales cerámicos. Además, se ha analizado la tendencia en actividades de I + D sobre los SOFCs en compañías líderes mundiales. Se ha intentado realizar una evaluación y correlación en base a los parámetros tecnológicos y económicos más importantes de los materiales de celda cátodo/electrolito/ánodo y se han mostrado conceptos innovadores.

Kozhukharov, V.

2002-10-01

160

The current status of HANARO utilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) is now operating at 24 MW to meet the user's demands in a variety of utilization fields. The most active field is the neutron scattering and diffraction using the currently available HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction), FCD (Four Circle Diffraction), RSI (Residual Stress Instrument), and SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering). Using these instruments, we have been investigating such characteristics as materials' crystal structure and phase transition, residual stress, texture, and hard and soft matters. Through examination and inspection of the test specimens, NRF (Neutron Radiography Facility) is contributing to such fields as the nuclear industry, ordnance industry, aerospace industry, and archaeology. The second utilization field is the fuel and material irradiation test. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed atomized fuel powder and provided it to USA, France and Argentina. Under the RERTR program, KAERI has been contributing to the development of research reactor fuels of better quality. To test the reactor materials and fuels, instrumented and non-instrumented capsules are widely being used. To produce and supply RIs and pharmaceuticals for medical and industrial purposes, HANARO and its RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility) has been fully complying with demands so that the national welfare might be enhanced by our efforts. NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) is assisting the nuclear industry, environmental research and the promotion of the health area. To support all active utilizations, HANARO operators have been making every effort to not only improve the systems, if needed, but also to avoid the inadvertent reactor trip. Based upon this stable neutron supply, we have been developing and expanding the utilization fields and facilities. The PNS(Polarized Neutron Spectrometer) is under construction and the reflectometer is in preparation. The BNCT(Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) facility is expected to support medical doctors in their in-vitro tests by the end of next year. In the future, KAERI plans to install cold neutron source and research facilities and then HANARO would be a truly powerful neutron source in neutron beam application research. We will begin design and installation of the fuel test loop to support the Korean national nuclear energy program in accordance with the demand for nuclear fuel development. Advanced capsules will also be developed. More effective and value-added RI is also under development continuously. To increase the contribution of the NAA area, we are developing the user-oriented NAA system in HANARO. The irradiator for NTD-Si production is being designed and fabricated. We expect this service to be available for industries early next year. Through these viable activities, the number of users and tested samples, and allocatable beam times will be greatly increased. All of the related staff and groups are doing their best to satisfy the demand of users because HANARO is the Korean sole neutron source operated under the auspices of the taxpayers. (author)

Kim, Hark Rho; Lee, Choong Sung; Sohn, Jae Min; Park, Kyung Bae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2003-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

The current status of HANARO utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) is now operating at 24 MW to meet the user's demands in a variety of utilization fields. The most active field is the neutron scattering and diffraction using the currently available HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction), FCD (Four Circle Diffraction), RSI (Residual Stress Instrument), and SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering). Using these instruments, we have been investigating such characteristics as materials' crystal structure and phase transition, residual stress, texture, and hard and soft matters. Through examination and inspection of the test specimens, NRF (Neutron Radiography Facility) is contributing to such fields as the nuclear industry, ordnance industry, aerospace industry, and archaeology. The second utilization field is the fuel and material irradiation test. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed atomized fuel powder and provided it to USA, France and Argentina. Under the RERTR program, KAERI has been contributing to the development of research reactor fuels of better quality. To test the reactor materials and fuels, instrumented and non-instrumented capsules are widely being used. To produce and supply RIs and pharmaceuticals for medical and industrial purposes, HANARO and its RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility) has been fully complying with demands so that the national welfare might be enhanced by our efforts. NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) is assisting the nuclear industry, environmental research and the promotion of the health area. To support all active utilizations, HANARO operators have been making every effort to not only improve the systems, if needed, but also to avoid the inadvertent reactor trip. Based upon this stable neutron supply, we have been developing and expanding the utilization fields and facilities. The PNS(Polarized Neutron Spectrometer) is under construction and the reflectometer is in preparation. The BNCT(Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) facility is expected to support medical doctors in their in-vitro tests by the end of next year. In the future, KAERI plans to install cold neutron source and research facilities and then HANARO would be a truly powerful neutron source in neutron beam application research. We will begin design and installation of the fuel test loop to support the Korean national nuclear energy program in accordance with the demand for nuclear fuel development. Advanced capsules will also be developed. More effective and value-added RI is also under development continuously. To increase the contribution of the NAA area, we are developing the user-oriented NAA system in HANARO. The irradiator for NTD-Si production is being designed and fabricated. We expect this service to be available for industries early next year. Through these viable activities, the number of users and tested samples, and allocatable beam times will be greatly increased. All of the related staff and groups are doing their best to satisfy the demand of users because HANARO is the Korean sole neutron source operated under the auspices of the taxpayers. (author)

2003-03-01

162

Current status of studies on temperature fluctuation phenomena in LMFRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the current status of studies being performed in PNC on temperature fluctuation phenomena occurring in fast reactors. The studies concentrate on four problems: thermal stratification, thermal striping, core-plenum interaction and free surface sloshing. Both experimental and analytical approaches to reveal these phenomena and to establish design and safety evaluation methods are presented together with future works. (author)

1994-11-22

163

Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

2010-01-01

164

Background on the NUHOMS system and current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NUHOMS is a modular system for the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel from all type reactors and is designed and operated in accordance with the requirements of the USA Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as well as applicable International Standards. This paper discusses the basic principles and current status of NUHOMS in operation. (author)

1994-01-01

165

Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

1997-10-01

166

Wind-Wave-Current Tank Research Facility usage and status  

Science.gov (United States)

This summary is to provide information as to: (1) research activities, and (2) facilities status of the wind-wave-current tank research facility located at the GSFC/WFF. Research Activities include: (1) Wave-Turbulence Interaction; (2) Velocity Structure Below Waves; (3) Short-Wave Modification by Long-Waves; (4) Wind-Wave Generation Time Scale; (5) Wave-Current Interaction; (6) Rain Effects on Microwave Scattering from the Sea-Surface; and (7) Gas Exchange Rates versus Scatterometer Power.

Bliven, L. F.; Long, S. R.

1988-01-01

167

FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY IN INDIA CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forensic psychiatry is a developing superspeciality in India and other SAARC countries. After a brief historical review, the paper describes the current status of forensic psychiatry in India and compares it with the development in this field in Europe and America. It takes the stock of current scenario in three different areas viz., i) legal and clinical ii) teaching and training and Hi) research. It deliberates on need for teaching this subject at the undergraduate and the postgraduate medi...

1999-01-01

168

Does history of concussion affect current cognitive status?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The association between self reported history of concussion and current neurocognitive status is controversial. Some football studies suggest that athletes with a history of concussion display cognitive impairment relative to athletes with no history of concussion, but other studies have not been able to reproduce such findings. This study shows that there is no relation between the number of previous self reported episodes of concussion and current cognitive state, directly contradicting the...

Collie, A.; Mccrory, P.; Makdissi, M.

2006-01-01

169

CMS Data Analysis: Current Status and Future Strategy  

CERN Document Server

We present the current status of CMS data analysis architecture and describe work on future Grid-based distributed analysis prototypes. CMS has two main software frameworks related to data analysis: COBRA, the main framework, and IGUANA, the interactive visualisation framework. Software using these frameworks is used today in the world-wide production and analysis of CMS data. We describe their overall design and present examples of their current use with emphasis on interactive analysis. CMS is currently developing remote analysis prototypes, including one based on Clarens, a Grid-enabled client-server tool. Use of the prototypes by CMS physicists will guide us in forming a Grid-enriched analysis strategy. The status of this work is presented, as is an outline of how we plan to leverage the power of our existing frameworks in the migration of CMS software to the Grid.

Innocente, V

2003-01-01

170

The Current Practices of Teaching Grammar in CLT at Secondary School Level in Bangladesh: Problems and Probable Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experience of teaching English in Bangladesh demonstrates that grammar is the least interesting learning item in ESOL classes. In other words, students often feel uninterested and bored with lectures dealing with grammar. Consequently, learners of English remain quite weak in grammar; they cannot use appropriate structures of grammar neither in spoken nor in written English even though they have completed English language programs at various levels of educational institutions. Besides, hug...

Sofe Ahmed

2013-01-01

171

Association between infant- and child-feeding index and nutritional status: results from a cross-sectional study among children attending an urban hospital in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integration of infant- and child-feeding index (ICFI) addressing the multidimensional child-feeding practices into one age-specific summary index is gaining importance. This cross-sectional study was aimed at understanding the association between the ICFI and the nutritional status of 259 children, aged 6-23 months, who attended the paediatric outpatient department of the Dhaka Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh. The mean length-for-age z-score (LAZ) of children aged 12-23 months was significantly (p correlation was found between the ICFI and the LAZ (r = 0.24, p = 0.01 and r = 0.29, p = 0.01) in children aged 6-8-months and 12-23-months. Multivariable analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, also found a significant association between the ICFI and the LAZ (beta = 0.13, p = 0.03). The predictive capability of the proposed ICFI on nutritional status of children, especially length-for-age, needs to be further evaluated prospectively among healthy children in the community. PMID:21957673

Khatoon, Tahmina; Mollah, Md Abid Hossain; Choudhury, Ahmed Murtaza; Islam, M Munirul; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur

2011-08-01

172

Safe motherhood in South Asia: current status and strategies for change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Already large, the population of South Asia is growing rapidly. Stable and high levels of fertility along with declining mortality have built a population in which approximately 45% of the total is younger than 15 years old. Women in South Asia comprise almost one-third of the world's female population. The average woman in the region marries young and begins to bear children shortly thereafter. While fertility has been declining in most of India and Bangladesh, and is already relatively low in Sri Lanka, levels of fertility have not declined dramatically in Nepal and Pakistan. Contraception is used at moderate levels in India and Bangladesh, but almost not at all in Nepal and Pakistan. Contraceptive use rates in the region, with the exception of Sri Lanka, remain far lower than the average of less developed countries which is 45%. Female life expectancy in South Asia does not exceed that of males by very much and is lower than that of males in Bangladesh, Maldives, and Nepal. High levels of maternal mortality and excess mortality among females during the postneonatal period and between ages 1 and 5 are principal reasons for the situation. Gender differentials in mortality in South Asia are explained followed by consideration of health, fertility, and women's status, and strategies needed to promote safe motherhood. PMID:12346194

Sathar, Z A; Raza, B

1994-01-01

173

The IAEA waste safety standards: history, current status and outlook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the history and current status of the IAEA's safety standards in the field of management of radioactive waste. It explains the origins of the IAEA's programme of development of safety standards in the nuclear field, and goes on to discuss the hierarchic structure of the standards and the development process. The current status and the newly adopted overall structure of the standards - with reference to the standards in all areas (waste, nuclear installations, transport and radiation safety) - are presented with the aid of figures, showing the standards in force and those under development. The paper concludes with a brief look at the way in which these standards are being applied in individual IAEA Member States. (authors)

2004-03-29

174

Current status of the LHCf experiment and future plan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider forward (= LHCf experiment has successfully finished the first phase of data taking at LHC ?s = 0.9 and 7 TeV proton-proton collisions in 2010. As current status, we concentrate on analyzing the obtained data. As the first result, the energy spectra of photon measured by LHCf during = 7 TeV p-p collision has been published recently. Also the study of the upgraded version of LHCf detector for future = 14TeV run scenario is developed with the GSO scintillator. Another possible plan of p-A(nuclear collision in LHC is also studied. In this paper, as the current status of the experiment, analyses, and works for foreseen detector upgrade are summarized.

Tamura T.

2013-06-01

175

Current status on narrow N anti N states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt is made to summarize the experimental status of narrow B anti B states as of mid-1979. In particular, concentration is placed on the current experimental situations and prospects regarding three serious contenders for the so-called baryonium states. Theoretical concepts of baryoniums, narrow N anti N states known as S(1935), anti pp(2020), and anti pp(2204), and some forthcoming results, and problems of the above three resonances are discussed. 31 references

1979-01-01

176

CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI) on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered...

Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon

2012-01-01

177

Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

Xiaodan Wu; Rongsheng Ruan; Zhenyi Du; Yuhuan Liu,

2012-01-01

178

Autocollimators for deflectometry: Current status and future progress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proliferation of autocollimator-based surface profilometers at synchrotron metrology laboratories worldwide necessitates a detailed understanding of the parameters influencing their angular response. A comprehensive overview of the current status of autocollimator characterization and calibration at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and its implications for their optimal application are provided. Present and future challenges to angle metrology posed by autocollimator-based surface profilometers will be delineated, and solutions and expected progress to meet them will be outlined.

2010-05-01

179

Current status and future perspectives for sequencing livestock genomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Only in recent years, the draft sequences for several agricultural animals have been assembled. Assembling an individual animal's entire genome sequence or specific region(s) of interest is increasingly important for agricultural researchers to perform genetic comparisons between animals with different performance. We review the current status for several sequenced agricultural species and suggest that next generation sequencing (NGS) technology with decreased sequencing co...

2012-01-01

180

Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction and potentials of classical radiotherapy After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. Technological levels of radiotherapy in developed countries An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, ...

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is given of the current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems. At this moment only one comprehensive report is available. In order to review national activities a questionnaire has been distributed amongst national societies of medical physicists. From the 23 responding countries, 8 indicated that only limited efforts are underway, 8 answered that a working group is evaluating their specific national requirements while in 5 countries a document is drafted. The highlights of these reports have been summarized. (author)

1997-11-01

182

Current status of RCA projects and strategies for future implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is intended to provide basic overall information about ways to promote technical cooperation within the framework of RCA to accelerate and coordinate cooperative activities in nuclear science and technology in Asia and the Pacific region through a thorough review on the current status and through suggesting future implementation strategies. The contents of this report include an overall introduction of RCA, guidelines and operating rules for RCA programmes, current status and future plans for RCA projects as well as the RCA vision for the next 25 years. By reviewing the current status and future implementation strategies for RCA projects, it will help to set up a national nuclear policy aimed at seeking maximum benefits from participation in RCA projects and to implement programmes for nuclear cooperation with Asian-Pacific countries. It is expected that as a lead country for the energy sector, which is one of five thematic areas for the year 1999 - 2000 cycle programmes, Korea will continue to make significant contributions towards the implementation of RCA programmes in the future. With this report, we plan to keep up with future developments as well as implement an effective cooperation with the countries in the region so that the opinion of Korea, one of the nuclear advanced countries in the region, can be fully reflected in the establishment of future plans for RCA programmes. (author). 3 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

1998-01-01

183

Current Status of LHC Physics: Precision Theory View  

CERN Multimedia

We discuss the current status of LHC physics from the perspective of precision theory predictions for the attendant QCD and EW higher order corrections. We focus on the interplay between the available data and the predictions for these data viewed in the context of the establishment of baselines for what is needed to exploit fully the discovery potential of the existing LHC data and the data expected by the end of the second LHC run (i.e., 300fb$^{-1}$). We conclude that significant improvement in the currently used theoretical predictions will be mandatory. Possible strategies to achieve such improvement are indicated.

Ward, B F L

2014-01-01

184

MONK and MCBEND: Current Status and Recent Developments  

Science.gov (United States)

MONK® and MCBEND are Monte Carlo software packages for: nuclear criticality and reactor physics; and radiation shielding and dosimetry applications, respectively. The codes are actively developed, maintained and supported by AMEC's ANSWERS® Software Service in line with the ANSWERS vision of providing easy-to-use software that meets the current and emerging needs of the user community. This paper summarises the current status of MONK and MCBEND and the recent developments which have been carried out to the codes, and their supporting nuclear data libraries and visualisation package.

Richards, Simon D.; Baker, Chris M. J.; Bird, Adam J.; Cowan, Pat; Davies, Nigel; Dobson, Geoff P.; Fry, Tim C.; Kyrieleis, Albrecht; Smith, Paul N.

2014-06-01

185

Current status of neutron scattering facilities in Serpong  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brief explanation of the research reactor as a neutron source is presented together with its current operation mode. The neutron beam facilities include one diffractometer for residual stress measurement, one diffractometer for single crystal structural determination and texture measurement, one high resolution powder diffractometer, one neutron radiography facility, one triple axis spectrometer, one small angle neutron scattering spectrometer and one high resolution small angle neutron scattering spectrometer. Current status of three instruments mostly related to this workshop, their performances and problems faced in the last year are presented as well as the future plan for refurbishment and development. (author)

1999-10-01

186

Biomonitoring of arsenic and lead in health indices (hair, blood, etc.) and their interactions and impacts on the nutritional status of Bangladesh population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka under the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission was recently awarded a research contract from the International Atomic Energy Agency to investigate the levels of micronutrients (K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn) and pollutants (As, Pb) in health indices (hair, blood, etc.) to study their interactions and impacts on the nutritional status of Bangladeshi population. The project was scheduled to start in December 2001 and to be completed by November 2002. To date, sampling and sample preparation techniques for heavy metal analysis in hair and blood using XRF/PIXE have been investigated, and some preliminary work on sample analysis has been performed. It indicates that both PIXE and XRF methods can be used for the determination of nutritionally important trace metals in health indices after a simple sample treatment for volume reduction either by oven or freeze drying. Results of Biochemical assessment of nutritional status of Bangladeshi pre-school children under normal and malnutrition conditions from a previous study has been given in the Results section of this paper. There has been found a positive correlation of malnutrition with some nutritional parameters such as fasting blood glucose, serum total protein, serum total albumin, and serum Cu and Zn levels. Hair Zn level had no significant correlation (p>0.05) with serum Zn level but hair Cu level had a positive correlation with serum Cu level. The trace element concentrations in hair of both normal and malnourished children in the age group of 1-5 years, as studied do not show any regular dependence on nutritional status of the subjects. Only the low copper content in the hair of the malnourished group can possibly be linked with nutritional disorders. (author)

2002-05-06

187

The Current Status, Evolution and Future of Facial Reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial reconstructive surgery aims to establish anatomicnormality as closely as possible following disfigurement tooptimize functional and esthetic outcomes and the potential fornormal psychosocial patient reintegration. The purposes of thisarticle are to outline the current status of facial reconstructionand reflect upon possibilities for its future development.Current reconstructive methods include the use of non-vascularizedgrafts, non-microsurgical vascularized flap transfers,microvascular free tissue transplantation, and their combinations.Whatever the method chosen, the principles of reconstructionfor each facial region or esthetic subunit should berespected.Most facial defects can be addressed satisfactorily withthe described techniques. Reconstructions for total or subtotalfacial defects, however, remain disappointing. Current reconstructivetechniques and principles continue to become more refined, providing improvedoutcomes. In the future, composite tissue allotransplantation and tissue engineering of vascularizedcomposite tissue constructs may also be applicable for facial reconstruction, inparticular for total or subtotal facial defects that appear outside the limits of current reconstructivemethods.

Fu-Chan Wei

2008-10-01

188

Promotion of well-switching to mitigate the current arsenic crisis in Bangladesh / Promotion de changement d'utilisation de puits afin de réduire l'exposition à l'arsenic au Bangladesh / Promoción del uso de pozos seleccionados para reducir la exposición al arsénico en Bangladesh  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Hacer un análisis sobre los pozos y los hogares de la upazila de Araihazar (Bangladesh), a fin de sentar las bases para llevar a cabo un estudio epidemiológico a largo plazo sobre las consecuencias de la exposición crónica a arsénico. MÉTODOS: Durante un periodo de 4 meses de 2000, se obtu [...] vieron muestras de agua a partir de 4997 pozos cercanos que abastecían a una población de 55 000 personas, y se reunieron datos de los hogares próximos; la situación de cada pozo se determinó con una precisión de ± 30 m utilizando receptores del Sistema Mundial de Determinación de la Posición. Las concentraciones de arsénico se analizaron mediante espectrometría de absorción atómica en horno de grafito. Se analizó asimismo la presencia de arsénico en muestras de agua subterránea recogidas cada 2 semanas durante todo un año en seis pozos, empleando para ello la técnica de espectrometría de masas de alta resolución por plasma de acoplación. RESULTADOS: La mitad de los pozos examinados en Araihazar habían sido practicados en los 5 años anteriores, y el 94% eran privados. Sólo un 48% de los pozos suministraban agua con un contenido de arsénico inferior a 50myg/l, el límite fijado actualmente en Bangladesh para el agua potable. Al igual que en otras regiones de Bangladesh y Bengala occidental (India), la concentración de arsénico en Araihazar varía mucho de un lugar a otro (intervalo: 5-860 myg/l), y es por tanto difícil de predecir. Debido a esa variabilidad, sin embargo, casi un 90% de los habitantes vive a menos de 100 m de un pozo salubre. La vigilancia de seis pozos que actualmente se ajustan al límite mencionado de 50 myg/l no reveló ningún dato que sugiriera la existencia de un ciclo estacional de las concentraciones de arsénico paralelo al ciclo hidrológico. Esto lleva a pensar que el cambio de pozos constituye una opción viable en Araihazar, al menos como solución a corto plazo. CONCLUSIÓN: Es preciso fomentar de manera más sistemática el uso de pozos seleccionados en Araihazar y en muchas otras partes de Bangladesh y Bengala occidental (India), y hay que conocer mejor las barreras sociales con que tropieza esa iniciativa para superarlas en la medida de lo posible. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To survey tube wells and households in Araihazar upazila, Bangladesh, to set the stage for a long-term epidemiological study of the consequences of chronic arsenic exposure. METHODS: Water samples and household data were collected over a period of 4 months in 2000 from 4997 contiguous tub [...] e wells serving a population of 55 000, the position of each well being determined to within ± 30 m using Global Positioning System receivers. Arsenic concentrations were determined by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. In addition, groundwater samples collected every 2 weeks for an entire year from six tube wells were analysed for arsenic by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. FINDINGS: Half of the wells surveyed in Araihazar had been installed in the previous 5 years; 94% were privately owned. Only about 48% of the surveyed wells supplied water with an arsenic content below 50 mug/l, the current Bangladesh standard for drinking-water. Similar to other regions of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, the distribution of arsenic in Araihazar is spatially highly variable (range: 5-860 mug/l) and therefore difficult to predict. Because of this variability, however, close to 90% of the inhabitants live within 100 m of a safe well. Monitoring of six tube wells currently meeting the 50 mug/l standard showed no indication of a seasonal cycle in arsenic concentrations coupled to the hydrological cycle. This suggests that well-switching is a viable option in Araihazar, at least for the short term. CONCLUSIONS: Well-switching should be more systematically encouraged in Araihazar and many other parts of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Social barriers to well-switching

van Geen, Alexander; Ahsan, Habibul; Horneman, Allan H.; Dhar, Ratan K.; Zheng, Yan; Hussain, Iftikhhar; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Gelman, Andrew; Stute, Martin; Simpson, H. James; Wallace, Sean; Small, Christopher; Parvez, Faruque; Slavkovich, Vesna; LoIacono, Nancy J.; Becker, Marck; Cheng, Zhongqi; Momotaj, Hassina; Shahnewaz, Mohammad; Seddique, Ashraf Ali; Graziano, Joseph H..

189

Visceral leishmaniasis and its control in Bangladesh.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as kala-azar, reappeared in Bangladesh during the 1980s, approximately 7-8 years after large-scale use of DDT had been abandoned by the malaria eradication programme in the country. Pabna, Mymensingh and Rajshahi were the regions most affected with kala-azar. The article presents a historical review and information about the present status of leishmaniasis in Bangladesh together with control strategies and a proposed plan of operation.

Elias, M.; Rahman, A. J.; Khan, N. I.

1989-01-01

190

Visceral leishmaniasis and its control in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as kala-azar, reappeared in Bangladesh during the 1980s, approximately 7-8 years after large-scale use of DDT had been abandoned by the malaria eradication programme in the country. Pabna, Mymensingh and Rajshahi were the regions most affected with kala-azar. The article presents a historical review and information about the present status of leishmaniasis in Bangladesh together with control strategies and a proposed plan of operation. PMID:2650901

Elias, M; Rahman, A J; Khan, N I

1989-01-01

191

Bangladesh - norad.no  

... Bangladesh - norad.no Skip to main content NOT TRANSLATED: javascript-required Norsk Sitemap A A A SearchSearchGo Thematic areas Countries Tools/publications Evaluation ...no / Countries / Asia and Oceania / Bangladesh Bangladesh Norway is giving 100 million NOK for work to prevent natural disasters in Bangladesh. The heavily ...Updated 19/09/2013 Print Tweet By sector By partner Aid trends Bilateral assistance to Bangladesh 2012 : 96,3 million kroner Laster data...... Bilateral assistance to Bangladesh 2012 : 96,3 million kroner Laster data... Bilateral assistance to Bangladesh 2012 : ...

192

Current status of the Taiwan Photon Source project  

Science.gov (United States)

The progress of establishment of a high brightness and low emittance mid-energy storage ring is reported. The status of the 3 GeV Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) currently under construction will be presented. The progress on the civil construction, manufacturing of machine components, as well as the opportunity of using low emittace synchrotron source and phase I beamlines at TPS will be mentioned. The future planning of phase II beamlines and related research will be sketched. Future developments will be also briefly outlined.

Chang, Shih-Lin

2014-03-01

193

Current Status of High Temperature Superconducting Cable Demonstration Project  

Science.gov (United States)

An HTS cable demonstration project has started in 2007. The cable has 66kV/200MVA capacity and 200-300m length. It will be installed and operated at Asahi sub-station in Yokohama in 2011. Bismuth-based HTS wires with twisted superconducting filaments are used for the cable to reduce the AC loss. In 2009, a 30m cable system has been constructed and tested to verify the assembling technologies of the cable, a joint and terminations and their performance. This paper describes the overview and current status of this project.

Masuda, Takato; Honjo, Shoichi

194

The current status of ?-thalassemia major in Mainland China.  

Science.gov (United States)

?-Thalassemia (?-thal) is caused by a decrease in the production of ?-globin chains that is a genetic disorder worldwide. The diagnosis of ?-thal major (?-TM) depends on clinical manifestations, laboratory investigations, family history and genetic analysis. Patients with ?-TM require long-term blood transfusion and chelation therapy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only strategy for curing this disease. Many patients with ?-TM cannot get regular diagnosis and treatment in developing countries. With economic improvement and medical technology development, a great progress has been made in Mainland China. In this study, we describe the current status of diagnosis and treatment of ?-thal in Mainland China. PMID:23594358

Xu, Lu-Hong; Fang, Jian-Pei

2013-01-01

195

Thermoelectric microgenerators. Current status and prospects of application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of current status and prospects of using thermoelectric microgenerators, including organic-fueled ones, is performed. Developments of thermoelectric microgenerators presented in this review demonstrate that their increasingly wide use forms a separate, very important line of thermoelectricity – micropower generation with growing potential of practical applications for charging batteries, mobile phones, digital cameras and photocameras, power supply to small radio stations, other portable devices, including medical. The ways of increasing the efficiency of such devices and relevant lines of their wide use in practice are determined.

Strutynska L. T.

2008-08-01

196

ZnO growth technologies: current status and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of new technologies for ZnO nano materials and thin films is of critical importance for further fundamental investigations and practical applications. We discuss on the main technical control of the synthesis of zinc oxide and its properties, which are of significance in understanding the growth mechanism and further developing ZnO-based devices. Next, we present a brief summary of recent research activities, current status and progress in developing improved control of technological processes for zinc oxide as advanced material.

2011-07-07

197

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends  

CERN Multimedia

Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

Loo, Jonathan

2011-01-01

198

Current status and some aspects of the future energy strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current status of the energy production and of the energy sources in the world, European Union, Serbia and Montenegro and the Balkan states is analyzed. Some trends in the energy consumption and productions in some European states are analyzed. Some problems of the Serbia and Montenegro energy production system are compared with situation in neighbor states, Germany, and European Union. At present, anywhere in the world, the nuclear power in on the defensive. In some countries it has been even outlawed. Some parameters show that nuclear power, on the global scale and during this century at least, is absolutely essential and reasons for revival of nuclear energy are realistic. (author)

2005-10-01

199

Current status of the CHORUS experiment at CERN  

Science.gov (United States)

Current status of the CHORUS experiment at CERN is presented with an emphasis on technical aspects. This experiment is aimed to search for ??-->?? oscillation with a designed sensitivity of sin2(2?)~2×10-4 at large ?m2. Accumulation of neutrino interactions in the emulsion target with a data taking of electronic counters were performed from 1994 to 1997 at the CERN neutrino beam. Reading out track informations recorded in the emulsion target is then started using the Track Selector (a dedicated system which automatically reads out tracks recorded in emulsion). Successful development of the Track Selector enabled this experiment and opened a possibility for future experiments. .

CHORUS Collaboration

2000-10-01

200

Food consumption, energy and nutrient intake and nutritional status in rural Bangladesh: changes from 1981-1982 to 1995-96  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To determine and evaluate changes in nutritional status, food consumption, energy and nutrient intake in rural Bangladesh, using appropriate statistical analyses. Design: Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Two seasons in 1981-1982 and 1995-1996. Setting: Two villages with different production patterns. Subjects: Anthropometric measurements of 1883 individuals, food consumption data of 404 households. Methods: Repeated measurements of one-day food weighing and anthropometry in two seasons in 1981-1982 and 1995-1996. Mixed model analyses were used to evaluate and quantify temporal changes and their interactions with determinants. Results: Prevalence of underweight children decreased from 82 to 70% (P = 0.015), wasted children from 34% to 18% (P = 0.009) and chronic energy deficient adults decreased from 78 to 64% (P <0.0001). Intake of fish and green leafy vegetables increased from (I.s. mean +/- s.e.) 23 +/- 3.0 to 40 +/- 1.8g/person/day (P <0.001) and from 28 +/- 4.5 to 41 +/- 2.7g/person/day (P= 0.019), respectively. Rice intake remained unchanged: 463 +/- 12 g raw/person/day in 1981-1982 and 450 +/- 7.3 g raw/person/day in 1995-1996(P = 0.355). Calciumand iron intakes increased by 40% (P <0.0001)and 16% (P = 0.0002), respectively, whereas vitamin A intake remained unchanged. Conclusions: Nutritional status improved and intakes of nutrient dense food groups, fat, iron and calcium increased from 1981-1982 to 1995-1996.

Hels, O.; Hassan, N.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

The Current Status of Medical Marijuana in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy. This article will review the history of laws to regulate drugs in the United States in the 20th century to provide context for the current status of medical marijuana. It will include the rationale for opposing medical marijuana laws and the problem of the Schedule I inclusion of marijuana as well as other drugs. It will examine the problems associated with smoking raw marijuana and review other routes of administration. Finally, it examines the inadvisability of medicine's promotion of smoked marijuana.

2014-01-01

202

[The current status of development of anti-EGFR antibodies].  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of cetuximab, a mouse chimeric immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody, is approved as anti-epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)therapy for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in Japan. Further, panitumumab, matuzumab, nimotuzumab and zalutumumab which also target EGFR, are currently under clinical development. Cetuximab is the first that has been developed as an anti-EGFR antibody. Approximately 30% of the protein which constructs the mouse chimeric antibodies is from mouse, which yields the possibility that the mouse chimeric antibodies induce host immune-reaction. After cetuximab, the humanized monoclonal antibodies such as matuzumab and nimotuzumab, and fully humanized monoclonal antibodies such as panitumumab and zalutumumab, have been developed. In this article, we will introduce the current status of development of these four anti-EGFR antibodies, by focusing on the individual clinical trials using each anti-EGFR antibody. PMID:20495305

Ura, Takashi

2010-05-01

203

Study of Grants, new Mexico, uranium miners: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Uranium Epidemiology Study at the University of New Mexico was initiated in 1977 with the objective of assessing health effects of uranium mining in the Grants, New Mexico, area. The planned approach was a cohort study of mortality that would capitalize on the availability of health records at the Grants Clinic. The first year's work confirmed the study's feasibility (Buechley, 1979). Subsequent efforts have focused on the health and exposure data base and comprehensive follow-up. A retrospective cohort study of early miners is in progress; a prospective cohort study of miners who began working under the current federal standard is planned. This report will summarize the current status of the Uranium Epidemiology Study

1981-10-09

204

Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

Barthelmess, Erin K; Naz, Rajesh K

2014-01-01

205

The current status of medical marijuana in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy. This article will review the history of laws to regulate drugs in the United States in the 20th century to provide context for the current status of medical marijuana. It will include the rationale for opposing medical marijuana laws and the problem of the Schedule I inclusion of marijuana as well as other drugs. It will examine the problems associated with smoking raw marijuana and review other routes of administration. Finally, it examines the inadvisability of medicine's promotion of smoked marijuana. PMID:24765557

McKenna, Gerald J

2014-04-01

206

Status of RF Heating and Current Drive Systems for KSTAR  

Science.gov (United States)

The heating and current drive systems consisting of neutral beam injection (NBI) and radio frequency (RF) systems will be used for the KSTAR whose construction will be completed by August, 2007. The KSTAR RF heating and current drive systems are composed of ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system, and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system. The KSTAR adopts the ECH-assisted start-up for the flexibility and reliability of the operation regime using 84 GHz, 500 kW gyrotron. For the KSTAR first plasma scheduled at June, 2008, two RF heating systems, 84 GHz ECH and 25-60 MHz ICRF systems, will be used for the pre-ionization to reduce the loop voltage and the wall discharge cleaning, respectively. This paper describes the status of the KSTAR RF heating and current drive systems and the initial test results using dummy load. Also, the upgrade plan of the KSTAR RF heating and current drive systems will be presented as well as the key features and the relevant technological issues for the long pulse operation.

Bae, Young-Soon; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Park, Seung-Il; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Namkung, Won; Kwak, Jong-Gu; Yoon, Jae-Sung; Bae, Yeong-Duk; Wang, Son-Jong; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Hwang, Chul-Kew; Kim, Sung-Kyu

2007-11-01

207

Generic Medicine Pricing Policies in Europe: Current Status and Impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generic medicine pricing is an area of national responsibility of European Union countries. This article aims to present the current status and impact of generic medicine pricing policies in ambulatory care in Europe. The study conducts a literature review of policies relating to free-pricing systems, price-regulated systems, price differentiation, price competition and discounts, and tendering procedures; and a survey of European generic medicine pricing policies. Competition from Indian generic medicine manufacturers, European variation in generic medicine prices and competition between generic medicine manufacturers by discount suggest that the potential savings to health care payers and patients from generic medicines are not fully realized in Europe. One way of attaining these savings may be to move away from competition by discount to competition by price. Free-pricing systems may drive medicine prices downwards under specific conditions. In price-regulated systems, regulation may lower prices of originator and generic medicines, but may also remove incentives for additional price reductions beyond those imposed by regulation. To date, little is known about the current status and impact of tendering procedures for medicines in ambulatory care. In conclusion, the European experience suggests that there is not a single approach towards developing generic medicine pricing policies in Europe.

Pieter Dylst

2010-03-01

208

Application of C-ELISA for the sero-survey of rinderpest virus antibody in cattle and goats in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim is to study the applicability of C-ELISA for seromonitoring of antibodies against RP virus in ruminants in Bangladesh. As no outbreaks of RP have been reported since 1957, a broader belt rinderpest vaccination programme is being carried out in order to protect cattle from rinderpest originating from neighbouring States of India. However, the emergence of rinderpest-like epidemics in goats has been noticed for the last three years. Thus, the use of the rinderpest competitive ELISA technique will be helpful to measure the current status of rinderpest serosurveillance as well as to confirm the rinderpest-like epidemics in goats as peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Bangladesh

1997-04-07

209

Current status of the CHORUS experiment at CERN  

CERN Document Server

Current status of the CHORUS experiment at CERN is presented with an emphasis on technical aspects. This experiment is aimed to search for nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau / oscillation with a designed sensitivity of sin/sup 2/(2 theta )~2*10/sup -4/ at large delta m/sup 2/. Accumulation of neutrino interactions in the emulsion target with a data taking of electronic counters were performed from 1994 to 1997 at the CERN neutrino beam. Reading out track informations recorded in the emulsion target is then started using the Track Selector (a dedicated system which automatically reads out tracks recorded in emulsion). Successful development of the Track Selector enabled this experiment end opened a possibility for future experiments. (4 refs).

Kodama, K

2000-01-01

210

Current status of sentinel lymph node biopsy in solid malignancies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy were first reported in 1977 by Cabanas for penile cancer. Since that time, the technique has become rapidly assimilated into clinical practice. The sentinel node concept has been validated in cutaneous melanoma and breast cancer. However, follow-up data of patients from randomised trials is needed to establish the clinical significance of sentinel lymph node biopsy before accepting the procedure as a standard of care. This technique has the potential to be utilised in all solid tumours like colon, gastric, oesophageal, lung, gynaecologic, and head and neck cancer. This paper reviews the current status of sentinel lymph node biopsy in solid tumours.

Mansel Robert E

2004-04-01

211

Current Status of TRISO Fuel Head-End Treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) is proceeding with the construction and demonstration of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, and spent TRISO fuel should be generated after 2019. Hence, it is urgent to set up the treatment concept of the spent TRISO fuel. The fuel of high temperature gas cooled reactor is different from that of conventional nuclear reactor in terms of the composition. The fuel of HTGR is consisted of more than 95% of carbon, which makes it difficult to be effectively treated. In this report the features of the TRISO fuel treatment, points to be duly considered and current status of retreatment in foreign countries were summarized. Finally future research directions to establish efficient spent TRISO treatment process have been suggested.

Lee, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Eung Ho; Shim, Joon Bo; Ahn, Byung Gil; Kwon, Sang Woon; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Park, Seong Won

2005-12-15

212

The current status and future plans of the STACEE observatory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) represents a new type of atmospheric Cherenkov detector that achieves a low energy threshold for ?-ray detection by using heliostat mirrors in a pre-existing solar research facility. STACEE is designed to study astrophysical sources of ?-rays in the energy range of 50 to 500 GeV. A prototype of the experiment using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32) has previously detected the Crab nebula at high significance, demonstrating the viability of the technique. The completed version of STACEE will use 64 heliostats, and will have a total collection area of ?2300 m2. Astrophysics in the 10 to 300 GeV regime has proved to be elusive to both ground-based and satellite experiments and STACEE has the potential of filling an important niche in high energy astrophysics. Here we describe the current status and future goals of STACEE

2001-10-07

213

Development and current status of ECCC creep property data sheets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The European Creep Collaborative Committee (ECCC) was formed in 1992 to provide European industry with a means of influencing the creep rupture strength values required for the large number of European Product and Design Standards in preparation during the early 1990s. The objective was and continues to be achieved through the publication of ECCC Creep Property Data Sheets. The predicted creep rupture strength values contained in ECCC Data Sheets are based on duplicate expert assessments of the largest possible multi-cast datasets comprising the longest duration data available from all possible sources. The paper describes the development of procedures to ensure minimum uncertainty of the predicted long time strength values contained in the Data Sheets and reviews their current status. Practical implications associated with strength values recommended in new Data Sheets for Grade 92 steel and the Alloy-80-A nickel base alloy are also examined. (orig.)

Holdsworth, S.R. [EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2006-07-01

214

Cobalt 60 gamma irradiation current status, trends and insights  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the current status, trends and insights into the continued, safe use of cobalt 60 gamma irradiation. Also presented are some of the many initiatives undertaken at MDS Nordion. Topics covered include our investment for the future supply of raw materials and the latest news from source production. Briefly presented are the tasks associated with the safe transport of cobalt 60 around the world. Discussed is cobalt 60 usage at the customer site; more specifically maintaining source integrity, source utilization and irradiator design trends. Highlighted are industry trends for North America, Europe and the rest of the world. Finally presented are the challenges and opportunities for the industry. Stressed in the paper is the need to work together

1998-06-01

215

Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS). Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review. PMID:25038805

Jang, Sung Ill; Lee, Dong Ki

2014-07-01

216

Current risk management status of the Korean petrochemical industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Korea, it was during the early 1970s that the petrochemical industry begun its full-fledged operation. During this period, the petrochemical industry along with the steel, automobile, shipbuilding, machinery industries, etc. started to consolidate its position as one of the key industries, encouraged by the governmental policies that sought to promote the heavy chemical industries. However, large-scale accidents that can greatly affect the management activities occur frequently. To respond effectively to these accidents, chemical plants execute risk management measures, fit for each business establishment's characteristics. This study focuses on the current status of risk management activities conducted by the petrochemical plants in Korea, and on the trends in the global market. (Author)

Taegu Kim; Kwangil Kim [INJE Univ., Dept. of Industrial Safety and Health, Gyeongnam (Korea); Jeonghie Kim; Youngdal Kim [Samsung Fire and Marine Insurance Co., Risk Management Research Center, Seoul (Korea)

2002-07-01

217

Semiparametric Additive Transformation Model under Current Status Data  

CERN Document Server

We consider the efficient estimation of the semiparametric additive transformation model with current status data. A wide range of survival models and econometric models can be incorporated into this general transformation framework. We apply the B-spline approach to simultaneously estimate the linear regression vector, the nondecreasing transformation function, and a set of nonparametric regression functions. We show that the parametric estimate is semiparametric efficient in the presence of multiple nonparametric nuisance functions. An explicit consistent B-spline estimate of the asymptotic variance is also provided. All nonparametric estimates are smooth, and shown to be uniformly consistent and have faster than cubic rate of convergence. Interestingly, we observe the convergence rate interfere phenomenon, i.e., the convergence rates of B-spline estimators are all slowed down to equal the slowest one. The constrained optimization is not required in our implementation. Numerical results are used to illustra...

Cheng, Guang

2011-01-01

218

Microbiological risk factors in dentistry. Current status of knowledge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dentists belong to a professional group potentially exposed to harmful biological factors which most often are infectious microorganisms, less frequently - allergenic or toxic microorganisms. The fundamental routes of spreading harmful microorganisms in a dental surgery are: blood-borne, saliva-droplet, direct contact with a patient and with infected equipment, and water-droplet infections. In this paper, the current status of knowledge on microbiological hazards in a dentist's work is presented. Groups of microorganisms, such as prions, viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa, to which a dentist is, or may be exposed, are discussed. Epidemiological assessment of microbiological hazards in a dentist's work was performed and the basic principles of prevention formulated. Special attention was given to microflora in dental unit waterlines, and the biofilm persisting in them, as a source of occupational hazards specific for a dentist's workplace. PMID:16457467

Szyma?ska, Jolanta

2005-01-01

219

Underground coal gasification: a brief review of current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal gasification is a promising option for the future use of coal. Similarly to gasification in industrial reactors, underground coal gasification (UCG) produces syngas, which can be used for power generation or for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and other valuable chemical products. As compared with conventional mining and surface gasification, UCG promises lower capital/operating costs and also has other advantages, such as no human labor underground. In addition, UCG has the potential to be linked with carbon capture and sequestration. The increasing demand for energy, depletion of oil and gas resources, and threat of global climate change lead to growing interest in UCG throughout the world. In this article, we review the current status of this technology, focusing on recent developments in various countries.

Shafirovich, E.; Varma, A. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

2009-09-15

220

HELOKA data acquisition and control system: Current development status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HELOKA experimental facility, aimed to test the test blanket modules (TBM) mock-ups and prototypes, is under construction at the Research Centre Karlsruhe. HELOKA is an '8-shape' helium loop (HL), which feeds the TBM test section with helium (1.4 kg/s, 300 deg. C, 8 MPa). The maximum temperature at the test section outlet is 500 deg. C. HELOKA data acquisition and control system (DACS) comprises the facility control system and instrumentation. In addition to DACS and working independently from it, the central interlock and safety system (CISS) ensures the facility machine protection and personnel safety, with specific interlock logic, acting upon off-normal events or conditions. The paper briefly describes HELOKA DACS and CISS and reports in detail on the current development status: the installation and commissioning of DACS stage 1 consisting of the supervisory control system (SCS) and the control and monitoring for the water cooling system (WCS) and the related power supply.

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

Current status of thermoluminescence studies on minerals and rocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The usefulness of thermoluminescence (TL) in geological studies is being increasingly recognized, as may be judged from the considerable volume of literature accumulated over the past couple of decades; besides, a number of seminars, conferences and specialists' meetings have also been held on the subject of applied TL. However, these publications lie scattered over several periodicals and conference proceedings and an interested worker finds it difficult to obtain the gist of the contributions in one place. The present authors felt a need for this and have, therefore, attempted to bring together in this Report the current status of TL research about different minerals; applications in the fields of geochronology, ore-prospecting, stratigraphic correlation, geothermometry and other useful areas are also included. (author)

1982-01-01

222

Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

1998-03-01

223

The Submillimeter Array: Current Status and Testing Results  

Science.gov (United States)

The Submillimeter Array (SMA) is a new radio interferometer currently being deployed at the summit of Mauna Kea, consisting of 8 telescopes of 6 meters diameter each, operating in the frequency range of 180 to 900 GHz. This project is a joint collaboration between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics in Taiwan, which has built two of the antennas. In this paper, we present the current status of the SMA and summarize various testing results. As of mid-October 2001, five of the antennas are fully operational, with the correlation capabilities of up to 6 baselines. The antennas are currently equipped with 230 and 345 GHz receivers and the correlator provides a bandwidth of 328 MHz, with a resolution of about 1 MHz per channel. The surface accuracy of the antennas is about 13 to 20 microns (see poster by Sridharan et al.) and the blind pointing rms error is about 5". Efforts at improving the pointing performance are underway, with implementation of real-time corrections using electronic inclinometers. While the control software for the array is still in its preliminary stages, the array is operable remotely over internet. The interferometric data is archived in FITS-IDI format (for AIPS++) and in the Caltech MIR format (for IDL).

Saito, M.; SMA Team

2001-12-01

224

Current Status of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an overview of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) to date and the current development status of the system. NORS is an element of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) used to resupply the ISS with Nitrogen and Oxygen following the impending retirement of the Space Shuttle. The paper will discuss why NASA is developing NORS, including a summary of other concepts considered, and other related concepts currently being developed by NASA. The current system architecture will be described, along with a summary of the current design of the NORS. The overall programmatic schedule of the NORS in the context of the upcoming shuttle retirement and future launch vehicle development will also be presented. Finally, the paper will examine the significant technical challenges encountered during the requirements and preliminary design phase of NORS development. A key challenge to the development of NORS is the international shipment - and associated regulations - of pressurized Oxygen, which is necessary due to the use of launch vehicles based in Japan and French Guiana to send NORS gasses to the ISS. The storage and use of relatively large quantities of high pressure (41,000 kPa) Oxygen and Nitrogen within the ISS, which is unprecedented both on the ISS and other space vehicles, has had a significant impact on the design and architecture of the system. The high pressure of the system also poses unique thermal considerations, which has led to the development of a heater system for thermal conditioning of high pressure gas to avoid thermal impacts on downstream hardware. The on-orbit envelope allocated to the NORS has changed (gotten smaller) and has impacted both the design and architecture of the system. Finally, the balance of safety considerations associated with these high pressure gasses, particularly high pressure Oxygen, with the functionality of the system has profoundly impacted the form of the system and will be discussed.

Dick, Brandon

2011-01-01

225

Acceptability of Marital Violence among College Men and Women: Does Gender and Current Relationship Status Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender, current relationship status, and the interaction between gender and relationship status on the acceptability of marital violence among college men and women. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of marital violence acceptability and current relationship status.…

Merten, Michael J.; Williams, Amanda L.

2009-01-01

226

Current status of Horonobe URL project in construction phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Horonobe URL project has been pursued by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) to establish and demonstrate site characterization methodologies, engineering technologies, and safety assessment methodologies for HLW geological disposal in relevant geological environment with sedimentary rock and saline groundwater distributing in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan. In the Horonobe URL project, surface-based investigation phase (Phase I) has already completed in the year 2005, and then construction phase (Phase II) has initiated in the same year. Currently, construction of the underground facilities such as shafts/galleries which were designed in Phase I, investigations of the geological environment in the excavated shafts/galleries and confirmation of applicability of engineering technologies has been alternately carried out as Phase II activities of the project. During the construction so far, monitoring for the construction safety such as convergence measurements, tunnel wall observation, sampling of groundwater and rock, investigations for evaluating excavation damaged/disturbed zone (EDZ/EdZ) along shafts/galleries were carried out. In addition, a shotcrete construction test and a grout injection test by using low alkaline cement material were carried in the horizontal galleries. In this paper, status of the URL construction and research activities mentioned above are outlined as the current achievement of the Horonobe URL project. (author)

2010-10-03

227

Problems of current status of statistical nuclear theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current status of statistical nucleus theory, used for analysing a wide range of nuclear reactions, occuring through the compound nucleus stage, is considered. Excited residual nucleus level density and the cross section of absorption of the considered particle by the excited nucleus, or, as it is usually called, reverse reaction cross section appear to be the main components of such analysis. Questions, related to the errors of this cross section replacement by the cross section of particle absorption by the nucleus in the ground state and to construction of a renified coordinated description of level densities and the whole set of reverse reaction cross sections appear to be basically important. It is mentioned, that qualitative confirmations concerning the reverse reaction cross section difference from the cross section of absorption of particles by the unexcited nucleus, are available. A conclusion is drawn, that theoretical approaches to describing the main statistical characteristics of the excited nuclei, coordinated with theoretical models, used for analysing rich spectroscopic material concerning the nucleus low-lying level properties, are currently available

1986-10-20

228

Current status of the Mallard population in the Nordic countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dabbling ducks (Anas ssp.) are cornerstone species in wetland bird communities and yet in many cases we lack sufficient data to judge the conservation status of the flyway population. In a first step to remedy this we here compile all available data on Mallard in the Nordic countries. We find increasing numbers of wintering Mallards and stable to increasing breeding populations. Data on breeding success is scarce but the available data show an increasing trend. In recent years the overall trend in hunting bag sizes is relatively stable even though there is some variation among countries. Thus all indicators suggest that the Nordic Mallard population is currently in good condition. However major knowledge gaps were identified with regard to release of hand-reared Mallards and the effect of short stopping for the trends observed locally. A detailed assessment of the effect of releases is urgently needed as well as an assessment of the role of short stopping in explaining current trends in winter population in certain parts of the European flyway.

Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär

229

Current status of drugs in development for celiac disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Gluten is the main trigger for celiac disease, and the current treatment is based on its elimination from the diet. Although the symptoms usually disappear during the diet, it is restrictive and difficult to maintain. Further, despite a strict treatment the small-bowel mucosal damage does now always heal. Consequently, adherence is often poor and new treatment approaches are needed. With an increased understanding of the disease pathogenesis, several novel treatments have been suggested, and some of them have already entered Phase II clinical trials. Areas covered: This article reviews the latest status of the drugs in development for celiac disease. The article focuses mainly on synthetic drugs currently entering in clinical trials. Expert opinion: It is anticipated that some of the treatments under investigation will soon enter Phase III clinical trials, although challenges remain. For instance, histological studies are problematic in wide-scale clinical studies. On the other hand, the existing non-invasive serological methods and clinical outcome measures might be too insensitive for monitoring responses to the possible drug candidates. There is also no animal model which would accurately reflect celiac disease. Well-conducted basic and clinical research is required to develop better non-invasive surrogate markers and patient-related outcomes for future pharmacological studies. PMID:24806736

Kurppa, Kalle; Hietikko, Minna; Sulic, Ana-Marija; Kaukinen, Katri; Lindfors, Katri

2014-08-01

230

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Current status and future perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although surgical aortic valve replacement is the standard therapy for severe aortic stenosis (AS, about one third of patients are considered inoperable due to unacceptable surgical risk. Under medical treatment alone these patients have a very poor prognosis with a mortality rate of 50% at 2 years. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI has been used in these patients, and has shown robust results in the only randomized clinical trial of severe AS treatment performed so far. In this review, we will focus on the two commercially available systems: Edwards SAPIEN valve and CoreValve Revalving system. Both systems have demonstrated success rates of over 90% with 30-d mortality rates below 10% in the most recent transfemoral TAVI studies. Moreover, long-term studies have shown that the valves have good haemodynamic performance. Some studies are currently exploring the non-inferiority of TAVI procedures vs conventional surgery in high-risk patients, and long-term clinical results of the percutaneous valves. In this article we review the current status of TAVI including selection of patients, a comparison of available prostheses, results and complications of the procedure, clinical outcomes, and future perspectives.

Pablo Salinas

2011-01-01

231

Current status of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) at JAERI Tokai Research Establishment started its operation in December, 1979 for carrying out postirradiation examination (PIE) of the full-size power reactor fuel assembly. The purpose of PIE is to confirm the integrity of power reactor fuels, to verify the appropriateness of these fuel design and to provide highly reliable data on fuel behavior. The major advantage of beta-gamma concrete cells is to have to capability to carry out PIEs for both fuel assembly and fuel rod holding vertically. In these cells, various non-destructive examinations of the fuel assembly and fuel rod and destructive examinations of the fuel rod have been performed. As of September 1992, RFEF has carried out PIEs of 13 fuel assemblies and some fuel rods withdrawn from the fuel assemblies in the reactor sites. To respond to new PIE needs, RFEF has been developing PIE techniques and apparatus such as non-destructive measurement of the oxide thickness on the cladding using an eddy current probe, high temperature annealing test on the irradiated pellet, thermal conductivity and melting temperature measurements of the irradiated pellet. This paper describes an outline and current status of RFEF. (author)

1993-02-01

232

Conversion of research and test reactors: status and current plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Office of Global Threat Reduction's (GTRI) Conversion Program develops technology necessary to enable the conversion of civilian facilities using high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and targets. The Conversion program mission supports the minimization and, to the extent possible, elimination of the use of HEU in civil nuclear applications by working to convert research reactors and radioisotope production processes to the use of LEU fuel and targets throughout the world. During the Program's 27 years of existence, 46 research reactors have been converted from HEU to LEU fuels and processes have been developed for producing the medical isotope Mo-99 with LEU targets. Under GTRI the Conversion Program has accelerated the schedules and plans for conversion of additional research reactors operating with HEU. Also the Program emphasizes the development of advanced high-density LEU fuels to enable further conversions. The Conversion program coordinates with the other program functions of GTRI, most notably the Removal function, which removes fresh and spent HEU fuel from countries around the world. The current goal is to convert 81 more reactors by the year 2018. This paper summarizes the current status and plans for conversion of research reactors, in the U.S. and abroad, the supporting fuel development activities, and the development of processes for medical isotope production with LEU targets. (authors)

2007-03-11

233

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Current status and future perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

Although surgical aortic valve replacement is the standard therapy for severe aortic stenosis (AS), about one third of patients are considered inoperable due to unacceptable surgical risk. Under medical treatment alone these patients have a very poor prognosis with a mortality rate of 50% at 2 years. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been used in these patients, and has shown robust results in the only randomized clinical trial of severe AS treatment performed so far. In this review, we will focus on the two commercially available systems: Edwards SAPIEN valve and CoreValve Revalving system. Both systems have demonstrated success rates of over 90% with 30-d mortality rates below 10% in the most recent transfemoral TAVI studies. Moreover, long-term studies have shown that the valves have good haemodynamic performance. Some studies are currently exploring the non-inferiority of TAVI procedures vs conventional surgery in high-risk patients, and long-term clinical results of the percutaneous valves. In this article we review the current status of TAVI including selection of patients, a comparison of available prostheses, results and complications of the procedure, clinical outcomes, and future perspectives.

Salinas, Pablo; Moreno, Raul; Lopez-Sendon, Jose L

2011-01-01

234

Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

Kloska, Stephan P. [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Engelhorn, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Fiebach, Jochen B. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany)

2010-03-15

235

Arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh: An analysis of institutional stakeholders' opinions.  

Science.gov (United States)

While Bangladesh made significant achievements in safe water coverage via installation of shallow tubewells (STWs) nationwide, this success was shattered by the discovery of arsenic (As) in the STWs. The extent and severity of As groundwater contamination throughout Bangladesh and its detrimental effects on human health are well known and demand long-term sustainable mitigation. It is an immensely complex and expensive task to bring tens of millions of arsenic exposed people under safe water coverage. While various mitigation measures have been undertaken by various organizations, most have not achieved their expected outcomes due to technical, spatial and socio-economic challenges. Better understanding of these challenges by institutional stakeholders is crucial for sustainable arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh. In this study, institutional stakeholders' opinions on various aspects of As mitigation were elicited to identify their preferences for and reservations of specific mitigation measures. The current status of As mitigation activities and the factors influencing the success of As mitigation were also explored. Institutional weakness, lack of accountability and a latency period were the major factors hindering sustainable As mitigation. The results also suggested that the stakeholders' understanding of the As problem and their preferences for the different mitigation measures have a significant impact on the effectiveness of As mitigation. Mitigation of As contamination is a complex issue that requires a coordinated effort from various levels of stakeholders. The concept of "paying for water", which is currently potentially unknown in the rural areas of Bangladesh, also needs to be developed as this will create a stronger sense of user ownership of As safe water and thus better water management. PMID:24290438

Khan, Nasreen Islam; Yang, Hong

2014-08-01

236

Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and potentials of classical radiotherapy After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. Technological levels of radiotherapy in developed countries An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and mached to point current status. Results of analysis and discussion The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%, as well as, ADAC (43.7% and Focus (CMS (27.4% systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%, although classic ”simulation” is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%. About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CFRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.. CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day. Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. Technological aspects and conclusion In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in technology and consequent improvements, as well as wide introduction of computers in radiotherapy, radiotherapy results have not changed significantly. Vendor development strategies do not point that this trend will change in the next 5 years. On the other hand, wide introduction of the PET in each radiotherapy chain ring (diagnostics, planning, follow-up, could improve results (local and regional control, as well as quality of patients' life.

Dabi?-Stankovi? Kata M.

2004-01-01

237

The current status of percutaneous vertebroplasty in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To provide an overview of the current status of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) practice in Canada, including the preprocedure work up operative technique and follow-up practice of physicians performing the procedure in this county. Questionnaires were emailed to 31 institutions performing percutaneous vertebroplasty across Canada. Twenty-three (74.2%) completed surveys were returned, representing data from 1,516 vertebroplasties performed by 66 radiologists and surgeons. Preoperative routine imaging and screening practice varies widely. The majority of respondents perform PVP under conscious sedation; however, an anaesthetist is present in only 22% of institutions. Biplane fluoroscopy is used in 43.5% of practices. The preference for unipedicular or bipedicular injection varies: in 7 institutions, a unipedicular approach is used in at least 80% of cases. Patients receive a follow-up by the screening physician in 65.2% of institutions. There were 4 complications requiring treatment. Venous and intradiscal extravasation rates were 20.8% and 25.3%, respectively; however, the vast majority of these were clinically insignificant. PVP complication rates reported in our Canadian survey compare favourably with those in the published literature. The number of PVPs performed annually in the institutions surveyed appears small, relative to the figures from the United States. The prevalence of osteoporosis and incidence of vertebral compression fractures in Canada is increasing as the population ages, and demand for PVP is likely to rise significantly in the coming years. (author)

Heffernan, E.J.; O' Sullivan, P.J.; Alkubaidan, F.O.; Heran, M.K.S.; Legiehn, G.M.; Munk, P.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)], E-mail: ejheffernan@eircom.net

2008-04-15

238

The JT-60SA Cryoplant Current Design Status  

Science.gov (United States)

In the framework of the ITER Broader Approach, CEA is carrying out the procurement of the Cryogenic System to the JA-EU Satellite Tokamak JT-60SA, which should be operated in Japan at JAEA, Naka in 2014. According to the Conceptual Design Report, JT-60SA is to operate for periods of at least 6 months per year, with major shutdown periods in between for maintenance and further installation upgrades. For this operation scenario, the cryoplant and the cryodistribution have to cope with different heat loads which depend on the different JT-60SA operating states. The cryoplant consists of one 4.5 K refrigerator and one 80 K helium loop, each pre-cooled by LN2. These cryogenic subsystems have to operate simultaneously in order to remove the heat loads from the superconducting magnets, 80 K shields and the divertor cryopumps. The first part of this study is based on the Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and presents the current design status of the JT-60SA cryogenic system. The second part is dedicated to the analysis of the cryoplant normal operation modes including the regeneration mode of the divertor cryopumps. Thanks to this analysis, the architecture of the present PFD is proposed in order to match the technical specifications of the cryoplant with the JT-60SA operation requirements.

Henry, D.; Michel, F.; Roussel, P.; Reynaud, P.; Journeaux, J. Y.; Maréchal, J. L.; Balaguer, D.; Roux, C.; Matsukawa, M.; Yoshida, K.

2008-03-01

239

Management of reprocessed uranium. Current status and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is worldwide interest in developing advanced and innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles, minimizing waste and environmental impacts. As of the beginning of 2003, about 171000 tonnes heavy metal spent nuclear fuel is in storage, while smaller amounts have been reprocessed. In several countries, including France, India, Japan and the Russian Federation, spent fuel has been viewed as a national energy resource. Some countries hold reprocessed uranium as the result of their commercial reprocessing service contracts for reprocessing the spent fuel of others. Reprocessed uranium has a potential value for recycling either directly or after appropriate treatment. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in the management of reprocessed uranium. It includes the technical issues involved in managing reprocessed uranium which are RepU arisings, storage, chemical conversion, re-enrichment, fuel fabrication, transport, reactor irradiation, subsequent reprocessing and disposal options, as well as assessment of holistic environmental impacts. The objective of this document is to overview the information on the current status and future trends in the management of RepU and to identify major issues to be considered for future projects

2007-01-01

240

The UPM high temperature solar collector current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high temperature solar energy research at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) is an attempt to study the merits of the fixed aperture optics collector for the equatorial region using the concept of the fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF). The general objective is to look for an alternative source of clean energy and a practical method of converting this energy to usable form for the projected industrialisation program of the country. The FMDF uses a stationary hemisphere bowl to capture the solar irradiance. The UPM bowl has a rim angle of 120 0 with radius of curvature of 27.9 m. This corresponds to an aperture diameter of 48 m and submerges 5.1 m in the ground. The bowl will later be tiled with 2446 square meters of mirror to form a spherical shape. And therefore will be able to collect about 1 MW of solar irradiance at the conical focus formed along the direction of the radius (high concentrated region) which then can be harnessed by different means. In this paper, we will report the current status and future works of the project, under construction at the site. We anticipate that the project will be completed and operated by the year 2000. (Author)

1999-06-08

 
 
 
 
241

Oil development in China: Current status and future trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future of oil has become an important topic of the discussion of energy policy in China. This paper attempts to present a full picture of the current status and future trends of China’s oil development through system analysis. First, we map a Sankey diagram of China’s oil flow to reveal the physical pattern of China’s oil supply and consumption. Then, we present the historical and ongoing trends of China’s oil flow from key aspects such as oil demand, oil resource availability, technology improvement, and policy adjustment. Based on these understandings, we design three scenarios of China’s oil demand in 2030, and analyze policy implications for oil saving, automotive energy development, and energy security. From the analysis, we draw some conclusions for policy decisions, such as to control the total oil consumption to avoid energy security risks, to enhance oil saving in all sectors with road transportation as the emphasis, and to increase the investment on oil production and refining to secure oil supply and reduce emissions. - Highlights: ? A Sankey Diagram to reveal the physical pattern of China’s oil supply and consumption. ? Present the ongoing trends of China’s oil development. ? Discuss important policy issues such as oil saving, energy security, and emissions reduction.

2012-06-01

242

[Current status of HIV infection in Yunnan Province of China].  

Science.gov (United States)

In cooperation with the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine and Yunnan Province Provincial Office for AIDS Control and Prevention, we studied the current status of HIV infection intravenous drug users (IVDUs) and other high risk groups in Yunnan province of China. As of the end of 1995, 1,807 HIV cases were officially reported (Positive rate was 0.6%), of which 1,278 (77.9%) were IVDUs, and 24 were their spouses. The majority of cases were found among the Dai minority male farmers near Ruili which borders on Myammar, but HIV also appears to be spreading among the Han people. HIV antibody positive rates among commercial sex workers, pregnant women and blood donors were 0.2%, 0.07% and 0.04%, respectively. A system for surveillance of HIV has been developed, but preventive strategies to cope with HIV epidemic are not sufficient. As HIV/AIDS is now a global issue, (1) the integration and coordination of such preventive strategies in cooperation with community health workers, (2) general health education for condom use promotion and (3) care of psychological vulnerable person such as IVDUs, should be developed. PMID:9261209

Hirabayashi, K; Tajima, K; Soda, K; Yi, Z; Dong, Z X; He, C H; Lin, Y G

1997-05-01

243

The current status of radiological protection infraestructures in Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Without adequate and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure, the benefits associated with safe use of nuclear technology and atomic energy might be jeopardized. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the Atomic Energy Act No. 7 of 2003 established the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission as sole regulatory body responsible for regulating and controlling the safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the country. The Atomic Energy (Protection from ionizing radiation) Regulations, 2004 further specifies practices designed to ensure that unnecessary exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is avoided, that all exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable and that all the dose limits specified in the radiation protection standards are not exceeded. This is achieved through the systems of notification, authorizations through registration and licensing, safety and security of radiation sources as well as regulatory inspections and enforcements. These activities are performed by the Commission with operational funds allocated by the Government of Tanzania. The Commission further provides other services namely individual monitoring; calibration services; education and training to radiation workers, public as well as law enforcers; and safe management of radioactive waste. Despite such achievement, still there are a lot to be done in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Tanzania. These include issues such as gaps in our legislations, regulations and guidance, security of sources, enforcement of laws, etc. This paper describes and discusses the current status of the regulatory control activities and radiation protection services provided by the Commission and suggestions for further improvement of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania. (author)

2008-10-19

244

Current status and future plan for APR Technology Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of a national long-term R and D program, the Advanced Power Reactor plus (APR+) technology development project (henceforth APR+ project) was launched in 2007. The aims of the project are to develop a Korean indigenous reactor design and competing with foreign Gen III+ reactors and to commercialize the reactor design and finally export it to the world after 2015. The APR+ project consists of three phases. In the first phase, a feasibility study was performed to make relative comparisons among the reactor concepts and the utility requirements of the top level were established. The second phase involves the development of the detail design and the procurement of the Standard Design Approval (SDA) from the Korean nuclear regulatory body. The third phase will be completed the APR+ design by optimizing core part of that. This paper describes the design overview and advanced design feature of APR+. And then, the current status and future plan of the APR+ project presents at the conclusion

2012-03-01

245

Radionuclide transport by groundwater flow through the geosphere: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geosphere is an important barrier retaining radionuclides that have been released from the near field of a waste repository and retarding their return to Man. The assessment models that are used in the current Nirex assessments to describe the groundwater flow in the vicinity of the repository and the transport of radionuclides by the groundwater are summarized, and their data requirements are set out. The Nirex research programme is designed to provide improved and additional data for these models, to deepen the understanding of the important processes and to develop improved models to describe them. This document outlines the status of the assessment models and associated research programme in the spring of 1988. The programme complements existing knowledge in this field. Key areas are measurements of the physical properties of rocks, field and modelling studies of fractured rocks, measurements of sorption onto geological materials, investigation of the possible importance of colloid transport and saline interfaces, transport of naturally occurring elements over geological time-scales in natural geochemical systems, and participation in an international model validation exercise. (author)

1989-01-01

246

Radiation processing in India: Current status and future programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation processing is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing in many industrial applications. In India, this technology has found extensive applications in area of healthcare, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, six commercial Co-60 gamma irradiators and three commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. Five demonstration plants housing a total of 18.5x107 GBq Co-60 have been set up to assess the techno-commercial viability of the processes such as radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, decontamination of spices, hygienization of sewage sludge, shelf-life extension of onions. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam treated pulp for viscose-rayon process, radiation processed 'hydrogel' burn/would dressings and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology in India is reviewed. (author)

2004-11-01

247

Current status of the LHD Thomson scattering system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The large helical device (LHD) Thomson scattering system measures electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) profiles of LHD plasmas, along the LHD major radius (R). The total length of plasma measured is 3 m (R = 2.325–5.386 m), the number of observation points is 144, and the spatial resolution is 12–25 mm. The sampling frequency is 10–100 msec (10–100 Hz). The measurable temperature and density ranges have been estimated to be 5 eV–20 keV and 1018–1022 m?3, respectively. The LHD Thomson scattering system consists of several subsystems, yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) lasers, light collection optics, polychromators, and data acquisition system. In usual plasma experiments, we use three types of YAG lasers: 2 J/10 Hz, 1.6 J/30 Hz, and newly developed 1.2/50 Hz YAG lasers. Thomson scattering signals are analyzed with the FASTBUS-based data acquisition system. Recently, a hardware technique and three data analysis methods have been tested to improve data quality. By using these methods, the data quality has been increased by more than an order of magnitude in high-Te, low-ne plasma experiments. In the paper, we describe the current status of the LHD Thomson scattering system.

2012-05-01

248

Radiation processing in India. Current status and future program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation processing is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing in many industrial applications. In India, this technology has found extensive applications in area of healthcare, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, 6 commercial gamma irradiators housing about 1.5 million curie Co-60 and an annual turnover of over US$ 2 million and 3 commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. Five demonstration plants housing a total of 0.5 million curie Co-60 have been set up to assess the techno-commercial viability of the processes such as radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, decontamination of spices, hygienization of sewage sludge, shelf-life extension of onions. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam treated pulp for viscose-rayon process, radiation processed 'hydrogel' burn/wound dressings and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology in India is reviewed. (author)

2003-12-09

249

Current status of the 2008 Titan/Saturn Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission has revealed enigmatic Titan as a strange and wonderful world but Titan still holds mysteries that require a more complete exploration with remote and in situ instruments. This exciting mission concept would enable in-depth investigations of Titan within the context of the Saturnian System. It would be designed to build on the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan in a way that is not currently possible (such as higher resolution over longer time periods, prolonged in situ measurements). The 2008 Titan/Saturn System Study was commissioned by NASA and ESA with a joint science definition team (JSDT). The US contribution would be spacecraft orbiter circling Titan at different altitudes (nominal 1500 km) while the European contribution would be in situ exploration elements (balloon, probes, etc). This paper reports on the status of the study which is due in final form to NASA and ESA in October 2008 for a decision on further studies based on feasibility.

Beauchamp, Patricia; Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Matson, Dennis L.; Spilker, Thomas; Lunine, Jonathan; Reh, Kim; Stankov, Anamarija; Strange, Nathan; John, Elliott; Leary, James; Sdt, Joint

250

Current status of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The direct use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality, which is becoming increasingly widespread due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has a long tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a second-generation promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we describe the current situation worldwide as far as the use of accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT is concerned (so-called Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT). In particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. (author)

Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Vento, V. Thatar; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J.M.; Valda, A.A.; Ilardo, J.C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.R.; Estrada, L.; Sandin, J.C. Suarez; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Padulo, J.; Minsky, D.M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-07-01

251

Bonded permanent magnets: Current status and future opportunities (invited)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Permanent magnets play a vital role in modern society as a component in a wide range of devices utilized by many industries and consumers. In 1995, the world production of permanent magnets was estimated to be valued at $3.6 billion and growing at an annual rate of 12%. Bonded permanent magnets are the fastest growing segment of this market. Bonded magnet technology enables a wide variety of magnetic powders to be combined with several polymer and binder systems to produce magnetic components utilizing several processing options. In this article, we review the development of bonded magnet technology. The major classes of magnetic powders, binder systems, and processing technologies are described. Recent developments in magnetic material grades, e.g., anisotropic NdFeB, rare earth lean NdFeB, SmFe(N,C) are outlined. The current status of processing and binder options aimed at increasing the upper application temperature limit of these materials is highlighted. Finally, the improvements and future opportunities for bonded magnets are discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

1997-04-01

252

Current Status and Tasks in Development of Cable Recycling Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper shows current status and tasks in development of cable recycling technology and it’s items to be solved. Electric cable recycle system has been activated especially for copper conductor recycle in Japan. Previously removed cable coverings materials were mainly land filled. But landfill capacity is decreased and limited in recent years, at the same time, recycle technology was highly developed. A cable recycle technology has 4 tasks. (1) Applying new high efficiency separation system instead of electrostatic and gravity methods to classify mixed various kind of plastics materials including recently developed ecological material (ex PE, PVC, Rubber), (2) Removing heavy metal, especially lead from PVC material, (3) Treatment of optical glass fiber core, which has possibility going to be harmful micro particles, and (4) Establishment of social recycle system for electric wire and cable. Taking action for these tasks shall be proceeded under environmentally sensitive technology together with local government, user, manufacturer, and waste-disposal company on cost performance basis.

Ezure, Takashi; Goto, Kazuhiko

253

Nonparametric estimation of current status data with dependent censoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses nonparametric estimation of a survival function when one observes only current status data (McKeown and Jewell, Lifetime Data Anal 16:215-230, 2010; Sun, The statistical analysis of interval-censored failure time data, 2006; Sun and Sun, Can J Stat 33:85-96, 2005). In this case, each subject is observed only once and the failure time of interest is observed to be either smaller or larger than the observation or censoring time. If the failure time and the observation time can be assumed to be independent, several methods have been developed for the problem. Here we will focus on the situation where the independent assumption does not hold and propose two simple estimation procedures under the copula model framework. The proposed estimates allow one to perform sensitivity analysis or identify the shape of a survival function among other uses. A simulation study performed indicates that the two methods work well and they are applied to a motivating example from a tumorigenicity study. PMID:22735973

Wang, Chunjie; Sun, Jianguo; Sun, Liuquan; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Dehui

2012-10-01

254

Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

PeterUhlhaas

2009-07-01

255

The ALICE DAQ Current Status and Future Challenges  

CERN Multimedia

Proposal of abstract for CHEP2000The ALICE DAQ system has been designed to support an aggregate eventr building bandwidth of up to 2.5 GByte/s and a storage capability o fup to 1.25 GByte/s to mass storage.A general framework called the ALICE Data Acquisition Test Environment (DATE) system has been developed as a basis for prototyping the components of the DAQ. DATE supports a wide spectrum of configurations from simple systems to more complex systems with multiple detectors and multiple event builders.Prototypes of several key components of the ALICE DAQ have been developed and integrated with the DATE system, such as the ALICE Detector Data Link, the online data monitoring from ROOT and the interface to the Mass Storage systems. Combined tests of several of these components are pursued during the ALICE Data Challenges.The architecture of the ALICE DAQ system will be presented together with the current status of the different prototypes. The recent addition of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) to ALICE h...

Röhrich, D; Villalobos Baillie, O; Dénes, E; Eged, B; Sulyán, J; Kiss, T; Meggyesi, Z; Soos, C; Vissy, B; Tarján, D; Tóth, N; Novák, I; Csató, P; Rubin, G; Arregui, M; Carena, W; Chapeland, S; Divià, R; Schossmaier, K; Van de Vyvre, P; Vascotto, Alessandro; Stock, Reinhard; Rademakers, F; Lindenstruth, V; Skaali, B

2001-01-01

256

Municipal Waste Management and Environmental Hazards in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Municipal solid waste becomes serious environmental hazard and social problem in Bangladesh. Currently a gigantic volume of solid waste is generated every day in the district towns of Bangladesh and unfortunately solid waste management is being deteriorated day by day due to the limited resources to handle the increasing rate of generated waste. In order to check the waste management situation, a detailed survey in different cities of Bangladesh has been done in this study. Although a s...

Jahid Hasan, G. M.; Md. Aktarul Islam Chowdhury

2005-01-01

257

Electricity Crisis of Bangladesh: Result of Organizational Inefficiency?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is believed that the organizational inefficiency of the ‘BPDB’ and ‘Power Division’ of Ministry of Power, Energy, and Mineral Resources (MPEMR) of Bangladesh is the main cause for current electricity crisis. Although there are changes in public sector management in the electricity sector of Bangladesh due to the NPM, the organization continue to value the bureaucratic and hierarchical organizational culture. Bangladesh government has taken several programs and has adopted ...

Ziauddin Ahmed

2011-01-01

258

The current status of cattle breeding programmes in Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the South Asian and Pacific (SAP) countries have similarities in setting the policy and execution of dairy and beef cattle genetic improvement programmes, but the degree of involvement by the state and the private sectors varies with their socioeconomic priorities. Dairying plays an important role in socioeconomic development in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, while the economic output from livestock in Indonesia and Malaysia is dominated by the beef industry. Improving the productivity of cattle in SAP will required a multifaceted set of interventions that will involve not only proper management of local animal genetic resources, but also strengthening of local institutions for support of farming activities, including not only breeding-related services, but also services related to nutrition, health care, milk marketing and social services. These services are to be provided by a combination of governmental, non-governmental, and private institutions. A contribution by the government for policy setting and support in management of local resources is necessary to ensure sustainability and fair exchange of germplasm between countries

2009-10-01

259

Design features and current status of HTR-10GT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 10MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-10), a pebble bed type reactor, is the first reactor worldwide which has inherent safety features. It reached its first criticality in 2000 and began to operate on full power in 2003. The power conversion system of the HTR-10 is a steam turbine generator system. Based on the success of the HTR-10, a new project, the gas turbine power conversion system coupled with the HTR-10, was launched, which is denoted as HTR-10GT. The HTGR gas turbine cycle is expected to have higher efficiency and better performance theoretically. Therefore, for the HTR-10GT, the gas turbine direct cycle is utilized instead of previous steam generator and steam turbine. The arrangement of helium turbine and electric generator is selected as single shaft configuration with a gear box between the two machines, for which the turbine speed is designed as 15000r/min and the generator is 3000 r/min. The rotors are supported by active magnetic bearings to avoid the contamination from any lubricant. The reactor core outlet temperature is designed as 750 deg. and inlet 330 deg. The plant power is controlled by adjusting reactor control rods and helium density simultaneously, so that it can remain high efficiency even in partial loading. The overspeed of the turbomachine is restricted by opening bypass valves to reduce pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of turbine. This presentation will show the main design features and current status of the HTR-10GT project. (author)

2007-03-01

260

Current status of the HIBMC and results of representative diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

The proton radiotherapy (PRT) has been spreading, since 1990 when 250 MeV proton beams with rotation gantry was developed for medical use. On the other hand, carbon-ion radiotherapy (CRT) that has both physical and biological features is available at 4 facilities in the world. HIBMC is the only facility to be able to use both particles. From Apr 2001 to Dec 2008, 2486 patients were treated with PRT in 2030 patients or with CRT in 456. Treatment to the Head and Neck (H&N: in 405 patients), the lung (245), the liver (371), and the prostatic carcinoma (1059) was a major subject. The 2-year local control rates is 72% in H&N (n = 163, T1:9, T2:18, T3:36, T4:79, malignant melanoma 48, adenoid cystic carcinoma 35, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 32, adenocarcinoma 14, others 34), 88% in lung (n = 116, T1:59, T2:42, T3:4, T4:6, SCC 30, adenocarcinoma 59, others 27), and 89% in liver cancer (n = 153, Proton: 130, carbon: 23). Biochemical disease free 3-year survival of 291 prostate cancer is 100% in 9 patients with initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level 20 ng/ml. These results are excellent comparable or superior to those of surgery. Thus, particle therapy is sophisticated radiotherapy, however the only problem to prohibit the progress is high costs for construction and maintenance. Facilities at which both proton and carbon ion beams can be used, including the HIBMC, have to investigate the differential use. We started clinical randomized trial to compare both ion beams, and started biological examinations in a project aiming at the development of a laser driven proton radiotherapy. We stated about the current status of the HIBMC and the results of representative diseases.

Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Niwa, Yasue; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Terashima, Kazuki; Arimura, Takeshi; Mima, Masayuki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Maeda, Takuya; Baba, Masashi; Akagi, Takashi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

EDIBLE VACCINES FROM GM CROPS: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE SCOPE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The idea of an edible vaccine is coming closer to reality as scientists have found a way to incorporate the protein gene with some antigen in some plants. The major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology are being overcome. In this context, genetically modified (GM plants are being investigated for the production of vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins. The development of GM crops to produce drugs and vaccines has received considerable investment and is relatively well advanced. The myth surrounding edible vaccines and 'food as pill' is the difficulty to control their intake and distribution, particularly in developing countries where education levels and literacy may be low. However, this concept suffers from the fact that the potency of this class of vaccines and drugs remains unmasked to the majority of the population, which has to be publicized and campaigned in a scientific manner, to make it realistic and useful for the common man. Creating edible vaccines involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. This process is known as "transformation," and the altered plants are called "transgenic plants." Like conventional subunit vaccines, edible vaccines are composed of antigenic proteins and are devoid of pathogenic genes. Thus, they have no way of establishing infection, assuring its safety, especially in immuno-compromised patients. Conventional subunit vaccines are expensive and technology-intensive, need purification, require refrigeration and produce poor mucosal response. In contrast, edible vaccines would enhance compliance, especially in children and because of oral administration, would eliminate the need for trained medical personnel. Their production is highly efficient and can be easily scaled up. If the technology is properly nurtured and given the right direction, it may usher into a new era where we will be asked to take “food” rather than “drugs” when we are ill. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

Doshi V

2013-06-01

262

Current status of the HIBMC and results of representative diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proton radiotherapy (PRT) has been spreading, since 1990 when 250 MeV proton beams with rotation gantry was developed for medical use. On the other hand, carbon-ion radiotherapy (CRT) that has both physical and biological features is available at 4 facilities in the world. HIBMC is the only facility to be able to use both particles. From Apr 2001 to Dec 2008, 2486 patients were treated with PRT in 2030 patients or with CRT in 456. Treatment to the Head and Neck (H and N: in 405 patients), the lung (245), the liver (371), and the prostatic carcinoma (1059) was a major subject. The 2-year local control rates is 72% in H and N (n = 163, T1:9, T2:18, T3:36, T4:79, malignant melanoma 48, adenoid cystic carcinoma 35, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 32, adenocarcinoma 14, others 34), 88% in lung (n = 116, T1:59, T2:42, T3:4, T4:6, SCC 30, adenocarcinoma 59, others 27), and 89% in liver cancer (n = 153, Proton: 130, carbon: 23). Biochemical disease free 3-year survival of 291 prostate cancer is 100% in 9 patients with initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level 20 ng/ml. These results are excellent comparable or superior to those of surgery. Thus, particle therapy is sophisticated radiotherapy, however the only problem to prohibit the progress is high costs for construction and maintenance. Facilities at which both proton and carbon ion beams can be used, including the HIBMC, have to investigate the differential use. We started clinical randomized trial to compare both ion beams, and started biological examinations in a project aiming at the development of a laser driven proton radiotherapy. We stated about the current status of the HIBMC and the results of representative diseases.

2009-07-25

263

CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered project in the direction of the government for fostering social entrepreneurs, putting emphasis on follow-up management and evaluation. Second, it must suggest a standard model for social entrepreneur promotion project. In other words, the projects with low performance should be reduced and education models appropriate for new circumstances and changes must be adopted through not only programs standardized in divisions, categories and local provinces, but also appointing expert instructors and project evaluation. Third, itâ??s necessary to propose specific guideline for detailed education operation according to education trainee and objectives of social entrepreneur. Fourth, it is needed to have more various contents development and distribution by strengthening support for specialized foundation, management and case studies related to fostering social entrepreneurs. Finally, it is even more required to spread awareness on social economics relating to programs for fostering social entrepreneur. With the long-term perspective, it is needed to render policy and specialization for fostering Korean-model social entrepreneurs, which is able to raise competent social entrepreneurs suitable for each stage of growth such as sourcing, incubation and launching social entrepreneurs.

Yoon-Doo Kim

2012-01-01

264

Autocollimators for Deflectometry: Current Status and Future Progress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proliferation of autocollimator-based surface profilometers at synchrotron metrology laboratories worldwide necessitates a detailed understanding of the parameters influencing their angular response. A comprehensive overview of the current status of autocollimator characterization and calibration at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and its implications for their optimal application are provided, as well as information on future challenges and expected progress. Autocollimator-based deflectometric profilometers are in operation at the PTB, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA, the BESSY II, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany, and the Diamond Light Source Ltd (DLS), UK. A continuous topic of research at the PTB is to investigate the factors influencing the angular response of autocollimators and to provide the most accurate calibration of the instruments to aid users in their application and manufacturers in their improvements [1-3]. At the PTB, the calibration of autocollimators is realized by a direct comparison of the devices with the primary angle reference standard [1]. With highly stable autocollimators, calibrations with standard measurement uncertainties of u = 0.003 arcsec (15 nrad) have been achieved [2,3]. The influence of a number of parameters on the angle measurement with autocollimators have been investigated in detail, such as the reflectivity of the surface under test (SUT), the diameter and shape of the aperture stop, its position both along the autocollimator's optical axis and perpendicular to it [2], as well as the optical path length of the autocollimator beam [3]. Extensive information on these errors and their minimization will be presented.

Geckeler, Ralf; Just, Andreas; Krause, Michael; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

2009-06-15

265

Autocollimators for Deflectometry: Current Status and Future Progress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proliferation of autocollimator-based surface profilometers at synchrotron metrology laboratories worldwide necessitates a detailed understanding of the parameters influencing their angular response. A comprehensive overview of the current status of autocollimator characterization and calibration at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and its implications for their optimal application are provided, as well as information on future challenges and expected progress. Autocollimator-based deflectometric profilometers are in operation at the PTB, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA, the BESSY II, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany, and the Diamond Light Source Ltd (DLS), UK. A continuous topic of research at the PTB is to investigate the factors influencing the angular response of autocollimators and to provide the most accurate calibration of the instruments to aid users in their application and manufacturers in their improvements [1-3]. At the PTB, the calibration of autocollimators is realized by a direct comparison of the devices with the primary angle reference standard [1]. With highly stable autocollimators, calibrations with standard measurement uncertainties of u = 0.003 arcsec (15 nrad) have been achieved [2,3]. The influence of a number of parameters on the angle measurement with autocollimators have been investigated in detail, such as the reflectivity of the surface under test (SUT), the diameter and shape of the aperture stop, its position both along the autocollimator's optical axis and perpendicular to it [2], as well as the optical path length of the autocollimator beam [3]. Extensive information on these errors and their minimization will be presented

2009-09-22

266

Current status and future of utilization in research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In research reactors of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), JRR-3 was upgraded (so called JRR-3M) with irradiation facilities and neutron beam experimental facilities. Particularly the new supply of cold neutrons brings to a great increase of fields of utilization in research reactors of JAERI. In JRR-4, it is planned to reduce the fuel enrichment and to renew several utilization facilities in several years. JRR-2 will be shut down also in several years because of its superannuation. On the other hand most research reactors of other institutes in Japan have faced with their superannuation and the difficulties of refurbishment or upgrading as well as new construction because of the changes of environmental condition such as urbanization of their surroundings. The research reactors in JAERI will play more important role for research and development using neutrons in future than past and present. Therefore the investigation was made in order to catch the needs for utilization of research reactors. The results of this investigation show that there are many research institutes which hope to utilize research reactors in accordance with the increase of available fields such as research of high polymer, biology, industrial materials and components, and contribution to environmental investigation by using neutron scattering, neutron radiography and activation analysis. This means that the research reactor utilization will be able to contribute to general scientific fields as well as utilization for research and development of nuclear energy which have been popular as utilization of research reactors. In this presentation, the current status of utilization of research reactors in JAERI and utilization fields of research reactors expected in future based on the investigation are described. It is also discussed what is important for the utilization to use effectively the research reactors in JAERI. (author)

1993-11-01

267

Multi-observation integrated model of troposphere - current status  

Science.gov (United States)

The Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and meteorological observation systems in the past decades were developed to address separate challenges and were used by different communities. Currently, the inter-dependence between meteorology and GNSS processing is growing up, providing both communities incentives, data and research challenges. The GNSS community uses meteorological observations as well as Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models to reduce the troposphere impact on the signal propagation (i.e. eliminate tropospheric delay). On the other hand, meteorology community is assimilating the GNSS observations into weather forecasting, nowcasting or climate studies. To seamlessly use observations from both sides of the GNSS and meteorology spectra, the data have to be interoperable. In this study we present a current status of establishing an integrated model of troposphere. We investigated and compared a number of meteorological and GNSS data sources that are going to be integrated into the troposphere model with high temporal and spatial resolution. The integrated model will provide values of meteorological and GNSS parameters at any point and any time with known accuracy. First step in building this model is to inter-compare all available data sources and to establish the accuracy of parameters. Three main data sources were compared: ground-based GNSS products on ASG-EUPOS stations, NWP model COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/ Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) and meteorological parameters from three kinds of stations - EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations, meteorological sensors at airports and synoptic Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Data was provided with different temporal and spatial resolution, so it had to be interpolated prior to inter-comparison. Afterwards, the quality of the data was established. The results show that NWP model data quality is: 4hPa in terms of air pressure, 2hPa in terms of water vapor partial pressure, and 6K in terms of temperature; the agreement between the GNSS phase delay and NWP phase delay is in the order of 20 mm. The meteorological stations quality differs from highly consistent observations to stations with corrupted temperature or pressure sensors.

Wilgan, Karina; Rohm, Witold; Bosy, Jaros?aw; Sierny, Jan; Kap?on, Jan; Hada?, Tomasz; Hordyniec, Pawe?

2014-05-01

268

Conversion of research and test reactors: status and current plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Office of Global Threat Reduction's (GTRI) Conversion Program develops technology necessary to enable the conversion of civilian facilities using high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and targets. The Conversion program mission supports the minimization and, to the extent possible, elimination of the use of HEU in civil nuclear applications by working to convert research reactors and radioisotope production processes to the use of LEU fuel and targets throughout the world. During the Program's 27 years of existence, 46 research reactors have been converted from HEU to LEU fuels and processes have been developed for producing the medical isotope Mo-99 with LEU targets. Under GTRI the Conversion Program has accelerated the schedules and plans for conversion of additional research reactors operating with HEU. Also the Program emphasizes the development of advanced high-density LEU fuels to enable further conversions. The Conversion program coordinates with the other program functions of GTRI, most notably the Removal function, which removes fresh and spent HEU fuel from countries around the world. This paper summarizes the current status and plans for conversion of research reactors, in the U.S. and abroad, the supporting fuel development activities, and the development of processes for medical isotope production with LEU targets. Nuclear research and test reactors worldwide have been in operation for over 60 years, supporting nuclear science and technology development, as well as providing an important role as a research tool in scientific fields including medicine, agriculture, industry, and basic research. Over 270 research reactors are currently operating in more than 50 countries. Starting in 1954, many research reactors outside the United States were provided under the Atoms for Peace initiative. Initial research reactors were fueled with low-enriched uranium (LEU) with a content of U235 of less than 20%. More advanced research reactors desired higher specific power and neutron flux and, to avoid costs associated with the development of higher density LEU fuels, those reactors used high-enriched uranium (HEU) material, with an enrichment of 20% or higher, and typically over 90%, with the existing fuel designs. As HEU fuel became readily available, it turned into the usual fuel for research and test reactors, even for some that had initially operated with LEU fuel.

2007-03-11

269

Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct support to RandD in line with other low emission fuel alternatives. RandD on cellulosic ethanol can also be supported by indirect measures. The most important measure in this respect is to ensure a correct pricing of fossil fuels now and in the future. Many argue that production and use of first generation biofuels will bridge the conversion to second generation biofuels. We doubt that the necessary cost reductions for second generation biofuels can be obtained from widespread use of first generation biofuels. First, the production processes are simply too different, and second, the advantage with all kinds of biofuels are that it easy to introduce into the transport market at once the technology is ripe. Some also argue that second generation biofuels need to be protected against competition from import of low cost first generation biofuels made in developing countries. However, with targeted support to second generation biofuels, there is no need to pay attention to the infant industry argument. Trade policy should only aim to correct for insufficient internalizing of GHG emission costs from the production of biofuels in countries without a price on carbon. It is by no means certain that second generation biofuels will play a central role in the decarbonizing of the transport market. Necessary cost reductions may not be achieved. The GHG emissions from land use change connected to large-scale growing of cellulosic feedstock may turn out to offset the gains from changing fuel. It is important to avoid a technological or political lock-in in biofuels. In other words, policies should be flexible, and it should be possible to terminate support programs within a short notice.(Author)

Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

2011-07-01

270

The current status of utilization of research reactors in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seminars on utilization of research reactors were held to enhance experience exchanging among institutes and universities in China. The status of CARR (China Advanced Research Reactor) project is briefly described. The progress in BNCT program in China is introduced. (author)

2004-06-01

271

Gender Disparities in Secondary Education in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Enrolment and success rates are very crucial for any educational system in the world but they are more important for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Gender differences in enrolment and success rates are also emerging issues. This study investigated the enrolment and success rate’s status in secon...

Molla Huq; Pk Md. Motiur Rahman

2008-01-01

272

Regulatory and organizational framework for safe management and disposal of radioactive waste in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive waste (RW) in Bangladesh is generated from various applications. The wastes are generated from research and nuclear applications mainly in medicine, agriculture, industry and research. As with all radiation sources, radioactive waste is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed in order to protect humans and the environment. All these RW needs to be safely managed at all stages up-to and including the ultimate disposal as per international and national standards. Regulation of the safe management and disposal of radioactive wastes in Bangladesh is the responsibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) Act (Act No. XXI of 1993), in force since 22 July 1993 by approval of the National Parliament, assigns to Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) to regulate and to inspect nuclear activities regarding radiological and nuclear safety, physical protection of nuclear materials, in order to verify that such materials are used exclusively for peaceful purposes. For the fulfilment of these functions the Act grants the BAEC the necessary legal competence to develop, to establish and to apply a regulatory system to all nuclear activities carried out in Bangladesh. The legal and regulatory framework employed to achieve safe management and disposal of radioactive wastes is quite detailed in the NSRC Act and NSRC Rules-97. Radioactive waste management activities are carried out in a facility at Central Radioactive Waste Storage and Processing Facility (CWSPF), Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar. This facility has been assigned to take all low-level radioactive wastes generated by nuclear applications in Bangladesh. Strategic guidelines for the management of the national nuclear activities and in particular for the radioactive waste management and decommissioning of the nuclear installations are provided in the NSRC Rules-97. Bangladesh is planning to sign the Joint Convention on the Safety of the Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of the Radioactive Waste Management. This paper describes briefly the regulatory and organizational framework in which the management of radioactive wastes is carried out in Bangladesh. It also presents the criteria developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (BAEC) to assess the long-term safety of disposal systems for radioactive wastes. The current status and future direction of the legal and regulatory framework for management and disposal of radioactive waste in Bangladesh is described. (author)

2005-10-03

273

Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients

1993-01-01

274

Current Status and Future Directions of Targeted Peptide Radionuclide Therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current status: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is currently almost exclusively targeted at the somatostatin receptor (sst). Of the 5 receptor subtypes, sst2 is frequently very highly expressed at the cell surface of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Octreotide is a small and stable derivative of native somatostatin, which can be very well labeled with therapeutic radionuclides such as the beta-emitters ''9''0Y, ''1''7''7Lu or the Auger emitter ''1''1''1In, chelated in DTPA or DOTA, linked to the peptide. All current therapeutic octreotide derivatives are agonists that are internalized in the cell. The affinity for the sst2 receptor is better for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate than for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide or [DTPA]octreotide. ''9''0Y is a pure beta-emitter, with a half-life of 2.7 days, a high energy of 2.270 MeV, and a maximum penetration in tissue of 12mm. ''1''7''7Lu with a half-life of 6.7 days emits a low abundance of gamma photons as well as beta particles of 497 keV, with a maximum tissue penetration of 2 mm. ''1''7''7Lu-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Lu-DOTATE), ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Y-DOTATATE) and ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide (Y-DOTATOC) are today the most frequently used therapeutic radiopeptides. Main inclusion criteria: inoperable and/or metastatic NET, receptor-positivity in all known lesions demonstrated by sufficient uptake on ''1''1''1In-octreotide scintigraphy (intensity > liver parenchyma), life expectancy at least 3-6 months, sufficient bone marrow reserve (hemoglobin (HGB) ? 5 mmol/L, white blood cells (WBC) ? 2*109/L, platelets (PLT) ? 75*1012/L), sufficient renal function (serum creatinine 40 mL/min), sufficient hepatic and cardiac reserve. Karnofski score ?50. Efficacy: several groups have reported objective response rates (RECIST or WHO/SWOG; CT or MRI based). Complete remission (CR) is rarely seen, partial remission (PR; >50% shrinkage SWOG) in 7% - 37%, minor remission (MR, 25% - 50% shrinkage) in 13% - 17%, stable disease (SD) in 35% - 88% [incl. MR], and progression (PD, > 25% growth or new lesions) in around 20% of patients. Overall, better results are reported for Y-DOTATATE and Lu-DOTATATE than for Y-DOTATOC. Since cure is no feasible option in this category of advanced patients with mostly slow-growing tumors, overall survival (OS), and symptomatic relief / better quality of life, are the most important efficacy parameters. Currently there are no controlled clinical trials available comparing the effects of PRRT with the best standard of care. Nevertheless, the median OS of 4 years that was found in the Rotterdam study using Lu-DOTATATE compares favorably with the 3 years OS with Y-DOTATOC or the 1 year OS with high-dose 111In-DTPA-octreotide. Moreover, when the OS of matching subgroups in the Rotterdam Lu-DOTATATE study was compared with the OS in published studies in the literature using other treatment modalities, the OS of Lu-DOTATATE patients was always better than of their matched historic controls. Additionally, an extensive monitoring of quality of life (QOL) showed improvement of gobal health and performance scores with decrease of symptom scores in the majority of patients treated with Lu-DOTATATE. Toxicity: renal protection using commercially available solutions of mixed amino acids containing lysine and arginine, or using 1L of a mixture of 25g lysine and 25g arginine, is necessary to prevent renal damage from PRRT. Still, there is a risk of developing renal insufficiency after PRRT, expressed as a yearly percentage loss of creatinine clearance (parameter for GFR) which may continue for years after completion of PRRT. A minimum of 18 months of systematic follow-up after PRRT is required to assess the yearly percentage loss in GFR. Risk factors for renal insufficiency are a high cumulative renal radiation dose, especially if the biologic equivalent dose (BED, by applying the linear quadratic model) exceeds 35Gy - 40 Gy. Further risk factors are age over 65 yr, hypertension and diabetes. Especially patients with a combination of more than two of the above me

2009-11-16

275

Current status of inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent progress in the inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) has made its application to the landmine detection more probable. However, there remain many unsolved problems though the IECF has simple principle and structure. In this article, the present status of the IECF study including its theory, experiment and application is reviewed. (T.I.)

2007-10-01

276

Wind integration in Japan. Current status and future challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite the modest achievement of wind energy penetration with less than 0.5% of national annual consumption, grid integration of wind power has been quite cautiously discussed in Japan. In this report, we will describe the present status of wind integration and related grid integration studies in Japan as well as special problems for Japanese grid. (orig.)

Yasuda, Yoh [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Kondoh, Junji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Inst.; Tsuji, Takao; Oyama, Tsutomu [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

2012-07-01

277

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-07-01

278

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November – December 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2007-12-01

279

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-05-01

280

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October – November 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

JW Voyles

2007-11-30

282

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-01-01

283

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-04-01

284

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-03-01

285

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-03-01

286

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2006-10-01

287

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future June 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-06-01

288

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

JC Liljegren

2007-02-01

289

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September – October 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

JW Voyles

2007-10-30

290

Gender Disparities in Secondary Education in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Enrolment and success rates are very crucial for any educational system in the world but they are more important for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Gender differences in enrolment and success rates are also emerging issues. This study investigated the enrolment and success rate’s status in secondary educational system of Bangladesh along with internal efficiency rates involving completion rate, retention or survival rate, dropout rate and gender parity index. Some tests of hypotheses of homogeneity were also conducted. Among the findings higher female enrolment rate, lower female success rate, higher male completion rate, survival rate and higher female dropout rate were perceived along with different location, types of schools variations. Some policy implications were suggested with acknowledgement of some flaws in the female stipend Program in Bangladesh

Molla Huq

2008-02-01

291

Current status of procedures for licensing nuclear facilities in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the licensing activities of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), during the licensing of nuclear facilities of the fuel cycle, except power reactors, performed by the Supervision of Nuclear Installations (SUNUC), of the Department of Nuclear Installations (CODIN)-Superintendence of Licensing and Control (SLC). The actual status of these licensed facilities is presented, as well as the methodology adopted for the radiological protection control in the mining of ores with uranium and/or thorium in association. (author)

1996-11-01

292

Current status of sentinel node biopsy in urological malignancies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Like in most other malignancies the lymph node status is of outstanding prognostic relevance and an important tool for the determination of adjuvant strategies for urological tumor entities, too. Even in the era of PET/CT and MRI with iron oxid nano-particles the radiological imaging technology is strongly limited in cases of metastases smaller than 5 mm. Therefore only the operative lymph node exploration is suitable for an exact lymph node staging. The dilemma, however, is that the extended...

Alexander Winter; Jens Uphoff; Jens de la Roche; Friedhelm Wawroschek

2010-01-01

293

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-05-01

294

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - August 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-09-01

295

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-10-15

296

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-07-01

297

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-10-01

298

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-05-01

299

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

JC Liljegren

2006-09-01

300

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

JC Liljegren

2006-08-01

302

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - July 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-07-01

303

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

JC Liljegren

2006-07-01

304

The current status of the U.S. MTBE industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the status of the MTBE industry from its beginnings as a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments and the need for the use of oxygenates in non-attainment areas. During 1990--93 three world scale merchant plants were constructed and in 1994 two more were brought on stream. The paper tabulates reasons why MTBE gained the lion's share of the oxygenates market. Finally the paper discusses the problems that now plague the industry and their causes

1995-12-05

305

Safety analysis reports. Current status (third key report)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of Ukrainian regulations and laws concerned with Nuclear power and radiation safety is presented with an overview of the requirements for the Safety Analysis Report Contents. Status of Safety Analysis Reports (SAR) is listed for each particular Ukrainian NPP including SAR development schedules. Organisational scheme of SAR development works includes: general technical co-ordination on Safety Analysis Report development; list of leading organisations and utilization of technical support within international projects

1999-06-01

306

Current status and prospect of nuclear power project in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overall review is made of the nuclear power development project in Korea, illustrating its actual status and the future prospects. The inevitability of constructing nuclear power stations is emphasized in views of its techno-economics, fossil fuel deposits and fast-growing energy demand in every sector of industries in Korea. Nuclear fuel cycle, loclization aspects of architect engineering capability, components, design, management, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, training and effective development of manpower are briefly summarized. (Author)

1980-01-01

307

Current status of Chinese nuclear power industry and technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China has been carrying out active international cooperation aiming to be a country where is to be an economical super power and an advanced country in nuclear power technology by the year early 2000, and China also has begun to be recognized as the largest potential market for the construction of nuclear power plants(NPPs) expecting to construct more than thirty nuclear power units by the year 2020. China has advanced technology in the basic nuclear science including liquid metal breeder reactor technology, nuclear material, medium and small size power plants, and isotope production technology, and also China has complete nuclear fuel cycle technology. However, China still has low NPP technology. Therefore, it is expected that China may have complementary cooperative relationship with China, it is expected that Korea may have an access to the advanced Chinese nuclear science technology, and may have a good opportunity to explore the Chinese market actively exporting excellent Korean NPP technology, and further may have a good position to the neighboring Asian countries' NPP markets. From this perspective, general Chinese social status, major nuclear R and D activity status, and correct NPP and technology status have been analyzed in this report, and this report is expected to be a useful resource for cooperating with China in future. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 16 refs. (Author)

1996-01-01

308

Assessment of Current Status of Women Farmers in Japan Using Empowerment Indicators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research assessed the current status of Japanese women farmers using universal measurement of women empowerment. Two prefectures, Hiroshima and Shimane were selected. Stratified sampling technique was used to select respondents from each village while structured questionnaire was employed to collect data on economic, social, familial, legal, mobility and political status of the respondents. The result shows that status of women farmers was improved in the recent time compared to years ba...

Tijani, Sarafat A.; Izumi Yano

2007-01-01

309

Current status and future plans for NBS radiometric source standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy and long-term stability of currently available NBS radiometric source standards are described. Current research efforts and expected results in this area are outlined. There are over ten NBS radiometric source standards currently available or under development that are of interest for solar measurements or for remote sensing of the earth. The standards and sources are classified and described in terms of the radiometric quantities they represent -- spectral radiance, spectral irradiance and irradiance.

Kostkowski, H. J.

1975-01-01

310

The proton ''spin contents'': Current status ampersand perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present status of the phenomenological and theoretical interpretation of the EMC result on the polarized deep elastic scattering is reviewed. We focus our discussion on the possibility of a significant gluonic contribution to the proton spin via the axial anomaly. We contrast the variant perspectives on this question: the viewpoint that stresses the interpretation in terms of the parton distributions vs the one that concentrates on the matrix elements of local operators. Some remarks concerning the validity of OZI rule for the strange quark are also included. 53 refs

1990-01-03

311

Current Status and Challenges in Wind Energy Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Here we discuss the status and challenges in the development of atlases for the assessment of the regional and global wind resources. The text more specifically describes a methodology that is under development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. As the wind assessment is based on mesoscale modelling, some of the specific challenges in mesoscale modelling for wind energy purposes are discussed such as wind profiles and long-term statistics of the wind speed time series. Solutions to these challenges will help secure an economic and effective deployment of wind energy.

Gryning, Sven-Erik; Badger, Jake

2014-01-01

312

Current status of the BAIKAL-GVD project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a status of the Baikal-GVD Project. The objective of this project is a construction of a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Lake Baikal. As an important milestone, the first GVD engineering array has been deployed and ran in April, 2011. Application of a completely new technology gave us an opportunity to study all the basic elements of the future full detector and to finalize the GVD technical design. We discuss the configuration and the design of the engineering array as well as data performance with the preliminary results.

Avrorin, A.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Aynutdinov, V.M., E-mail: aynutdin@yandex.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Belolaptikov, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Bogorodsky, D.Yu. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Budnev, N.M. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Danilchenko, I.A.; Domogatsky, G.V.; Doroshenko, A.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Dyachok, A.N. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Dzhilkibaev, Zh-A.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Fialkovsky, S.V. [Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Gaponenko, O.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Golubkov, K.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Gress, O.A.; Gress, T.I.; Grishin, O.G. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Kebkal, K.G.; Kebkal, O.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Berlin 13355 (Germany); Klabukov, A.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); and others

2013-10-11

313

The current status of the U.S. MTBE industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the status of the MTBE industry from its beginnings as a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments and the need for the use of oxygenates in non-attainment areas. During 1990--93 three world scale merchant plants were constructed and in 1994 two more were brought on stream. The paper tabulates reasons why MTBE gained the lion`s share of the oxygenates market. Finally the paper discusses the problems that now plague the industry and their causes.

Rose, G.M. [Global Octanes Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

314

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement: current status and future directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a revolutionary therapy for patients with aortic stenosis. Large registries and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that TAVR is safe and effective in patients considered inoperable because of severe comorbidities and those who are high-risk surgical candidates. As TAVR evolves for lower-risk patients, attention will need to focus on reducing the rates of vascular injury, stroke, and paravalvular regurgitation. In this review, we discuss the status of TAVR in clinical practice, including patient selection, preoperative evaluation, techniques, and complications. PMID:24331140

Desai, Chintan S; Roselli, Eric E; Svensson, Lars G; Bonow, Robert O

2013-01-01

315

Current Status and Future Technical Challenges for Tokamak Magnets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnet technology for fusion in the last decade has been focusing mostly on the development of magnets for tokamaks--the most advanced fusion concept at the moment. The largest and the most complex tokamak under development is ITER. To demonstrate adequate design approaches to large magnets for ITER and to develop industrial capabilities, two large model coils and three insert coils, all using full-scale conductor, were built and tested by the international collaboration during 1994-2002. The status of the magnet technology and directions of future developments are discussed in this paper.

Martovetsky, N; Minervini, J; Okuno, K; Salpiero, E; Filatov, O

2002-11-11

316

Local population and regional environmental drivers of cholera in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Regional environmental factors have been shown to be related to cholera. Previous work in Bangladesh found that temporal patterns of cholera are positively related to satellite-derived environmental variables including ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC). Methods This paper investigates whether local socio-economic status (SES) modifies the effect of regional environmental forces. The study area is Matlab, Bangladesh, an area of approximate...

Emch Michael; Yunus Mohammad; Escamilla Veronica; Feldacker Caryl; Ali Mohammad

2010-01-01

317

BVD control in Europe: current status and perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

For several decades after the first description of bovine viral diarrhea and its causative agent (BVDV) the economic impact of the infection was underestimated and in addition there were no suitable diagnostics and procedures for a systematic control at hand. Today, there are several estimates on the real economic impact of the infection and during the last 15 years the serological and virological laboratory diagnosis of BVDV infections has improved. Also, successful procedures aimed at eradicating BVDV infections by using a strict test and removal policy for animals persistently infected (PI) with BVDV accompanied by movement restrictions for infected herds have been implemented in the Scandinavian countries. The success of these efforts has encouraged other European countries to follow the same procedures. However, the Scandinavian control strategy might-for a number of reasons-not be acceptable for all European countries. In such cases, the test and removal strategy, with its fundamental elements of biosecurity, removal of PI animals and monitoring of herd status, in combination with systematic vaccination, might be an acceptable compromise. The impact of the BVDV-free status of regions and nations on international trade is not yet clear. In any case, biosecurity measures will be of utmost importance for individual control programs as well as multiple control programs to co-exist in Europe. PMID:16164009

Moennig, Volker; Houe, Hans; Lindberg, Ann

2005-06-01

318

Sentinel node navigation surgery in gastric cancer: Current status  

Science.gov (United States)

The theory behind using sentinel node mapping and biopsy in gastric cancer surgery, the so-called sentinel node navigation surgery, is to limit the extent of surgical tissue dissection around the affected organ and subsequently the accompanied morbidity. However, obstacles on the clinical correspondence of sentinel node navigation surgery in everyday practice have occasionally alleviated researchers’ interest on the topic. Only recently with the widespread use of minimally invasive surgical techniques, i.e., laparoscopic gastric cancer resections, surgical community’s interest on the topic have been unavoidably reflated. Double tracer methods appear superior compared to single tracer techniques. Ongoing research is now focused on the invention of new lymph node detection methods utilizing sophisticated technology such as infrared ray endoscopy, florescence imaging and near-infrared technology. Despite its notable limitations, hematoxylin/eosin is still the mainstay staining for assessing the metastatic status of an identified lymph node. An intra-operatively verified metastatic sentinel lymph node will dictate the need for further conventional lymph node dissection. Thus, laparoscopic resection of the gastric primary tumor combined with the appropriate lymph node dissection as determined by the process of sentinel lymph node status characterization represents an option for early gastric cancer. Patients with T3 or more advanced disease should still be managed conventionally with resection plus standard lymph node dissection.

Symeonidis, Dimitrios; Koukoulis, George; Tepetes, Konstantinos

2014-01-01

319

The Current Status of the Validation of MERIS and AATSR  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the ENVISAT mission status and data policy and reviews the end-to-end performance of the MERIS and AATSR observation systems and will discuss the validation aspects of these instruments In particular for each instrument the review addresses mission planning in-orbit performance calibration data processor algorithms and configuration reprocessing strategy and product quality control assessment An important part of the quality assessment is the Geophysical Validation At the MAVT Validation workshop held in Frascati Italy from 20-24 March 2004 scientists and engineers presented analyses of the exhaustive series of tests that have been run on each of ENVISAT MERIS and AATSR sensors since the spacecraft was launched in March 2002 This paper will discuss the general status of the validation activities related to Envisat and some results will be presented for the MERIS and AATSR sensors The flight and ground-segment planning configuration and performance characterization will be discussed The main and long-term geophysical validation program and some results will be presented

Snoeij, P.; Goryl, P.; Lecomte, P.; Attema, E.

320

Sentinel node navigation surgery in gastric cancer: Current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

The theory behind using sentinel node mapping and biopsy in gastric cancer surgery, the so-called sentinel node navigation surgery, is to limit the extent of surgical tissue dissection around the affected organ and subsequently the accompanied morbidity. However, obstacles on the clinical correspondence of sentinel node navigation surgery in everyday practice have occasionally alleviated researchers' interest on the topic. Only recently with the widespread use of minimally invasive surgical techniques, i.e., laparoscopic gastric cancer resections, surgical community's interest on the topic have been unavoidably reflated. Double tracer methods appear superior compared to single tracer techniques. Ongoing research is now focused on the invention of new lymph node detection methods utilizing sophisticated technology such as infrared ray endoscopy, florescence imaging and near-infrared technology. Despite its notable limitations, hematoxylin/eosin is still the mainstay staining for assessing the metastatic status of an identified lymph node. An intra-operatively verified metastatic sentinel lymph node will dictate the need for further conventional lymph node dissection. Thus, laparoscopic resection of the gastric primary tumor combined with the appropriate lymph node dissection as determined by the process of sentinel lymph node status characterization represents an option for early gastric cancer. Patients with T3 or more advanced disease should still be managed conventionally with resection plus standard lymph node dissection. PMID:24976901

Symeonidis, Dimitrios; Koukoulis, George; Tepetes, Konstantinos

2014-06-27

 
 
 
 
321

Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

2007-01-01

322

Study of the Effect of Food Habit, Lifestyle and Daily Trip on Physical and Mental Status of Subjects at Islamic University in Kushtia, Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a qualitative (study that used framework analysis to examine by interviews among University personnel who live inside and outside the Islamic University campus in Kushtia, Bangladesh. In the present study, we found that subjects who live inside of the University feel better physically and mentally than the nonresident subjects. It was found that residents are more fit and feel better during and after class time. Resident subjects have less stress and maintain balanced diet for which they have good average BMI value than the nonresident subjects. In addition nonresident subjects have suffered diseases comparatively much more than resident subjects.

Shahjahan Ali

2012-04-01

323

Policies for second generation biofuels :current status and future challanges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (R&D) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such altern...

2011-01-01

324

Current status of E/f_1(1420) and ?/?(1450)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status and future prospects are given of the E/f_1 (1420) and the ?(1430) region containing the ?/?(1450). These states are seen in the channels K bar K? and ???. 43 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

1989-06-07

325

75 FR 9232 - Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future Directions; Public Workshop  

Science.gov (United States)

...The Food and Drug Administration...Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future Directions. The purpose...assessing progress in food safety and associated...on the incidence and trends of...

2010-03-01

326

Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines: Current Status and Moving Forward  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Concurrent with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the first therapeutic cancer vaccine, a wide spectrum of other cancer vaccine platforms that target a diverse range of tumor-associated antigens is currently being evaluated in randomized phase II and phase III trials. The profound influence of the tumor microenvironment and other immunosuppressive entities, however, can limit the effectiveness of these vaccines. Numerous strategies are currently being evaluated both preclinica...

Schlom, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

327

Macromolecular contrast agents for MR mammography: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Macromolecular contrast media (MMCM) encompass a new class of diagnostic drugs that can be applied with dynamic MRI to extract both physiologic and morphologic information in breast lesions. Kinetic analysis of dynamic MMCM-enhanced MR data in breast tumor patients provides useful estimates of tumor blood volume and microvascular permeability, typically increased in cancer. These tumor characteristics can be applied to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, to define the angiogenesis status of cancers, and to monitor tumor response to therapy. The most immediate challenge to the development of MMCM-enhanced mammography is the identification of those candidate compounds that demonstrate the requisite long intravascular distribution and have the high tolerance necessary for clinical use. Potential mammographic applications and limitations of various MMCM, defined by either experimental animal testing or clinical testing in patients, are reviewed in this article. (orig.)

2003-02-01

328

Current status of U.Tokyo Quad linacs in 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Updated status of S-band twin linacs, X-band linac Compton scattering monochromatic X-ray source and laser plasma cathode is presented. Operation and application experiments of the S-band linacs are going well. Mg cathode has been replaced. Further, a cartridge-type Cs2Te cathode is planned to be installed soon. X-band thermionic RF gun was completed and the governmental inspection as a radiation facility was approved this January. The whole system has been constructed and the medical applications like two-colored CT, subtraction CT and phase constrast imaging starts soon. Monochromatic electron bunch, 100-200 fs (FWHM) single bunches and stable low emittance beam generation by applying magnetic field are highlights for the laser plasma cathode. Additionally, construction of 950kV X-band (9.4GHz) mobile linac X-ray source has started. (author)

2006-08-01

329

Current status of organ transplants in Asian countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Asian Society of Transplantation, founded in 1989 includes Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Oman, Pakistan, Republic of China, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The registry was also started from the same year in cooperation with these 16 countries. A questionnaire was sent to the key person of each country every year. The questionnaire includes (a) number of centers that performed organ transplants, (b) varieties and numbers of organ transplants performed in 2000 and 2001, (c) present status of dialysis, number of dialysis patients, and number of the candidates on the list for transplantation, (d) number of patients going abroad for transplantation, and (e) recent transplant highlights, news and issues affecting each country during 2000 and 2001. We previously gathered data for 2000, except for Indonesia, Singapore, and the UAE. Regarding 2001 data, we will send the questionnaires to the countries involved. PMID:15621082

Ota, K

2004-11-01

330

Current status of TNF blocking therapy in heart failure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent experimental studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-? has deleterious cardiovascular effects. Tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists bind to TNF-a and functionally inactivate this cytokine and thereby reverse some of these effects. Various clinical studies of TNF-? antagonists have reported conflicting results. The present review analyses all reported clinical trials of TNF-? antagonists in congestive heart failure (CHF. The effect of these agents on clinical composite score, CHF hospitalizations, and mortality were compared. Early clinical studies of blocking TNF in patients with heart failure demonstrated promising results. However, recent large-scale, placebo-controlled trials have failed to show any improvement in the clinical status of heart failure. There have in fact, been some reports of worsening of heart failure with these agents. It may be concluded that TNF-? antagonists could adversely affect the clinical condition of patients with moderate to severe heart failure.

Gupta S

2005-08-01

331

CURRENT STATUS OF THE IAEA'S NET ENABLED WASTE MANAGEMENT DATABASE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency's Net Enabled Waste Management Database (NEWMDB) contains information on national radioactive waste management programs and organizations, plans and activities, relevant laws and regulations, policies and radioactive waste inventories. The NEWMDB, which was launched on the Internet July 6, 2001, is the successor to the Agency's Waste Management Database (WMDB), which was in use during the 1990's. The NEWMDB's first data collection cycle took place from July 2001 to March 2002. Agency Member State participation in the first data collection cycle was low--only 22 submissions were received. However, the first data collection cycle demonstrated that: the NEWMDB could be used to collect information on national radioactive waste management programs and radioactive waste inventories annually, the NEWMDB data can support the routine reporting of status and trends in radioactive waste management based on quantitative data, the NEWMDB can support the compilation of a consolidated, international radioactive waste inventory based on a unified waste classification scheme, the data needed to compute an indicator of sustainable development for radioactive waste management are available at the national level, NEWMDB data can be used to assess the development and implementation of national systems for radioactive waste management, and the NEWMDB can support the reporting requirements of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Agency Member States that had not made data submissions in the first cycle were asked to submit data during an extension of the first cycle (July 2002--January 2003). When this paper was written, the Agency had conducted two of three international workshops to provide training for future NEWMDB data collection cycles and to compile lessons learned for the first data collection cycle. A third workshop was scheduled for January 2003. This paper provides an overview of the status of NEWMDB data collection with a focus on NEWMDB reports, which are publicly available cost free

2003-02-23

332

Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy  

CERN Document Server

Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

Andreeva, J; Belov, S; Casey, J; Dvorak, F; Gaidioz, B; Karavakis, E; Kodolova, O; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Krenek, A; Lanciotti, E; Maier, J; Mulac, M; Rocha Da Cunha Rodrigues, D F; Rocha, R; Saiz, P; Sidorova, I; Sitera, J; Tikhonenko, E; Vaibhav, K; Vocu, M; 10.1088/1742-6596/219/6/062002

2010-01-01

333

Brain perfusion CT in acute stroke: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamic perfusion CT has become a widely accepted imaging modality for the diagnostic workup of acute stroke patients. Although compared with standard spiral CT the use of multislice CT has broadened the range from which perfusion data may be derived in a single scan run. The advent of multidetector row technology has not really overcome the limited 3D capability of this technique. Multidetector CT angiography (CTA) of the cerebral arteries may in part compensate for this by providing additional information about the cerebrovascular status. This article describes the basics of cerebral contrast bolus scanning with a special focus on optimization of contrast/noise in order to ensure high quality perfusion maps. Dedicated scan protocols including low tube voltage (80 kV) as well as the use of highly concentrated contrast media are amongst the requirements to achieve optimum contrast signal from the short bolus passage through the brain. Advanced pre and postprocessing algorithms may help reduce the noise level, which may become critical in unconscious stroke victims. Two theoretical concepts have been described for the calculation of tissue perfusion from contrast bolus studies, both of which can be equally employed for brain perfusion imaging. For each perfusion model there are some profound limitations regarding the validity of perfusion values derived from ischemic brain areas. This makes the use of absolute quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) values for the discrimination of the infarct core from periinfarct ischemia questionable. Multiparameter imaging using maps of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and a time parameter of the local bolus transit enables analyzing of the cerebral perfusion status in detail. Perfusion CT exceeds plain CT in depicting cerebral hypoperfusion at its earliest stage yielding a sensitivity of about 90% for the detection of embolic and hemodynamic lesions within cerebral hemispheres. Qualitative assessment of brain perfusion can be further enhanced by adding relative perfusion indices from regions of interest. Multislice CTA using a collimation of 4x1 mm and high pitch factors allows for isotropic scanning of the brain supplying arteries from the aortic arch to the vertex in a single run. Various image processing modalities such as multiplanar reformations, curved planar reconstructions, maximum intensity projections, and volume rendering techniques are available to deal with the extensive data and to bring out those vascular lesions, which are of relevance for individual stroke. With the advent of multidetector CT advanced stroke protocols combining plain CT, perfusion CT and CTA can routinely be accomplished within a very short timespan thus ensuring the role of CT in the diagnostic workup of acute stroke

2003-03-01

334

Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions  

Science.gov (United States)

Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

2009-01-01

335

Current Status in the Therapy of Liver Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and Wilson’s disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV infections are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, they are the focus of the development of new drugs. The current treatment of choice for HBV/HCV infection is an interferon-based combination therapy with oral antiviral drugs, like nucleos(tide analogues, which is associated with improving the therapeutic success and also preventing the development of resistances. Currently, two new protease inhibitors for HCV treatment are expected (deleobuvir, faldaprevir and together with the promising drug, daclatasvir (NS5A-inhibitor, currently in clinical trials, adequate therapy is to be expected in due course (circumventing the requirement of interferon with its side-effects, while in contrast, efficient HBV therapeutics are still lacking. In this respect, entry inhibitors, like Myrcludex B, the lead substance of the first entry inhibitor for HBV/HDV (hepatitis D infection, provide immense potential. The pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of Myrcludex B are described in detail.

Philipp Uhl

2014-04-01

336

Current Status in the Therapy of Liver Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Wilson’s disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infections are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, they are the focus of the development of new drugs. The current treatment of choice for HBV/HCV infection is an interferon-based combination therapy with oral antiviral drugs, like nucleos(t)ide analogues, which is associated with improving the therapeutic success and also preventing the development of resistances. Currently, two new protease inhibitors for HCV treatment are expected (deleobuvir, faldaprevir) and together with the promising drug, daclatasvir (NS5A-inhibitor, currently in clinical trials), adequate therapy is to be expected in due course (circumventing the requirement of interferon with its side-effects), while in contrast, efficient HBV therapeutics are still lacking. In this respect, entry inhibitors, like Myrcludex B, the lead substance of the first entry inhibitor for HBV/HDV (hepatitis D) infection, provide immense potential. The pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of Myrcludex B are described in detail.

Uhl, Philipp; Fricker, Gert; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter

2014-01-01

337

Current status of the hydrogeology for the WIPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current efforts to define the hydraulic system at the proposed WIPP site are described. These efforts are directed toward further refinement of the field data and conducting specific tests to determine the isotropy of the media and the appropriateness of their representation as porous or as fractured systems

1980-11-01

338

San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties

2001-01-01

339

Current status in the therapy of liver diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Wilson's disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infections are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, they are the focus of the development of new drugs. The current treatment of choice for HBV/HCV infection is an interferon-based combination therapy with oral antiviral drugs, like nucleos(t)ide analogues, which is associated with improving the therapeutic success and also preventing the development of resistances. Currently, two new protease inhibitors for HCV treatment are expected (deleobuvir, faldaprevir) and together with the promising drug, daclatasvir (NS5A-inhibitor, currently in clinical trials), adequate therapy is to be expected in due course (circumventing the requirement of interferon with its side-effects), while in contrast, efficient HBV therapeutics are still lacking. In this respect, entry inhibitors, like Myrcludex B, the lead substance of the first entry inhibitor for HBV/HDV (hepatitis D) infection, provide immense potential. The pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of Myrcludex B are described in detail. PMID:24786290

Uhl, Philipp; Fricker, Gert; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter

2014-01-01

340

Spent fuel management in China: Current status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the development of nuclear power in China, its status of operating nuclear power plants and progress of on-going NPP projects are described. With the arising of spent fuel from NPPs, a national policy of a closed nuclear fuel cycle has been determined. Following storage at reactor sites for at least 5 years (generally maximum 10 years), spent fuel will be transferred to an away-from-reactor pool type centralized storage facility. Adjacent to the storage facility, a multi-purpose reprocessing pilot plant will be set up by the end of this century. An industrial scale reprocessing plant would be succeeded around the year 2020. China's spent fuel management activities include at-reactor storage, transportation, away-from-reactor storage and reprocessing. Relatively detailed description of the work done up to now on spent fuel management and plans for the future are described. It should be noted that activities related to the management of high level radioactive waste are not included here. (author)

1998-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Prostate cancer chemoprevention: Current status and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemoprevention is a strategy that aims to reduce the incidence and burden of cancer through the development of agents to prevent, reverse or delay the carcinogenic process. Prostate cancer is a suitable target for prevention because it has a high incidence and prevalence, as well as a long latency and disease-related mortality, and furthermore it is a disease in which lifestyle and environmental factors may play critical roles. The development of chemoprevention strategies against prostate cancer will have a huge impact, both medically and economically. Large-scale clinical trials suggest that some agents such as selenium, lycopene, soy, green tea, vitamins D and E, anti-inflammatory and inhibitors of 5?-reductase are effective in preventing prostate cancer. Although each agent has the potential to affect the natural history of the disease, it is important to develop strategies to strategically proceed for the design and selection of test agents in order to demonstrate clinical benefit with the minimum of adverse effects. Appropriate selection of agent(s), disease stage, trial design and endpoints is critical in selecting the most promising regimens to accomplish these goals. This review highlights the present status of prostate cancer chemoprevention and discusses future prospects for chemopreventive strategies that are safe and clinically beneficial

2007-11-01

342

Advanced fuel technology and performance: Current status and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last years the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Division of the IAEA has been giving great attention to the collection, analysis and exchange of information in the field of reactor fuel technology. Most of these activities are being conducted in the framework of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT). The purpose of this Advisory Group Meeting on Advanced Fuel Technology and Performance was to update and to continue the previous work, and to review the experience of advanced fuel technology, its performance with regard to all types of reactors and to outline the future trends on the basis of national experience and discussions during the meeting. As a result of the meeting a Summary Report was prepared which reflected the status of the advanced nuclear fuel technology up to 1990. The 10 papers presented by participants of this meeting are also published here. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

1989-11-27

343

Ultra-Rapid Opioid Detoxification: Current Status and Controversies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Opioid dependence is a major health problem and a cause of increasing concern to physicians and other health professionals worldwide. A crucial first step in intervention is detoxification. Recent trends in medical practice have seen the emergence of newer techniques that claim to accelerate the detoxification procedure and ensure prevention of relapse by rapid induction onto maintenance treatment with opioid antagonists such as naltrexone. This review delves into the theoretical and methodological aspects related to ultra-rapid opioid detoxification (opioid detoxification procedure using opioid antagonists, performed under general anaesthesia or heavy sedation and discusses the status of the same in light of the available evidence regarding its applicability, safety and effectiveness. Although useful in some respects (especially in completion rates for detoxification and subsequent induction onto naltrexone maintenance, the justification of this procedure lies in (a the resolution of the ethical conflicts surrounding the procedure and (b conduction of methodologically sound long-term studies to demonstrate greater efficacy over routine/standard detoxification procedures beyond the short-term detoxification period.

Singh J

2004-07-01

344

The LHCf experiment at CERN motivations and current status  

CERN Document Server

LHCf is an experiment currently installed at CERN at the LHC complex. It consists of two small calorimeters each one placed 140 meters away from the ATLAS interaction point. Their purpose is to study forward production of neutral particles in proton-proton collisions at extremely low angles. The results will provide invaluable inputs to the many air-shower Monte Carlo codes currently used for modeling cosmic rays interactions in the Earth atmosphere. Depending on machine start up, data will be taken from 900 GeV in the centre of mass up to 14 TeV (laboratory equivalent collision energy of 1017eV), thus covering an energy range up to and beyond the “knee” of the cosmic ray spectrum.

D'Alessandro, R; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Castellini, G; Faus, D A; Fukui, K; Grandi, M; Haguenauer, M; Itow, Y; Kasahara, K; Macina, D; Mase, T; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Menjo, H; Mizuishi, M; Muraki, Y; Papini, P; Perrot, A L; Ricciarini, S; Sako, T; Shimizu, Y; Taki, K; Tamura, T; Torii, S; Tricomi, A; Turner, W C; Velasco, J; Viciani, A; Yoshida, K

2009-01-01

345

Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing; Current Status and Future Challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This contribution addresses the current understanding of gaseous nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics and microstructure development in iron and heat treatable steel will be explained. In these materials the nitrided/ nitrocarburized case can be subdivided in a compound layer consisting of iron (carbo-)nitrides and a diffusion zone, consisting of a dispersion of alloying element nitrides in ferrite. The compound layer provides beneficial tribological and corrosion performance, while the diffusion zone is responsible for improved fatigue performance. Furthermore, aspects of low temperature surface hardening of stainless steels in a gaseous environment will be addressed. Here, the developed case consists of expanded austenite and/or expanded martensite, which essentially is a super saturated solid solution of nitrogen/carbon in austenite/martensite. The current state of the art and necessary future research activities for improvement of the present understanding will be identified.

Somers, Marcel A. J.

346

IFMIF test cell design: Current status and key components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IFMIF (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility) test cell design has been further developed and optimized based on the existing modular test cell concept. Key features of the current test cell include actively cooled surrounding shielding walls with coverage of internal surfaces with stainless steel liner, independent two layer top shielding plugs for protecting the access cell from neutron and gamma radiation from the test cell, optimized piping and cabling plugs for accommodating pipe and cable penetrations and for minimizing neutron streaming, rearranged lithium quench tank to outside of the test cell, etc. According to preliminary neutronic calculation results, limited access to the quench tank area for maintenance after beam shut-off can be expected with the current arrangement. Maintenance of the lithium inlet and outlet pipes as well as the two beam ducts are also possible by introducing removable shielding plugs which can be removed and replaced in case of failure

2013-10-01

347

[Robotic colorectal surgery: current status and future developments].  

Science.gov (United States)

Robotic assistance has the potential to compensate for the limitations inherent in standard laparoscopic surgery. The daVinci® surgical system remains the only currently available commercial robotic system. It has found popularity in rectal cancer surgery where its application has consistently been shown to reduce the need to convert to open surgery. With this exception, the technological advances of the robotic system have not so far translated into any reproducible patient benefit. The first part of this manuscript presents an overview of the current daVinci® platform, its applications, the evidence base and future developments in colorectal surgery. The second part of the manuscript looks at other robot systems in development and the different innovations and strategies taken to advance minimally invasive surgery.The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental). PMID:23942959

Jayne, D

2013-08-01

348

IFMIF test cell design: Current status and key components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IFMIF (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility) test cell design has been further developed and optimized based on the existing modular test cell concept. Key features of the current test cell include actively cooled surrounding shielding walls with coverage of internal surfaces with stainless steel liner, independent two layer top shielding plugs for protecting the access cell from neutron and gamma radiation from the test cell, optimized piping and cabling plugs for accommodating pipe and cable penetrations and for minimizing neutron streaming, rearranged lithium quench tank to outside of the test cell, etc. According to preliminary neutronic calculation results, limited access to the quench tank area for maintenance after beam shut-off can be expected with the current arrangement. Maintenance of the lithium inlet and outlet pipes as well as the two beam ducts are also possible by introducing removable shielding plugs which can be removed and replaced in case of failure.

Tian, Kuo, E-mail: kuo.tian@kit.edu [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Arbeiter, Frederik; Heinzel, Volker; Heupel, Tobias; Kondo, Keitaro [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Mittwollen, Martin [Institute for Conveying Technology and Logistics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

2013-10-15

349

EMF health effects research: Problems and current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author describes some of the current generation of research, focusing particularly on that being sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The central goal of the research program is to answer the question of whether threats to human health result from exposure to electric and magnetic fields. Several related questions are examined: Is there any epidemiological evidence of risk to those who are exposed What are the sources of exposure to EMF, and who is exposed What effects, if any, occur in laboratory animals exposed What is the biologically important parameter, or 'dose' of EMF exposure How is exposure best estimated What effects, if any, occur in laboratory animals exposed to EMF If there are effects of exposure in cells or tissues, where in the cell does that interaction occur The author describes current research to answer these questions.

Sagan, L.A. (Environment Division of the Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1990-07-19

350

Current status of stereoscopic 3D LCD TV technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

The year 2010 may be recorded as a first year of successful commercial 3D products. Among them, the 3D LCD TVs are expected to be the major one regarding the sales volume. In this paper, the principle of current stereoscopic 3D LCD TV techniques and the required flat panel display (FPD) technologies for the realization of them are reviewed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Choi, Hee-Jin

2011-06-01

351

Current status of the MiniBooNE experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MiniBooNE is an experiment designed to refute or confirm the LSND {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e} oscillation result. MiniBooNE will look for oscillations of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} in a closed-box appearance analysis. MiniBooNE began collecting data in 2002, and is expected to continue data taking through 2005. Current MiniBooNE results are presented.

Ray, Heather L.; /Los Alamos

2004-11-01

352

The Current Status of Organ Transplantation: The Role of Xenotransplantation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last few years, transplantation was an area of intense research activity. However, there is a worldwide shortage of donor organs for clinical transplantations. Currently, interest in xenotransplantation research is growing not only because of the increased demand for organs but also because of advances in molecular biology techniques that make possible the genetic or immunological manipulations of the animal donor rather than the human recipient. The better definitions of the mechanism...

1998-01-01

353

Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets: Current Status and Future Prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I review results from, and future prospects for, microlensing searches for extrasolar planets. Analyses of well-sampled microlensing light curves by several collaborations have demonstrated that current searches are sensitive to Jupiter-mass planets with few AU separations from M-dwarfs in the Galactic bulge. To date, however, no unambiguous planetary detections have been made. Detailed analysis has shown that this null result implies that <33% of typical stars (i.e. M-dwarf...

Gaudi, B. Scott

2002-01-01

354

Current status of the minke whales and conflicts of interest  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Minke whales - the rorqual group of the family Balaenopteridae - are widely distributed and constitute an important major harvestable living resource of the sea. Recently, the Antarctic minke whale population has been estimated to be between 150,000 and 300,000. Populations being dynamic entities, the size of the minke whale population has been changing. Currently , the minke whale population in the Antarctic has been claimed to have increased considerably. However, the minke whale stock arri...

Singarajah, K. V.

1988-01-01

355

Current Status and Perspectives Regarding the Treatment of Osteosarcoma: Chemotherapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in childhood and adolescence. The use of combination chemotherapy and surgery enables long-term survival in approximately 60-70% of cases. However, the necessity for surgery, the poor prognosis of patients with metastatic or recurrent disease (long-term survival in only about 20% of cases), and the lack of establishment of second-line chemotherapy suggest that improvements in chemotherapy are desperately needed. Currently, in an effort to ext...

Sakamoto, Akio; Iwamoto, Yukihide

2008-01-01

356

Blood pool scintigraphy of the heart: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this chapter is to review procedural and technical aspects of scintigraphic methods designed to assess both left and right ventricular size and function. In addition, the current clinical applications are examined as well as recent advances in the acquisition, processing, and utilization of blood pool scintigraphy. The two basic scintigraphic methods for the evaluation of ventricular function, the first-pass and the equilibrium techniques, are discussed

1982-01-01

357

Current status of the SWISS-2DPAGE database.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The SWISS-2DPAGE database (http: //www.expasy.ch/ch2d/ch2d-top.html ) consists of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis images, as well as textual descriptions of the proteins that have been identified on them. The current release contains 15 reference maps from human biological samples, as well as from Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Escherichia coli and Dictyostelium discoideum origin. These reference maps have 2088 identified spots, corresponding to 410 separate protein entries in ...

Hoogland, C.; Sanchez, J. C.; Tonella, L.; Bairoch, A.; Hochstrasser, D. F.; Appel, R. D.

1998-01-01

358

Translational research: current status, challenges and future strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advances in translational research are expected to mitigate the recent drought in new drug development. Despite significant progress recently made in biological sciences, the results are decidedly mixed with significant breakthrough in some disease areas while extensive work remains to be completed in other areas. This review article provides a general survey of the current landscape of translational research so as to identify progress and areas of needs and the associated strategy. While sig...

2011-01-01

359

Current status of maintenance therapy for advanced ovarian cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Even after countered with and responding to maximal surgical and chemotherapy efforts, advanced ovarian cancer usually ultimately recurs. One strategy employed to forestall recurrence is maintenance chemotherapy, an extension of treatment following a complete response to conventional measures. Many agents have been studied and many more are currently under investigation in maintenance regimens. While phase III data suggest that taxane maintenance prolongs progression-free survival, no overall...

Hope, Joanie Mayer; Blank, Stephanie V.

2010-01-01

360

Current status of broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) in Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Broomrape is the major issue in sunflower production in Serbia. Since its first occurrence, the species Orobanche cumana Wallr. had been responsible for considerable yield loss in some areas. In Serbia broomrape is present in the Vojvodina Province. Distribution and virulence groups of parasite are constantly monitored. Only two distinct broomrape populations currently exist in this part of country. Race B is dominant in the south of the Vojvodina Province and race E in the north. During 2008...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Current status of nuclear mass formulae and their predictability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A chronological table of mass formulae is first presented as an overview of nuclear mass studies. Then, the current problem on this subject is mentioned, which is in short how to treat both shell and deformation effects consistently. Three typical groups studying along this line are picked out, and their theoretical frameworks are compared. In addition the recent trend of microscopic approach to nuclear masses is mentioned. The numerical comparison is shown among these treatments, and their predictability is also discussed. (author)

Uno, Masahiro [Elementary and Secondary Education Bureau, Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Tokyo (Japan)

2000-01-01

362

NCBI Reference Sequences: current status, policy and new initiatives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

NCBI's Reference Sequence (RefSeq) database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/RefSeq/) is a curated non-redundant collection of sequences representing genomes, transcripts and proteins. RefSeq records integrate information from multiple sources and represent a current description of the sequence, the gene and sequence features. The database includes over 5300 organisms spanning prokaryotes, eukaryotes and viruses, with records for more than 5.5 × 106 proteins (RefSeq release 30). Feature annotati...

2009-01-01

363

Current status and prospect: Coal water mixture technology in Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper covers the status of Coal Water Mixture (CWM) technology in Indonesia and also the prospect for implementing this technology. Advantageous use of a pipeline for coal transportation is geographically inconvenient. Characteristics of CWM for Indonesian coal and combustion characteristics of CWM for Indonesian coal are reviewed. The coal reserve estimated in Indonesia is about 36 billions tons with ratio of lignite and higher rank is 60:40. The main problems faced in the coal utilization in Indonesia is the transportation from the mines to the users. Remote, limited infrastructure and the geographic conditions are factors which contribute to the problems. The CWM made of Indonesian low rank coal from various origins has been prepared for further study. The CWM of various coal concentration up to 66% with good handling and storage stability was obtained. Rheological measurements of the obtained CWM shows that for high coal concentration (greater than about 40%), in addition to the yield stress, the solution also behaves as the power law model of fluid. Energy Technology Laboratory has just started to investigate the combustion characteristics of CWM. CWM in Indonesia has not been utilized commercially in the industrial boiler, so that needs to be studied comprehensively. The technical aspects in this is stressed on the combustion characteristics in the boiler furnace. LSDE has a state of the art coal combustion facility that includes a chemical analytic laboratory and a boiler simulator equipped with complete data acquisition. The experiments will have several numerical criteria to characterize CWS combustion process, i.e., Maximum Furnace Exit Temperature, firing rate, pressure drop in the test section, deposit strength and deposit weight, swirl flow number.

Sastrawinata, T. [PUSPIPTEK, Tangerang (Indonesia). Energy Technology Lab.; Suwono, A. [Bandung Inst. of Tech. (Indonesia)

1996-12-31

364

Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spent Fuel Management has always been one of the most important steps in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and it still is one of the most vital and common problem for all countries. Projections for spent fuel arisings by the year 2010 range between 400,000 and 450,000 t of spent nuclear fuel. It is recognized that this fuel will either be stored and later disposed of in a deep geological repository (once-through fuel cycle) or stored and then reprocessed (closed fuel cycle). While some countries have concluded which choice they will make, others are applying the ''wait and see'' attitude. This continues to place great emphasis on short and long term storage technologies since much of the spent fuel will remain in storage in the next 20 years. The nuclear community recognizes the importance that design, technological, economic and material problems in spent fuel storage concepts and continues to encourage the international cooperation in such areas. This past year several nations have made decisions which impact on the projected storage volume (the Federal Republic of Germany has cancelled their reprocessing plant) and plan to contract the reprocessing with other nations. Argentina has delayed its reprocessing efforts. At the same time, while there are plans for recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors, the plans for its use in fast reactors have been delayed. These unforeseen changes reflect the constantly changing nature of the back-end of the fuel cycle and reinforce the importance of cooperation in these activities. The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in spent fuel management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and to elaborate recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. Refs, figs and tabs

1990-03-19

365

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy: current status and issues of interest  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose. To develop and disseminate a report aimed primarily at practicing radiation oncology physicians and medical physicists that describes the current state-of-the-art of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Those areas needing further research and development are identified by category and recommendations are given, which should also be of interest to IMRT equipment manufacturers and research funding agencies. Methods and Materials. The National Cancer Institute formed a Collaborative Working Group of experts in IMRT to develop consensus guidelines and recommendations for implementation of IMRT and for further research through a critical analysis of the published data supplemented by clinical experience. A glossary of the words and phrases currently used in IMRT is given in the . Recommendations for new terminology are given where clarification is needed. Results. IMRT, an advanced form of external beam irradiation, is a type of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). It represents one of the most important technical advances in RT since the advent of the medical linear accelerator. 3D-CRT/IMRT is not just an add-on to the current radiation oncology process; it represents a radical change in practice, particularly for the radiation oncologist. For example, 3D-CRT/IMRT requires the use of 3D treatment planning capabilities, such as defining target volumes and organs at risk in three dimensions by drawing contours on cross-sectional images (i.e., CT, MRI) on a slice-by-slice basis as opposed to drawing beam portals on a simulator radiograph. In addition, IMRT requires that the physician clearly and quantitatively define the treatment objectives. Currently, most IMRT approaches will increase the time and effort required by physicians, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists, because IMRT planning and delivery systems are not yet robust enough to provide totally automated solutions for all disease sites. Considerable research is needed to model the clinical outcomes to allow truly automated solutions. Current IMRT delivery systems are essentially first-generation systems, and no single method stands out as the ultimate technique. The instrumentation and methods used for IMRT quality assurance procedures and testing are not yet well established. In addition, many fundamental questions regarding IMRT are still unanswered. For example, the radiobiologic consequences of altered time-dose fractionation are not completely understood. Also, because there may be a much greater ability to trade off dose heterogeneity in the target vs. avoidance of normal critical structures with IMRT compared with traditional RT techniques, conventional radiation oncology planning principles are challenged. All in all, this new process of planning and treatment delivery has significant potential for improving the therapeutic ratio and reducing toxicity. Also, although inefficient currently, it is expected that IMRT, when fully developed, will improve the overall efficiency with which external beam RT can be planned and delivered, and thus will potentially lower costs. Conclusion. Recommendations in the areas pertinent to IMRT, including dose-calculation algorithms, acceptance testing, commissioning and quality assurance, facility planning and radiation safety, and target volume and dose specification, are presented. Several of the areas in which future research and development are needed are also indicated. These broad recommendations are intended to be both technical and advisory in nature, but the ultimate responsibility for clinical decisions pertaining to the implementation and use of IMRT rests with the radiation oncologist and radiation oncology physicist. This is an evolving field, and modifications of these recommendations are expected as new technology and data become available

2001-11-15

366

Systemic therapy strategies for head-neck carcinomas: Current status [  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] Head and neck cancers, most of which are squamous cell tumours, have an unsatisfactory prognosis despite intensive local treatment. This can be attributed, among other factors, to tumour recurrences inside or outside the treated area, and metastases at more distal locations. These tumours therefore require not only the standard surgical and radiation treatments, but also effective modalities. The main option here is antineoplastic chemotherapy, which is firmly established in the palliative treatment of recurrent or metastatic stages of disease, and is used with curative intent in the form of combined simultaneous or adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with inoperable or advanced tumour stages. Neoadjuvant treatment strategies for tumour reduction before surgery have yet to gain acceptance. Induction chemotherapy protocols before radiotherapy have to date been used in patients at high risk of distant metastases or as an aid for decision-making (“chemoselection” in those with extensive laryngeal cancers, prior to definitive chemoradiotherapy or laryngectomy. Triple-combination induction therapy (taxanes, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil shows high remission rates with significant toxicity and, in combination with (chemo-radiotherapy, is currently being compared with simultaneous chemoradiotherapy; the current gold standard with regards to efficacy and long-term toxicity.A further systemic treatment strategy, called “targeted therapy”, has been developed to help increase specificity and reduce toxicity. An example of targeted therapy, EGFR-specific antibodies, can be used in palliative settings and, in combination with radiotherapy, to treat advanced head and neck cancers. A series of other novel biologicals such as signal cascade inhibitors, genetic agents, or immunotherapies, are currently being evaluated in large-scale clinical studies, and could prove useful in patients with advanced, recurring or metastatic head and neck cancers. When developing a lasting, individualised systemic tumour therapy, the critical evaluation criteria are not only efficacy and acute toxicity but also (long-term quality-of-life and the identification of dedicated predictive biomarkers.

Hoffmann, Thomas K.

2012-12-01

367

Current status of radionuclide imaging in valvular heart disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current state-of-the-art in radionuclide imaging of valvular heart disease is based on different angiographic patterns in three left-sided valve abnormalities: pressure overload, volume overload, and inflow obstruction. In pressure overload, the left ventricle has normal dimensions or is minimally dilated the volume overload involves a left ventricular dilatation with a normal or reduced ejection fraction at rest the left ventricular function in inflow obstruction is normal, but in some cases may be depressed. Radionuclide angiography evaluates the effect of a valve abnormality on cardiac chamber and function thallium-201 imaging diagnoses regional myocardial blood flow and cell integrity and can evaluate the associated coronary artery disease

1980-12-18

368

Current status of the accelerator-driven LNL BNCT project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An accelerator-driven, thermal neutron beam facility, aimed at the Boron Neutron Capture plus Photodynamic Therapy (BNCT+PDT) experimental treatment of extended skin melanoma, is currently under construction at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL). New, boron loaded compounds have been at the purpose synthesized and a wide vitro and in vivo radiobiological investigation is under way. Special microdosimetric detectors have been developed and constructed at LNL, for properly on-line monitoring of all BNCT dose components and their qualities. Both microdosimetric and radiobiological measurements are being performed at the new, HYTHOR thermal irradiation facility at the ENEA-Casaccia TAPIRO fast reactor. (author)

2006-10-09

369

The current status of electrostatic engines and various electrostatic devices  

Science.gov (United States)

Current trends in the design and development of electrostatic engines and various electrostatic devices and systems, including those used in space research, nuclear fusion, thin-film production, and other fields, are briefly reviewed. Particular attention is given to the increasing reliance on the existing standard modules when developing new equipment, which greatly reduces the development, fabrication, and maintenance costs and improves reliability. Consideration is also given to the selection of the optimal type and size of electrostatic equipment and the selection of the proper quality criterion in the development of electrostatic rocket engines.

Latyshev, L. A.; Maslennikov, N. A.; Semashko, N. N.

370

Current status and prospects for development of an HSV vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects 530million people, is the leading cause of genital ulcer disease, and increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition. Although several candidate vaccines have been promising in animal models, prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines have not been effective in clinical trials thus far. Null results from the most recent prophylactic glycoprotein D2 subunit vaccine trial suggest that we must reevaluate our approach to HSV-2 vaccine development. We discuss HSV-2 pathogenesis, immunity, and vaccine efforts to date, as well as the current pipeline of candidate vaccines and design of trials to evaluate new vaccine constructs. PMID:24016811

Johnston, Christine; Koelle, David M; Wald, Anna

2014-03-20

371

Superior vena caval stenting for SVC obstruction: Current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Symptomatic obstruction of the superior vena cava is a debilitating and potentially life-threatening condition. Conventional surgery and radiation therapy have a historical role in the management of patients with malignant superior vena cava obstruction. Interventional radiologists can relieve these symptoms rapidly and safely in the vast majority of patients. The technical and clinical success rates are high and compare very favorably with currently available medical and surgical treatments. Although recurrent obstruction may occur, most patients can be treated by re-intervention.

Ganeshan, Arul [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Oxford, OX3 9DU (United Kingdom); Hon, Lye Quen [Department of Radiology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Glssop Road, Sheffield, S10 2JF (United Kingdom); Warakaulle, Dinuke R. [Department of Radiology, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Mandeville Road, HP21 8AL (United Kingdom); Morgan, Robert [Department of Radiology, St Georges Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Uberoi, Raman [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Oxford, OX3 9DU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Uberoi@orh.nhs.uk

2009-08-15

372

Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status  

Science.gov (United States)

The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

2008-01-01

373

Status and current sensitivity of the CELESTE experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CELESTE experiment uses the heliostats of an old solar farm in the French Pyrenees to detect gamma ray air showers by the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. CELESTE has been operating since November 1999 with an array of 40 heliostats fully instrumented with 1 GHz flash ADCs. Significant advances have been made in the detector simulations and in the data analysis techniques. We report here on results from recent observations of the Crab nebula above an energy threshold of 50 GeV. The results and simulations illustrate the current sensitivity of the experiment

2001-04-02

374

Building renewable electricity supply in Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bangladesh is experiencing a severe electric power capacity crisis that is only likely to worsen over the next 15 years. Further, over 80% of Bangladesh`s population still lives with no electricity, and the rate of grid expansion to connect rural villages is threatened by the looming capacity shortage. There are a number of underlying reasons for the crisis, but ultimately the country lacks the fossil fuel resources required to conduct a large scale grid-expansion program. Alternative approaches to electrifying the country must be found. This paper outlines the prospects for wind and solar power in Bangladesh, and estimates the potential for commercial applications now and in the future. This includes a technical assessment, a market assessment, an environmental assessment, and a policy assessment. The paper concludes that Bangladesh holds the potential to cost-effectively meet a significant fraction of its future electricity demand through the use of renewable generation technologies, possibly adding as much renewable capacity as the current overall electric power capacity of the country. Many parts of the country have favorable solar and wind conditions and there are many potentially cost-effective applications. But the country must develop a policy framework that allows and encourages private investors to develop renewable energy projects in order to realize the enormous potential of renewables.

Fulton, L.M. [Independent Univ. Bangladesh, Dhaka (Bangladesh). School of Environmental Science and Management

1997-12-31

375

Radiation damage of biomolecules (RADAM) database development: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. However, as the underlying dependent physical, chemical and biological processes are too complex to treat them on a purely analytical level, most of our current and future understanding will rely on computer simulations, based on mathematical equations, algorithms and last, but not least, on the available atomic and molecular data. The viability of the simulated output and the success of any computer simulation will be determined by these data, which are treated as the input variables in each computer simulation performed. The radiation research community lacks a complete database for the cross sections of all the different processes involved in ion beam induced damage: ionization and excitation cross sections for ions with liquid water and biological molecules, all the possible electron – medium interactions, dielectric response data, electron attachment to biomolecules etc. In this paper we discuss current progress in the creation of such a database, outline the roadmap of the project and review plans for the exploitation of such a database in future simulations.

2013-06-14

376

Aortic valve repair--current status, indications, and outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aortic valve repair is a new development with old roots. In the past 20 years, marked progress has been made in understanding the normal anatomy of the aortic valve and the interrelation between cusps and root. Aortic dilatation is the single most frequent pathogenetic factor in aortic regurgitation, accompanied by cusp pathology, that is, prolapse or congenital anomaly in most industrialized countries. Frequently, aortic and cusp pathology coexist. Different operative techniques have been established for correction of aortic and cusp pathology. Experience has shown that the combined application of repair procedures will lead to good results if normal valve and cusp configuration is achieved. Some congenital anomalies may require design alteration of the aortic valve. Low-operative mortality rates have been reported consistently. When adequate repair durability is achieved, the incidence of valve-related complications is lower than what has been reported for valve replacement. Aortic valve repair is currently in transition from surgical improvisation to a reproducible operation and an option for many patients with aortic regurgitation. Current research focuses on some special aspects, such as stabilization of the basal ring, ideal material and technique for cusp replacement, and more objective information on ideal valve configuration. PMID:23200074

Aicher, Diana; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim

2012-01-01

377

Radiation damage of biomolecules (RADAM) database development: current status  

Science.gov (United States)

Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. However, as the underlying dependent physical, chemical and biological processes are too complex to treat them on a purely analytical level, most of our current and future understanding will rely on computer simulations, based on mathematical equations, algorithms and last, but not least, on the available atomic and molecular data. The viability of the simulated output and the success of any computer simulation will be determined by these data, which are treated as the input variables in each computer simulation performed. The radiation research community lacks a complete database for the cross sections of all the different processes involved in ion beam induced damage: ionization and excitation cross sections for ions with liquid water and biological molecules, all the possible electron - medium interactions, dielectric response data, electron attachment to biomolecules etc. In this paper we discuss current progress in the creation of such a database, outline the roadmap of the project and review plans for the exploitation of such a database in future simulations.

Denifl, S.; Garcia, G.; Huber, B. A.; Marinkovi?, B. P.; Mason, N.; Postler, J.; Rabus, H.; Rixon, G.; Solov'yov, A. V.; Suraud, E.; Yakubovich, A. V.

2013-06-01

378

Commercial host (dram shop) liability: current status and trends.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial host liability (CHL, also called dram shop liability) holds alcohol retailers liable for alcohol-attributable harm caused by serving alcohol, illegally, to a patron who is already intoxicated (adult liability) or underage (underage liability). The Community Preventive Services Task Force, based on a systematic research literature review, concluded that CHL is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption. The current article describes the key components of CHL, its grounding in American jurisprudence, its adoption in the 50 states, and changes since 1989, when a similar assessment of these policies was conducted. The current paper focuses on three legislatively enacted restrictions: (1) increased evidentiary requirements; (2) limitations on damage awards; and (3) limitations on who may be sued. Data were collected in 2011 and analyzed in 2012 and 2013. There has been substantial erosion of CHL during the past 2 decades. Fewer states recognized CHL in 2011 than in 1989, and more statutory restrictions were imposed during the study period among states that did recognize CHL; states are more likely to recognize underage than adult liability; and six states recognized a Responsible Beverage Services Practices affirmative defense in both 1989 and 2011. Implications of these findings for public health practitioners are discussed. PMID:23953363

Mosher, James F; Cohen, Elena N; Jernigan, David H

2013-09-01

379

Current status of the minke whales and conflicts of interest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Minke whales - the rorqual group of the family Balaenopteridae - are widely distributed and constitute an important major harvestable living resource of the sea. Recently, the Antarctic minke whale population has been estimated to be between 150,000 and 300,000. Populations being dynamic entities, the size of the minke whale population has been changing. Currently , the minke whale population in the Antarctic has been claimed to have increased considerably. However, the minke whale stock arriving off Brazil could be regarded as only a small discrete unit of breeding stock and an integral part of the Brazilian natural resource. Data analysis based on the past 21 years shows that this stock is relatively in a steady state, but with only a few annual fluctuations which are around a constant mean value; and these departures are attributable both to environmental conditions and the local operational parameters. Further, the analysis of overall data does not suggest any decline in the Brazilian stock and a MSY at about 58.5% can be taken without depleting the stock, provided no dramatic changes occur in the native Antarctic habitat where the minke whales return to feed. This would allow Brazil a carefully controlled rational utilization of this potentially valuable sea resource since enough exploitable numbers of minke whales have been estimated to be available for Area II. The current arguments of the conflicts between the Pro -and Anti-whaling groups are also briefly discussed.

K. V. Singarajah

1988-07-01

380

[Current status and prospects of portable NIR spectrometer].  

Science.gov (United States)

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a reliable, rapid, and non-destructive analytical method widely applied in as a number of fields such as agriculture, food, chemical and oil industry. In order to suit different applications, near-infrared spectrometers are now varied. Portable near-infrared spectrometers are needed for rapid on-site identification and analysis. Instruments of this kind are rugged, compact and easy to be transported. In this paper, the current states of portable near-infrared spectrometers are reviewed. Portable near-infrared spectrometers are built of different monochromator systems: filter, grating, Fourier-transform methods, acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a large number of new methods based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The first part focuses on working principles of different monochromator systems. Advantages and disadvantages of different systems are also briefly mentioned. Descriptions of each method are given in turn. Typical spectrometers of each kind are introduced, and some parameters of these instruments are listed. In the next part we discuss sampling adapters, display, power supply and some other parts, which are designed to make the spectrometer more portable and easier to use. In the end, the current states of portable near-infrared spectrometers are summarized. Future trends of development of portable near-infrared spectrometers in China and abroad are discussed. PMID:24555365

Yu, Xin-Yang; Lu, Qi-Peng; Gao, Hong-Zhi; Peng, Zhong-Qi

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
381

Current status of technology development on remote monitoring system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IAEA is planning to perform the remote monitoring system in nuclear facility in order to reinforce the economical and efficient inspection. National lab. in U.S. is developing the corresponding core technology and field trial will be done to test the remote monitoring system by considering the case that it replace the current safeguards system. U.S. setup the International Remote Monitoring Project to develop the technology. IAEA makes up remote monitoring team and setup the detail facility to apply remote monitoring system. Therefore, early participation in remote monitoring technology development will make contribution in international remote monitoring system and increase the transparency and confidence in domestic nuclear activities. (author). 12 refs., 20 figs

Yoon, Wan Ki; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, Y. D.; Na, W. W

1997-03-01

382

The current status and future prospects in Japanese Nuclear Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Korea, 20 nuclear plants are now in operation, generating some 18,000 MW of electricity, or about 30% of the national electricity supply. Overall capacity factor is in excess of 90%, which is excellent indeed. I understand further that eight reactors, including innovative light water reactors developed with domestic Korean technology are either under construction or being planned. Having pursued an energetic program of nuclear development since the 1970s, Korea is now the world's sixth-ranked nuclear nation. In addition, it was revealed last year that the Korean government had selected a site for the medium- and low-level waste disposal facility - resolving another longstanding issue. I pay my deepest respects to all nuclear-related parties in Korea for their endeavors and for their results. Today, within my limited time. I will be speaking about Japan's nuclear industry in three respects: historical background, current situation and issues hereafter.

Masao, Takuma [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum/Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

2006-04-15

383

[Current status of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Curative catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation has made some important advances during the last years toward a reproducible and effective procedure. Besides the role of the trigger to induce atrial fibrillation episodes by rapid burst from within the pulmonary veins (PVs), invasive electrophysiological studies could also demonstrate the importance of the close-by surrounding atrial myocardium to sustain atrial fibrillation. Meanwhile, new energies sources such as laser, ultrasound and cryothermia are used, next to the established ablation technology of radiofrequency current ablation, to apply lesions mostly around the PV ostia. With the magnetic navigation system, a new technology has entered the arena of catheter ablation of complex arrhythmia. By combining both three-dimensional mapping system and three-dimensional imaging ability, the system allows complete remote-controlled mapping (and ablation) of atrial fibrillation. PMID:16738833

Ernst, Sabine; Kuck, Karl Heinz

2006-04-01

384

Ligninolytic enzymes from Ganoderma spp: current status and potential applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

White-rot fungal species belonging to Ganoderma have long been used as medicinal mushrooms in many Asian countries. In recent years, however, attention is not just being paid to their pharmacological properties, but to their other potentially valuable features as well, including their secretion of enzymes which decompose lignin. The current literature regarding lignin-modifying enzymes from the genus Ganoderma, their potential uses, and the components, structures and processes of lignocellulose degradation are discussed. The ligninolytic enzymes from the genus Ganoderma, as well as the number of additional enzymes that participate in lignin degradation, are summarized; further, the potential applications of these enzymes are analyzed and probed in this article. This review will provide insight on the valuable applications of Ganoderma spp. and will serve as a useful reference on the use of lignocellulose degradation as a means of environmental protection. PMID:22992227

Zhou, Xuan-Wei; Cong, Wei-Ran; Su, Kai-Qi; Zhang, Yong-Ming

2013-11-01

385

Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (II): Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan needs to import around 80% of its energy requirements. In 1966, the first nuclear power plant began operation, nuclear energy has been a national strategic priority since 1973. Currently, 55 reactors provide around 30% of the country's electricity. Japanese energy policy has been conducted by the energy security and minimization of dependence of energy imports. The main factors regarding nuclear power are: - Continue to have nuclear power as a main factor of electricity production. - Recycle uranium and plutonium, and start domestic reprocessing from 2005. - Continue to develop fast breeder reactors to increase uranium utilization. - Promote the nuclear transparency to the public, emphasizing safety and non-proliferation. Also, the prospects of Asia's nuclear energy growth has been reviewed

386

Current status of PET-imaging probes of ?-amyloid plaques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss. One of pathological hallmarks of AD is the accumulation and deposition of ?-amyloid (A?) plaques which is a potential target for the early diagnosis of AD. Positron emission tomography (PET), a sensitive radionuclide imaging technique, has provided opportunities to detect A? plaques of AD. PET-imaging probes of A? plaques have been extensively developed during the last decade. [(18)F]Florbetapir, the (18)F-labeled PET-imaging probe of A? plaques, was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration. A number of follow-on PET-imaging probes are currently being developed in academia and pharmaceutical companies. This article will discuss the recent development of PET-imaging probes from [(11)C]PIB to [(18)F]Florbetapir, which are in clinic trials, and several follow-on probes in preclinical stage. PMID:23812777

Koo, Jaehyung; Byun, Youngjoo

2013-10-01

387

Porcine dermis implants in soft-tissue reconstruction: current status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neil J Smart,1 Nicholas Bryan,2 John A Hunt,2 Ian R Daniels1 1Exeter Surgical Health Services Research Unit, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Exeter, UK; 2Clinical Engineering (UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Soft-tissue reconstruction for a variety of surgical conditions, such as abdominal wall hernia or pelvic organ prolapse, remains a challenge. There are numerous meshes available that may be simply categorized as either synthetic or biologic. Within biologic meshes, porcine dermal meshes have come to dominate the market. This review examines the current evidence for their use and the limitations of knowledge. Although there is increasing evidence to support their safety, long-term follow-up studies that support their efficacy are lacking. Numerous clinical trials that remain ongoing may help elucidate their precise role in soft-tissue reconstruction. Keywords: hernia, mesh, xenograft, biologic

Smart NJ

2014-03-01

388

Current status of RMS and technical experience for regional cooperation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NNCA uses secure remote monitoring systems, both for reporting to the IAEA and for the bilateral cooperation with Sandia (SNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The NNCA system architecture has changed from a system using a Central Monitoring Station at the former TCNC, to direct internet reporting on a simultaneous basis to the IAEA and the NNCA. The NNCA reporting system is applied at 16 power reactors. This experience provides the basis for a detailed cost analysis and evaluation of trouble-shooting experience. Progress in establishing remote monitoring cooperation between the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's new Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPE) and Sandia is a precondition for regional cooperation. The ACPF system, which is currently in final testing, features network configuration and equipment that differ from safeguards standards for reasons of cost and flexibility. This allows the NNCA to take advantage of rapidly developing technologies at lower cost. (author)

2006-06-01

389

Newcastle disease virus: current status and our understanding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the highly pathogenic viral diseases of avian species. ND is economically significant because of the huge mortality and morbidity associated with it. The disease is endemic in many third world countries where agriculture serves as the primary source of national income. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and is well characterized member among the avian paramyxovirus serotypes. In recent years, NDV has lured the virologists not only because of its pathogenic potential, but also for its oncolytic activity and its use as a vaccine vector for both humans and animals. The NDV based recombinant vaccine offers a pertinent choice for the construction of live attenuated vaccine due to its modular nature of transcription, minimum recombination frequency, and lack of DNA phase during replication. Our current understanding about the NDV biology is expanding rapidly because of the availability of modern molecular biology tools and high-throughput complete genome sequencing. PMID:24589707

Ganar, Ketan; Das, Moushumee; Sinha, Sugandha; Kumar, Sachin

2014-05-12

390

Current status of plasma emission electronics: II. Hardware  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is devoted to the engineering embodiment of the modern methods for producing charged ion and electron beams by extracting them from the plasma of a discharge. Electron beams use to execute electron-beam welding, annealing, and surface heating of materials and to realize plasmochemical reactions stimulated by fast electrons. Ion beams allow realization of technologies of ion implantation or ion-assisted deposition of coatings thereby opening new prospects for the creation of compounds and alloys by the method that makes it possible to obtain desired parameters and functional properties of the surface. A detailed description is given to the performance and design of devices producing beams of this type: the ion and electron sources being developed at the laboratory of plasma sources of the Institute of High-Current Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the laboratory of plasma electronics of Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics.

Bugaev, A. S.; Vizir, A. V.; Gushenets, V. I.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Burachevsky, Yu. A.; Burdovitsin, V. A.; Osipov, I. V.; Rempe, N. G.

2003-04-01

391

Biotechnological production of muconic acid: current status and future prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Muconic acid (MA), a high value-added bio-product with reactive dicarboxylic groups and conjugated double bonds, has garnered increasing interest owing to its potential applications in the manufacture of new functional resins, bio-plastics, food additives, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. At the very least, MA can be used to produce commercially important bulk chemicals such as adipic acid, terephthalic acid and trimellitic acid. Recently, great progress has been made in the development of biotechnological routes for MA production. This present review provides a comprehensive and systematic overview of recent advances and challenges in biotechnological production of MA. Various biological methods are summarized and compared, and their constraints and possible solutions are also described. Finally, the future prospects are discussed with respect to the current state, challenges, and trends in this field, and the guidelines to develop high-performance microbial cell factories are also proposed for the MA production by systems metabolic engineering. PMID:24751381

Xie, Neng-Zhong; Liang, Hong; Huang, Ri-Bo; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

392

Research in nuclear chemistry: current status and future perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research in nuclear chemistry has seen a huge growth over the last few decades. The large umbrella of nuclear chemistry includes several research areas such as nuclear fission, reactions, spectroscopy, nuclear probes and nuclear analytical techniques. Currently, nuclear chemistry research has extended its horizon into various applications like nuclear medicine, isotopes for understanding physico chemical processes, and addressing environmental and biomedical problems. Tremendous efforts are going on for synthesizing new elements (isotopes), isolating physically or chemically wherever possible and investigating their properties. Theses studies are useful to understand nuclear and chemical properties at extreme ends of instability. In addition, nuclear chemists are making substantial contribution to astrophysics and other related areas. During this talk, a few of the contributions made by nuclear chemistry group of BARC will be discussed and possible future areas of research will be enumerated. (author)

2007-02-14

393

Current status of arterial grafts for coronary artery bypass grafting.  

Science.gov (United States)

For over a decade there has been accumulating evidence that the use of more than a single arterial graft during coronary artery bypass grafting can improve clinical outcomes. However the vast majority of patients in most developed countries still only receive a single arterial conduit even in the presence of multivessel coronary artery disease. This review summarizes the current evidence for the use of a second internal mammary artery and/or radial artery graft. While in comparison to vein grafts the superior patency of internal mammary artery grafts is well established, there now exists strong and consistent evidence of the superior patency of radial arteries over the longer term. Likewise, there is a rapidly growing body of evidence that the superior patency of both these arteries in comparison to vein grafts translates into improved clinical outcomes. PMID:23977618

Taggart, David P

2013-07-01

394

Current Status and Design Challenges in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs will boost the capabilities of current wireless sensor networks, and will serve some novel applications, like multimedia surveillance. Today’s world is of automation and WMSN plays a very vital role in today’s world. WMSNs introduce several new research challenges, mainly related to mechanisms of deliver application level Quality-of-Service (e.g., latency minimization. The main research going on today in WMSN are on Video Streaming and on its Security area. The main focus of this research paper is on the problem related to video streaming of WMSN. This research paper introduces some of the solutions/suggestions with the help of which some of the problems like video streaming of wireless multimedia sensor network can be sorted.

Himanshu Diwan

2013-12-01

395

Anthropogenic SO2/NOx committee--current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current activities of the Anthropogenic SO2/NOx Committee center around the compilation of Version 1 of the GEIA inventories. These inventories will be based on the GEIA-specified 1 degrees by 1 degrees grid (lower left corner at 180 degrees W/90 degrees S, west to east and south to north), reflect 1985 emissions and consist of two data sets: Version 1A inventories with annual emissions at one level and Version 1B inventories with seasonal emissions, two vertical levels (defined at 100 m) and sectoral split information. The basic information used for both versions of the GEIA inventories will be identical; i.e., emissions totals across both inventories will be the same. Work is being carried out in two complementary working groups; Carmen Benkovitz, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA heads the work on the annual inventory, Eva Voldner, Atmospheric Environment Services, Canada and Trevor Scholtz, ORTECH International, Canada, head the work on the seasonal inventory

1993-02-02

396

Treatment of sepsis: current status of clinical immunotherapy.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

While antibiotics address the root cause of sepsis--that of pathogen infection--they fail to provide an adequate cure for the condition. Currently, 30% to 50% of septic patients die, and this figure is likely to increase in line with the proliferation of multi-drug resistant bacteria. With an increased understanding of the immune response, it has been proposed that modulation of this defence mechanism offers the best hope of cure. Many entry-points in the immune system have been identified and targeted therapies have been developed,but why are these not in routine clinical practice? This review examines the latest evidence for the use of immuno-modulating drugs, obtained from human clinical trials. We discuss cytokine-based therapies, steroids and anti-coagulants. Finally, consideration is given as to why successful therapies in the laboratory, and in vivo models, do not automatically translate into clinical benefit

O'Callaghan, A

2012-02-03

397

Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The lack of industrially suitable microorganisms for converting biomass into fuel ethanol has traditionally been cited as a major technical roadblock to developing a bioethanol industry. In the last two decades, numerous microorganisms have been engineered to selectively produce ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass contains complex carbohydrates that necessitate utilizing microorganisms capable of fermenting sugars not fermentable by brewers' yeast. The most significant of these is xylose. The greatest successes have been in the engineering of gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Zymomonas mobilis. E. coli and K. oxytoca are naturally able to use a wide spectrum of sugars, and work has concentrated on engineering these strains to selectively produce ethanol. Z. mobilis produces ethanol at high yields, but ferments only glucose and fructose. Work on this organism has concentrated on introducing pathways for the fermentation of arabinose and xylose. The history of constructing these strains and current progress in refining them are detailed in this review. (orig.)

Dien, B.S.; Cotta, M.A. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Peoria, IL (United States); Jeffries, T.W. [Inst. for Microbial and Biochemical Technology, Forest Service, Forest Products Lab., USDA, Madison, WI (United States)

2004-07-01

398

Current status of the neutron lifetime experiment PENeLOPE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The neutron lifetime ?n allows access to fundamental parameters of the weak interaction. Therefore, a precise knowledge of ?n provides direct tests of the Standard Model of particle physics. Moreover, the neutron lifetime is important for astrophysical models. However, recent results disagree with the PDG value of 885.7±0.8 s by roughly 6?. To resolve this discrepancy, we are building up an experiment with a trap for ultracold neutrons (UCN) at Technische Universitaet Muenchen. The UCN will be trapped in a multipole field produced by superconducting solenoids with a flux density of up to 2 T. They are additionally confined vertically by gravitation. This makes extraction and detection of the decay particles possible and allows a direct measurement of the neutron decay rate. The envisaged precision of ??n<0.1 s demands very long storage lifetimes and a good handle on systematic effects. The talk will report on the measurement principle and the current progress of the setup.

2011-04-01

399

Current status and perspectives of treatment of disseminated melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Melanoma is considered to be one of the most malignant human neoplasms, characterized by a steadily increasing morbidity rate, which remains a challenge for modem oncology. Despite the significant progress in prevention, diagnosis and molecular biology, the practical use of this knowledge is still limited and surgery remains the main method of treatment. A particularly unfavorable clinical course is observed in patients with metastatic melanoma. Median survival in stage IV melanoma is 6-10 months, 2-year survival is less than 10%, and 5-year survival does not exceed 5%. Despite efforts aimed at developing new strategies which would improve survival, the results have not changed for more than two decades. This is related to the limited number of cytostatic drugs available for systemic melanoma treatment and the relative resistance of melanoma cells to most therapeutic agents. In clinical practice, the most widely used drug is dacarbazine, with the highest, but still unsatisfactory, response rate reaching some 20%. The lack of effective therapies calls for the exploration of different therapeutic paths, both medical and surgical. Some hopes of new modalities are associated with the theory of melanoma immunogenicity. Currently it is believed that immuno modulation may be the solution for effective treatment of melanoma and it should be noted that new drugs, scheduled to be registered by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, are immune system stimulating agents. Although targeted therapies are still not a standard of treatment and their use is mainly limited to clinical trials, they appear to be the future of effective treatment of metastatic melanoma. In this review we present the current methods of treatment of metastatic melanoma. (authors)

2011-01-01

400

Current Status of the MLIS Uranium Enrichment Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Well-established energy security is extremely important for the national economy and future prosperity of the country. Many countries are trying to develop and use renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and tidal power to keep the natural environment clean and safe. Although some have disputed calling nuclear power (which produces {approx}40% of domestic electricity) 'green energy', it deserves credit for this label because of its low CO{sub 2} emission and fuel efficiency. While fuel costs in nuclear power generation are less than 30% and uranium enrichment is only {approx}40% of front-end fuel loop, uranium enrichment is a critical step in nuclear power generation. It is also politically sensitive worldwide due to potential proliferation aspects. Currently, gaseous diffusion and centrifuge are the technologies for uranium enrichment. Since the 70s, many countries have been trying to develop a more advanced and economic technology after the gaseous diffusion process started to loose its economic viability. Among the developed laser-assisted technologies, MLIS (Molecular Laser Isotope Separation) is still under investigation for industrial application while most other laser uranium enrichment technologies have been terminated. In this regard it is worthwhile to review the MLIS processes being developed currently, SILEX (Separation of Isotopes by Laser EXcitation) and CRISLA (Condensation Repression by Isotope Selective Laser Activation). Recently the Canadian company Cameco joined the GE-Hitachi venture by paying $123.8M for a 24% holding, and GE-Hitachi- Cameco is now running the GLE (Global Laser Enrichment) facility using SILEX technology in Wilmington, North Carolina to evaluate commercialization of the process.

Kim, Jae Woo; Rhee, Chang Kyu; Kim, Whung Whoe [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Maeng Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Eerkens, Jeff W. [Isotope Technologies Inc., Woodland (United States)

2009-05-15

 
 
 
 
401

Current Status of the MLIS Uranium Enrichment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Well-established energy security is extremely important for the national economy and future prosperity of the country. Many countries are trying to develop and use renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and tidal power to keep the natural environment clean and safe. Although some have disputed calling nuclear power (which produces ?40% of domestic electricity) 'green energy', it deserves credit for this label because of its low CO2 emission and fuel efficiency. While fuel costs in nuclear power generation are less than 30% and uranium enrichment is only ?40% of front-end fuel loop, uranium enrichment is a critical step in nuclear power generation. It is also politically sensitive worldwide due to potential proliferation aspects. Currently, gaseous diffusion and centrifuge are the technologies for uranium enrichment. Since the 70s, many countries have been trying to develop a more advanced and economic technology after the gaseous diffusion process started to loose its economic viability. Among the developed laser-assisted technologies, MLIS (Molecular Laser Isotope Separation) is still under investigation for industrial application while most other laser uranium enrichment technologies have been terminated. In this regard it is worthwhile to review the MLIS processes being developed currently, SILEX (Separation of Isotopes by Laser EXcitation) and CRISLA (Condensation Repression by Isotope Selective Laser Activation). Recently the Canadian company Cameco joined the GE-Hitachi venture by paying $123.8M for a 24% holding, and GE-Hitachi- Cameco is now running the GLE (Global Laser Enrichment) facility using SILEX technology in Wilmington, North Carolina to evaluate commercialization of the process

2009-05-01

402

The current status of Bandung Triga Mark II reactor, Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Bandung TRIGA Mark II Reactor - Indonesia was started-up on October 10, 1964 and it has been operated at power level of 250 kw. The facility has been, operated for research, production of radioisotopes and training. In 1971, the reactor has been upgraded from 250 kw to 1000 kw. Since that time the facility has been safely operating at various power levels of a maximum 1000 kw until February 1996, even though the reactor tank is kept unchanged. For a highly reliable reactor that can back-up the Ga Siwabessy Multipurpose Reactor - Jakarta, Indonesia, in producing sufficient radioisotopes, a higher power reactor is needed. This can be accomplished by increasing the thermal power of current TRIGA Mark II Bandung Reactor to 2000 kw as well as by enhancing the inherent and engineered safety features of the current reactor. The upgrading of reactor power shall ensure the increasing of neutron flux in the beam ports; hence the experiments such as neutron radiography, time of flight spectrometry and other nuclear physic experiments can be conducted better. For that the reactor tank, the number and configuration of fuel element, instrumentation and control rod, primary cooling system, secondary cooling system, water treatment system, shielding, etc. have been changed, and an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) was added. One additional control rod, core configuration modification and enhancement of reactor shielding, shall increase the safety margin so that the reactor could be operated at a maximum power of 2000 kw. At the middle of May 2000 cold test (non-nuclear commissioning) was done, and continued to hot test (nuclear commissioning). Since June 24, 2000 the TRIGA Mark II Bandung has been operated at 2000 kw

2006-10-15

403

Inflammatory bowel disease--its history, current status and outlook.  

Science.gov (United States)

In conclusion, it seems there has been a definite change in the epidemiology and course of IBD since earlier this century. Several points are worth emphasising: The diseases are relatively common, and there has been a general increase in their incidence, more so in some regions than others. The largest group affected is young adults, who will have their disease over several decades. This could potentially impact markedly on the workforce and on health care services. There is clearly a range of severity of this disease, and a greater number of mild cases have probably been diagnosed recently. This also helps to explain the differences in severity, need for surgery, and survival noted between community based studies and referral centre groups. Treatment has improved, particularly surgery (which usually takes place earlier on less critically ill patients), better operations, including continence surgery for most patients with UC and gut sparing procedures in Crohn's disease such as stricturoplasty. Medical management of acute disease has also improved which, in particular, has reduced mortality in elderly patients. Except for a subset of patients, life expectancy is close to normal, and time lost from the workforce, when considered in perspective over a working lifetime, is negligible. We can therefore be justifiably optimistic about the current long term outcome of IBD, and encourage our patients, their families and their employers to share in this outlook. With the promise of newer medical therapies on the horizon, prognosis may be further improved. Corticosteroids with little or no systemic side effects are currently in clinical trials and new anti-inflammatory agents are being examined for their efficacy through prostaglandin, leukotriene, or oxygen free-radical inhibition. Now that mortality from IBD is largely a thing of the past, we need to concentrate our attention more closely on the associated morbidity. It is to be hoped that future long term studies attempt the difficult clinical measurements of morbidity and quality of life. PMID:8309396

Andrews, J; Goulston, K

1994-02-21

404

Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and introduced to foster the development of alternative methods to animal testing. Another topic addressed by the symposium was the new vision on "Toxicology in the twenty-first Century", as proposed by the US-National Research Council, which aims at using human cells and tissues for toxicity testing in vitro rather than live animals. An overview of the achievements and current tasks, as well as a vision of the future to be addressed by ZEBET@BfR in the years to come is outlined in the present paper. PMID:21607681

Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

2011-08-01

405

Viewpoint on the current status of researches on sepsis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sepsis is a common complication after severe trauma and burn, and also one of the main causes of death. Recently, although some new progresses were seen in antibiotic therapy, the mortality of sepsis is still on the rise, and the death rate as a result of sepsis is higher than a total of that of prostate cancer, breast cancer and AIDS. Therefore, sepsis has obviously become one of the serious ailments threatening human health. The present paper introduced the internat