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Applicability of Telemedicine in Bangladesh: Current Status and Future Prospects  

CERN Document Server

Telemedicine refers to the use of information and communication technology to provide and support health care mainly for the purpose of providing consultation. It is also a way to provide medical procedures or examinations to remote locations. It has the potential to improve both the quality and the access to health care services delivery while lowering costs even in the scarcity of resources. Understanding the potentiality of telemedicine, many developing countries are implementing telemedicine to provide health care facility to remote area where health care facilities are deficient. Bangladesh is not an exception to this either. In this paper we mention the reasons why Bangladesh has to move for telemedicine. We also present the past and on-going telemedicine activities and projects in Bangladesh. Analyzing these projects we have found out some factors which should be assessed carefully for successful implementation of telemedicine application. Finally we propose a prototype telemedicine network for Banglad...

Nessa, Ahasanun; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

2009-01-01

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Determinants of the Current Use of Contraceptive Methods in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available In this study used the, 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey, the 1993-94 and the 1996-97 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS to investigate the determinants of contraceptive use among the currently married women under 50 years of age. Bi-variate analysis were used to assess the differentials and multivariate analysis used to find the determinants of the current contraceptive use. The results indicate that improvement of the status of women, access to mass media and reduction of child mortality are important determinants of contraceptive use.

Ahmad Kabir

2001-01-01

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Rohingyas and refugee status in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available The Rohingya refugees from northern Rakhine Statein Myanmar are living in a precarious situation in theircountry of asylum, Bangladesh, but have seen significantimprovements in recent times.

Pia Prytz Phiri

2008-04-01

4

Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

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Status of radiation curing in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bangladesh is a small country covering about 148 thousand square kilometer area with a population of 120 million. It has only 15% urban area; most of the people live in the rural area. It is neither industrial nor developed. It is trying hard to stand on its feet combating all damages caused by frequent natural calamities like cyclones and floods. Thus, most of the technological activities are still being carried out on turnkey basis. However, some research and development institutions have already been developed to such an extent that transfer of technology can occur and the local industries can also benefit out of this endeavour

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Women’s Status and Early Childhood Mortality in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available In this article , an attempt has been taken to focus light on the status of women in Bangladesh and also see its effect on early childhood mortality controlling the effect of other associated determinants. This paper examines the proposition that constraints on women’s status adversely affect the survival of their children. BDHS 2007 data have been used to construct indices of women’s household autonomy and authority , which are then linked to longitudinal data on survival of their neonates.

Md. Mortuza Ahmmed

2014-06-01

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Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

1997-06-01

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Determinants and Functional Impact of Nutritional Status Among Older Persons in Rural Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Malnutrition is a major problem in Bangladesh. One third of the population in Bangladesh is malnourished, but figures for older persons specifically are scant. Aims: This thesis describes the nutritional status of individuals aged 60+ years, living in a rural community in Bangladesh, with particular focus on the impact of demographic, health and social factors on nutritional status. A main aim is to examine the magnitude of malnutrition in this population. Second, the thesis focus...

Ferdous, Tamanna

2009-01-01

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Arsenic Status at Different Depths in Some Soils of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the arsenic status of some selected soils in six thanas of three arsenic affected districts of Bangladesh. Eighteen soil samples taking three from each of 6 thanas representing 3 districts viz. Moulavibazar, Habiganj and Sylhet of Bangladesh were collected for the study. The soils were collected from 3 depths viz. 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm from each location. The arsenic content in soils of Moulavibazar, Habiganj and Sylhet districts ranged from 1.32-31.89, 0-16.87 and 0.66-17.57 ppm, respectively. Out of 18 samples, arsenic content was noticed for 11 samples at 0-15 cm depth (1.98-25.76 ppm, 15 samples at 15-30 cm depth (3.96-30.68 ppm and 14 samples at 30-45 cm depth (3.96-38.23 ppm. The highest arsenic content of 38.23 ppm was found at 30-45 cm depth in Sylhet district. Seven samples at 0-15 cm, 3 samples at 15-30 cm and 4 samples at 30-45 cm were free from arsenic contamination. Correlation study of arsenic contents of soils was done with some soil properties viz. sand, silt and clay contents, soil pH, EC and organic matter status. Results showed that arsenic content correlated significantly with different soil properties.

M.M. Hossain

2001-01-01

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Hepcidin and iron status among pregnant women in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although hepcidin, a recently discovered peptide hormone, is considered a major regulator of iron metabolism and anemia in chronic inflammation, its role in anemia during pregnancy has not been characterized. Our objective was to characterize the role of hepcidin in anemia during pregnancy. We examined the relationships between urinary hepcidin, iron status indicators, hemoglobin, erythropoietin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, and C-reactive protein in a cross-sectional study conducted among 149 pregnant rural Bangladeshi women with biospecimens obtained during home visits. Urinary hepcidin was measured using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Urinary hepcidin, as log(intensity per mmol/L creatinine), was correlated with log ferritin (r = 0.33, p women selected for low iron stores (n = 41). Among pregnant women in a community-based study in rural Bangladesh, urinary hepcidin levels were related to iron status and AGP but not hemoglobin, erythropoietin, or C-reactive protein. PMID:18818166

Schulze, Kerry J; Christian, Parul; Ruczinski, Ingo; Ray, Amanda L; Nath, Avindra; Wu, Lee S-F; Semba, Richard D

2008-01-01

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Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES. Objective: The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design: We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4. The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results: Analysing cause of death (CoD revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were the leading causes of deaths (37%, followed by communicable diseases (CDs (22%, perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%, and injury and accidents (6%; the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years, which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04. For adult and the elderly (15 years and older, NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%, followed by CDs (23%. For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005, and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0.001. Conclusions: Epidemiologic transition is taking place with a shift from the dominance of CDs to NCDs. SES inequity in mortality still persists – the poor suffer from CDs in all age groups, whereas those better off suffer more from NCDs than CDs. Policy makers thus need to consider the social distribution of diseases before developing any public health action targeted towards reducing mortality and the extent of disease burden in an equitable manner.

Syed M. A. Hanifi

2014-10-01

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Current Status of Simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

As the title suggests, the purpose of this chapter is to review the current status of numerical simulations of black hole accretion disks. This chapter focuses exclusively on global simulations of the accretion process within a few tens of gravitational radii of the black hole. Most of the simulations discussed are performed using general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) schemes, although some mention is made of Newtonian radiation MHD simulations and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The goal is to convey some of the exciting work that has been going on in the past few years and provide some speculation on future directions.

Fragile, P. Chris

2014-09-01

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Photovoltaic Based Solar Home Systems – Current State of Dissemination in Rural Areas of Bangladesh and Future Prospect  

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Full Text Available Currently only 53 percent of total population in Bangladesh has access to electricity and per capita generation being 265 kWh is very low compared to some other developing countries. This shortage of energy hinders the growth of the country’s overall economy. However, Bangladesh has a good potential for harnessing renewable energy resources, solar and biomass in particular. Steps are taken to harness renewable sources of energy to make the country less dependent on the traditional fossil fuels. This paper presents current power generation scenario in Bangladesh, assesses the availability of solar irradiation and potential for power generation using solar PV panels. This paper also investigates into the current status of dissemination of PV based solar home systems (SHSs in the rural areas of Bangladesh. Currently approximately 94 MW of power is generated from around 2 million SHSs already installed. Average growth rate of SHSs from 2003 up to December 2012 is around 58% which is among the highest in the world.

MUHAMMAD RIAZUL HAMID

2013-02-01

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Desmopressin treatment: current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Desmopressin has a proven pharmacological effect in most enuretic patients, although a clinical response is not seen in all patients. Numerous questions about the current treatment status of desmopressin include the specific anti-enuretic effect of desmopressin, the effect of desmopressin on sleep and the use of desmopressin as a possible cure for enuresis. The Swedish Enuresis Trial has produced some very positive results on the long-term use of desmopressin, showing a 61% response rate (> 50% reduction in wet nights). Desmopressin has proven to be highly effective when used in combination with other treatments, including the alarm and oxybutinin, and after urotherapy. It is suggested that imipramine should not be used to treat enuresis unless the patient has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Bladder instability is also an important factor to consider when selecting treatment for enuresis. Bladder dysfunction (detrusor overactivity) can be the cause of lack of clinical response to either desmopressin or alarm treatment; in such cases, following a cystometrogram, patients should be treated with detrusor-relaxing drugs, and urotherapy should be considered as the first treatment option. The most effective treatment for enuresis is the treatment chosen by the patient and their families. Desmopressin and urotherapy have had promising results, with desmopressin acting as a bridge until spontaneous or treatment-induced remission occurs. PMID:10573800

Hjälmås, K

1999-01-01

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Regulatory infrastructure for the control of radiation sources in Bangladesh: Present status and future direction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Government of Bangladesh promulgated Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) Act in July 1993 to control and supervise the introduction and conduct of any practice involving sources of ionizing radiation. Necessary rules have also been promulgated in 1997 and efforts are now on to enforce the legal requirements. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been empowered by the NSRC Act-93 to authorize and inspect regulated activities, issue guidelines and standards and enforce the legislation and regulations. The report describes the status of the radiation safety and progress made towards building an effective and sustainable national regulatory system. (author)

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Nutritional Status of Children Under Six Years of Age at Industrial Area in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available In this study, nutritional status of children under six years have been investigated based on primary data and efforts have been made to find out the probable factors influencing the nutritional status of children. The study shows that the factors such as maternal education, family income, duration of breast feeding, age of child, family size have significant effect on nutritional status of children. Therefore, sustainable policy should be taken regarding the factors mentioned above to improve nutritional status of children of Bangladesh.

M.Z. Islam

2003-01-01

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Present status on the use of antibiotics and chemicals in shrimp hatcheries and grow-out ponds and their environmental implications in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to document the current status on the use of antibiotics, chemicals and biological products used in shrimp hatcheries and grow-out ponds in Bangladesh. In the last decade, coastal aquaculture practised traditionally in south western and south eastern parts of Bangladesh has developed into a big industry. With the rapid expansion of shrimp grow-out facilities, the hatchery industry has progressed rapidly during the last five years. A major disease outbreak, namely white spot disease in 1995 struck the shrimp aquaculture throughout the country and resulted in increased use of chemotherapeutics for disinfection and treatment. Among the 50 operating hatcheries of Bangladesh, 40 (80% were surveyed in which 7 different antibiotics, 6 disinfectants and 2 different biological products were used for controlling common diseases. The study also covered 50 grow-out ponds of which 30 were in southwestern and 20 were in southeastern part of Bangladesh. The study included 8 semi-intensive and 42 extensive farms. Diseases were treated with 15 commercial products belonging to 3 antibiotics classes. The antibiotics currently used in shrimp aquaculture in Bangladesh are chloramphenicol in the name of CL-33, prefuran, oxytetracycline, furazolidone, erythromycin, neomycin sulphate, kenamycin sulphate and ciprofloxacin.

Sheikh Aftabuddin

2009-10-01

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Biosimilar drugs: Current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food Drug Administration (FDA) and India were used to identify data for review. Literature suggest that biosimilars are similar biological products, i.e., comparable but not identical to the reference product, are not generic version of innovator product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and marketing approval is also more complicated. To improve access, US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation act 2009 and US FDA allowed "abbreviated pathway" for their approval. U.S law has defined new standards and terms and EMA scientific guidelines have also set detailed approval standards. India being one of the most preferred manufacturing destinations of biosimilars, there is a need for stringent safety and regulatory guidelines. The New India Guidelines "Draft Guidelines on Similar Biologics were announced in June 2012, by Department of Biotechnology at Boston bio and available online. PMID:25143877

Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

2014-07-01

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Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP) knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from t...

Islam, MR; Thorvaldsen G

2012-01-01

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Project 'Iren'. Current Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pulsed source of Intense Resonance Neutron (IREN), similar to the source-booster LUE-30 that operated at JINR till 2001, traditionally represents a combination of a driver - a linear electron accelerator LUE-200 and of a target-converter. At the first stage of realization of the IREN project it is planned to use a non-multiplying target-converter with truncated pulse duration. An electron gun (a source of electron) for LUE-200 was created and tested with the following parameters: beam current up to 5 A, electron energy up to 200 keV, repetition rate 50 Hz, pulse duration 400...500 ns

 
 
 
 
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[Current status of dacryocystorhinostomy].  

Science.gov (United States)

The history of the treatment of lacrimal duct stenosis dates back to the ancient world. Modern lacrimal duct surgery began with the description of external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) by Toti and the endonasal procedure by West. Modifications include construction of a mucous membrane flap and the use of different instruments such as microscopes, endoscopes, and laser. This article reviews the various methods currently in use, although the analysis makes clear how difficult it is to compare studies. Because of the high success rate and the possibility of correcting multiple disturbing factors of the lacrimal drainage system, external DCR remains the gold standard for the ophthalmologist; other methods must be measured by the success rate of external DCR. The future of lacrimal duct surgery lies in a better understanding of wound healing and thus the possibility for precise modulation. Better results may be possible by combining different surgical methods. Prospective studies are urgently necessary. PMID:19280198

Meyer-Rüsenberg, H-W; Vujancevic, S; Emmerich, K-H

2009-03-01

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Engineered barriers: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137Cs), since they can provide containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

23

Florida Red Tide Current Status  

Science.gov (United States)

This Fish and Wildlife Research Institute website provides links to several Florida-based red tide sites. These sites include the current status of Florida's red tide, a photo gallery of red tide distribution maps, and regional Florida red tide statuses. The site expands further on its research and contains information on the Florida manatee, Florida panther, freshwater, geographic information systems/mapping, habitat, saltwater and wildlife. This is a nice resource for a broad overview of Florida ecosystems and natural resources.

2009-09-18

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Infant Anemia and Micronutrient Status : Studies of Early Determinants in Rural Bangladesh  

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Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in infancy are common in low-income settings. These are partly due to maternal malnutrition and may impair child health and development. We studied the impact of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation, duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), growth and infection on infant anemia and micronutrient status. In the MINIMat trial in Matlab, Bangladesh, pregnant women were randomized to Early or Usual promotion of enrolment in a food supplementation...

Eneroth, Hanna

2011-01-01

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Nutritional Status, Dietary Intake, and Relevant Knowledge of Adolescent Girls in Rural Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13–18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequ...

Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A. M. Shamsir

2010-01-01

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Contraceptive Effectiveness of Breastfeeding and Current Contraceptive Practice in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the opinion about reproductive behavior commodity participation in contraceptive mothers opinion about suitable contraceptive method during breastfeeding in Bangladesh. For this purpose secondary data were collected from Bangladesh Institute of Research for Promotion of Essential and Reproductive Health and Technologies (BIRPERHT, in Bangladesh in the year 1995. The contraceptive effectiveness of lactational amenorrhoea during exclusive breastfeeding the baby, 35.6% mentioned that this period is fully protective from risk of contraception; about 37.9% stated that there is a partial risk of pregnancy. The suckling of the infant appears to trigger the chain of events. Stimulating the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to release some hormones and inhibit the release of mothers. This has the total effect of suppressing ovulation with contraceptive effect being strongest during lactational period. Mothers in rural and urban area may choose to adopt a contraceptive method during breastfeeding and that is suitable method in this period oral pill 33% and condom 28% by their opinions. The overall distribution of opinion about risk of conception reflects that significantly larger proportion with 99% confidence level of urban mothers think that lactational period does not provide adequate protection from conception. Mothers should be informed about the maternal health benefit of breastfeeding including lactational period and its contraceptive effect, which increases birth interval and maintain good health of the mothers.

M. S. Mazumder

2001-01-01

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Present status of application of radiation and radioisotopes in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bangladesh has proceeded with the atomic energy programme in three phases: (1) research and development using radiation and radioisotopes and application of the results, (2) building the infrastructure in nuclear technology and (3) production of electricity from nuclear sources and development of associated facilities. It has entered the second phase of the programme. The following main areas of research and application were referred to: agriculture, food preservation, medical sterilization and radiation biology, medicine, non-destructive testing, isotope hydrology, elemental analysis, particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) methods, radioisotope-induced x-ray fluorescence (RIXFA) methods, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) methods, molecular absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, health physics, and future programme with research reactor. (Namekawa, K.)

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FOREST-BASED TOURISM IN BANGLADESH: STATUS, PROBLEMS, AND PROSPECTS  

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Full Text Available Bangladesh is a land of diverse forest-based natural attractions throughout the evergreen, semi-evergreen, and mangrove forest ecosystems. The article attempts at exploring various dimensions of ecotourism industry and critically analyzes the relationship among the stakeholders, overall strength-weakness of ecotourism sector and impediments hindering its development. National Parks, Ecoparks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves, and the like have been developed in the natural forest ecosystems to attract tourists from home and abroad. Cheap transportation, lodging and associated costs, unique scenic beauty and wilderness of all sites and socio-cultural diversity of indigenous communities living in the forest together make up the strength of the industry as a whole. The study identifies a number of impediments, including conflict among the stakeholders and forest degradation hindering expansion of ecotourism industry. For sustainable development of forest-based tourism, traditional ‘Top-down’ management approach is suggested to avoid and voice of all stakeholders needs to be considered in decision-making.

Salma Akter

2010-04-01

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Current Status of Graphene Transistors  

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This paper reviews the current status of graphene transistors as potential supplement to silicon CMOS technology. A short overview of graphene manufacturing and metrology methods is followed by an introduction of macroscopic graphene field effect transistors (FETs). The absence of an energy band gap is shown to result in severe shortcomings for logic applications. Possibilities to engineer a band gap in graphene FETs including quantum confinement in graphene Nanoribbons (GNR...

Lemme, Max C.

2009-01-01

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Status of Fish Disease and Health Management Practices in Rural Freshwater Aquaculture of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available In order to examine the current status of fish disease and health management practices in rural freshwater aquaculture, a questionnaire survey and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA tools were used in five districts of Bangladesh namely Mymensingh, Comilla, Jessore, Natore and Dinajpur. A total of 500 farmers were interviewed and 25 PRA sessions were conducted. Most of the farmers (87.8% interviewed had disease problem in their fishponds. Prevalence of fish disease varied with districts and the size of farms. Average prevalence of fish disease was highest in Jessore district (18.2% followed by Comilla (13.4%, Mymensingh (11.4% and Dinajpur district (10.4%. Minimum prevalence (5.5% was recorded from Natore district. Small farms (0.4 ha suffered from high disease prevalence (13.8% followed by medium (0.2-0.4 ha and large (>0.4 ha farms with 12.4 and 9.3% of diseases, respectively. The most prevalent disease was tail and fin rot (20.5%, followed by epizootic ulcerative syndrome or EUS (18.9%, nutritional diseases (15.3%, red spot (13.0% and gill rot (12.3%. Other conditions like argulosis, dropsy and white spot were also reported by the farmers but with lower incidence. The diseases occurred mainly in the winter season. Overall, the knowledge of the farmers on basic fish health management was found very poor. Most of the farmers (83.8% used treatment measures in response to particular disease problem. For disease treatment, 46% farmers used combination of lime and potassium permanganate, 22.4% farmer used only lime and about 10% farmer used lime and salt together. This study identified some fish health management related problems in rural aquaculture, such as lack of assistance, poor technical knowledge and lack of suitable therapeutics and their proper uses.

M.A.R. Faruk

2004-01-01

31

Status and decline causes of fish diversity of Baral River, Natore, Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to desribe the status and decline causes of fish diversity inBaral river, Natore, Bangladesh. The study was conducted over a period from November 2010 to May2011 on the Bagatipara point of Baral river, Natore, Bangladesh. A total of 60 fish species of nine ordersand 21 families were identified. On the basis of availability the species were categorized in four statusesthat obtained as available (45%, less available (33.33%, rare (13.33% and very rare (8.33%. Resultof the study identified five species as very rare which may extinct near future resulting declination of thefish diversity. Few man made decline causes like agro-industrial wastages, different obstacles of waterflow, excess use of river water, siltation and over fishing were observed as major threats for the diversityof fishes. The present work recommends preventing water pollution, ensuring water flow, developingfishermen’s awareness, implementation of fisheries laws and declaration of fish sanctuary to save fishdiversity of the study area. Besides, counter and random survey is recommended to cross check thefishes’ status for their proper management and conservation.

Fawzia A. Flowra

2013-07-01

32

Contributing variables for sustainable livelihood status of the char women in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of variables to the sustainable livelihood status of char women. The sustainable livelihood status of a char woman was measured by computing a “sustainable livelihood status score” which is considering six major aspects of her livelihoods: food security, ability to provide family education, health and sanitation, shelter and family assets, clothing condition and social upliftment. Data were collected from 200 randomly selected char women by using interview schedule in two Upazilla of Jamalpur district in Bangladesh during November 2006 to March 2007. More than two-fifths (67.5 per cent of the char women were found under “medium sustainable livelihood status” compared to more than one-fifth (20.5 per cent of them belongs to ‘low sustainable livelihood status’ and only 12 per cent to “high sustainable livelihood status”. Pearson correlation test depicted that out of 16 variables, 13 had significant positive relationships with the sustainable livelihood status. Results of stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that five variables namely, annual income, agricultural knowledge, income generating activities, family education and organizational participation contributed significantly which combindly explained 76.3 per cent of total variation to the sustainable livelihood status. Path analysis indicated that these variables had both direct and indirect effects to the sustainable livelihood status. Women who had more annual income, better agricultural knowledge, participation in income generating activities, more family education and more organizational participation were found to better sustainable livelihood status in char area. Government or concern other authorities need to give attention to these variables for any sustainable livelihood upliftment programme.

S. Al-Amin

2012-03-01

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Current status of pulmonary metastasectomy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Malignant disease's ability to metastasize remains one of the major obstacles when treating patients with cancer. The change from loco-regional to systemic disease usually renders the patient beyond surgical treatment, as local treatment with surgery in a systemic disease is usually considered without benefit. However, numerous retrospective studies have demonstrated that resection of metastases limited to the lungs may be associated with prolonged survival. No prospective, randomized studies have been published, and most series compare highly selected patients with historical data for unresected patients. In this article, we discuss the current status on pulmonary metastasectomy. Preoperative assessment and selection of surgical candidates is covered. The different surgical strategies including surgical approach, unilateral versus bilateral exploration, lymph node dissection, and repeat surgery are discussed. Finally, we review some of the common tumors that metastasize to the lungs, the role of metastasectomy in their treatment and the prognostic factors with impact on survival.

Hornbech, Kåre; Ravn, Jesper

2011-01-01

34

The OPERA experiment: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The neutrino flavour oscillations hypothesis has been confirmed by several experiments, all are based on the observation of the disappearance of a given neutrino flavour. The long baseline neutrino experiment OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus) aims to give the first direct proof of the tau neutrino appearance in a pure muon neutrino beam (CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso beam). The neutrino interactions in the detector are recorded by Emulsion Cloud Chambers (ECC), stacks of 57 nuclear emulsions interleaved with 1 mm thick lead plates. In 2008 the OPERA experiment has started full data taking in the CNGS beam and around 1700 interactions in the detector have been recorded. After a description of the experiment and the data taking procedure, a review of the current status and preliminary results from 2008 run will be presented. (author)

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Human Rights Violation and Political Persecution in Bangladesh: The Current Scenery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bangladesh emerged as an independent country in the South Asia in 1971 after being separated from Pakistan. In 1971 it was a very poor country. The general people had a hope and dream that the political parties will develop the country and will eradicate poverty gradually, will provide jobs to the 50% unemployed people, will educate the 60% illiterate people; but their holy hope and dream have not been fulfilled due to frequent hostile political culture, beating, killing among the political party members, no patriotism among the political leaders, massive corruption, unnecessary frequent strike, unnecessary opposition to the government policy etc. This paper has narrated the past and current social and political situation in Bangladesh briefly with the help of data collected from newspapers and statements given by intellectuals and political leaders. Descriptive and analytical research methodology has been applied in this paper to narrate the situation.

Md. Abdul Jalil

2011-01-01

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Current status of Japanese detectors  

CERN Document Server

Current status of TAMA and CLIO detectors in Japan is reported in this article. These two interferometric gravitational-wave detectors are being developed for the large cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) which is a future plan for detecting gravitational wave signals at least once per year. TAMA300 is being upgraded to improve the sensitivity in low frequency region after the last observation experiment in 2004. To reduce the seismic noises, we are installing new seismic isolation system, which is called TAMA Seismic Attenuation System, for the four test masses. We confirmed stable mass locks of a cavity and improvements of length and angular fluctuations by using two SASs. We are currently optimizing the performance of the third and fourth SASs. We continue TAMA300 operation and R&D studies for LCGT. Next data taking in the summer of 2007 is planned. CLIO is a 100-m baseline length prototype detector for LCGT to investigate interferometer performance in cryogenic condition. The key features of...

Tatsumi, Daisuke; Arai, Koji; Nakagawa, Noriyasu; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Toshitaka; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Takamori, Akiteru; Bertolini, Alessandro; Sannibale, Virginio; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Marka, Szabolcs; Ando, Masaki; Tsubono, Kimio; Akutsu, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishitsuka, Hideki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Awaya, Norichika; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Araya, Akito; Telada, Souichi; Tomaru, Takayuki; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sato, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Shintomi, Takakazu

2007-01-01

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Photovoltaic Based Solar Home Systems – Current State of Dissemination in Rural Areas of Bangladesh and Future Prospect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Currently only 53 percent of total population in Bangladesh has access to electricity and per capita generation being 265 kWh is very low compared to some other developing countries. This shortage of energy hinders the growth of the country’s overall economy. However, Bangladesh has a good potential for harnessing renewable energy resources, solar and biomass in particular. Steps are taken to harness renewable sources of energy to make the country less dependent on the traditional fossil fu...

MUHAMMAD RIAZUL HAMID

2013-01-01

38

The MAGPIE project: Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Mega-Ampere Generator for Plasma Implosion Experiments (MAGPIE) is currently under construction in the Plasma Physics group at Imperial College, London. The generator is specifically designed to carry out radiative collapse experiments in hydrogen fibre Z-pinches. In order to achieve this goal, MAGPIE must be capable of delivering in excess of 1.5MA into a 150 mH load in under 200 ns. In the final generator, four 2.4 MV Marx banks charge four 5 ohm, coaxial, 100 ns single transit, water filled pulse forming lines (PFLs). The four PFLs are connected to a single coaxial vertical transfer line via four sychronously triggered trigatron switches. The vertical transfer line has an impedence of 1.25 ohm and therefore represents a matched load to the four PFLs. At the top of the transfer line a graded insulator stack makes up the vacuum-water interface. A magnetically insulated transmission line section then feeds the load. The total energy stored in the banks is 336 kJ making MAGPIE a multi terrawatt, long pulse generator. This paper reports on the general status of the programme and on details of the work carried out in characterising and optimising the trigatron switches

39

Current Status of JRR-3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

JRR-3 at the Tokai-Shirakata site of JAEA was in its regular maintenance period, when the Great East Japan Earthquake took place on 11th March 2011. The reactor building with the solid foundations and the equipment important to safety survived the earthquake without serious damage, and no radioactive leakage has been occurred. Recovery works, check and test to confirm the integrity of all components and structures, and seismic assessment necessary for proving that the seismic loads which worked on a structure or component by the earthquake accommodated within its allowable stress have been carried out. After our recovery works and verification of the integrity of JRR-3, we confirmed that the integrity is ensured, and then reported the fact to the regulatory body. As another topic, the regulatory body will introduce new regulatory requirements for research reactors. Now, JRR-3 considers applying the new requirements for restart. This paper presents the current status of JRR-3 including the recovery works, seismic assessment and new regulatory requirements

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Health and Nutritional Status of Young Foster Children Attending a Diarrhea Treatment Hospital in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is scarcity of evidence-based information about socio-demographic as well as ailment factors associated with foster children in Bangladesh. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine the socio-economic, health and nutritional status of young foster children in urban Dhaka. A total of 208 (1%; n = 208/28,948 under-5 foster children were enrolled in the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System of icddr,b between 1993-2012. Randomly selected under-5 children (n = 624 with a ratio of 1:3 were extracted and constituted as comparison group. Forty-three percent (n = 90 foster children were male. Lack of formal schooling of mother was higher among foster children compared to non-foster children (52% vs. 35%; p

Abu Syed Golam Faruque

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Correlates of Family Cultural Background and Family Status and Role Between Muslim and Santal Communities in Rural Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Family status and role, fundamental building block of family structure, are influenced and determined by family cultural background factors. The purpose of this study is to examine and compare how family cultural background factors influence family status and role between Muslim and Santal communities in rural Bangladesh. In so doing, the village Kalna, situated in the Talonda union of Tanore Upazila of Rajshahi district of Bangladesh, was purposefully selected for this study where two distinct cultural communities: Muslim amd Santal were living side by side as neighbors in the same geographical setting. In this village there wereabout 380 families: 300 families were Muslim’s and the rest of them were Santal’s. For this study 70 couples from Muslim community and 30 couples from Santal community were selected through cluster random sampling and then structure questionnaire method with close and open ended questions was applied for data collection on family cultural background factors and family status and role. The results of Pearson correlation without significant test of the study reveal that family cultural background factors are differentially positively or negatively related to family status and role. It is argued that there are differences in family cultural background factors that are differentially correlated to or influence on family status and role between Muslim and Santal communities in rural Bangladesh.

Emaj Uddin

2009-06-01

42

Current status of diuretic renography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Percutaneous antegrade perfusion studies constitute a valuable contribution to the investigation of obstructive uropathy. In 1978, the first report of application of diuretic renogram techniques to this problem appeared in the literature. This was the first systematic report of a standardized protocol to be applied to a specific surgical problem. The purpose of the procedure, as with perfusion pressure-flow studies, is to help distinguish between a dilated urinary tract that is obstructed and requires surgery and a nonobstructed system in which urographic dilation and stasis mimic obstruction, but no genuine impedance to urine flow exists, and surgery is not required. The technique provides dual information. It gives quantitative data on individual renal function that perfusion pressure-flow studies do not, and it gives time-activity curves reflecting the urodynamics through the individual upper urinary tracts at normal and high urinary flow rates. In the early days, this information was obtained from probe studies, but the procedure is now almost exclusively performed using the gamma camera, images from which give additional information on the site of any suspected obstruction. In some ways, the development of diuretic renography and that of perfusion pressure-flow studies have proceeded in a competitive fashion, both attempting to answer the same questions by different means. In practice, however, the two tests would be regarded as complementary, as will be shown later in this chapter. The following sections describe the technique of diuretic renography, its current clinical application and status in surgical and nuclear medicine practice, and its role in comparison with other available tests for management of the dilated upper urinary tract

43

Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh: a 14-year study report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1996, 52,202 water samples from hand tubewells were analyzed for arsenic (As) by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) from all 64 districts of Bangladesh; 27.2% and 42.1% of the tubewells had As above 50 and 10 ?g/l, respectively; 7.5% contained As above 300 ?g/l, the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions. The groundwater of 50 districts contained As above the Bangladesh standard for As in drinking water (50 ?g/l), and 59 districts had As above the WHO guideline value (10 ?g/l). Water analyses from the four principal geomorphological regions of Bangladesh showed that hand tubewells of the Tableland and Hill tract regions are primarily free from As contamination, while the Flood plain and Deltaic region, including the Coastal region, are highly As-contaminated. Arsenic concentration was usually observed to decrease with increasing tubewell depth; however, 16% of tubewells deeper than 100 m, which is often considered to be a safe depth, contained As above 50 ?g/l. In tubewells deeper than 350 m, As >50 ?g/l has not been found. The estimated number of tubewells in 50 As-affected districts was 4.3 million. Based on the analysis of 52,202 hand tubewell water samples during the last 14 years, we estimate that around 36 million and 22 million people could be drinking As-contaminated water above 10 and 50 ?g/l, respectively. However for roughly the last 5 years due to mitigation efforts by the government, non-governmental organizations and international aid agencies, many individuals living in these contaminated areas have been drinking As-safe water. From 50 contaminated districts with tubewell As concentrations >50 ?g/l, 52% of sampled hand tubewells contained As source of safe water in these affected regions provided regular monitoring for temporal variation in As concentration. Even in the As-affected Flood plain, sampled tubewells from 22 thanas in 4 districts were almost entirely As-safe. In Bangladesh and West Bengal, India the crisis is not having too little water to satisfy our needs, it is the challenge of managing available water resources. The development of community-specific safe water sources coupled with local participation and education are required to slow the current effects of widespread As poisoning and to prevent this disaster from continuing to plague individuals in the future. PMID:20684969

Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Das, Bhaskar; Murrill, Matthew; Dey, Sankar; Chandra Mukherjee, Subhas; Dhar, Ratan Kumar; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Roy, Shibtosh; Sorif, Shahariar; Selim, Mohammad; Rahman, Mahmuder; Quamruzzaman, Quazi

2010-11-01

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Current status of zirconia restoration.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past decade, zirconia-based ceramics have been successfully introduced into the clinic to fabricate fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), along with a dental computer-aided/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. In this article (1) development of dental ceramics, (2) the current status of dental CAD/CAM systems, (3) CAD/CAM and zirconia restoration, (4) bond between zirconia and veneering ceramics, (5) bond of zirconia with resin-based luting agents, (6) surface finish of zirconia restoration and antagonist enamel wear, and (7) clinical evaluation of zirconia restoration are reviewed. Yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) showed better mechanical properties and superior resistance to fracture than other conventional dental ceramics. Furthermore, ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline and alumina nanocomposites (Ce-TZP/A) had the highest fracture toughness and had resistance to low-temperature aging degradation. Both zirconia-based ceramics have been clinically available as an alternative to the metal framework for fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Marginal adaptation of zirconia-based FDPs is acceptable for clinical application. The most frequent clinical complication with zirconia-based FDPs was chipping of the veneering porcelain that was affected by many factors. The mechanism for the bonding between zirconia and veneering ceramics remains unknown. There was no clear evidence of chemical bonding and the bond strength between zirconia and porcelain was lower than that between metal and porcelain. There were two alternatives proposed that might avoid chipping of veneering porcelains. One was hybrid-structured FDPs comprising CAD/CAM-fabricated porcelain parts adhering to a CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia framework. Another option was full-contour zirconia FDPs using high translucent zirconia. Combined application of silica coating and/or silane coupler, and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate is currently one of the most reliable bonding systems for zirconia. Adhesive treatments could be applied to luting the restorations and fabricating hybrid-structured FDPs. Full-contour zirconia FDPs caused concern about the wear of antagonist enamel, because the hardness of Y-TZP was over double that of porcelain. However, this review demonstrates that highly polished zirconia yielded lower antagonist wear compared with porcelains. Polishing of zirconia is possible, but glazing is not recommended for the surface finish of zirconia. Clinical data since 2010 are included in this review. The zirconia frameworks rarely got damaged in many cases and complications often occurred in the veneering ceramic materials. Further clinical studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are required to investigate the possible influencing factors of technical failures. PMID:24140561

Miyazaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsumura, Hideo; Ban, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taira

2013-10-01

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Iron status of women is associated with the iron concentration of potable groundwater in rural Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women of reproductive age are at a high risk of iron deficiency, often as a result of diets low in bioavailable iron. In some settings, the iron content of domestic groundwater sources is high, yet its contribution to iron intake and status has not been examined. In a rural Bangladeshi population of women deficient in dietary iron, we evaluated the association between groundwater iron intake and iron status. In 2008, participants (n = 209 with complete data) were visited to collect data on 7-d food frequency, 7-d morbidity history, 24-h drinking water intake, and rice preparation, and to measure the groundwater iron concentration. Blood was collected to assess iron and infection status. Plasma ferritin (?g/L) and body iron (mg/kg) concentrations were [median (IQR)] 67 (46, 99) and 10.4 ± 2.6, respectively, and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ferritin rural area of northern Bangladesh, women of reproductive age had no iron deficiency likely attributable to iron consumed from drinking groundwater, which contributed substantially to dietary intake. These findings suggest that iron intake from water should be included in dietary assessments in such settings. PMID:21451130

Merrill, Rebecca D; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Jahan, Nusrat; Labrique, Alain B; Schulze, Kerry; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

2011-05-01

46

Extensive Reading in EFL Classroom at Secondary Schools in Bangladesh: Current Practices and Future Possibilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extensive reading is being practiced in many EFL and ESL classrooms as an effective means for developing learners’ reading as well as other related skills. This paper is based on a small-scale study that explores the current practices and future possibilities of using extensive reading in the EFL classrooms at the junior secondary schools in Bangladesh. The study reports the responses of 100 secondary English teachers on different aspects of using extensive reading tasks in the EFL classrooms of Bangladeshi schools. It is found that though the teachers of Bangladesh express positive beliefs about the benefits of extensive reading, the techniques they follow in their classrooms at present mostly encourage intensive reading. It is also evident that teachers who deal with extensive reading do not often follow the best practices in the classrooms. It is suggested in this study that extensive reading needs to be promoted in the Bangladeshi schools through coordinated efforts of all the stakeholders in the secondary education system. It is stressed that a combination of initiatives such as teacher training, awareness raising, curriculum reform and changing existing assessment format can promote the practices of extensive reading activities among the young learners.

Md Zulfeqar Haider

2012-04-01

47

The Current Status of Galaxy Formation  

CERN Document Server

Understanding galaxy formation is one of the most pressing issues in cosmology. We review the current status of galaxy formation from both an observational and a theoretical perspective, and summarise the prospects for future advances.

Silk, Joe

2012-01-01

48

Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye (sarcophagus) are described, including the following issues: the accident; the sarcophagus; the radioactive inventory; the design basis criteria; the analysis of the present state; a way forward

49

The current status of percutaneous coronary angioplasty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present status of percutaneous coronary angioplasty is presented, with a brief outline of current technique, the technical and clinical indications for the method, and the results being obtained. Coronary angioplasty is only applicable in a minority of patients currently undergoing coronary angiography for ischaemic heart disease, but even with its present technical limitations, the results being obtained and its obvious advantages in selected cases have assured its status as a significant advance in the treatment of coronary disease. (orig.)

50

The regulatory and waste safety infrastructure of Bangladesh: Present status and future direction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although nuclear energy and ionizing radiation exist as this planet earth exists, the history of human use of these energies is only a little over hundred years old. Nuclear and radiological practices are of immense benefit to society. But, like all other practices, nuclear and radiological practices also involve risks of a special type and nature. People and media are particularly sensitive to the use as well as to any accident or emergency involving the practices. Necessary laws and regulatory bodies have existed in many countries for a long time to control and keep the risks within acceptable limits. Nonetheless, accidents do occur and emergencies arise, which leads to the questioning of such regulatory systems' effectiveness. International interaction and co-operation are essential to addressing societal concerns appropriately. Bangladesh, though late, has also enacted laws and established a regulatory system to control the practices. This paper focuses on the country's regulatory status, hurdles being faced in implementing the legal requirements, and future thinking to increase effectiveness and efficiency. (author)

51

Present Status of Field Disease and Morphological Characteristics of Recommended Potato Varieties in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the present status of ten recommended potato varieties in Bangladesh. It was found that incidence of potato leaf roll virus (PLRV, potato Y potyvirus (PYV, scab, tuber rot and cutworm were significantly different in different varieties. Similarly, dry matter and starch percentage, number of tuber per plant and yield per plant varied significantly with the varieties. The variety Ailsa showed lowest infection of PLRV followed by Dheera and Cardinal and the highest infection was recorded in Patrones. The varieties Arinda, Chamak, Dheera, Heera and Kuroda were free from PYV infection. Whereas, Multa showed the highest infection of PYV. Lowest infection of scab was recorded in the variety Dheera and it was highest in Ailsa. The appearance of foliage was good looking in all varieties except the varieties Multa, Patrones and Ailsa. Varieties Ailsa, Chamak and Dheera showed late maturity as compared to other varieties. The highest dry matter and starch content were recorded in variety Dheera and it was lowest in Kuroda. The highest yield per plant was obtained from Chamak followed by Ailsa, Dheera, Heera and Cardinal and it was lowest in variety Patrones. Considering all aspects in both the seasons, two varieties namely, Chamak and Dheera were noted best performers in terms of disease severity, plant growth and yield.

M. Hossain

2002-01-01

52

Current status of RENO experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) experiment is completed in February of 2011, to measure the value of the smallest and unknown neutrino mixing angle ?13. Data-taking is expected to start from july 2011 after all the liquids are filled. It will compare the measured fluxes of electron antineutrinos at two detectors located at 290 m and 1.4 km distances from the centre of the Yonggwang nuclear reactors in Korea. An expected number of observed antineutrino is roughly 1280 and 115 per day in the near and far detectors, respectively. An estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.5%, and an expected statistical error is about 0.3%. With three years of data, the experiment will search for the mixing angle values of sin 22?13 down to 0.02 in the 90% C.L. limit. In this talk, we report completion of detector construction and the status of liquid scintillator production.

53

Current Status of RENO Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) is under construction to measure the value of the smallest and unknown neutrino mixing angle ?13. The experiment will compare the measured fluxes of electron antineutrinos at two detectors located at 290 m and 1.4 km distances from the center of the Yonggwang nuclear reactors in Korea, with world-second largest thermal power output of 16.4 GW. Construction of experimental halls and access tunnels for both near and far detector sites was completed in early 2009. The detectors are near completion, and data-taking is planned to start in mid 2010. An expected number of observed antineutrino is roughly 510 and 80 per day in the near detector and far detector, respectively. An estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.6%, and an expected statistical error is about 0.3%. With three years of data, the experiment will search for the mixing angle values of sin2(2?13) down to 0.02 in 90% C.L. limit. In this talk, the construction status will be presented. (author)

54

Current status of viroid taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viroids are the smallest autonomous infectious nucleic acids known so far. With a small circular RNA genome of about 250-400 nt, which apparently does not code for any protein, viroids replicate and move systemically in host plants. Since the discovery of the first viroid almost forty-five years ago, many different viroids have been isolated, characterized and, frequently, identified as the causal agents of plant diseases. The first viroid classification scheme was proposed in the early 1990s and adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) a few years later. Here, the current viroid taxonomy scheme and the criteria for viroid species demarcation are discussed, highlighting the main taxonomic questions currently under consideration by the ICTV Viroid Study Group. The impact of correct taxonomic annotation of viroid sequence variants is also addressed, taking into consideration the increasing application of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics for known and previously unrecognized viroids. PMID:25216773

Di Serio, F; Flores, R; Verhoeven, J Th J; Li, S-F; Pallás, V; Randles, J W; Sano, T; Vidalakis, G; Owens, R A

2014-12-01

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Nutritional status, dietary intake, and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13-18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequency, intake of iron and folic acid, morbidity, weight, and height. They inquired mothers about age of their daughters and possessions of durable assets to divide households into asset quintiles. Results revealed that 26% of the girls were thin, with body mass index (BMI)-for-age 95th percentile), and 32% stunted (height-for-age food items in the last week were less frequent and correlated well positively with the household asset quintile. Girls of the highest asset quintile ate fish/meat 2.1 (55%) days more and egg/milk two (91%) days more than the girls in the lowest asset quintile. The overall dietary knowledge was low. More than half could not name the main food sources of energy and protein, and 36% were not aware of the importance of taking extra nutrients during adolescence for growth spurt. The use of iron supplement was 21% in nutrition-intervention areas compared to 8% in non-intervention areas. Factors associated with the increased use of iron supplements were related to awareness of the girls about extra nutrients and their access to mass media and education. Community-based adolescent-friendly health and nutrition education and services and economic development may improve the overall health and nutritional knowledge and status of adolescents. PMID:20214090

Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A M Shamsir

2010-02-01

56

Iodine deficiency status of school going children in coastal region of bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: Bangladesh is an iodine deficient zone, affected mainly in the northern part i.e., in Himalayan belt along Brahmaputra and Jamuna River. Severity of' iodine deficiency can be assessed by prevalence of goitre and urinary iodine excretion. The latest nationwide survey of Iodine Deficiency Disorders of' Bangladesh in 1993 showed prevalence of goitre 47.1% in all age and sex group and 69% of the population had urinary iodine excretion 100 mcg/L. Conclusion: On the basis of goitre prevalence and urinary iodine excretion, coastal region of Bangladesh is a mild iodine deficient zone. (authors)

57

Engineered barriers: current status 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain substantially the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137Cs), since they can provide a measure of containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

58

Coronary MR angiography: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since first described in the early 1990s, coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has evolved as a promising noninvasive modality for imaging of the coronary arteries and evaluation of coronary artery disease. Despite technical limitations, coronary MRA has established value for imaging of anomalous coronary arteries and assessment of bypass graft patency. Current research focuses on the development of optimal respiratory compensation strategies, improved spatial and temporal resolution and faster acquisition of image data. The accurate detection of stenoses and assessment of the severity of coronary atherosclerosis is presently being evaluated with large multi-center studies. With further technique enhancements and more clinical experience, coronary MRA is likely to become the dominant noninvasive modality in clinical cardiology. (orig.)

59

Coronary MR angiography: current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since first described in the early 1990s, coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has evolved as a promising noninvasive modality for imaging of the coronary arteries and evaluation of coronary artery disease. Despite technical limitations, coronary MRA has established value for imaging of anomalous coronary arteries and assessment of bypass graft patency. Current research focuses on the development of optimal respiratory compensation strategies, improved spatial and temporal resolution and faster acquisition of image data. The accurate detection of stenoses and assessment of the severity of coronary atherosclerosis is presently being evaluated with large multi-center studies. With further technique enhancements and more clinical experience, coronary MRA is likely to become the dominant noninvasive modality in clinical cardiology. (orig.) [German] Seit ihrer Erstbeschreibung Anfang der 90er Jahre hat sich die koronare Magnetresonanzangiographie (MRA) zu einem vielversprechenden nichtinvasiven Verfahren zur Darstellung der Koronararterien und zur Beurteilung der koronaren Herzkrankheit entwickelt. Trotz ihrer technischen Grenzen ist die koronare MRA in der Darstellung von Koronararterienanomalien und der Beurteilung der Bypass-Durchgaengigkeit zweifellos von Nutzen. Der Forschungsschwerpunkt liegt derzeit auf der Entwicklung optimaler respiratorischer Kompensationsstrategien, einer verbesserten raeumlichen und zeitlichen Aufloesung und einer schnelleren Sammlung von Bilddaten. Die exakte Erfassung von Stenosen und die Einschaetzung der Schwere einer Atherosklerose werden gegenwaertig in grossen Multicenterstudien evaluiert. Mit technischen Verbesserungen und zunehmender klinischer Erfahrung verspricht die koronare MRA zum ueberragenden nichtinvasiven Verfahren in der klinischen Kardiologie zu werden. (orig.)

Danias, P.G. [Charles A. Dana Research Inst. and the Harvard-Thorndike Lab., Dept. of Medicine, Cardiovascular Div., Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Manning, W.J. [Charles A. Dana Research Inst. and the Harvard-Thorndike Lab., Dept. of Medicine, Cardiovascular Div., Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2000-06-01

60

Nanodosimetry: Principle and Current Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the success of theoretical track structure Monte Carlo simulations, showing that features of ionization patterns on the nanometer level are important for the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, several new methods for experimental track structure investigations have been developed in recent years. These methods all use the principle of density scaling in low-pressure gas to probe track structure in macroscopic dimensions, ideally with single-ionization resolution. The new field of experimental track structure investigation, which has been called nanodosimetry, can be approached in two ways: (1) the number of ionizations in a defined, ideally wall-less, sensitive volume is registered per single primary particle and cluster size distributions are obtained, or (2) the full track structure of an ion track segment is 'imaged'. Existing nanodosimetric methods are based on the first approach, but a track structure imaging detector is currently under development at Loma Linda University. This contribution will review the principle and existing technical approaches to nanodosimetry and will give an outlook on future developments and applications.

 
 
 
 
61

Current status of methods for shielding analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current methods used in shielding analysis and recent improvements in those methods are discussed. The status of methods development is discussed based on needs cited at the 1977 International Conference on Reactor Shielding. Additional areas where methods development is needed are discussed

62

Current status of JPC-exotic mesons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exotic meson with JPC = 1-+ has been studied by three groups, in the vicinity of the a2(1320) meson in the decay channel ??. The current status and future prospects of this exotic meson, especially on the new result coming from the data of BNL-E852 Collaboration, are given. (orig.)

63

Present status and future prospects of industrial applications of isotopes in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionising radiation is used for quality assurance and quality control of many industrial products. Bangladesh is actively working on the industrial application of isotopes in the fields of non-destructive testing (NDT) of material, nuclear analytical technique, radiation technology, tracer technology through the participation in the UNDP/IAEA/RCA Project for Asia and the Pacific on the industrial application of isotopes and radiation technology. Bangladesh is developing NDT technology to such an extent and standard that the country is attaining self-reliance in this field for service and human resource development and the foreign dependence is becoming greatly reduced. Examples of recent achievements are given

64

Present status and future prospects of industrial applications of isotopes in Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ionising radiation is used for quality assurance and quality control of many industrial products. Bangladesh is actively working on the industrial application of isotopes in the fields of non-destructive testing (NDT) of material, nuclear analytical technique, radiation technology, tracer technology through the participation in the UNDP/IAEA/RCA Project for Asia and the Pacific on the industrial application of isotopes and radiation technology. Bangladesh is developing NDT technology to such an extent and standard that the country is attaining self-reliance in this field for service and human resource development and the foreign dependence is becoming greatly reduced. Examples of recent achievements are given

Ullah, M.D.S. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Ramna Dhaka (Bangladesh)

1997-10-01

65

Quality Assurance in Secondary Education Program of Bangladesh Open University: Present Status and Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present day in national and international perspectives, quality is the top of most agendas. Quality of education has significant impact and invaluable contribution to the area of development. Recently, the SSC & HSC program of BOU [Open School of Bangladesh Open University] have earned recognition of equivalency with the formal education…

Akhter, Zobaida

2008-01-01

66

Current status of cysticercosis in Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This English review concerning the current status of cysticercosis in Vietnam has been compiled from various reports of studies conducted over the past 15 years, which have appeared in national publications in Vietnamese, in order to make the information available to the international community. Hospital surveys indicate that cysticercosis is emerging as a serious health problem in the country though most of the information comes from the Hanoi area. Many more men than women are being treated...

Willingham, A. L.; De, N. V.; Doanh, N. Q.; Cong, L. D.; Dung, T. V.; Dorny, P.; Cam, P. D.; Dalsgaard, A.

2003-01-01

67

Polio eradication: Current status and challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

For more than two decades mankind has been dreaming of a “polio-free world.” However the dream is yet to be realized owing to various problems related to transmission of wild polio virus transmission as well as vaccine-derived polio virus. These problems are as much scientific as human. The article briefly discusses the current status of polio control across the globe, and various challenges associated with it in a nation-wise manner. PMID:24479012

Bhaumik, Soumyadeep

2012-01-01

68

Red Tide Current Status Statewide Information  

Science.gov (United States)

This summary report of current red tide conditions around Florida includes a map of sampling results and regional status reports. Reports are generally updated on Friday afternoon and additional information, if available, is provided on Tuesday afternoon. The web page also includes links to hotlines and reporting sites for red tide effects on marine animals and humans, shellfish information, volunteer opportunities, subscriptions, and related websites.

2009-11-30

69

Current status of REFER at Hiroshima University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

REFER (Relativistic Electron Facility for Education and Research) electron circulating ring at Hiroshima University Venture Business Laboratory is a small electron ring, 13.7 meters in circumference. This device is used for development of an x-ray source based on possible new principles such as parametric x-ray generation and for education in beam physics. This paper reports the current status of the REFER electron ring. (author)

70

?-Secretase modulators: current status and future directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter reviews the current status of ?-secretase modulators, highlighting key compounds by each company involved in the area. The review focuses on the three main chemotypes: acids, imidazoles and related derivatives and natural products. A section on chemical biology and ligand-binding site elucidation studies is also included. The primary source of information is drawn from peer reviewed literature as this permits analysis of PK-PD relationships and subsequent comment. Discussion of the patent literature is included for completeness. From this analysis, the key issues and challenges in the area are highlighted. The review concludes with a summary of the clinical development status and comment on future prospects of the field. PMID:24418609

Hall, Adrian; Patel, Toshal R

2014-01-01

71

Current status of the DARPA Quantum Network  

CERN Document Server

This paper reports the current status of the DARPA Quantum Network, which became fully operational in BBN's laboratory in October 2003, and has been continuously running in 6 nodes operating through telecommunications fiber between Harvard University, Boston University, and BBN since June 2004. The DARPA Quantum Network is the world's first quantum cryptography network, and perhaps also the first QKD systems providing continuous operation across a metropolitan area. Four more nodes are now being added to bring the total to 10 QKD nodes. This network supports a variety of QKD technologies, including phase-modulated lasers through fiber, entanglement through fiber, and freespace QKD. We provide a basic introduction and rational for this network, discuss the February 2005 status of the various QKD hardware suites and software systems in the network, and describe our operational experience with the DARPA Quantum Network to date. We conclude with a discussion of our ongoing work.

Elliott, C; Pearson, D; Pikalo, O; Schlafer, J; Yeh, H; Elliott, Chip; Colvin, Alexander; Pearson, David; Pikalo, Oleksiy; Schlafer, John; Yeh, Henry

2005-01-01

72

Isotope-aided studies on the nutrient status of eight Bangladesh soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this pot investigation was to identify the lack of macro- and micronutrients by cereal, leguminous and oil crops grown on typical Bangladesh soils. Radioactive and stable tracers were applied in two pot experiments, one extensive experiment with four crops rice, mungbean, mustard, and barley and with six radionuclides, 32P, 75Se, 58Co, 65Zn and 85Sr, and one small experiment with barley and 15N-enriched urea. This report contains the results of the investigation and comments of treatment effects on dry matter yields, chemical concentrations and chemical yields, in relation to soil analyses and to obtained tracer measures of soil fertility. Some conclusions are drawn as regards fertilizer measures needed to increase crop production under Bangladesh village conditions and as regards the potential value of futher soil/fertilizer/plant- investigations using tracers for evaluation and assessment of soil fertility and fertilizer efficiency. (author)

73

Diversity of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Historically, the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh was considered hyperendemic for malaria. To better understand the contemporary malaria epidemiology and to develop new and innovative control strategies, comprehensive epidemiologic studies are ongoing in two endemic unions of Bandarban district of CHT. Within these studies entomological surveillance has been undertaken to study the role of the existing anopheline species involved in the malaria ...

Alam Mohammad; Chakma Sumit; Khan Wasif A; Glass Gregory E; Mohon Abu; Elahi Rubayet; Norris Laura C; Podder Milka; Ahmed Sabeena; Haque Rashidul; Sack David A; Sullivan David J; Norris Douglas E

2012-01-01

74

Current status of the LUCIA laser system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of the LUCIA laser program is discussed. While aiming at 100J, 10Hz, 10ns, a first milestone is set at 10 Joules with a repetition rate of 1-3 Hz. 7ns long, sub-mJ pulses generated by a cavity-dumped oscillator are first preamplified at the sub-J level. Thermal effects limit amplification and repetition rate at this stage. These pulses will be injected into the main amplifier, where amplification is limited by amplified spontaneous emission. It is expected that these pulses reach energy level of ?10J.

75

Hepatitis B Vaccination in Bangladesh: a Suggestion Based on Current Evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionThe hepatitis B virus (HBV causes up to a million deaths worldwide and 16 million health care related infections in the tropics each year(1,2, and over 350 million become chronically infected carriers who have no significant liver disease; approximately three quarters of them are in Asia and the western pacific region(3,4. HBV infection is a potentially life threatening condition as many of the affected individuals progress to chronic hepatitis,cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC(3. In infants and children, acute hepatitis B infection is nearly always asymptomatic, whereas in adults it is usually the opposite. But on the other hand, the risk of becoming chronic carriage is much greater in children than in adults; as many as 90% of infants born to Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg positive mothers become carriers themselves and, therefore, in long term are more likely to developchronic liver disease(5. Currently, though several antiviral drugs are used,there is no reliable curative treatment for HBV once it has been acquired and prevention by universal immunization remains the strategy for reducing the number of acute infections, chronic carriage and the long-term burden from diseases such as HCC(4,6. In 1991, in an attempt to reduce the global impact of HBV infection, WHO recommended that hepatitis B vaccination should be integrated into national immunization programs in all countries(7.Some Asian countries, for instance, Thailand, haveadopted the policy of immunizing children universally against the disease as early as 1992, however many others lagged behind(4.The true prevalence of Hepatitis B in Bangladesh is yet to be ascertained by a reliable study. Data available from different studies show that it ranges between 0.8 and 5.4% depending on the study design, samples and laboratory methods used(8-10.These data were based on detection of HBsAg antigen; the rates would have been higher, had they been based on anti-HBc antibody(11. Relying on these statistics Bangladesh can be categorized as an intermediate endemic zone for HBV(12. Unfortunately, despite an increased prevalence of HBV infection, the country has not incorporated hepatitis B vaccination into its national childhood immunization policy until recently, most probably because of its economic constraints. Presently it offers three doses hepatitis B vaccine to all babies. It is felt that the current regimen was drawn in on the basis of ongoing uncertainties and disagreements surrounding the vaccine all over the globe.Uncertainties Surrounding HBV ImmunizationThe rationale of HBV immunization is illustrated in the box; however uncertainties surrounding HBV immunization do exist, these are:Box: Rationale of Hepatitis B Immunization The rationale of HBV vaccination is to prevent: · Episodes of acute hepatitis B · Chronic hepatitis B surface antigenaemia · Chronic hepatitis and the need for therapy · Hepatocellular carcinoma · HBV transmission Correspondence:Dr. Harunor Rashid, Research Fellow, Academic Departmentof Child Health, Queen Mary University of London, 38 NewRoad, London, E1 2AX, UKFax: +44(02073777167E-mail: h.rashid@qmul.ac.ukHep Mon 2006; 6 (1: 41-44 - Duration of vaccine- induced immunity:It has been shown that immunization with three doses of HBV vaccine provides acceptable level of seroprotection for at least five years(13. Titersdecreased to 99% of the 14 year olds had titers of |“|10mIU/mL while one year after the booster 10mIU/mL after 1 month of first, second and third vaccinations were 58%, 70% and 94% respectively(16. However, it has been observed in other studies that two doses of recombinant HBV vaccine given over 4 or 6 months provide adequate seroprotection (|“|10mIU/mL in |“|95% of adolescent vaccines(13,17. There were small variations in vaccine response between infants and teenagers. The range of protection for different doses is shown in Table(17. If we accept that a level of 80-95% seroprotection is sufficient for Bangladesh then a strategy with only two doses would be more economical.Table:

Shafquat Mohammed Rafiq

2006-12-01

76

The ENIQ pilot study: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

77

The ENIQ pilot study: current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

1998-11-01

78

Relationship of Intestinal Parasites, H. Pylori Infection with Anemia or Iron Status Among School age Children in Rural Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate an association of intestinal parasites orHelicobacter pylori infection with hemoglobin, anemia or iron statusamong rural school aged children in Bangladesh.METHODS: Data and specimens from a controlled trial amongchildren aged 6-15 years old to assess the nutritional impact offortified flour were used to carry out this additional analysis onfactors which effect anemia. Stool samples from 310 children werecollected at the end of the trial and were tested for Helicobacterpylori stool antigen and intestinal parasites. Data on hematologicalparameters were obtained from endline measurements of the trial.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was84% among children with the highest prevalence for Ascaris(71% followed by Trichuris (67% and Hookworm (31%. Theprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was 39.7%. A total of26.8% children were anemic, while low iron status as defined by alow serum ferritin (5.0mg/L respectively was present in 18% and 11% of the children. Nostatistically significant association was found between Helicobacterpylori or any intestinal parasites and hemoglobin concentration,anemia or iron status among the children. However, there was asignificant association between low hemoglobin concentration andlow iron status based on serum ferritin (Coefficient: -0.28, 95% CI-0.54, -0.03 or transferrin receptor level (Coefficient: -0.89, 95% CI-1.18, -0.59 as well as anemia and low iron status based on serumtransferrin receptor (OR 3.57; p<0.01.CONCLUSION: Our results are in line with other studies fromdeveloping countries that showed no significant association betweenintestinal parasites or Helicobacter pylori infection and anemia,hemoglobin or iron status.

Ahmed S Rahman

2013-09-01

79

Colletotrichum – current status and future directions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review is provided of the current state of understanding of Colletotrichum systematics, focusing on species-level data and the major clades. The taxonomic placement of the genus is discussed, and the evolution of our approach to species concepts and anamorph-teleomorph relationships is described. The application of multilocus technologies to phylogenetic analysis of Colletotrichum is reviewed, and selection of potential genes/loci for barcoding purposes is discussed. Host specificity and its relation to speciation and taxonomy is briefly addressed. A short review is presented of the current status of classification of the species clusters that are currently without comprehensive multilocus analyses, emphasising the orbiculare and destructivum aggregates. The future for Colletotrichum biology will be reliant on consensus classification and robust identification tools. In support of these goals, a Subcommission on Colletotrichum has been formed under the auspices of the International Commission on Taxonomy of Fungi, which will administer a carefully curated barcode database for sequence-based identification of species within the BioloMICS web environment.

B.S. Weir

2012-09-01

80

Current status of Pohang Neutron Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the current status of Pohang Neutron Facility, which is the pulsed neutron facility, based on the 70-MeV electron linear accelerator completed on Dec.1997. We have prepared the 15-m time-of-flight path, a Ta-target system, and the Data Acquisition System. Meanwhile we have measured the total cross-sections of Dy and Hf samples at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and the neutron capture cross-sections of 164Dy isotope at Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology both in Japan. We also were participated the experiment at the 122-m flight path of the IBR-30 pulsed neutron source of Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. (author)

 
 
 
 
81

Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for ?-amyloid plaques, ?1 receptors, and dopamine D2 or D4 receptors; (2) 99mTc- and 18F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, 99mTc-labeled glucose derivatives, ?2 receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

82

Current status in Japan related to LMNPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current status of nuclear power plants in Japan is presented with the basic concepts against ageing of LWR plants which are considered to continue growing into the 21st century. Life management for aged NPPs is recognized to be important for the safe and reliable operation. In April 1996 MITI published the first report regarding the measures to cope with the aged NPPs. Two BWRs and one PWR were evaluated as aged NPPs in Phase-I Technical evaluation, which concluded that safe operation is possible with correct and adequate maintenance despite operation exceeded 30 years. The technology development items towards attaining further highly reliable management were indicated including the inspection/monitoring technology, the preventive maintenance/repair technology and ageing evaluation technology

83

Biotechnology in Mauritius: current status and constraints  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Agriculture today faces the challenge of sustainable productivity and improved food security on a shrinking area of land under cultivation. Until recently, biotechnology has been viewed as an expensive technology affordable only by rich industrial countries. However, it is now increasingly considere [...] d as an essential tool for developing countries to tackle the numerous problems of underdevelopment. Unfortunately, to date, Mauritius, like many other countries in Africa, lags far behind in development, use and commercialisation of biotechnology. This paper outlines the current status of biotechnology in Mauritius, some important constraints faced, as well as how policy makers are planning to make Mauritius “assume the role of a service provider and know-how disseminator in the field of biotechnology by acting as a regional hub and a regional nursery”.

Daneshwar, Puchooa.

2004-08-15

84

Current status of NDC fuel hot laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear Development Corporation (NDC) fuel hot laboratory was established to investigate the causes for leaked rods and to confirm the integrity of the precedence irradiation fuels, in 1986. After that, it obtained a license to conduct PIE of the structural materials, such as stainless steels, inside the reactor in addition to fuels. So far we have conducted PIE of fuels and metallic materials including fuel assembly components and reactor internal components irradiated in Japanese PWR plants or some test reactors. To meet these PIE needs, we are making efforts to improve facilities and to install high advanced equipments. This paper describes current status of the facilities and PIE techniques in NDC fuel hot laboratory. (author)

Yamaguchi, Youichirou; Matsuoka, Takanori; Shiraishi, Satoshi [Nuclear Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Sugano, Mitsuteru

1999-09-01

85

Current status of NDC fuel hot laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear Development Corporation (NDC) fuel hot laboratory was established to investigate the causes for leaked rods and to confirm the integrity of the precedence irradiation fuels, in 1986. After that, it obtained a license to conduct PIE of the structural materials, such as stainless steels, inside the reactor in addition to fuels. So far we have conducted PIE of fuels and metallic materials including fuel assembly components and reactor internal components irradiated in Japanese PWR plants or some test reactors. To meet these PIE needs, we are making efforts to improve facilities and to install high advanced equipments. This paper describes current status of the facilities and PIE techniques in NDC fuel hot laboratory. (author)

86

WTO TRIPS Agreement- Current state of Pharmaceutical Industry and Policy Options for Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS requires adoption of a minimum patentstandard for all countries. It is often argued by developing countries that the introduction of a uniform (and minimum patentstandard for all countries irrespective of their level of development would prevent people from access to medicines.Moreover, in developing countries, the drug expenses are being paid out of pockets by the patients unlike developedcountries where insurance companies bear the burden. In this regard an empirical study was conducted on pharmaceuticalstakeholders consisting of leading pharmaceutical companies, drug administration of Bangladesh (the regulatory authority,leading experts on industrial pharmacy, academics and leaders of Bangladesh Association of Pharmaceutical Industries.The study finds that price of medicines will go up and access to health will be denied once Bangladesh enters the patentregime. The perceived impact on the industry however is mixed. The paper concludes with some policy considerations thatthe government and the industry should consider to ensuring that the patients have access to medicines at an affordableprice.

Mohammad Abu Yusuf

2009-02-01

87

Current status of human papillomavirus vaccines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm arising from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. It is the second most prevalent cancer among women. It can have several causes; an infection with some type of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer. Over 100 types of HPVs have been identified, and more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region. Among these, a number of HPVs types, containing types 16 and 18, are classified as "high-risk" HPVs that can cause cervical cancer. The HPVs vaccine prevents infection with certain species of HPVs associated with the development of cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers. Two HPVs vaccines are currently on the global market: quadrivalent HPVs vaccine and bivalent HPV vaccine that use virus-like particles as a vaccine antigen. This review discusses the current status of HPVs vaccines on the global market, clinical trials, and the future of HPVs vaccine development. PMID:25003090

Kim, Kwang Sung; Park, Shin Ae; Ko, Kyung-Nam; Yi, Seokjae; Cho, Yang Je

2014-07-01

88

The current status of Helicobacter pylori.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

We present a review of the current status of Helicobacter pylori infection, and focus on the clinical issues facing physicians with regards to its pathogenicity, diagnosis and treatment. We have attempted to address the important clinical issues relevant to the subject, and summarize the currently accepted concepts concerning Helicobacter pylori. Our knowledge regarding Helicobacter pylori biology is enormous, but detailed knowledge on its transmission is still far from clear. Helicobacter pylori is mainly involved in gastrointestinal and possibly in other extra-intestinal disorders. There are differences in the clinical presentation in various geographical regions resulting from variations in the genetic make-up of Helicobacter pylori. There is still need for more simple, cost-effective, accurate and less invasive diagnostic techniques. The gold standard treatment is the one-week proton pump inhibitor-based triple regimen as first line, with quadruple therapy as a 2nd line. Helicobacter pylori resistance to the main antimicrobials needs to be defined in particular geographical areas.

Kamal E. Bani-Hani

2002-04-01

89

IAEA occupational radiation protection programme: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As stated in Art.III.A.6 of its Statute, the International Atomic Energy Agency (commonly referred to as the Agency) is authorized to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operation as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision. The Agency s Occupational Radiation Protection Programme aims at harmonizing infrastructures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and for optimizing radiation protection in situation s of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation. Under its regular and technical cooperation programmes, the Agency has been assigning high priority to both the establishment of safety standards for labour conditions and for the application of these standards through, Interalia, direct assistance under its technical cooperation (TC) programme, the rendering of services, the promotion of education and training, the fostering of information exchange and the coordination of research and development. The purpose of this paper is to present the current status and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection. (authors)

90

Current status of onchocerciasis in Colombia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the current epidemiologic status of onchocerciasis in Colombia two surveys were undertaken in 1995 in a suspected new focus on the border between Colombia and Ecuador and in the known focus located on the Micay River. No new focus was found along the Colombia-Ecuador border. In the known focus, communities along the upper Micay River and its tributaries were surveyed; 655 adults underwent physical examinations and skin biopsies. Infected individuals were found almost exclusively in the community of Naiciona, where prevalence of infection was 40% (36 of 91). Polymerase chain reaction detection of onchocercal DNA in skin snips correlated with the skin-snip biopsy results. The prevalence of punctate keratitis, the only ocular manifestation found, was 33%. A rapid entomologic assessment demonstrated Simulium exiguum infected with Onchocerca volvulus. This is the first finding in Colombia of naturally infected black flies and confirms S. exiguum as a vector species. These data will be used for implementing a control program using periodic ivermectin distribution. PMID:9598447

Corredor, A; Nicholls, R S; Duque, S; Munoz de Hoyos, P; Alvarez, C A; Guderian, R H; Lopez, H H; Palma, G I

1998-05-01

91

Current status of ITER EC design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ITER-FEAT Electron Cyclotron System employs one equatorial launcher and three upper port launchers to inject 20 + 20 MW of mm-wave power at 170 GHz through slots in the plasma-facing neutron and radiation shield. The equatorial launcher includes 3 sets of toroidally steer-able mirrors, each collecting 8 RF beams from 24 circular cross-section corrugated wave-guides. In the upper-port launcher, eight beams, reflected in pairs by four toroidally angled (?30 angle) and poloidally steer-able (? 10 angle) mirrors focus of the RF power on the plasma m = 2 and m = 3/2 plasma flux rational surfaces, for neo-classical tearing mode(s) (NTM) control. Conceptual studies of remote steering that would possibly allow removing the beam- steering equipment from the vacuum vessel and locating them in more protected positions have been carried out. All EC wave transmission is based on low losses circular cross section corrugated and evacuated wave guides each connected to a 170 GHz, 1 MW CW Gyrotron tube oscillator featuring an overall efficiency of ? 50%, obtained by depressed-collector energy recovery. In the paper, requirements, issues and the current status of the design is reviewed. (authors)

92

Current status of SSS preparation in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ISS needs tremendous amount of work due to the overflow of the information from each Member State and from the open source. Every Member State has different types of SSAC in term of the function, structure and activities. This paper is prepared to describe the role of the Korean SSAC in preparing the implementation of additional Protocol. For more than a year after the adoption of model additional protocol in the board of governors, Korean SSAC investigated the status of domestic nuclear industry and concluded as follows; 1. Korean industry has few activities listed in Annex 1 pursuant to article 2.a.(iv) of the additional Protocol mainly due to the electricity-oriented policy on the nuclear energy. 2. Implementation of additional Protocal may not hamper the development of peaceful nuclear activities. 3. Current atomic energy act does not cover the scope of the additional Protocol. 4. Before the signature of the Protocol, technical consultation with the Agency is indispensible. 5. New safeguards system needs closer cooperation between the Agency and the SSAC. The role of SSAC should be changed accordingly. (Yi, J. H.)

93

Current Status of the Large Millimeter Telescope  

Science.gov (United States)

I will briefly describe the current status of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT), the near-term plans for the telescope and the initial suite of instrumentation. I will also summarize some of the results of the Early Science Phase that took place in the summer of 2013. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between Mexico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are complete at the 4600m LMT site on the summit of Volcan Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. First light with the LMT (inner 32mdiameter) was successfully conducted in June and July of 2011, as well as the Early Science Phase in May-July 2013 with observations at both the 3 and 1.1mm wave-bands. The LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

Chavez, M.; LMT Team

2014-03-01

94

Current status of JENDL-3.3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current status of JENDL-3.3 is presented. Reevaluation work toward JENDL-3.3 has started last April for three years project to supply a consolidated new versions of JENDL by JAERI NDC (Nuclear Data center) with the cooperation of JNDC (Japanese Nuclear Data Committee). The working schedule has been fixed by the careful review of the summary report, `The problems of JENDL-3.2`, submitted to JNDC last March after one year discussions by a small advisory group: `Identifying the problems of JENDL-3.2`. To cope with the problems, two new subgroups are set up in the Subcommittee of Nuclear Data of JNDC. One is Heavy Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for the re-evaluation of major actinides (Th-232, U-233,235,236,238, Pu-236,239,241,242). The other is Intermediate Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for solving the inconsistencies between calculations and integral experiments relating to the fields of fusion neutronics and shielding applications as well as new evaluations such as Er elements. Supplying covariance data for important nuclides are one of the main feature of JENDL-3.3. Re-evaluated data will be released as JENDL-3.3 in the individual bases after the reviewing process by the experts. (author)

Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

1998-03-01

95

Current Status of TRR-1/M1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1961, the first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1, having power of 1 MW was established. It was located at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) in Bangkok. TRR-1 was completely commissioned in June 1962. Plate typed high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al were used as fuel. Light water used as moderator and coolant. During 1975-1977, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. It is a circular hexagonal core typed reactor designed by General Atomics Company (GA). Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to Thai Research Reactor 1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. This swimming pool typed reactor uses low-enriched uranium (LEU) as fuel and light water as coolant and moderator. To date, the reactor has been operated with core No.12 that released power 1135 MWD to serve the user. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization, for example, to produce radioisotope, neutron beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. This report explains in detail regarding operational experience and current status of this reactor, for example, reactor operation and reactor utilization. (author)

Sittichai, Chaiyut [Reactor Operation Division, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

2000-10-01

96

Productive and reproductive efficiency of different genotypes of goat in Bangladesh influenced by nutritional status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experiment is being conducted in flood fed area in the western part and hilly area in the eastern part of Bangladesh covering rural and urban areas with Black Bengal and crossbred (Black Bengal X Shirohi) goats to find out the effect of nutrition on growth and reproductive performances. Pure Black Bengal goats and crossbred goats were selected from the rural area of two regions. Purity of the goats was ascertained through history of the animals as well as microsatellites test. Black Bengal goats were reared under normal grazing condition without any supplementation in both the regions. Crossbred goats were maintained in the urban area of the western part and kept on grazing as well as supplementation (green leaves and concentrates). All the experimental goats were dewormed and vaccinated against PPR regularly. The experiment started in January 2007 and still is continuing. Litter size, kidding interval, birth weight, weaning weight and yearling weight are the parameters that are being recoded. The results presented here represent the data from January 2007 to August 2008. The birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, litter size and kidding interval for different genotypes in different regions have been presented in a Table. Within the Black Bengal goats, birth weight, weaning weight and yearling weight were more in group maintained in hilly area than those reared in flood fed area. There was no significant difference of birth weight between two groups; howee of birth weight between two groups; however weaning weight and yearling weight of goats reared in hilly region were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those of goats reared in flood fed area. Reproductive parameters like litter size and kidding interval performances were also better in goats reared in hilly area. The flood fed area is inundated by floodwater every year; paddy is cultivated throughout the year and has very limited grazing land with high human population density. Animals in this area always suffer from malnutrition due to lack of sufficient forages. The hilly area remains free of flood, covered by dense forest and has a vast grazing land with low human population density. Animals in this area get sufficient forage naturally. The better performances in growth and reproduction in goats reared in hilly area is certainly for better nutrition that occurs naturally. On the hand, crossbred maintained urban area had better performances over Black Bengal goats. This may be for heterosis effect as well as supplementation of feeds. The preliminary study of this experiment indicates that nutrition as well as genotypes has significant influence in the production and reproduction performances of goats in Bangladesh. In fact, this is the first work on Black Bengal goats in the hilly area and crossbred goats of Bangladesh. Further experiment has been planned for confirming this fact. (author)

97

Counseling in Turkey: Current Status and Future Challenges  

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Full Text Available In this article a special emphasis is placed on the current status and the future challenges of counseling in Turkey. A brief history of counseling in Turkey, current developments, and the basic issues in this field are pointed out. Finally, the future challenges and recommendations to improve the current status of counseling are discussed.

Suleyman Dogan

1998-07-01

98

Current Scenario of the Small-scale Broiler Farming in Bangladesh: Potentials for the Future Projection  

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Full Text Available In Bangladesh, there are two types of broiler farming of which contract broiler farming is still under trial while independent small-scale broiler farming is dominant and performed for the development of broiler sector. The present study examined the potentials of small-scale independent broiler farms and farmers’ economic behavior in relation to farm size. Farm size is found to be closely related to farmers’ behavior and attitude. Farmers’ behavior and attitude appeared to be very crucial factor for the development of broiler production. The primary data were collected from the independent small-scale farms in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. The results showed that independent small-scale broiler farming is a profitable venture for rural farmers. Farmers are involving in this sector because of lower investment, less space requirement, utilization of family labor and quick returns. To examine the farmers’ behavior, farmers were classified into two income goal groups in terms of total per capita income: a First Income Goal Group (FIGG and b Second Income Goal Group (SIGG. The economic behaviors of the farmers were differed by income goal groups. Most of the farmers belonging to the FIGG were interested to enlarge their farm size, the opposed trend has been observed in farmers of SIGG. Economic behavior and attitude should be considered in making any suggestion and recommendation for changing the existing level of small-scale broiler farming.

Kaniz Quamrun Nahar Chhabi

2010-01-01

99

Diversity of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT of Bangladesh was considered hyperendemic for malaria. To better understand the contemporary malaria epidemiology and to develop new and innovative control strategies, comprehensive epidemiologic studies are ongoing in two endemic unions of Bandarban district of CHT. Within these studies entomological surveillance has been undertaken to study the role of the existing anopheline species involved in the malaria transmission cycle throughout the year. Methods CDC miniature light traps were deployed to collect anopheline mosquitoes from the sleeping room of the selected houses each month in a single union (Kuhalong. Molecular identification was carried out for available Anopheles species complexes. Circumsporozoite proteins (CSP for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax-210 (Pv-210 and Plasmodium vivax-247(Pv-247 were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from the female anopheline mosquitoes. To confirm CSP-ELISA results, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also performed. Results A total of 2,837 anopheline mosquitoes, of which 2,576 were female, belonging to 20 species were collected from July 2009?-June 2010. Anopheles jeyporiensis was the most abundant species (18.9%, followed by An. vagus (16.8% and An. kochi (14.4%. ELISA was performed on 2,467 female mosquitoes of 19 species. 15 (0.6% female anophelines belonging to eight species were found to be positive for Plasmodium infection by CSP-ELISA. Of those, 11 (0.4% mosquitoes were positive for P. falciparum and four (0.2% for Pv-210. No mosquito was found positive for Pv-247. An. maculatus (2.1%, 2/97 had the highest infection rate followed by An. umbrosus (1.7%, 2/115 and An. barbirostris (1.1%, 2/186. Other infected species were An. nigerrimus, An. nivipes, An. jeyporiensis, An. kochi, and An. vagus. Out of 11 P. falciparum CSP positive samples, seven turned out to be positive by PCR. None of the samples positive for Pv-210 was positive by PCR. In terms of abundance and incrimination, the results suggest that An. maculatus, An. jeyporiensis and An. nivipes play important roles in malaria transmission in Kuhalong. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that even in the presence of an insecticide impregnated bed-net intervention, a number of Anopheles species still play a role in the transmission of malaria. Further investigations are required to reveal the detailed biology and insecticide resistance patterns of the vector mosquito species in endemic areas in Bangladesh in order to assist with the planning and implementation of improved malaria control strategies.

Alam Mohammad

2012-07-01

100

Nutritional status of women in Bangladesh: comparison of energy intake and nutritional status of a low income rural group with a high income urban group.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the influence of socio-economic status on energy intake (EI), anthropometric characteristics and body composition (BC) of premenopausal Bangladeshi women in two socio-economic groups. This cross-sectional study measured height, weight, biceps and triceps skinfolds by standard procedures. A three-day dietary record was used to estimate EI. The biceps and triceps skinfolds were used to calculate total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and body fat percentage (BF%) according to Durnin and Womersley. FAO/WHO/UNU equations were used to calculate basal metabolic rates (BMR). Two locations in Bangladesh were studied; the Dhaka city area and the west region of the subdistrict Nandail (Betagair Union) in the district of Mymensingh. Study subjects were premenopausal women (N =191) aged 16(40 years. The high socio-economic group (group H, N =90) consisted of women with high income and educational level. The low socio-economic group (group L, N =101) consisted of rural, low income, illiterate women. Both groups contained three subgroups (non-pregnant, non-lactating =1, pregnant =2, lactating =3). Socio-economic status had a significant effect on body weight, height, biceps and triceps skinfolds, BMI, TBF, FFM and BF% (Prural women. This contradicts findings in western countries, where obesity is prevalent in low income groups. PMID:15003916

Islam, Md Zahirul; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammed; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Analysis of Financial Products of Capital Market in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Development  

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Full Text Available The performance of existing financial products is an important issue in the capital market to increase the new products for reducing the risk of dependency on common stocks. The research aims are to evaluate the growth and development of existing financial instruments and to recommend for introducing new financial instruments in the capital market of Bangladesh. The data are taken from the Dhaka stock exchange for the year 1977 to 2010 for interpretation of development and the data from 2003 to 2010 are taken for analysis and hypothesis test. There are only five products traded including three types of bonds. The average growth rate of market capitalization of common stocks, treasury bonds, mutual funds, corporate bonds & debentures are 71.02%, 124.74%, 99.85% and 105.41% respectively. The growth of market capitalization of all products is high. There is lot of scope in the market for absorbing the new products. The share of common stocks, treasury bond, corporate bond, debentures, mutual funds to total market capitalizations are 87.73%, 12.25%, 0.24%,0.17% and  0.83% respectively. The market is common stock based. The corporate bond market is very small. So, there should be increased new financial instruments in the capital market to reduce the dependency on share only. The proposed financial instruments are various types of preferred stock, bond, SWAP, option, futures, and forwards as recommendation.

Mohammad Shahidul Islam

2012-09-01

102

Educational Status of the Married Women and Their Participation at Household Decision Making in Rural Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

The key focus of this study is to explain the level of education of married women and their participation in decision making process at different arena of rural household. To find out the nature of the reality, survey research design was used for this study. The study was conducted at Maharajpur, one of the unions of Jhenidah district in Bangladesh in 2011. The respondents of the study consisted of 120 married women who were purposively selected from the study area. Data were collected through direct interview method using an interview schedule. Data were shown on univariate, as well as bivariate statistical tables and then analyzed. The study reveals that a significant percent (93.3) of higher level of education completed women had their consent of getting married whereas no consent was made by illiterate women. In the same way 46.7 percent higher level of education completed women had high level of purchasing power in compare to illiterate (.0%) and primary (14.6%) level completed women for the same level of purchasing. In the political decision making 86.7 percent higher level of education completed women had own consent to vote for election in contrast to 77.8 percent illiterate and 70.7 percent primary level completed women were influenced by their husband to decide voting.

Chanda, Sanjoy Kumar; Howlader, Hasan; Nahar, Nasrin

2012-11-01

103

Leishmaniasis: current status of vaccine development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmaniasis, a spectrum of diseases caused by various forms of Leishmania has become a major health problem all over the world. Vaccination against leishmaniasis has passed through many developmental stages beginning with the ancient practice of 'leishmanization'. Due to various problems and difficulties associated with traditional vaccines, the interest has been shifted to novel approaches of vaccination like DNA vaccination, vaccination with live vectors encoding leishmanial antigens and finally to designer vaccines. In an effort towards developing an anti-leishmanial vaccine, our laboratory has been working on various genes present in an amplified locus of Leishmania known as the 'LD1 locus'. Two genes, ORFF and BT1 (previously ORFG), are part of the multigenic LD1 locus on chromosome 35. BT1 encodes a biopterin transporter, while the function of ORFF gene product is unknown. Immunization of mice with recombinant ORFF (rORFF) and BT1 proteins, individually, or in combination, conferred partial protection against challenge with Leishmania donovani. We also tested the protective efficacy of ORFF DNA vaccine in BALB/c mice model and found that the level of protection was significantly higher than that of ORFF protein. Protection conferred by ORFF DNA vaccine correlated with significant levels of in vitro splenocyte proliferation and low levels of antigen-specific antibodies. There was a preferential production of IFN-gamma compared to IL-4, which indicated the induction of a protective Th1 response, by the DNA vaccine. Thus, DNA immunization may offer an attractive alternative strategy against leishmaniasis. We present here the current status of vaccine development against leishmaniasis. PMID:15357215

Sukumaran, Bindu; Madhubala, Rentala

2004-09-01

104

Evaluation of the impact of the voucher and accreditation approach on improving reproductive behaviors and RH status: Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost of delivering reproductive health services to low-income populations will always require total or partial subsidization by the government and/or development partners. Broadly termed "Demand-Side Financing" or "Output-Based Aid", includes a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the service user rather than the service provider. Initial findings from the few assessments of reproductive health voucher-and-accreditation programs suggest that, if implemented well, these programs have great potential for achieving the policy objectives of increasing access and use, reducing inequities and enhancing program efficiency and service quality. At this point in time, however, there is a paucity of evidence describing how the various voucher programs function in different settings, for various reproductive health services. Methods/Design Population Council-Nairobi, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to address the lack of evidence around the pros and cons of 'voucher and accreditation' approaches to improving the reproductive health of low income women in five developing countries. In Bangladesh, the activities will be conducted in 11 accredited health facilities where Demand Side Financing program is being implemented and compared with populations drawn from areas served by similar non-accredited facilities. Facility inventories, client exit interviews and service provider interviews will be used to collect comparable data across each facility for assessing readiness and quality of care. In-depth interviews with key stakeholders will be conducted to gain a deeper understanding about the program. A population-based survey will also be carried out in two types of locations: areas where vouchers are distributed and similar locations where vouchers are not distributed. Discussion This is a quasi-experimental study which will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving maternal health behaviors and status and reducing inequities at the population level. We expect a significant increase in the utilization of maternal health care services by the accredited health facilities in the experimental areas compared to the control areas as a direct result of the interventions. If the voucher scheme in Bangladesh is found effective, it may help other countries to adopt this approach for improving utilization of maternity care services for reducing maternal mortality.

Rahman Moshiur

2011-04-01

105

Management of Village Common Forests in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh: Historical Background and Current Issues in Terms of Sustainability  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the historical management system of village common forests (VCF in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT of Bangladesh and observe the current issues related to their sustainability. The study on historical context was based on secondary information to establish the linkages of VCF development and management in the CHT. Field visits to four VCF in the Bandarban Hill Districts were also conducted to cross check the information collected from secondary sources to observe the current status and management pattern of these VCF through semi-structured interviews, group discussion, key-informant interviews and biodiversity assessment. VCF in the CHT undoubtedly play an important role in biodiversity conservation and as well as supporting daily necessities of the community people. We found that VCF still are the source of fuel wood, herbs, roots, bamboo shoots, wild fruits, vines or leaves for cooking or medicinal use necessary to sustain the lives of the indigenous communities in the CHT. Field visits to different VCF show that the VCF are necessarily small in size (57 ha and around 108 families are dependent on these community managed village forests. A total of 163 plant species from 60 families were also recorded from these VCF including some rare plant and animal species which are not usually found in the reserve forests and the un-classed state forests due to continued deforestation and land degradation. However, population pressure combined with improved marketing facilities, ignorance, over exploitation, personal greed, tenure insecurity, faulty government policies regarding settlement of land and breakdown of the traditional systems exerting pressures on these VCF and the overall condition of these important biodiversity rich areas are degrading or shrinking in size and number gradually. Recognizing the traditional and customary resource rights of the indigenous communities in the CHT, acknowledging resource management system, providing tenure security, encouraging communities through legal and financial incentives in protecting these VCF or any other state owned forest areas solely for the conservation of biodiversity following an intensive management plan, resolving long lasting land related conflicts, and at the same time upholding the spirit of CHT Peace Accord 1997 could be important policy tools for the sustainability of these VCF in the CHT. Lessons learned from this study will be useful in formulating effective policies for community based forest management in Bangladesh and other developing countries.

Mohammed Jashimuddin

2012-07-01

106

Counselling International Students in Turkish Universities: Current Status and Recommendations  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the current status of international students and counselling services provided at Turkish universities is addressed. Firstly, a brief history of counselling and counselling services in Turkish universities is examined, leading to a consideration of the current status of international students and counselling services.…

Bektas, Dilek Yelda

2008-01-01

107

Cardiac rehabilitation. Current status and future directions.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more than exercise training for patients with coronary artery disease and now includes all aspects of secondary prevention. Exercise training is individually prescribed based on clinical status and therapeutic goals. Smoking cessation and abstinence and the treatment of hypercholesterolemia are integral to the rehabilitation process. Education and counseling are important adjuncts to treatment, especially soon after a coronary event. Vocational rehabili...

Gattiker, H.; Goins, P.; Dennis, C.

1992-01-01

108

Current status of VHTR development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of the program at the beginning of fiscal 1982 is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the altering of the output helium temperature of the experimental VHTR to 9500. The modification is aimed at establishing the technical basis for post-experimental VHTR output helium temperature of 10000C. Notes are given on the design of the VHTR as well as various research and development efforts in Japan on multi-purpose nuclear heat applications and HTGR technology

109

Current status of fast reactor physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented

110

Association between Infant and Child-feeding Index and Nutritional Status: Results from a Cross-sectional Study among Children Attending an Urban Hospital in Bangladesh  

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Integration of infant and child-feeding index (ICFI) addressing the multidimensional child-feeding practices into one age-specific summary index is gaining importance. This cross-sectional study was aimed at understanding the association between the ICFI and the nutritional status of 259 children, aged 6-23 months, who attended the paediatric outpatient department of the Dhaka Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh. The mean length-for-age z-score (LAZ) of children aged 12-23 months was signi...

Khatoon, Tahmina; Mollah, Md Abid Hossain; Choudhury, Ahmed Murtaza; Islam, M. Munirul; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur

2011-01-01

111

Posthumous reproduction: current and future status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posthumous reproduction became possible with the technologies of sperm cryopreservation and ART. The legal and social status of children born as a result of these technologies continue to evolve. The proper disposition of unwanted stored gametes and embryos remains unknown. Physicians are increasingly asked to make quick judgments on posthumous gamete retrieval. The procedures for gamete harvest are technically simple; however, one must carefully select cases with definitive prior intent to have children. There is a need for standardized legal protocols to protect the physician and the patient. The physician must use sound judgment and comply with accepted standards, when present, before performing any service for posthumous sperm retrieval and reproduction. PMID:12516758

Land, Spencer; Ross, Lawrence S

2002-11-01

112

QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SECONDARY EDUCATION PROGRAME OF BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY: Present Status and Challenges  

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Full Text Available In the present day in national and international perspectives, quality is the top of most agendas. Quality of education has significant impact and invaluable contribution to the area of development. Recently, the SSC & HSC program of BOU have earned recognition of equivalency with the formal education sector, which has naturally raised the question of quality assurance of these programs By applying the quantitative method, the study has assessed the present status of the quality of SSC & HSC program of BOU and also put some recommendations to meet the challenges for further development.

Zobaida AKHTER

2008-04-01

113

Association of Clinical Complications with Nutritional Status and the Prevalence of Leukopenia among Arsenic Patients in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available This study conducted in Bangladesh reports the relationship of clinical complications with nutritional status and the prevalence of leukopenia among arsenic exposed patients living in the rural villages. A total of 115 exposed individuals diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were randomly selected from four known arsenic endemic villages, and age-matched 120 unexposed subjects were enrolled in the study program. The duration of arsenic exposure in about 37% of the patients was at least 10 yrs, while the population mean and range were 7.6 ± 5.2 yrs, and 1 – 25 yrs, respectively. The mean arsenic concentrations in the drinking water for the exposed and unexposed (control population were 218.1 μg/L and 11.3 μg/L, respectively. The spot urine sample of the arsenicosis patients contained an average of 234.6 μg/L arsenic. Although very few patients showed elevated WBC count, 16% had leukopenia (below normal count, and the whole population had significantly low WBC count than the control subjects. Prevalences of neutropenia and lymphocytosis were observed in patients with chronic exposure to high levels of arsenic in water. The body mass index was found to be lower than 18.5, the cut-off point for malnutrition (underweight, in about 28% of the arsenicosis cases compared to 15% of the controls. The monthly income and total calorie consumption per day showed the patients were underprivileged than the controls. Arsenical symptoms and complications were more severe in the nutritionally vulnerable (underweight patients than the overweight ones. Also, the incidences of leukopenia and anaemia were more common in the female patients who were underweight. The findings of this research demonstrate that the poor nutritional status of patients increases the complications of chronic arsenic toxicity; suggest the possibility of other sources of arsenic contamination different from drinking water in the study area; and establish a higher prevalence of leukopenia and lymphocytosis in arsenicosis patients.

Azizul I. Kazi

2004-09-01

114

Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in Spent Fuel Management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation in this area, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to elaborate the general recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. This report which is a result of the third IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (the first and second were held in 1984 and 1986) is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the status of spent fuel management programmes in a number of leading countries, with a description of the past and present IAEA activities in this field of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and with the Agency's plans for the next years, based on the proposals and recommendations of Member States. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 14 papers presented at the advisory group meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

115

Current status of MiniBooNE experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the current status of the Fermilab mini-Booster neutrino experiment (MiniBooNE). The experiment began taking beam data in late August 2002. We describe the experiment, status of the beamline and detector, and show the first neutrino candidate events.

Fernanda G. Garcia

2003-03-24

116

Current Status of Beta Blocker Therapy  

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Beta-adrenergic blocking agents are an increasingly important class of drugs to the family physician. Diseases such as ischemic heart disease, hypertension and hyperthyroidism have responded dramatically to beta-blocking therapy. This article summarizes some of the current knowledge on the beta-receptor, the indications for beta-receptor blocking therapy, and the properties of the five beta-blocking agents currently available to Canadian physicians.

Gray, Jean D.

1980-01-01

117

Microsoft Word - BPEO Current Status Feb 2005.doc  

Best Practicable Environmental Option for Waste Management in Northern Ireland Interim Report on Municipal Waste Options Department of the Environment February 2005 BPEO Current Status Feb 2005.doc i EHS CONTENTS ...

118

Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Preeclamptic and Uncomplicated Pregnancies in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available To investigate the changes in plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in Bangladeshi pregnant women and their potential involvement in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, we performed a case-control study consisting of randomly selected women (20-30 years with preeclampsia (PE, n = 25 as compared to uncomplicated normal pregnant (UP, n = 22 and nonpregnant (NC, n = 25 women. The study was conducted in the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory of Dhaka University. Serum lipid profile, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, lipid hydroperoxide (LHP, Total Antioxidant Status (TAS and vitamin C levels were measured using standard methods. Serum total cholesterol levels of PE and UP groups were significantly higher (p<0.001 compared to Nonpregnant Control (NC group. But there was no significant difference between the total cholesterol levels of PE and UP groups. Serum TG level of PE group was significantly higher compared to UP (p<0.01 and NC (

Md. Zakir H. Howlader

2007-01-01

119

The Historical Development and Current Status of Nursing in Turkey  

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Full Text Available This article tells the story of the historical development and current status of nursing in Turkey. It presents a historical review of the development of modern Turkish nursing and describes the continuing development and current status of nursing education, nursing regulation, and nursing practice in Turkey. The article also explains how the voice of nursing in Turkey is heard through the professional associations.

Yeter Kiti?

2008-05-01

120

CURRENT STATUS OF ANEUPLOIDY TESTING IN DROSOPHILA  

Science.gov (United States)

A committee of scientists was established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to appraise the current state of aneuploidy test methodology, to compile and analyze published data on the chemical induction of aneuploidy, and to provide guidance for additional test developme...

 
 
 
 
121

Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol

122

Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

h both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

123

Pharmacotherapy of Sexual Dysfunctions : Current Status  

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The sexual dysfunctions are one of the most prevalent conditions. Sexual dysfunctions can have profound effect on the psychological well-being of an individual and the psychosexual relationship of a couple. Management of the sexual dysfunction should be preceded by an accurate diagnosis reached after a complete medical and sexual history and physical examination. Current focus of researchers has been on understanding the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and other...

Avasthi, Ajith; Biswas, Parthasarathy

2004-01-01

124

The current status of grazing incidence optics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The developments in the area of grazing incidence optics with emphasis on telescopes for use in X-ray astronomy are reviewed. The performance of existing high-resolution telescopes is outlined and compared with those expected from future missions like ROSAT and AXAF. Starting from the basic principles of X-ray reflection and scattering, an attempt is made to highlight the current understanding of X-ray mirror physics using new theoretical ideas as well as experimental laboratory results. (author)

125

Current status of visibility sensors for aviation  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a new increased range higher visibility was investigated. The visibility sensor that is currently is the Transmissometer. Current transmissometer technology provides only a factor of 10 dynamic range with a single base line. The FAA is preparing to install automated weather observing systems (AWOS) at many locations. These systems require visibilities up to approximately 5 miles. To use a transmissometer for this type of measurement, the base line must be about 1,000 feet; where alignment becomes very difficult to maintain. New technologies were developd for measuring visibility. Improved transmissometers, forward-scatter meters and back-scatter meters have become available. A current practical issue for visibility sensors is how to specify one that is good enough to meet the needs of aviation. The first question is what performance is required; how accurately must the sensor measure? Visibility sensors do not actually measure the visibility directly. The purpose of measuring the visibility is to predict what the pilot will see a considerable distance away from the sensor location. The atmosphere introduces considerable variation in the measurement and the basic sensor accuracy needed is difficult to define. The second question for high visibilities is what to use as the standard reference sensor. The third question pertains to the competitive procurement of visibility sensors, which is mandated at present. Two acceptance test procedures to be used to insure satisfactory sensor performance is examined.

Burnham, D. C.

1983-01-01

126

Avian influenza in Croatia - Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Wild birds can carry a wide range of viral and other zoonotic agents, which may be transmitted to humans. From October 2005 to March 2006 HPAI H5N1 virus was isolated from wild birds (mute swans, black-headed gulls and a mallard duck) in Croatia at five locations. After isolation of H5N1 virus at 2006 from mallard duck near City of Zagreb (capital of Croatia) Department of Poultry Diseases with Clinic at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, has conducted monitoring of avian viruses that could endanger human health. Samples (999 pharyngeal and cloacal swabs) from 23 wild bird species were taken. After year 2006 Croatia has regular monitoring for avian influenza in wild birds and poultry (especially in the backyard flocks). During 2007 (6,928 wild birds and 18,000 blood samples from poultry) and 2008 (2,486 wild birds; 20,000 blood samples and 1,500 cloacal swabs from poultry) were taken. Isolation was performed with classical virus detection method by inoculation of 10 day old chicken embryos, and molecular methods by conventional PCR and Real Time PCR (M gene, H5, H7 and N1 genes), and serological methods by antibody detection from blood samples (inhibition hemagglutination and ELISA). All samples were HPAI virus negative but investigators from the Poultry Centre of the Croatian Veterinary Institute isolated from wild birds LPAI viruses: H2N3, H3N8, H5N3 and H10N7. The results obtained by these investigations and monitoring revealed the need for permanent moitoring revealed the need for permanent monitoring of wild bird's health status, especially the water birds species. Vaccination against AI is never practiced in Croatia. Quick and accurate detection of wild migratory birds infected with the H5N1 virus prevented the spread of the virus to the domestic poultry in Croatia which would have had enormous consequences. (author)

127

Current status of SFR development in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fast Reactor development experiences and status in Japan are summarized. Even though international SFR circumstances were against in 1980s and 1990s, e.g. CRBRP, SNR-300 and Superphenix terminations, we kept on with our R and D activities steadily aiming at positive development targets in Japan. As results of our efforts, it has shown that our commercialized SFR concept, Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) could meet the targets in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project. Further, Monju has finally achieved restart in May 2010 after having been shut for almost 15 years. A future plan of Monju is to be determined based on a direction of the national nuclear and energy policies that will be established in 2012. The undergoing FaCT project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, feasibility of the key technologies for JSFR has been evaluated and the project is waiting for launching the phase II due to the Tohoku large earthquake. It is considered that the nuclear development policy might be affected by the Tohoku large Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan. Nevertheless the significance of nuclear energy will not be changed and thus we will focus on the issues learnt from Fukushima accidents and reflect into the improvement of the safety of Monju and the safety design criteria for the next generation Fast Reactor systems. (orig.)

Ieda, Yoshiaki; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokyo (Japan). Project Promotion Office; Kotake, Shoji [Japan Atomic Power Company, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-03-15

128

Current status of neutron capture therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT

129

Space law - Current status and issues  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of space law over the past 25 years is surveyed, with attention also given to the procedures that were followed. The treaties now in existence are given, as are issues currently before the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Projections that were made 25 years ago are discussed in the light of subsequent developments. It is noted that nearly all the technological advances in space activities forecast 25 years ago have come to pass. Various provisions of the 1967 Outer Space Principles Treaty relating to stricture against weapons and the militarization of space are discussed.

Hosenball, S. N.

1983-01-01

130

Current status of respiratory nuclear medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multimodality image fusion is now becoming popular in respiratory nuclear medical field, since scintigraphic diagnosis, based on functional image interpretation, becomes more accurate and meaningful when supported by corresponding anatomical data. Although SPECT/PET scanner-mounted X-ray tomographic systems are now being introduced for an accurate image fusion in the chest, the use of a fully automatic multi-modality image fusion algorithm may be an alternative method. Our initial attempt of this algorithm for fusion imaging of Tc-99m MAA perfusion or thallium-201 SPECT and helical CT scan has contributed to accurate interpretation of the results without user interaction, and has facilitated the understanding of the functional basis of lung parenchymal CT attenuation changes. Three-dimensional displays with functional mapping are also now being increasingly introduced to various respiratory nuclear studies. A fractal analysis has shown successful results in the analysis of technegas and 99mTc-MAA perfusion images, which will be increasingly applied for more objective assessment of the results. The feasibility of 18F-FDG PET scan in accurate staging of lung cancer and the good cost performance of this method in lung cancer strategy are repeatedly stressed by the recent studies. The feasibility of 99mTc-MAA perfusion scan in the evaluation of right-to-left shunt in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome, and the potential of 123123I-MIBG scan in the evaluation of the function status of pulmonary neuroadrenergic system are new aspects for these well established tracers. There is the first attempt of intraoperative 99mTc-colloid sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer. This may improve the precision of pathologic staging and limit the need for mediastinal node dissection in selected patients. Radiolabeled aerosol lung scintigraphy is being increasingly applied to evaluate lung deposition of various aerosolized, therapeutic drugs. Newly developed radiotracers include L-3-123I-?-methyl-tyrosine for evaluating amino acid metabolism of lung cancer on SPECT scanner, 99mTc-labeled surfactant B for evaluating pulmonary surfactant system, Cu-DTS for imaging hypoxic tumor cells, and 18F-fluorocaptopril for evaluating the lung distribution of pulmonary angiotension converting enzyme. These will contribute to the further advancement and development of expiratory nuclear medicine. (author)

131

Current Status of the NPDGamma Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

The NPDGamma experiment aims to measure the parity violating asymmetry in the direction of gamma ray emission from polarized cold neutrons capturing on an unpolarized proton target. The goal is to measure this asymmetry with an accuracy of 10-8 to allow comparison to theoretical predictions of the strength of the hadronic weak interaction between nucleons. A liquid para-hydrogen proton target is used to capture the polarized neutron beam. The gamma ray emission direction is measured using an array of 48 CsI(Th) detectors with a 3? acceptance angle. The neutron spin direction is reversed in a repeating eight step sequence chosen to control for time dependent systematic effects during data taking. NPDGamma has completed commissioning and is currently taking hydrogen data in the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source.

McCrea, Mark

2013-04-01

132

[Plasma fractionation in the world: current status].  

Science.gov (United States)

From 22 to 25 million liters of plasma are fractionated yearly in about 70 fractionation plants, either private or government-owned, mainly located in industrialized countries, and with a capacity ranging from 50000 to three million liters. In an increasingly global environment, the plasma industry has recently gone through a major consolidation phase that has seen mergers and acquisitions, and has led to the closure of a number of small plants in Europe. Currently, some fifteen countries are involved into contract plasma fractionation programs to ensure a supply of plasma-derived medicinal products. The majority of the plasma for fractionation is obtained by automated plasmapheresis, the remaining (recovered plasma) being prepared from whole blood as a by-product of red cell production. Plasma for fractionation should be produced, and controlled following well established procedures to meet the strict quality requirements set by regulatory authorities and fractionators. The plasma fractionation technology still relies heavily on the cold ethanol fractionation process, but has been improved by the introduction of modern chromatographic purification methods, and efficient viral inactivation and removal treatments, ensuring quality and safety to a large portfolio of fractionated plasma products. The safety of these products with regards to the risk of transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease seems to be provided, based on current scientific data, by extensive removal of the infectious agent during certain fractionation steps. The leading plasma product is now the intravenous immunoglobulin G, which has replaced factor VIII and albumin in this role. The supply of plasma products (most specifically coagulation products and immunoglobulin) at an affordable price and in sufficient quantity remains an issue; the problem is particularly acute in developing countries, as the switch to recombinant factor VIII in rich countries has not solved the supply issue and has even led to an increase of the mean price of plasma-derived factor VIII to the developing world. In the last few years, the plasma fractionation industry has improved greatly, and should remain essential in the years to come for the procurement of many essential medicines. PMID:17499539

Burnouf, T

2007-05-01

133

Current status of the PBMR licensing project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CNS is currently reviewing the PBMR conceptual design from a licensibility point of view. The PBMR concept is based on a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor - pebble bed reactor type. It is anticipated that the PBMR design will rely on inherent safety characteristics to contain fission products within fuel over the full range of design basis events. This feature combined with the high temperature integrity of the fuel and structural graphite, allows the safe use of a high coolant temperature, which allows consideration of the future development of this reactor for non-electrical applications of nuclear heat for industrial use. The CNS licensing approach requires that the licensing and design basis of the plant should respect prevailing international norms and practices and that a quantitative risk assessment should demonstrate compliance with the CNS fundamental safety standards. The first stage of the licensing process is now ongoing; this is a pre-application phase, which will result in a statement on licensibility being issued. Identification of the specific documentation requirements and information needed is required across every step of the licensing process. Top level regulatory requirements have been established for the PBMR. They include the CNS fundamental safety standard and basic licensing criteria, which describes requirements on licensees of nuclear installations regarding risk assessment and compliance with the safety criteria and define classification of licensing basis events. (author)

134

Current Status of VHTR Technology Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900°C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950°C.

David Petti; Hans Gougar; Richard Wright; William Windes; Steve Herring; Richard Schultz; Paul Humrickhouse

2010-10-01

135

Current status of fusion reactor blanket thermodynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies of liquid lithium have concentrated on its sorption characteristics for hydrogen isotopes and its interaction with common impurity elements. Hydrogen isotope sorption data (P-C-T relations, activity coefficients, Sieverts' constants, plateau pressures, isotope effects, free energies of formation, phase boundaries etc.) are presented in a tabular form that can be conveniently used to extract thermodynamic information for the ?-phase of the Li-LiH, Li-LiD, and Li-LiT systems and to construct complete phase diagrams. Recent solubility data for Li3N, Li2O, and Li2C2 in liquid lithium are discussed with emphasis on the prospects for removing these species by cold-trapping methods. Current studies on the sorption of hydrogen in solid lithium alloys (e.g., Li--Al and Li--Pb), made using a new technique (the hydrogen titration method), have shown that these alloys should lead to smaller blanket-tritium inventories than are attainable with liquid lithium and that the P-C-T relationships for hydrogen in Li--M alloys can be estimated from lithium activity data for these alloys

136

Current status of weak gravitational lensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Weak gravitational lensing of distant galaxies by foreground structures has proven to be a powerful tool to study the mass distribution in the universe. Nowadays, attention has shifted from clusters of galaxies to the statistical properties of the large scale structures and the halos of (field) galaxies. These applications have become feasible with the advent of panoramic cameras on 4m class telescopes. In this review we will give an overview of recent advances in this fast evolving field of astronomy. We start with a discussion of the recent measurements of weak lensing by large scale structure ('cosmic shear'), which can be used to constrain cosmological parameters. We also show how weak lensing can be used to measure the relation between galaxies and dark matter (galaxy biasing) directly. Another area that benefitted greatly from the current data is the weak lensing by galaxies (galaxy-galaxy lensing). Weak lensing provides a unique probe of the gravitational potential on large scales. Hence, in the context of dark matter, it can provide constrains on the extent and shapes of dark matter halos. Furthermore, it can test alternative theories of gravity (without dark matter). The brest constraint comes from the first detection of the anisotropy of the lensing signal around lens galaxies, which suggest that the dark matter halos are flattened. An isotropic signal, as predicted by MOND, is excluded with 99% confidence.

Hoekstra, Henk; Yee, H. K. C.; Gladders, Michael D.

2002-11-01

137

Current status of the CLIO project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CLIO (Cryogenic Laser Interferometer Observatory) is a Japanese gravitational wave detector project. One of the main purposes of CLIO is to demonstrate thermal-noise suppression by cooling mirrors for a future Japanese project, LCGT (Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational Telescope). The CLIO site is in Kamioka mine, as is LCGT. The progress of CLIO between 2005 and 2007 (room- and cryogenic-temperature experiments) is introduced in this article. In a room-temperature experiment, we made efforts to improve the sensitivity. The current best sensitivity at 300 K is about 6 x 10-21/?Hz around 400 Hz. Below 20 Hz, the strain (not displacement) sensitivity is comparable to that of LIGO, although the baselines of CLIO are 40-times shorter (CLIO: 100m, LIGO: 4km). This is because seismic noise is extremely small in Kamioka mine. We operated the interferometer at room temperature for gravitational wave observations. We obtained 86 hours of data. In the cryogenic experiment, it was confirmed that the mirrors were sufficiently cooled (14 K). However, we found that the radiation shield ducts transferred 300K radiation into the cryostat more effectively than we had expected. We observed that noise caused by pure aluminum wires to suspend a mirror was suppressed by cooling the mirror

138

Current status of silicon solar cell technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in solar cell technology have led to the development of laboratory cells with efficiencies above 15% and production cells with efficiencies in the area of 13%. The increased output is largely the result of increases in the short-circuit current. The most significant gain in the amount of light entering the cell has been obtained through surface texturing by chemical etching techniques. Sheet resistances resulting from phosphorus diffusion in the 800 C temperature range yield junction depths on the order of 0.1 micrometer, leading to significant increases in the blue region of the cell spectral response. The inclusion of a back surface field in 10 ohm-cm cells has produced an increase in open-circuit voltage of about 50 mV and an increase in the minority carrier lifetime. It appears that a low emitter efficiency of the diffused region is the cause of poor voltages. Future research will be primarily directed toward correcting this deficiency and toward the development of low cost production methods.

Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

1975-01-01

139

[Cellular phones and cancer: current status].  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation of the impact of new technologies on the human body is essential in order to impose regulations to limit health risks. The appearance and evolution of cellular phones have been one of the fastest in the history of innovation. Research reported worldwide has tried to evaluate any potential link between adverse health effects and the mobile phone and its broadcasting stations. This article gives an overview of current research knowledge on the impact of radiofrequency waves on health. Epidemiologic, cellular and animal studies have been carried out, but none of them have reached definitive conclusions. Although some biological effects on cell culture have been observed, their link with human cancer development is far from established. Most of the animal studies show negative results. Epidemiologic studies lack a sufficient perspective to be able to evaluate the effect of evolving technologies used today. High levels of concern by the public have urged mobile phone operators, manufacturers and governmental authorities to finance a number of scientific projects aimed at defining adapted and effective regulations. PMID:16123002

Colonna, Anne

2005-07-01

140

Current status of permanent total artificial hearts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pneumatic total artificial heats, although demonstrating utility as temporary mechanical circulatory support devices, have not demonstrated a great deal of promise as permanent cardiac replacements. The increasing number of patients who would be candidates for total heart replacement suggests a large role for a permanent implantable total artificial heart. To that end, the Pennsylvania State University is developing an electric motor-driven total artificial heart; the results with implants in calves are encouraging. In this device, a roller-screw mechanism is used to translate the rotation of a brushless direct-current motor into rectilinear motion of a pusher-plate assembly, which in turn empties the blood sacs. The total artificial heart of the future will function under automatic control without percutaneous leads, and this should provide the patient with a nearly normal life-style. Although further experimental efforts are necessary to prepare the device for clinical trials, the technology to provide a safe and reliable electric blood-pump system is at hand. PMID:2912392

Davis, P K; Rosenberg, G; Snyder, A J; Pierce, W S

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Current status of the CLIO project  

CERN Document Server

CLIO (Cryogenic Laser Interferometer Observatory) is a Japanese gravitational wave detector project. One of the main purposes of CLIO is to demonstrate thermal-noise suppression by cooling mirrors for a future Japanese project, LCGT (Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational Telescope). The CLIO site is in Kamioka mine, as is LCGT. The progress of CLIO between 2005 and 2007 (room- and cryogenic-temperature experiments) is introduced in this article. In a room-temperature experiment, we made efforts to improve the sensitivity. The current best sensitivity at 300 K is about $6 \\times 10^{-21} /\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$ around 400 Hz. Below 20 Hz, the strain (not displacement) sensitivity is comparable to that of LIGO, although the baselines of CLIO are 40-times shorter (CLIO: 100m, LIGO: 4km). This is because seismic noise is extremely small in Kamioka mine. We operated the interferometer at room temperature for gravitational wave observations. We obtained 86 hours of data. In the cryogenic experiment, it was confirmed that the...

Yamamoto, K; Miyoki, S; Ohashi, M; Kuroda, K; Ishitsuka, H; Akutsu, T; Telada, S; Tomaru, T; Suzuki, T; Sato, N; Saitô, Y; Higashi, Y; Haruyama, T; Yamamoto, A; Shintomi, T; Tatsumi, D; Ando, M; Tagoshi, H; Kanda, N; Awaya, N; Yamagishi, S; Takahashi, H; Araya, A; Takamori, A; Takemoto, S; Higashi, T; Hayakawa, H; Morii, W; Akamatsu, J

2008-01-01

142

Current surgical status of thyroid diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Panagiotis Touzopoulos1, Michael Karanikas1, Paul Zarogoulidis2, Alexandros Mitrakas1, Konstantinos Porpodis2, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis3, Vasilis Zervas2, Ioannis Kouroumichakis4, Theodoros C Constantinidis5, Dimitrios Mikroulis6, Konstantinos E Tsimogiannis71First Surgery Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 2Pulmonary Department, "G. Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Surgery Department (NHS, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 4Second Internal Medicine Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 5Medical School, Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Protection, Democritus University of Thrace, Regional Laboratory of Public Health, Eastern Macedonia-Thrace, Greece; 6Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 7Surgery Department, "G. Hatzikosta" General Hospital of Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem for surgeons. The clinical importance of nodules is the need to exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5%–15% of patients. If fine needle aspiration cytology is positive, or suspicious for malignancy, surgery is recommended. During the past decade, with the tendency to develop smaller incisions, an endoscopic approach has been applied to thyroid surgery, called minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy. This approach was immediately followed by other minimally invasive or scarless neck techniques, such as the breast approach, axillary-breast approach, and robot-assisted method. All these techniques follow the same principles of surgery and oncology. This review presents the current surgical management of the thyroid gland, including the surgical techniques and compares them by describing benefits and drawbacks of each one.Keywords: thyroidectomy, surgical techniques, thyroid cancer

Touzopoulos P

2011-12-01

143

Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able to expect a creation of economic added value

144

[Current status of ISO 15189 accreditation system].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japan Accreditation Board (JAB) mainly involves the ISO 15189 accreditation system with support from the Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (JCCLS). The currently available procedure to obtain accreditation is as below. Firstly, it is necessary for applicants to prepare ISO 15189 and related documents in each laboratory. Then a JAB assessor will conduct a preliminary assessment to check if the applicant is ready to be accredited. Subsequently, a team consisting of one to five JAB assessors and/or technical experts will conduct the initial assessment, usually for two days. Finally, the team will make a recommendation to the JAB Accreditation Committee for Medical Laboratory on its evaluation for accreditation. If the Accreditation Committee approves the recommendation of the assessment team, the applicant will be granted accreditation and issued with a certificate of accreditation. According to EU data in February 2011, about 1,300 medical laboratories obtained the ISO 15189 accreditation. The numbers of accredited laboratories are 482 in Germany, 276 in England, 209 in France, 100 in Czechoslovakia etc. Similarly, the data for the Asia-Pacific region in June 2011 showed that the numbers of accredited laboratories are 638 in Australia, 287 in India, 220 in Canada, 160 in Taiwan etc. Although 59 laboratories are accredited in Japan, the ISO 15189 accreditation is not so widespread compared with other countries. It is now expected that the government and/or related bodies will have sufficient understanding of this accreditation system to further its development in Japan. [Rinsho Byori 60: 653-659, 2012] PMID:22973726

Watanabe, Kiyoaki; Kubono, Katsuo; Shimoda, Katsuji

2012-07-01

145

Congenital hyperinsulinism: current status and future perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnosis and treatment of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) have made a remarkable progress over the past 20 years and, currently, it is relatively rare to see patients who are left with severe psychomotor delay. The improvement was made possible by the recent developments in the understanding of the molecular and pathological basis of CHI. Known etiologies include inactivating mutations of the KATP channel genes (ABCC8 and KCNJ11) and HNF4A, HNF1A, HADH, and UCP2 or activating mutations of GLUD1, GCK, and SLC16A1. The understanding of the focal form of KATP channel CHI and its detection by (18)F-fluoro-L-DOPA positron emission tomography have revolutionized the management of CHI, and many patients can be cured without postoperative diabetes mellitus. The incidence of the focal form appears to be higher in Asian countries; therefore, the establishment of treatment systems is even more important in this population. In addition to diazoxide or long-term subcutaneous infusion of octreotide or glucagon, long-acting octreotide or lanreotide have also been used successfully until spontaneous remission. Because of these medications, near-total pancreatectomy is less often performed even for the diazoxide-unresponsive diffuse form of CHI. Other promising medications include pasireotide, small-molecule correctors such as sulfonylurea or carbamazepine, GLP1 receptor antagonists, or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Unsolved questions in this field include the identification of the remaining genes responsible for CHI, the mechanisms leading to transient CHI, and the mechanisms responsible for the spontaneous remission of CHI. This article reviews recent developments and hypothesis regarding these questions. PMID:25077087

Yorifuji, Tohru

2014-06-01

146

Antisense therapeutics in oncology: current status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ammad Ahmad Farooqi,1 Zia ur Rehman,2 Jordi Muntane3,4 1Laboratory for Translational Oncology and Personalized Medicine, Rashid Latif Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST, Kohat, Pakistan; 3Department of General Surgery, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS, Hospital Universitary "Virgen del Rocío"/CSIC/University of Seville, Sevilla, Spain; 4Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD o Ciberehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain Abstract: There is increasing progress in translational oncology and tremendous breakthroughs have been made as evidenced by preclinical and clinical trials. Data obtained from high-throughput technologies are deepening our understanding about the molecular and gene network in cancer cells and rapidly emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence is highlighting the role of antisense agents as specific inhibitors of the expression of target genes, thus modulating the response of cancer cells to different therapeutic strategies. Much information is continuously being added into various facets of molecular oncology and it is now understood that overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenes, oncogenic microRNAs (miRNA, and fusion proteins make cancer cells difficult to target. Delivery of antisense oligonucleotides has remained a challenge and technological developments have helped in overcoming hurdles by improving the ability to penetrate cells, effective and targeted binding to gene sequences, and downregulation of target gene function. Different delivery systems, including stable nucleic acid lipid particles, have shown potential in enhancing the delivery of cargo to the target site. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current progress in the development of antisense therapeutics and their potential in medical research. We partition this multicomponent review into introductory aspects about recent breakthroughs in antisense therapeutics. We also discuss how antisense therapeutics have shown potential in resensitizing resistant cancer cells to apoptosis by targeted inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenic miRNAs, and BCR-ABL. Keywords: antisense oligonucleotide, siRNA, miRNA, liposomes, DNAzymes, antisense therapy

Farooqi AA

2014-11-01

147

The current status of HANARO utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) is now operating at 24 MW to meet the user's demands in a variety of utilization fields. The most active field is the neutron scattering and diffraction using the currently available HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction), FCD (Four Circle Diffraction), RSI (Residual Stress Instrument), and SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering). Using these instruments, we have been investigating such characteristics as materials' crystal structure and phase transition, residual stress, texture, and hard and soft matters. Through examination and inspection of the test specimens, NRF (Neutron Radiography Facility) is contributing to such fields as the nuclear industry, ordnance industry, aerospace industry, and archaeology. The second utilization field is the fuel and material irradiation test. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed atomized fuel powder and provided it to USA, France and Argentina. Under the RERTR program, KAERI has been contributing to the development of research reactor fuels of better quality. To test the reactor materials and fuels, instrumented and non-instrumented capsules are widely being used. To produce and supply RIs and pharmaceuticals for medical and industrial purposes, HANARO and its RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility) has been fully complying with demands so that the national welfare might be enhanced by our efforts. NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) is assisting the nuclear industry, environmental research and the promotion of the health area. To support all active utilizations, HANARO operators have been making every effort to not only improve the systems, if needed, but also to avoid the inadvertent reactor trip. Based upon this stable neutron supply, we have been developing and expanding the utilization fields and facilities. The PNS(Polarized Neutron Spectrometer) is under construction and the reflectometer is in preparation. The BNCT(Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) facility is expected to support medical doctors in their in-vitro tests by the end of next year. In the future, KAERI plans to install cold neutron source and research facilities and then HANARO would be a truly powerful neutron source in neutron beam application research. We will begin design and installation of the fuel test loop to support the Korean national nuclear energy program in accordance with the demand for nuclear fuel development. Advanced capsules will also be developed. More effective and value-added RI is also under development continuously. To increase the contribution of the NAA area, we are developing the user-oriented NAA system in HANARO. The irradiator for NTD-Si production is being designed and fabricated. We expect this service to be available for industries early next year. Through these viable activities, the number of users and tested samples, and allocatable beam times will be greatly increased. All of the related staff and groups are doing their best to satisfy the demand of users because HANARO is the Korean sole neutron source operated under the auspices of the taxpayers. (author)

148

The current status of HANARO utilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) is now operating at 24 MW to meet the user's demands in a variety of utilization fields. The most active field is the neutron scattering and diffraction using the currently available HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction), FCD (Four Circle Diffraction), RSI (Residual Stress Instrument), and SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering). Using these instruments, we have been investigating such characteristics as materials' crystal structure and phase transition, residual stress, texture, and hard and soft matters. Through examination and inspection of the test specimens, NRF (Neutron Radiography Facility) is contributing to such fields as the nuclear industry, ordnance industry, aerospace industry, and archaeology. The second utilization field is the fuel and material irradiation test. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed atomized fuel powder and provided it to USA, France and Argentina. Under the RERTR program, KAERI has been contributing to the development of research reactor fuels of better quality. To test the reactor materials and fuels, instrumented and non-instrumented capsules are widely being used. To produce and supply RIs and pharmaceuticals for medical and industrial purposes, HANARO and its RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility) has been fully complying with demands so that the national welfare might be enhanced by our efforts. NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) is assisting the nuclear industry, environmental research and the promotion of the health area. To support all active utilizations, HANARO operators have been making every effort to not only improve the systems, if needed, but also to avoid the inadvertent reactor trip. Based upon this stable neutron supply, we have been developing and expanding the utilization fields and facilities. The PNS(Polarized Neutron Spectrometer) is under construction and the reflectometer is in preparation. The BNCT(Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) facility is expected to support medical doctors in their in-vitro tests by the end of next year. In the future, KAERI plans to install cold neutron source and research facilities and then HANARO would be a truly powerful neutron source in neutron beam application research. We will begin design and installation of the fuel test loop to support the Korean national nuclear energy program in accordance with the demand for nuclear fuel development. Advanced capsules will also be developed. More effective and value-added RI is also under development continuously. To increase the contribution of the NAA area, we are developing the user-oriented NAA system in HANARO. The irradiator for NTD-Si production is being designed and fabricated. We expect this service to be available for industries early next year. Through these viable activities, the number of users and tested samples, and allocatable beam times will be greatly increased. All of the related staff and groups are doing their best to satisfy the demand of users because HANARO is the Korean sole neutron source operated under the auspices of the taxpayers. (author)

Kim, Hark Rho; Lee, Choong Sung; Sohn, Jae Min; Park, Kyung Bae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2003-03-01

149

Ceramic materials for SOFCs: Current status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that the main parts of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs are build from ceramic materials. Namely the ceramic materials and composites, used for SOFCs manufacturing, are objects of the overview in the present work. The analysis carried out covers the last current publications in the field discussed. Special attention and examination in details have been done on patents state-of-the-art. After a background and short classification of the ceramic SOFCs materials the attention is focused on cathode, electrolyte, anode, interconnection and sealing materials. Their requirements, structure, thermal stability, composition control and behavior, processing and performance are the object of overview. A correlation has been made between the phase diagrams oxygen incorporation and transport, and SOFC advantages, generally for materials of lanthanum- base perovskite family. In order to analyze the innovative investigations regarding the patent branch of the SOFCs development and application, an object of review was patents from Japan, USA, Germany and European Union. Some examples of the inventions with accent on the ceramic materials are shown. In addition the tendency regarding R & D activities of SOFCs development materials from the leading companies in the world is analyzed. On the base of the most important technological and economical parameters of cell cathode/electrolyte/anode materials an attempt for evaluation and correlation has been made and innovative conceptions are shown.

Es bien sabido que los componentes principales de las celdas de combustible de óxido sólido (SOFCs estan constituidos por materiales cerámicos. Dichos materiales cerámicos y materiales compuestos que se utilizan en la fabricación de SOFCs son objeto de estudio en el presente trabajo. El análisis llevado a cabo incluye la revisión de las últimas publicaciones en la materia, con una especial atención y examen minucioso sobre las patentes más relevantes. Después de una revisión y breve clasificación de los materiales SOFCs cerámicos, el estudio se centra en la descripción del cátodo, electrolito y ánodo, así como de la unión y materiales de sellado. También se han estudiado sus requisitos, estructura, estabilidad térmica, control composicional y de comportamiento, procesado y rendimiento. Se ha establecido una correlación entre los diagramas de fase de incorporación y transporte de oxígeno y las ventajas de los SOFC, generalmente para materiales de la familia de las perovsquitas basadas en lantano. Con el fin de analizar las investigaciones innovadoras que conciernen al campo del desarrollo y aplicación de SOFCs, se han revisado patentes de Japón, Estados Unidos, Alemania y la Unión Europea. Se dan algunos ejemplos de dichas patentes en las que destaca el papel de los materiales cerámicos. Además, se ha analizado la tendencia en actividades de I + D sobre los SOFCs en compañías líderes mundiales. Se ha intentado realizar una evaluación y correlación en base a los parámetros tecnológicos y económicos más importantes de los materiales de celda cátodo/electrolito/ánodo y se han mostrado conceptos innovadores.

Kozhukharov, V.

2002-10-01

150

STAY HERE, GO FURTHER: The Status of Open and Distance Education in Bangladesh Open University (BOU in comparison to two other South Asian Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distance education has emerged out of social compulsion, the dynamics of change and new cultures. It was the failure of traditional systems to be able to meet the demand in countries, where the resources available for tertiary education are limited, which basically gave birth to the new trend of education known as open and distance education. This new and innovative system of education has received a high level of acceptance in different countries as it offers flexible educational opportunities for continuing education to a large segment of their population. The increasing number of older adult learners with varying lifestyles in the population, increasing competitiveness of getting places in tertiary institutions, higher cost of education and a shortage of teachers are the main factors for increasing the popularity of distance education (Duncan, et al., 2003. Bangladesh has also taken the opportunity to provide a uniform and mass oriented universal system of education through open and distance education establishing Bangladesh Open University (BOU in 1992. Objectives of the Study: The main objectives of this study are-? to assess the overall status of BOU in comparison with the open universities of two neighboring South Asian countries considering the following aspects:•Administrative structural functions, •Courses and instructional strategies, •Learning opportunities, and •Library, laboratory and counselling facilities to explore the potential of improvement for BOU to enable it to meet the challenges of the country’s educational needs in the next millennium.

Monira JAHAN

2012-01-01

151

Iodine deficiency disorders in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

An extensive iodine deficiency disorders survey was conducted in Bangladesh in 1993 to assess the latest iodine nutriture status of the country. The clinical variables of the survey were goitre and cretinism, and the biochemical variable was urinary iodine. The "EPI-30 cluster" sampling methodology was followed for selecting the survey sites. In each survey site, the study population consisted of boys and girls, aged 5-11 years, and men and women, aged 15-44 years, in about equal populations. The total number of survey sites was 78 and the total number of respondents was 30,072. The total number of urine samples was 4512 (15% sub-sample). The current total goitre rate (grade 1 + grade 2) in Bangladesh is 47.1% (hilly, 44.4%; flood-prone, 50.7%; and plains, 45.6%). The prevalence of cretinism in the country is 0.5% (hilly, 0.8%; flood-prone, 0.5%; and plains, 0.3%). Nearly 69% of Bangladeshi population have biochemical iodine deficiency (urinary iodine excretion [UIE] country as a whole is an iodine-deficient region. Important recommendations of global interest are made from the experience of the survey. PMID:10829973

Yusuf, H K; Quazi, S; Kahn, M R; Mohiduzzaman, M; Nahar, B; Rahman, M M; Islam, M N; Khan, M A; Shahidullah, M; Hoque, T; Baquer, M; Pandav, C S

1996-01-01

152

Status of thyroidal radioiodine (I-131) uptake and urinary iodine in Bangladesh population: A re-look following implementation of universal iodination of salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodide plays a central role in thyroid physiology and in the production of thyroid hormones, which are essential for normal vertebrate growth and development. Radioiodine uptake test is one of the oldest radionuclide investigations for evaluation of thyroid function. On the other hand useful information about the nutritional status of a population can be obtained by measuring the prevalence of deficiency in a population. The main aim of this study was to find out the present status of urinary iodine and thyroid uptake status of people living in and around Dhaka City (Bangladesh). The present study was carried out over a period of three years from 1999 to 2002 involving 300 subjects inclusive of 216 females and 84 males. Efforts were made to randomly include people from a broad spectrum of social and economic strata, starting from people belonging to the lowest to the highest income groups; as well as people representing the urban, rural and suburban populations. Urinary iodine levels and 24 hour percentage radioiodine uptake by the thyroid were estimated in all subjects included in this study. Subsequently patients were grouped into four categories based on the values of their percentage 24-hour radioiodine uptake; e.g., Group-A (N-99) with lowest uptake (0-5%), Group-B (N=100) with uptake ranging between 5-10%, Group-C (N=73) with uptake ranging between 10-30% and Group D (N=28) with uptake above 30%. The median 24 hours RAIU values in groups A, B, C and D were 3, 7, values in groups A, B, C and D were 3, 7, 23 and 34% respectively. The corresponding mean urinary iodine levels in the four groups were 43.31, 33.95, 12.97 and 9.35?gm/dl respectively. The results have shown that 1.04, 3.48, 16.72 and 78.74% people studied had levels of urinary iodine indicating severe, moderate, mild or no iodine deficiency respectively as per the WHO Criteria (Severe: <2 ?gm /dl, Moderate: 2-4.9 ?gm /dl, mild: 5.0-9.9?gm /dl, normal: ? 10 ?gm /dl). It may be noted that the normal values of Thyroidal I-131 uptake were standardized in Bangladesh about two and half decades ago. The normal range of 24 hr radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) determined at that time was 10-45%. However in the present study the mean 24 hrs RAIU has been found to be 14.12 % with a SD of 8.33. With regard to urinary iodine, a previous study conducted in the year 1993 had reported that only about 31 % of the Bangladesh population had urinary iodine levels of more than 10gm/dl. But the present study has shown significant increase in the levels of urinary iodine, with more than 78% of people evaluated in the present study having normal levels of urinary iodine (above 10gm/dl). The present study has also demonstrated inverse relationship between urinary iodine level and thyroidal uptake of radioiodine (I-131). These results reflect the effectiveness of universal iodination of common salt in Bangladesh resulting in enhanced iodine status of our population. (author)

153

Structural Learning Theory: Current Status and New Perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the current status of and new perspectives on the Structural Learning Theory (SLT). Special consideration is given to how SLT has been influenced by recent research in software engineering, and the range of possibilities it opens for instructional research and practice in the 21st century. Starting with fundamental precepts of…

Scandura, Joseph M.

154

Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

2010-01-01

155

COMPUTER MODELING OF POLLUTANT DISPERSION AROUND BUILDINGS: CURRENT STATUS  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status of computer modeling of pollutant dispersion around a building is discussed. resently, methods of Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with a closure approach using equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate (k,E) are believed to provide a prac...

156

Current status of studies on temperature fluctuation phenomena in LMFRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the current status of studies being performed in PNC on temperature fluctuation phenomena occurring in fast reactors. The studies concentrate on four problems: thermal stratification, thermal striping, core-plenum interaction and free surface sloshing. Both experimental and analytical approaches to reveal these phenomena and to establish design and safety evaluation methods are presented together with future works. (author)

157

Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India  

Science.gov (United States)

Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

Antony, Pavan John

2013-01-01

158

Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

2010-01-01

159

Current status and future direction of the MONK software package  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of the MONK criticality software package is summarized in terms of recent and current developments and envisaged directions for the future. The areas of the discussion are physics modeling, geometry modeling, source modeling, nuclear data, validation, supporting tools and customer services. In future development plan, MONK continues to be focused on meeting the short and long-term needs of the code user community. (J.P.N.)

160

CMS Data Analysis: Current Status and Future Strategy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present the current status of CMS data analysis architecture and describe work on future Grid-based distributed analysis prototypes. CMS has two main software frameworks related to data analysis: COBRA, the main framework, and IGUANA, the interactive visualisation framework. Software using these frameworks is used today in the world-wide production and analysis of CMS data. We describe their overall design and present examples of their current use with emphasis on interac...

Innocente, Vincenzo

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Healthcare-seeking behaviour among the tribal people of Bangladesh: Can the current health system really meet their needs?  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the wealth of studies on health and healthcare-seeking behaviour among the Bengali population in Bangladesh, relatively few studies have focused specifically on the tribal groups in the country. This study aimed at exploring the context, reasons, and choices in patterns of healthcare-seeking behaviour of the hill tribal population of Bangladesh to present the obstacles and challenges faced in accessing healthcare provision in the tribal areas. Participatory tools and techniques, including focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews, and participant-observations, were used involving 218 men, women, adolescent boys, and girls belonging to nine different tribal communities in six districts. Data were transcribed and analyzed using the narrative analysis approach. The following four main findings emerged from the study, suggesting that the tribal communities may differ from the predominant Bengali population in their health needs and priorities: (a) Traditional healers are still very popular among the tribal population in Bangladesh; (b) Perceptions of the quality and manner of treatment and communication can override costs when it comes to provider-preference; (c) Gender and age play a role in making decisions in households in relation to health matters and treatment-seeking; and (d) Distinct differences exist among the tribal people concerning their knowledge on health, awareness, and treatment-seeking behaviour. The findings challenge the present service-delivery system that has largely been based on the needs and priorities of the plainland population. The present system needs to be reviewed carefully to include a broader approach that takes the sociocultural factors into account, if meaningful improvements are to be made in the health of the tribal people of Bangladesh. PMID:23082637

Rahman, Syed Azizur; Kielmann, Tara; McPake, Barbara; Normand, Charles

2012-09-01

162

Development of structural materials for JSFR - Overview and current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes an overview and current status of the development of structural materials and core materials for Japanese Sodium Fast Reactors which is being conducted within the framework of the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) Project. Employing new materials is one of the most important key technologies that are necessary to achieve required level of safety, reliability and economic competitiveness of the Japanese Sodium Fast Reactors (JSFR). The new structural materials to be adopted in JSFR components are 316FR (Fast Breeder Reactor Grade Type 316 Stainless Steel) and Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. The new core materials are oxide dispersed strengthened (ODS) and precipitation hardened (PH) ferritic steels.The development of these materials including the aspects such as the needs from plant design, material design, data acquisition, fabrication of materials of specific configurations planned for JSFR will be overviewed. Current status and path forward are also described

163

Current status of the LHCf experiment and future plan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider forward (= LHCf experiment has successfully finished the first phase of data taking at LHC ?s = 0.9 and 7 TeV proton-proton collisions in 2010. As current status, we concentrate on analyzing the obtained data. As the first result, the energy spectra of photon measured by LHCf during = 7 TeV p-p collision has been published recently. Also the study of the upgraded version of LHCf detector for future = 14TeV run scenario is developed with the GSO scintillator. Another possible plan of p-A(nuclear collision in LHC is also studied. In this paper, as the current status of the experiment, analyses, and works for foreseen detector upgrade are summarized.

Tamura T.

2013-06-01

164

Current status of cooled IR detectors at i3system  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper shows the current status of cooled IR detector technologies at i3system, South Korea. Mass production technology of i3system has successfully supplied lots of QVGA cooled IR detectors to camera customers. i3system has also developed small pitch cooled IR detectors with 320×256 and 640×512 formats for several different applications such as thermal sights and 24-hour operation observation units. In 2013, i3system's cooled IR detector has been launched in STSAT(Science and Technology SATellite)-2C through Naro-1 program which was South Korea's first successful launch vehicle for satellite. Owing to i3system's robust, intensive design and test programs, IR detector technologies have been space qualified without any further efforts by the space program. Currently, development programs for SXGA(1280×1024) with small pitch cooled detector are being progressed and its status is addressed.

Bae, Sooho; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Lee, Ho-Joon; Jung, Han

2014-06-01

165

Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodiesel and future perspective of the technologies are also discussed.

Yuhuan Liu

2012-07-01

166

Nuclear liability legislation in Russia - current status and expected developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present report is provided by the experts of the Russian insurance business, a company member of the Russian Nuclear Pool, and not the experts of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation (RF Minatom). Considering the above, the following document will outline the current status of nuclear liability legislation and insurance in Russia from a viewpoint of the insurance companies and not RF Minatom. (author)

167

CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI) on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered...

Seok Yoon; Yoon-Doo Kim

2012-01-01

168

Review of the current status of radiation risk estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the current status of radiation risk estimation for low linear energy transfer radiation. Recent statements by various national and international organisations regarding risk estimates are critically discussed. The recently published revised population risk estimates from the study of Japanese bomb survivors are also reviewed and used with some unpublished data from Japan to calculate risk figures for a general work force. (author)

169

Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

Yuhuan Liu; Rongsheng Ruan; Zhenyi Du; Xiaodan Wu

2012-01-01

170

Current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is given of the current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems. At this moment only one comprehensive report is available. In order to review national activities a questionnaire has been distributed amongst national societies of medical physicists. From the 23 responding countries, 8 indicated that only limited efforts are underway, 8 answered that a working group is evaluating their specific national requirements while in 5 countries a document is drafted. The highlights of these reports have been summarized. (author)

171

MONK and MCBEND: Current Status and Recent Developments  

Science.gov (United States)

MONK® and MCBEND are Monte Carlo software packages for: nuclear criticality and reactor physics; and radiation shielding and dosimetry applications, respectively. The codes are actively developed, maintained and supported by AMEC's ANSWERS® Software Service in line with the ANSWERS vision of providing easy-to-use software that meets the current and emerging needs of the user community. This paper summarises the current status of MONK and MCBEND and the recent developments which have been carried out to the codes, and their supporting nuclear data libraries and visualisation package.

Richards, Simon D.; Baker, Chris M. J.; Bird, Adam J.; Cowan, Pat; Davies, Nigel; Dobson, Geoff P.; Fry, Tim C.; Kyrieleis, Albrecht; Smith, Paul N.

2014-06-01

172

Current Status of LHC Physics: Precision Theory View  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the current status of LHC physics from the perspective of precision theory predictions for the attendant QCD and EW higher order corrections. We focus on the interplay between the available data and the predictions for these data viewed in the context of the establishment of baselines for what is needed to exploit fully the discovery potential of the existing LHC data and the data expected by the end of the second LHC run (i.e., 300fb$^{-1}$). We conclude that significant improvement in the currently used theoretical predictions will be mandatory. Possible strategies to achieve such improvement are indicated.

Ward, B F L

2014-01-01

173

Investigation on Current Status of World Nuclear Education and Training  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All over the world, the interest of nuclear energy is increasing and the expectations of it are getting more as one of the most practical alternative energy resources. However, since 1990s, as a lot of nuclear specialists are being retired, now the problem of manpower shortage is taken into consideration for all of us and will be continued until 2011. In this point of view, the good quality of the professional nuclear training and education systems and the nuclear education centers are requested in order to breed and supply the next generation nuclear scientists and engineers. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore the current status of world nuclear education for both of nuclear power countries and potential nuclear power utilization countries in the near future. This report introduces the importance of nuclear energy, the current status of world nuclear power plants operation and the contribution of nuclear energy. Besides, it also includes the nuclear energy development plan of potential nuclear developing countries in the near future. In addition, this study also explores the nuclear training and education systems of the nuclear development countries and the current status of nuclear education in various fields such as government, industries, nuclear power plants ect. Especially, as considering the status of nuclear education classified such as Asia, the Americas, East and West Europe, the Middle East and Africa, it shows the different characteristics of nuclear education systems in each regions aimed to identify the good practices on the nuclear education systems. Finally, through observation of international cooperation and networks of the various nuclear organizations, this will be contributed to the development of nuclear education for member states and be suggested the various of the direction of development for nuclear education in Korea. The report presents in the basis of the recent status data of the world nuclear education systems collected from the IAEA Technical Meeting in 2009. However, due to the limitation time and access to the availability of the nuclear educational systems data, there are many needs not only to update the information and data continuously, but also to explore the world nuclear training and education systems over the next few years. In conclusion, the report is expected to be useful as a reference working material for developing the nuclear education in Korea

Shin, J. Y.; Min, M. J.; Noh, B. C.

2010-04-15

174

Investigation on Current Status of World Nuclear Education and Training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All over the world, the interest of nuclear energy is increasing and the expectations of it are getting more as one of the most practical alternative energy resources. However, since 1990s, as a lot of nuclear specialists are being retired, now the problem of manpower shortage is taken into consideration for all of us and will be continued until 2011. In this point of view, the good quality of the professional nuclear training and education systems and the nuclear education centers are requested in order to breed and supply the next generation nuclear scientists and engineers. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore the current status of world nuclear education for both of nuclear power countries and potential nuclear power utilization countries in the near future. This report introduces the importance of nuclear energy, the current status of world nuclear power plants operation and the contribution of nuclear energy. Besides, it also includes the nuclear energy development plan of potential nuclear developing countries in the near future. In addition, this study also explores the nuclear training and education systems of the nuclear development countries and the current status of nuclear education in various fields such as government, industries, nuclear power plants ect. Especially, as considering the status of nuclear education classified such as Asia, the Americas, East and West Europe, the Middle East and Africa, it shows the different characteristics of nuclear education systems in each regions aimed to identify the good practices on the nuclear education systems. Finally, through observation of international cooperation and networks of the various nuclear organizations, this will be contributed to the development of nuclear education for member states and be suggested the various of the direction of development for nuclear education in Korea. The report presents in the basis of the recent status data of the world nuclear education systems collected from the IAEA Technical Meeting in 2009. However, due to the limitation time and access to the availability of the nuclear educational systems data, there are many needs not only to update the information and data continuously, but also to explore the world nuclear training and education systems over the next few years. In conclusion, the report is expected to be useful as a reference working material for developing the nuclear education in Korea

175

Biomonitoring of arsenic and lead in health indices (hair, blood, etc.) and their interactions and impacts on the nutritional status of Bangladesh population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka under the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission was recently awarded a research contract from the International Atomic Energy Agency to investigate the levels of micronutrients (K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn) and pollutants (As, Pb) in health indices (hair, blood, etc.) to study their interactions and impacts on the nutritional status of Bangladeshi population. The project was scheduled to start in December 2001 and to be completed by November 2002. To date, sampling and sample preparation techniques for heavy metal analysis in hair and blood using XRF/PIXE have been investigated, and some preliminary work on sample analysis has been performed. It indicates that both PIXE and XRF methods can be used for the determination of nutritionally important trace metals in health indices after a simple sample treatment for volume reduction either by oven or freeze drying. Results of Biochemical assessment of nutritional status of Bangladeshi pre-school children under normal and malnutrition conditions from a previous study has been given in the Results section of this paper. There has been found a positive correlation of malnutrition with some nutritional parameters such as fasting blood glucose, serum total protein, serum total albumin, and serum Cu and Zn levels. Hair Zn level had no significant correlation (p>0.05) with serum Zn level but hair Cu level had a positive correlation with serum Cu level. The trace element concentrations in hair of both normal and malnourished children in the age group of 1-5 years, as studied do not show any regular dependence on nutritional status of the subjects. Only the low copper content in the hair of the malnourished group can possibly be linked with nutritional disorders. (author)

176

The Current Status of Research on Coronal Mass Ejections  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are the main drivers of Space Weather and have been the focus of intense research since the mid-1990's. Since 2007, CMEs have even been studied stereoscopically by the STEREO mission. We now have observations spanning more than one solar cycle, 3D information, simultaneous remote and in-situ observations, a wide wavelength coverage, and quite sophisticated MHD simulations. In this talk, I will review our current status of knowledge on the CME phenomenon with an emphasis on the open issues on the geoeffectiveness of these events.

Vourlidas, Angelos

2012-05-01

177

Current status and some aspects of the future energy strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current status of the energy production and of the energy sources in the world, European Union, Serbia and Montenegro and the Balkan states is analyzed. Some trends in the energy consumption and productions in some European states are analyzed. Some problems of the Serbia and Montenegro energy production system are compared with situation in neighbor states, Germany, and European Union. At present, anywhere in the world, the nuclear power in on the defensive. In some countries it has been even outlawed. Some parameters show that nuclear power, on the global scale and during this century at least, is absolutely essential and reasons for revival of nuclear energy are realistic. (author)

178

Current status and future prospects on nuclear industry in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

olitical and social disputes on nuclear generation are continuing while we all are facing urgent challenges, including the concerns about the safety of nuclear generation, procuring site to build nuclear power plants, and the improvement of competitiveness. Please allow me to remind you that it is very important for the world's nuclear societies to cooperate together in order to overcome diverse difficulties along our path and to contribute to the development of mankind and preservation of natural environments with nuclear power as a fundamental energy resource. Now, let me introduce you to the present the current status and future prospects of nuclear industry in Korea

179

Current status of radiation application in the KURRI-LINAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron linear accelerator (KURRI-LINAC) was originally established in 1965 as a pulsed-neutron source. In recent years, the KURRI-LINAC is used as various types of particle beam source such as neutron, electron and photon. The research region covers a wide field of nuclear data acquisition with the neutron time-of-flight method and a lead slowing-down spectrometer, a spectroscopy with coherent THz radiation, low-temperature electron irradiation, isotope production by bremsstrahlung. In this paper, current status of radiation application in the KURRI-LINAC is reviewed. (author)

180

On the current status of Phakopsora pachyrhizi genome sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in the field of sequencing technologies and bioinformatics allow a more rapid access to genomes of non-model organisms at sinking costs. Accordingly, draft genomes of several economically important cereal rust fungi have been released in the last 3 years. Aside from the very recent flax rust and poplar rust draft assemblies there are no genomic data available for other dicot-infecting rust fungi. In this article we outline rust fungus sequencing efforts and comment on the current status of Phakopsora pachyrhizi (Asian soybean rust) genome sequencing. PMID:25221558

Loehrer, Marco; Vogel, Alexander; Huettel, Bruno; Reinhardt, Richard; Benes, Vladimir; Duplessis, Sébastien; Usadel, Björn; Schaffrath, Ulrich

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Antitubercular drug development: current status and research strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent developments and novel research strategies are adopted widely to discover and develop the new drugs to treat tuberculosis. New antitubercular drugs are urgently needed because tuberculosis remains a global health problem as around nine million new cases are estimated each year with almost two million fatalities. It states the impact and outcomes that have made a significant effect in antitubercular drug development. We are presenting current status of tuberculosis, antitubercular drug development, novel molecular targets, novel agents in clinical and pre-clinical development and some efforts that are being made in the development of novel molecules based on different pharmacophores as lead compounds and recent strategies. PMID:23895192

Barot, Kuldipsinh P; Nikolova, Stoyanka; Ivanov, Illiyan; Ghate, Manjunath D

2013-10-01

182

Laparoscopic surgery for inguinal hernia: Current status and controversies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Repair of inguinal hernia is one of the commonest operations performed by surgeons around the world. The treatment of this common problem has seen an evolution from the pure tissue repairs to the prosthetic repairs and in the recent past to laparoscopic repair. The fact that so many hernia repairs are practiced is a testimony to the fact that probably none is distinctly superior to the other. This review assesses the current status of surgery for repair of inguinal hernia and examines the various controversial issues surrounding the subject.

Bhandarkar Deepraj

2006-01-01

183

Current status of examinations and investigations in oxide-pyroprocess  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oxide pyroprocess includes the treatment of the spent oxide fuels from LWR or FBR in high temperature molten salts using chlorine gas, followed by recovery of uranium and plutonium as the form of oxides by electro-deposition or precipitation methods. The process does not use water, this relaxing the criticality requirements resulting in compact equipment and low decontamination factor. Nuclear Power R and D Center, Tokyo Electric Power Co. has been working on oxide-pyroprocess these ten years in collaboration with RIAR for the development of the next generation reprocessing technology. The current status on the research will be presented. (S. Ohno)

Amano, Osamu; Sudo, K.; Yasui, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

2001-12-01

184

Andrology in China: current status and 10 years' progress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Andrology has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. There are records of male sexual health, male sexual dysfunction and male infertility from over thousands of years ago. Modern andrology in China had a late start, with the Chinese Andrology Association founded in 1995. Within last decade, andrology in China has grown rapidly. In this review article, we summarized the progress of andrology in last 10 years and outlined the current status of Chinese andrology with a special focus on progress in male erectile dysfunction, prostate diseases, male infertility and male hormonal contraception. PMID:21642997

Hong, Kai; Xu, Qing-Quan; Zhao, Yong-Ping; Gu, Yi-Qun; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Ji-Chuan

2011-07-01

185

The current status of the Canadian home fitness test.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current status of the Canadian Home Fitness Test is reviewed. This simple procedure was originally conceived for the mass testing of fitness levels and for home use as a motivational tool in exercise programmes. The test is carried out on a double 8 inch step (such as a domestic staircase) at an age and sex-specific rhythm set by a long-playing record. Fitness is assessed from a combination of test-duration and the radial or carotid pulse count immediately following exercise. Use of the p...

Shephard, R. J.

1980-01-01

186

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends  

CERN Document Server

Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

Loo, Jonathan

2011-01-01

187

ZnO growth technologies: current status and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of new technologies for ZnO nano materials and thin films is of critical importance for further fundamental investigations and practical applications. We discuss on the main technical control of the synthesis of zinc oxide and its properties, which are of significance in understanding the growth mechanism and further developing ZnO-based devices. Next, we present a brief summary of recent research activities, current status and progress in developing improved control of technological processes for zinc oxide as advanced material.

188

Current status of the Taiwan Photon Source project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The progress of establishment of a high brightness and low emittance mid-energy storage ring is reported. The status of the 3 GeV Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) currently under construction will be presented. The progress on the civil construction, manufacturing of machine components, as well as the opportunity of using low emittace synchrotron source and phase I beamlines at TPS will be mentioned. The future planning of phase II beamlines and related research will be sketched. Future developments will be also briefly outlined.

Chang, Shih-Lin [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu, 30076 Taiwan (China)

2014-03-05

189

Current status of standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the wide-spread and application of acupuncture and moxibustion, the demand of its standardization construction is increasingly prominent. On the basis of further investigation into the standards of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, this article summarize the research status of Chinese standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion, analyse some problems existing in current construction of acupuncture and moxibustion standardization, and put forward several strategies for moving forward, in order to show an overall and objective understanding of acupuncture and moxibustion standardization. PMID:24300161

Hong, S H; Wu, F; Ding, S S; Wang, Z X; Chen, B; Chen, Z L; Guo, Y

2014-03-01

190

Current status of large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) project is the proposed advancement of TAMA, which will be able to detect the coalescences of binary neutron stars occurring in our galaxy. LCGT intends to detect the coalescence events within about 240 Mpc, the rate of which is expected to be from 0.1 to several events in a year. LCGT has Fabry-Perot cavities of 3 km baseline and the mirrors are cooled down to a cryogenic temperature of 20 K. It is planned to be built in the underground of Kamioka mine. This paper overviews the revision of the design and the current status of the R and D

191

Current development status of advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current development status of advanced (high converting) pressurized water reactors (APWRs) is briefly reviewed. The areas covered are: reactor physics, thermohydraulics and other technical aspects, as well as electricity generating costs and longterm reactor strategical considerations related to the APWR's role in a plutonium economy. There does not seem to be any unsurmountable technical obstacle to the realization of an APWR. However, substantial further R and D efforts are required if an APWR is to go into commercial operation by the end of the century. (author)

192

Current status of nuclear cardiology: a limited review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To summarize the current status of nuclear cardiology, the authors will focus on areas that the emphasize the specific advantages of nuclear cardiology methods: (a) their benign, noninvasive nature, (b) their pathophysiologic nature, and (c) the ease of their computer manipulation and analysis, permitting quantitative evaluation. The areas covered include: (a) blood pool scintigraphy and parametric imaging, (b) pharmacologic intervention for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, (c) scintigraphic studies for the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease, and (d) considerations of cost effectiveness

193

The current status and problems of fission-track dating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reviews the current status and problems of Fission Track Dating (FTD) in the light of the transactions held at the FTD Workshop at Pisa in September 1980. These include uncertainties regarding the best value of the 238U fission-decay constant and the (often related) methods of thermal-neutron dosimetry and use of age standards; temperature effects on fission tracks, with emphasis on methods of correcting and interpreting thermally-lowered ages; and statistical problems encountered in FTD analysis. It is concluded that a consensus needs to be reached on several of the above topics before comparable ages and compatible geological interpretations can be obtained from different laboratories. (author)

194

Current status of the PSG Monte Carlo neutron transport code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PSG is a new Monte Carlo neutron transport code, developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The code is mainly intended for fuel assembly-level reactor physics calculations, such as group constant generation for deterministic reactor simulator codes. This paper presents the current status of the project and the essential capabilities of the code. Although the main application of PSG is in lattice calculations, the geometry is not restricted in two dimensions. This paper presents the validation of PSG against the experimental results of the three-dimensional MOX fuelled VENUS-2 reactor dosimetry benchmark. (authors)

195

Promotion of well-switching to mitigate the current arsenic crisis in Bangladesh / Promotion de changement d'utilisation de puits afin de réduire l'exposition à l'arsenic au Bangladesh / Promoción del uso de pozos seleccionados para reducir la exposición al arsénico en Bangladesh  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Hacer un análisis sobre los pozos y los hogares de la upazila de Araihazar (Bangladesh), a fin de sentar las bases para llevar a cabo un estudio epidemiológico a largo plazo sobre las consecuencias de la exposición crónica a arsénico. MÉTODOS: Durante un periodo de 4 meses de 2000, se obtu [...] vieron muestras de agua a partir de 4997 pozos cercanos que abastecían a una población de 55 000 personas, y se reunieron datos de los hogares próximos; la situación de cada pozo se determinó con una precisión de ± 30 m utilizando receptores del Sistema Mundial de Determinación de la Posición. Las concentraciones de arsénico se analizaron mediante espectrometría de absorción atómica en horno de grafito. Se analizó asimismo la presencia de arsénico en muestras de agua subterránea recogidas cada 2 semanas durante todo un año en seis pozos, empleando para ello la técnica de espectrometría de masas de alta resolución por plasma de acoplación. RESULTADOS: La mitad de los pozos examinados en Araihazar habían sido practicados en los 5 años anteriores, y el 94% eran privados. Sólo un 48% de los pozos suministraban agua con un contenido de arsénico inferior a 50myg/l, el límite fijado actualmente en Bangladesh para el agua potable. Al igual que en otras regiones de Bangladesh y Bengala occidental (India), la concentración de arsénico en Araihazar varía mucho de un lugar a otro (intervalo: 5-860 myg/l), y es por tanto difícil de predecir. Debido a esa variabilidad, sin embargo, casi un 90% de los habitantes vive a menos de 100 m de un pozo salubre. La vigilancia de seis pozos que actualmente se ajustan al límite mencionado de 50 myg/l no reveló ningún dato que sugiriera la existencia de un ciclo estacional de las concentraciones de arsénico paralelo al ciclo hidrológico. Esto lleva a pensar que el cambio de pozos constituye una opción viable en Araihazar, al menos como solución a corto plazo. CONCLUSIÓN: Es preciso fomentar de manera más sistemática el uso de pozos seleccionados en Araihazar y en muchas otras partes de Bangladesh y Bengala occidental (India), y hay que conocer mejor las barreras sociales con que tropieza esa iniciativa para superarlas en la medida de lo posible. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To survey tube wells and households in Araihazar upazila, Bangladesh, to set the stage for a long-term epidemiological study of the consequences of chronic arsenic exposure. METHODS: Water samples and household data were collected over a period of 4 months in 2000 from 4997 contiguous tub [...] e wells serving a population of 55 000, the position of each well being determined to within ± 30 m using Global Positioning System receivers. Arsenic concentrations were determined by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. In addition, groundwater samples collected every 2 weeks for an entire year from six tube wells were analysed for arsenic by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. FINDINGS: Half of the wells surveyed in Araihazar had been installed in the previous 5 years; 94% were privately owned. Only about 48% of the surveyed wells supplied water with an arsenic content below 50 mug/l, the current Bangladesh standard for drinking-water. Similar to other regions of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, the distribution of arsenic in Araihazar is spatially highly variable (range: 5-860 mug/l) and therefore difficult to predict. Because of this variability, however, close to 90% of the inhabitants live within 100 m of a safe well. Monitoring of six tube wells currently meeting the 50 mug/l standard showed no indication of a seasonal cycle in arsenic concentrations coupled to the hydrological cycle. This suggests that well-switching is a viable option in Araihazar, at least for the short term. CONCLUSIONS: Well-switching should be more systematically encouraged in Araihazar and many other parts of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Social barriers to well-switching need to be

Alexander, van Geen; Habibul, Ahsan; Allan H., Horneman; Ratan K., Dhar; Yan, Zheng; Iftikhhar, Hussain; Kazi Matin, Ahmed; Andrew, Gelman; Martin, Stute; H. James, Simpson; Sean, Wallace; Christopher, Small; Faruque, Parvez; Vesna, Slavkovich; Nancy J., LoIacono; Marck, Becker; Zhongqi, Cheng; Hassina, Momotaj; Mohammad, Shahnewaz; Ashraf Ali, Seddique; Joseph H., Graziano.

2002-09-01

196

Bangladesh - norad.no  

...Since 1994 Norway has been supporting the grass root organisation Bangladesh Mahila Parishad (BMP ). The organisation works to promote women’s rights through ... Some results: BMP has contributed to shaping of new legislation which was passed in 2012, the Hindu Marriage Act, Human Trafficking ...Deterrence and the Suppression Act BMP participated in and organised several demonstrations against violation of the rights of minorities and individuals BMP offered arbitration ...provide financial compensation to victims Local authorities referred several arbitration cases to BMP, and their reputation and status enables them to put pressure ...

197

Product ecodesign and materials: current status and future prospects  

CERN Document Server

The aim of this paper is to discuss the current status of ecodesign in the industry and its future implications for materials. There is today more and more focus on the environmental impacts of products during their whole life cycle. In particular, ecodesign aims at integrating environmental aspects during the product's design process as any other criterion, in order to reduce the life cycle impacts. Although a lot of product environmental impact assessment and Design for Environment tools already exist, environmental aspects are unfortunately rarely routinely integrated into product development process in the industry. This is mainly due to the fact that current ecodesign tools are little adapted to designers' practices, requirements and competencies. After the sequential and DfX paradigms, design of products is today maturing into Integrated Design, where multiple points of views and expertise have to be considered at the same time to progressively define the product.

Mathieux, Fabrice; Zwolinski, Peggy

2007-01-01

198

Current status of maintenance therapy for advanced ovarian cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Joanie Mayer Hope, Stephanie V BlankNew York University School of Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, New York NY, USAAbstract: Even after countered with and responding to maximal surgical and chemotherapy efforts, advanced ovarian cancer usually ultimately recurs. One strategy employed to forestall recurrence is maintenance chemotherapy, an extension of treatment following a complete response to conventional measures. Many agents have been studied and many more are currently under investigation in maintenance regimens. While phase III data suggest that taxane maintenance prolongs progression-free survival, no overall survival benefit has been established. This article reviews the current status of maintenance therapy for advanced ovarian cancer, including phase III evidence and new and upcoming trials.Keywords: maintenance therapy, consolidation therapy, advanced ovarian cancer

Joanie Mayer Hope

2009-11-01

199

Current status of surrogacy in Japan and uterine transplantation research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART) have made it possible to circumvent many causes of male and female infertility. The right to have a child by ART has been respected for infertile couples. However, there are currently no legal regulations concerning ART in Japan, and this has resulted in social and ethical problems. Surrogacy involves particularly complex medical, ethical, social, and legal issues, and is frequently focused on as a major social concern. Uterine transplantation (UTx) is a potential alternative for young women with uterine factor infertility due to hysterectomy for treatment of a malignant uterine tumor or massive blood loss after delivery, or because of a congenital disease such as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster syndrome. UTx has been examined in experimental animals as a basis for establishment of fecundity for young women with uterine factor infertility. In this review, we focus on surrogacy in Japan and UTx research, and discuss the current status and concerns in this field. PMID:21632170

Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Iida, Takuya; Yoshimura, Yasunori

2011-10-01

200

Study of Grants, new Mexico, uranium miners: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Uranium Epidemiology Study at the University of New Mexico was initiated in 1977 with the objective of assessing health effects of uranium mining in the Grants, New Mexico, area. The planned approach was a cohort study of mortality that would capitalize on the availability of health records at the Grants Clinic. The first year's work confirmed the study's feasibility (Buechley, 1979). Subsequent efforts have focused on the health and exposure data base and comprehensive follow-up. A retrospective cohort study of early miners is in progress; a prospective cohort study of miners who began working under the current federal standard is planned. This report will summarize the current status of the Uranium Epidemiology Study

 
 
 
 
201

The current status of medical marijuana in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy. This article will review the history of laws to regulate drugs in the United States in the 20th century to provide context for the current status of medical marijuana. It will include the rationale for opposing medical marijuana laws and the problem of the Schedule I inclusion of marijuana as well as other drugs. It will examine the problems associated with smoking raw marijuana and review other routes of administration. Finally, it examines the inadvisability of medicine's promotion of smoked marijuana. PMID:24765557

McKenna, Gerald J

2014-04-01

202

Current status of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru  

Science.gov (United States)

Raven is a Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) scientific demonstrator which will be used on-sky at the Subaru observatory from 2014. Raven is currently being built and tested at the University of Victoria AO Lab. This paper presents an overview of the optomechanical design and the software architecture of Raven, and gives the current status of this project. Raven includes three open loop wavefront sensors (WFSs), a laser guide star WFS and two figure/truth WFSs. Two science channels containing deformable mirrors (DMs) feed light to the Subaru IRCS spectrograph. Central to the Raven is a Calibration Unit which contains multiple sources, a telescope simulator including two phase screens and a ground layer DM that can be used to calibrate and test Raven in the lab. Preliminary results on calibration and open-loop AO correction using a tomographic reconstructor are presented.

Lardière, Olivier; Andersen, David; Bradley, Colin; Blain, Célia; Gamroth, Darryl; Jackson, Kate; Lach, Przemek; Nash, Reston; Oya, Shin; Pham, Laurie; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Correia, Carlos

2013-12-01

203

Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy [...] -makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

Manuel, Calvopiña; Daniel, Romero; Byron, Castañeda; Yoshihisa, Hashiguchi; Hiromu, Sugiyama.

2014-11-01

204

Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

2014-11-01

205

Generic Medicine Pricing Policies in Europe: Current Status and Impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generic medicine pricing is an area of national responsibility of European Union countries. This article aims to present the current status and impact of generic medicine pricing policies in ambulatory care in Europe. The study conducts a literature review of policies relating to free-pricing systems, price-regulated systems, price differentiation, price competition and discounts, and tendering procedures; and a survey of European generic medicine pricing policies. Competition from Indian generic medicine manufacturers, European variation in generic medicine prices and competition between generic medicine manufacturers by discount suggest that the potential savings to health care payers and patients from generic medicines are not fully realized in Europe. One way of attaining these savings may be to move away from competition by discount to competition by price. Free-pricing systems may drive medicine prices downwards under specific conditions. In price-regulated systems, regulation may lower prices of originator and generic medicines, but may also remove incentives for additional price reductions beyond those imposed by regulation. To date, little is known about the current status and impact of tendering procedures for medicines in ambulatory care. In conclusion, the European experience suggests that there is not a single approach towards developing generic medicine pricing policies in Europe.

Pieter Dylst

2010-03-01

206

Thyroid status and potassium currents in rat ventricular myocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The size and rate dependence of the transient (Ito) and steady-state (Iss) outward potassium currents were investigated in isolated rat ventricular myocytes obtained from euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats, using the whole cell, suction electrode voltage-clamp method. Under hypothyroid conditions Ito was reduced in size, with no significant change in Iss. In hypothyroid cells, the rate dependence of both currents was greatly enhanced, resulting in a much larger attenuation with increasing stimulation rates. A significant slowing of the recovery kinetics of Ito was observed. These effects of hypothyroidism were reversed by physiological triiodothyronine (T3) replacement. These current changes were reflected in an altered rate dependence of the action potential configuration in hypothyroid myocytes. Under hyperthyroid conditions no significant changes were observed in the amplitude or time course of recovery of Ito. Iss amplitude was increased, but no changes were found in its rate dependence. These results are discussed in terms of hormonal, long-term modulation of potassium currents, and in terms of cardiac pathology under conditions of altered thyroid status. PMID:7864182

Shimoni, Y; Severson, D L

1995-02-01

207

Food consumption, energy and nutrient intake and nutritional status in rural Bangladesh: changes from 1981-1982 to 1995-96  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To determine and evaluate changes in nutritional status, food consumption, energy and nutrient intake in rural Bangladesh, using appropriate statistical analyses. Design: Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Two seasons in 1981-1982 and 1995-1996. Setting: Two villages with different production patterns. Subjects: Anthropometric measurements of 1883 individuals, food consumption data of 404 households. Methods: Repeated measurements of one-day food weighing and anthropometry in two seasons in 1981-1982 and 1995-1996. Mixed model analyses were used to evaluate and quantify temporal changes and their interactions with determinants. Results: Prevalence of underweight children decreased from 82 to 70% (P = 0.015), wasted children from 34% to 18% (P = 0.009) and chronic energy deficient adults decreased from 78 to 64% (P <0.0001). Intake of fish and green leafy vegetables increased from (I.s. mean +/- s.e.) 23 +/- 3.0 to 40 +/- 1.8g/person/day (P <0.001) and from 28 +/- 4.5 to 41 +/- 2.7g/person/day (P= 0.019), respectively. Rice intake remained unchanged: 463 +/- 12 g raw/person/day in 1981-1982 and 450 +/- 7.3 g raw/person/day in 1995-1996(P = 0.355). Calciumand iron intakes increased by 40% (P <0.0001)and 16% (P = 0.0002), respectively, whereas vitamin A intake remained unchanged. Conclusions: Nutritional status improved and intakes of nutrient dense food groups, fat, iron and calcium increased from 1981-1982 to 1995-1996.

Hels, O.; Hassan, N.

2003-01-01

208

The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. Objective: We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. Methods: We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. Results: One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–2.8 times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0–3.0 times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.0 times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4–2.3 times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. Conclusions: This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.

Towfiqua Mahfuza Islam

2014-05-01

209

Current Diagnosis, Treatment and Etiology of Status Epilepticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Status Epilepticus (SE is a medical emergency that causes significant morbidity and mortality and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Although SE can be divided into two subgroups as convulsive and nonconvulsive, treatment principles are generally similar. Treatment should be prompt and underlying cause should be corrected. Although intravenous lorazepam is the first-line treatment due to a lower risk of relapse, diazepam becomes the first choice since loeazepan is not available in our country. Even though intravenous benzodiazepine stops seizures, intravenous antiepileptic drug (phenytoin, etc. should be administered at a loading dose. Patients with refractory status epilepticus should be supported with respect to vital, respiratory, metabolic and hemodynamic aspects and followed up in an intensive care unit to monitor cerebral electrical activity. The most common cause in the etiology is the cessation of antiepileptic drugs. The aim of SE treatment is to stop seizures and prevent complications and recurrence. In this paper, current diagnosis, treatment and etiology of SE are reviewed.

Çetin Kür?ad Akp?nar

2014-03-01

210

The current status of major tick borne diseases in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick-borne diseases occurring in Zambia are assuming more importance as they continue to be a major economic problem not only in Zambia, but in many parts of Eastern, Southern and Central Africa. The current control methods, which include the use of toxic acaricides to kill ticks, and the virulent sporozoite infection and treatment method have limitations. Recombinant vaccines, currently in their experimental stages, offer hope for the future. The use of acaricides is hampered by the development of acaricide resistance and live vaccines are dependent on cold chain facilities, which are a formidable obstacle in the poorly developed infrastructure in parts of Zambia where the vaccine is most needed. Amidst these drawbacks are the results of the recent research on parasites and vector recombinant vaccines which promise to circumvent these problems. The history, current status and attitudes regarding the control of these diseases, taking into account their complexity, are reviewed. The establishment of the well-designed Central Veterinary Research Institute (CVRI) and Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) sponsored veterinary school, both have a potential for high quality research, with access to a wealth of specimens a veritable goldmine of research material. It is thus hoped that this review will stimulate the desire to maximize the value of the tick and tick-borne disease research in both Zambia and the international research community. PMID:12588682

Makala, Levi Hakwale; Mangani, Peter; Fujisaki, Kozo; Nagasawa, Hideyuki

2003-01-01

211

Current status of the Fastbus Micro-Vax  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present hardware, firmware, and software design and status of the Fastbus Micro-VAX, a two board Fastbus module packaging of the DEC Micro-VAX II computing system, is described. The hardware currently features an Intel 80186, equipped with 64 kB of ROM, 32 kB of RAM, and an 82586/82501 Ethernet port, as a front end I/O processor, plus a high bandwidth Fastbus interface implemented in semi-custom ECL 100K VLSI with the Motorola MCA2500ECL macrocell array. Standard 80186 firmware implements multiple Fastbus segment drivers and interrupt receivers software compatible with the UPI, a limited Fastbus interprocessor network, and emulations of the DEC DEQNA Ethernet interface and an MSCP disk interface. Software includes device drivers for the non-DEC devices, plus appropriate standard access subroutines for the Fastbus and network devices

212

Underground coal gasification: a brief review of current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal gasification is a promising option for the future use of coal. Similarly to gasification in industrial reactors, underground coal gasification (UCG) produces syngas, which can be used for power generation or for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and other valuable chemical products. As compared with conventional mining and surface gasification, UCG promises lower capital/operating costs and also has other advantages, such as no human labor underground. In addition, UCG has the potential to be linked with carbon capture and sequestration. The increasing demand for energy, depletion of oil and gas resources, and threat of global climate change lead to growing interest in UCG throughout the world. In this article, we review the current status of this technology, focusing on recent developments in various countries.

Shafirovich, E.; Varma, A. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

2009-09-15

213

Positron emission tomography in China: current status and prospect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the current status and prospect of positron emission tomography (PET) in mainland of China. There are 22 PET centers (including those being set up) and 4 PET scanners till March of 2003. FDG is provided by both 2 sets IBA 30 MeV cyclotrons and 17 house cyclotrons in PET centers. The following key aspects on the development of PET were discussed: PET examination cost has not been covered by the national health care system at present; numbers of PET should be increased limitedly, and its growth-up should keep balance with GDP (economic level); it is necessary to have cooperation between basic sciences (engineering, chemistry, computer science) and clinical medicine (radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, oncology); we should pay more attention to PET staff training; it is time to found the PET community as a subordinate unit of Chinese Nuclear Society or Chinese Society of Nuclear Medicine, China Medical Association

214

Indian fast reactor technology: current status and future programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper brings out the advantages of fast breeder reactor and importance of developing closed nuclear fuel cycle for the large scale energy production, which is followed by its salient safety features. Further, the current status and future strategy of the fast reactor programme since the inception through 40 MWt/13 MWe Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), is highlighted. The challenges and achievements in science and technology of FBRs focusing on safety are described with the particular reference to 500 MWe capacity Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), being commissioned at Kalpakkam. Roadmap with comprehensive R and D for the large scale deployment of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs) and timely introduction of metallic fuel reactors with emphasis on breeding gain and enhanced safety are being brought out in this paper. (author)

215

Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS. Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

Sung Ill Jang

2014-07-01

216

Nano-JASMINE: current status and data output  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status of the Nano-JASMINE project is reported. Nano-JASMINE is a very small-sized (50 cm cubic form) satellite that is expected to carry out astrometric observations of nearby bright stars. The satellite will determine distances of more than 8000 stars by performing annual parallax measurements, which is the only direct method to measure the distance of an astronomical object. The mission is required to continue for more than two years to obtain reliable annual parallax measurements. In addition, Nano-JASMINE will serve as a preliminary to the main JASMINE mission. We expect that Nano-JASMINE will be launched in August 2011 from the Alcantara Space Center in Brazil using the Cyclone-4 rocket.

Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Yano, Taihei; Gouda, Naoteru; Niwa, Yoshito; Murooka, Jyunpei; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Sako, Nobutada; Nakasuka, Shin'ichi

2010-07-01

217

Current status of thermoluminescence studies on minerals and rocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The usefulness of thermoluminescence (TL) in geological studies is being increasingly recognized, as may be judged from the considerable volume of literature accumulated over the past couple of decades; besides, a number of seminars, conferences and specialists' meetings have also been held on the subject of applied TL. However, these publications lie scattered over several periodicals and conference proceedings and an interested worker finds it difficult to obtain the gist of the contributions in one place. The present authors felt a need for this and have, therefore, attempted to bring together in this Report the current status of TL research about different minerals; applications in the fields of geochronology, ore-prospecting, stratigraphic correlation, geothermometry and other useful areas are also included. (author)

218

Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

1998-03-01

219

The current status of TRR-II project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TRR-II organization has been reorganized to enhance the project management and to minimize the interfaces among decommissioning, reactor reconstruction, and experimental facilities design. Several modifications suggested by the reviewing committee members to upgrade our reactor had been actualized in the present design. An extension of one year of the schedule due to the delay of old TRR removal engineering bid process was proposed by the project and approved by the authorities. The duration of the project will then be July 1998 - Dec. 2006. In the mean time, the project is able to spend more time exploring the design and construction techniques of reactor system, and training of personnel for neutron application research. The progresses of the project in the past 18 months and the current technical status of the project are described in the order of integral planning and management, TRR dismantling, TRR-II reconstruction, and TRR-II experimental facility. (orig.)

220

Current Status of QA For Nuclear Power Plants in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is the current status of QA and our QA experiences with nuclear power plants against the background of the Japanese social and business environment. Accordingly, in 1972, 'The Guidance for Quality Assurance in Construction of Nuclear Power Plants' based on U. S. 10CEF50 Appendix B, was published by the Japan Electric Association. 'Jug-4101 The Guide for Quality Assurance of Nuclear Power Plants' has been prepared by referring to the IAEA QA code. The Guide has been accepted by the Japanese nuclear industry and applied to the QA programs of every organization concerned therewith. The Japanese approach to higher quality will naturally be different from that of other countries because of Japan's cultural, social, and economic conditions. Even higher quality is being aimed at through the LWR Improvement and Standardization Program and coordinated quality assurance efforts

 
 
 
 
221

Current status of sentinel lymph node biopsy in solid malignancies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy were first reported in 1977 by Cabanas for penile cancer. Since that time, the technique has become rapidly assimilated into clinical practice. The sentinel node concept has been validated in cutaneous melanoma and breast cancer. However, follow-up data of patients from randomised trials is needed to establish the clinical significance of sentinel lymph node biopsy before accepting the procedure as a standard of care. This technique has the potential to be utilised in all solid tumours like colon, gastric, oesophageal, lung, gynaecologic, and head and neck cancer. This paper reviews the current status of sentinel lymph node biopsy in solid tumours.

Mansel Robert E

2004-04-01

222

Wind energy technology and current status: a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper provides an overview of the historical development of wind energy technology and discusses the current status of grid-connected as well as stand-alone wind power generation worldwide. During the last decade of the 20th century, grid-connected wind capacity worldwide has doubled approximately every three years. Due to the fast market development, wind turbine technology has experienced an important evolution over time. An overview of the different design approaches is given and issues like power grid integration, economics, environmental impact and special system applications, such as offshore wind energy, are discussed. Due to the complexity of the wind energy technology, however, this paper mainly aims at presenting a brief overview of the relevant wind turbine and wind project issues. Therefore, detailed information on further readings and related organisations is included. (Author)

Ackermann, Thomas; Soeder, Lennart [Royal Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electric Power Engineering, Stockholm (Sweden)

2000-12-01

223

The current status of biosynthetic mesh for ventral hernia repair.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although synthetic mesh has dramatically reduced recurrence in elective hernia repair, its use in contaminated surgical fields has been traditionally associated with complications such as wound sepsis, enterocutaneous fistulas, and chronic prosthetic infection. Biologic meshes emerged in the late 1990s with a rapid popularity fueled largely by the demand for an appropriate substitute in lieu of synthetic mesh in these complex cases; however, the high cost and rate of hernia recurrence have tempered the initial enthusiasm. Biosynthetic meshes were developed as a possible cost-effective alternative to both synthetic and tissue-derived products. Using biodegradable polymers instead of animal or cadaver tissue, they provide a temporary scaffold for deposition of proteins and cells necessary for tissue ingrowth, neovascularization, and host integration. Herein we review the current status of biosynthetic meshes for hernia repair. PMID:25396323

Kim, Mimi; Oommen, Bindhu; Ross, Samuel W; Lincourt, Amy E; Matthews, Brent D; Heniford, B Todd; Augenstein, Vedra A

2014-11-01

224

Semiparametric Additive Transformation Model under Current Status Data  

CERN Document Server

We consider the efficient estimation of the semiparametric additive transformation model with current status data. A wide range of survival models and econometric models can be incorporated into this general transformation framework. We apply the B-spline approach to simultaneously estimate the linear regression vector, the nondecreasing transformation function, and a set of nonparametric regression functions. We show that the parametric estimate is semiparametric efficient in the presence of multiple nonparametric nuisance functions. An explicit consistent B-spline estimate of the asymptotic variance is also provided. All nonparametric estimates are smooth, and shown to be uniformly consistent and have faster than cubic rate of convergence. Interestingly, we observe the convergence rate interfere phenomenon, i.e., the convergence rates of B-spline estimators are all slowed down to equal the slowest one. The constrained optimization is not required in our implementation. Numerical results are used to illustra...

Cheng, Guang

2011-01-01

225

Current status and limitations of single photon emission imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the current status and limitations of Single-Photon Emission Tomography are outlined. A bibliography of major activities in the past few years is presented with respect to instrumentation and methodology. Seven topics of this imaging technique used in nuclear medicine are discussed, viz. reconstruction strategies; attenuation compensation; uniformity of spatial resolution; scatter correction; sensitivity; dynamic emission tomography and some clinical applications. Comparisons to positron tomography are made. It is concluded that this imaging technique applied to the brain has an important future, particularly through the advent of new radiopharmaceuticals which appear to follow brain flow and can give transverse section images with scan periods of approximately 5 minutes. (G.J.P.)

226

Intracardiac flow visualization: current status and future directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-invasive cardiovascular imaging initially focused on heart structures, allowing the visualization of their motion and inferring its functional status from it. Colour-Doppler and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) have allowed a visual approach to intracardiac flow behaviour, as well as measuring its velocity at single selected spots. Recently, the application of new technologies to medical use and, particularly, to cardiology has allowed, through different algorithms in CMR and applications of ultrasound-related techniques, the description and analysis of flow behaviour in all points and directions of the selected region, creating the opportunity to incorporate new data reflecting cardiac performance to cardiovascular imaging. The following review provides an overview of the currently available imaging techniques that enable flow visualization, as well as its present and future applications based on the available literature and on-going works. PMID:23907342

Rodriguez Muñoz, Daniel; Markl, Michael; Moya Mur, José Luis; Barker, Alex; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Zamorano Gómez, José Luis

2013-11-01

227

Cobalt 60 gamma irradiation current status, trends and insights  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the current status, trends and insights into the continued, safe use of cobalt 60 gamma irradiation. Also presented are some of the many initiatives undertaken at MDS Nordion. Topics covered include our investment for the future supply of raw materials and the latest news from source production. Briefly presented are the tasks associated with the safe transport of cobalt 60 around the world. Discussed is cobalt 60 usage at the customer site; more specifically maintaining source integrity, source utilization and irradiator design trends. Highlighted are industry trends for North America, Europe and the rest of the world. Finally presented are the challenges and opportunities for the industry. Stressed in the paper is the need to work together.

Corley, John T.

1998-06-01

228

Current status on the industrial use and regulation of NORM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) have been widely used for industrial raw materials and consumer goods in Japan as well as in the world. Many kinds of raw materials such as monazite, phosphate rock, and samarium oxides are used for production of health apparatus, fertilizer, magnet and so on. The Radiation Council in Japan published a report entitled exemption of naturally occurring radioactive materials'. Current status on industrial use and consumer goods of NORM in Japan was reviewed and principle for regulation of NORM with classification of the materials was shown in the report. However, it would be very difficult to show the criteria for regulation because the activity concentrations are broadly distributed from very low to high level. More information related to mechanism of elevated exposure due to use of NORM is necessary to implement the measures for reduction of exposure and system for appropriate regulation. (author)

229

Development of Structural Materials for JSFR - Overview and Current Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarized the ongoing efforts regarding new core and structural materials that are to applied to the Japanese sodium cooled fast breeder reactors (JSFR) of which demonstration plant's operation is envisioned in around 2025. For core materials, oxide dispersed strengthened steel (ODS) and precipitation hardened (PH) ferritic steels will be applied. For structural materials, 316FR stainless steel and Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel are applied. The current status alloy design, acquisition of data necessary to establish material strength standard, fabrication techniques to meet the requirements of the design of JSFR both in terms of quality and quantity, and codification of the material strength standards regarding the new materials are overviewed. Further described is path forward to the application of the materials to the JSFR. (author)

230

Current Status, Problems and Challenges in Lithium-sulfur Batteries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lithium-sulfur battery, fabricated with metal lithium as anode and sulfur as cathode, has received more attention as the most promising high energy power sources due to its high theoretical energy density (2600 Wh/kg. However, there are some serious and unavoidable problems for lithium-sulfur battery based on the dissolution-deposition processes in organic electrolyte, including serious structure change of metallic lithium anode, the lower utilization and poor cycle performance of active materials, which become a big barrier for the research and development of lithium-sulfur battery. The current status, problems and challenges of lithium-sulfur battery are summarized, including the sulfur-based cathode composites, electrolyte and lithium anode.

HU Jing-Jing, LI Guo-Ran, GAO Xue-Ping

2013-11-01

231

Current Status and Future Regulatory Direction on Sump Clogging Issue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A significant progress in resolving the sump clogging issue has been achieved since the USNRC Generic Letter 2004-01 was issued. In Korea, the issue was begun to be discussed in regulatory framework through safety review and plant inspection since 2005. KINS has performed the licensing review for several plants including Kori Unit 1 and SKN Units 3, 4, according to the technical requirement of USNRC. Due to the efforts from the industry side and regulatory side, the newly designed improved strainer can be installed at some plants. However, some challengeable concerns such as chemical effect and downstream effect still need a further research. The present paper is to discuss the current status of issue resolution and the related regulation based on the up-to-date achievements and review findings. Also the future regulatory direction on the new concerns related to the issue is discussed

Bang, Young Seok; Cheong, Ae Ju; Huh, Byung Gil; Woo, Sweng Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15

232

The current status of the Korean student health examination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.

Hye-Jung Shin

2013-08-01

233

Design features and current status of HTR-10GT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 10MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-10), a pebble bed type reactor, is the first reactor worldwide which has inherent safety features. It reached its first criticality in 2000 and began to operate on full power in 2003. The power conversion system of the HTR-10 is a steam turbine generator system. Based on the success of the HTR-10, a new project, the gas turbine power conversion system coupled with the HTR-10, was launched, which is denoted as HTR-10GT. The HTGR gas turbine cycle is expected to have higher efficiency and better performance theoretically. Therefore, for the HTR-10GT, the gas turbine direct cycle is utilized instead of previous steam generator and steam turbine. The arrangement of helium turbine and electric generator is selected as single shaft configuration with a gear box between the two machines, for which the turbine speed is designed as 15000r/min and the generator is 3000 r/min. The rotors are supported by active magnetic bearings to avoid the contamination from any lubricant. The reactor core outlet temperature is designed as 750 deg. and inlet 330 deg. The plant power is controlled by adjusting reactor control rods and helium density simultaneously, so that it can remain high efficiency even in partial loading. The overspeed of the turbomachine is restricted by opening bypass valves to reduce pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of turbine. This presentation will show the main design features and current status of the design features and current status of the HTR-10GT project. (author)

234

Acceptability of Marital Violence among College Men and Women: Does Gender and Current Relationship Status Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender, current relationship status, and the interaction between gender and relationship status on the acceptability of marital violence among college men and women. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of marital violence acceptability and current relationship status.…

Merten, Michael J.; Williams, Amanda L.

2009-01-01

235

An Yb optical lattice clock: Current status at KRISS  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status of an Yb optical lattice clock at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) is reported. The systematic uncertainty of the Yb clock in the first accuracy evaluation was 1.5 × 10-14 [Park et al., Metrologia 50, 119 (2013)]. The uncertainty was dominated by the large uncertainties in the lattice ac Stark shift and the collisional shift, which were mainly limited by the large linewidth and jitter of the clock laser. Recently, a highly stable clock laser at 578 nm was developed with a short-term linewidth of 3.5 Hz and a frequency jitter of about 25 Hz at 1 s and 10 s measurement times, respectively. The long-term frequency drift showed only a linear dependence on time, confirming that the temperature of the super-cavity was maintained a zero coefficient of thermal expansion. The frequency of the lattice laser at 759 nm was phase locked to the optical frequency comb and could be stabilized at the "absolute" frequency of the "magic wavelength", to within a 1-MHz uncertainty. This improvement greatly reduced the fractional uncertainty due to the lattice ac Stark shift down to 2 × 10-16. The systematic uncertainty of the clock is currently 5.3 × 10-15 and is dominated by the collisional frequency shift.

Yu, Dai-Hyuk; Park, Chang Yong; Lee, Won-Kyu; Lee, Sangkyung; Park, Sang Eon; Mun, Jongchul; Lee, Sang-Bum; Kwon, Taeg Yong

2013-08-01

236

Conversion of research and test reactors: status and current plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Office of Global Threat Reduction's (GTRI) Conversion Program develops technology necessary to enable the conversion of civilian facilities using high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and targets. The Conversion program mission supports the minimization and, to the extent possible, elimination of the use of HEU in civil nuclear applications by working to convert research reactors and radioisotope production processes to the use of LEU fuel and targets throughout the world. During the Program's 27 years of existence, 46 research reactors have been converted from HEU to LEU fuels and processes have been developed for producing the medical isotope Mo-99 with LEU targets. Under GTRI the Conversion Program has accelerated the schedules and plans for conversion of additional research reactors operating with HEU. Also the Program emphasizes the development of advanced high-density LEU fuels to enable further conversions. The Conversion program coordinates with the other program functions of GTRI, most notably the Removal function, which removes fresh and spent HEU fuel from countries around the world. The current goal is to convert 81 more reactors by the year 2018. This paper summarizes the current status and plans for conversion of research reactors, in the U.S. and abroad, the supporting fuel development activities, and the development of processes for medical isotope production with LEU targets. (authors)hors)

237

Current status of Horonobe URL project in construction phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Horonobe URL project has been pursued by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) to establish and demonstrate site characterization methodologies, engineering technologies, and safety assessment methodologies for HLW geological disposal in relevant geological environment with sedimentary rock and saline groundwater distributing in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan. In the Horonobe URL project, surface-based investigation phase (Phase I) has already completed in the year 2005, and then construction phase (Phase II) has initiated in the same year. Currently, construction of the underground facilities such as shafts/galleries which were designed in Phase I, investigations of the geological environment in the excavated shafts/galleries and confirmation of applicability of engineering technologies has been alternately carried out as Phase II activities of the project. During the construction so far, monitoring for the construction safety such as convergence measurements, tunnel wall observation, sampling of groundwater and rock, investigations for evaluating excavation damaged/disturbed zone (EDZ/EdZ) along shafts/galleries were carried out. In addition, a shotcrete construction test and a grout injection test by using low alkaline cement material were carried in the horizontal galleries. In this paper, status of the URL construction and research activities mentioned above are outlined as the current achievement of the Horonobe URL project. (author)

238

Current status of RTO development and its implications for Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation includes a corporate review of Powerex, a review of Order 2000, and the current status of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) efforts regarding Regional Transmission Operators (RTOs). Other topics of discussion include FERC's standard market design, an update of RTO West and implications for Canada. Powerex was incorporated in 1988 as a wholly-owned subsidiary of BC Hydro. British Columbia-based Powerex's heaviest trading is along the western-most states and Alberta, but it is slowly expanding into central and eastern markets. It evolved by selling and buying power at the United States Border. It received US FERC power marketing authorization in 1997 and has since seen sales jump from C$165 million to C$5.4 billion. Currently, the majority of power supply is from utilities other than BC Hydro. The presentation addresses issues such as the Federal Power Act, PUHCA and PURPA, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act which deals with expanded access to the power grid. Power Pool restructuring and FERC orders 888/889 are also discussed. 2 figs

239

Current status of the Mallard population in the Nordic countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dabbling ducks (Anas ssp.) are cornerstone species in wetland bird communities and yet in many cases we lack sufficient data to judge the conservation status of the flyway population. In a first step to remedy this we here compile all available data on Mallard in the Nordic countries. We find increasing numbers of wintering Mallards and stable to increasing breeding populations. Data on breeding success is scarce but the available data show an increasing trend. In recent years the overall trend in hunting bag sizes is relatively stable even though there is some variation among countries. Thus all indicators suggest that the Nordic Mallard population is currently in good condition. However major knowledge gaps were identified with regard to release of hand-reared Mallards and the effect of short stopping for the trends observed locally. A detailed assessment of the effect of releases is urgently needed as well as an assessment of the role of short stopping in explaining current trends in winter population in certain parts of the European flyway.

Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär

240

Plutonium metal exchange program : current status and statistical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rocky Flats Plutonium (Pu) Metal Sample Exchange program was conducted to insure the quality and intercomparability of measurements such as Pu assay, Pu isotopics, and impurity analyses. The Rocky Flats program was discontinued in 1989 after more than 30 years. In 2001, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) reestablished the Pu Metal Exchange program. In addition to the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston, six Department of Energy (DOE) facilities Argonne East, Argonne West, Livermore, Los Alamos, New Brunswick Laboratory, and Savannah River are currently participating in the program. Plutonium metal samples are prepared and distributed to the sites for destructive measurements to determine elemental concentration, isotopic abundance, and both metallic and nonmetallic impurity levels. The program provides independent verification of analytical measurement capabilies for each participating facility and allows problems in analytical methods to be identified. The current status of the program will be discussed with emphasis on the unique statistical analysis and modeling of the data developed for the program. The discussion includes the definition of the consensus values for each analyte (in the presence and absence of anomalous values and/or censored values), and interesting features of the data and the results.

Tandon, L. (Lav); Eglin, J. L. (Judith Lynn); Michalak, S. E. (Sarah E.); Picard, R. R.; Temer, D. J. (Donald J.)

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Marine current energy devices: Current status and possible future applications in Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a growing demand for the use of renewable energy technologies to generate electricity due to concerns over climate change. The oceans provide a huge potential resource of energy. Energy extraction using marine current energy devices (MCEDs) offers a sustainable alternative to conventional sources and a predictable alternative to other renewable energy technologies. A MCED utilises the kinetic energy of the tides as opposed to the potential energy which is utilised by a tidal barrage. Over the past decade MCEDs have become an increasingly popular method of energy extraction. However, marine current energy technology is still not economically viable on a large scale due to its current stage of development. Ireland has an excellent marine current energy resource as it is an island nation and experiences excellent marine current flows. This paper reviews marine current energy devices, including a detailed up-to-date description of the current status of development. Issues such as network integration, economics, and environmental implications are addressed as well as the application and costs of MCEDs in Ireland. (author)

242

Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of tlustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

243

Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

Kloska, Stephan P. [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Engelhorn, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Fiebach, Jochen B. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany)

2010-03-15

244

Water Pollutional Status and Current in Shanghai Seacoast  

Science.gov (United States)

The pollutants in Shanghai sea area come mainly from Changjiang river, Huangpu river and city wastewater discharging in coast. To research the status and current of water pollution in Shanghai sea-area, the data of Shanghai water qualities are extracted from authorized communiques and reports on ocean, environment and water in 1981-2005, which include pollutant discharging of city wastewater, Changjiang river and Huangpu river. It can be found, the discharging pollutant flux in month from Changjiang Estuary was around 25.9-209.6 tons in recent years, with the minimal at the end of winter and maximal in the summer, the difference between winter and summer was 2.3-8.1 times. There was relationship between discharging pollutant flux and runoff in Changjiang river for seasons, but no relationship for years. The discharging pollutant flux from Huangpu river is about 1.2%-4% from Changjiang river contemporarily. The city wastewater, which includes industry wastewater and living wastewater, was around 1775-2420 million tons per year in past 25 years. The industry wastewater was decreasing with year. The concentrations of cyanide, heavy metal and arsenic in the industry wastewater were controlled to a low level from 2000. The living wastewater was increasing with year for past 25 years. The main pollutant in living wastewater was organic compound. There was relationship between discharging of living wastewater and population. The averaging living wastewater per person-year was increase 2.7 times in past 25 years, the largest increasing ratio in one year on living wastewater per person-year was 20%. In the pollutants discharged to Shanghai sea-area in recent years, the organic compound from city wastewater was about 8%-25% from Changjiang river; the heavy metal from city wastewater was less than 0.03% from Changjiang river. The pollutants in Shanghai sea-area were mainly nitrogen compound, phosphate and oil. The pollutional status in Shanghai sea-area was the most seriously around China coast. The pollutional current would be increasing at Shanghai sea-area with increasing population in Shanghai and around.

Kang, J.; Li, W.; Wang, T.; An, Y.; Fei, M.; Wu, T.; Xu, M.

2006-12-01

245

Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and potentials of classical radiotherapy After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. Technological levels of radiotherapy in developed countries An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and mached to point current status. Results of analysis and discussion The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%, as well as, ADAC (43.7% and Focus (CMS (27.4% systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%, although classic ”simulation” is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%. About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CFRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.. CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day. Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. Technological aspects and conclusion In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in technology and consequent improvements, as well as wide introduction of computers in radiotherapy, radiotherapy results have not changed significantly. Vendor development strategies do not point that this trend will change in the next 5 years. On the other hand, wide introduction of the PET in each radiotherapy chain ring (diagnostics, planning, follow-up, could improve results (local and regional control, as well as quality of patients' life.

Dabi?-Stankovi? Kata M.

2004-01-01

246

Understanding community perceptions, social norms and current practice related to respiratory infection in Bangladesh during 2009: a qualitative formative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory infections are the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh. Promoting respiratory hygiene may reduce infection transmission. This formative research explored community perceptions about respiratory infections. Methods We conducted 34 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions with community members and school children to explore respiratory hygiene related perceptions, practices, and social norms in an urban and a rural setting. We conducted unstructured observations on respiratory hygiene practices in public markets. Results Informants were not familiar with the term "respiratory infection"; most named diseases that had no relation to respiratory dysfunction. Informants reported that their community identified a number of 'good behaviors' related to respiratory hygiene, but they also noted, and we observed, that very few people practiced these. All informants cited hot/cold weather changes or using cold water as causes for catching cold. They associated transmission of respiratory infections with close contact with a sick person's breath, cough droplets, or spit; sharing a sick person's utensils and food. Informants suggested that avoiding such contact was the most effective method to prevent respiratory infection. Although informants perceived that handwashing after coughing or sneezing might prevent illness, they felt this was not typically feasible or practical. Conclusion Community perceptions of respiratory infections include both concerns with imbalances between hot and cold, and with person-to-person transmission. Many people were aware of measures that could prevent respiratory infection, but did not practice them. Interventions that leverage community understanding of person-to-person transmission and that encourage the practice of their identified 'good behaviors' related to respiratory hygiene may reduce respiratory disease transmission.

Nizame Fosiul A

2011-12-01

247

Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea in the year of 1985. However, it deserve to say that the invaluable data from fertility centers may serve as a useful source to find out which factors affect successful IVF outcome and to offer applicable information to infertile patients and fertility clinics. This article intended to report the status of ART in 2009 Korean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology surveyed. The current survey was performed to assess the status and success rate of ART performed in Korea, between January 1 and December 31, 2009. Reporting forms had been sent out to IVF centers via e-mail, and collected by e-mail as well in 2012. With International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies recommendation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and non-ICSI cases have been categorized and also IVF-ET cases involving frozen embryo replacement have been surveyed separately. Seventy-four centers have reported the treatment cycles initiated in the year of 2009, and had performed a total of 27,947 cycles of ART treatments. Among a total of 27,947 treatment cycles, IVF and ICSI cases added up to 22,049 (78.9%), with 45.3% IVF without ICSI and 54.7% IVF with ICSI, respectively. Among the IVF and ICSI patients, patients confirmed to have achieved clinical pregnancy was 28.8% per cycle with oocyte retrieval, and 30.9% per cycle with embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in 2009 is three embryos (40.4%), followed by 2 embryos (28.4%) and a single embryo transferred (13.6%). Among IVF and ICSI cycles that resulted in multiple live births, twin pregnancy rate was 45.3% and triple pregnancy rate was 1.1%. A total of 191 cases of oocyte donation had been performed to result in 25.0% of live birth rate. Meanwhile, a total of 5,619 cases of frozen embryo replacement had been performed with 33.7% of clinical pregnancy rate per cycle with embryo transfer. When comparing with international registry data, clinical pregnancy rate per transfer from fresh IVF cycles including ICSI (34.1%,) was comparable to clinical pregnancy rate per transfer in European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology report was 32.5% though lower than 45.0% for USA data. There was no remarkable difference in status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea between the current report and the data reported in 2008. The age of women trying to get pregnant was reconfirmed to be the most important factor that may have impact on success of ART treatment. PMID:24396813

Choi, Young Min; Chun, Sang Sik; Han, Hyuck Dong; Hwang, Jung Hye; Hwang, Kyung Joo; Kang, In Soo; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Ki Chul; Kim, Tak; Kwon, Hyuck Chan; Lee, Won Don; Lee, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyu Sup; Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Yu Il; Min, Eung Gi; Moon, Hwa Sook; Moon, Shin Yong; Roh, Sung Il; Yoon, Tae Ki

2013-11-01

248

Current status and prospects of radiopharmaceuticals in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiopharmaceuticals could not only serve as effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools in human diseases, but also allow the assessment of metabolism and functional processes by providing quick, non-invasive and real-time visualization of physiological and pathological processes in the living humans at the molecular level together with PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging modalities. They could provide new methods and new approaches of truly early diagnosis and therapy and possible pathways for the preventative medicine, translational medicine and personalized medicine. The present review provides an overview of current status of in vivo radiopharmaceuticals in China. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future was discussed. The addressed future trends include the following aspects. (1) Production of medical radioisotopes including 99Mo, 131I, 188/186Re and 123I. (2) Investigation on the basic radiopharmaceutical chemistry. (3) Development of receptor-based imaging agents. (4) Development of multi-modality imaging probes. (authors)

249

Technology development for decommissioning in Fugen and current status - 16108  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning program of proto-type Advanced Thermal Reactor (ATR) FUGEN has started in 2008 as first decommissioning of the commercial-scale water reactor. It consists of four periods, considering the transportation of spent fuels and the radioactive decrease of highly activated materials. It is expected that the whole program of decommissioning will be completed until 2028. Now, the decommissioning is under the first period, spent fuels and heavy water has been carrying out from FUGEN, and a part of the turbine system with relatively low radioactive contamination has been dismantled. FUGEN has a complicated core structure consisting 224 fuel channels with pressure tubes and calandria tank, etc. and used heavy water as moderator, unlike other light water reactor (LWR). The materials of the core structure were highly activated due to a long term operation, tritium and C-14 were generated, and the facilities were contaminated by them. Thus, it is important to study the dismantling technology of the reactor core and the decontamination technology, considering characteristics of FUGEN such as core structure and radioactive inventory in advance. In this presentation, the contents of the decommissioning program and its current status such as dismantling work of a part of the turbine system, the studying situation of dismantling technology of reactor core using Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) which is a candidate of cutting technologies, the examination of tritium decontamination in heavy water system, the study of decontamination technology for C-14 will be presented mainly. (authors)

250

The current status of radiological protection infraestructures in Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Without adequate and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure, the benefits associated with safe use of nuclear technology and atomic energy might be jeopardized. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the Atomic Energy Act No. 7 of 2003 established the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission as sole regulatory body responsible for regulating and controlling the safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the country. The Atomic Energy (Protection from ionizing radiation) Regulations, 2004 further specifies practices designed to ensure that unnecessary exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is avoided, that all exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable and that all the dose limits specified in the radiation protection standards are not exceeded. This is achieved through the systems of notification, authorizations through registration and licensing, safety and security of radiation sources as well as regulatory inspections and enforcements. These activities are performed by the Commission with operational funds allocated by the Government of Tanzania. The Commission further provides other services namely individual monitoring; calibration services; education and training to radiation workers, public as well as law enforcers; and safe management of radioactive waste. Despite such achievement, still there are a lot to be done in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Tanzania. These include issues such as gaps in our legislations, regulations and guidance, security of sources, enforcement of laws, etc. This paper describes and discusses the current status of the regulatory control activities and radiation protection services provided by the Commission and suggestions for further improvement of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania. (author)

251

Minimally invasive central pancreatectomy: current status and future directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is controversy regarding the recommended surgical approach for pancreatic tumors near the neck or proximal body of the pancreas. Unlike pancreatic cancer patients, those with benign and borderline (low-grade) malignant tumors of the pancreas are expected to have long-term survival after successful pancreatic resection. Therefore, surgeons need to consider not only oncologic safety, but also quality of life in their choice of surgical treatment. Laparoscopic central pancreatectomy (CP) is an ideal approach for pancreatic tumors near the neck or proximal body of the pancreas because it preserves endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function and conserves spleen function. Consequentially, CP can improve quality of life. However, there are no standardized studies supporting the use of laparoscopic CP. In this manuscript, we review the current status of minimally invasive CP in the advanced laparoscopic era and assess the quality of the evidence supporting the use of CP. We also propose future directions for scientific efforts to assess the utility of this surgical approach for benign and borderline malignant tumors near the neck of the pancreas. PMID:25155152

Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Jin Ho; Lee, Woo Jung

2014-12-01

252

The UPM high temperature solar collector current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high temperature solar energy research at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) is an attempt to study the merits of the fixed aperture optics collector for the equatorial region using the concept of the fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF). The general objective is to look for an alternative source of clean energy and a practical method of converting this energy to usable form for the projected industrialisation program of the country. The FMDF uses a stationary hemisphere bowl to capture the solar irradiance. The UPM bowl has a rim angle of 120 0 with radius of curvature of 27.9 m. This corresponds to an aperture diameter of 48 m and submerges 5.1 m in the ground. The bowl will later be tiled with 2446 square meters of mirror to form a spherical shape. And therefore will be able to collect about 1 MW of solar irradiance at the conical focus formed along the direction of the radius (high concentrated region) which then can be harnessed by different means. In this paper, we will report the current status and future works of the project, under construction at the site. We anticipate that the project will be completed and operated by the year 2000. (Author)

253

The Hypersonic Pre-X Vehicle: Current Status  

Science.gov (United States)

On the path to a Reusable Space Transportation System, Europe has first reviewed the gaps to fulfil. Then, a step-by-step master plan with both on-ground and in-flight tests has been drawn up with the uppermost goal to secure the development of the future European RLV. With the potential budgets and programmatics foreseeable milestones, CNES, the French Space Agency, has engaged in late 2000 a preliminary assessment of a flight test project which complies with a development timeframe of about three years. This preliminary analysis has demonstrated that a lifting testbed, dubbed Pre-X, was feasible within the assigned limits and, meantime, its technical interest has been enlightened. So, prior to a full-scale development and its integration within a European program, studies have been pursued in the way to deepen the feasibility level of the Pre-X and the goal to enforce both the project objectives and the technical definition. These tasks are performed with EADS Launch Vehicles as leading contractor and the contribution of DASSAULT Aviation, SNECMA Moteurs and Astrium SAS. This paper will first address the updated objectives of the Pre-X related to : Then, relying on these objectives and related requirements, the Pre-X current status will be extensively presented reviewing the main trades-off and results. A special attention will be paid to the mission analysis, the shape design process and the overall architecture, main subsystems and lay-out.

Chavagnac, Christophe; Moulin, Jacques

2002-01-01

254

Current Status and Tasks in Development of Cable Recycling Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper shows current status and tasks in development of cable recycling technology and it’s items to be solved. Electric cable recycle system has been activated especially for copper conductor recycle in Japan. Previously removed cable coverings materials were mainly land filled. But landfill capacity is decreased and limited in recent years, at the same time, recycle technology was highly developed. A cable recycle technology has 4 tasks. (1) Applying new high efficiency separation system instead of electrostatic and gravity methods to classify mixed various kind of plastics materials including recently developed ecological material (ex PE, PVC, Rubber), (2) Removing heavy metal, especially lead from PVC material, (3) Treatment of optical glass fiber core, which has possibility going to be harmful micro particles, and (4) Establishment of social recycle system for electric wire and cable. Taking action for these tasks shall be proceeded under environmentally sensitive technology together with local government, user, manufacturer, and waste-disposal company on cost performance basis.

Ezure, Takashi; Goto, Kazuhiko

255

Radionuclide transport by groundwater flow through the geosphere: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geosphere is an important barrier retaining radionuclides that have been released from the near field of a waste repository and retarding their return to Man. The assessment models that are used in the current Nirex assessments to describe the groundwater flow in the vicinity of the repository and the transport of radionuclides by the groundwater are summarized, and their data requirements are set out. The Nirex research programme is designed to provide improved and additional data for these models, to deepen the understanding of the important processes and to develop improved models to describe them. This document outlines the status of the assessment models and associated research programme in the spring of 1988. The programme complements existing knowledge in this field. Key areas are measurements of the physical properties of rocks, field and modelling studies of fractured rocks, measurements of sorption onto geological materials, investigation of the possible importance of colloid transport and saline interfaces, transport of naturally occurring elements over geological time-scales in natural geochemical systems, and participation in an international model validation exercise. (author)

256

Current status and prospects for development of thermometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper deals with results of an analysis carried out at the VNIIM with the purpose to ascertain the current status of thermometry as well as to make an attempt to determine a line of development of this field of measurements in future. The analysis was based on a survey of 150 industrial enterprises and scientific organizations. The results of the survey showed that during two last decades the accuracy of measuring instruments used in science and industry was increased almost tenfold. However, advances in the improvement of temperature measuring instruments were achieved not owing to new principles of designing thermometers, but due to rapid development of electronics, which allowed to solve the problem of accurate measurements of resistance and electromotive force and automatize measurement information processing. In most cases the contemporary measuring instruments perfectly meet the requirements to the measurement accuracy claimed by the enterprises surveyed and are provided with a necessary metrological assurance. Although there is a general understanding of the necessity to use the thermodynamic scale rather than the conditional one, we have no objective evidence with regard to how close we have to bring the international scale used in our everyday practice to the thermodynamic scale and what will be a benefit for development of science and industry. Increasing the accuracy of national standards does not affect, as a rule, the accuracy of temperature measurements in industry and scientific research since the main contribution to a total measurement error is made by components caused by an improper measurement procedure.

Pokhodun, A. I. [D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, 19 Moskovsky pr., Saint Petersburg, 190005 (Russian Federation)

2013-09-11

257

Current status and future perspectives for sequencing livestock genomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Only in recent years, the draft sequences for several agricultural animals have been assembled. Assembling an individual animal's entire genome sequence or specific region(s of interest is increasingly important for agricultural researchers to perform genetic comparisons between animals with different performance. We review the current status for several sequenced agricultural species and suggest that next generation sequencing (NGS technology with decreased sequencing cost and increased speed of sequencing can benefit agricultural researchers. By taking advantage of advanced NGS technologies, genes and chromosomal regions that are more labile to the influence of environmental factors could be pinpointed. A more long term goal would be addressing the question of how animals respond at the molecular and cellular levels to different environmental models (e.g. nutrition. Upon revealing important genes and gene-environment interactions, the rate of genetic improvement can also be accelerated. It is clear that NGS technologies will be able to assist animal scientists to efficiently raise animals and to better prevent infectious diseases so that overall costs of animal production can be decreased.

Bai Yongsheng

2012-03-01

258

Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

PeterUhlhaas

2009-07-01

259

[Interventional cardiology in Lithuania: current status and perspectives].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the article is to evaluate current status of interventional cardiology in Lithuania, to compare these data with the results of interventional cardiology of other European countries and to discuss about perspectives of interventional cardiology in Lithuania. A detailed questionnaire of interventional cardiology of European Society of Cardiology was used for analysis of Lithuanian interventional cardiology data of 2000-2002. Lithuanian interventional cardiologists in 2000-2002 annually performed respectively 1535, 1666 and 2085 coronary angiographies, 500, 532 and 632 PTCA, 120, 133 and 193 stenting procedures per 1000000 inhabitants. According to morbidity of heart diseases in Lithuania and the rate of interventional procedures in Europe, in 2004 more than 9000 coronary angiographies should be performed, 3000 percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplast procedures, and 2000 coronary stent implantations in Lithuania. Achievement of such results would be possible, if the State Sickness Fund and the Ministry of Health would pay more attention to financial problems of interventional cardiology in Lithuania. In conclusion, it can be stated that there are good perspectives for Lithuanian cardiologists to achieve mean European level of interventional procedures in the nearest future. PMID:15079113

Navickas, Ram?nas

2004-01-01

260

Radiation processing in India: Current status and future programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation processing is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing in many industrial applications. In India, this technology has found extensive applications in area of healthcare, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, six commercial Co-60 gamma irradiators and three commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. Five demonstration plants housing a total of 18.5x107 GBq Co-60 have been set up to assess the techno-commercial viability of the processes such as radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, decontamination of spices, hygienization of sewage sludge, shelf-life extension of onions. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam treated pulp for viscose-rayon process, radiation processed 'hydrogel' burn/would dressings and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology in India is reviewed. (author)

 
 
 
 
261

Estimation of conditional cumulative distribution function from current status data  

CERN Document Server

Consider a positive random variable of interest Y depending on a covariate X, and a random observation time T independent of Y given X. Assume that the only knowledge available about Y is its current status at time T: \\delta = 1_{Y \\leq T}. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the conditional cumulative distribution function F of Y given X from an independent identically distributed sample of (X,T,\\delta). A collection of finite-dimensional linear subsets of L^2(R^2) called models are built as tensor products of classical approximation spaces of L^2(R). Then a collection of estimators of F is constructed by minimization of a regression-type contrast on each model and a data driven procedure allows to choose an estimator among the collection. We show that the selected estimator converges as fast as the best estimator in the collection up to a multiplicative constant and is minimax over anisotropic Besov balls. Finally simulation results illustrate the performance of the estimation and underline paramete...

Plancade, Sandra

2011-01-01

262

Current status of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The direct use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality, which is becoming increasingly widespread due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has a long tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a second-generation promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we describe the current situation worldwide as far as the use of accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT is concerned (so-called Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT). In particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. (author)

Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Vento, V. Thatar; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J.M.; Valda, A.A.; Ilardo, J.C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.R.; Estrada, L.; Sandin, J.C. Suarez; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Padulo, J.; Minsky, D.M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-07-01

263

Current status and perspectives of brachytherapy for breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Before the era of breast-conserving therapy, brachytherapy implants were used to treat large inoperable breast tumors. In later years, interstitial brachytherapy with rigid needles or multiple flexible catheters has been used to deliver an additional (boost) dose to the tumor bed after breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation. Reexcision followed by reirradiation using interstitial breast implants has also been implemented as an alternative to mastectomy to treat ipsilateral breast local recurrence after previous breast-conserving therapy. In the past two decades, the new concept of accelerated partial breast irradiation opened a new perspective for breast brachytherapy. The first technique utilized in early accelerated partial breast irradiation studies was multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy. Beyond classical interstitial brachytherapy, recently, new intracavitary applicators have been developed in the United States to decrease the existing barriers against the widespread use of multicatheter brachytherapy. Furthermore, interstitial low-dose-rate seed implants have also been implemented as an alternative for stepping-source multicatheter brachytherapy. In this article, we give an overview of the past achievements, current status, and future perspectives of breast brachytherapy. (author)

264

Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China. PMID:24329743

Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

2013-11-01

265

Current status of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality, which is becoming increasingly widespread due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has a long tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a second-generation promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we describe the current situation worldwide as far as the use of accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT is concerned (so-called Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT). In particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. (author)

266

Management of reprocessed uranium. Current status and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is worldwide interest in developing advanced and innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles, minimizing waste and environmental impacts. As of the beginning of 2003, about 171000 tonnes heavy metal spent nuclear fuel is in storage, while smaller amounts have been reprocessed. In several countries, including France, India, Japan and the Russian Federation, spent fuel has been viewed as a national energy resource. Some countries hold reprocessed uranium as the result of their commercial reprocessing service contracts for reprocessing the spent fuel of others. Reprocessed uranium has a potential value for recycling either directly or after appropriate treatment. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in the management of reprocessed uranium. It includes the technical issues involved in managing reprocessed uranium which are RepU arisings, storage, chemical conversion, re-enrichment, fuel fabrication, transport, reactor irradiation, subsequent reprocessing and disposal options, as well as assessment of holistic environmental impacts. The objective of this document is to overview the information on the current status and future trends in the management of RepU and to identify major issues to be considered for future projects

267

Total electron content and scintillation studies: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Satellite beacon studies have contributed mainly in two areas of research, namely, total electron content (TEC) and small scale structures or irregularities, and both of these have important practical implications in trans-ionospheric radio propagation. The current status of these two fields of research is summarized, and recent developments in the study of equatorial anomaly using US NNSS satellite signals, geomagnetic storm effects, travelling ionospheric disturbances, nighttime enhancements, and slab thickness, which are of particular relevance to the equatorial and low latitudes, are reviewed. Recent initiatives on TEC modelling and comparison of existing models with observations are highlighted. New concepts like computerized ionospheric tomography are briefly outlined. Recent advances in the understanding of scintillation morphology particularly its longitude dependence and the variation of the width of the equatorial scintillation belt are summarized. Future directions in respect of multitechnique investigation of the low latitude ionosphere and the mesosphere, measurement of GHz scintillations, and spectral studies are pointed out. Important application areas of this field are also included. (author). 118 refs., 8 figs

268

Current Status of Carl Sagan Observatory in Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status of Observatory "Carl Sagan" (OCS) of University of Sonora is presented. This project was born in 1996 focused to build a small solar-stellar observatory completely operated by remote control. The observatory will be at "Cerro Azul", a 2480 m peak in one of the best regions in the world for astronomical observation, at the Sonora-Arizona desert. The OCS, with three 16 cm solar telescopes and a 55 cm stellar telescope is one of the cheapest observatories, valuated in US200,000 Added to its scientific goals to study solar coronal holes and Supernovae Type 1A, the OCS has a strong educative and cultural program in Astronomy to all levels. At the end of 2001, we started the Program "Constelacion", to build small planetariums through all the countries with a cost of only US80,000. Also, the webcast system for transmission of the solar observations from the prototype OCS at the campus, was expanded to webcast educational programs in Astronomy since July of this year, including courses and diplomats for Latin American people. All of these advances are exposed here.

Sanchez-Ibarra, A.

269

Current Status of Pd- Reference Electrode Development Work  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate and stable in-core reference electrodes are needed in long-term corrosion potential measurements when water chemistry effects on corrosion of construction materials under radiation fields are studied. The experimental difficulties of measuring ECP inside the reactor pressure vessel are basically related to the high pressure, high temperature environments, which give significant problems connected with bringing electrochemical information across the pressure boundaries. Additionally, the sensors have to withstand exposure to high radiation and neutron flux. Currently, the most widely used in-core reference electrodes are either internal silver/silver chloride electrodes or zirconia membrane based pH sensors. A novel approach is to use a cathodically charged palladium (Pd) hydrogen electrode. This type of sensor is a suitable reference electrode for in-core corrosion potential measurements in constant pH solutions, because the potential determining components (H2,H+) are stable over the temperatures of interest and do not contaminate the measurement environment. In addition, the mechanisms of hydrogen reactions on palladium and platinum (Pt) surfaces have been extensively studied and are now reasonably well understood. A new Pd reference electrode has been tested in an out-of-core test loop in Halden. The electrode was installed into the flow through cell containing external pressure balanced silver/silver chloride reference electrodes, a r/silver chloride reference electrodes, a high temperature conductivity sensor and a temperature probe. This report discusses the current status of the in-core Pd reference electrode development work being performed at the OECD Halden Project. (author)

270

Current status of the UCSF second-generation PACS  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the current status of the second generation PACS at UCSF commenced in October 1992. The UCSF PACS is designed in-house as a hospital-integrated PACS based on an open architecture concept using industrial standards including UNIX operating system, C programming language, X-Window user interface, TCP/IP communication protocol, DICOM 3.0 image standard and HL7 health data format. Other manufacturer's PACS components which conform with these standards can be easily integrated into the system. Relevant data from HIS and RIS is automatically incorporated into the PACS using HL7 data format and TCP/IP communication protocol. The UCSF system also takes advantage of state-of-the-art communication, storage, and software technologies in ATM, multiple storage media, automatic programming, multilevel processes for a better cost-performance system. The primary PACS network is the 155 Mbits/sec OC3 ATM with the Ethernet as the back-up. The UCSF PACS also connects Mt. Zion Hospital and San Francisco VA Medical Center in the San Francisco Bay area via an ATM wide area network with a T1 line as the back-up. Currently, five MR and five CT scanners from multiple sites, two computed radiography systems, two film digitizers, one US PACS module, the hospital HIS and the department RIS have been connected to the PACS network. The image data is managed by a mirrored database (Sybase). The PACS controller, with its 1.3 terabyte optical disk library, acquires 2.5 gigabytes digital data daily. Four 2K, five, 1,600-line multiple monitor display workstations are on line in neuroradiology, pediatric radiology and intensive care units for clinical use. In addition, the PACS supports over 100 Macintosh users in the department and selected hospital sites for both images and textual retrieval through a client/server mechanism. We are also developing a computation and visualization node in the PACS network for advancing radiology research.

Huang, H. K.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

1996-05-01

271

Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status  

Science.gov (United States)

The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO2, Cr2O3, FeOx and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO3, Pb(Zrx Ti1-x)O3, BiFeO3 and PrxCa1-xMnO3 (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al2O3 and Gd2O3; (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In2Se3 and In2Te3. Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors.

Jeong, Doo Seok; Thomas, Reji; Katiyar, R. S.; Scott, J. F.; Kohlstedt, H.; Petraru, A.; Hwang, Cheol Seong

2012-07-01

272

Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO2, Cr2O3, FeOx and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO3, Pb(Zrx Ti1?x)O3, BiFeO3 and PrxCa1?xMnO3; (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al2O3 and Gd2O3; (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In2Se3 and In2Te3. Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most proto focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors. (review article)

273

Arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh: an analysis of institutional stakeholders' opinions.  

Science.gov (United States)

While Bangladesh made significant achievements in safe water coverage via installation of shallow tubewells (STWs) nationwide, this success was shattered by the discovery of arsenic (As) in the STWs. The extent and severity of As groundwater contamination throughout Bangladesh and its detrimental effects on human health are well known and demand long-term sustainable mitigation. It is an immensely complex and expensive task to bring tens of millions of arsenic exposed people under safe water coverage. While various mitigation measures have been undertaken by various organizations, most have not achieved their expected outcomes due to technical, spatial and socio-economic challenges. Better understanding of these challenges by institutional stakeholders is crucial for sustainable arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh. In this study, institutional stakeholders' opinions on various aspects of As mitigation were elicited to identify their preferences for and reservations of specific mitigation measures. The current status of As mitigation activities and the factors influencing the success of As mitigation were also explored. Institutional weakness, lack of accountability and a latency period were the major factors hindering sustainable As mitigation. The results also suggested that the stakeholders' understanding of the As problem and their preferences for the different mitigation measures have a significant impact on the effectiveness of As mitigation. Mitigation of As contamination is a complex issue that requires a coordinated effort from various levels of stakeholders. The concept of "paying for water", which is currently potentially unknown in the rural areas of Bangladesh, also needs to be developed as this will create a stronger sense of user ownership of As safe water and thus better water management. PMID:24290438

Khan, Nasreen Islam; Yang, Hong

2014-08-01

274

[Drugs in developing countries. Current status, problems and possible solutions].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based mainly on economic, administrative and drug logistics indicators, the article critically reviews the use of drugs in less developed countries in the context of the global drug scene. The lack of balance in less developed countries (LDCs) between indicators of need and determinants of political, economic, professional, educational and sociocultural nature, including product marketing efforts is highlighted. Special emphasis is given to the global WHO Action Programme on Essential Drugs, its background, strategies, implementation and tentative impacts. Country case examples from Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Kenya, Zimbabwe and the Gambia are used for illustration. Varying progress is made in about half the 110 LDCs which have formally adopted the WHO concepts. Delayed implementation, setbacks and failures are prevalent. These reflect financial and other resource constraints, political ambiguity, qualitative and quantitative deficiencies related to manpower and insufficient back-up measures of an educational and informative character. An orientation towards operational research based on competence-building according to needs and strategies is highly desirable. Accordingly a plea is made for multidisciplinary collaboration in North-South networks at university level. PMID:1866728

Jallow, M T; Lunde, P K

1991-06-20

275

The current status of cattle breeding programmes in Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the South Asian and Pacific (SAP) countries have similarities in setting the policy and execution of dairy and beef cattle genetic improvement programmes, but the degree of involvement by the state and the private sectors varies with their socioeconomic priorities. Dairying plays an important role in socioeconomic development in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, while the economic output from livestock in Indonesia and Malaysia is dominated by the beef industry. Improving the productivity of cattle in SAP will required a multifaceted set of interventions that will involve not only proper management of local animal genetic resources, but also strengthening of local institutions for support of farming activities, including not only breeding-related services, but also services related to nutrition, health care, milk marketing and social services. These services are to be provided by a combination of governmental, non-governmental, and private institutions. A contribution by the government for policy setting and support in management of local resources is necessary to ensure sustainability and fair exchange of germplasm between countries

276

Multiple fractions per day radiotherapy. Its background and current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To improve the results of radiotherapy, multiple fractions per day treatment has been pursued worldwide. The back-ground of this treatment, and the current status of local control of tumors and normal tissue effects are reviewed. The treatment time-dependency in local control of tumors is derived from a fast rate of cell proliferation (Teff) and accelerated repopulation. In patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck showing a fast Teff, it has been reported that hyperfractionation (HF) with 70-81 Gy/6 to 7 weeks and accelerated hyperfractionation (AHF) involving split course (SP) with a 2-week gap resulted in a high incidence of late morbidities and a relatively low rate of local control. CHART with 54 Gy/12 days causes a low incidence of late effects but achieves a relatively low rate of local control. AHF with 62 Gy/4 weeks, which is intermediate in the overall treatment time and total dose between those regimens, may be advantageous in therapeutic gain (TG). Analyses of TG-factor (=therapeutic ratio of a concerned regimen/therapeutic ratio of 60 Gy conventional fractionation) estimated from biologically effective doses calculated by assuming appropriate values to ?/?, Tk, T1/2 and Teff reproduced a tendency similar to the reports described above. In tumors showing a Teff of 4 days or less, 62 Gy AHF, CHART and 72 Gy AHF+SP were calculated on achieving a high TG. However, in tumors showing a Teff of 5 days or more, 62 Gy AHF, CHART and 81 Gy HF seemed to achieve a high TG. In particular, 62 Gy AHF was considered to demonstrate good results in the entire region of Teff. Prospective randomized studies should be performed. (author). 121 refs

277

CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered project in the direction of the government for fostering social entrepreneurs, putting emphasis on follow-up management and evaluation. Second, it must suggest a standard model for social entrepreneur promotion project. In other words, the projects with low performance should be reduced and education models appropriate for new circumstances and changes must be adopted through not only programs standardized in divisions, categories and local provinces, but also appointing expert instructors and project evaluation. Third, itâ??s necessary to propose specific guideline for detailed education operation according to education trainee and objectives of social entrepreneur. Fourth, it is needed to have more various contents development and distribution by strengthening support for specialized foundation, management and case studies related to fostering social entrepreneurs. Finally, it is even more required to spread awareness on social economics relating to programs for fostering social entrepreneur. With the long-term perspective, it is needed to render policy and specialization for fostering Korean-model social entrepreneurs, which is able to raise competent social entrepreneurs suitable for each stage of growth such as sourcing, incubation and launching social entrepreneurs.

Yoon-Doo Kim

2012-01-01

278

Current status of the construction of the Angra antineutrino detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: An antineutrino detector to be installed near the Angra II nuclear reactor in Angra dos Reis is currently under construction. The main goal is to measure the antineutrino flux and correlate it to the nuclear fuel fission and burn-up, developing a new tool to monitor nuclear reactors. For this purpose, a 1m{sup 3} water volume doped with 0:2% Gadolinium is implemented as the target for antineutrino interactions, in a box-shape detector. Cherenkov light produced in the target is collected by 40 photomultiplier tubes. We present the general status of the construction process, along with simulation results that validate the proposed design. All the mechanical parts of the central detector have been designed; some of them have been built and are used in an experimental setup dedicated to test the photomultiplier tubes. A study of the expected background of cosmic particles and the planned tools to deal with this background are also presented, as well as the results of background measurements performed with a prototype detector in the neutrino laboratory located in a container near the reactor. The prototype makes use of a photomultiplier tube looking at a 0:6 m{sup 3} cylindrical water volume, equipped with front-end electronics and a data acquisition module. The data acquisition software development relies on a public compiling framework and operational system. Data is acquired in a local server and transmitted to a remote machine located at the Brazilian Center for Physical Research (CBPF). A recently developed VME-standard data acquisition card equipped with 8 analog-to-digital and 8 time-to-digital conversion channels, which is now ready for production, is also presented.(author)

Anjos, J.C.; Azzi, G.; Barbosa, A.F.; Ferreira, W.; Gama, R.; Lima Junior, H.P.; Oliveira, A.G.; Vaz, M.; Schiapacassa, A.; Villar, A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bezerra, T.J.C.; Gonzalez, L.F.G.; Kemp, E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Chimenti, P.; Leigui, M.A. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), SP (Brazil); Farias, P.C.M.A.; Guedes, G.P. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), BA (Brazil); Nunokawa, H. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Pepe, I.M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil); Andrade Filho, L.M. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil); Valdiviesso, G.A. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

2011-07-01

279

Current status of the HIBMC and results of representative diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

The proton radiotherapy (PRT) has been spreading, since 1990 when 250 MeV proton beams with rotation gantry was developed for medical use. On the other hand, carbon-ion radiotherapy (CRT) that has both physical and biological features is available at 4 facilities in the world. HIBMC is the only facility to be able to use both particles. From Apr 2001 to Dec 2008, 2486 patients were treated with PRT in 2030 patients or with CRT in 456. Treatment to the Head and Neck (H&N: in 405 patients), the lung (245), the liver (371), and the prostatic carcinoma (1059) was a major subject. The 2-year local control rates is 72% in H&N (n = 163, T1:9, T2:18, T3:36, T4:79, malignant melanoma 48, adenoid cystic carcinoma 35, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 32, adenocarcinoma 14, others 34), 88% in lung (n = 116, T1:59, T2:42, T3:4, T4:6, SCC 30, adenocarcinoma 59, others 27), and 89% in liver cancer (n = 153, Proton: 130, carbon: 23). Biochemical disease free 3-year survival of 291 prostate cancer is 100% in 9 patients with initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level 20 ng/ml. These results are excellent comparable or superior to those of surgery. Thus, particle therapy is sophisticated radiotherapy, however the only problem to prohibit the progress is high costs for construction and maintenance. Facilities at which both proton and carbon ion beams can be used, including the HIBMC, have to investigate the differential use. We started clinical randomized trial to compare both ion beams, and started biological examinations in a project aiming at the development of a laser driven proton radiotherapy. We stated about the current status of the HIBMC and the results of representative diseases.

Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Niwa, Yasue; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Terashima, Kazuki; Arimura, Takeshi; Mima, Masayuki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Maeda, Takuya; Baba, Masashi; Akagi, Takashi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

2009-07-01

280

EDIBLE VACCINES FROM GM CROPS: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE SCOPE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The idea of an edible vaccine is coming closer to reality as scientists have found a way to incorporate the protein gene with some antigen in some plants. The major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology are being overcome. In this context, genetically modified (GM plants are being investigated for the production of vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins. The development of GM crops to produce drugs and vaccines has received considerable investment and is relatively well advanced. The myth surrounding edible vaccines and 'food as pill' is the difficulty to control their intake and distribution, particularly in developing countries where education levels and literacy may be low. However, this concept suffers from the fact that the potency of this class of vaccines and drugs remains unmasked to the majority of the population, which has to be publicized and campaigned in a scientific manner, to make it realistic and useful for the common man. Creating edible vaccines involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. This process is known as "transformation," and the altered plants are called "transgenic plants." Like conventional subunit vaccines, edible vaccines are composed of antigenic proteins and are devoid of pathogenic genes. Thus, they have no way of establishing infection, assuring its safety, especially in immuno-compromised patients. Conventional subunit vaccines are expensive and technology-intensive, need purification, require refrigeration and produce poor mucosal response. In contrast, edible vaccines would enhance compliance, especially in children and because of oral administration, would eliminate the need for trained medical personnel. Their production is highly efficient and can be easily scaled up. If the technology is properly nurtured and given the right direction, it may usher into a new era where we will be asked to take “food” rather than “drugs” when we are ill. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

Doshi V

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

The current status of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Without adequate and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure, the benefits associated with safe use of nuclear technology and atomic energy might be jeopardized. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the Atomic Energy Act No. 7 of 2003 established the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission as sole regulatory body responsible for regulating and controlling the safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the country. The Atomic Energy (Protection from ionizing radiation) Regulations, 2004 further specifies practices designed to ensure that unnecessary exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is avoided, that all exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable and that all the dose limits specified in the radiation protection standards are not exceeded. This is achieved through the systems of notification, authorizations through registration and licensing, safety and security of radiation sources as well as regulatory inspections and enforcements. These activities are performed by the Commission with operational funds allocated by the Government of Tanzania. The Commission further provides other services namely individual monitoring; calibration services; education and training to radiation workers, public as well as law enforcers; and safe management of radioactive waste. Despite such achievement, still there are a lot to be done in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Tanzania. These include issues such as gaps in our legislaticlude issues such as gaps in our legislations, regulations and guidance, security of sources, enforcement of laws, etc. This paper describes and discusses the current status of the regulatory control activities and radiation protection services provided by the Commission and suggestions for further improvement of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania. (author)

282

Conversion of research and test reactors: status and current plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Office of Global Threat Reduction's (GTRI) Conversion Program develops technology necessary to enable the conversion of civilian facilities using high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and targets. The Conversion program mission supports the minimization and, to the extent possible, elimination of the use of HEU in civil nuclear applications by working to convert research reactors and radioisotope production processes to the use of LEU fuel and targets throughout the world. During the Program's 27 years of existence, 46 research reactors have been converted from HEU to LEU fuels and processes have been developed for producing the medical isotope Mo-99 with LEU targets. Under GTRI the Conversion Program has accelerated the schedules and plans for conversion of additional research reactors operating with HEU. Also the Program emphasizes the development of advanced high-density LEU fuels to enable further conversions. The Conversion program coordinates with the other program functions of GTRI, most notably the Removal function, which removes fresh and spent HEU fuel from countries around the world. This paper summarizes the current status and plans for conversion of research reactors, in the U.S. and abroad, the supporting fuel development activities, and the development of processes for medical isotope production with LEU targets. Nuclear research and test reactors worldwide have been in operation for over 60 years, supporting nuclear sciencr over 60 years, supporting nuclear science and technology development, as well as providing an important role as a research tool in scientific fields including medicine, agriculture, industry, and basic research. Over 270 research reactors are currently operating in more than 50 countries. Starting in 1954, many research reactors outside the United States were provided under the Atoms for Peace initiative. Initial research reactors were fueled with low-enriched uranium (LEU) with a content of U235 of less than 20%. More advanced research reactors desired higher specific power and neutron flux and, to avoid costs associated with the development of higher density LEU fuels, those reactors used high-enriched uranium (HEU) material, with an enrichment of 20% or higher, and typically over 90%, with the existing fuel designs. As HEU fuel became readily available, it turned into the usual fuel for research and test reactors, even for some that had initially operated with LEU fuel.

283

Multi-observation integrated model of troposphere - current status  

Science.gov (United States)

The Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and meteorological observation systems in the past decades were developed to address separate challenges and were used by different communities. Currently, the inter-dependence between meteorology and GNSS processing is growing up, providing both communities incentives, data and research challenges. The GNSS community uses meteorological observations as well as Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models to reduce the troposphere impact on the signal propagation (i.e. eliminate tropospheric delay). On the other hand, meteorology community is assimilating the GNSS observations into weather forecasting, nowcasting or climate studies. To seamlessly use observations from both sides of the GNSS and meteorology spectra, the data have to be interoperable. In this study we present a current status of establishing an integrated model of troposphere. We investigated and compared a number of meteorological and GNSS data sources that are going to be integrated into the troposphere model with high temporal and spatial resolution. The integrated model will provide values of meteorological and GNSS parameters at any point and any time with known accuracy. First step in building this model is to inter-compare all available data sources and to establish the accuracy of parameters. Three main data sources were compared: ground-based GNSS products on ASG-EUPOS stations, NWP model COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/ Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) and meteorological parameters from three kinds of stations - EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations, meteorological sensors at airports and synoptic Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Data was provided with different temporal and spatial resolution, so it had to be interpolated prior to inter-comparison. Afterwards, the quality of the data was established. The results show that NWP model data quality is: 4hPa in terms of air pressure, 2hPa in terms of water vapor partial pressure, and 6K in terms of temperature; the agreement between the GNSS phase delay and NWP phase delay is in the order of 20 mm. The meteorological stations quality differs from highly consistent observations to stations with corrupted temperature or pressure sensors.

Wilgan, Karina; Rohm, Witold; Bosy, Jaros?aw; Sierny, Jan; Kap?on, Jan; Hada?, Tomasz; Hordyniec, Pawe?

2014-05-01

284

Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct support to RandD in line with other low emission fuel alternatives. RandD on cellulosic ethanol can also be supported by indirect measures. The most important measure in this respect is to ensure a correct pricing of fossil fuels now and in the future. Many argue that production and use of first generation biofuels will bridge the conversion to second generation biofuels. We doubt that the necessary cost reductions for second generation biofuels can be obtained from widespread use of first generation biofuels. First, the production processes are simply too different, and second, the advantage with all kinds of biofuels are that it easy to introduce into the transport market at once the technology is ripe. Some also argue that second generation biofuels need to be protected against competition from import of low cost first generation biofuels made in developing countries. However, with targeted support to second generation biofuels, there is no need to pay attention to the infant industry argument. Trade policy should only aim to correct for insufficient internalizing of GHG emission costs from the production of biofuels in countries without a price on carbon. It is by no means certain that second generation biofuels will play a central role in the decarbonizing of the transport market. Necessary cost reductions may not be achieved. The GHG emissions from land use change connected to large-scale growing of cellulosic feedstock may turn out to offset the gains from changing fuel. It is important to avoid a technological or political lock-in in biofuels. In other words, policies should be flexible, and it should be possible to terminate support programs within a short notice.(Author)

Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

2011-07-01

285

Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Topics discussed include: the status of mass-chain evaluations, remote terminal access, other US Nuclear Data Network publications, formats and procedures subcommittee report, keyword follow-up (Phys. Rev. C), and atomic data and nuclear data tables

286

Climate disasters threaten Bangladesh'  

...weather and rising oceans, driven by rich country emissions, threaten to destroy Bangladesh's remarkable social gains. Climate disasters threaten Bangladesh's social gains Climate ...  Villagers escape flooding in the Gaibandha district, Bangladesh in 2011 by John Riddell [Aside from quotations, the opinions expressed in this ...] “Bangladesh is a world leader in adaptation to natural disasters,” Bangladeshi community organizer Nasima Akter told a Toronto audience January 8. ... “Bangladesh is ranked first as a disaster-prone area of Asia and the Pacific,” explained Akter, Executive Director of the Bangladeshi-Canadian Community ...

287

Indus-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source: current status and utilization  

Science.gov (United States)

Indus Synchrotron Radiation complex at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology at Indore, India houses two synchrotron radiation sources: Indus-1 and Indus-2. Indus-1 is a 450 MeV source emitting in VUV/ soft x-ray region and operating at 100 mA since 1999. Indus-2 is designed for 2.5 GeV, 300 mA operation and is operating at 2 GeV and 100 mA since March 2010 in 24x7 mode and a beam lifetime of about 22 hrs has been achieved. Operation at 2.5 GeV and 100 mA has recently been demonstrated with the addition of in-house developed solid state RF amplifiers. Indus-2 can accommodate 21 bending magnet (BM) and 5 insertion device (ID) beamlines. Sixteen BM beamlines have been planned and six BM beamlines namely i) Angle Dispersive XRD ii) Energy dispersive XRD iii) Energy dispersive EXAFS iv) Soft and deep x-ray lithography v) X-ray fluorescence micro-probe and vi) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy beamlines have been commissioned. These are being used by researchers from different universities, national institutes and laboratories for carrying out several investigations. Two more beamlines namely 'Grazing incidence x-ray scattering' and 'Protein crystallography' are nearing commissioning. A number of materials research related problems have been investigated using these beamlines and several papers have already been published. Here we will report on the current status of the source, details of the beamlines already operational, beamlines to be commissioned soon and several up-gradation schemes that are being planned. Five IDs consisting of two soft x-ray planar undulators, one superconducting wavelength shifter / wiggler, one APPLE II soft x-ray helical undulator and one hard x-ray undulator will be installed during the next few years. Three new ID based beamli-nes for Atomic and Molecular physics, Angle integrated / Angle resolved PES and Magnetic Circular Dichroism experiments will be commissioned.

Deb, S. K.; Singh, Gurnam; Gupta, P. D.

2013-03-01

288

Current status of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is becoming more common in many countries, but the quality of care, experience of the operating surgeon, and details of the surgical technique are not known in detail on a national level in Denmark. In a period of expanding surgical volume for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, it is important to know the typical indications for surgery, re-operation rates, details of surgical technique, and status of surgical training on a national level in order to rationalize interventions to improve outcome. METHODS: Data from the National Hernia Database for the last 8 years regarding laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair were used in combination with questionnaire data obtained from all surgical units in Denmark. The questionnaire included issues such as the number of operating surgeons in the department, number of residents training in the laparoscopic technique, and the experience level of the most experienced surgeon in the department regarding laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. The questionnaire also included details of the surgical technique. RESULTS: The frequency of laparoscopic repair has been increasing over the last 8 years and now accounts for about 16% of the total number of inguinal herniorrhaphies with the main indication nationwide being bilateral hernias and recurrent hernias. We found slight variations in surgical technique although all departments used the TAPP repair. The majority used adequate mesh sizes at or above 10 x 15 cm, and most departments used coils or tacks for mesh fixation and peritoneal closure. Fifteen of 25 departments had only one or two surgeons performing laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair and 12 of 25 departments did not have any young surgeons in training for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Ten departments had one surgeon in training, and three departments had two surgeons in training. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in Denmark is increasing in prevalence. Indications for surgery as well as operative techniques differ although all departments use the TAPP technique. Few surgeons are currently learning the laparoscopic technique, and it is therefore important to initiate meetings and courses to ensure uniform indications for surgery and operative techniques throughout the country.

Rosenberg, J; Bay-Nielsen, M

2008-01-01

289

MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher plants play an important role in closed ecological life support systems as oxygen pro-ducers, carbon dioxide and water recyclers, and as a food source. For an integration of higher plant chambers into the MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) loop, a detailed characterization and optimization of the full food production and preparation chain is needed. This implies the prediction and control of the nutritional quality of the final products consumed by the crew, the prediction of the wastes quality and quantity produced along the chain for further waste treatment (MELiSSA waste treatment) and the optimization of overall efficiencies. To reach this goal several issues have to be studied in an integrated manner: the physiological responses of crops to a range of environmental parameters, crop yield efficiencies and respective ratio and composition of edible and inedible biomass, the processability and storability of the produced food and last but not least composition of wastes in view of further degradation (fiber content). Within the Food Characterization (FC) project several compar-ative plant growth bench tests were carried out to obtain preliminary data regarding these aspects. Four pre-selected cultivars of each of the four energy-rich crops with worldwide usage -wheat, durum wheat, potato and soybean -were grown under well-characterized environmental conditions. The different cultivars of each species are screened for their performance in view of a closed loop application by parameter ranking. This comprises the characterization of edi-ble/inedible biomass ratio, nutritional quality, processability and overall performance under the specific conditions of hydroponic cultivation and artificial illumination. A second closely linked goal of the FC project is to develop a mechanistic physiological plant model, which will ease the integration of higher plants compartments in the MELiSSA concept by virtue of its predictive abilities. Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

290

Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations met at the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). All 7 panel members were present, together with 17 other individuals with various responsibilities and interests in the US Nuclear Data Network (USNDN). Status reports were presented to the panel by the five US evaluation centers, located at Brookhaven (BNL), Idaho Falls (INEL), Berkeley (LBL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and the University of Pennsylvania. The reports from the centers outlined the status of their mass chain evaluations and of a number of other projects related to this work; these areas are discussed in more detail in this report

291

Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients

292

Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients.

Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center

1993-08-04

293

Current Status and Future Directions of Targeted Peptide Radionuclide Therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current status: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is currently almost exclusively targeted at the somatostatin receptor (sst). Of the 5 receptor subtypes, sst2 is frequently very highly expressed at the cell surface of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Octreotide is a small and stable derivative of native somatostatin, which can be very well labeled with therapeutic radionuclides such as the beta-emitters ''9''0Y, ''1''7''7Lu or the Auger emitter ''1''1''1In, chelated in DTPA or DOTA, linked to the peptide. All current therapeutic octreotide derivatives are agonists that are internalized in the cell. The affinity for the sst2 receptor is better for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate than for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide or [DTPA]octreotide. ''9''0Y is a pure beta-emitter, with a half-life of 2.7 days, a high energy of 2.270 MeV, and a maximum penetration in tissue of 12mm. ''1''7''7Lu with a half-life of 6.7 days emits a low abundance of gamma photons as well as beta particles of 497 keV, with a maximum tissue penetration of 2 mm. ''1''7''7Lu-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Lu-DOTATE), ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Y-DOTATATE) and ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide (Y-DOTATOC) are today the most frequently used therapeutic radiopeptides. Main inclusion criteria: inoperable and/or metastatic NET, receptor-positivity in all known lesions demonstrated by sufficient uptake on ''1''1''1In-octreotide scintigraphy (intensity > liver parenchyma), life expectancy at least 3-6 months, sufficient bone marrow reserve (hemoglobin (HGB) ? 5 mmol/L, white blood cells (WBC) ? 2*109/L, platelets (PLT) ? 75*1012/L), sufficient renal function (serum creatinine 40 mL/min), sufficient hepatic and cardiac reserve. Karnofski score ?50. Efficacy: several groups have reported objective response rates (RECIST or WHO/SWOG; CT or MRI based). Complete remission (CR) is rarely seen, partial remission (PR; >50% shrinkage SWOG) in 7% - 37%, minor remission (MR, 25% - 50% shrinkage) in 13% - 17%, stable disease (SD) in 35% - 88% [incl. MR], and progression (PD, > 25% growth or new lesions) in around 20% of patients. Overall, better results are reported for Y-DOTATATE and Lu-DOTATATE than for Y-DOTATOC. Since cure is no feasible option in this category of advanced patients with mostly slow-growing tumors, overall survival (OS), and symptomatic relief / better quality of life, are the most important efficacy parameters. Currently there are no controlled clinical trials available comparing the effects of PRRT with the best standard of care. Nevertheless, the median OS of 4 years that was found in the Rotterdam study using Lu-DOTATATE compares favorably with the 3 years OS with Y-DOTATOC or the 1 year OS with high-dose 111In-DTPA-octreotide. Moreover, when the OS of matching subgroups in the Rotterdam Lu-DOTATATE study was compared with the OS in published studies in the literature using other treatment modalities, the OS of Lu-DOTATATE patients was always better than of their matched historic controls. Additionally, an extensive monitoring of quality of life (QOL) showed improvement of gobal health and performance scores with decrease of symptom scores in the majority of patients treated with Lu-DOTATATE. Toxicity: renal protection using commercially available solutions of mixed amino acids containing lysine and arginine, or using 1L of a mixture of 25g lysine and 25g arginine, is necessary to prevent renal damage from PRRT. Still, there is a risk of developing renal insufficiency after PRRT, expressed as a yearly percentage loss of creatinine clearance (parameter for GFR) which may continue for years after completion of PRRT. A minimum of 18 months of systematic follow-up after PRRT is required to assess the yearly percentage loss in GFR. Risk factors for renal insufficiency are a high cumulative renal radiation dose, especially if the biologic equivalent dose (BED, by applying the linear quadratic model) exceeds 35Gy - 40 Gy. Further risk factors are age over 65 yr, hypertension and diabetes. Especially patients with a combination of more than two of the above me

294

Current status of Peterson-Barney vowel formant data.  

Science.gov (United States)

A question concerning the status of the Peterson-Barney vowel formant data is raised. Two machine-readable copies of the data were located, compared, and found to contain minor discrepancies. These discrepancies were resolved by comparison with a listing of the original data. PMID:1861005

Watrous, R L

1991-05-01

295

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-03-01

296

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-01-01

297

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-04-01

298

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

JC Liljegren

2007-02-01

299

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-07-01

300

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October – November 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

JW Voyles

2007-11-30

302

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September – October 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

JW Voyles

2007-10-30

303

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future June 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-06-01

304

Current status on marine litter indicators in Nordic waters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Status for project on Marine litter in the Nordic waters. This includes a review of Nordic studies on marine litter indicators. Various studies as part of either research or existing monitoring have provided information on occurrence of marine litter in Nordic waters from Baltic Sea to the Arctic.

Strand, Jakob; Tairova, Zhanna

305

Decommissioning and demolition in the European Union. Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

mmunity the required competences in the fields of nuclear safety and, consequently, also decommissioning and demolition. The financial provisions necessary for these activities are covered in the Electricity Directive within the framework of the rules for a common single market in 2003. After a first status report, the Commission published recommendations about financing decommissioning and demolition in 2006. (orig.)

306

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-04-01

307

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November – December 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2007-12-01

308

Wind integration in Japan. Current status and future challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite the modest achievement of wind energy penetration with less than 0.5% of national annual consumption, grid integration of wind power has been quite cautiously discussed in Japan. In this report, we will describe the present status of wind integration and related grid integration studies in Japan as well as special problems for Japanese grid. (orig.)

Yasuda, Yoh [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Kondoh, Junji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Inst.; Tsuji, Takao; Oyama, Tsutomu [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

2012-07-01

309

The current high prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy among children and women in rural Bangladesh could be substantially ameliorated by zinc biofortification of rice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural Bangladeshi populations have a high risk of zinc deficiency due to their consumption of a predominantly rice-based diet with few animal-source foods. Breeding rice for higher zinc content would offer a sustainable approach to increase the population's zinc intakes. The objectives of the study were to quantify usual rice and zinc intakes in young children and their adult female primary caregivers and to simulate the potential impact of zinc-biofortified rice on their zinc intakes. We measured dietary intake in a representative sample of 480 children (ages 24-48 mo) and their female caregivers residing in 2 rural districts of northern Bangladesh. Dietary intakes were estimated by 12-h weighed records and 12-h recall in homes on 2 nonconsecutive days. Serum zinc concentrations were determined in a subsample of children. The median (25th, 75th percentile) rice intakes of children and female caregivers were 134 (99, 172) and 420 (365, 476) g raw weight/d, respectively. The median zinc intakes were 2.5 (2.1, 2.9) and 5.4 (4.8, 6.1) mg/d in children and women, respectively. Twenty-four percent of children had low serum zinc concentrations ( women, respectively. The prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes was high in both the children (22%) and women (73-100%). Simulated increases in rice zinc content to levels currently achievable through selective breeding decreased the estimated prevalence of inadequacy to 9% in children and 20-85% in women, depending on the assumptions used to estimate absorption. Rural Bangladeshi children and women have inadequate intakes of zinc. Zinc biofortification of rice has the potential to markedly improve the zinc adequacy of their diets. PMID:20668253

Arsenault, Joanne E; Yakes, Elizabeth A; Hossain, Mohammad B; Islam, M Munirul; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hotz, Christine; Lewis, Bess; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Jamil, Kazi M; Brown, Kenneth H

2010-09-01

310

Public acceptance, market development and commercialization of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current status of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh with respect to public acceptance, commercial application, trade development and present research and development activities are summarized in the paper. Irradiated food products are generally accepted by people. To further boost public opinion on the usefulness of the technology, two national seminars were successfully organized in 1995 and 1996 respectively with wide participation and media coverage. A number of non-traditional items such as beef casing, flour, turtle meat, macaroni, peat soil, etc. were irradiated and successfully marketed during the last 5 years. Bangladesh adopted a ''Specification for Authorisation of Irradiation by Groups/Classes of Foods'' in 1995 in line with the ICGFI Guidelines. The Bangladesh Standard is essentially similar to the Harmonised Regulations adopted for the RCA countries in April 1998. About 1300 metric tons of different food items were irradiated for commercial purposes at the Gammatech Irradiation Facility in Chittagong during the past 5 years. Present research activities in Bangladesh include irradiation disinfestations of nematodes in ginger and turmeric, and mites and thrips from cut flowers. Work on identification of fruit flies, mites and thrips by using sensitive protein markers is in progress. (author)

311

Current status and prospect of nuclear power project in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overall review is made of the nuclear power development project in Korea, illustrating its actual status and the future prospects. The inevitability of constructing nuclear power stations is emphasized in views of its techno-economics, fossil fuel deposits and fast-growing energy demand in every sector of industries in Korea. Nuclear fuel cycle, loclization aspects of architect engineering capability, components, design, management, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, training and effective development of manpower are briefly summarized. (Author)

312

Safety analysis reports. Current status (third key report)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of Ukrainian regulations and laws concerned with Nuclear power and radiation safety is presented with an overview of the requirements for the Safety Analysis Report Contents. Status of Safety Analysis Reports (SAR) is listed for each particular Ukrainian NPP including SAR development schedules. Organisational scheme of SAR development works includes: general technical co-ordination on Safety Analysis Report development; list of leading organisations and utilization of technical support within international projects

313

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-03-02

314

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-03-15

315

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - December 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-01-15

316

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-02-15

317

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-07-01

318

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-05-01

319

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-05-01

320

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - August 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

JC Liljegren

2006-07-01

322

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

JC Liljegren

2006-08-01

323

The BeppoSAX/GRBM catalog of GRBs: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on the status of the GRB catalog obtained with the BeppoSAX/GRBM instrument. Thanks to the GRBM response function now well calibrated for all directions we are converting the background subtracted count rate profiles of all GRBs in physical units with the evaluation of position, duration, peak flux, fluence, and spectral information. In this poster we present preliminary results of a sample of 8 GRBs which will appear in the GRBM catalog of GRBs now in preparation

324

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - July 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-07-01

325

Current status of the near surface repository in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive waste management at the Cernavoda NPP is based on collection, pretreatment and storage of all solid wastes. The disposal of operational and decommissioning wastes has been evaluated, based on the results of a research and development programme. A near surface disposal facility was selected and a siting process was implemented. The status of this project and its prospective are discussed in the paper. (author)

326

Study of the Effect of Food Habit, Lifestyle and Daily Trip on Physical and Mental Status of Subjects at Islamic University in Kushtia, Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is a qualitative (study that used framework analysis) to examine by interviews among University personnel who live inside and outside the Islamic University campus in Kushtia, Bangladesh. In the present study, we found that subjects who live inside of the University feel better physically and mentally than the nonresident subjects. It was found that residents are more fit and feel better during and after class time. Resident subjects have less stress and maintain balanced diet for which ...

Shahjahan Ali; Abdus Sabur; Anowar Khasru Parvez; Shahedur Rahman

2012-01-01

327

Assessment of Current Status of Women Farmers in Japan Using Empowerment Indicators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research assessed the current status of Japanese women farmers using universal measurement of women empowerment. Two prefectures, Hiroshima and Shimane were selected. Stratified sampling technique was used to select respondents from each village while structured questionnaire was employed to collect data on economic, social, familial, legal, mobility and political status of the respondents. The result shows that status of women farmers was improved in the recent time compared to years ba...

Tijani, Sarafat A.; Izumi Yano

2007-01-01

328

Current status of the BAIKAL-GVD project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a status of the Baikal-GVD Project. The objective of this project is a construction of a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Lake Baikal. As an important milestone, the first GVD engineering array has been deployed and ran in April, 2011. Application of a completely new technology gave us an opportunity to study all the basic elements of the future full detector and to finalize the GVD technical design. We discuss the configuration and the design of the engineering array as well as data performance with the preliminary results.

Avrorin, A.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Aynutdinov, V.M., E-mail: aynutdin@yandex.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Belolaptikov, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Bogorodsky, D.Yu. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Budnev, N.M. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Danilchenko, I.A.; Domogatsky, G.V.; Doroshenko, A.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Dyachok, A.N. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Dzhilkibaev, Zh-A.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Fialkovsky, S.V. [Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Gaponenko, O.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Golubkov, K.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Gress, O.A.; Gress, T.I.; Grishin, O.G. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Kebkal, K.G.; Kebkal, O.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Berlin 13355 (Germany); Klabukov, A.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); and others

2013-10-11

329

Current Status and Challenges in Wind Energy Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Here we discuss the status and challenges in the development of atlases for the assessment of the regional and global wind resources. The text more specifically describes a methodology that is under development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. As the wind assessment is based on mesoscale modelling, some of the specific challenges in mesoscale modelling for wind energy purposes are discussed such as wind profiles and long-term statistics of the wind speed time series. Solutions to these challenges will help secure an economic and effective deployment of wind energy.

Gryning, Sven-Erik; Badger, Jake

2014-01-01

330

Biofuel implementation in East Europe: Current status and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a continuously increasing interest concerning the biofuel implementation in Europe, mainly because of environmental protection and energy supply security reasons. In this context, the European Union (EU) strongly encourages the use of biofuels through a number of Directives. To that effect, EU members follow the Directives implementing various political, fiscal and technical measures and incentives. In the light of the potential created by the recently joined Eastern European countries, an increasing interest is shown in the whole biofuel supply chain within the EU. In parallel, the status of the Eastern European countries domestic market, as far as biofuels are concerned, is an interesting issue, since most of these countries present a significant potential, however still lagging in biofuel implementation. In the above context, the objective of the present work is to give a concise and up-to-date picture of the present status of biofuel implementation in East Europe. The work also aims at identifying the prospects of these countries as far as biofuels are concerned and their role in the EU framework as potential suppliers of a wider market. (author)

331

Current status of nuclear power in Japan and JGC's activities in the nuclear field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of nuclear power and down stream status of radioactive waste treatment and disposal in Japan is described. The JGC Corporation and JGC's nuclear technologies is outlined. The joint work between China and JGC corporation is also introduced (7 ills.)

332

Gender Disparities in Secondary Education in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Enrolment and success rates are very crucial for any educational system in the world but they are more important for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Gender differences in enrolment and success rates are also emerging issues. This study investigated the enrolment and success rate’s status in secondary educational system of Bangladesh along with internal efficiency rates involving completion rate, retention or survival rate, dropout rate and gender parity index. Some tests of hypotheses of homogeneity were also conducted. Among the findings higher female enrolment rate, lower female success rate, higher male completion rate, survival rate and higher female dropout rate were perceived along with different location, types of schools variations. Some policy implications were suggested with acknowledgement of some flaws in the female stipend Program in Bangladesh

Molla Huq

2008-05-01

333

Fast wave current drive: Experimental status and reactor prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fast wave is one of the two possible wave polarizations which propagate according to the basic theory of cold plasmas. It is distinguished from the other (slow wave) branch by having an electric field vector which is mainly orthogonal to the confining magnetic field of the plasma. The plasma and fast wave qualitatively assume different behavior depending on the frequency range of the launched wave. The high frequency fast wave (HFFW), with a frequency (?2? /approximately/ GHz) much higher than the ion cyclotron frequency (?/sub i/), suffers electron Landau damping and drives current by supplying parallel momentum to superthermal electrons in a fashion similar to lower hybrid (slow wave) current drive. In the simple theory the HFFW should be superior to the slow wave and can propagate to very high density and temperature without impediment. Experiments, however, have not conclusively shown that HFFW current drive can be achieved at densities above the slow wave current drive limit, possibly due to conversion of the launched fast waves into slow waves by density fluctuations. Alternatively, the low frequency fast wave (LFFW), with frequencies (/approx lt/ 100 MHz) only a few times the ion cyclotron frequency, is damped by electron Landau damping and, in a hot plasma (/approx gt/ 10 keV), by electron transit time magnetic pumping; current drive is achieved by pushing superthermal electrons, and efficiency is prediocted to be slightly better than for lower hybrid current drive. Most significantly, the slow wave does not propagate in high density plasma when ? /approximately/ ?/sub i/, so parasitic coupling to the slow wave can be avoided, and no density and temperture limitations are foreseen. Experiments with fast wve current drive invariably find current drive efficiency as good as obtained in lower hybrid experiments at comparable, low temperatures. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

334

CURRENT STATUS AND POTENTIAL FOR PRIMARY ACL REPAIR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ACL rupture occurs in hundreds of thousands active adolescents and young adults each year. Despite current treatment, post-traumatic osteoarthritis following these injuries is commonplace within a decade of injury in these young patients. Thus, there is widespread clinical and scientific interest in improving patient outcomes and preventing osteoarthritis. The current emphasis on the removal of the torn ACL and subsequent replacement with a tendon graft (ACL reconstruction) stems from adheren...

Murray, Martha M.

2009-01-01

335

Current status of radioisotope production in the year of 2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The RIPF(Radio Isotope Production Facility) is the unique facility in Korea which has been used for the isotope production. Through the survey on the radioisotope quantities of production and consumption in the domestic industry, we were trying to show the trend of isotope production. The quantities of Tc-99m, Mo-99, Cr-51, I-131 solution and I-131 capsule produced in the hot cell and clean room of RIPF were compared with the quantities at the previous year. Also the output of the labeling compound such as Hippuran, MIBG, RIHSA, Phytate, MDP, DISIDA, DTPA, etc was compared with the previous year by the radioactivity and the vial. We treated the sum of selling amount of industrial isotopes and tracer isotopes and the status of technical supports also.

Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S.; Shin, B. C

2004-02-01

336

Filtered neutron beams at the FMRB - review and current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of our experience with filtered neutron beams installed in beam tubes of the Research and Measurement Reactor Braunschweig since 1976: Desing of the filters and measurement of the beam parameters are reported and an outline of the research work done with the beams is given. The present status of the irradiation facility, which consists of 5 beams (144 keV, 24.5 keV, 2 keV, 0.2 keV and thermal neutrons), is described in some detail to allow understanding of the physical as well as the technical prerequisites for performing calibrations of neutron measuring instruments. An appendix contains the actual beam parameters. (orig.)

337

Current status of TNF blocking therapy in heart failure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent experimental studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-? has deleterious cardiovascular effects. Tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists bind to TNF-a and functionally inactivate this cytokine and thereby reverse some of these effects. Various clinical studies of TNF-? antagonists have reported conflicting results. The present review analyses all reported clinical trials of TNF-? antagonists in congestive heart failure (CHF. The effect of these agents on clinical composite score, CHF hospitalizations, and mortality were compared. Early clinical studies of blocking TNF in patients with heart failure demonstrated promising results. However, recent large-scale, placebo-controlled trials have failed to show any improvement in the clinical status of heart failure. There have in fact, been some reports of worsening of heart failure with these agents. It may be concluded that TNF-? antagonists could adversely affect the clinical condition of patients with moderate to severe heart failure.

Gupta S

2005-08-01

338

Low-level radioactive waste management at the Nevada Test Site -- Year 2000 current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the technical attributes of the facilities, present and future capacities and capabilities, and provides a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. This paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations.

Becker, B.D.; Clayton, W.A.; Gertz, C.P.; Crowe, B.M.

2000-02-01

339

Research and Development (R&D) Series 11/09 Current status and conservation genetics of ..  

Natural Heritage Research Partnership Current status and conservation genetics of Alder buckthorn Frangula alnus in Northern Ireland Quercus Project QU08-03 ii Research and Development Series 11/09 A report ...

340

Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cadmium is a toxic metal occurring in the environment naturally and as a pollutant emanating from industrial and agricultural sources. Food is the main source of cadmium intake in the non-smoking population. The bioavailability, retention and toxicity are affected by several factors including nutritional status such as low iron status. Cadmium is efficiently retained in the kidney (half-time 10-30 years) and the concentration is proportional to that in urine (U-Cd). Cadmium is nephrotoxic, initially causing kidney tubular damage. Cadmium can also cause bone damage, either via a direct effect on bone tissue or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. After prolonged and/or high exposure the tubular injury may progress to glomerular damage with decreased glomerular filtration rate, and eventually to renal failure. Furthermore, recent data also suggest increased cancer risks and increased mortality in environmentally exposed populations. Dose-response assessment using a variety of early markers of kidney damage has identified U-Cd points of departure for early kidney effects between 0.5 and 3 ?g Cd/g creatinine, similar to the points of departure for effects on bone. It can be anticipated that a considerable proportion of the non-smoking adult population has urinary cadmium concentrations of 0.5 ?g/g creatinine or higher in non-exposed areas. For smokers this proportion is considerably higher. This implies no margin of safety between the point of departure and the between the point of departure and the exposure levels in the general population. Therefore, measures should be put in place to reduce exposure to a minimum, and the tolerably daily intake should be set in accordance with recent findings.

 
 
 
 
341

Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

Andreeva, Julia; Casey, James; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Karavakis, Edward; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Maier, Gerhild; Rodrigues, Daniele Filipe Rocha Da Cuhna; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Sidorova, Irina [CERN, European Organisation for Nuclear Research (Switzerland); Boehm, Max [EDS, an HP Company, Plano, TX (United States); Belov, Sergey; Tikhonenko, Elena [JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Dvorak, Frantisek; Krenek, Ales; Mulac, Milas; Sitera, Jiri [CESNET, Prague (Czech Republic); Kodolova, Olga [MSU, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vaibhav, Kumar, E-mail: Julia.Andreeva@cern.c [BARC, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

2010-04-01

342

Pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence: status of current treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of medications for alcohol dependence remains modest, and there are no strong clinical predictors of treatment response. Approved medications include acamprosate (an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) modulator), disulfiram (an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor) and naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) while nalmefene (an opioid antagonist) is currently under review for approval in Europe. Clinical trials suggest that baclofen (a GABA-B agonist) and topiramate (an anticonvulsant) may be promising candidates, while several other drug candidates are currently evaluated at early clinical stages. PMID:23810221

Franck, Johan; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

2013-08-01

343

Marginal regression approach for additive hazards models with clustered current status data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current status data arise naturally from tumorigenicity experiments, epidemiology studies, biomedicine, econometrics and demographic and sociology studies. Moreover, clustered current status data may occur with animals from the same litter in tumorigenicity experiments or with subjects from the same family in epidemiology studies. Because the only information extracted from current status data is whether the survival times are before or after the monitoring or censoring times, the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator of survival function converges at a rate of n(1/3) to a complicated limiting distribution. Hence, semiparametric regression models such as the additive hazards model have been extended for independent current status data to derive the test statistics, whose distributions converge at a rate of n(1/2) , for testing the regression parameters. However, a straightforward application of these statistical methods to clustered current status data is not appropriate because intracluster correlation needs to be taken into account. Therefore, this paper proposes two estimating functions for estimating the parameters in the additive hazards model for clustered current status data. The comparative results from simulation studies are presented, and the application of the proposed estimating functions to one real data set is illustrated. PMID:23913626

Su, Pei-Fang; Chi, Yunchan

2014-01-15

344

Brain perfusion CT in acute stroke: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamic perfusion CT has become a widely accepted imaging modality for the diagnostic workup of acute stroke patients. Although compared with standard spiral CT the use of multislice CT has broadened the range from which perfusion data may be derived in a single scan run. The advent of multidetector row technology has not really overcome the limited 3D capability of this technique. Multidetector CT angiography (CTA) of the cerebral arteries may in part compensate for this by providing additional information about the cerebrovascular status. This article describes the basics of cerebral contrast bolus scanning with a special focus on optimization of contrast/noise in order to ensure high quality perfusion maps. Dedicated scan protocols including low tube voltage (80 kV) as well as the use of highly concentrated contrast media are amongst the requirements to achieve optimum contrast signal from the short bolus passage through the brain. Advanced pre and postprocessing algorithms may help reduce the noise level, which may become critical in unconscious stroke victims. Two theoretical concepts have been described for the calculation of tissue perfusion from contrast bolus studies, both of which can be equally employed for brain perfusion imaging. For each perfusion model there are some profound limitations regarding the validity of perfusion values derived from ischemic brain areas. This makes the use of absolute quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) values for the discrbral blood flow (CBF) values for the discrimination of the infarct core from periinfarct ischemia questionable. Multiparameter imaging using maps of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and a time parameter of the local bolus transit enables analyzing of the cerebral perfusion status in detail. Perfusion CT exceeds plain CT in depicting cerebral hypoperfusion at its earliest stage yielding a sensitivity of about 90% for the detection of embolic and hemodynamic lesions within cerebral hemispheres. Qualitative assessment of brain perfusion can be further enhanced by adding relative perfusion indices from regions of interest. Multislice CTA using a collimation of 4x1 mm and high pitch factors allows for isotropic scanning of the brain supplying arteries from the aortic arch to the vertex in a single run. Various image processing modalities such as multiplanar reformations, curved planar reconstructions, maximum intensity projections, and volume rendering techniques are available to deal with the extensive data and to bring out those vascular lesions, which are of relevance for individual stroke. With the advent of multidetector CT advanced stroke protocols combining plain CT, perfusion CT and CTA can routinely be accomplished within a very short timespan thus ensuring the role of CT in the diagnostic workup of acute stroke

345

Current status in the therapy of liver diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Wilson's disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infections are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, they are the focus of the development of new drugs. The current treatment of choice for HBV/HCV infection is an interferon-based combination therapy with oral antiviral drugs, like nucleos(t)ide analogues, which is associated with improving the therapeutic success and also preventing the development of resistances. Currently, two new protease inhibitors for HCV treatment are expected (deleobuvir, faldaprevir) and together with the promising drug, daclatasvir (NS5A-inhibitor, currently in clinical trials), adequate therapy is to be expected in due course (circumventing the requirement of interferon with its side-effects), while in contrast, efficient HBV therapeutics are still lacking. In this respect, entry inhibitors, like Myrcludex B, the lead substance of the first entry inhibitor for HBV/HDV (hepatitis D) infection, provide immense potential. The pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of Myrcludex B are described in detail. PMID:24786290

Uhl, Philipp; Fricker, Gert; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter

2014-01-01

346

Current status of the hydrogeology for the WIPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current efforts to define the hydraulic system at the proposed WIPP site are described. These efforts are directed toward further refinement of the field data and conducting specific tests to determine the isotropy of the media and the appropriateness of their representation as porous or as fractured systems

347

Current Status in the Therapy of Liver Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and Wilson’s disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV infections are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, they are the focus of the development of new drugs. The current treatment of choice for HBV/HCV infection is an interferon-based combination therapy with oral antiviral drugs, like nucleos(tide analogues, which is associated with improving the therapeutic success and also preventing the development of resistances. Currently, two new protease inhibitors for HCV treatment are expected (deleobuvir, faldaprevir and together with the promising drug, daclatasvir (NS5A-inhibitor, currently in clinical trials, adequate therapy is to be expected in due course (circumventing the requirement of interferon with its side-effects, while in contrast, efficient HBV therapeutics are still lacking. In this respect, entry inhibitors, like Myrcludex B, the lead substance of the first entry inhibitor for HBV/HDV (hepatitis D infection, provide immense potential. The pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of Myrcludex B are described in detail.

Philipp Uhl

2014-04-01

348

Current status of renal biopsy for small renal masses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered. PMID:25237457

Ha, Seung Beom; Kwak, Cheol

2014-09-01

349

The Current State and Status of HRD Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Establishes a connection between the concepts of "learning organisation" and "human resources development". Design/methodology/approach: A brief and broad overview of the current state of human research development research. Findings: One conclusion to be reached is that the subject is healthy. Another conclusion is that human resource…

Stewart, Jim

2005-01-01

350

San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties

351

Organic Agricultural Research in Europe - Current Status and Future Prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper takes a closer look at how organic farming research is organised in Europe and at what challenges researchers will face in the future. The paper looks at the history of organic farming research, informs on current research structures as well as on coordination activities and lists EU-funded research projects (as of 2002).

Niggli, Urs; Willer, Helga

2002-01-01

352

Current status of sentinel node biopsy in urological malignancies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Like in most other malignancies the lymph node status is of outstanding prognostic relevance and an important tool for the determination of adjuvant strategies for urological tumor entities, too. Even in the era of PET/CT and MRI with iron oxid nano-particles the radiological imaging technology is strongly limited in cases of metastases smaller than 5 mm. Therefore only the operative lymph node exploration is suitable for an exact lymph node staging. The dilemma, however, is that the extended lymphadenectomy techniques feature a high morbidity and that any limitation of the dissection area results in a reduced detection rate of metastases in penile and prostate cancer. In contrast the sentinel- guided lymphadenectomy (SLND offers a short operation time and a low morbidity without the risk of a significantly reduced detection of lymph node positive patients. As a consequence of many published papers dealing with a few thousands of patients the European Association of Urology (EAU guidelines recommend the SLND in penile cancer (tumor stages ? T1G2 and as an option in prostate cancer. The latest studies of bladder, renal cell and testicular cancer promise the feasibility for these tumor entities, too. Up to which extend these thera- peutic concepts are able to replace or at least complement the default therapeutic procedures has to be shown in further studies.

Friedhelm Wawroschek

2010-08-01

353

Prostate cancer chemoprevention: Current status and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemoprevention is a strategy that aims to reduce the incidence and burden of cancer through the development of agents to prevent, reverse or delay the carcinogenic process. Prostate cancer is a suitable target for prevention because it has a high incidence and prevalence, as well as a long latency and disease-related mortality, and furthermore it is a disease in which lifestyle and environmental factors may play critical roles. The development of chemoprevention strategies against prostate cancer will have a huge impact, both medically and economically. Large-scale clinical trials suggest that some agents such as selenium, lycopene, soy, green tea, vitamins D and E, anti-inflammatory and inhibitors of 5?-reductase are effective in preventing prostate cancer. Although each agent has the potential to affect the natural history of the disease, it is important to develop strategies to strategically proceed for the design and selection of test agents in order to demonstrate clinical benefit with the minimum of adverse effects. Appropriate selection of agent(s), disease stage, trial design and endpoints is critical in selecting the most promising regimens to accomplish these goals. This review highlights the present status of prostate cancer chemoprevention and discusses future prospects for chemopreventive strategies that are safe and clinically beneficial

354

The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations

355

Current status of Russian evaluated neutron data libraries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The status of Russian Evaluated Data Libraries is discussed. The last modifications of the BROND-2 files and their relations to the additional files of the FOND library and the ABBN-90 group constants are considered. The main characteristics of new libraries for the photoneutron data, dosimetry and activation reaction cross sections and transmutation cross sections for intermediate energies are described briefly. The problems of nuclear industry development in combination with economical questions and environmental aspects of nuclear wastes require a permanent improvement of nuclear data used in all projects of advanced nuclear technologies. In this report we want discuss main directions of modifications of Russian Nuclear Data Libraries recommended for practical applications. In the elaboration process of the second version of the recommended general purpose files (the BROND-2 library) we tried to take into account all advanced nuclear reactor requirements for neutron data. The selection of evaluated data for the BROND-2 library, their analysis and handling were completed in 1990. The evaluated data for principal reactor materials developed by former soviet specialists have been included into the library. In the case of the materials used as neutron standards, the data recommended by the IAEA were accepted. As to the construction materials we paid much attention to the files of the natural mixture of isotopes.

Blokhin, A.I.; Fursov, B.I.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Koshcheev, V.N.; Kuzminov, B.D.; Manokhin, V.N.; Nikolaev, M.N. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Kulikov, E.V. [Ministry of Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

356

Diabetic cardiomyopathy and its prevention by nrf2: current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), as one of the major cardiac complications in diabetic patients, is known to related with oxidative stress that is due to a severe imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generation and their clearance by antioxidant defense systems. Transcription factor nuclear factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in maintaining the oxidative homeostasis by regulating multiple downstream antioxidants. Diabetes may up-regulate several antioxidants in the heart as a compensative mechanism at early stage, but at late stage, diabetes not only generates extra ROS and/or RNS but also impairs antioxidant capacity in the heart, including Nrf2. In an early study, we have established that Nrf2 protect the cardiac cells and heart from high level of glucose in vitro and hyperglycemia in vivo, and in the following study demonstrated the significant down-regulation of cardiac Nrf2 expression in diabetic animals and patients. Using Nrf2-KO mice or Nrf2 inducers, blooming evidence has indicated the important protection by Nrf2 from cardiac pathogenesis in the diabetes. Therefore, this brief review summarizes the status of studies on Nrf2's role in preventing DCM and even other complications, the need for new and safe Nrf2 inducer screening and the precaution for the undesirable side of Nrf2 under certain conditions. PMID:25349820

Chen, Jing; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cai, Lu

2014-10-01

357

Chemotherapy in advanced bladder cancer: current status and future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Bladder cancer occurs in the majority of cases in males. It represents the seventh most common cancer and the ninth most common cause of cancer deaths for men. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most predominant histological type. Bladder cancer is highly chemosensitive. In metastatic setting, chemotherapy based on cisplatin should be considered as standard treatment of choice for patients with good performance status (0-1 and good renal function-glomerular filtration rate (GFR > 60 mL/min. The standard treatment is based on cisplatin chemotherapy regimens type MVAC, HD-MVAC, gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC or dose dense GC. In unfit patients, carboplatin based regimes; gemcitabine plus carboplatin or methotrexate plus carboplatin plus vinblastine (MCAVI are reasonable options. The role of targeted therapies when used alone, or in combination with chemotherapy, or in maintenance, was evaluated; targeting angiogenesis seem to be very promising. The purpose of this literature review is to highlight the role of chemotherapy in the management of advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

Amzerin Mounia

2011-09-01

358

Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

Md Zahangir Alam

2013-10-01

359

The LHCf experiment at CERN: motivations and current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LHCf is an experiment currently installed at CERN at the LHC complex. It consists of two small calorimeters each one placed 140 meters away from the ATLAS interaction point. Their purpose is to study forward production of neutral particles in proton-proton collisions at extremely low angles. The results will provide invaluable inputs to the many air-shower Monte Carlo codes currently used for modeling cosmic rays interactions in the Earth atmosphere. Depending on machine start up, data will be taken from 900 GeV in the centre of mass up to 14 TeV (laboratory equivalent collision energy of 1017eV), thus covering an energy range up to and beyond the 'knee' of the cosmic ray spectrum.

360

Current status of laparoscopy for the treatment of rectal cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Surgery for rectal cancer in complex and entails many challenges. While the laparoscopic approach in general and specific to colon cancer has been long proven to have short term benefits and to be oncologically safe, it is still a debatable topic for rectal cancer. The attempt to benefit rectal cancer patients with the known advantages of the laparoscopic approach while not compromising their oncologic outcome has led to the conduction of many studies during the past decade. Herein we describe our technique for laparoscopic proctectomy and assess the current literature dealing with short term outcomes, immediate oncologic measures (such as lymph node yield and specimen quality) and long term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. We also briefly evaluate the evolving issues of robotic assisted rectal cancer surgery and the current innovations and trends in the minimally invasive approach to rectal cancer surgery. PMID:25386061

Shussman, Noam; Wexner, Steven D

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

IFMIF test cell design: Current status and key components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IFMIF (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility) test cell design has been further developed and optimized based on the existing modular test cell concept. Key features of the current test cell include actively cooled surrounding shielding walls with coverage of internal surfaces with stainless steel liner, independent two layer top shielding plugs for protecting the access cell from neutron and gamma radiation from the test cell, optimized piping and cabling plugs for accommodating pipe and cable penetrations and for minimizing neutron streaming, rearranged lithium quench tank to outside of the test cell, etc. According to preliminary neutronic calculation results, limited access to the quench tank area for maintenance after beam shut-off can be expected with the current arrangement. Maintenance of the lithium inlet and outlet pipes as well as the two beam ducts are also possible by introducing removable shielding plugs which can be removed and replaced in case of failure.

Tian, Kuo, E-mail: kuo.tian@kit.edu [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Arbeiter, Frederik; Heinzel, Volker; Heupel, Tobias; Kondo, Keitaro [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Mittwollen, Martin [Institute for Conveying Technology and Logistics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

2013-10-15

362

Local population and regional environmental drivers of cholera in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Regional environmental factors have been shown to be related to cholera. Previous work in Bangladesh found that temporal patterns of cholera are positively related to satellite-derived environmental variables including ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC). Methods This paper investigates whether local socio-economic status (SES) modifies the effect of regional environmental forces. The study area is Matlab, Bangladesh, an area of approximate...

Escamilla Veronica; Yunus Mohammad; Emch Michael; Feldacker Caryl; Ali Mohammad

2010-01-01

363

Study of the Effect of Food Habit, Lifestyle and Daily Trip on Physical and Mental Status of Subjects at Islamic University in Kushtia, Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a qualitative (study that used framework analysis to examine by interviews among University personnel who live inside and outside the Islamic University campus in Kushtia, Bangladesh. In the present study, we found that subjects who live inside of the University feel better physically and mentally than the nonresident subjects. It was found that residents are more fit and feel better during and after class time. Resident subjects have less stress and maintain balanced diet for which they have good average BMI value than the nonresident subjects. In addition nonresident subjects have suffered diseases comparatively much more than resident subjects.

Shahjahan Ali

2012-04-01

364

Blood pool scintigraphy of the heart: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this chapter is to review procedural and technical aspects of scintigraphic methods designed to assess both left and right ventricular size and function. In addition, the current clinical applications are examined as well as recent advances in the acquisition, processing, and utilization of blood pool scintigraphy. The two basic scintigraphic methods for the evaluation of ventricular function, the first-pass and the equilibrium techniques, are discussed

365

Current Status of the MiniBooNE Experiment  

CERN Document Server

MiniBooNE is an experiment designed to refute or confirm the LSND anti-nu_mu -> anti-nu_e oscillation result. MiniBooNE will look for oscillations of nu_mu -> nu_e in a closed-box appearance analysis. MiniBooNE began collecting data in 2002, and is expected to continue data taking through 2005. Current MiniBooNE results are presented.

Ray, H; Koutsoliotas, S; Church, E; VanDalen, G J; Johnson, R A; Raaf, Jennifer L; Suwonjandee, N; Bugel, L; Conrad, J M; Fleming, B T; Formaggio, J; Shaevitz, M H; Sorel, M; Zimmerman, E D; Smith, D; Bhat, C; Brice, S J; Brown, B C; Ford, R; García, F G; Kasper, P; Kobilarcik, T; Kourbanis, I; Malensek, A; Marsh, W; Martin, P; Mills, F; Moore, Cristopher; Nienaber, P; Russell, A; Spentzouris, P; Stefanski, R; Williams, T; Tayloe, R; Boissevain, J G; Espinoza, C; Garvey, G T; Hawker, E; Louis, W C; Mills, G B; Sandberg, V; Sapp, B; Schirato, R; Thompson, T N; VandeWater, R; White, D H; Imlay, R; Malik, A; Metcalf, W; Sung, M; Roe, B P; Bazarko, A O; Meyers, P D; Sands, W; Shoemaker, F C; Stancu, I

2004-01-01

366

Current Status of Thermal Ablation Treatments for Lung Malignancies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

About 75% of lung cancer patients are not surgical candidates, either due to advanced disease or medical comorbidities. Furthermore, conventional treatments that can be offered to these patients are beneficial only to a small percentage of them. Thermal ablation is a minimally invasive treatment that is commonly used in this group of patients, and which has shown promising results. Currently, the most widely used ablation techniques in the treatment of lung malignancies are radiofrequency abl...

Dupuy, Damian E.; Shulman, Maria

2010-01-01

367

Current Status of Endovascular Devices to Treat Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

Science.gov (United States)

The introduction of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has revolutionized the therapeutic approach to patients with AAA. Due to an on-going and prolific collaboration between vascular interventionalists and biomedical engineers, the devices used to perform endovascular AAA repair have also changed dramatically. The purpose of this publication is to provide an overview of the currently available and upcoming options for endovascular AAA repair.

Eckroth-Bernard, Kamell; Garvin, Robert; Ryer, Evan

2013-01-01

368

Current status of Tc-99m production in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technetium-99m is the workhorse of nuclear medicine and currently accounts for over 80% of all in vivo diagnostic procedures. In Thailand, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) had experiences in production of Technetium-99m by solvent extraction process and alternative technology for Technetium-99m generator based on zirconium molybdate and titanium molybdate gel generators were also studied. The paper describes past experiences and future plan of Technetium-99m production in Thailand. (author)

369

The Current Status of Organ Transplantation: The Role of Xenotransplantation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last few years, transplantation was an area of intense research activity. However, there is a worldwide shortage of donor organs for clinical transplantations. Currently, interest in xenotransplantation research is growing not only because of the increased demand for organs but also because of advances in molecular biology techniques that make possible the genetic or immunological manipulations of the animal donor rather than the human recipient. The better definitions of the mechanism...

Franssen, Colette; Lambrigts, D.; Degesves, S.; Coignoul, Freddy; Bouillenne, C.; Lamy, Maurice; Meurisse, Michel; Alexandre, G. P.

1998-01-01

370

Current Status and Perspectives Regarding the Treatment of Osteosarcoma: Chemotherapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in childhood and adolescence. The use of combination chemotherapy and surgery enables long-term survival in approximately 60-70% of cases. However, the necessity for surgery, the poor prognosis of patients with metastatic or recurrent disease (long-term survival in only about 20% of cases), and the lack of establishment of second-line chemotherapy suggest that improvements in chemotherapy are desperately needed. Currently, in an effort to ext...

Sakamoto, Akio; Iwamoto, Yukihide

2008-01-01

371

Current status of nuclear mass formulae and their predictability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chronological table of mass formulae is first presented as an overview of nuclear mass studies. Then, the current problem on this subject is mentioned, which is in short how to treat both shell and deformation effects consistently. Three typical groups studying along this line are picked out, and their theoretical frameworks are compared. In addition the recent trend of microscopic approach to nuclear masses is mentioned. The numerical comparison is shown among these treatments, and their predictability is also discussed. (author)

372

Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

2007-01-01

373

Systemic therapy strategies for head-neck carcinomas: Current status [  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] Head and neck cancers, most of which are squamous cell tumours, have an unsatisfactory prognosis despite intensive local treatment. This can be attributed, among other factors, to tumour recurrences inside or outside the treated area, and metastases at more distal locations. These tumours therefore require not only the standard surgical and radiation treatments, but also effective modalities. The main option here is antineoplastic chemotherapy, which is firmly established in the palliative treatment of recurrent or metastatic stages of disease, and is used with curative intent in the form of combined simultaneous or adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with inoperable or advanced tumour stages. Neoadjuvant treatment strategies for tumour reduction before surgery have yet to gain acceptance. Induction chemotherapy protocols before radiotherapy have to date been used in patients at high risk of distant metastases or as an aid for decision-making (“chemoselection” in those with extensive laryngeal cancers, prior to definitive chemoradiotherapy or laryngectomy. Triple-combination induction therapy (taxanes, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil shows high remission rates with significant toxicity and, in combination with (chemo-radiotherapy, is currently being compared with simultaneous chemoradiotherapy; the current gold standard with regards to efficacy and long-term toxicity.A further systemic treatment strategy, called “targeted therapy”, has been developed to help increase specificity and reduce toxicity. An example of targeted therapy, EGFR-specific antibodies, can be used in palliative settings and, in combination with radiotherapy, to treat advanced head and neck cancers. A series of other novel biologicals such as signal cascade inhibitors, genetic agents, or immunotherapies, are currently being evaluated in large-scale clinical studies, and could prove useful in patients with advanced, recurring or metastatic head and neck cancers. When developing a lasting, individualised systemic tumour therapy, the critical evaluation criteria are not only efficacy and acute toxicity but also (long-term quality-of-life and the identification of dedicated predictive biomarkers.

Hoffmann, Thomas K.

2012-12-01

374

Current status of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy is increasingly carried out in an attempt to improve the cosmetic outcome of minimally-invasive procedures. However, the actual role of this novel technique remains to be determined. The present article reviews evidence and examines updates of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy outcomes reported in more contemporary studies. A comprehensive online systematic search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses criteria recommendations was carried out in January 2014, identifying data from 2008 to 2014 regarding robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy. The majority of medical evidence to date is based on case reports or retrospective studies. Current studies show that robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy is a feasible procedure carried out in an acceptable length of operative time, and resulting in a desirable cosmetic outcome and less postoperative pain. However, comparable studies show that robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy is inferior to the conventional approach, especially with regard to warm ischemia time. Furthermore, the numerous limitations that exist with the utilization of the current commercial single-site devices make robotic laparoendoscopic single-site PN more challenging and more complicated for surgeons compared with conventional procedures. Further significant improvements, along with more studies, are required in order to develop the ideal robotic laparoendoscopic single-site robotic platform and overcome the current limitations. For the time being, robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy procedures could be applicable in patients with low tumor size and complexity, and should not be routinely applied in all cases. PMID:25047133

Komninos, Christos; Tuliao, Patrick; Rha, Koon Ho

2014-10-01

375

Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status  

Science.gov (United States)

The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

2008-01-01

376

Stenting of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: Current Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Minimally invasive image-guided insertion of self-expanding metal stents in the upper gastrointestinal tract is the current treatment of choice for palliation of malignant esophageal or gastroduodenal outlet obstructions. A concise review is presented of contemporary stenting practice of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the procedures in terms of appropriate patient evaluation, indications, and contraindications for treatment are analyzed, along with available stent designs, procedural steps, clinical outcomes, inadvertent complications, and future technology. Latest developments include biodegradable polymeric stents for benign disease and radioactive or drug-eluting stents for malignant obstructions.

377

Current status of research and related activities in NAA application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

378

Current status of research and related activities in NAA application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

Ab. Khalik bin Haji Wood [Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

1999-10-01

379

Tension between SN and BAO: current status and future forecasts  

CERN Document Server

Using real and synthetic SNeIa (SN) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) data representing current observations forecasts, this paper investigates the tension between those probes in the dark energy equation of state (EoS) reconstruction considering the well known CPL model and Wang's reformulation. In particular, we present for the first time simulations of BAO data from both the radial and transverse directions. We also explore the influence of priors on Omega_m and Omega_b on the tension issue, by considering 1-sigma deviations in either one or both of them. Our results indicate that for some priors there is no tension between a single dataset (either SN or BAO) and the combination dataset (SN+BAO). Our criterion to discern the existence of tension (sigma-distance) is also useful to establish which is the dataset with most constraining power; in this respect SN and BAO data switch roles when current and future data are considered, as forecasts predict and spectacular quality improvement on BAO data. We a...

Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Salzano, Vincenzo; Sendra, Irene

2011-01-01

380

Radiation damage of biomolecules (RADAM) database development: current status  

Science.gov (United States)

Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. However, as the underlying dependent physical, chemical and biological processes are too complex to treat them on a purely analytical level, most of our current and future understanding will rely on computer simulations, based on mathematical equations, algorithms and last, but not least, on the available atomic and molecular data. The viability of the simulated output and the success of any computer simulation will be determined by these data, which are treated as the input variables in each computer simulation performed. The radiation research community lacks a complete database for the cross sections of all the different processes involved in ion beam induced damage: ionization and excitation cross sections for ions with liquid water and biological molecules, all the possible electron - medium interactions, dielectric response data, electron attachment to biomolecules etc. In this paper we discuss current progress in the creation of such a database, outline the roadmap of the project and review plans for the exploitation of such a database in future simulations.

Denifl, S.; Garcia, G.; Huber, B. A.; Marinkovi?, B. P.; Mason, N.; Postler, J.; Rabus, H.; Rixon, G.; Solov'yov, A. V.; Suraud, E.; Yakubovich, A. V.

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

The MDSplus data acquisition system, current status and future directions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MDSplus data acquisition system was developed in collaboration with the ZTH group at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the RFX group at CNR in Padua, Italy and is currently in use at MIT, RFX in Padua, and TCV at EPFL in Lausanne. MDSplus is based on a hierarchical experiment description which completely describes the data acquisition and analysis tasks and contains the results from these operations. It also includes a set of X/motif based tools for data acquisition and display, as well as diagnostic configuration and management. These tools were designed to operate in a distributed, client/server environment with multiple concurrent readers and writers to the data store. An interface to a relational database is provided for storage and management of processed data. A commercially available package called IDL is used as the primary data analysis and visualization tool. The current projects include a new interface to the electronic logbook, tools for remote collaborators and WWW access, and a port of the system to UNIX and Windows-NT/95. (orig.)

382

Stent-Grafts for Unruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Current Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aortic stent-grafts were introduced at the beginning of the 1990s as a less invasive method of dealing with aortic aneurysms in patients with poor cardiovascular reserve. The numbers of procedures performed worldwide has increased exponentially despite the current lack of any substantial evidence for long-term efficacy in comparison with the gold standard of open surgical grafting. This review summarizes the evolution of the abdominal aortic stent-graft, the techniques used for assessment and deployment, and the effect of the procedure on both the patient and the device. The recent publication of two national multicenter trials has confirmed that the endovascular technique confers a 2.5-fold reduction in 30-day mortality in comparison with open surgery. However, over 4 years of follow-up, there is a 3-fold increase in the risk of reintervention and the overall costs are 30% greater with endovascular repair. Although the improvement in aneurysm-related mortality persists in the mid-term, because of the initial reduction in perioperative mortality, the all-cause mortality rate at 4 years is actually no better than for open surgery. Longer-term data from the randomized trials are awaited as well as results from the latest trials utilizing state-of-the-art devices. Whilst the overall management of abdominal aortic aneurysms has undoubtedly benefited from the introduction of stent-grafts, open repair currently remains the gold standard treatmentdard treatment

383

Liquid Acquisition Strategies for Exploration Missions: Current Status 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA is currently developing the propulsion system concepts for human exploration missions to the lunar surface. The propulsion concepts being investigated are considering the use of cryogenic propellants for the low gravity portion of the mission, that is, the lunar transit, lunar orbit insertion, lunar descent and the rendezvous in lunar orbit with a service module after ascent from the lunar surface. These propulsion concepts will require the vapor free delivery of the cryogenic propellants stored in the propulsion tanks to the exploration vehicles main propulsion system (MPS) engines and reaction control system (RCS) engines. Propellant management devices (PMD s) such as screen channel capillary liquid acquisition devices (LAD s), vanes and sponges currently are used for earth storable propellants in the Space Shuttle Orbiter OMS and RCS applications and spacecraft propulsion applications but only very limited propellant management capability exists for cryogenic propellants. NASA has begun a technology program to develop LAD cryogenic fluid management (CFM) technology through a government in-house ground test program of accurately measuring the bubble point delta-pressure for typical screen samples using LO2, LN2, LH2 and LCH4 as test fluids at various fluid temperatures and pressures. This presentation will document the CFM project s progress to date in concept designs, as well ground testing results.

Chato, David J.

2010-01-01

384

History and current status of commercial pulsed laser deposition equipment  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will review the history of the scale-up of the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process from small areas ?1 cm2 up to 10 m2 starting in about 1987. It also documents the history of commercialization of PLD as various companies become involved in selling fully integrated laser deposition tools starting in 1989. The paper will highlight the current state of the art of commercial PLD equipment for R&D that is available on the market today from mainstream vendors as well as production-oriented applications directed at piezo-electric materials for microelectromechanical systems and high-temperature superconductors for coated-conductor applications. The paper clearly demonstrates that considerable improvements have been made to scaling this unique physical vapour deposition process to useful substrate sizes, and that commercial deposition equipment is readily available from a variety of vendors to address a wide variety of technologically important thin-film applications.

Greer, James A.

2014-01-01

385

Current status of RMS and technical experience for regional cooperation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NNCA uses secure remote monitoring systems, both for reporting to the IAEA and for the bilateral cooperation with Sandia (SNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The NNCA system architecture has changed from a system using a Central Monitoring Station at the former TCNC, to direct internet reporting on a simultaneous basis to the IAEA and the NNCA. The NNCA reporting system is applied at 16 power reactors. This experience provides the basis for a detailed cost analysis and evaluation of trouble-shooting experience. Progress in establishing remote monitoring cooperation between the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's new Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPE) and Sandia is a precondition for regional cooperation. The ACPF system, which is currently in final testing, features network configuration and equipment that differ from safeguards standards for reasons of cost and flexibility. This allows the NNCA to take advantage of rapidly developing technologies at lower cost. (author)

386

Porcine dermis implants in soft-tissue reconstruction: current status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neil J Smart,1 Nicholas Bryan,2 John A Hunt,2 Ian R Daniels1 1Exeter Surgical Health Services Research Unit, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Exeter, UK; 2Clinical Engineering (UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Soft-tissue reconstruction for a variety of surgical conditions, such as abdominal wall hernia or pelvic organ prolapse, remains a challenge. There are numerous meshes available that may be simply categorized as either synthetic or biologic. Within biologic meshes, porcine dermal meshes have come to dominate the market. This review examines the current evidence for their use and the limitations of knowledge. Although there is increasing evidence to support their safety, long-term follow-up studies that support their efficacy are lacking. Numerous clinical trials that remain ongoing may help elucidate their precise role in soft-tissue reconstruction. Keywords: hernia, mesh, xenograft, biologic

Smart NJ

2014-03-01

387

[DNA methylation and demethylation: current status and future perspective].  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA methylation plays important roles in cell differentiation, embryonic development, host adaptations to environmental factors, and pathogenesis through regulation of gene transcription and imprinting, X-inactivation, and defense of foreign genetic material invasion, is currently one of the hottest research fields on epigenetics. In the past few years, a number of important findings on DNA methylation have been achieved. These findings include discovery of TETs-catalyzed cytosine hydroxymethylation and its functions in the early embryonic development; the relationship between active and passive DNA demethylation; establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation patterns and their associations with histone modifications, chromatin configuration, polycomb group proteins and non-coding RNA bindings. DNA methylation has become a new potential biomarker and therapy target. PMID:24846989

Dajun, Deng

2014-05-01

388

Other novel agents: Rationale and current status as chemopreventive agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several novel targets are currently being evaluated both preclinically and clinically for the prevention of prostate cancer. Four divergent and novel approaches were discussed at the National Cancer Institute-sponsored workshop entitled, "New Clinical Strategies in Prostate Cancer Prevention." These interventions are further categorized into soy protein-based serine-protease inhibitors that reduce superoxide-induced DNA damage, and molecularly targeted approaches that are directed toward endothelin-1 expression/overexpression, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands, and insulinlike growth factors. Understanding each of these approaches has offered insights into the process of malignant transformation of prostatic epithelium, and further illustrates the difficulties of developing new agents in the treatment and prevention of prostate cancer. Close scrutiny of the clinical data emerging with these approaches, including validation of biologic endpoints, is required before large-scale prevention studies with these novel agents and targets can be considered. PMID:11295602

Tolcher, A W; Kennedy, A; Padley, R J; Majeed, N; Pollak, M; Kantoff, P W

2001-04-01

389

Current Status and Design Challenges in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs will boost the capabilities of current wireless sensor networks, and will serve some novel applications, like multimedia surveillance. Today’s world is of automation and WMSN plays a very vital role in today’s world. WMSNs introduce several new research challenges, mainly related to mechanisms of deliver application level Quality-of-Service (e.g., latency minimization. The main research going on today in WMSN are on Video Streaming and on its Security area. The main focus of this research paper is on the problem related to video streaming of WMSN. This research paper introduces some of the solutions/suggestions with the help of which some of the problems like video streaming of wireless multimedia sensor network can be sorted.

Himanshu Diwan

2013-12-01

390

Biotechnological production of muconic acid: current status and future prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Muconic acid (MA), a high value-added bio-product with reactive dicarboxylic groups and conjugated double bonds, has garnered increasing interest owing to its potential applications in the manufacture of new functional resins, bio-plastics, food additives, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. At the very least, MA can be used to produce commercially important bulk chemicals such as adipic acid, terephthalic acid and trimellitic acid. Recently, great progress has been made in the development of biotechnological routes for MA production. This present review provides a comprehensive and systematic overview of recent advances and challenges in biotechnological production of MA. Various biological methods are summarized and compared, and their constraints and possible solutions are also described. Finally, the future prospects are discussed with respect to the current state, challenges, and trends in this field, and the guidelines to develop high-performance microbial cell factories are also proposed for the MA production by systems metabolic engineering. PMID:24751381

Xie, Neng-Zhong; Liang, Hong; Huang, Ri-Bo; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

391

Current status and future prospects of drug delivery systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an overview of the current drug delivery systems (DDS) starting with various routes of drug administration. Various drug formulations are then described as well as devices used for drug delivery and targeted drug delivery. There has been a considerable increase in the number of new biotechnology-based therapeutics. Most of these are proteins and peptides, and their delivery presents special challenges. Cell and gene therapies are sophisticated methods of delivery of therapeutics. Nanoparticles are considered to be important in refining drug delivery; they can be pharmaceuticals as well as diagnostics. Refinements in drug delivery will facilitate the development of personalized medicine in which targeted drug delivery will play an important role. There is discussion about the ideal DDS, commercial aspects, challenges, and future prospects. PMID:24567129

Jain, Kewal K

2014-01-01

392

Current status of left ventricular assist device technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of long-term left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has revolutionized the treatment of end-stage heart failure. The most significant advance in this field has been the longer durability of devices secondary to a simpler pump design with fewer or no mechanical bearings and valves. Continuous-flow LVADs have recently been shown to provide safe and effective circulatory support and have replaced the first-generation fill-to-empty devices. The Thoratec HeartMate II and the HeartWare HVAD are currently the 2 most commonly implanted LVADs worldwide. As LVAD technology moves forward and new miniaturized, more durable, and reliable pumps are being developed, the number of recipients who will benefit from this technology continues to grow. Elimination of the driveline with fully implantable pumps, implantation of miniature pumps with minimally invasive surgical techniques, wireless data transmission, and improved patient selection will further transform this field in the next few years. PMID:23800529

Molina, Ezequiel J; Boyce, Steven W

2013-01-01

393

Gas evolution and migration in repositories: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considerable volumes of gas may be formed in a repository due to corrosion of metallic wastes and microbial degradation of certain organic wastes. The requirements for data and models to help understand the rate of formation of gases and their migration are described. The Nirex research programme in the area complements existing knowledge and takes additional priorities from the outcome of site assessments. Key areas currently being studied include: the rate of evolution of hydrogen from steel under anaerobic conditions; and of carbon dioxide and methane from cellulosic materials; characterisation of near- and far-field materials with respect to gas transport (permeabilities, capillary pressures, etc); and development of a comprehensive series of models covering gas evolution and migration in the near and far fields. (author)

394

Current status of technology development on remote monitoring system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IAEA is planning to perform the remote monitoring system in nuclear facility in order to reinforce the economical and efficient inspection. National lab. in U.S. is developing the corresponding core technology and field trial will be done to test the remote monitoring system by considering the case that it replace the current safeguards system. U.S. setup the International Remote Monitoring Project to develop the technology. IAEA makes up remote monitoring team and setup the detail facility to apply remote monitoring system. Therefore, early participation in remote monitoring technology development will make contribution in international remote monitoring system and increase the transparency and confidence in domestic nuclear activities. (author). 12 refs., 20 figs

Yoon, Wan Ki; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, Y. D.; Na, W. W

1997-03-01

395

Anthropogenic SO2/NOx committee--current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current activities of the Anthropogenic SO2/NOx Committee center around the compilation of Version 1 of the GEIA inventories. These inventories will be based on the GEIA-specified 1 degrees by 1 degrees grid (lower left corner at 180 degrees W/90 degrees S, west to east and south to north), reflect 1985 emissions and consist of two data sets: Version 1A inventories with annual emissions at one level and Version 1B inventories with seasonal emissions, two vertical levels (defined at 100 m) and sectoral split information. The basic information used for both versions of the GEIA inventories will be identical; i.e., emissions totals across both inventories will be the same. Work is being carried out in two complementary working groups; Carmen Benkovitz, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA heads the work on the annual inventory, Eva Voldner, Atmospheric Environment Services, Canada and Trevor Scholtz, ORTECH International, Canada, head the work on the seasonal inventory

396

Astroparticles in Latin America: current status and outlook  

CERN Document Server

The successful installation and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina has been a milestone in Astroparticle research in Latin America, generating new regional research opportunities in the field. In this context, the LAGO project, begun in 2005 with the aim of studying the high-energy component of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). This observatory consists of different arrays of water-Cherenkov detectors installed in high altitude mountains throughout Latin America. Recently, it has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting studies on the solar modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux. Currently more than 80 scientists and students from Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Argentina are integrated into the LAGO Collaboration. The high level of regional integration in the scientific community reached thanks to this kind of major projects, has led to the recent formation of the CLES (Consorcio Latinoamericano de Experimentos Subterr\\'{a}neos). This organization promotes ...

Sidelnik, Iván

2014-01-01

397

Current status of temporomandibular joint arthroscopy in the United Kingdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an era during which minimally invasive procedures are increasingly becoming the norm, arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) seems to be infrequently used for diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the TMJ. The reasons for this are not clear. The purpose of this study was to find out the current state of arthroscopy of the TMJ in the UK and, more specifically, how often it is used, the indications for its use, the level of experience of practising surgeons, and the reasons for not using it. Information was gathered between 2009 and 2010 from a postal and e-mail questionnaire to all oral and maxillofacial consultants in the UK. Of the 346 consultants, 215 (60%) responded to the questionnaire. Forty-two said that they currently used arthroscopy of the TMJ, and 33 of those (81%) have more than 5 years' experience. During the past year, a total of 8 consultants nationally have done 20 arthroscopies or more. Thirty-three of the procedures (81%) were done for both diagnosis and treatment. Lack of perceived need of patients and lack of interest in this specialty were the main reasons given for not doing arthroscopy, lack of training being a key secondary reason. The Storz and Olympus systems were the most commonly used within the UK. Results seem to support the opinion that arthroscopy of the TMJ is under-used, and consideration should be given to ensuring that trainees are instructed in its use, which is important in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the TMJ. PMID:22206716

Thomas, Sangeetha M; Matthews, N Shaun

2012-10-01

398

Current status of MELOS1 Mars exploration planning  

Science.gov (United States)

MELOS (an acronym of Mars Exploration with Lander-Orbiter Synergy) is Japan's new and ambitious plan for a series of Mars exploration missions. The ultimate goal of the MELOS series missions is to understand the solid planet, the surface processes, the atmosphere, and its surrounding plasma environment as one integrated system. This, of course, requires multiple missions of orbiters and landers, equipped with various instruments. The first of the MELOS series, MELOS1, is currently under planning. The mission consists of two elements: an orbiter and an entry-descent-landing (EDL) demonstrator. The scientific objective of the orbiter is the spatial and temporal variability of Martian dust, which have significant effect on the Martian climate through a variety of processes, such as heating of atmosphere by absorption of the sunlight, etc. To continuously monitor the evolution of dust storms, the orbit (near equatorial, as opposed to polar orbits in most missions) is so designed (1) that enables the orbiter nearly in synchronization with the planet's rotation when it is around the apocenter, and (2) that the apocenter's local time is always maintained near the noon. The instruments on board MELOS1 include the imaging polarimeter (visible wavelengths), the thermal-infrared camera, the sub-mm sounder, plus the ultra-stable oscillator for the radio occultation science. The EDL demonstrator will primarily perform experiments of engineering aspects, while a small portion of its payload will be available for scientific experiments. Current proposals include the interior-structure study, the astro-biological experiments, and the surface-geology study. The selection will take place in this year and the MELOS1 mission will be proposed for the launch around 2020. We welcome inputs from the world Mars science community and/or contributed instruments that require and benefit from MELOS1's unique orbit.

Satoh, Takehiko; Imamura, Takeshi; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Okada, Tatsuaki; Kubota, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Oyama, Akira

2012-07-01

399

Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is important to provide the user with an evaluated nuclear database of the highest quality, dependability, and currency. It is also important that the evaluated nuclear data are easily accessible to the user. In the past the panel concentrated its concern on the cycle time for the publication of A-chain evaluations. However, the panel now recognizes that publication cycle time is no longer the appropriate goal. Sometime in the future, publication of the evaluated A-chains will evolve from the present hard-copy Nuclear Data Sheets on library shelves to purely electronic publication, with the advent of universal access to terminals and the nuclear databases. Therefore, the literature cut-off date in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is rapidly becoming the only important measure of the currency of an evaluated A-chain. Also, it has become exceedingly important to ensure that access to the databases is as user-friendly as possible and to enable electronic publication of the evaluated data files. Considerable progress has been made in these areas: use of the on-line systems has almost doubled in the past year, and there has been initial development of tools for electronic evaluation, publication, and dissemination. Currently, the nuclear data effort is in transition between the traditional and future methods of dissemination of the evaluated data. Also, many of the factors that adversely affect the publication cycle time simultaneously affect the currency of the evaluated nuclear database. Therefore, the panel continues to examine factors that can influence cycle time: the number of evaluators, the frequency with which an evaluation can be updated, the review of the evaluation, and the production of the evaluation, which currently exists as a hard-copy issue of Nuclear Data Sheets

400

Current Status of the MLIS Uranium Enrichment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Well-established energy security is extremely important for the national economy and future prosperity of the country. Many countries are trying to develop and use renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and tidal power to keep the natural environment clean and safe. Although some have disputed calling nuclear power (which produces ?40% of domestic electricity) 'green energy', it deserves credit for this label because of its low CO2 emission and fuel efficiency. While fuel costs in nuclear power generation are less than 30% and uranium enrichment is only ?40% of front-end fuel loop, uranium enrichment is a critical step in nuclear power generation. It is also politically sensitive worldwide due to potential proliferation aspects. Currently, gaseous diffusion and centrifuge are the technologies for uranium enrichment. Since the 70s, many countries have been trying to develop a more advanced and economic technology after the gaseous diffusion process started to loose its economic viability. Among the developed laser-assisted technologies, MLIS (Molecular Laser Isotope Separation) is still under investigation for industrial application while most other laser uranium enrichment technologies have been terminated. In this regard it is worthwhile to review the MLIS processes being developed currently, SILEX (Separation of Isotopes by Laser EXcitation) and CRISLA (Condensation Repression by Isotope Selective Laser Activation). Recently the Canadian company Cameco joined the GE-Hitachi venture by paying $123.8M for a 24% holding, and GE-Hitachi- Cameco is now running the GLE (Global Laser Enrichment) facility using SILEX technology in Wilmington, North Carolina to evaluate commercialization of the process