WorldWideScience
 
 
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Current Status and Prospects for E-learning in the Promotion of Distance Education in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of e-learning as an advanced system for training and educating mass people using information and communication technologies (ICTs) has been received an increasing level of interest in recent years in most of the western countries. In spite of socio-economic constraints, ICTs are rapidly expanding in the developing countries, and thus offering a new scope for the use of e-learning for the promotion of distance education. In Bangladesh, e-learning was first introduced as early as 1960s as a Radiobroadcast followed by a pilot project School Broadcasting Program (SBP) in 1980s and then expanded by the establishment of the National Institute of Educational Media and Technology (NIEMT), which was later transformed into Bangladesh Institute of Distance Education (BIDE) in 1985. The significant progress has been done after the establishment of the Bangladesh Open University (BOU) in 1992 as the first and only national distance learning university. Within a decade of its establishment, enrollment of BOU students have reached nearly 400 thousands, and thus enlisted it as one of the mega-universities. BOU has been offering a variety of formal and non-formal academic programs from certificate to Masters levels using print, TV and radio broadcasts, audio-cassettes and face to face tutorials as the media of delivering its academic courses. Considering the rapid expansion of computer and internet in Bangladesh after 1998s, it is now appropriate time to consider inclusion of some interactive ICTs i.e. e-learning in delivering course materials of BOU or other institutes to promote distance education in Bangladesh. In this paper, we discuss the current situation and future prospects for e-learning in Bangladesh considering the current trend of ICTs expansion in the country.

Tofazzal ISLAM; Abu Sadeque Md. SELIM

2006-01-01

2

Wind energy status in Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bangladesh is a rural agricultural country lying in South Asia. Having a vast sea to the south and a long coast line, Bangladesh has a promising prospect for wind energy. For the last few decades all wind energy studies were based on Meteorological Department data that seemed to be insufficient due to inappropriate height for wind power generation. In recent years advanced technologies have been adopted to find the important wind areas of Bangladesh, especially for the study of electric power generation. Different initiatives from the government and non-government sectors have further strengthened the target through direct involvement in wind velocity measurement and a number of national workshops and international seminars. The revised wind speed data not only show a bright prospect of wind energy in Bangladesh but also bear an important value in rural electrification and irrigation programmes, the two vital sectors of socio-economic development of Bangladesh. (author)

Mohammad Upal Mahfuz [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

2001-07-01

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Current status of artemisinin-resistant falciparum malaria in South Asia: a randomized controlled artesunate monotherapy trial in Bangladesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Recent reports indicate that first cases of genuine artemisinin resistance have already emerged along the Thai-Cambodian border. The main objective of this trial was to track the potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Bangladesh, which in terms of drug resistance forms a gateway to the Indian subcontinent. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, randomized, controlled 42-day clinical trial in Southeastern Bangladesh to investigate the potential spread of clinical artemisinin resistance from Southeast Asia. A total of 126 uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients were randomized to one of 3 treatment arms (artesunate monotherapy with 2 or 4 mg/kg/day once daily or quinine plus doxycycline TID for 7 days). Only cases fulfilling a stringent set of criteria were considered as being artemisinin-resistant. FINDINGS: The 28-day and 42-day cure rates in the artesunate monotherapy (2 and 4 mg/kg) and quinine/doxycyline arms were 97.8% (95% confidence interval, CI: 87.8-99.8%), 100% (95% CI: 91.1-100%), and 100% (95% CI: 83.4-100%), respectively. One case of re-infection was seen in the artesunate high dose arm, and a single case of recrudescence was observed in the low dose group on day 26. No differences in median parasite and fever clearance times were found between the 2 artesunate arms (29.8 h and 17.9 h vs. 29.5 h and 19.1 h). Not a single case fulfilled our criteria of artemisinin resistance. Parasite clearance times were considerably shorter and ex vivo results indicate significantly higher susceptibility (50% inhibitory concentration for dihydroartemisinin was 1.10 nM; 95% CI: 0.95-1.28 nM) to artemisinins as compared to SE-Asia. CONCLUSION: There is currently no indication that artemisinin resistance has reached Bangladesh. However, the fact that resistance has recently been reported from nearby Myanmar indicates an urgent need for close monitoring of artemisinin resistance in the region. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00639873.

Starzengruber P; Swoboda P; Fuehrer HP; Khan WA; Hofecker V; Siedl A; Fally M; Graf O; Teja-Isavadharm P; Haque R; Ringwald P; Noedl H

2012-01-01

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Determinants of the Current Use of Contraceptive Methods in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study used the, 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey, the 1993-94 and the 1996-97 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS) to investigate the determinants of contraceptive use among the currently married women under 50 years of age. Bi-variate analysis were used to assess the differentials and multivariate analysis used to find the determinants of the current contraceptive use. The results indicate that improvement of the status of women, access to mass media and reduction of child mortality are important determinants of contraceptive use.

Ahmad Kabir

2001-01-01

5

Exclusive breastfeeding and nutritional status in Bangladesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purposes of the study were to assess exclusive breastfeeding practice and examine the factors effect on nutritional status of children from 0 to 24 months age. METHOD: Data from a national survey entitled "Surveillance on Breastfeeding and Weaning Situation and Child and Maternal Health in Bangladesh" were used to investigate the exclusive breastfeeding practice and to examine the factors having influence on child nutrition. Information was collected from mothers of 2781 children between 0 and 24 months of age. RESULTS: It was that 16% of women still exclusively breastfed their children for less than 6 months. Of the children 38.1% were stunted and 38% were under weight for their age. Overall, 46% of children were suffering from diseases. Bivariate analysis showed that maternal education and family income were important correlates of exclusive breastfeeding (Chi-square p<0.001). Exclusively breastfed children were nutritionally better off (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that the children of illiterate women were nutritionally more vulnerable than children of women who had secondary and higher education (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.33-2.15). The children of older age women were less likely to be stunted than children of younger age women (OR=0.78, 95% CI=0.64-0.96). CONCLUSION: Despite efforts of different government agencies and NGOs, exclusive breastfeeding rate was still low in Bangladesh. Traditional cultural barriers still exist. In order to remove the harmful cultural beliefs and to spread the messages of the benefit of exclusive breastfeeding for survival and nutritional status of the children more behaviour change communication should be made to promote, protect and support breastfeeding.

Giashuddin MS; Kabir M; Rahman A; Hannan MA

2003-06-01

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Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

1999-01-01

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Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

Ullah, Sana [Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

1999-09-01

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Arsenic Status at Different Depths in Some Soils of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the arsenic status of some selected soils in six thanas of three arsenic affected districts of Bangladesh. Eighteen soil samples taking three from each of 6 thanas representing 3 districts viz. Moulavibazar, Habiganj and Sylhet of Bangladesh were collected for the study. The soils were collected from 3 depths viz. 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm from each location. The arsenic content in soils of Moulavibazar, Habiganj and Sylhet districts ranged from 1.32-31.89, 0-16.87 and 0.66-17.57 ppm, respectively. Out of 18 samples, arsenic content was noticed for 11 samples at 0-15 cm depth (1.98-25.76 ppm), 15 samples at 15-30 cm depth (3.96-30.68 ppm) and 14 samples at 30-45 cm depth (3.96-38.23 ppm). The highest arsenic content of 38.23 ppm was found at 30-45 cm depth in Sylhet district. Seven samples at 0-15 cm, 3 samples at 15-30 cm and 4 samples at 30-45 cm were free from arsenic contamination. Correlation study of arsenic contents of soils was done with some soil properties viz. sand, silt and clay contents, soil pH, EC and organic matter status. Results showed that arsenic content correlated significantly with different soil properties.

M.M. Hossain; M.A. Sattar; M.A. Hashem; M.R. Islam

2001-01-01

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Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report gives a review of the major work that has been done in Bangladesh on climate change and its impacts on Bangladesh. It also outlines the progress so far made towards the preparation of Bangladesh national communication under UNFCCC and recommendations for future studies, adaptation, mitigation and policy issues. Issues being studied by the Government of Bangladesh for greenhouse gas reduction in the energy sector include the integration of energy and land use issues in the planning of development schemes, efficient management of biomass energy sources, commercial fuel substitutes for fuel wood, and increasing availability and use of natural gas. Mitigation measures include crop diversification, and improving food production techniques. Adaptation strategies to mitigate sea level rise include constructing or modifying embankments. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

Qayyum, M.F.; Hossain, M.E.; Karmakar, S.; Karim, Z.; Ali, A.; Reazuddin, M. [Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

1998-12-31

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AUTO FIB Current Status  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status of the automated fibre positioner, Autofib, is reviewed including the positioning performance and the set-up speed. Future plans to build another Autofib for the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope are also briefly discussed.

Parry, I.; Sharples, R. M.

11

Current Status of Simulations  

CERN Document Server

As the title suggests, the purpose of this chapter is to review the current status of numerical simulations of black hole accretion disks. This chapter focuses exclusively on global simulations of the accretion process within a few tens of gravitational radii of the black hole. Most of the simulations discussed are performed using general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) schemes, although some mention is made of Newtonian radiation MHD simulations and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The goal is to convey some of the exciting work that has been going on in the past few years and provide some speculation on future directions.

Fragile, P Chris

2013-01-01

12

Women's autonomy and unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant women in Bangladesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their pregnancy intention status among currently pregnant Bangladeshi women. This study is based on data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2007 (BDHS). A subset of interviews from currently pregnant women (718) were extracted from 10,146 married women of reproductive age. The BDHS 2007 used a pre-tested, structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, women's empowerment, and pregnancy information. Associations between unintended pregnancy and explanatory variables were assessed using bivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of women's autonomy on current pregnancy intention status after controlling for other variables. Results indicate that women's autonomy is a significant predictor of unintended pregnancy after adjusting for other factors. A unit increase in the autonomy scale decreases the odds of unintended pregnancy by 16%. Besides autonomy, our results also indicate that current age, number of children ever born, age at marriage, religion, media access, and contraceptive use exert strong influences over unintended pregnancy. Women who have ever used contraceptives are 82% more likely to classify their current pregnancies as unintended compared with women who are non-users of contraceptives. Improvement in women's autonomy and effective and efficient use of contraceptives may reduce unintended pregnancies as well as improve reproductive health outcomes.

Rahman M

2012-08-01

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Regulatory infrastructure for the control of radiation sources in Bangladesh: Present status and future direction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Government of Bangladesh promulgated Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) Act in July 1993 to control and supervise the introduction and conduct of any practice involving sources of ionizing radiation. Necessary rules have also been promulgated in 1997 and efforts are now on to enforce the legal requirements. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been empowered by the NSRC Act-93 to authorize and inspect regulated activities, issue guidelines and standards and enforce the legislation and regulations. The report describes the status of the radiation safety and progress made towards building an effective and sustainable national regulatory system. (author)

2003-01-01

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Pheromone use for insect control: present status and prospect in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The insect’s world is filled with many odors. Insects use these odors to cue them in a variety of complex social behaviors, including courtship, mating, and egg laying. Scientists and pest control specialists have known about these complex communication systems for decades. The main aim of this study was to visualize the availability, trends and differences in the sources of pheromone control in agricultural growth of Bangladesh. It also concerned on constrains and present use of pheromone and their possible recommendation on behalf of Bangladesh agriculture. It concentrated on the data during last three decades (1980-2010), comprising status of pheromone use in Bangladesh agriculture and its future. Review revealed that Bangladesh has been enormously successful in increasing pheromone use in agricultural production (especially for vegetables). Understanding of the nature of pheromones and their potential for pest control along with the future prospective of pheromone technique in agriculture were stated. Since the pheromone, technologies for control of major crop pests in Bangladesh are still limited. So that this review emphasized on more attention to the authority to increase the research works and project facilities related to develop and promote pheromone techniques. It is highly recommended to increase availability of pheromone in market, more investment in research and development, introduction of newly identified pheromone for specific pest, to assist government and non-government organizations to work with farmers to reduce harmful insecticide use and promote pheromone tactics as one part of integrated crop management (ICM).

Md. Azharul Islam

2012-01-01

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Present status on the use of antibiotics and chemicals in shrimp hatcheries and grow-out ponds and their environmental implications in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to document the current status on the use of antibiotics, chemicals and biological products used in shrimp hatcheries and grow-out ponds in Bangladesh. In the last decade, coastal aquaculture practised traditionally in south western and south eastern parts of Bangladesh has developed into a big industry. With the rapid expansion of shrimp grow-out facilities, the hatchery industry has progressed rapidly during the last five years. A major disease outbreak, namely white spot disease in 1995 struck the shrimp aquaculture throughout the country and resulted in increased use of chemotherapeutics for disinfection and treatment. Among the 50 operating hatcheries of Bangladesh, 40 (80%) were surveyed in which 7 different antibiotics, 6 disinfectants and 2 different biological products were used for controlling common diseases. The study also covered 50 grow-out ponds of which 30 were in southwestern and 20 were in southeastern part of Bangladesh. The study included 8 semi-intensive and 42 extensive farms. Diseases were treated with 15 commercial products belonging to 3 antibiotics classes. The antibiotics currently used in shrimp aquaculture in Bangladesh are chloramphenicol in the name of CL-33, prefuran, oxytetracycline, furazolidone, erythromycin, neomycin sulphate, kenamycin sulphate and ciprofloxacin.

Sheikh Aftabuddin; Abdul Kader; Abuhena M. Kamal; Mohammad Zafar

2009-01-01

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Socio-Psychological Status of Female Heads of Households in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study describes and examines the resource position and socio-psychological status of female heads of household in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh. For this, 120 households led by females were selected by convenience sampling from Rajshahi city, Bangladesh. The women heads were individually interviewed with semi-structured questionnaire method, focusing on access to resources and socio-psychological problems of the women who lead and run their households. The results of descriptive analysis and in-depth interviews suggest that absence of a male breadwinner and the lack of tangible resources led to a situation of increased vulnerability for the female heads of households in Rajshahi city, Bangladesh that, in turn, affect socio-psychological status of the female heads adversely. The study also suggests that the intangible resources like informal social support had, to some extent, compensated the scarcity of tangible resources for the female heads. In order to overcome the situations of female heads of households some policy implications are suggested. Based on probability sampling further research on this issue should be conducted in Bangladesh.

Tanzima Zohra Habib

2010-01-01

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Radiation education in Bangladesh: status need and opportunities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state, the provisions of radiation education and training have expanded greatly. Still then, since it is a developing country with high population growth rate, low literacy level and located thousands of miles away from the developed ones, it is difficult to transfer and disseminate knowledge, particularly about the subject of radiation at a speed and spread as required to meet the challenge of future. So, not only professional training but also institutional and formal academic knowledge and skill development is essential in the process of acquisition and transfer of such knowledge. Accordingly the courses on radiation and radioactivity including risk perception in general have to be vigorously pursued for the sake of safety and attaining basic concepts about health effects of different levels of radiation. (author)

Bakht, Delawar [Titas Gas Transmission and Distribution Co. Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh)

1999-09-01

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Radiation education in Bangladesh: status need and opportunities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state, the provisions of radiation education and training have expanded greatly. Still then, since it is a developing country with high population growth rate, low literacy level and located thousands of miles away from the developed ones, it is difficult to transfer and disseminate knowledge, particularly about the subject of radiation at a speed and spread as required to meet the challenge of future. So, not only professional training but also institutional and formal academic knowledge and skill development is essential in the process of acquisition and transfer of such knowledge. Accordingly the courses on radiation and radioactivity including risk perception in general have to be vigorously pursued for the sake of safety and attaining basic concepts about health effects of different levels of radiation. (author)

1999-01-01

19

FOREST-BASED TOURISM IN BANGLADESH: STATUS, PROBLEMS, AND PROSPECTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bangladesh is a land of diverse forest-based natural attractions throughout the evergreen, semi-evergreen, and mangrove forest ecosystems. The article attempts at exploring various dimensions of ecotourism industry and critically analyzes the relationship among the stakeholders, overall strength-weakness of ecotourism sector and impediments hindering its development. National Parks, Ecoparks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves, and the like have been developed in the natural forest ecosystems to attract tourists from home and abroad. Cheap transportation, lodging and associated costs, unique scenic beauty and wilderness of all sites and socio-cultural diversity of indigenous communities living in the forest together make up the strength of the industry as a whole. The study identifies a number of impediments, including conflict among the stakeholders and forest degradation hindering expansion of ecotourism industry. For sustainable development of forest-based tourism, traditional ‘Top-down’ management approach is suggested to avoid and voice of all stakeholders needs to be considered in decision-making.

Mahbubul Alam; Yasushi Furukawa; Salma Akter

2010-01-01

20

Engineered barriers: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137Cs), since they can provide containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author).

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Hepatitis E: current status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acute hepatitis E is a very common disease in developing countries, to the point that, according to World Health Organization estimates, one third of the world's population has been exposed to HEV. It also causes outbreaks in refugee camps or after natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes. Sporadic cases of acute hepatitis have been observed in practically all European countries and other developed geographical areas, not only in travelers from endemic countries but also in people with no risk factors. But, lately, new aspects of this infection are appearing in industrialized countries such as the possibility of the disease becoming chronic in transplant patients, the immunocompromised in general, and even in patients with previous liver disease who are immunocompetent. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge on HEV infection. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Pérez-Gracia MT; Lindemann ML; Villalba MC

2013-08-01

22

A Study on Health Status of Urban Pregnant Women of Bangladesh with Respect to Body Mass Index and Weight Gain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Standard weight gained during pregnant period is an important indication of good health of pregnant women. This study tries to point out health status of urban pregnant women of Bangladesh with respect to weight gained during pregnant period and Body Mass Index (BMI) of pregnant women. The analysis shows that health status of study population is satisfactory in context of Bangladesh though lag behind compared to neighbour country like India and other developed countries. This study also shows that the overall relative change of BMI with respect to gestational age is significant though it is insignificant in first trimester and significant in both second and third trimester.

M.N. Islam; M.O. Ullah; M.T. Uddin

2006-01-01

23

Status of Fish Disease and Health Management Practices in Rural Freshwater Aquaculture of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to examine the current status of fish disease and health management practices in rural freshwater aquaculture, a questionnaire survey and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools were used in five districts of Bangladesh namely Mymensingh, Comilla, Jessore, Natore and Dinajpur. A total of 500 farmers were interviewed and 25 PRA sessions were conducted. Most of the farmers (87.8%) interviewed had disease problem in their fishponds. Prevalence of fish disease varied with districts and the size of farms. Average prevalence of fish disease was highest in Jessore district (18.2%) followed by Comilla (13.4%), Mymensingh (11.4%) and Dinajpur district (10.4%). Minimum prevalence (5.5%) was recorded from Natore district. Small farms (0.4 ha) suffered from high disease prevalence (13.8%) followed by medium (0.2-0.4 ha) and large (>0.4 ha) farms with 12.4 and 9.3% of diseases, respectively. The most prevalent disease was tail and fin rot (20.5%), followed by epizootic ulcerative syndrome or EUS (18.9%), nutritional diseases (15.3%), red spot (13.0%) and gill rot (12.3%). Other conditions like argulosis, dropsy and white spot were also reported by the farmers but with lower incidence. The diseases occurred mainly in the winter season. Overall, the knowledge of the farmers on basic fish health management was found very poor. Most of the farmers (83.8%) used treatment measures in response to particular disease problem. For disease treatment, 46% farmers used combination of lime and potassium permanganate, 22.4% farmer used only lime and about 10% farmer used lime and salt together. This study identified some fish health management related problems in rural aquaculture, such as lack of assistance, poor technical knowledge and lack of suitable therapeutics and their proper uses.

M.A.R. Faruk; M.J. Alam; M.M.R. Sarker; M.B. Kabir

2004-01-01

24

Current status of nuclear astrophysics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The review describes the current status of nuclear astrophysics, where special emphasis is given to primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis of the chemical elements. The laboratory approaches in obtaining relevant reaction rates are discussed. Attention is also focused on those processes where new knowledge of nuclear physics may have important astrophysical consequences. The major burning phases in stars and some critical reactions are discussed. Finally, miscellaneous topics of current interest are described.

Rolfs, C.; Trautvetter, H.P.; Rodney, W.S.

1987-03-01

25

Human Rights Violation and Political Persecution in Bangladesh: The Current Scenery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bangladesh emerged as an independent country in the South Asia in 1971 after being separated from Pakistan. In 1971 it was a very poor country. The general people had a hope and dream that the political parties will develop the country and will eradicate poverty gradually, will provide jobs to the 50% unemployed people, will educate the 60% illiterate people; but their holy hope and dream have not been fulfilled due to frequent hostile political culture, beating, killing among the political party members, no patriotism among the political leaders, massive corruption, unnecessary frequent strike, unnecessary opposition to the government policy etc. This paper has narrated the past and current social and political situation in Bangladesh briefly with the help of data collected from newspapers and statements given by intellectuals and political leaders. Descriptive and analytical research methodology has been applied in this paper to narrate the situation.

Md. Abdul Jalil; Muhammad Khalilur Rahman

2011-01-01

26

The WIMP Paradigm: Current Status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The WIMP paradigm is the glue that joins together much of the high energy and cosmic frontiers. It postulates that most of the matter in the Universe is made of weakly-interacting massive particles, with implications for a broad range of experiments and observations. I will review the WIMP paradigm's underlying motivations, its current status in view of rapid experimental progress on several fronts, and recent theoretical variations on the WIMP paradigm theme.

Feng, Jonathan (University of California, Irvine)

2011-03-23

27

The WIMP Paradigm: Current Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WIMP paradigm is the glue that joins together much of the high energy and cosmic frontiers. It postulates that most of the matter in the Universe is made of weakly-interacting massive particles, with implications for a broad range of experiments and observations. I will review the WIMP paradigm's underlying motivations, its current status in view of rapid experimental progress on several fronts, and recent theoretical variations on the WIMP paradigm theme.

2011-03-23

28

Contributing variables for sustainable livelihood status of the char women in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of variables to the sustainable livelihood status of char women. The sustainable livelihood status of a char woman was measured by computing a “sustainable livelihood status score” which is considering six major aspects of her livelihoods: food security, ability to provide family education, health and sanitation, shelter and family assets, clothing condition and social upliftment. Data were collected from 200 randomly selected char women by using interview schedule in two Upazilla of Jamalpur district in Bangladesh during November 2006 to March 2007. More than two-fifths (67.5 per cent) of the char women were found under “medium sustainable livelihood status” compared to more than one-fifth (20.5 per cent) of them belongs to ‘low sustainable livelihood status’ and only 12 per cent to “high sustainable livelihood status”. Pearson correlation test depicted that out of 16 variables, 13 had significant positive relationships with the sustainable livelihood status. Results of stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that five variables namely, annual income, agricultural knowledge, income generating activities, family education and organizational participation contributed significantly which combindly explained 76.3 per cent of total variation to the sustainable livelihood status. Path analysis indicated that these variables had both direct and indirect effects to the sustainable livelihood status. Women who had more annual income, better agricultural knowledge, participation in income generating activities, more family education and more organizational participation were found to better sustainable livelihood status in char area. Government or concern other authorities need to give attention to these variables for any sustainable livelihood upliftment programme.

S. Al-Amin; Rahman M.M.; Miah M.A.M.

2012-01-01

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Socio-Eonomic Status of Elderly of Bangladesh: A Statistical Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to gather overall information on socio-economic and health profiles of the senior citizens of Bangladesh based on primary data of from the three selected districts of the country. Simple statistical tools and logistic regression model are used to analyze the data. The analysis shows that 46% of the physically sound elderly are jobless and 15% aren’t engaged in job due to lack of physical fitness and other causes. The logistic regression analysis reveals that respondents’ age, level of education, physical fitness are significantly associated with the current occupation of elderly people.

M. Taj Uddin; Md. Nazrul Islam; Md. Johurul Alam; Gias Uddin Baher

2010-01-01

30

Adjustment disorder: current diagnostic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adjustment disorder is a common diagnosis in psychiatric settings and carries a significant rate of morbidity. However, diagnostic criteria are vague and not much helpful in clinical practice. Also there has been relatively little research done on this disorder. In this article, we review the information that is available on the epidemiology, clinical features, validity, and current diagnostic status of adjustment disorder. In this article, the controversy surrounding the diagnosis is also highlighted. It also discusses the differential and comorbid diagnosis. The various recommendations for DSM-V and ICD-11 conclude the article.

Patra BN; Sarkar S

2013-01-01

31

Dark Matter Detection: Current Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Overwhelming observational evidence indicates that most of the matter in the Universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter. One possibility is that the dark matter is Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) that were produced in the early Universe. These relics could comprise the Milky Way's dark halo and provide evidence for new particle physics, such as Supersymmetry. This talk focuses on the status of current efforts to detect dark matter by testing the hypothesis that WIMPs exist in the galactic halo. WIMP searches have begun to explore the region of parameter space where SUSY particles could provide dark matter candidates.

2011-01-01

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Men's Role in Women's Antenatal Health Status: Evidence From Rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to extend notions of men's role in women's antenatal care (ANC) status in rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The analyses were based on response of 480 men aged 15 to 54 years, living with at least 1 child younger than 3 years. Only 27% men accompanied their wives for ANC. Men's perception of actual roles for ANC services was low: 63% approved of women undergoing checkups; 33% discussed their wives' pregnancy with health professionals. Only 18% scored highly on the overall index of knowledge. From multivariate analysis, it was found that the number of men accompanying their wives for ANC was higher among those respondents who were married for the first time in the age-group 25 to 34 years and aged 35 years or more, had their last child at age-group 20 to 24 years or 25 to 34 years, had completed primary or secondary and higher education, and had mass media facilities.

Rahman M; Islam MT; Mostofa MG; Reza MS

2012-03-01

33

Health and Nutritional Status of Young Foster Children Attending a Diarrhea Treatment Hospital in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is scarcity of evidence-based information about socio-demographic as well as ailment factors associated with foster children in Bangladesh. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine the socio-economic, health and nutritional status of young foster children in urban Dhaka. A total of 208 (1%; n = 208/28,948) under-5 foster children were enrolled in the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System of icddr,b between 1993-2012. Randomly selected under-5 children (n = 624) with a ratio of 1:3 were extracted and constituted as comparison group. Forty-three percent (n = 90) foster children were male. Lack of formal schooling of mother was higher among foster children compared to non-foster children (52% vs. 35%; p

Durdana Akhter; Sumon Kumar Das; Mohammod Jobayer Chisti; Gazi Imran; Fahmida Dil Farzana; Shahnawaz Ahmed; Farzana Ferdous; Mohammad Abdul Malek; Abu Syed Golam Faruque

2013-01-01

34

Current status of pulmonary metastasectomy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Malignant disease's ability to metastasize remains one of the major obstacles when treating patients with cancer. The change from loco-regional to systemic disease usually renders the patient beyond surgical treatment, as local treatment with surgery in a systemic disease is usually considered without benefit. However, numerous retrospective studies have demonstrated that resection of metastases limited to the lungs may be associated with prolonged survival. No prospective, randomized studies have been published, and most series compare highly selected patients with historical data for unresected patients. In this article, we discuss the current status on pulmonary metastasectomy. Preoperative assessment and selection of surgical candidates is covered. The different surgical strategies including surgical approach, unilateral versus bilateral exploration, lymph node dissection, and repeat surgery are discussed. Finally, we review some of the common tumors that metastasize to the lungs, the role of metastasectomy in their treatment and the prognostic factors with impact on survival.

Hornbech, Kåre; Ravn, Jesper

2011-01-01

35

Oral health status among the tobacco and betel nut chewers in the Kishore Ganj District of Bangladesh. A statistical study.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was taken among the people of the Kishore Ganj District in Bangladesh regarding their mouth status. A deep analysis was made with respect to the most common habit prevalent among the people namely "Tobacco and Betel nut chewing". This habit is prevalent among both the men and women in that district. The oral manifestations of 780 people were studied in depth and the results noted.

Eswar N

2002-01-01

36

Oral health status among the tobacco and betel nut chewers in the Kishore Ganj District of Bangladesh. A statistical study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey was taken among the people of the Kishore Ganj District in Bangladesh regarding their mouth status. A deep analysis was made with respect to the most common habit prevalent among the people namely "Tobacco and Betel nut chewing". This habit is prevalent among both the men and women in that district. The oral manifestations of 780 people were studied in depth and the results noted.

Eswar N

2002-07-01

37

Current status of Japanese detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current status of the TAMA and CLIO detectors in Japan is reported in this paper. These two interferometric gravitational wave detectors are being developed for the large cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) which is a future plan for detecting gravitational wave signals at least once per year. TAMA300 is being upgraded to improve the sensitivity in a low-frequency region after the last observational experiment in 2004. To reduce the seismic noises, we are installing a new seismic isolation system, called the TAMA seismic attenuation system, for the four test masses. We confirmed stable mass locks of a cavity and improvements of length and angular fluctuations by using two SASs. We are currently optimizing the performance of the third and fourth SASs. We continue TAMA300 operation and R and D studies for the LCGT. The next data taking is planned for the summer of 2007. CLIO is a 100 m baseline length prototype detector for LCGT to investigate interferometer performance in cryogenic condition. The key features of CLIO are that it locates the Kamioka underground site for a low-seismic noise level, and adopts cryogenic Sapphire mirrors for low-thermal noise level. The first operation of the cryogenic interferometer was successfully demonstrated in February 2006. Current sensitivity at room temperature is close to the target sensitivity within a factor of 4. Several observational experiments at room temperature have been done. Once the displacement noise reaches the thermal noise level of room temperature, its improvement by cooling test mass mirrors should be demonstrated.

Tatsumi, Daisuke [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryutaro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Arai, Koji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] (and others)

2007-10-07

38

Extensive Reading in EFL Classroom at Secondary Schools in Bangladesh: Current Practices and Future Possibilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extensive reading is being practiced in many EFL and ESL classrooms as an effective means for developing learners’ reading as well as other related skills. This paper is based on a small-scale study that explores the current practices and future possibilities of using extensive reading in the EFL classrooms at the junior secondary schools in Bangladesh. The study reports the responses of 100 secondary English teachers on different aspects of using extensive reading tasks in the EFL classrooms of Bangladeshi schools. It is found that though the teachers of Bangladesh express positive beliefs about the benefits of extensive reading, the techniques they follow in their classrooms at present mostly encourage intensive reading. It is also evident that teachers who deal with extensive reading do not often follow the best practices in the classrooms. It is suggested in this study that extensive reading needs to be promoted in the Bangladeshi schools through coordinated efforts of all the stakeholders in the secondary education system. It is stressed that a combination of initiatives such as teacher training, awareness raising, curriculum reform and changing existing assessment format can promote the practices of extensive reading activities among the young learners.

Md Zulfeqar Haider; Elina Akhter

2012-01-01

39

The MAGPIE project: Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A Mega-Ampere Generator for Plasma Implosion Experiments (MAGPIE) is currently under construction in the Plasma Physics group at Imperial College, London. The generator is specifically designed to carry out radiative collapse experiments in hydrogen fibre Z-pinches. In order to achieve this goal, MAGPIE must be capable of delivering in excess of 1.5MA into a 150 mH load in under 200 ns. In the final generator, four 2.4 MV Marx banks charge four 5 ohm, coaxial, 100 ns single transit, water filled pulse forming lines (PFLs). The four PFLs are connected to a single coaxial vertical transfer line via four sychronously triggered trigatron switches. The vertical transfer line has an impedence of 1.25 ohm and therefore represents a matched load to the four PFLs. At the top of the transfer line a graded insulator stack makes up the vacuum-water interface. A magnetically insulated transmission line section then feeds the load. The total energy stored in the banks is 336 kJ making MAGPIE a multi terrawatt, long pulse generator. This paper reports on the general status of the programme and on details of the work carried out in characterising and optimising the trigatron switches

1993-01-01

40

The role of socioeconomic status in longitudinal trends of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh, 1993-2007.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There has been little evidence of a decline in the global burden of cholera in recent years as the number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to rise. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of socioeconomic development. Overall socioeconomic development is the ultimate solution for control of cholera as evidenced in developed countries. However, most research has focused on cross-county comparisons so that the role of individual- or small area-level socioeconomic status (SES) in cholera dynamics has not been carefully studied. Reported cases of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh have fluctuated greatly over time and epidemic outbreaks of cholera continue, most recently with the introduction of a new serotype into the region. The wealth of longitudinal data on the population of Matlab provides a unique opportunity to explore the impact of socioeconomic status and other demographic characteristics on the long-term temporal dynamics of cholera in the region. In this population-based study we examine which factors impact the initial number of cholera cases in a bari at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic and the factors impacting the number of cases over time. Cholera data were derived from the ICDDR,B health records and linked to socioeconomic and geographic data collected as part of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Longitudinal zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) multilevel regression models are used to examine the impact of environmental and socio-demographic factors on cholera counts across baris. Results indicate that baris with a high socioeconomic status had lower initial rates of cholera at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic (?(01)?=?-0.147, p?=?0.041) and a higher probability of reporting no cholera cases (?(01)?=?0.156, p?=?0.061). Populations in baris characterized by low SES are more likely to experience higher cholera morbidity at the beginning of an epidemic than populations in high SES baris.

Root ED; Rodd J; Yunus M; Emch M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Current status of diuretic renography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Percutaneous antegrade perfusion studies constitute a valuable contribution to the investigation of obstructive uropathy. In 1978, the first report of application of diuretic renogram techniques to this problem appeared in the literature. This was the first systematic report of a standardized protocol to be applied to a specific surgical problem. The purpose of the procedure, as with perfusion pressure-flow studies, is to help distinguish between a dilated urinary tract that is obstructed and requires surgery and a nonobstructed system in which urographic dilation and stasis mimic obstruction, but no genuine impedance to urine flow exists, and surgery is not required. The technique provides dual information. It gives quantitative data on individual renal function that perfusion pressure-flow studies do not, and it gives time-activity curves reflecting the urodynamics through the individual upper urinary tracts at normal and high urinary flow rates. In the early days, this information was obtained from probe studies, but the procedure is now almost exclusively performed using the gamma camera, images from which give additional information on the site of any suspected obstruction. In some ways, the development of diuretic renography and that of perfusion pressure-flow studies have proceeded in a competitive fashion, both attempting to answer the same questions by different means. In practice, however, the two tests would be regarded as complementary, as will be shown later in this chapter. The following sections describe the technique of diuretic renography, its current clinical application and status in surgical and nuclear medicine practice, and its role in comparison with other available tests for management of the dilated upper urinary tract

1987-01-01

42

Current status of medical technology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Medical Technology (MT) provides innovative instrumentation and methods designed for the purpose of improving prevention, diagnostics, therapy and rehabilitation. MT rooting in science, engineering and the biosciences is characterized by its inter- and transdisciplinarity. METHOD: The current status of MT is described emphasizing the five aspects: (1) review of milestones, (2) the impact of MT on the health care system, (3) the economic significance of MT, (4) the financial resources dedicated to research and development in MT, and (5) the challenges for education and training in MT. The material used is a government issued survey on the situation of MT in Germany, data of health care authorities and congress reports from World Conference on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering 2005. RESULTS: The following fields of MT have emerged in recent years and will dominate future development: BioMEMOS, imaging technology, minimally invasive surgery, computer assisted diagnosis, therapy and treatment monitoring, e-health/telemedicine/ networking, and medical engineering for regenerative medicine. Development of MT is driven by the following facts, (1) early and individualized diagnosis enables better treatment, (2) MT enhances cost effectiveness in health care, (3) MT is an economic factor based on fast innovation cycles, a roughly 50% export share and a 6% growth rate in turnover during the last 10 years. A downward tendency of the domestic MT market is a challenge for appropriate measures in improving both the economic and the academic infrastructure, in particular by targeted actions to support research and education. CONCLUSION: The impact of MT on prevention, diagnostics, therapy and rehabilitation is significant and still increasing. Due to a wide spreading in all medical areas, the high innovation rate, and the potential to improve health care, MT is considered one of the key technologies even in the future.

Nüsslin F

2006-01-01

43

Present Status of Field Disease and Morphological Characteristics of Recommended Potato Varieties in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the present status of ten recommended potato varieties in Bangladesh. It was found that incidence of potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), potato Y potyvirus (PYV), scab, tuber rot and cutworm were significantly different in different varieties. Similarly, dry matter and starch percentage, number of tuber per plant and yield per plant varied significantly with the varieties. The variety Ailsa showed lowest infection of PLRV followed by Dheera and Cardinal and the highest infection was recorded in Patrones. The varieties Arinda, Chamak, Dheera, Heera and Kuroda were free from PYV infection. Whereas, Multa showed the highest infection of PYV. Lowest infection of scab was recorded in the variety Dheera and it was highest in Ailsa. The appearance of foliage was good looking in all varieties except the varieties Multa, Patrones and Ailsa. Varieties Ailsa, Chamak and Dheera showed late maturity as compared to other varieties. The highest dry matter and starch content were recorded in variety Dheera and it was lowest in Kuroda. The highest yield per plant was obtained from Chamak followed by Ailsa, Dheera, Heera and Cardinal and it was lowest in variety Patrones. Considering all aspects in both the seasons, two varieties namely, Chamak and Dheera were noted best performers in terms of disease severity, plant growth and yield.

M. Hossain; M. S. Ali; M. I. Akhtar; Z. N. Huq; A. E. Hossain

2002-01-01

44

Iodine deficiency status of school going children in coastal region of bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: Bangladesh is an iodine deficient zone, affected mainly in the northern part i.e., in Himalayan belt along Brahmaputra and Jamuna River. Severity of' iodine deficiency can be assessed by prevalence of goitre and urinary iodine excretion. The latest nationwide survey of Iodine Deficiency Disorders of' Bangladesh in 1993 showed prevalence of goitre 47.1% in all age and sex group and 69% of the population had urinary iodine excretion 100 mcg/L. Conclusion: On the basis of goitre prevalence and urinary iodine excretion, coastal region of Bangladesh is a mild iodine deficient zone. (authors)

2004-01-01

45

Current Economic Status of Lobster Culture Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status of lobster culture research is presented in an economic context by describing culture cost projections and their sensitivity to parameter variation. The current state of the mathematical model is described and related to recent research...

L. W. Botsford

1977-01-01

46

Temporary Movement of Natural Persons (TMNP): Prospects and Constraints of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Temporary Movement of Natural Persons (TMNP) known as Mode-4 under the General Agreements of Trade inService (GATS) is the real interest for Bangladesh in service negotiation. The research reveals the significanceof TMNP and its impact on the living standard of households and economic development of Bangladesh. It hasdemonstrated the scope for future diversification in profession and market to expand volume of labor exportfrom Bangladesh. In addition, this article has shown the constraints faced by Bangladesh in TMNP. The analysisis based on the secondary information and comprehensive database. Finally, the study depicts measures toimprove the current status of TMNP in light of major market access barriers.

Zahidul Karim; Mohammad Naveed Ahmed

2011-01-01

47

Status and socio-economic significance of wetland in the tropics: a study from Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out in the adjacent communities of the Hakaluki haor, the largest inland freshwater wetland of Bangladesh to explore their socio-economic status and haor-based livelihood dependency. Hakaluki haor is a poverty stricken region with 37% households falling into extreme poor group having monthly income of Tk 2 000.00 only. More than half of the community view Hakaluki haor as the vital source of livelihoods. The surrounding community is dependent on the haor in varying degree (15% totally dependent, 32% moderately and 53% less) with a variety of livelihood activities like fishing and related profession (32%), duck rearing (29%), cattle rearing (28%), fuel wood collection (6%), sand extraction (3%) and reed collection (2%). The average annual household incomes from fishing of naturally available fish, pisciculture and NTFPs collection are Tk 21 701.35, Tk 31 524.83 and Tk 2 704.80, respectively. The haor serves as the source of fuel for cooking to a majority of the community (48%). The respondents identified over-exploitation of fish resources, use of excessive pesticides and gradual increase of human settlement in and around the haor as the most threatened events. With the designation as Ecologically Critical Area (ECA) by the government, immediate attempts should be taken to ensure sustainable utilization of the haor resources. Development of integrated management plan with a provision of the participation of local stakeholders may become the possible way of conserving this wetland.This study was carried out in the adjacent communities of the Hakaluki haor, the largest inland freshwater wetland of Bangladesh to explore their socio-economic status and haor-based livelihood dependency. Hakaluki haor is a poverty stricken region with 37% households falling into extreme poor group having monthly income of Tk 2 000.00 only. More than half of the community view Hakaluki haor as the vital source of livelihoods. The surrounding community is dependent on the haor in varying degree (15% totally dependent, 32% moderately and 53% less) with a variety of livelihood activities like fishing and related profession (32%), duck rearing (29%), cattle rearing (28%), fuel wood collection (6%), sand extraction (3%) and reed collection (2%). The average annual household incomes from fishing of naturally available fish, pisciculture and NTFPs collection are Tk 21 701.35, Tk 31 524.83 and Tk 2 704.80, respectively. The haor serves as the source of fuel for cooking to a majority of the community (48%). The respondents identified over-exploitation of fish resources, use of excessive pesticides and gradual increase of human settlement in and around the haor as the most threatened events. With the designation as Ecologically Critical Area (ECA) by the government, immediate attempts should be taken to ensure sustainable utilization of the haor resources. Development of integrated management plan with a provision of the participation of local stakeholders may become the possible way of conserving this wetland.

Rana MP; Chowdhury MSH; Sohel MSI Akhter S; Koike M

2009-01-01

48

Status of current IPH applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy has funded a series of field tests since 1977 to gain operational experience in the application of solar energy to industrial process heat requirements. To date, 34 design studies or actual installations have been funded utilizing technologies ranging from flat plates to line-focus concentrators to central receiver industrial systems. The types of solar systems include hot air, hot water, and steam production applied to a broad spectrum of industrial processes. The program elements are identified and put in perspective relative to transport fluid, temperature level, and size of the solar field. The status of these programs ranges from design studies to operational systems. Solar enhanced oil recovery and repowering have been studied. The chronological history of each program is tabulated. (LEW)

Kearney, D. W.

1981-03-01

49

The Current Status of Galaxy Formation  

CERN Multimedia

Understanding galaxy formation is one of the most pressing issues in cosmology. We review the current status of galaxy formation from both an observational and a theoretical perspective, and summarise the prospects for future advances.

Silk, Joe

2012-01-01

50

Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP) knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts) of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%). The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1%) among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%). Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0%) of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%). On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh

Islam MR; Thorvaldsen G

2012-01-01

51

Current Status of RENO Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) is under construction to measure the value of the smallest and unknown neutrino mixing angle ?13. The experiment will compare the measured fluxes of electron antineutrinos at two detectors located at 290 m and 1.4 km distances from the center of the Yonggwang nuclear reactors in Korea, with world-second largest thermal power output of 16.4 GW. Construction of experimental halls and access tunnels for both near and far detector sites was completed in early 2009. The detectors are near completion, and data-taking is planned to start in mid 2010. An expected number of observed antineutrino is roughly 510 and 80 per day in the near detector and far detector, respectively. An estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.6%, and an expected statistical error is about 0.3%. With three years of data, the experiment will search for the mixing angle values of sin2(2?13) down to 0.02 in 90% C.L. limit. In this talk, the construction status will be presented. (author)

2010-01-01

52

Present status and future prospects of industrial applications of isotopes in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Ionising radiation is used for quality assurance and quality control of many industrial products. Bangladesh is actively working on the industrial application of isotopes in the fields of non-destructive testing (NDT) of material, nuclear analytical technique, radiation technology, tracer technology through the participation in the UNDP/IAEA/RCA Project for Asia and the Pacific on the industrial application of isotopes and radiation technology. Bangladesh is developing NDT technology to such an extent and standard that the country is attaining self-reliance in this field for service and human resource development and the foreign dependence is becoming greatly reduced. Examples of recent achievements are given

1997-01-01

53

Present status and future prospects of industrial applications of isotopes in Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ionising radiation is used for quality assurance and quality control of many industrial products. Bangladesh is actively working on the industrial application of isotopes in the fields of non-destructive testing (NDT) of material, nuclear analytical technique, radiation technology, tracer technology through the participation in the UNDP/IAEA/RCA Project for Asia and the Pacific on the industrial application of isotopes and radiation technology. Bangladesh is developing NDT technology to such an extent and standard that the country is attaining self-reliance in this field for service and human resource development and the foreign dependence is becoming greatly reduced. Examples of recent achievements are given

Ullah, M.D.S. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Ramna Dhaka (Bangladesh)

1997-10-01

54

Engineered barriers: current status 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain substantially the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137Cs), since they can provide a measure of containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

1989-01-01

55

Current status of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a rare primary liver cancer with a global increasing trend in recent years. Symptoms tend to be vague and insidious in development, often are diagnosed at an advanced stage when only palliative approaches can be used with a median survival rate of months. Comparing with HCC, ICC tends to spread to lymph nodes early, and is rarely limited to the regional lymph nodes, with a frequent postoperative recurrence. Surgery is the only choice of curative therapy for ICC, but recently no consensus has been established for operation. Thus, more data from multiple centers and more cases are needed. Generally speaking, current adjunctive therapy cannot clearly improve survival. Further research is needed to find more effective radio- and chemotherapeutic regimens.

Jian Yang, Lu-Nan Yan

2008-01-01

56

Current Status of Oil Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, the taxation system of oil products can be called as department of tax. Various taxes - tariff and import levy on the importing stage, 7 types of tax such as special consumption tax, education tax, traveling tax, selling levy, and value added tax on the selling stage - are levied on oil products. Especially, education tax and traveling tax assume a form of levying tax on a tax. Because the tax types are various and complicated and the tax burden also is too heavy, the taxation system of oil products does not cause only the discontent of consumers but also the rise of manufacturing cost. This situation can never help to consolidate the national competition. Accordingly, the taxation equilibrium among energy substitutes should be maintained, and the practical tariff difference between crude oil and oil products should be kept within at least 5%. Of course, the tariff of crude oil should be reduced.

NONE

2002-02-01

57

[Breast cancer screening: current status].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The currently available scientific evidence attests that mammographic screening and quality treatment have been able to reduce mortality attributable to breast cancer. Although screening is not without risks, population-based screening has clear advantages over opportunistic detection. Following the Council of the European Union's "Recommendations on cancer screening", all the regional Autonomous Communities in Spain have screening programs that, in general, follow the same guidelines. The "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" serve as a reference that provides an overview of all aspects of screening. To achieve the foreseen objectives for the reduction of the morbidity and mortality attributable to breast cancer, screening programs must fulfill the established quality criteria and guarantee that patients have access to the best treatment options.

Mellado Rodríguez M; Osa Labrador AM

2013-07-01

58

Current Status of Islet Encapsulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cell encapsulation is a method of encasing cells in a semipermeable matrix that provides a permeable gradient for the passage of oxygen and nutrients, but effectively blocks immune regulating cells from reaching the graft, preventing rejection. This concept has been described as early as the 1930's but it has exhibited substantial achievements over the last decade. Several advances in encapsulation engineering, chemical purification, applications, and cell viability promises to make this a revolutionary technology. Several obstacles still need to be overcome before this process become a reality, including developing a reliable source of islets or insulin-producing cells, determining the ideal biomaterial to promote graft function, reducing the host response to the encapsulation device, and ultimately a streamlined, scaled up process for industry to be able to efficiently and safely produce encapsulated cells for clinical use. This paper provides a comprehensive review of cell encapsulation of islets for the treatment of type 1 diabetes including a historical perspective, current research findings, and future studies.

Robles L; Storrs R; Lamb M; Alexander M; Lakey JR

2013-07-01

59

Burn wound infections: current status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The burn wound represents a susceptible site for opportunistic colonization by organisms of endogenous and exogenous origin. Patient factors such as age, extent of injury, and depth of burn in combination with microbial factors such as type and number of organisms, enzyme and toxin production, and motility determine the likelihood of invasive burn wound infection. Burn wound infections can be classified on the basis of the causative organism, the depth of invasion, and the tissue response. Diagnostic procedures and therapy must be based on an understanding of the pathophysiology of the burn wound and the pathogenesis of the various forms of burn wound infection. The time-related changes in the predominant flora of the burn wound from gram-positive to gram-negative recapitulate the history of burn wound infection. Proper clinical and culture surveillance of the burn wound permits early diagnosis of gram-positive cellulitis, and the stable susceptibility of beta-hemolytic streptococci to penicillin has eliminated the threat of this once common burn wound pathogen. Selection and dissemination of intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms increase the probability of burn wound colonization by resistant species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Even so, effective topical antimicrobial chemotherapy and early burn wound excision have significantly reduced the overall occurrence of invasive burn wound infections. Individual patients, usually those with extensive burns in whom wound closure is difficult to achieve, may still develop a variety of bacterial and nonbacterial burn wound infections. Consequently, the entirety of the burn wound must be examined on a daily basis by the attending surgeon. Any change in wound appearance, with or without associated clinical changes, should be evaluated by biopsy. Quantitative cultures of the biopsy sample may identify predominant organisms but are not useful for making the diagnosis of invasive burn wound infection. Histologic examination of the biopsy specimen, which permits staging the invasive process, is the only reliable means of differentiating wound colonization from invasive infection. Identification of the histologic changes characteristic of bacterial, fungal, and viral infections facilitates the selection of appropriate therapy. A diagnosis of invasive burn wound infection necessitates change of both local and systemic therapy and, in the case of bacterial and fungal infections, prompt surgical removal of the infected tissue. Even after the wounds of extensively burned patients have healed or been grafted, burn wound impetigo, commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, may occur in the form of multifocal, small superficial abscesses that require surgical debridement. Current techniques of burn wound care have significantly reduced the incidence of invasive burn wound infection, altered the organisms causing the infections that do occur, increased the interval between injury and the onset of infection, reduced the mortality associated with infection, decreased the overall incidence of infection in burn patients, and increased burn patient survival.

Pruitt BA Jr; McManus AT; Kim SH; Goodwin CW

1998-02-01

60

Assessment of energy status for irrigation technology in Bangladesh: A GIS approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Planning sustainable development projects requires comprehensive and reliable information to serve as the base for making timely and reasonable decisions. A Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used to obtain such information in a comparatively quick and easy way using specialized maps and numeric data. In this study, a GIS approach is established to enhance the development of a useful energy scenario for the selection of irrigation technologies in Bangladesh, based on the irrigated cropped area. The irrigation technologies considered were shallow tubewell, force mode tubewell, low lift pump, manual operated pump units, and traditional systems as power sources. The objective of this approach was to develop the energy scenario of irrigation technology during two cropping seasons in Bangladesh. The model estimated the amounts of energy used, the amounts needed, and shortages for the selected irrigation technologies. Mapping algebra in avenue request, and spatial analysis was done for multi-layered model development. The spatial distribution of the uses, needs, and shortages of energy was analyzed for 64 districts of Bangladesh. (author)

Ahamed, T.; Takigawa, T.; Koike, M. [Institute of Agricultural and Forest Engineering, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8572 (Japan); Hossain, M.M.; Huq, M.M. [Department of Farm Power and Machinery, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Faruk, M.O. [Environmental and GIS Support Project, House No 49, Road 27, Banani, Dhaka-1213 (Bangladesh)

2006-11-15

 
 
 
 
61

Current status of seed priming research  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current status of seed priming research is summarised, including important methods and principles of priming, factors affecting priming, and physiological and biochemical mechanisms of priming. In addition, application prospects for seed priming and research issues that should be paid attention to are set forth.

Wang Yanrong

2004-01-01

62

Current status of the AUSTRON project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current status of the AUSTRON spallation source project is described with reference to the need for neutrons in Europe and - due to a certain West-East imbalance of large research facilities - especially in Central Europe. A short overview about technical aspects of proton accelerator, rapid cycling synchrotron, storage ring, target and instrumentation is presented. (author)

Rauch, H. [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Stadionallee, Wien (Austria); Regler, M. [Verein AUSTRON, c/o Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Wien (Austria); Lechner, R.E. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut/BENSC, Berlin (Germany); Weber, H. [AUSTRON Project Office, Wien (Austria)

2001-03-01

63

CDMS experiment: current status and future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present the current status of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS). The five tower detector array, total 30 detectors, are running stable since October 2006. We have accumulated more than 900 kg-days of low background data. We also summarize the prospect of SuperCDMS project.

Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

2007-11-01

64

Cancer immunotherapy: current status and future directions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Better understanding of the underlying principles of tumor biology and immunology, enhanced by recent insights into the mechanisms of immune recognition, regulation, and tumor escape has provided new approaches for cancer immunotherapy. This article reviews the current status and future directions of cancer immunotherapy, with a focus on the recent encouraging results from immune-modulating antibodies and adoptive cell therapy.

Ito F; Chang AE

2013-10-01

65

Current status of methods for shielding analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current methods used in shielding analysis and recent improvements in those methods are discussed. The status of methods development is discussed based on needs cited at the 1977 International Conference on Reactor Shielding. Additional areas where methods development is needed are discussed.

Engle, W.W.

1980-01-01

66

Current status of finite unified models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) can provide predictions for parameters that are free in the Standard Model, but recent experimental data rule them out, favouring supersymmetric GUTs. The principle of finiteness in a GUT and the incorporation of supersymmetry can give a robust theoretical frame to make phenomenological reliable models. The purpose of this talk is to comment on the current status of finite unified models and its phenomenological possibilities.

1998-10-05

67

Current status of REFER at Hiroshima University  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

REFER (Relativistic Electron Facility for Education and Research) electron circulating ring at Hiroshima University Venture Business Laboratory is a small electron ring, 13.7 meters in circumference. This device is used for development of an x-ray source based on possible new principles such as parametric x-ray generation and for education in beam physics. This paper reports the current status of the REFER electron ring. (author)

Masuda, S. [Venture Business Laboratory, Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Endo, I.; Takahashi, T. [Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)] [and others

2000-07-01

68

Relationship of Intestinal Parasites, H. Pylori Infection with Anemia or Iron Status Among School age Children in Rural Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate an association of intestinal parasites orHelicobacter pylori infection with hemoglobin, anemia or iron statusamong rural school aged children in Bangladesh.METHODS: Data and specimens from a controlled trial amongchildren aged 6-15 years old to assess the nutritional impact offortified flour were used to carry out this additional analysis onfactors which effect anemia. Stool samples from 310 children werecollected at the end of the trial and were tested for Helicobacterpylori stool antigen and intestinal parasites. Data on hematologicalparameters were obtained from endline measurements of the trial.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was84% among children with the highest prevalence for Ascaris(71%) followed by Trichuris (67%) and Hookworm (31%). Theprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was 39.7%. A total of26.8% children were anemic, while low iron status as defined by alow serum ferritin (5.0mg/L) respectively was present in 18% and 11% of the children. Nostatistically significant association was found between Helicobacterpylori or any intestinal parasites and hemoglobin concentration,anemia or iron status among the children. However, there was asignificant association between low hemoglobin concentration andlow iron status based on serum ferritin (Coefficient: -0.28, 95% CI-0.54, -0.03) or transferrin receptor level (Coefficient: -0.89, 95% CI-1.18, -0.59) as well as anemia and low iron status based on serumtransferrin receptor (OR 3.57; p<0.01).CONCLUSION: Our results are in line with other studies fromdeveloping countries that showed no significant association betweenintestinal parasites or Helicobacter pylori infection and anemia,hemoglobin or iron status.

Ahmed S Rahman; Shafiqul A Sarker; Tahmeed Ahmed; Mohammad A Wahed; Rafiqul Islam; David A Sack

2013-01-01

69

Current Status of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer-related death of men globally. Since its introduction, there has been intense debate as to the effectiveness of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test as a screening tool for PCa. It is now evident that the PSA test produces unacceptably high rates of false positive results and is not prognostic. Here we review the current status of molecular biomarkers that promise to be prognostic and that might inform individual patient management. It highlights current efforts to identify biomarkers obtained by minimally invasive methods and discusses current knowledge with regard to gene fusions, mRNA and microRNAs, immunology, and cancer-associated microparticles.

Vicki M. Velonas; Henry H. Woo; Cristobal G. dos Remedios; Stephen J. Assinder

2013-01-01

70

Current status and installation of dental PACS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is difficult to implement in the best of situations, but evidence is growing that the benefits are significant. The aims of this study are to analyze the current status of full PACS and establish successful installation standard of dental PACS. Materials and Methods were based on the investigation of current working status and installation standard of PACS, and observation of variable issues to installation of dental PACS. By September 30, 2004, full PACS implementations in their facilities were 88.1% in specialized general hospitals (37 installations out of total 42 hospitals), 59.8% in general hospitals (144 installations out of total 241 hospitals), 12.3% in medical hospitals (116 installations out of total 941 hospitals) and 3.6% in dental hospitals (4 installations out of total 110 hospitals). Only 4 university dental hospitals currently have installed and are operating full PACS. Major obstacle to wide spread of dental PACS is initial high investments. Clinical environments of dental PACS differed from medical situation. Because of characteristic dental practice, the initial investments for dental PACS are generally much greater than those of medical PACS. Also new economic crisis makes users scruple. The best way to overcome these limitations is to establish an economic installation standard for dental PACS. Also the clear technical communication between the customer and the supplier before both sides are committed to the obstacles are critical to its success.

Park, Chang Seo; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2004-12-15

71

The ARUBA trial: current status, future hopes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Report on the status of an on-going National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)-supported clinical trial of management of unbled brain arteriovenous malformations. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: Begun in April 2007 with 3 centers, the trial has grown to 65 centers, and has randomized 124 patients through mid-June 2010 en route to the planned 400. The current literature continues to support the rationale for the trial. CONCLUSIONS: ARUBA is steadily approaching its monthly randomization goals and has already reached the number needed to test the maximum published interventional complication rates against the minimum hemorrhage rates for natural history.

Mohr JP; Moskowitz AJ; Stapf C; Hartmann A; Lord K; Marshall SM; Mast H; Moquete E; Moy CS; Parides M; Pile-Spellman J; Al-Shahi Salman R; Weinberg A; Young WL; Estevez A; Kureshi I; Brisman JL

2010-08-01

72

Thymoma classification: current status and future trends.  

Science.gov (United States)

The classification of thymic epithelial neoplasms has been a controversial topic for many years. Recent advances in diagnostic methods and renewed interest in the biology of these tumors has led to efforts by investigators to shed new light on their biologic behavior and to offer novel perspectives on these unusual neoplasms. Several new classification schemes have been proposed, including the new World Health Organization schema for the histologic typing of tumors of the thymus. We review the current status of thymoma classification and comment on problem areas and future trends that may offer a more pragmatic approach to these tumors. PMID:16627265

Suster, Saul; Moran, Cesar A

2006-04-01

73

Current Scenario of the Small-scale Broiler Farming in Bangladesh: Potentials for the Future Projection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Bangladesh, there are two types of broiler farming of which contract broiler farming is still under trial while independent small-scale broiler farming is dominant and performed for the development of broiler sector. The present study examined the potentials of small-scale independent broiler farms and farmers’ economic behavior in relation to farm size. Farm size is found to be closely related to farmers’ behavior and attitude. Farmers’ behavior and attitude appeared to be very crucial factor for the development of broiler production. The primary data were collected from the independent small-scale farms in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. The results showed that independent small-scale broiler farming is a profitable venture for rural farmers. Farmers are involving in this sector because of lower investment, less space requirement, utilization of family labor and quick returns. To examine the farmers’ behavior, farmers were classified into two income goal groups in terms of total per capita income: a) First Income Goal Group (FIGG) and b) Second Income Goal Group (SIGG). The economic behaviors of the farmers were differed by income goal groups. Most of the farmers belonging to the FIGG were interested to enlarge their farm size, the opposed trend has been observed in farmers of SIGG. Economic behavior and attitude should be considered in making any suggestion and recommendation for changing the existing level of small-scale broiler farming.

Md. Saiful Islam; Sasaki Takashi; Kaniz Quamrun Nahar Chhabi

2010-01-01

74

The ENIQ pilot study: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

1998-01-01

75

The ENIQ pilot study: current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

1998-11-01

76

Analysis of Financial Products of Capital Market in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The performance of existing financial products is an important issue in the capital market to increase the new products for reducing the risk of dependency on common stocks. The research aims are to evaluate the growth and development of existing financial instruments and to recommend for introducing new financial instruments in the capital market of Bangladesh. The data are taken from the Dhaka stock exchange for the year 1977 to 2010 for interpretation of development and the data from 2003 to 2010 are taken for analysis and hypothesis test. There are only five products traded including three types of bonds. The average growth rate of market capitalization of common stocks, treasury bonds, mutual funds, corporate bonds & debentures are 71.02%, 124.74%, 99.85% and 105.41% respectively. The growth of market capitalization of all products is high. There is lot of scope in the market for absorbing the new products. The share of common stocks, treasury bond, corporate bond, debentures, mutual funds to total market capitalizations are 87.73%, 12.25%, 0.24%,0.17% and  0.83% respectively. The market is common stock based. The corporate bond market is very small. So, there should be increased new financial instruments in the capital market to reduce the dependency on share only. The proposed financial instruments are various types of preferred stock, bond, SWAP, option, futures, and forwards as recommendation.

Mohammad Shahidul Islam; Shama Jahan

2012-01-01

77

Educational Status of the Married Women and Their Participation at Household Decision Making in Rural Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

The key focus of this study is to explain the level of education of married women and their participation in decision making process at different arena of rural household. To find out the nature of the reality, survey research design was used for this study. The study was conducted at Maharajpur, one of the unions of Jhenidah district in Bangladesh in 2011. The respondents of the study consisted of 120 married women who were purposively selected from the study area. Data were collected through direct interview method using an interview schedule. Data were shown on univariate, as well as bivariate statistical tables and then analyzed. The study reveals that a significant percent (93.3) of higher level of education completed women had their consent of getting married whereas no consent was made by illiterate women. In the same way 46.7 percent higher level of education completed women had high level of purchasing power in compare to illiterate (.0%) and primary (14.6%) level completed women for the same level of purchasing. In the political decision making 86.7 percent higher level of education completed women had own consent to vote for election in contrast to 77.8 percent illiterate and 70.7 percent primary level completed women were influenced by their husband to decide voting.

Chanda, Sanjoy Kumar; Howlader, Hasan; Nahar, Nasrin

2012-11-01

78

Status of Household’s Ducks and their Associated Factors under Scavenging System in a Southern Area of Bangladesh*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the status of household ducks and factors affects the productivity of ducks in Companiganj upazila under Noakhali district of Bangladesh. For this study the information was collected by direct interview using a questionnaire from 30 households. The study showed that duck rearing was mostly lead by the women (80%) and their level of education varied from primary (43%) to higher secondary (7%). The average farm size was found to be six and they were mostly local ducks (90%). Marshy lands were common (67%) to the surroundings of the duck habitats. Most of the farmers depended on natural feed sources (60%) while some provided supplementary feed (40%) for their ducks. As a supplementary feed, 27% of the farmers used rice polish and17% used a mixture of rice polish and boil rice. Duck started their first laying at 6 months of age and the mean egg production per duck per year was 114 ±16 no. The diseases were more common during winter (63%) than other seasons of the year. It was found that good egg production (> mean production) was associated with the regular use of anthelmintics, supplementary feed, presence of marshy land and regular treatment. Zending was found to be good egg producer in marshy area than other three native breeds of ducks.

Ghosh S1, Haider N2 and Khan MKI1*

2012-01-01

79

Evaluation of the impact of the voucher and accreditation approach on improving reproductive behaviors and RH status: Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost of delivering reproductive health services to low-income populations will always require total or partial subsidization by the government and/or development partners. Broadly termed "Demand-Side Financing" or "Output-Based Aid", includes a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the service user rather than the service provider. Initial findings from the few assessments of reproductive health voucher-and-accreditation programs suggest that, if implemented well, these programs have great potential for achieving the policy objectives of increasing access and use, reducing inequities and enhancing program efficiency and service quality. At this point in time, however, there is a paucity of evidence describing how the various voucher programs function in different settings, for various reproductive health services. Methods/Design Population Council-Nairobi, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to address the lack of evidence around the pros and cons of 'voucher and accreditation' approaches to improving the reproductive health of low income women in five developing countries. In Bangladesh, the activities will be conducted in 11 accredited health facilities where Demand Side Financing program is being implemented and compared with populations drawn from areas served by similar non-accredited facilities. Facility inventories, client exit interviews and service provider interviews will be used to collect comparable data across each facility for assessing readiness and quality of care. In-depth interviews with key stakeholders will be conducted to gain a deeper understanding about the program. A population-based survey will also be carried out in two types of locations: areas where vouchers are distributed and similar locations where vouchers are not distributed. Discussion This is a quasi-experimental study which will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving maternal health behaviors and status and reducing inequities at the population level. We expect a significant increase in the utilization of maternal health care services by the accredited health facilities in the experimental areas compared to the control areas as a direct result of the interventions. If the voucher scheme in Bangladesh is found effective, it may help other countries to adopt this approach for improving utilization of maternity care services for reducing maternal mortality.

Rob Ubaidur; Rahman Moshiur; Bellows Benjamin

2011-01-01

80

Evaluation of the impact of the voucher and accreditation approach on improving reproductive behaviors and RH status: Bangladesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cost of delivering reproductive health services to low-income populations will always require total or partial subsidization by the government and/or development partners. Broadly termed "Demand-Side Financing" or "Output-Based Aid", includes a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the service user rather than the service provider. Initial findings from the few assessments of reproductive health voucher-and-accreditation programs suggest that, if implemented well, these programs have great potential for achieving the policy objectives of increasing access and use, reducing inequities and enhancing program efficiency and service quality. At this point in time, however, there is a paucity of evidence describing how the various voucher programs function in different settings, for various reproductive health services. METHODS/DESIGN: Population Council-Nairobi, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to address the lack of evidence around the pros and cons of 'voucher and accreditation' approaches to improving the reproductive health of low income women in five developing countries. In Bangladesh, the activities will be conducted in 11 accredited health facilities where Demand Side Financing program is being implemented and compared with populations drawn from areas served by similar non-accredited facilities. Facility inventories, client exit interviews and service provider interviews will be used to collect comparable data across each facility for assessing readiness and quality of care. In-depth interviews with key stakeholders will be conducted to gain a deeper understanding about the program. A population-based survey will also be carried out in two types of locations: areas where vouchers are distributed and similar locations where vouchers are not distributed. DISCUSSION: This is a quasi-experimental study which will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving maternal health behaviors and status and reducing inequities at the population level. We expect a significant increase in the utilization of maternal health care services by the accredited health facilities in the experimental areas compared to the control areas as a direct result of the interventions. If the voucher scheme in Bangladesh is found effective, it may help other countries to adopt this approach for improving utilization of maternity care services for reducing maternal mortality.

Rob U; Rahman M; Bellows B

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Current status of the Qatar Exoplanet Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

The Qatar Exoplanet Survey (QES) is conducting a wide-field transit search program using a 6-camera CCD imaging system designed design to go at least 0.5 magnitudes fainter than most current wide-angle surveys such as SuperWASP and HATNet. QES uses two overlapping wide field 135mm and 200mm lenses along with four 400mm lenses mosaiced to cover the same 11x11 degree field of view. The higher angular resolution and large aperture doubles the sampling volume for low-mass stars, compared to WASP and HAT. Saturn and Neptune sized planets are more easily detected if they orbit smaller stars, therefore by extending the transit search to stars with smaller radii QES is well position to plug the gap, between SuperEarths and Hot Jupiters, left between Kepler and the current wide-angle surveys. QES detections are nonetheless still bright enough for radial-velocity follow up with 2-m and 4-m class telescopes. We present the current status of the Qatar Exoplanet Survey, along with information of the first transiting exoplanets, Qatar-1b and Qatar-2b, to be found using the instrument, which were both detected orbiting K-dwarfs stars.

Parley, Neil; Collier Cameron, A.; Horne, K.; Alsubai, K. A.; QES Consortium

2011-09-01

82

Current status of Nanonex nanoimprint solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has the advantage of high-throughput, sub-10 nm resolution and low cost [1]. It has been included into 2003 ITRS as the Next Generation Lithography (NGL) for 45 nm node [2]. This paper summarized current status of Nanonex imprint technologies. Nanonex imprint process includes thermal nanoimprint (T-NIL) and photo-curable nanoimprint (P-NIL). Both T-NIL and P-NIL utilized a proprietary air cushion press (ACP), which has the advantage of ultra-uniformity, low lateral stress, less damage to the mold and substrate, and higher alignment accuracy. Nanonex Corporation delivers user-friendly nanoimprint lithography tools and solutions for both experts and non-experts of micro and nanofabrication. Nanoimprint machines, resists, molds and processes have been developed and are available today.

Tan, Hua; Kong, Linshu; Li, Mingtao; Steere, Colby; Koecher, Larry

2004-05-01

83

Current status of the GLASS code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes the current status of the Generalized Lattice Analysis SubSystem (GLASS) computer code and its supporting cross section libraries. GLASS was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the early 1970's. The GLASS code has been instrumental in supporting safe Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) operations and predicting material production at SRS for more than 20 years. The Department of Energy Office of New Production Reactors (ONPR) program has chosen to use the GLASS code for the design of the HWR option of the New Production Reactor (NPR). A substantial body of validation calculations have been performed and additional validation calculations will be performed to qualify the new GLASS multigroup cross section libraries derived from the ENDF/B-5 and 6 nuclear data files. Several improvements to the code are in progress. Many other improvements are planned to bring GLASS up to modern physics and compute technology.

Hootman, H.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Honeck, H.C. (Computer Application Technology, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States))

1991-01-01

84

Current status of the GLASS code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes the current status of the Generalized Lattice Analysis SubSystem (GLASS) computer code and its supporting cross section libraries. GLASS was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the early 1970`s. The GLASS code has been instrumental in supporting safe Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) operations and predicting material production at SRS for more than 20 years. The Department of Energy Office of New Production Reactors (ONPR) program has chosen to use the GLASS code for the design of the HWR option of the New Production Reactor (NPR). A substantial body of validation calculations have been performed and additional validation calculations will be performed to qualify the new GLASS multigroup cross section libraries derived from the ENDF/B-5 and 6 nuclear data files. Several improvements to the code are in progress. Many other improvements are planned to bring GLASS up to modern physics and compute technology.

Hootman, H.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Honeck, H.C. [Computer Application Technology, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

1991-12-31

85

Current status of the LORD experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The current status of the Lunar Orbit Radio Detector (LORD) experiment to search for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR), using the Moon as both a target for the UHECR interaction and radiator for production Cherenkov radio emission. The scientific potential of this new technology is estimated for a reasonable configuration of experiment by analytic modeling. It is shown that such radio wave experiment can be competitive with modern projects in this field. The simplest technically realizable architecture for the first generation of the LORD instrument, disposed on a standard lunar space platform designed by Lavochkin association, is elaborated. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed, including effects associated with the finite depth of the regolith layer. The signature of the cascade signal is different from the background, and discrimination between CR and neutrino cascades might be possible.

2009-06-01

86

Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

2012-01-01

87

The current status of CENDL-2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Version 2 of Chinese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (CENDL-2) was completed and worldwide released in 1992. It contains evaluated neutron reaction data of 54 elements or isotopes from 1-H-1 to 98-Cf-249 in the neutron energy range from 10{sup -5} eV to 20 MeV in ENDF / B-6 format. Most of elements or isotopes have files 1-5, some important isotopes have double differential cross section (file 6), {gamma}-production data (files 12-15) and covariance data (file 33). For use of this library a set of computer codes have been established, which are available on magnetic tapes from IAEA. Based on the requirement and the feedback information, the working plan on improvement and development to CENDL-2 has been worked out. Herein the further development of CENDL-2 and the current status are presented.

Jingshang, Zhang; Tingjin, Liu; Zhixiang, Zhao [Chinese Nuclear Data Center, Beijing (China)

1994-12-31

88

Edible vaccines: Current status and future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

Lal P; Ramachandran V; Goyal R; Sharma R

2007-01-01

89

Edible vaccines: current status and future.  

Science.gov (United States)

Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality. PMID:17582177

Lal, P; Ramachandran, V G; Goyal, R; Sharma, R

2007-04-01

90

Current status of JENDL-3.3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current status of JENDL-3.3 is presented. Reevaluation work toward JENDL-3.3 has started last April for three years project to supply a consolidated new versions of JENDL by JAERI NDC (Nuclear Data center) with the cooperation of JNDC (Japanese Nuclear Data Committee). The working schedule has been fixed by the careful review of the summary report, `The problems of JENDL-3.2`, submitted to JNDC last March after one year discussions by a small advisory group: `Identifying the problems of JENDL-3.2`. To cope with the problems, two new subgroups are set up in the Subcommittee of Nuclear Data of JNDC. One is Heavy Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for the re-evaluation of major actinides (Th-232, U-233,235,236,238, Pu-236,239,241,242). The other is Intermediate Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for solving the inconsistencies between calculations and integral experiments relating to the fields of fusion neutronics and shielding applications as well as new evaluations such as Er elements. Supplying covariance data for important nuclides are one of the main feature of JENDL-3.3. Re-evaluated data will be released as JENDL-3.3 in the individual bases after the reviewing process by the experts. (author)

Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

1998-03-01

91

Current status of SSS preparation in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] ISS needs tremendous amount of work due to the overflow of the information from each Member State and from the open source. Every Member State has different types of SSAC in term of the function, structure and activities. This paper is prepared to describe the role of the Korean SSAC in preparing the implementation of additional Protocol. For more than a year after the adoption of model additional protocol in the board of governors, Korean SSAC investigated the status of domestic nuclear industry and concluded as follows; 1. Korean industry has few activities listed in Annex 1 pursuant to article 2.a.(iv) of the additional Protocol mainly due to the electricity-oriented policy on the nuclear energy. 2. Implementation of additional Protocal may not hamper the development of peaceful nuclear activities. 3. Current atomic energy act does not cover the scope of the additional Protocol. 4. Before the signature of the Protocol, technical consultation with the Agency is indispensible. 5. New safeguards system needs closer cooperation between the Agency and the SSAC. The role of SSAC should be changed accordingly. (Yi, J. H.)

1998-10-19

92

IAEA occupational radiation protection programme: current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As stated in Art.III.A.6 of its Statute, the International Atomic Energy Agency (commonly referred to as the Agency) is authorized to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operation as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision. The Agency s Occupational Radiation Protection Programme aims at harmonizing infrastructures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and for optimizing radiation protection in situation s of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation. Under its regular and technical cooperation programmes, the Agency has been assigning high priority to both the establishment of safety standards for labour conditions and for the application of these standards through, Interalia, direct assistance under its technical cooperation (TC) programme, the rendering of services, the promotion of education and training, the fostering of information exchange and the coordination of research and development. The purpose of this paper is to present the current status and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection. (authors)

Deboodt, P.; Mrabit, K. [PPSS/NSRW/IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

2006-07-01

93

Current status of construction license of PEFP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 2010 August, PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project)'s Proton Accelerator Research Center has been under construction so far. Generally, in advance of construction startup, many kinds of licenses should be acquired along with the types of construction works. To acquire a license in time, each item should meet the standard by the related regulation, including not only procedural but also content aspect. In the advent of internet era, electronic government system has been adopted in many governmental functions: So is the national construction license acquisition system. Owing to the system, both approval and documentation functions in licensing are integrated in online computer network which provide us simplification in process and easy accessibility to license data. However, aside from these construction licenses, other types of licenses still remain separately managed: Machinery, electric facilities, and so on. Moreover, all the licenses have the priority order and take legal term in processing. So, to avoid any time delay in license acquisition, we organized license hierarchy and found out the priority among them. Thereafter, according to their legal term in approval and acquisition, whole license acquisition schedule was arranged and we completed all the necessary licenses acquisition in time In this study, we summarize the current status of license acquisition on Proton Accelerator Research Center Construction, and manifest how they have been and will be managed systematically.

Kim, J. Y.; Cho, J. S.; Min, Y. S.; Nam, J. M.; Jeon, G. P.; Park, S. S.; Jo, J. H.; Song, I. T. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

94

Current status of the IREN project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A current status and a corrected time-schedule of the project of the new Intense Resonance Neutron pulsed source (IREN) realized in JINR (Dubna) for experiments dealing with fundamental and applied nuclear physics studies are discussed. This source is the upgraded variant of the existing IBR-30 pulsed booster. It consists of the 200 MeV electron linac and supplying by an electron beam the photo-neutron converter placed in the center of the very fast multiplying subcritical core. The existing buildings and beam infrastructure are planned to adopt for the new IREN source. The aim of the project is to improve essentially an energy resolution of the time-of-flight spectrometer and to increase twice (up to 1015 n/sec) an integral neutron yield. An implementation of the IREN project has started in June 1994 with the planned end in December 1997. But due to mainly insufficient financing the approved time-schedule is shifted. Now most optimistic time of start-up of the neutron source is the end of 1999

1997-12-00

95

Pituitary adenoma nitroproteomics: current status and perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oxidative stress is extensively associated with tumorigenesis. A series of studies on stable tyrosine nitration as a marker of oxidative damage were performed in human pituitary and adenoma. This paper reviews published research on the mass spectrometry characteristics of nitropeptides and nitroproteomics of pituitary controls and adenomas. The methodology used for nitroproteomics, the current status of human pituitary nitroproteomics studies, and the future perspectives are reviewed. Enrichment of those low-abundance endogenous nitroproteins from human tissues or body fluid samples is the first important step for nitroproteomics studies. Mass spectrometry is the essential approach to determine the amino acid sequence and locate the nitrotyrosine sites. Bioinformatics analyses, including protein domain and motif analyses, are needed to locate the nitrotyrosine site within the corresponding protein domains/motifs. Systems biology techniques, including pathway analysis, are necessary to discover signaling pathway networks involving nitroproteins from the systematically global point of view. Future quantitative nitroproteomics will discover pituitary adenoma-specific nitroprotein(s). Structural biology techniques such as X-ray crystallography analysis will solidly clarify the effects of tyrosine nitration on structure and functions of a protein. Those studies will eventually address the mechanisms and biological functions of tyrosine nitration in pituitary tumorigenesis and will discover nitroprotein biomarkers for pituitary adenomas and targets for drug design for pituitary adenoma therapy.

Zhan X; Wang X; Desiderio DM

2013-01-01

96

Current status of the CATS database  

CERN Document Server

We describe the current status of CATS, a publicly accessible database (web-server http://cats.sao.ru) allowing one to search in hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly laid on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 30 to 15000 MHz, secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants (SNR), pulsars, nearby galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys, like NVSS, FIRST, WENSS, VLSS, TXS, GB6, SUMSS, IRAS, 2MASS, SDSS, ROSAT, PGC, MCG, etc. In 2004 CATS comprised a total of $\\sim10^9$ records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most of RATAN--600 catalogs. CATS is being expanded and updated, both with newly published catalogs as well as older ones which we have created in electronic form for the first time. We describe the principles of organization of the database of...

Verkhodanov, O V; Andernach, H; Chernenkov, V N

2005-01-01

97

Hiatal mesh repair--current status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most surgeons believe that cruroplasty (hiatoplasty) is an essential part of antireflux operations. One of the main causes of failure after antireflux operation is gastric (wrap) herniation through the hiatus that may be attributed to breakdown of the hiatal closure or a faulty repair. Surgeons are at present faced with the dilemma of choosing between a risk of recurrence and the fear of complications of prosthetic hiatal reinforcement. We reviewed the literature to evaluate the current status of hiatal mesh repair (HMR). Indication, technique, complications, and results are shown. Available data show a small number of mesh-related complications compared with the number of patients submitted to the procedure, and better results of HMR compared with simple hiatal closure. We support the use of HMR when performed by skilled foregut surgeons, as complications described occurred more frequently in the earliest cases of the series. In addition, HMR should be probably used selectively. However, studies to identify the patients at risk of hernia recurrence or mesh-related complications are still elusive. The ideal type of mesh and the ideal technique for mesh implantation are yet to be established.

Herbella FA; Patti MG; Del Grande JC

2011-04-01

98

Current status of laparoscopic total mesorectal excision.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Rectal cancer is a common malignancy with considerable mortality. This review outlines the current status of laparoscopic total mesorectal excision as a treatment option for rectal cancer and emphasizes the need for standardized approaches. METHODS: We searched PubMed for the terms "total mesorectal excision," "rectal cancer," and "laparoscopic surgery" used in the literature between 1993 and 2010. Additional material regarding the latest statistics from the American Cancer Society, reports from the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and meta-analyses also were searched. RESULTS: Ninety-six articles were selected: (1) 22 randomized controlled trials, (2) 25 nonrandomized comparative studies, (3) 31 case series, (4) 14 reviews, and (5) 1 report from the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews; 3 meta-analyses also were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included non-English language articles and case reports. CONCLUSIONS: At present, open resection is still the standard in rectal cancer and the role of laparoscopy is yet to be defined. The benefits of laparoscopic total mesorectal excision have been clearly translated in the surgical management of rectal cancer. Unfortunately, the lack of reports from larger prospective randomized studies have hindered its use so far.

Gopall J; Shen XF; Cheng Y

2012-02-01

99

Current Status of Deep Geological Repository Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This talk provided an overview of the current status of deep-geological-repository development worldwide. Its principal observation is that a broad consensus exists internationally that deep-geological disposal is the only long-term solution for disposition of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Also, it is now clear that the institutional and political aspects are as important as the technical aspects in achieving overall progress. Different nations have taken different approaches to overall management of their highly radioactive wastes. Some have begun active programs to develop a deep repository for permanent disposal: the most active such programs are in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. Other countries (including France and Russia) are still deciding on whether to proceed quickly to develop such a repository, while still others (including the UK, China, Japan) have affirmatively decided to delay repository development for a long time, typically for a generation of two. In recent years, a major conclusion has been reached around the world that there is very high confidence that deep repositories can be built, operated, and closed safely and can meet whatever safety requirements are imposed by the regulatory agencies. This confidence, which has emerged in the last few years, is based on extensive work around the world in understanding how repositories behave, including both the engineering aspects and the natural-setting aspects, and how they interact together. The construction of repositories is now understood to be technically feasible, and no major barriers have been identified that would stand in the way of a successful project. Another major conclusion around the world is that the overall cost of a deep repository is not as high as some had predicted or feared. While the actual cost will not be known in detail until the costs are incurred, the general consensus is that the total life-cycle cost will not exceed a few percent of the value of the electricity generated by the power reactors that have produced the waste. Of course, the current international situation is that no nation is currently willing to take any radioactive waste from another nation for deep disposal. This means that every nation will ultimately need to develop its own deep repository. This makes no sense, however--many nations have only a modest amount of waste, or do not have appropriate geological settings for a repository, or both. Ultimately, the need for one or more multi-national or international repositories will emerge, although so far this has not happened.

Budnitz, R J

2005-08-29

100

The Current Practices of Teaching Grammar in CLT at Secondary School Level in Bangladesh: Problems and Probable Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experience of teaching English in Bangladesh demonstrates that grammar is the least interesting learning item in ESOL classes. In other words, students often feel uninterested and bored with lectures dealing with grammar. Consequently, learners of English remain quite weak in grammar; they cannot use appropriate structures of grammar neither in spoken nor in written English even though they have completed English language programs at various levels of educational institutions. Besides, huge number of students fails in different public exams for their lack of knowledge in English grammar. Besides, learners in Communicative Language Teaching or CLT chiefly aims at achieving communicative competence, and seem to bypass grammatical competence as noticed in the context of Bangladeshi learners. But, theoretically grammatical competence or the practice of grammar is not enemy of achieving communicative competence other than it facilitates the goal of CLT or communicative competence. This situation necessitates thinking over the matter in a different analytical way so that some dynamic and interesting ways of instructing grammar can be found out. The current papers makes an effort to investigate the performance of learners in mastering grammatical competence and the reasons of their failure in developing this linguistic skill of accuracy. The study also tries to find out some probable solutions to improve the current level of learners in grammar.

Sofe Ahmed

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Current status of JMTR refurbishment project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JMTR is a light water moderated and cooled, beryllium reflected tank- type reactor using LUE silicide plate-type fuels. Its thermal power is 50 MW, maximum thermal and fast neutron flux is 4x1018 m-2s-1. First criticality was achieved in March 1968, and its operation was stopped from August, 2006 for the refurbishment. The refurbishment is scheduled from the beginning of FY2007 to the end of FY2010. The renewed and upgraded JMTR will be re-started from FY2011. An investigation on aged components (aged-investigation) was carried out for concrete structures of the JMTR reactor building, exhaust stack, etc., and for tanks in the primary cooling system, heat exchangers, pipes in the secondary cooling system, cooling tower, emergency generators and so on, in order to identify their integrity. The aged-investigation was carried out at the beginning of FY2007. As a result, some components were decided to replace from viewpoints of future maintenance and improvement of reliability, and some components or structures were decided to repair. A visual inspection of inner side of the pressure vessel was carried out using an underwater camera in FY2008, and no serious damage was observed. Up to now, refurbishment works are in progress according to the planned schedule. In FY2009, motors of primary cooling pumps, secondary cooling pumps, motors of drain pumps, pump in the primary water transfer line to the water purification system, beryllium reflector frame, low-voltage motor control centers are to be replaced. A nuclear instrumentation system, process control system, safety protection system and so on are to be replaced in FY2010. In this paper, current status of JMTR refurbishment project is presented. (author)

2010-01-01

102

QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SECONDARY EDUCATION PROGRAME OF BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY: Present Status and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present day in national and international perspectives, quality is the top of most agendas. Quality of education has significant impact and invaluable contribution to the area of development. Recently, the SSC & HSC program of BOU have earned recognition of equivalency with the formal education sector, which has naturally raised the question of quality assurance of these programs By applying the quantitative method, the study has assessed the present status of the quality of SSC & HSC program of BOU and also put some recommendations to meet the challenges for further development.

Zobaida AKHTER

2008-01-01

103

Current status of alpha-particle spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the status of alpha-particle spectrometry. Some of the main contributions made to this field in the last years are reviewed. Topics covered include instrumentation, source characterization, numerical analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and applications.

Garcia-Torano, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: e.garciatorano@ciemat.es

2006-10-15

104

Current status of alpha-particle spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the status of alpha-particle spectrometry. Some of the main contributions made to this field in the last years are reviewed. Topics covered include instrumentation, source characterization, numerical analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and applications

2006-01-01

105

Survey of the current status of cancer rehabilitation in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: To elucidate the current status of cancer rehabilitation in institutions nationwide. Method: A questionnaire survey regarding the current status of cancer rehabilitation in 1693 health care institutions was conducted by mail. The survey first asked whether rehabilitation was being conducted...

Hamaguchi, Toyohiro; Okamura, Hitoshi; Nakaya, Naoki; Abe, Kazunari; Abe, Yasushi; Umezawa, Shino; Kurihara, Miho

106

Critical Consciousness: Current Status and Future Directions  

Science.gov (United States)

In this chapter, the authors consider Paulo Freire's construct of critical consciousness (CC) and why it deserves more attention in research and discourse on youth political and civic development. His approach to education and similar ideas by other scholars of liberation aims to foster a critical analysis of society--and one's status within…

Watts, Roderick J.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Voight, Adam M.

2011-01-01

107

Current status of the world's research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Data from the IAEA's Research Reactor Database (RRDB) provides information with respect to the status of the world's research reactors. Some summary data are given. Recent initiatives by the IAEA regarding communications and information flow with respect to research reactors are discussed. Future plans and perspectives are also introduced. (author)

1999-01-01

108

Current status and prospects of research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: The first nuclear research reactors (RR) appeared in the 1940s. Their initial purpose was to provide knowledge of the main processes associated with neutron-induced nuclear reactions. Later, the rang of problems addressed expanded substantially. Besides fundamental research in the properties of matter, such reactors are successfully used for dealing with problems in the fields of materials science, nuclear engineering, medicine, isotope production, education, etc. Over the whole period of RR fleet growth, more than six hundred nuclear research facilities were built in 70 countries of the world. As of the end of 2008, the number of Russian research reactors in service was about 20% of the globally operating RR fleet. This paper discusses the current status of the world's RR fleet and describes the capabilities of the experimental reactor facilities existing in Russia. In the 21st century, research reactors will remain in demand to solve scientific and technological problems for innovative development of society. The emerging renaissance of nuclear power, the expanding RR uses for production of isotopes and other applications, the increase in the number of countries willing to use nuclear technologies in energy production, industry and science - all contribute to a rebirth of interest in research reactors. One of the ways to improve the experimental capabilities lies in radical upgrading of the reactor facilities with qualitative changes in the main neutronic characteristics of the core. The associated design approaches are illustrated with the example of the IBR-2M reactor at the JNRI in Dubna. The imperative need restricting the spread of nuclear threat leads us to give up using highly enriched uranium in most research reactors. Development of RR fuel with reduced enrichment in uranium has been one of the priority objectives of NIKIET for many years. This paper presents the latest results obtained along these lines, as applied to pool-type research reactors. An effort of the recent years is to develop a research reactor which will have a broad range of experimental capabilities while being of as simple and economical design as possible. NIKIET specialists prepared a technical proposal for a reactor complex RUTA-IT, which combines various irradiation options with a capacity to make the best possible use of the emitted thermal energy. The characteristics and capabilities of this complex are described in the paper. The requirements for research reactors of a new generation are largely implemented in the MBIR reactor design has been under development at NIKIET since 2008. This is going to be a fundamentally new fast-neutron research reactor with uranium-plutonium fuel, liquid-metal sodium coolant, and a set of loop devices for testing of experimental products. The key reactor design features are presented in the paper. The paper ends with a conclusion that the scientific community is coming to realize that research reactors are indispensable tools for innovative development of science, power engineering, technologies and education.

2009-01-01

109

The Current Status of STEM Education Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

Brown, Josh

2012-01-01

110

Current status of the Brazilian AMS program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The status and the near future plans for the Brazilian AMS program are described. The 8 MV Tandem accelerator at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) is ready to measure standard AMS samples. A recently installed 1.7 MV Tandem at the University of Rio de Janeiro will have a 14C AMS line. Together with external laboratories, we developed some projects on paleoclimatic and maritime geology. During these studies we have also learned sample preparation procedures

2000-01-01

111

[Current status and industrialization of transgenic tomatoes].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this review, the progress in transgenic tomato research, including disease and insect resistance, herbicide resistance, stress tolerance, long-term storage, quality improvement, and male sterility, were described. The recent researches on producing heterologous proteins using transgenic tomatoes were also reviewed. Furthermore, the industrialization status and problems of transgenic tomatoes were analyzed and the prospects of both research and industrialization in transgenic tomatoes were discussed.

Wang AX; Chen XL

2011-09-01

112

Current status of VHTR development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of the program at the beginning of fiscal 1982 is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the altering of the output helium temperature of the experimental VHTR to 9500. The modification is aimed at establishing the technical basis for post-experimental VHTR output helium temperature of 10000C. Notes are given on the design of the VHTR as well as various research and development efforts in Japan on multi-purpose nuclear heat applications and HTGR technology.

1982-01-01

113

Current status of the RERTR Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main purpose of this paper is to review the progress which has been accomplished by the RERTR Program during the past year, the present status of the program, the activities which are now in progress, and the program plans for the coming years. The changes that have taken place in the overall program plan are, in themselves, not very significant. Some activities were found to be somewhat more difficult than expected and required a longer time to complete; others were found to be less difficult than expected and caused opposite readjustments of the program plan. These effects tend to balance each other when the program is considered as a whole.

Travelli, A.

1980-01-01

114

Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thailand's neutron spectrometer has been installed soon after the startup of the reactor. The neutron scattering experiments have been done continuously, although there were some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. Development program has been planned for better experimental result. This paper reports the past and present status of neutron scattering equipment and experiments in Thailand. In addition, installation of a HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction) system is included within the scope of the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center project. (author)

Ampornrat, Pantip [Physics Division, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand)

1999-10-01

115

Chlorophyll d and Acaryochloris marina: current status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The discovery of the chlorophyll d-containing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina in 1996 precipitated a shift in our understanding of oxygenic photosynthesis. The presence of the red-shifted chlorophyll d in the reaction centre of the photosystems of Acaryochloris has opened up new avenues of research on photosystem energetics and challenged the unique status of chlorophyll a in oxygenic photosynthesis. In this review, we detail the chemistry and role of chlorophyll d in photosynthesis and summarise the unique adaptations that have allowed the proliferation of Acaryochloris in diverse ecological niches around the world.

Loughlin P; Lin Y; Chen M

2013-10-01

116

Mapping the human genome: Current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The human genome has already been the subject of extensive research activity even though the Human Genome Project is only just officially starting. This review attempts to provide an integrated, quantitative, and detailed summary of the status of knowledge on the human genome in mid-1990. The analysis has highlighted the rudimentary nature of many of the information links needed for the task. While this overview could not be fully comprehensive and required simplifying assumptions, the results have provided estimates of relative progress on a region-by-region basis throughout the genome.

Stephens, J.C. (National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (USA)); Gradie, M.I.; Mador, M.L.; Kidd, K.K. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA)); Cavanaugh, M.L.

1990-10-12

117

Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in Spent Fuel Management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation in this area, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to elaborate the general recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. This report which is a result of the third IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (the first and second were held in 1984 and 1986) is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the status of spent fuel management programmes in a number of leading countries, with a description of the past and present IAEA activities in this field of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and with the Agency's plans for the next years, based on the proposals and recommendations of Member States. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 14 papers presented at the advisory group meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

1988-01-01

118

Current status of water chemistry in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present 28 BWRs including 2 ABWRs and 23 PWRs are in operation in Japan and generated 36.8#square# of total electric power in 1998. Totally 4 BWRs, of which two are ABWRs, are now under construction, and one BWR together with one ABWR is in the stage of planning. One gas-cooled reactor (Tokai-1) was shut down permanently in 1998 and last year entered into decommissioning stage. According to the Japanese 2001 plan of electric power supply, 13 nuclear power plants newly constructed are to start operation in the next 10 years. In this paper the recent status of water chemistry technology in Japanese nuclear power plants is briefly summarized together with a touch upon the activities in the fundamental research. (author)

2002-01-01

119

Current Status of the GBM Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] One of the scientific goals of the Large-Area Telescope (LAT) on GLAST is the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the energy range from ?20 MeV to ?300 GeV. In order to extend the energy measurement towards lower energies a secondary instrument, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM), will measure GRBs from ?10 keV to ?30 MeV and will therefore allow the investigation of the relation between the keV and the MeV-GeV emission from GRBs over more than six energy decades. These unprecedented measurements will furthermore permit the exploration of the unknown aspects of the high-energy burst emission. The status of the GBM project approximately one year before launch is reported here

2007-05-01

120

The current status of hydro development in Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article briefly outlines the hydro potential and current status of hydro development in Indonesia, through several tables. More than 1000 MW hydro capacity is either under construction or soon to be constructed. (author)

Anon.

1993-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Current status and future potential of nuclide discoveries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Currently about 3000 different nuclei are known with about another 3000-4000 predicted to exist. A review of the discovery of the nuclei, the present status and the possibilities for future discoveries are presented.

Thoennessen M

2013-05-01

122

Ceramic materials for SOFCs: Current status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is well known that the main parts of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are build from ceramic materials. Namely the ceramic materials and composites, used for SOFCs manufacturing, are objects of the overview in the present work. The analysis carried out covers the last current publications in the fi...

Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.; Ivanova, M.; Carda, J.; Machkova, M.

123

CURRENT STATUS OF ANEUPLOIDY TESTING IN DROSOPHILA  

Science.gov (United States)

A committee of scientists was established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to appraise the current state of aneuploidy test methodology, to compile and analyze published data on the chemical induction of aneuploidy, and to provide guidance for additional test developme...

124

Current status of neurointerventional activities in Korea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neurointervention which deals with neurovascular disease in brain, head-and-neck and spines are one of the rapidly evolving medical fields. Several indices representing neurointerventional activities are still increasing year-by-year in Korea. We review current trend in major neurovascular diseases requiring usage of specific medical devices and some issues related to administrative process of the government approval.

Lee YM; Hwang SM; Kim EH; Lee DG; Shim JH; Suh DC

2013-09-01

125

Current Status of Neurointerventional Activities in Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurointervention which deals with neurovascular disease in brain, head-and-neck and spines are one of the rapidly evolving medical fields. Several indices representing neurointerventional activities are still increasing year-by-year in Korea. We review current trend in major neurovascular diseases requiring usage of specific medical devices and some issues related to administrative process of the government approval.

Lee, Yong-Moon; Hwang, Seon Moon; Kim, Eun Hye; Lee, Dong-geun; Shim, Jae Ho

2013-01-01

126

Iron status of premenopausal women in two regions of Bangladesh: prevalence of deficiency in high and low socio-economic groups.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess iron status in women of different physiological status of two socio-economic groups in Bangladesh. DESIGN: Cross sectional study, using 3-day food record and blood haemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin concentrations. SETTING: Two regions of Bangladesh. The Dhaka city area and west region of Nandail, Mymensingh. SUBJECTS: Women aged 16-40 y. The low socio-economic group (group L, n=101) consisted of rural women with precarious income levels. The high socio-economic group (group H, n=90) consisted of women with high income and educational levels. The groups were composed of three sub-groups (non-pregnant non-lactating=1, pregnant = 2 and lactating = 3). RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the corresponding sub-groups of the two socio-economic groups in dietary intake of iron. In all sub-groups, the intake of iron was much higher than the RDA level and mainly based on non-haem iron. Blood haemoglobin (B-Hb) concentration (P=0.000), serum iron concentration (P=0.005) and serum ferritin (SF) concentration (P=0.000) were affected by socio-economic status. Physiological status (PS) influenced the B-Hb concentration (P=0.000). Prevalence of anaemia ranged from 63 to 70% in group L and 27 to 66% in group H, respectively. The prevalence of empty iron store (SF concentration<12 microg/l) ranged from 35 to 59% in group L and 15 to 32% in group H, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency (70 and 35% for sub-group L2; 66 and 32% for sub-group H2, respectively) were similar in the pregnant subjects of the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical iron deficiency was common in women of low socio-economic status. The pregnant subjects in the two groups was similar as regards iron status. SPONSORSHIP: The study was supported by the Academy of Finland, University of Helsinki and NorFa, Norway.

Islam MZ; Lamberg-Allardt C; Bhuyan MA; Salamatullah Q

2001-07-01

127

Antithrombotic therapy: current status and future developments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thrombosis is one of the major causes of death worldwide and is a socioeconomic burden to the society. Continuous increase in the knowledge about the (patho)-physiological changes associated with thrombosis led to the development of effective therapies (antiplatelet, anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapy) for the prevention and the treatment of the disease. However, better understanding of the underlying processes is still crucial for the development of more effective and safer antithrombotic drugs. The aim of the current review is to provide an updated overview of the causes and classes of thrombosis, to summarize currently available treatment and problems associated with it; and to highlight new antithrombotic agents in the developmental stages with future prospective.

Mishra N

2012-01-01

128

Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R. [University of Cuenca (Ecuador). Faculty of Chemical Sciences; Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Garcia-Perez, M. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Cortez, L.A.B. [Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Oscullo, J. [National Center for Energy Control - CENACE (Ecuador); Olmedo, G. [Polytechnic School of the Army - ESPE (Ecuador)

2007-08-15

129

Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol.

2007-01-01

130

Avian influenza in Croatia - Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Wild birds can carry a wide range of viral and other zoonotic agents, which may be transmitted to humans. From October 2005 to March 2006 HPAI H5N1 virus was isolated from wild birds (mute swans, black-headed gulls and a mallard duck) in Croatia at five locations. After isolation of H5N1 virus at 2006 from mallard duck near City of Zagreb (capital of Croatia) Department of Poultry Diseases with Clinic at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, has conducted monitoring of avian viruses that could endanger human health. Samples (999 pharyngeal and cloacal swabs) from 23 wild bird species were taken. After year 2006 Croatia has regular monitoring for avian influenza in wild birds and poultry (especially in the backyard flocks). During 2007 (6,928 wild birds and 18,000 blood samples from poultry) and 2008 (2,486 wild birds; 20,000 blood samples and 1,500 cloacal swabs from poultry) were taken. Isolation was performed with classical virus detection method by inoculation of 10 day old chicken embryos, and molecular methods by conventional PCR and Real Time PCR (M gene, H5, H7 and N1 genes), and serological methods by antibody detection from blood samples (inhibition hemagglutination and ELISA). All samples were HPAI virus negative but investigators from the Poultry Centre of the Croatian Veterinary Institute isolated from wild birds LPAI viruses: H2N3, H3N8, H5N3 and H10N7. The results obtained by these investigations and monitoring revealed the need for permanent monitoring of wild bird's health status, especially the water birds species. Vaccination against AI is never practiced in Croatia. Quick and accurate detection of wild migratory birds infected with the H5N1 virus prevented the spread of the virus to the domestic poultry in Croatia which would have had enormous consequences. (author)

2009-01-01

131

Current status of neutron capture therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT

2001-01-01

132

Lactate biosensors: current status and outlook.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many research efforts over the last few decades have been devoted to sensing lactate as an important analytical target in clinical care, sport medicine, and food processing. Therefore, research in designing lactate sensors is no longer in its infancy and now is more directed toward viable sensors for direct applications. In this review, we provide an overview of the most immediate and relevant developments toward this end, and we discuss and assess common transduction approaches. Further, we critically describe the pros and cons of current commercial lactate sensors and envision how future sensing design may benefit from emerging new technologies.

Rassaei L; Olthuis W; Tsujimura S; Sudhölter EJ; van den Berg A

2013-09-01

133

The current status of grazing incidence optics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The developments in the area of grazing incidence optics with emphasis on telescopes for use in X-ray astronomy are reviewed. The performance of existing high-resolution telescopes is outlined and compared with those expected from future missions like ROSAT and AXAF. Starting from the basic principles of X-ray reflection and scattering, an attempt is made to highlight the current understanding of X-ray mirror physics using new theoretical ideas as well as experimental laboratory results. (author)

1983-01-01

134

The current status of digital mammography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Digital imaging has shown rapid advances in recent years. Various different digital mammography systems are now available for clinical use. Digital mammography does have clear advantages over traditional screen film mammography, but this is yet to convincingly translate into improved cancer detection rates. This review aims to describe the different technologies, introduce concepts related to image quality and review the current evidence for the use of digital mammography systems in clinical practice. Advanced applications of digital mammography such as computer-aided detection (CAD) are also discussed.

James, J.J. E-mail: jjames3@ncht.trent.nhs.uk

2004-01-01

135

Donation after circulatory death: current status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Donor shortage has forced transplant teams to explore new methods to increase the potential donor pool. Donation after circulatory death (DCD) has opened new perspectives and could be a valuable option to expand the brain-dead donors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current practice and to identify remaining questions related to ethical and medical issues that should be further addressed in the future. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings demonstrate acceptable outcomes after DCD kidney and lung transplantation but inferior graft survival for liver transplantation. The impact and importance of the agonal phase following withdrawal of treatment in controlled DCD is increasingly recognized. Premortem interventions are currently under debate related to preservation strategies or comfort therapy. New preservation strategies using in-situ/in-vivo extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or ex-vivo machine perfusion have large potential in the future. Finally, organizations and institutions are reporting more uniform guidelines related to declaration of death and DCD organ procurement. SUMMARY: DCD donation has regained much attention during the last decade and is now part of standard clinical practice albeit this type of donation should not be regarded as an equally acceptable alternative for donation after brain death. It will be important to further explore the potential of DCD, to monitor the long-term outcomes and to further optimize the quality of these grafts. Development and implementation of uniform guidelines will be necessary to guarantee the clinical use of these donor pools.

Neyrinck A; Van Raemdonck D; Monbaliu D

2013-06-01

136

Current status of myocardial regeneration therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Myocardial regeneration therapy has emerged as an alternative therapy for heart failure and is expected to replace current conventional therapies. As a cell source, the presence of resident cardiac stem cells (RCSC) in the heart has been reported by many researchers. These RCSC show multi-potency and are considered to differentiate into myocytes. On the other hand, bone marrow stem cells have received the greatest attention as a source of cell transplantation therapy in the current era, with a larger number of clinical applications reported because of their ease and safety. Myoblasts have also emerged as a possible cell source for clinical applications. We previously found that myoblast-cell-sheet implantation improved cardiac function and ventricle thickness in a rat MI model. Furthermore, we conducted a pre-clinical large animal study using porcine MI and dog DCM models, and confirmed the effectiveness of skeletal myoblast sheets. Thereafter, we conducted clinical applications of skeletal myoblast implantation. It may eventually be possible to perform regeneration therapy as a routine therapeutic method.

Sawa Y

2013-01-01

137

Current status of respiratory nuclear medicine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multimodality image fusion is now becoming popular in respiratory nuclear medical field, since scintigraphic diagnosis, based on functional image interpretation, becomes more accurate and meaningful when supported by corresponding anatomical data. Although SPECT/PET scanner-mounted X-ray tomographic systems are now being introduced for an accurate image fusion in the chest, the use of a fully automatic multi-modality image fusion algorithm may be an alternative method. Our initial attempt of this algorithm for fusion imaging of Tc-99m MAA perfusion or thallium-201 SPECT and helical CT scan has contributed to accurate interpretation of the results without user interaction, and has facilitated the understanding of the functional basis of lung parenchymal CT attenuation changes. Three-dimensional displays with functional mapping are also now being increasingly introduced to various respiratory nuclear studies. A fractal analysis has shown successful results in the analysis of technegas and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA perfusion images, which will be increasingly applied for more objective assessment of the results. The feasibility of {sup 18}F-FDG PET scan in accurate staging of lung cancer and the good cost performance of this method in lung cancer strategy are repeatedly stressed by the recent studies. The feasibility of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA perfusion scan in the evaluation of right-to-left shunt in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome, and the potential of {sup 123}I-MIBG scan in the evaluation of the function status of pulmonary neuroadrenergic system are new aspects for these well established tracers. There is the first attempt of intraoperative {sup 99m}Tc-colloid sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer. This may improve the precision of pathologic staging and limit the need for mediastinal node dissection in selected patients. Radiolabeled aerosol lung scintigraphy is being increasingly applied to evaluate lung deposition of various aerosolized, therapeutic drugs. Newly developed radiotracers include L-3-{sup 123}I-{alpha}-methyl-tyrosine for evaluating amino acid metabolism of lung cancer on SPECT scanner, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled surfactant B for evaluating pulmonary surfactant system, Cu-DTS for imaging hypoxic tumor cells, and {sup 18}F-fluorocaptopril for evaluating the lung distribution of pulmonary angiotension converting enzyme. These will contribute to the further advancement and development of expiratory nuclear medicine. (author)

Suga, Kazuyoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

2002-01-01

138

Current status of respiratory nuclear medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multimodality image fusion is now becoming popular in respiratory nuclear medical field, since scintigraphic diagnosis, based on functional image interpretation, becomes more accurate and meaningful when supported by corresponding anatomical data. Although SPECT/PET scanner-mounted X-ray tomographic systems are now being introduced for an accurate image fusion in the chest, the use of a fully automatic multi-modality image fusion algorithm may be an alternative method. Our initial attempt of this algorithm for fusion imaging of Tc-99m MAA perfusion or thallium-201 SPECT and helical CT scan has contributed to accurate interpretation of the results without user interaction, and has facilitated the understanding of the functional basis of lung parenchymal CT attenuation changes. Three-dimensional displays with functional mapping are also now being increasingly introduced to various respiratory nuclear studies. A fractal analysis has shown successful results in the analysis of technegas and 99mTc-MAA perfusion images, which will be increasingly applied for more objective assessment of the results. The feasibility of 18F-FDG PET scan in accurate staging of lung cancer and the good cost performance of this method in lung cancer strategy are repeatedly stressed by the recent studies. The feasibility of 99mTc-MAA perfusion scan in the evaluation of right-to-left shunt in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome, and the potential of 123I-MIBG scan in the evaluation of the function status of pulmonary neuroadrenergic system are new aspects for these well established tracers. There is the first attempt of intraoperative 99mTc-colloid sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer. This may improve the precision of pathologic staging and limit the need for mediastinal node dissection in selected patients. Radiolabeled aerosol lung scintigraphy is being increasingly applied to evaluate lung deposition of various aerosolized, therapeutic drugs. Newly developed radiotracers include L-3-123I-?-methyl-tyrosine for evaluating amino acid metabolism of lung cancer on SPECT scanner, 99mTc-labeled surfactant B for evaluating pulmonary surfactant system, Cu-DTS for imaging hypoxic tumor cells, and 18F-fluorocaptopril for evaluating the lung distribution of pulmonary angiotension converting enzyme. These will contribute to the further advancement and development of expiratory nuclear medicine. (author)

2002-01-01

139

Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs) have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone) in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

Paul Saenger

2009-01-01

140

Current surgical status of thyroid diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem for surgeons. The clinical importance of nodules is the need to exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5%-15% of patients. If fine needle aspiration cytology is positive, or suspicious for malignancy, surgery is recommended. During the past decade, with the tendency to develop smaller incisions, an endoscopic approach has been applied to thyroid surgery, called minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy. This approach was immediately followed by other minimally invasive or scarless neck techniques, such as the breast approach, axillary-breast approach, and robot-assisted method. All these techniques follow the same principles of surgery and oncology. This review presents the current surgical management of the thyroid gland, including the surgical techniques and compares them by describing benefits and drawbacks of each one.

Touzopoulos P; Karanikas M; Zarogoulidis P; Mitrakas A; Porpodis K; Katsikogiannis N; Zervas V; Kouroumichakis I; Constantinidis TC; Mikroulis D; Tsimogiannis KE

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Current status of diagnostic methods for henipavirus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are the causative agents of emerging transboundary animal disease in pigs and horses. They also cause fatal disease in humans. NiV has a case fatality rate of 40 - 100%. In the initial NiV outbreak in Malaysia in 1999, about 1.1 million pigs had to be culled. The economic impact was estimated to be approximately US$450 million. Worldwide, HeV has caused more than 60 deaths in horses with 7 human cases and 4 deaths. Since the initial outbreak, HeV spillovers from Pteropus bats to horses and humans continue. This article presents a brief review on the currently available diagnostic methods for henipavirus infections, including advances achieved since the initial outbreak, and a gap analysis of areas needing improvement. Copyright © 2013 by the International Alliance for Biological Standardization (IABS), Carouge-Geneva (Switzerland). PMID:23689891

Tamin, A; Rota, P A

2013-05-14

142

Current status of diagnostic methods for henipavirus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are the causative agents of emerging transboundary animal disease in pigs and horses. They also cause fatal disease in humans. NiV has a case fatality rate of 40 - 100%. In the initial NiV outbreak in Malaysia in 1999, about 1.1 million pigs had to be culled. The economic impact was estimated to be approximately US$450 million. Worldwide, HeV has caused more than 60 deaths in horses with 7 human cases and 4 deaths. Since the initial outbreak, HeV spillovers from Pteropus bats to horses and humans continue. This article presents a brief review on the currently available diagnostic methods for henipavirus infections, including advances achieved since the initial outbreak, and a gap analysis of areas needing improvement. Copyright © 2013 by the International Alliance for Biological Standardization (IABS), Carouge-Geneva (Switzerland).

Tamin A; Rota PA

2013-01-01

143

[Current status of therapy with dental implants  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the present article was to review the literature concerning the use of dental implants during the last decades. It is based on the excellent paper published by Dr. Roland Meffert in the Proceedings of the World Workshop in Clinical Periodontics of 1989. The following points were analyzed: 1) The current criteria of success for dental implants. 2) The histology of the perimucosal or transgingival area surrounding the dental implants. 3) The means of retention of the different types of dental implants. 4) Four basic forms of dental implants: a) Blade-Vent implants, b) Transosteal Implants, c) Osseointegrated Implants, and d) Subperiosteal Implants. 5) The steps for the construction of an osseointegrated prosthesis. 6) The maintenance of the case. 7) Indications and contraindications of the different types of implants. 8) Conclusions. 9) Bibliography.

Fernández Bertadillo JM; López-Bago Vidal S

1991-03-01

144

Lung cancer: Current status and prospects for the future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains 32 papers. Some of the titles are: Activation of cellular ras genes in human neoplasms; The valve of definitive radiation therapy of unresectable squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the lung; Current concepts of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer, and Current status of immunotherapy for lung cancer.

Mountain, C.F.; Carr, D.T.

1986-01-01

145

ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests.

AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; KL Gaustad

2007-02-28

146

Current status of robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: • Robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) is a minimally invasive option for patients undergoing nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). As the technique of RPN develops and matures, intraoperative and perioperative outcomes continue to be reported. In the current review, we discuss safety, efficacy, and recent technical advances in RPN. METHODS: • A Medline search using the keywords 'partial nephrectomy', 'robotic partial nephrectomy', 'robot partial nephrectomy', 'robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy', and 'laparoscopic partial nephrectomy' was conducted to identify original articles, review articles, and editorials on RPN. RESULTS: • There have been multiple recent retrospective studies comparing RPN with laparoscopic PN (LPN). These comparisons suggest a shorter learning curve for RPN and confirm the safety and feasibility of RPN, even for select complex renal masses. • Novel techniques have been developed in efforts to decrease warm ischaemia time. These include use of sliding-clip renorrhaphy, selective renal parenchymal clamping, and 'early unclamping' or 'no-clamp' techniques. CONCLUSIONS: • RPN appears to be a viable minimally invasive option for NSS. RPN may reduce some of the technical challenges associated with LPN, and thus, extend the potential benefits of minimally invasive NSS to a larger population. • Further studies of the long-term renal functional outcomes and oncological efficacy of RPN are needed before fully advocating this technique.

Cha EK; Lee DJ; Del Pizzo JJ

2011-09-01

147

Current status of the CLIO project  

CERN Multimedia

CLIO (Cryogenic Laser Interferometer Observatory) is a Japanese gravitational wave detector project. One of the main purposes of CLIO is to demonstrate thermal-noise suppression by cooling mirrors for a future Japanese project, LCGT (Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational Telescope). The CLIO site is in Kamioka mine, as is LCGT. The progress of CLIO between 2005 and 2007 (room- and cryogenic-temperature experiments) is introduced in this article. In a room-temperature experiment, we made efforts to improve the sensitivity. The current best sensitivity at 300 K is about $6 \\times 10^{-21} /\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$ around 400 Hz. Below 20 Hz, the strain (not displacement) sensitivity is comparable to that of LIGO, although the baselines of CLIO are 40-times shorter (CLIO: 100m, LIGO: 4km). This is because seismic noise is extremely small in Kamioka mine. We operated the interferometer at room temperature for gravitational wave observations. We obtained 86 hours of data. In the cryogenic experiment, it was confirmed that the...

Yamamoto, K; Miyoki, S; Ohashi, M; Kuroda, K; Ishitsuka, H; Akutsu, T; Telada, S; Tomaru, T; Suzuki, T; Sato, N; Saitô, Y; Higashi, Y; Haruyama, T; Yamamoto, A; Shintomi, T; Tatsumi, D; Ando, M; Tagoshi, H; Kanda, N; Awaya, N; Yamagishi, S; Takahashi, H; Araya, A; Takamori, A; Takemoto, S; Higashi, T; Hayakawa, H; Morii, W; Akamatsu, J

2008-01-01

148

[Current status of cardiac rehabilitation in Chile].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs play an important role in the control and prevention of new cardiac events. Aim: A survey was performed to evaluate the current situation of CR programs in Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire evaluating the structure of rehabilitation centers, characteristics of the rehabilitation programs and patients, management of risk factors, reimbursement methods, human resources and potential barriers for an efficient rehabilitation, was mailed to centers dedicated to CR in Chile. RESULTS: Eight centers were contacted and seven responded. Coronary heart disease is the most common underlying disease of attended patients and CR is carried out mainly during phases II and III. All CR centers perform an initial assessment, stratify patients, plan and provide tips on physical activity and nutrition. Only three centers provide help to quit smoking. Lipid profile and blood sugar are assessed in 62% of centers. Most practitioners involved are cardiologists, nurses, physiotherapists and nutritionists, all trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The main barrier for their development is the lack of patient referral from practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the recognized value of CR in the care of patients after a cardiac event, this study reveals the need for further development of such programs and improvement of patient referrals.

Santibáñez C; Pérez-Terzic C; López-Jiménez F; Cortés-Bergoderi M; Araya MV; Burdiat G

2012-05-01

149

Current status of adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the current use of adrenalectomy in the treatment of Cushing's disease, we reviewed seven consecutive patients who have undergone adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease at this medical center during 1983 to 1984. Seventy-one percent (5/7) had pituitary, or type I, Cushing's disease, while 29% (2/7) had adrenal, or type II, Cushing's disease from either an adenoma or an adrenocortical carcinoma. Presenting signs and symptoms, either initially or at the time of recurrence, were typical of Cushing's syndrome. Four of five patients with type I disease had recurrent disease after transphenoidal hypophysectomy, bilateral adrenalectomy, or unilateral adrenalectomy. In three of five patients, medical therapy of hypercortisolism was abandoned because of adverse side effects. Preoperative evaluation in all patients included cortisol and ACTH levels, dexamethasone suppression tests, and computerized tomography (both abdominal and head). In patients with a prior history of adrenalectomy, radiocholesterol scans were also performed and were useful. Angiographic procedures were not required in these patients. In patients with type I disease, posterior operative approaches were used. In patients with type II disease, an anterolateral approach was used. Posterolateral incisions are preferred over Hugh-Young incisions and provide better exposure with a reduced risk of poor wound healing. Morbidity and mortality included one death and three nonhealing wounds. In the six surviving patients, symptoms resolved with variable frequency. Findings suggestive of Nelson's syndrome (hyperpigmentation) have occurred in two patients; serial computerized tomographic scans fail to reveal evidence of pituitary tumors.

1985-01-01

150

Convective dialysis therapies, current status and perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

When introduced in the 1970s, convective dialysis therapies were considered an attractive alternative to hemodialysis (HD), but technical and economical limitations prevented wide clinical application. Today, these therapies (i.e. hemofiltration and hemodiafiltration) are receiving renewed interest from the renal community. The main reason is the disappointment with current chronic dialysis therapy, which despite continuous integration of technical and pharmaceutical progress, has not provided significantly improved survival. The recent HEMO study showed that HD, even when administered at high dose and with high-flux membranes, has reached the limit of benefit for a representative dialysis population. At the same time there is new evidence supporting convective therapies. The extended range of solutes that is removed by convection as opposed to diffusion includes many molecules associated with uremic symptoms and complications. The hemodynamic stability characteristic of convective therapies is confirmed also in comparison with modern HD. Observational data indicates a survival benefit for patients treated with large volumes of convection. Continuously applied convective therapies are the preferred choice in severe cases of acute renal failure, and new membrane development may take these therapies to new applications of blood purification in the intensive care unit. PMID:15966994

Ledebo, Ingrid

2005-06-01

151

Convective dialysis therapies, current status and perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When introduced in the 1970s, convective dialysis therapies were considered an attractive alternative to hemodialysis (HD), but technical and economical limitations prevented wide clinical application. Today, these therapies (i.e. hemofiltration and hemodiafiltration) are receiving renewed interest from the renal community. The main reason is the disappointment with current chronic dialysis therapy, which despite continuous integration of technical and pharmaceutical progress, has not provided significantly improved survival. The recent HEMO study showed that HD, even when administered at high dose and with high-flux membranes, has reached the limit of benefit for a representative dialysis population. At the same time there is new evidence supporting convective therapies. The extended range of solutes that is removed by convection as opposed to diffusion includes many molecules associated with uremic symptoms and complications. The hemodynamic stability characteristic of convective therapies is confirmed also in comparison with modern HD. Observational data indicates a survival benefit for patients treated with large volumes of convection. Continuously applied convective therapies are the preferred choice in severe cases of acute renal failure, and new membrane development may take these therapies to new applications of blood purification in the intensive care unit.

Ledebo I

2005-06-01

152

Current status of fusion reactor blanket thermodynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies of liquid lithium have concentrated on its sorption characteristics for hydrogen isotopes and its interaction with common impurity elements. Hydrogen isotope sorption data (P-C-T relations, activity coefficients, Sieverts' constants, plateau pressures, isotope effects, free energies of formation, phase boundaries etc.) are presented in a tabular form that can be conveniently used to extract thermodynamic information for the ?-phase of the Li-LiH, Li-LiD, and Li-LiT systems and to construct complete phase diagrams. Recent solubility data for Li3N, Li2O, and Li2C2 in liquid lithium are discussed with emphasis on the prospects for removing these species by cold-trapping methods. Current studies on the sorption of hydrogen in solid lithium alloys (e.g., Li--Al and Li--Pb), made using a new technique (the hydrogen titration method), have shown that these alloys should lead to smaller blanket-tritium inventories than are attainable with liquid lithium and that the P-C-T relationships for hydrogen in Li--M alloys can be estimated from lithium activity data for these alloys

1979-01-01

153

Current Status of VHTR Technology Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900°C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950°C.

David Petti; Hans Gougar; Richard Wright; William Windes; Steve Herring; Richard Schultz; Paul Humrickhouse

2010-10-01

154

Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs

1995-01-01

155

LOFAR: current status and observing opportunities  

Science.gov (United States)

LOFAR ({http://www.lofar.org/}{LOw Frequency ARray}) is a distributed network of multipurpose sensors. It is composed mainly of a networked radio telescope operating between 15 and 250 MHz but also hosts geophysical and agricultural sensors. Designed and constructed by {http://www.astron.nl}{ASTRON}, it has facilities in several countries that are owned by various parties (each with their own funding sources). These facilities are collectively operated by the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) foundation under a joint scientific policy. Currently (July 2012), the {http://www.astron.nl/radio-observatory/lofar-msss/lofar-msss}{ Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS)} is producing the first sky model that is needed for data calibration. MSSS will cover all the northern hemisphere with a minimum resolution of 120 arcsec and a sensitivity between 5 and 15 mJy/beam. The first proposal cycle was opened to the international comunity in July 2012. LOFAR is one of the {http://www.skatelescope.org/}{Square Kilometer Array (SKA)} pathfinders, the new global project to build a new generation radio-interferometer with a collecting area of 1 km^2.

Sabater, J.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Best, P. N.; Lofar Collaboration

2013-05-01

156

Current status of development of lasertron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following its establishment in April 1986, the Linear Collider Study Group started a five-year program with the objectives as follows: (1) development of an acceleration tube with an acceleration magnetic field strength of 100 MV/m or greater, (2) development of a high-output pulsed-microwave source to drive the acceleration tube, and (3) research in beam dynamics, centering on beam-beam effect, low emittance beam, emittance growth and final focusing system, and (4) alignment of the acceleration tube and control of beam at collision point. Requirements for microwave sources for linear collider are outlined first. The second part of the report is focused on a 2 MW lasertron which is currently being tested. Gallium arsenide is selected as material for the photo-cathode. This is a P+ semiconductor and Zn is used as dopant. This GaAs photo-cathode is high in quantum efficiency and can be re-activated by heat cleaning. Major parameters of the laser, 'frequency doubled modelocked Nd: YAG laser' supplied by Nippon Electric Co., Ltd., are described. A simulation study is made to investigate the beam motion near the cathode and anode. Some results of a diode test are shown and applications of the lasertron are also discussed. (Nogami, K.)

1987-01-01

157

Current status of contraceptive vaginal rings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contraceptive vaginal rings (CVR) offer a new, effective contraceptive option, expanding the available choices of hormonal contraception. Various ring prototypes have been evaluated: progestin-only rings and combined progestin-estrogen rings, as well as different combination of progestins and estrogens. The progestin-only ring is intended for continuous use, whereas the combined ring has been designed for cyclic 3-week in/1-week out use, although several studies have explored alternative schemes of extended use. However, only two ring designs have reached the market: NuvaRing, a 1-month combined ring that releases etonogestrel and ethinylestradiol, and Progering, a 3-month progesterone-releasing ring for use in lactating women. A one year Nestorone/ethinyl estradiol CVR is approaching the final stages of development, as the Population Council is preparing to submit a new drug application to the Food and Drug Administration. The main advantages of CVRs are their effectiveness (similar or slightly better than the pill), ease of use without the need of remembering a daily routine, user ability to control initiation and discontinuation, nearly constant release rate allowing for lower doses, greater bioavailability and good cycle control with the combined ring, in comparison with oral contraceptives. Current prototypes in development include rings releasing progesterone receptor modulators, which would provide estrogen-free contraception, as well as combined rings releasing estradiol, instead of ethinyl-estradiol, providing a safer profile. Furthermore, intensive efforts towards developing dual protection rings, providing both contraception and protection against reproductive tract infections, offer hope that this greatly needed technology will soon undergo clinical testing and will be in the hands of women worldwide in the near future.

Brache V; Payán LJ; Faundes A

2013-03-01

158

Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able to expect a creation of economic added value.

Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

2007-06-15

159

Current surgical status of thyroid diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Panagiotis Touzopoulos1, Michael Karanikas1, Paul Zarogoulidis2, Alexandros Mitrakas1, Konstantinos Porpodis2, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis3, Vasilis Zervas2, Ioannis Kouroumichakis4, Theodoros C Constantinidis5, Dimitrios Mikroulis6, Konstantinos E Tsimogiannis71First Surgery Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 2Pulmonary Department, "G. Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Surgery Department (NHS), University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 4Second Internal Medicine Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 5Medical School, Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Protection, Democritus University of Thrace, Regional Laboratory of Public Health, Eastern Macedonia-Thrace, Greece; 6Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 7Surgery Department, "G. Hatzikosta" General Hospital of Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem for surgeons. The clinical importance of nodules is the need to exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5%–15% of patients. If fine needle aspiration cytology is positive, or suspicious for malignancy, surgery is recommended. During the past decade, with the tendency to develop smaller incisions, an endoscopic approach has been applied to thyroid surgery, called minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy. This approach was immediately followed by other minimally invasive or scarless neck techniques, such as the breast approach, axillary-breast approach, and robot-assisted method. All these techniques follow the same principles of surgery and oncology. This review presents the current surgical management of the thyroid gland, including the surgical techniques and compares them by describing benefits and drawbacks of each one.Keywords: thyroidectomy, surgical techniques, thyroid cancer

Touzopoulos P; Karanikas M; Zarogoulidis P; Mitrakas A; Porpodis K; Katsikogiannis N; Zervas V; Kouroumichakis I; Constantinidis TC; Mikroulis D; Tsimogiannis KE

2011-01-01

160

Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able to expect a creation of economic added value

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Current status and future perspective of PET  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging modality that consists of systemic administration to a subject of a radiopharmaceutical labeled with a positron-emitting radionuclide. Following administration, its distribution in the organ or structure under study can be assessed as a function of time and space by (1) detecting the annihilation radiation resulting from the interaction of the positrons with matter, and (2) reconstructing the distribution of the radioactivity from a series of that used in computed tomography (CT). The nuclides most generally exhibit chemical properties that render them particularly desirable in physiological studies. The radionuclides most widely used in PET are F-18, C-11, O-15 and N-13. Regarding to the number of the current PET Centers worldwide (based on ICP data), more than 300 PET Centers were in operation in 2000. The use of PET technology grew rapidly compared to that in 1992 and 1996, particularly in the USA, which demonstrates a three-fold rise in PET installations. In 2001, 194 PET Centers were operating in the USA. In 1994, two clinical and research-oriented PET Centers at Seoul National University Hospital and Samsung Medical Center, was established as the first dedicated PET and Cyclotron machines in Korea, followed by two more PET facilities at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Ajou Medical Center, Yonsei University Medical Center, National Cancer Center and established their PET Center. Catholic Medical School and Pusan National University Hospital have finalized a plan to install PET machine in 2002, which results in total of nine PET Centers in Korea. Considering annual trends of PET application in four major PET centers in Korea in Asan Medical Center recent six years (from 1995 to 2000), a total of 11,564 patients have been studied every year and the number of PET studies has shown steep growth year upon year. We had, 1,020 PET patients in 1995. This number increased to 1,196, 1,756, 2,379, 3,015 and 4,414 in 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000, respectively. The application in cardiac disorders is minimal, and among various neuropsychiatric diseases, patients with epilepsy or dementia can benefit from PET studies. Recently, we investigated brain mapping and neuroreceptor works. PET is not a key application for evaluation of the cardiac patients in Korea because of the relatively low incidence of cardiac disease and less costly procedures such as SPECT can now be performed.

Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-02-01

162

Ceramic materials for SOFCs: Current status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that the main parts of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are build from ceramic materials. Namely the ceramic materials and composites, used for SOFCs manufacturing, are objects of the overview in the present work. The analysis carried out covers the last current publications in the field discussed. Special attention and examination in details have been done on patents state-of-the-art. After a background and short classification of the ceramic SOFCs materials the attention is focused on cathode, electrolyte, anode, interconnection and sealing materials. Their requirements, structure, thermal stability, composition control and behavior, processing and performance are the object of overview. A correlation has been made between the phase diagrams oxygen incorporation and transport, and SOFC advantages, generally for materials of lanthanum- base perovskite family. In order to analyze the innovative investigations regarding the patent branch of the SOFCs development and application, an object of review was patents from Japan, USA, Germany and European Union. Some examples of the inventions with accent on the ceramic materials are shown. In addition the tendency regarding R & D activities of SOFCs development materials from the leading companies in the world is analyzed. On the base of the most important technological and economical parameters of cell cathode/electrolyte/anode materials an attempt for evaluation and correlation has been made and innovative conceptions are shown.Es bien sabido que los componentes principales de las celdas de combustible de óxido sólido (SOFCs) estan constituidos por materiales cerámicos. Dichos materiales cerámicos y materiales compuestos que se utilizan en la fabricación de SOFCs son objeto de estudio en el presente trabajo. El análisis llevado a cabo incluye la revisión de las últimas publicaciones en la materia, con una especial atención y examen minucioso sobre las patentes más relevantes. Después de una revisión y breve clasificación de los materiales SOFCs cerámicos, el estudio se centra en la descripción del cátodo, electrolito y ánodo, así como de la unión y materiales de sellado. También se han estudiado sus requisitos, estructura, estabilidad térmica, control composicional y de comportamiento, procesado y rendimiento. Se ha establecido una correlación entre los diagramas de fase de incorporación y transporte de oxígeno y las ventajas de los SOFC, generalmente para materiales de la familia de las perovsquitas basadas en lantano. Con el fin de analizar las investigaciones innovadoras que conciernen al campo del desarrollo y aplicación de SOFCs, se han revisado patentes de Japón, Estados Unidos, Alemania y la Unión Europea. Se dan algunos ejemplos de dichas patentes en las que destaca el papel de los materiales cerámicos. Además, se ha analizado la tendencia en actividades de I + D sobre los SOFCs en compañías líderes mundiales. Se ha intentado realizar una evaluación y correlación en base a los parámetros tecnológicos y económicos más importantes de los materiales de celda cátodo/electrolito/ánodo y se han mostrado conceptos innovadores.

Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.; Ivanova, M.; Carda, J.; Machkova, M.

2002-01-01

163

The current status of HANARO utilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) is now operating at 24 MW to meet the user's demands in a variety of utilization fields. The most active field is the neutron scattering and diffraction using the currently available HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction), FCD (Four Circle Diffraction), RSI (Residual Stress Instrument), and SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering). Using these instruments, we have been investigating such characteristics as materials' crystal structure and phase transition, residual stress, texture, and hard and soft matters. Through examination and inspection of the test specimens, NRF (Neutron Radiography Facility) is contributing to such fields as the nuclear industry, ordnance industry, aerospace industry, and archaeology. The second utilization field is the fuel and material irradiation test. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed atomized fuel powder and provided it to USA, France and Argentina. Under the RERTR program, KAERI has been contributing to the development of research reactor fuels of better quality. To test the reactor materials and fuels, instrumented and non-instrumented capsules are widely being used. To produce and supply RIs and pharmaceuticals for medical and industrial purposes, HANARO and its RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility) has been fully complying with demands so that the national welfare might be enhanced by our efforts. NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) is assisting the nuclear industry, environmental research and the promotion of the health area. To support all active utilizations, HANARO operators have been making every effort to not only improve the systems, if needed, but also to avoid the inadvertent reactor trip. Based upon this stable neutron supply, we have been developing and expanding the utilization fields and facilities. The PNS(Polarized Neutron Spectrometer) is under construction and the reflectometer is in preparation. The BNCT(Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) facility is expected to support medical doctors in their in-vitro tests by the end of next year. In the future, KAERI plans to install cold neutron source and research facilities and then HANARO would be a truly powerful neutron source in neutron beam application research. We will begin design and installation of the fuel test loop to support the Korean national nuclear energy program in accordance with the demand for nuclear fuel development. Advanced capsules will also be developed. More effective and value-added RI is also under development continuously. To increase the contribution of the NAA area, we are developing the user-oriented NAA system in HANARO. The irradiator for NTD-Si production is being designed and fabricated. We expect this service to be available for industries early next year. Through these viable activities, the number of users and tested samples, and allocatable beam times will be greatly increased. All of the related staff and groups are doing their best to satisfy the demand of users because HANARO is the Korean sole neutron source operated under the auspices of the taxpayers. (author)

Kim, Hark Rho; Lee, Choong Sung; Sohn, Jae Min; Park, Kyung Bae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2003-03-01

164

HER2 testing: Current status and future directions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accurate determination of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status is critical for optimizing breast cancer outcomes. In 2007, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the College of American Pathologists (CAP) developed guidelines for HER2 testing to reduce inaccuracy. However, current ASCO/CAP criteria may restrict access to HER2-targeted therapy for some patient groups who would derive a clear clinical benefit. ASCO/CAP are currently reviewing their guidelines to further optimize HER2 testing and include emerging techniques. Guidelines are critical for optimizing care, as is ongoing research into techniques that accurately and reproducibly assess HER2 status.

Perez EA; Cortés J; Gonzalez-Angulo AM; Bartlett JM

2013-09-01

165

Association between Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Nutritional Status among the Women of Child Bearing Age: A Case-Control Study in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of nutritional factors in arsenic metabolism and toxicity is yet to be fully elucidated. A low protein diet results in decreased excretion of DMA and increased tissue retention of arsenic in experimental studies. Malnourished women carry a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chronic exposure to high arsenic (>50 µg/L) through drinking water also increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The synergistic effects (if any) of malnutrition and chronic arsenic exposure may worsen the adverse pregnancy outcomes. This population based case control study reports the association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the rural women in Bangladesh. 348 cases (BMI 50 µg/L were at 1.9 times (Odds Ratio = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1–3.6) increased risk of malnutrition compared to unexposed. The findings of this study suggest that chronic arsenic exposure is likely to contribute to poor nutritional status among women of 20–45 years.

Abul H. Milton; S. M. Shahidullah; Wayne Smith; Kazi S. Hossain; Ziaul Hasan; Kazi T. Ahmed

2010-01-01

166

ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into four sections: (1) news about ingests currently under development, (2) current production ingests, (3) future ingest development plans, and (4) information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

2008-03-01

167

Current status and future direction of the MONK software package  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of the MONK criticality software package is summarized in terms of recent and current developments and envisaged directions for the future. The areas of the discussion are physics modeling, geometry modeling, source modeling, nuclear data, validation, supporting tools and customer services. In future development plan, MONK continues to be focused on meeting the short and long-term needs of the code user community. (J.P.N.)

2003-01-01

168

The World Space Observatory (WSO-UV) - Current status  

CERN Multimedia

This paper reports on the current status of the World Space Observatory WSO-UV, a space mission for UV astronomy, planned for launch at the beginning of next decade. It is based on a 1.7 m telescope, with focal plane instruments including high resolution spectrographs, long slit low resolution spectrographs and imaging cameras.

Uslenghi, Michela; Pontoni, Cristian; Scuderi, Salvatore; Shustov, Boris

2008-01-01

169

CURRENT STATUS OF COMMERCIAL UTILITY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report discusses the current status of commercial flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes applied to coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. Major objectives of the work were to examine the impacts of the 1979 New Source Performance Standards on FGD system design and operatio...

170

Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India  

Science.gov (United States)

|Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

Antony, Pavan John

2013-01-01

171

Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author).

1997-01-01

172

Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India  

Science.gov (United States)

Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

Antony, Pavan John

2013-01-01

173

Promotion of well-switching to mitigate the current arsenic crisis in Bangladesh/ Promotion de changement d'utilisation de puits afin de réduire l'exposition à l'arsenic au Bangladesh/ Promoción del uso de pozos seleccionados para reducir la exposición al arsénico en Bangladesh  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Hacer un análisis sobre los pozos y los hogares de la upazila de Araihazar (Bangladesh), a fin de sentar las bases para llevar a cabo un estudio epidemiológico a largo plazo sobre las consecuencias de la exposición crónica a arsénico. MÉTODOS: Durante un periodo de 4 meses de 2000, se obtuvieron muestras de agua a partir de 4997 pozos cercanos que abastecían a una población de 55 000 personas, y se reunieron datos de los hogares próximos; la situación (more) de cada pozo se determinó con una precisión de ± 30 m utilizando receptores del Sistema Mundial de Determinación de la Posición. Las concentraciones de arsénico se analizaron mediante espectrometría de absorción atómica en horno de grafito. Se analizó asimismo la presencia de arsénico en muestras de agua subterránea recogidas cada 2 semanas durante todo un año en seis pozos, empleando para ello la técnica de espectrometría de masas de alta resolución por plasma de acoplación. RESULTADOS: La mitad de los pozos examinados en Araihazar habían sido practicados en los 5 años anteriores, y el 94% eran privados. Sólo un 48% de los pozos suministraban agua con un contenido de arsénico inferior a 50myg/l, el límite fijado actualmente en Bangladesh para el agua potable. Al igual que en otras regiones de Bangladesh y Bengala occidental (India), la concentración de arsénico en Araihazar varía mucho de un lugar a otro (intervalo: 5-860 myg/l), y es por tanto difícil de predecir. Debido a esa variabilidad, sin embargo, casi un 90% de los habitantes vive a menos de 100 m de un pozo salubre. La vigilancia de seis pozos que actualmente se ajustan al límite mencionado de 50 myg/l no reveló ningún dato que sugiriera la existencia de un ciclo estacional de las concentraciones de arsénico paralelo al ciclo hidrológico. Esto lleva a pensar que el cambio de pozos constituye una opción viable en Araihazar, al menos como solución a corto plazo. CONCLUSIÓN: Es preciso fomentar de manera más sistemática el uso de pozos seleccionados en Araihazar y en muchas otras partes de Bangladesh y Bengala occidental (India), y hay que conocer mejor las barreras sociales con que tropieza esa iniciativa para superarlas en la medida de lo posible. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To survey tube wells and households in Araihazar upazila, Bangladesh, to set the stage for a long-term epidemiological study of the consequences of chronic arsenic exposure. METHODS: Water samples and household data were collected over a period of 4 months in 2000 from 4997 contiguous tube wells serving a population of 55 000, the position of each well being determined to within ± 30 m using Global Positioning System receivers. Arsenic concentrations wer (more) e determined by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. In addition, groundwater samples collected every 2 weeks for an entire year from six tube wells were analysed for arsenic by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. FINDINGS: Half of the wells surveyed in Araihazar had been installed in the previous 5 years; 94% were privately owned. Only about 48% of the surveyed wells supplied water with an arsenic content below 50 mug/l, the current Bangladesh standard for drinking-water. Similar to other regions of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, the distribution of arsenic in Araihazar is spatially highly variable (range: 5-860 mug/l) and therefore difficult to predict. Because of this variability, however, close to 90% of the inhabitants live within 100 m of a safe well. Monitoring of six tube wells currently meeting the 50 mug/l standard showed no indication of a seasonal cycle in arsenic concentrations coupled to the hydrological cycle. This suggests that well-switching is a viable option in Araihazar, at least for the short term. CONCLUSIONS: Well-switching should be more systematically encouraged in Araihazar and many other parts of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Social barriers to well-switching need to be better understood and, if po

van Geen, Alexander; Ahsan, Habibul; Horneman, Allan H.; Dhar, Ratan K.; Zheng, Yan; Hussain, Iftikhhar; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Gelman, Andrew; Stute, Martin; Simpson, H. James; Wallace, Sean; Small, Christopher; Parvez, Faruque; Slavkovich, Vesna; LoIacono, Nancy J.; Becker, Marck; Cheng, Zhongqi; Momotaj, Hassina; Shahnewaz, Mohammad; Seddique, Ashraf Ali; Graziano, Joseph H.

2002-09-01

174

CMS Data Analysis: Current Status and Future Strategy  

CERN Document Server

We present the current status of CMS data analysis architecture and describe work on future Grid-based distributed analysis prototypes. CMS has two main software frameworks related to data analysis: COBRA, the main framework, and IGUANA, the interactive visualisation framework. Software using these frameworks is used today in the world-wide production and analysis of CMS data. We describe their overall design and present examples of their current use with emphasis on interactive analysis. CMS is currently developing remote analysis prototypes, including one based on Clarens, a Grid-enabled client-server tool. Use of the prototypes by CMS physicists will guide us in forming a Grid-enriched analysis strategy. The status of this work is presented, as is an outline of how we plan to leverage the power of our existing frameworks in the migration of CMS software to the Grid.

Innocente, V

2003-01-01

175

Status of thyroidal radioiodine (I-131) uptake and urinary iodine in Bangladesh population: A re-look following implementation of universal iodination of salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodide plays a central role in thyroid physiology and in the production of thyroid hormones, which are essential for normal vertebrate growth and development. Radioiodine uptake test is one of the oldest radionuclide investigations for evaluation of thyroid function. On the other hand useful information about the nutritional status of a population can be obtained by measuring the prevalence of deficiency in a population. The main aim of this study was to find out the present status of urinary iodine and thyroid uptake status of people living in and around Dhaka City (Bangladesh). The present study was carried out over a period of three years from 1999 to 2002 involving 300 subjects inclusive of 216 females and 84 males. Efforts were made to randomly include people from a broad spectrum of social and economic strata, starting from people belonging to the lowest to the highest income groups; as well as people representing the urban, rural and suburban populations. Urinary iodine levels and 24 hour percentage radioiodine uptake by the thyroid were estimated in all subjects included in this study. Subsequently patients were grouped into four categories based on the values of their percentage 24-hour radioiodine uptake; e.g., Group-A (N-99) with lowest uptake (0-5%), Group-B (N=100) with uptake ranging between 5-10%, Group-C (N=73) with uptake ranging between 10-30% and Group D (N=28) with uptake above 30%. The median 24 hours RAIU values in groups A, B, C and D were 3, 7, 23 and 34% respectively. The corresponding mean urinary iodine levels in the four groups were 43.31, 33.95, 12.97 and 9.35?gm/dl respectively. The results have shown that 1.04, 3.48, 16.72 and 78.74% people studied had levels of urinary iodine indicating severe, moderate, mild or no iodine deficiency respectively as per the WHO Criteria (Severe:

2007-01-01

176

Impact of micronutrient fortification of yoghurt on micronutrient status markers and growth - a randomized double blind controlled trial among school children in Bangladesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Interventions providing foods fortified with multiple micronutrients can be a cost-effective and sustainable strategy to improve micronutrient status and physical growth of school children. We evaluated the effect of micronutrient-fortified yoghurt on the biochemical status of important micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, vitamin A) as well as growth indicators among school children in Bogra district of Bangladesh. METHODS: In a double-masked randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in 4 primary schools, 1010 children from classes 1-4 (age 6-9 years) were randomly allocated to receive either micronutrient fortified yoghurt (FY, n?=?501) or non-fortified yoghurt (NFY, n?=?509). For one year, children were fed with 60 g yoghurt everyday providing 30% RDA for iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A. Anthropometric measurements and blood/urine samples were collected at base-, mid- and end-line. All children (FY, n?=?278, NFY, n?=?293) consenting for the end-line blood sample were included in the present analyses. RESULTS: Both groups were comparable at baseline for socio-economic status variables, micronutrient status markers and anthropometry measures. Compliance was similar in both the groups. At baseline 53.4% of the population was anemic; 2.1% was iron deficient (ferritin <15.0 ?g/L and TfR?>?8.3 mg/L). Children in the FY group showed improvement in Hb (mean difference: 1.5; 95% CI: 0.4-2.5; p?=?0.006) as compared to NFY group. Retinol binding protein (mean diff: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.002-0.09; p?=?0.04) and iodine levels (mean difference: 39.87; 95% CI: 20.39-59.35; p?status would not be expected to be observed and hence cannot be evaluated. Improved Hb concentrations in the absence of a change in iron status suggest improved utilization of iron possibly due to vitamin A and zinc availability. Fortification improved height gain without affecting weight gain. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT00980733.

Sazawal S; Habib A; Dhingra U; Dutta A; Dhingra P; Sarkar A; Deb S; Alam J; Husna A; Black RE

2013-01-01

177

The IAEA waste safety standards: history, current status and outlook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the history and current status of the IAEA's safety standards in the field of management of radioactive waste. It explains the origins of the IAEA's programme of development of safety standards in the nuclear field, and goes on to discuss the hierarchic structure of the standards and the development process. The current status and the newly adopted overall structure of the standards - with reference to the standards in all areas (waste, nuclear installations, transport and radiation safety) - are presented with the aid of figures, showing the standards in force and those under development. The paper concludes with a brief look at the way in which these standards are being applied in individual IAEA Member States. (authors)

2004-01-01

178

Current status of the LHCf experiment and future plan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider forward (= LHCf) experiment has successfully finished the first phase of data taking at LHC ?s = 0.9 and 7 TeV proton-proton collisions in 2010. As current status, we concentrate on analyzing the obtained data. As the first result, the energy spectra of photon measured by LHCf during = 7 TeV p-p collision has been published recently. Also the study of the upgraded version of LHCf detector for future = 14TeV run scenario is developed with the GSO scintillator. Another possible plan of p-A(nuclear) collision in LHC is also studied. In this paper, as the current status of the experiment, analyses, and works for foreseen detector upgrade are summarized.

Kawade K.; Adriani O.; Bonechi L.; Bongi M.; Castellini G.; D'Alessandro R.; Haguenauer M.; Iso T.; Itow Y.; Kasahara K.; Masuda K.; Menjo H.; Mitsuka G.; Muraki Y.; Noda K.; Papini P.; Perrot A.-L.; Ricciarini S.; Sako T.; Shimizu Y.; Suzuki T.; Tamura T.; Torii S.; Tricomi A.; Turner W.C.

2013-01-01

179

High temperature superconductivity - current status, our theoretical and experimental work  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of the theoretical efforts towards understanding the microscopic mechanism behind the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity is reviewed. Theoretical mechanism based on charge fluctuations is developed and described. Work on the magnetic property in the insulating phase as well as in the doped phase is discussed. Some experimental work involving positron annihilation technique is highlighted. (author). 87 refs., 4 fi gs.

1992-01-01

180

The current status of fluidized bed boiler development in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluidized-bed boilers have the double advantage of 1) being based on fluidized-bed combustion, and 2) having their heat transfer surfaces within the bed. The authors describe the development of fluidized-bed boilers in Japan and the current status of their commercialization. Accounts are then given of a 20 t/h pilot plant (including the nature of the operational research being conducted) and of the demonstrations being carried out at a demonstration plant. (2 refs.) (In Japanese)

Shimizu, T.; Kawada, S.; Terada, H.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Interatomic (Intermolecular) Decay Processes in Clusters: Current Status and Outlook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since their theoretical prediction a decade ago, interatomic (intermolecular) Coulombic decay (ICD) and related processes have been in the focus of intensive theoretical and experimental research. The spectacular progress in this direction has been stimulated both by the fundamental importance of the new electronic decay phenomena and by the exciting possibility of their practical application, for example in spectroscopy. We review the current status of the research of interatomic (intermolecular) decay phenomena in clusters and discuss some perspectives of this new field.

2007-11-29

182

Review of the current status of radiation risk estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report reviews the current status of radiation risk estimation for low linear energy transfer radiation. Recent statements by various national and international organisations regarding risk estimates are critically discussed. The recently published revised population risk estimates from the study of Japanese bomb survivors are also reviewed and used with some unpublished data from Japan to calculate risk figures for a general work force. (author)

1988-01-01

183

Current status of RCA projects and strategies for future implementation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is intended to provide basic overall information about ways to promote technical cooperation within the framework of RCA to accelerate and coordinate cooperative activities in nuclear science and technology in Asia and the Pacific region through a thorough review on the current status and through suggesting future implementation strategies. The contents of this report include an overall introduction of RCA, guidelines and operating rules for RCA programmes, current status and future plans for RCA projects as well as the RCA vision for the next 25 years. By reviewing the current status and future implementation strategies for RCA projects, it will help to set up a national nuclear policy aimed at seeking maximum benefits from participation inRCA projects and to implement programmes for nuclear cooperation with Asian-Pacific countries. It is expected that as a lead country for the energy sector, which is one of five thematic areas for the year 1999 - 2000 cycle programmes, Korea will continue to make significant contributions towards the implementation of RCA programmes in the future. With this report, we plan to keep up with future developments as well as implement an effective cooperation with the countries in the region so that the opinion of Korea, one of the nuclear advanced countries in the region, can be fully reflected in the establishment of future plans for RCA programmes. (author). 3 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong

1998-12-01

184

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; KL Gaustad

2008-01-31

185

ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future (November 2007)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

Koontz, AS; Choudhury, S; Ermold, BD: Gaustad, KL

2007-11-01

186

ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

2008-04-01

187

ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future (September 2007)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

Koontz, AS; Choudhury, S; Ermold, BD; Gaustad, KL

2007-04-01

188

ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

2008-06-01

189

ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; N N Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

2008-05-01

190

Application of C-ELISA for the sero-survey of rinderpest virus antibody in cattle and goats in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim is to study the applicability of C-ELISA for seromonitoring of antibodies against RP virus in ruminants in Bangladesh. As no outbreaks of RP have been reported since 1957, a broader belt rinderpest vaccination programme is being carried out in order to protect cattle from rinderpest originating from neighbouring States of India. However, the emergence of rinderpest-like epidemics in goats has been noticed for the last three years. Thus, the use of the rinderpest competitive ELISA technique will be helpful to measure the current status of rinderpest serosurveillance as well as to confirm the rinderpest-like epidemics in goats as peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Bangladesh

191

Women in physics in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Bangladesh has had a glorious physics tradition since the beginning of the last century, when the physicist S.N. Bose published a groundbreaking paper with Albert Einstein on Bose-Einstein statistics. However, women in Bangladesh traditionally have not been able to make their way in the realm of science in general and physics in particular. Since Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971, the situation has gradually changed and more and more women choose physics as an academic discipline. The percentage of women students in physics rose from 10% in 1970 to almost 30% in 2010. In recent years, women physicists have actively participated in many activities promoting science and technology, creating awareness among the public about the importance of physics education. The present status of women physicists in academic, research, and administrative programs in the government and private sectors in Bangladesh is reported. The greater inclusion of women scientists, particularly physicists, in policy-making roles on important issues of global and national interest is suggested.

Choudhury, Shamima K.

2013-03-01

192

Assessment of extracellular fluid volume and fluid status in hemodialysis patients: current status and technical advances.  

Science.gov (United States)

The assessment of extracellular fluid volume (ECV) and fluid status is both important and challenging in hemodialysis patients. Extracellular fluid is distributed in two major sub-compartments: interstitial fluid and plasma. A variety of methods are used to assess the ECV, with tracer dilution techniques considered gold standard. However, ECV defined as the distribution space of bromide, sodium, chloride, and ferrocyanide appears to be larger than the distribution volume of inulin and sucrose, suggesting a partial distribution into the intracellular volume. Relative blood volume monitoring, measurement of inferior vena cava diameter by ultrasound and biochemical markers are indirect methods, which do not reflect the ECV and fluid status accurately. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) techniques enable assessment of ECV and intracellular volume. Currently, BIS appears to be the most practical method for assessing ECV volume and fluid status in dialysis patients. PMID:22686593

Dou, Yanna; Zhu, Fansan; Kotanko, Peter

2012-06-11

193

Assessment of extracellular fluid volume and fluid status in hemodialysis patients: current status and technical advances.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The assessment of extracellular fluid volume (ECV) and fluid status is both important and challenging in hemodialysis patients. Extracellular fluid is distributed in two major sub-compartments: interstitial fluid and plasma. A variety of methods are used to assess the ECV, with tracer dilution techniques considered gold standard. However, ECV defined as the distribution space of bromide, sodium, chloride, and ferrocyanide appears to be larger than the distribution volume of inulin and sucrose, suggesting a partial distribution into the intracellular volume. Relative blood volume monitoring, measurement of inferior vena cava diameter by ultrasound and biochemical markers are indirect methods, which do not reflect the ECV and fluid status accurately. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) techniques enable assessment of ECV and intracellular volume. Currently, BIS appears to be the most practical method for assessing ECV volume and fluid status in dialysis patients.

Dou Y; Zhu F; Kotanko P

2012-07-01

194

Current status of large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) project is the proposed advancement of TAMA, which will be able to detect the coalescences of binary neutron stars occurring in our galaxy. LCGT intends to detect the coalescence events within about 240 Mpc, the rate of which is expected to be from 0.1 to several events in a year. LCGT has Fabry-Perot cavities of 3 km baseline and the mirrors are cooled down to a cryogenic temperature of 20 K. It is planned to be built in the underground of Kamioka mine. This paper overviews the revision of the design and the current status of the R and D.

Kuroda, K [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Ohashi, M [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Miyoki, S [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Uchiyama, T [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Ishitsuka, H [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Yamamoto, K [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kasahara, K [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Fujimoto, M-K [National Astronomical Observatory Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan (Japan); Kawamura, S [National Astronomical Observatory Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan (Japan); Takahashi, R [National Astronomical Observatory Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan (Japan); Yamazaki, T [National Astronomical Observatory Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan (Japan); Arai, K [National Astronomical Observatory Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan (Japan); Tatsumi, D [National Astronomical Observatory Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan (Japan); Ueda, A [National Astronomical Observatory Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan (Japan); Fukushima, M [National Astronomical Observatory Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan (Japan); Sato, S [National Astronomical Observatory Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan (Japan); Nagano, S [National Astronomical Observatory Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan (Japan); Tsunesada, Y [National Astronomical Observatory Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan (Japan); Zhu, Zong-Hong [National Astronomical Observatory Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan (Japan); Shintomi, T [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)] [and others

2003-09-07

195

Current development status of advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The current development status of advanced (high converting) pressurized water reactors (APWRs) is briefly reviewed. The areas covered are: reactor physics, thermohydraulics and other technical aspects, as well as electricity generating costs and longterm reactor strategical considerations related to the APWR's role in a plutonium economy. There does not seem to be any unsurmountable technical obstacle to the realization of an APWR. However, substantial further R and D efforts are required if an APWR is to go into commercial operation by the end of the century. (author)

1985-01-01

196

Current Status of the CKM Matrix and the CP Violation  

CERN Multimedia

These lectures give an introduction and the current status of flavour physics in the quark sector, with special attention to the CKM matrix and CP violation. We describe the measurements which contribute to the determination of the CKM matrix elements and how, together with important theoretical developments, they have significantly improved our knowledge on the flavour sector of the Standard Model. These lectures are complemented by the seminar of U. Mallik (see these proceedings) which describes in more details the most recent CP-violating related measurements by the B-factories. The results presented are up-to-date till winter 2004.

Stocchi, Achille

2005-01-01

197

Estimation from current-status data in continuous time.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator for current-status data has been known for at least 40 years, but only recently have the mathematical-statistical properties been clarified. This note provides a case study in the important and often studied context of estimating age-specific immunization intensities from a seroprevalence survey. Fully parametric and spline-based alternatives (also based on continuous-time models) are given. The basic reproduction number R0 exemplifies estimation of a functional. The limitations implied by the necessarily rather restrictive epidemiological assumptions are briefly discussed. PMID:9384639

Keiding, N; Begtrup, K; Scheike, T H; Hasibeder, G

1996-01-01

198

Estimation from current-status data in continuous time.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator for current-status data has been known for at least 40 years, but only recently have the mathematical-statistical properties been clarified. This note provides a case study in the important and often studied context of estimating age-specific immunization intensities from a seroprevalence survey. Fully parametric and spline-based alternatives (also based on continuous-time models) are given. The basic reproduction number R0 exemplifies estimation of a functional. The limitations implied by the necessarily rather restrictive epidemiological assumptions are briefly discussed.

Keiding N; Begtrup K; Scheike TH; Hasibeder G

1996-01-01

199

Thermoelectric microgenerators. Current status and prospects of application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of current status and prospects of using thermoelectric microgenerators, including organic-fueled ones, is performed. Developments of thermoelectric microgenerators presented in this review demonstrate that their increasingly wide use forms a separate, very important line of thermoelectricity – micropower generation with growing potential of practical applications for charging batteries, mobile phones, digital cameras and photocameras, power supply to small radio stations, other portable devices, including medical. The ways of increasing the efficiency of such devices and relevant lines of their wide use in practice are determined.

Strutynska L. T.

2008-01-01

200

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends  

CERN Multimedia

Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

Loo, Jonathan

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Current research status of immunology in the genomic era.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics, both conceptually and technologically. It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology, the large genomic database, and bioinformatic power in the immunology research. The fast development in the fields of basic immunology, clinical immunology (tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy. We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics. PMID:19152083

Li, HaoWen; Li, JinZhi; Zhao, GuoPing; Wang, Ying

2009-01-19

202

Current research status of immunology in the genomic era.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics, both conceptually and technologically. It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology, the large genomic database, and bioinformatic power in the immunology research. The fast development in the fields of basic immunology, clinical immunology (tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy. We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

Li H; Li J; Zhao G; Wang Y

2009-01-01

203

Current status of examinations and investigations in oxide-pyroprocess  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oxide pyroprocess includes the treatment of the spent oxide fuels from LWR or FBR in high temperature molten salts using chlorine gas, followed by recovery of uranium and plutonium as the form of oxides by electro-deposition or precipitation methods. The process does not use water, this relaxing the criticality requirements resulting in compact equipment and low decontamination factor. Nuclear Power R and D Center, Tokyo Electric Power Co. has been working on oxide-pyroprocess these ten years in collaboration with RIAR for the development of the next generation reprocessing technology. The current status on the research will be presented. (S. Ohno)

Amano, Osamu; Sudo, K.; Yasui, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

2001-12-01

204

Current status of nuclear cardiology: a limited review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To summarize the current status of nuclear cardiology, the authors will focus on areas that the emphasize the specific advantages of nuclear cardiology methods: (a) their benign, noninvasive nature, (b) their pathophysiologic nature, and (c) the ease of their computer manipulation and analysis, permitting quantitative evaluation. The areas covered include: (a) blood pool scintigraphy and parametric imaging, (b) pharmacologic intervention for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, (c) scintigraphic studies for the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease, and (d) considerations of cost effectiveness.

Botvinick, E.H.; Dae, M.; Hattner, R.S.

1985-11-01

205

The current status of primary prevention in coronary heart disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract During the second part of the twentieth century, research advances caused a substantial decline in the rate of coronary heart disease. The decline lasted from the mid-1960s until the early 1990s and occurred primarily in Western countries. However, an unfavourable trend in coronary heart disease related mortality has gradually developed during the 1990s, with cardiovascular diseases anticipated to remain the main cause of overall mortality for the foreseeable future. The present paper aims at analyzing the current status of the main determinants of population-wide coronary heart disease prevention.

Pater Cornel

2001-01-01

206

Community-based dental education: history, current status, and future.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article examines the history, current status, and future direction of community-based dental education (CBDE). The key issues addressed include the reasons that dentistry developed a different clinical education model than the other health professions; how government programs, private medical foundations, and early adopter schools influenced the development of CBDE; the societal and financial factors that are leading more schools to increase the time that senior dental students spend in community programs; the impact of CBDE on school finances and faculty and student perceptions; and the reasons that CBDE is likely to become a core part of the clinical education of all dental graduates.

Formicola AJ; Bailit HL

2012-01-01

207

ZnO growth technologies: current status and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of new technologies for ZnO nano materials and thin films is of critical importance for further fundamental investigations and practical applications. We discuss on the main technical control of the synthesis of zinc oxide and its properties, which are of significance in understanding the growth mechanism and further developing ZnO-based devices. Next, we present a brief summary of recent research activities, current status and progress in developing improved control of technological processes for zinc oxide as advanced material.

2011-01-01

208

Current status of global climate change countermeasures in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After COP3 (The Third Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), many actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are now being taken by the national and local governments, industry and citizens. Japanese electric power industry has been voluntarily working to reduce CO2 emissions since the announcement of its ''Environmental Action Plan'' in November 1996. This paper overviews the current status of national government and electric power industry measures against global climate change in Japan, especially focusing on the important role of nuclear power generation in reducing CO2 emissions. 5 refs., 12 figs

1999-01-01

209

Inference in nonparametric current status models with covariates  

CERN Multimedia

In interval censored models with current status observations, the variables are indicators of the presence of individuals on observation intervals and covariates. When several individuals share the same observation interval, a simple procedure provides new estimators for the distribution of the observation times and their intensity, in a closed form. They are $n^{1/2}$-consistent for piece-wise constant covariates. Estimators of the sample-sizes are deduced and asymptotic $\\chi^2$ tests for independence of the observations on consecutive intervals and for independence between consecutive classes for the observed individuals are proposed.

Pons, Odile

2007-01-01

210

Current status of examinations and investigations in oxide-pyroprocess  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Oxide pyroprocess includes the treatment of the spent oxide fuels from LWR or FBR in high temperature molten salts using chlorine gas, followed by recovery of uranium and plutonium as the form of oxides by electro-deposition or precipitation methods. The process does not use water, this relaxing the criticality requirements resulting in compact equipment and low decontamination factor. Nuclear Power R and D Center, Tokyo Electric Power Co. has been working on oxide-pyroprocess these ten years in collaboration with RIAR for the development of the next generation reprocessing technology. The current status on the research will be presented. (S. Ohno)

2001-07-18

211

Current status of low-temperature radiator thermophotovoltaic devices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current performance status of low-temperature radiator (< 1,000 C) thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices is presented. For low-temperature radiators, both power density and efficiency are equally important in designing an effective TPV system. Comparisons of 1 cm x 1 cm, 0.55 eV InGaAs and InGaAsSb voltaic devices are presented. Currently, InGaAs lattice-mismatched devices offer superior performance in comparison to InGaAsSb lattice-matched devices, due to the former`s long-term development for numerous optoelectronic applications. However, lattice-matched antimony-based quaternaries offer numerous potential advantages.

Charache, G.W.; Egley, J.L.; Danielson, L.R.; DePoy, D.M.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Campbell, B.C. [Lockheed Martin Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Hui, S.; Fraas, L.M. [JX-Crystals Inc., Issaquah, WA (United States); Wojtczuk, S.J. [SPIRE Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1996-05-01

212

Current status of surrogacy in Japan and uterine transplantation research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART) have made it possible to circumvent many causes of male and female infertility. The right to have a child by ART has been respected for infertile couples. However, there are currently no legal regulations concerning ART in Japan, and this has resulted in social and ethical problems. Surrogacy involves particularly complex medical, ethical, social, and legal issues, and is frequently focused on as a major social concern. Uterine transplantation (UTx) is a potential alternative for young women with uterine factor infertility due to hysterectomy for treatment of a malignant uterine tumor or massive blood loss after delivery, or because of a congenital disease such as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster syndrome. UTx has been examined in experimental animals as a basis for establishment of fecundity for young women with uterine factor infertility. In this review, we focus on surrogacy in Japan and UTx research, and discuss the current status and concerns in this field. PMID:21632170

Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Iida, Takuya; Yoshimura, Yasunori

2011-05-31

213

Product ecodesign and materials: current status and future prospects  

CERN Multimedia

The aim of this paper is to discuss the current status of ecodesign in the industry and its future implications for materials. There is today more and more focus on the environmental impacts of products during their whole life cycle. In particular, ecodesign aims at integrating environmental aspects during the product's design process as any other criterion, in order to reduce the life cycle impacts. Although a lot of product environmental impact assessment and Design for Environment tools already exist, environmental aspects are unfortunately rarely routinely integrated into product development process in the industry. This is mainly due to the fact that current ecodesign tools are little adapted to designers' practices, requirements and competencies. After the sequential and DfX paradigms, design of products is today maturing into Integrated Design, where multiple points of views and expertise have to be considered at the same time to progressively define the product.

Mathieux, Fabrice; Zwolinski, Peggy

2007-01-01

214

Current status of curriculum mapping in Canada and the UK.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: As part of curriculum evaluation, management and quality assurance strategies, many undergraduate medical schools are in the process of constructing computer-based curriculum maps. METHODS: A survey was distributed to Canadian and UK medical schools to determine the current status, characteristics, and challenging and successful aspects of their efforts in curriculum mapping. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed. RESULTS: The majority of schools are in the process of building maps and about 20% of schools have completed maps but continue to upgrade them. The software used to construct the maps and the educational elements included in them vary among schools. A variety of educational outcome frameworks are employed for curriculum evaluation. Current major challenges include human resource demands, the use of medical ontologies, faculty development and interface design. CONCLUSIONS: Given that these problems are common and their solutions are resource-intensive, there is a place for collaboration and a need for further research.

Willett TG

2008-08-01

215

Generic Medicine Pricing Policies in Europe: Current Status and Impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generic medicine pricing is an area of national responsibility of European Union countries. This article aims to present the current status and impact of generic medicine pricing policies in ambulatory care in Europe. The study conducts a literature review of policies relating to free-pricing systems, price-regulated systems, price differentiation, price competition and discounts, and tendering procedures; and a survey of European generic medicine pricing policies. Competition from Indian generic medicine manufacturers, European variation in generic medicine prices and competition between generic medicine manufacturers by discount suggest that the potential savings to health care payers and patients from generic medicines are not fully realized in Europe. One way of attaining these savings may be to move away from competition by discount to competition by price. Free-pricing systems may drive medicine prices downwards under specific conditions. In price-regulated systems, regulation may lower prices of originator and generic medicines, but may also remove incentives for additional price reductions beyond those imposed by regulation. To date, little is known about the current status and impact of tendering procedures for medicines in ambulatory care. In conclusion, the European experience suggests that there is not a single approach towards developing generic medicine pricing policies in Europe.

Pieter Dylst; Steven Simoens

2010-01-01

216

Current Status of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Program in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the institute of nuclear and new energy technology (INET) of Tsinghua University, China, a 10-MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), the HTR-10, was operated in 2000. Based on the proven technology of HTR-10, a HTR demonstration power pant with 200MWe electric power (HTR-PM) will be built in China. The current status and technical features on the HTR-PM project are introduced in this presentation. As an important application of high temperature heat generated by HTGR, hydrogen production through thermochemical iodine-sulfur (IS) process and high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), have been studying since 2005. Fundamental Studies on these reactions and the related techniques, such as separation, concentration and purification, were carried through. Based on the knowledge acquired through the studies on separated section, a closed loop apparatus with the designed hydrogen rate of 10NL/h has been established, and the closed cycle test was carried out. On HTSE, the research activities mainly focus on the following: demonstrating the feasibility of using planar solid oxide cell (SOC) technology for HTSE, developing new materials for corrosion resistant and high performance HTSE, analyzing the degradation mechanisms of SOC cells used in HTSE mode, HTSE cell and module optimization to support technology demonstration and system design studies to support cost and performance assessment for HTSE nuclear plant. This presentation presents the current status of IS cycle and HTSE researches It INET. In addition, the R and D plan of nuclear hydrogen production is presented.

Zhang, Ping; Yu, Bo; Xu, Jingming [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

2009-05-15

217

Current status of fast pulsed reactor development and utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Current status of the utilization and development of fact pulsed reactors is reviewed with emphasis on the development program of JLB (Japan Linac Booster). The second part of this report shortly reviews the historical development of pulsed reactors and the present programs in the world. Comparison was made on the characteristics of typical single pulse reactors. Comparison of two repetitive fast pulsed reactors, IBR-2 and JLB, was also made with a table. The third part describes the present status and the future program of the pulse operation of YAYOI reactor (YAYOI-P). The fourth part is devoted to the presentation of the JLB program. The nuclear and thermal design of the reactor, the optimization of moderator design and the estimation of peak thermal neutron flux, the accelerator for beam injection, the structural design of the reactor, the analysis of dynamic characteristics, the control and the nuclear instrumentation, and the safety analysis of the reactor are the main subjects. The fifth part discusses the utilization of fast pulsed reactors. Neutron diffraction and scattering, radiation science, application to radiochemistry, activation analysis, application to medical and biological sciences, and neutron radiography are discussed by the specialists in each field. Finally, some problems associated with the development of fast pulsed reactors are shortly discussed. (Aoki, K.)

1977-01-01

218

The Observatorio Astrofsico de Javalambre: current status and future developments  

Science.gov (United States)

The Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) is a new Spanish astronomical facility particularly conceived for carrying out large sky surveys, making use of two unprecedented telescopes of unusually large fields of view (FoV): the JST/T250, a 2.55 m telescope of 3 deg FoV, and the JAST/T80, an 83 cm telescope of 2 deg FoV. After two years of project development, JAST/T80 is already installed at the OAJ undergoing the first performance tests, and JST/T250 is fully assembled in the factory awaiting for the completion of the optics. We here provide an overall description of the project, indicating the current status of the main work packages and the next future developments.

Cenarro, A. J.; Moles, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Marín-Franch, A.; Chueca, S.; Ederoclite, A.; Varela, J.; Gruel, N.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Viironen, K.; Valdivielso, L.; Yanes, A.; Díaz-García, L. A.; Gracia-Gracia, S.

2013-05-01

219

The current status of the Korean student health examination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE) system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.

Hye-Jung Shin

2013-01-01

220

Current status of the CHORUS experiment at CERN  

CERN Multimedia

Current status of the CHORUS experiment at CERN is presented with an emphasis on technical aspects. This experiment is aimed to search for nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau / oscillation with a designed sensitivity of sin/sup 2/(2 theta )~2*10/sup -4/ at large delta m/sup 2/. Accumulation of neutrino interactions in the emulsion target with a data taking of electronic counters were performed from 1994 to 1997 at the CERN neutrino beam. Reading out track informations recorded in the emulsion target is then started using the Track Selector (a dedicated system which automatically reads out tracks recorded in emulsion). Successful development of the Track Selector enabled this experiment end opened a possibility for future experiments. (4 refs).

Kodama, K

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Current status of thermoluminescence studies on minerals and rocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The usefulness of thermoluminescence (TL) in geological studies is being increasingly recognized, as may be judged from the considerable volume of literature accumulated over the past couple of decades; besides, a number of seminars, conferences and specialists' meetings have also been held on the subject of applied TL. However, these publications lie scattered over several periodicals and conference proceedings and an interested worker finds it difficult to obtain the gist of the contributions in one place. The present authors felt a need for this and have, therefore, attempted to bring together in this Report the current status of TL research about different minerals; applications in the fields of geochronology, ore-prospecting, stratigraphic correlation, geothermometry and other useful areas are also included. (author).

1982-01-01

222

Semiparametric Additive Transformation Model under Current Status Data  

CERN Multimedia

We consider the efficient estimation of the semiparametric additive transformation model with current status data. A wide range of survival models and econometric models can be incorporated into this general transformation framework. We apply the B-spline approach to simultaneously estimate the linear regression vector, the nondecreasing transformation function, and a set of nonparametric regression functions. We show that the parametric estimate is semiparametric efficient in the presence of multiple nonparametric nuisance functions. An explicit consistent B-spline estimate of the asymptotic variance is also provided. All nonparametric estimates are smooth, and shown to be uniformly consistent and have faster than cubic rate of convergence. Interestingly, we observe the convergence rate interfere phenomenon, i.e., the convergence rates of B-spline estimators are all slowed down to equal the slowest one. The constrained optimization is not required in our implementation. Numerical results are used to illustra...

Cheng, Guang

2011-01-01

223

Intracardiac flow visualization: current status and future directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-invasive cardiovascular imaging initially focused on heart structures, allowing the visualization of their motion and inferring its functional status from it. Colour-Doppler and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) have allowed a visual approach to intracardiac flow behaviour, as well as measuring its velocity at single selected spots. Recently, the application of new technologies to medical use and, particularly, to cardiology has allowed, through different algorithms in CMR and applications of ultrasound-related techniques, the description and analysis of flow behaviour in all points and directions of the selected region, creating the opportunity to incorporate new data reflecting cardiac performance to cardiovascular imaging. The following review provides an overview of the currently available imaging techniques that enable flow visualization, as well as its present and future applications based on the available literature and on-going works. PMID:23907342

Rodriguez Muñoz, Daniel; Markl, Michael; Moya Mur, José Luis; Barker, Alex; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Zamorano Gómez, José Luis

2013-08-01

224

The current status and future plans of the STACEE observatory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) represents a new type of atmospheric Cherenkov detector that achieves a low energy threshold for ?-ray detection by using heliostat mirrors in a pre-existing solar research facility. STACEE is designed to study astrophysical sources of ?-rays in the energy range of 50 to 500 GeV. A prototype of the experiment using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32) has previously detected the Crab nebula at high significance, demonstrating the viability of the technique. The completed version of STACEE will use 64 heliostats, and will have a total collection area of ?2300 m2. Astrophysics in the 10 to 300 GeV regime has proved to be elusive to both ground-based and satellite experiments and STACEE has the potential of filling an important niche in high energy astrophysics. Here we describe the current status and future goals of STACEE.

2001-10-07

225

Sperm-based contraceptive vaccines: current status, merits and development.  

Science.gov (United States)

At the present growth rate, the world population is estimated to reach a phenomenal 8.9 billion people by the year 2050, posing a great risk of overpopulation. Therefore, new strategies of contraception are required. A novel contraceptive strategy that is receiving considerable attention is that of immunocontraception. Spermatozoa have proteins that are unique, cell specific, immunogenic and accessible to antibodies. The targeting of antibodies to gamete-specific antigens implicated in sperm function, sperm-egg binding and fertilisation could block sperm binding and thus fertilisation. The present review highlights the current status, relative merits and future directions for various sperm-based candidate antigens with regard to the development of a contraceptive vaccine. PMID:16153335

Suri, Anil

2005-09-12

226

Cobalt 60 gamma irradiation current status, trends and insights  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper discusses the current status, trends and insights into the continued, safe use of cobalt 60 gamma irradiation. Also presented are some of the many initiatives undertaken at MDS Nordion. Topics covered include our investment for the future supply of raw materials and the latest news from source production. Briefly presented are the tasks associated with the safe transport of cobalt 60 around the world. Discussed is cobalt 60 usage at the customer site; more specifically maintaining source integrity, source utilization and irradiator design trends. Highlighted are industry trends for North America, Europe and the rest of the world. Finally presented are the challenges and opportunities for the industry. Stressed in the paper is the need to work together

1998-01-01

227

[Current status of laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article discusses the current status of laparoscopic rectal caner resection through reviewing the recently reported randomized and non-randomized international literatures focusing on laparoscopic as well as robotic-assisted laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer, especially on laparoscopic resection for mid and low rectal cancer. Even though laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer is proven to be safe and available, and to possess same efficacy of traditional open operation, so far multi-center randomized controlled trials about this procedure are limited. Open operation is still the standard procedure for rectal cancer. Robotic-assisted operation has been successfully applied in many fields of surgery, but is still in the explorative phase for rectal cancer.

Yan HS; Yao N

2013-05-01

228

Colorectal tissue engineering: prerequisites, current status and perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gastrointestinal tissue engineering has emerged over the past 20 years and was often focused on esophagus, stomach or small intestine, whereas bioengineering researches of colorectal tissue are scarce. However, some promising results have been obtained in animal models. Refinements should be performed in scaffold and cell source selection to allow smooth muscle layer regeneration. Indeed, synthetic and natural polymers such as small intestinal submucosa and collagen sponge seeded with organoid units or smooth muscle cells did not allow smooth muscle regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue seeded on composite scaffold could represent an interesting way to achieve this goal. This article reviews potential indications, current status and perspectives of tissue engineering in the area of colorectal surgery.

Denost Q; Adam JP; Rullier E; Bareille R; Montembault A; David L; Bordenave L

2013-07-01

229

The current status of research on resources recycling in Korea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current domestic research status for resources recycling has been reviewed by surveying the technical and review papers reported to some academic journals. The surveyed articles were classified based upon several categories, including recycling fields according to the kinds of recyclable materials, applied recycling technologies, organizations where the research was conducted, and references according to publication year and region. The survey showed that the recycling of metallurgical waste is being studied most actively. Also, the investigation of fly ash recycling is surveyed to be actively conducted. In the aspect of recycling technologies, chemical technologies are shown to be more widely applied than physical ones. For research-conducting organizations, academic institutes have been more active in the research of recycling field compared with national/private research institutes and industries. In the reference survey, English-written articles and the articles published between 1991-1995 period are shown to be most referred. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

Seo, Seung-Hee; Kuh, Sung-Eun; Kim, Dong-Su [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

1999-03-31

230

Current status and advances in quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The accurate quantitation of proteins and peptides in complex biological systems is one of the most challenging areas of proteomics. Mass spectrometry-based approaches have forged significant in-roads allowing accurate and sensitive quantitation and the ability to multiplex vastly complex samples through the application of robust bioinformatic tools. These relative and absolute quantitative measures using label-free, tags, or stable isotope labelling have their own strengths and limitations. The continuous development of these methods is vital for increasing reproducibility in the rapidly expanding application of quantitative proteomics in biomarker discovery and validation. This paper provides a critical overview of the primary mass spectrometry-based quantitative approaches and the current status of quantitative proteomics in biomedical research.

Wasinger VC; Zeng M; Yau Y

2013-01-01

231

Current status and prominent issues in sport psychology interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prospect of human psycho-behavioral change has fueled the development and growth of applied sport psychology and psychological intervention with athletes. The purpose of this review is to examine the current status of sport psychology interventions and identify issues related to psychological intervention in sport. The development of sport psychology in North America is overviewed and issues arising from the emergence of applied sport psychology are identified. Sport psychology intervention research is reviewed and it is concluded that the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions is supported in the literature. Problems in intervention research are identified and future directions for sport psychology are suggested. These suggestions include a science-practice integration, the use of idiographic assessment methods, the identification and control of moderator variables, and the contextualization of interventions within the unique environment of sport.

Vealey RS

1994-04-01

232

Current Research Status, Databases and Application of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent form of DNA variation in the genome. SNPs are genetic markers which are bi-allelic in nature and grow at a very fast rate. Current genomic databases contain information on several million SNPs. More than 6 million SNPs have been identified and the information is publicly available through the efforts of the SNP Consortium and others data bases. The NCBI plays a major role in facillating the identification and cataloging of SNPs through creation and maintenance of the public SNP database (dbSNP) by the biomedical community worldwide and stimulate many areas of biological research including the identification of the genetic components of disease. In this review article, we are compiling the existing SNP databases, research status and their application.

R. Javed; Mukesh

2010-01-01

233

Colorectal tissue engineering: prerequisites, current status and perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastrointestinal tissue engineering has emerged over the past 20 years and was often focused on esophagus, stomach or small intestine, whereas bioengineering researches of colorectal tissue are scarce. However, some promising results have been obtained in animal models. Refinements should be performed in scaffold and cell source selection to allow smooth muscle layer regeneration. Indeed, synthetic and natural polymers such as small intestinal submucosa and collagen sponge seeded with organoid units or smooth muscle cells did not allow smooth muscle regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue seeded on composite scaffold could represent an interesting way to achieve this goal. This article reviews potential indications, current status and perspectives of tissue engineering in the area of colorectal surgery. PMID:23895077

Denost, Quentin; Adam, Jean-Philippe; Rullier, Eric; Bareille, Reine; Montembault, Alexandra; David, Laurent; Bordenave, Laurence

2013-07-01

234

The current status of the Korean student health examination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect, maintain, and promote students' health. School health care is a program that integrates health care services, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student health examination (SHE) system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must be available to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts in both school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legal basis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveys from the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed for the improvement of SHE and school health care.

Shin HJ

2013-08-01

235

Marine current energy devices: Current status and possible future applications in Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a growing demand for the use of renewable energy technologies to generate electricity due to concerns over climate change. The oceans provide a huge potential resource of energy. Energy extraction using marine current energy devices (MCEDs) offers a sustainable alternative to conventional sources and a predictable alternative to other renewable energy technologies. A MCED utilises the kinetic energy of the tides as opposed to the potential energy which is utilised by a tidal barrage. Over the past decade MCEDs have become an increasingly popular method of energy extraction. However, marine current energy technology is still not economically viable on a large scale due to its current stage of development. Ireland has an excellent marine current energy resource as it is an island nation and experiences excellent marine current flows. This paper reviews marine current energy devices, including a detailed up-to-date description of the current status of development. Issues such as network integration, economics, and environmental implications are addressed as well as the application and costs of MCEDs in Ireland. (author)

2010-01-01

236

An Yb optical lattice clock: Current status at KRISS  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status of an Yb optical lattice clock at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) is reported. The systematic uncertainty of the Yb clock in the first accuracy evaluation was 1.5 × 10-14 [Park et al., Metrologia 50, 119 (2013)]. The uncertainty was dominated by the large uncertainties in the lattice ac Stark shift and the collisional shift, which were mainly limited by the large linewidth and jitter of the clock laser. Recently, a highly stable clock laser at 578 nm was developed with a short-term linewidth of 3.5 Hz and a frequency jitter of about 25 Hz at 1 s and 10 s measurement times, respectively. The long-term frequency drift showed only a linear dependence on time, confirming that the temperature of the super-cavity was maintained a zero coefficient of thermal expansion. The frequency of the lattice laser at 759 nm was phase locked to the optical frequency comb and could be stabilized at the "absolute" frequency of the "magic wavelength", to within a 1-MHz uncertainty. This improvement greatly reduced the fractional uncertainty due to the lattice ac Stark shift down to 2 × 10-16. The systematic uncertainty of the clock is currently 5.3 × 10-15 and is dominated by the collisional frequency shift.

Yu, Dai-Hyuk; Park, Chang Yong; Lee, Won-Kyu; Lee, Sangkyung; Park, Sang Eon; Mun, Jongchul; Lee, Sang-Bum; Kwon, Taeg Yong

2013-08-01

237

Current Status of Gyroklystron Research at the University of Maryland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the University of Maryland, we have been developing high-power coaxial gyroklystrons. Our present work is focused on the development of a 17.136 GHz four-cavity frequency-doubling gyroklystron amplifier. This device will then be used to drive a high gradient linear accelerator structure recently developed by the Haimson Corporation. Our work has been afflicted by many technical challenges, most arising from thermal imperfections in the custom-made high current emitter of our electron gun. In our latest experimental run, instabilities were detected in the input cavity of our amplifier tube. These instabilities appear when the beam pitch ratio (?) is approximately 1, thus impeding our search of domains with higher ? values (note that the circuit was designed to operate at ?=1.4). In order to remedy this problem, we have radically redesigned the input cavity, changing both its geometry and Q factor. The new input cavity has been fabricated and cold-tested. It will soon undergo hot-test in the next run of experimental studies of the circuit, which will commence after an upgrade of our vacuum system. Here we present the current status of this research.

2003-12-01

238

Current status of the Mallard population in the Nordic countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dabbling ducks (Anas ssp.) are cornerstone species in wetland bird communities and yet in many cases we lack sufficient data to judge the conservation status of the flyway population. In a first step to remedy this we here compile all available data on Mallard in the Nordic countries. We find increasing numbers of wintering Mallards and stable to increasing breeding populations. Data on breeding success is scarce but the available data show an increasing trend. In recent years the overall trend in hunting bag sizes is relatively stable even though there is some variation among countries. Thus all indicators suggest that the Nordic Mallard population is currently in good condition. However major knowledge gaps were identified with regard to release of hand-reared Mallards and the effect of short stopping for the trends observed locally. A detailed assessment of the effect of releases is urgently needed as well as an assessment of the role of short stopping in explaining current trends in winter population in certain parts of the European flyway.

Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär

239

Current status of robot-assisted gastric surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an effort to minimize the limitations of laparoscopy, a robotic surgery system was introduced, but its role for gastric cancer is still unclear. The objective of this article is to assess the current status of robotic surgery for gastric cancer and to predict future prospects. Although the current study was limited by its small number of patients and retrospective nature, robot-assisted gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer is a feasible and safe procedure for experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Most studies have reported satisfactory results for postoperative short-term coutcomes, such as: postoperative oral feeding, gas out, hospital stay and complications, compared with laparoscopic surgery; the difference is a longer operation time. However, robotic surgery showed a shallow learning curve compared with the familarity of conventional open surgery; after the accumulation of several cases, robotic surgery could be expected to result in a similar operation time. Robotic-assisted gastrectomy can expand the indications of minimally invasive surgery to include advanced gastric cancer by improving the ability to perform lymphadenectomy. Moreover, ”total” robotic gastrectomy can be facilitated using a robot-sewing technique and gastric submucosal tumors near the gastroesophageal junction or pylorus can be resected safely by this novel technique. In conclusion, robot-assisted gastrectomy may offer a good alternative to conventional open or laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer, provided that long-term oncologic outcomes can be confirmed.

Se-Jin Baek; Dong-Woo Lee; Sung-Soo Park; Seon-Hahn Kim

2011-01-01

240

Current status of percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty - a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) and kyphoplasty (PK) are the 2vertebral augmentation procedures that have emerged as minimally invasive surgical options to treat painful vertebral compression fractures (VCF) during the last 2 decades. VCF may either be osteoporotic or tumor-associated. Two hundred million women are affected by osteoporosis globally. Vertebral fracture may result in acute pain around the fracture site, loss of vertebral height due to vertebral collapse, spinal instability, and kyphotic deformity. The main goal of the PV and PK procedures is to give immediate pain relief to patients and restore the vertebral height lost due to fracture. In percutaneous vertebroplasty, bone cement is injected through a minimal incision into the fractured site. Kyphoplasty involves insertion of a balloon into the fractured site, followed by inflation-deflation to create a cavity into which the filler material is injected, and the balloon is taken out prior to cement injection. This literature review presents a qualitative overview on the current status of vertebral augmentation procedures,especially PV and PK, and compares the efficacy and safety of these 2 procedures. The review consists of a brief history of the development of these 2 techniques, a discussion on the current research on the bone cement, clinical outcome of the 2 procedures, and it also sheds light on ongoing and future research to maximize the efficacy and safety of vertebral augmentation procedures.

Yimin Y; Zhiwei R; Wei M; Jha R

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

[Current status and future perspective of cancer vaccine development].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The field of cancer vaccines has moved forward dramatically, along with the progressive increase in basic knowledge of tumor immunology. During the last 20 years, a number of tumor-associated antigens have been identified, some of which have been clinically examined in patients, demonstrating encouraging results as immunotherapy against various types of cancers. However, most of the randomized clinical trials conducted to gain approval for official clinical use of the antigens have failed, due to an inability to demonstrate thair meaningful therapeutic benefit to patients over other existing treatments, with the exception of the dendritic cell(DC)-based vaccine(Provenge®), which has recently been approved as the first therapeutic cancer vaccine in the US. Such unexpected results have shed light on several important issues to solve in regard to further development of cancer vaccines. In particular, more attention should be paid to the fact that the characteristics of tumor cells and the immunological status against cancers differ widely among patients. Of note, the recent failure of cancer vaccines in clinical trials may be explained, at least in part, by the existence of a vaccine-specific adverse event; an induction of an"inconvenient immune response,"that inhibits pre-existing host immunity. Development of a novel criteria and reliable biomarkers for selecting adequate patients and vaccine antigens would be a breakthrough for further cancer vaccine development. In this review, we will summarize the current status of cancer vaccine development and discuss how to overcome negative issues raised in recently conducted clinical trials of therapeutic cancer vaccines.

Sasada T; Itoh K

2011-04-01

242

[Current status and future perspective of cancer vaccine development].  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of cancer vaccines has moved forward dramatically, along with the progressive increase in basic knowledge of tumor immunology. During the last 20 years, a number of tumor-associated antigens have been identified, some of which have been clinically examined in patients, demonstrating encouraging results as immunotherapy against various types of cancers. However, most of the randomized clinical trials conducted to gain approval for official clinical use of the antigens have failed, due to an inability to demonstrate thair meaningful therapeutic benefit to patients over other existing treatments, with the exception of the dendritic cell(DC)-based vaccine(Provenge®), which has recently been approved as the first therapeutic cancer vaccine in the US. Such unexpected results have shed light on several important issues to solve in regard to further development of cancer vaccines. In particular, more attention should be paid to the fact that the characteristics of tumor cells and the immunological status against cancers differ widely among patients. Of note, the recent failure of cancer vaccines in clinical trials may be explained, at least in part, by the existence of a vaccine-specific adverse event; an induction of an"inconvenient immune response,"that inhibits pre-existing host immunity. Development of a novel criteria and reliable biomarkers for selecting adequate patients and vaccine antigens would be a breakthrough for further cancer vaccine development. In this review, we will summarize the current status of cancer vaccine development and discuss how to overcome negative issues raised in recently conducted clinical trials of therapeutic cancer vaccines. PMID:21498975

Sasada, Tetsuro; Itoh, Kyogo

2011-04-01

243

Status report on Corsica modeling for current drive scenario development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This milestone report covers the progress and status of Corsica modeling for DIII-D experiments over the past year, since our previous report in September, 1995. During this time, we have concentrated on improvements to the code in support of our ability to do self-consistent, predictive modeling of DIII-D discharges. Our interest is in obtaining a tool, benchmarked with experimental data, for developing advanced tokamak operations scenarios including simulation and analysis of high performance negative central shear (NCS) discharges and control of the current profile evolution. Our major focus has been on installing and improving the neutral beam current drive mode in Corsica; this element is critical to modeling the evolution of DIII-D discharges. The NFREYA neutral beam deposition code was installed (starting with a version consistent with GA`s ONETWO code) and the capability for following particle orbits, including the effects of drifts, was added for determining the current driven by neutral beam -injection. In addition, improved methods for more easily integrating experimental profile measurements into the code operation and for calculating Z{sub eff} either from models or from impurity density measurements have been added. We have recently begun to turn on various transport models in our simulation of discharge evolution. We have concentrated on the NCS configuration and have simulated the evolution of two different high neutron reactivity discharges; an NCS discharge with L-mode edge and a single- null, weak NCS discharge from the JET/ITER/DIII-D equivalent shape experiments. Corsica simulation results for these discharges were presented at the EPS meeting in Kiev, Ukraine in June, 1996.

Casper, T. A.; Crotinger, J.; Moller, J.M.; Pearlstein, L.D.

1996-09-01

244

Public acceptance, market development and commercialization of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current status of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh with respect to public acceptance, commercial application, trade development and present research and development activities are summarized in the paper. Irradiated food products are generally accepted by people. To further boost public opinion on the usefulness of the technology, two national seminars were successfully organized in 1995 and 1996 respectively with wide participation and media coverage. A number of non-traditional items such as beef casing, flour, turtle meat, macaroni, peat soil, etc. were irradiated and successfully marketed during the last 5 years. Bangladesh adopted a ''Specification for Authorisation of Irradiation by Groups/Classes of Foods'' in 1995 in line with the ICGFI Guidelines. The Bangladesh Standard is essentially similar to the Harmonised Regulations adopted for the RCA countries in April 1998. About 1300 metric tons of different food items were irradiated for commercial purposes at the Gammatech Irradiation Facility in Chittagong during the past 5 years. Present research activities in Bangladesh include irradiation disinfestations of nematodes in ginger and turmeric, and mites and thrips from cut flowers. Work on identification of fruit flies, mites and thrips by using sensitive protein markers is in progress. (author)

2001-01-01

245

77 FR 22333 - Agency Information Collection Activities: USCIS Case Status Online, Extension of a Currently...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Agency Information Collection Activities: USCIS Case Status Online, Extension of a Currently...of information collection under review: USCIS case status online...Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is submitting the following...

2012-04-13

246

Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and potentials of classical radiotherapy After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. Technological levels of radiotherapy in developed countries An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower) for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and mached to point current status. Results of analysis and discussion The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%), as well as, ADAC (43.7%) and Focus (CMS) (27.4%) systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%), although classic ”simulation” is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%). About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CFRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.). CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day). Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. Technological aspects and conclusion In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in technology and consequent improvements, as well as wide introduction of computers in radiotherapy, radiotherapy results have not changed significantly. Vendor development strategies do not point that this trend will change in the next 5 years. On the other hand, wide introduction of the PET in each radiotherapy chain ring (diagnostics, planning, follow-up), could improve results (local and regional control, as well as quality of patients' life).

Dabi?-Stankovi? Kata M.; Stankovi? Jovan B.; Radoševi?-Jeli? Ljiljana M.

2004-01-01

247

Municipal Waste Management and Environmental Hazards in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Municipal solid waste becomes serious environmental hazard and social problem in Bangladesh. Currently a gigantic volume of solid waste is generated every day in the district towns of Bangladesh and unfortunately solid waste management is being deteriorated day by day due to the limited resources...

G. M. Jahid Hasan; Md. Aktarul Islam Chowdhury

248

Robotic hepatobiliary surgery: update on the current status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An update on the current status of robotic hepatobiliary surgery based on a review of the available literature. A literature search was performed using the PubMed database with search phrases "robotic hepatectomy", "robotic liver resection", "robotic liver surgery", "robotic hepatobiliary surgery", and "robotic biliary reconstruction". We selected articles with high volume case series or case controlled series. As a result of our literature search we will focus on the 9 major articles on robotic liver resection (RLR) with 235 patients undergoing RLR for a total of 244 liver resections. In addition a brief update on robotic biliary reconstruction will also be presented based on the above articles and recent review articles. Indications for robotic liver resection included both benign (N.=72, 29.5%) and malignant disease (N.=172, 70.5%). The most common indication was colorectal liver metastasis (N.=87, 50.6%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (N.=57, 33%). The most common type of resection was subsegmental (N.=55, 22.5%), with a significant number of major hepatectomies (N.=80, 32.8%). Overall conversion rate was 7.8%, with majority converted to open (N.=18) and one converted to hand assisted. The overall complication rate was 11.8% (N.=29). No perioperative mortality was reported. Preliminary results show that robotic assisted laparoscopic hepatobiliary surgery has materialized as a new technique that combines the advantages of laparoscopy with the dissection, suturing and articulation of robotics. This more closely approximates open surgery. The preliminary data demonstrates that RLR can be applied in major hepatobiliary centers safely. Future comparative studies are needed to determine if this is of significant benefit over current open techniques.

Carr AD; Ali MR; Khatri VP

2013-10-01

249

Management of reprocessed uranium. Current status and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is worldwide interest in developing advanced and innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles, minimizing waste and environmental impacts. As of the beginning of 2003, about 171000 tonnes heavy metal spent nuclear fuel is in storage, while smaller amounts have been reprocessed. In several countries, including France, India, Japan and the Russian Federation, spent fuel has been viewed as a national energy resource. Some countries hold reprocessed uranium as the result of their commercial reprocessing service contracts for reprocessing the spent fuel of others. Reprocessed uranium has a potential value for recycling either directly or after appropriate treatment. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in the management of reprocessed uranium. It includes the technical issues involved in managing reprocessed uranium which are RepU arisings, storage, chemical conversion, re-enrichment, fuel fabrication, transport, reactor irradiation, subsequent reprocessing and disposal options, as well as assessment of holistic environmental impacts. The objective of this document is to overview the information on the current status and future trends in the management of RepU and to identify major issues to be considered for future projects

2007-01-01

250

The Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre: goals and current status  

Science.gov (United States)

The Observatorio Astrofsico de Javalambre in Spain is a new astronomical facility particularly conceived for carrying out large sky surveys with two unprecedented telescopes of unusually large elds of view: the JST/T250, a 2.55m telescope of 3deg eld of view, and the JAST/T80, an 83cm telescope of 2deg eld of view. The most immediate objective of the two telescopes for the next years is carrying out two unique photometric surveys of several thousands square degrees, J-PAS and J-PLUS, each of them with a wide range of scientic applications, like e.g. large structure cosmology and Dark Energy, galaxy evolution, supernovae, Milky Way structure, exoplanets, among many others. To do that, JST and JAST will be equipped with panoramic cameras under development within the J-PAS collaboration, JPCam and T80Cam respectively, which make use of large format (~10k×10k) CCDs covering the entire focal plane. This paper describes the current status and expected schedule of the overall project, the main characteristics of the telescopes, their cameras, the technical requirements of the two planned surveys, as well as the general operation strategy of the observatory.

Cenarro, A. J.; Moles, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Marín-Franch, A.; Gruel, N.; Yanes-Díaz, A.; Chueca, S.; Varela, J.; Ederoclite, A.; Rueda-Teruel, F.; Rueda-Teruel, S.; Benítez, N.; Cepa, J.; Dupke, R.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodré, L.; Taylor, K.; Pirnay, O.; Antón, J. L.; Díaz-García, L. A.; Díaz-Martín, M. C.; Gracia-Gracia, S.; Guillén-Civera, L.; Hernández-Fuertes, J.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Lamadrid, J. L.; López-Sainz, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Luis-Simoes, R.; Maícas, N.; Valdivielso, L.; Viironen, K.

2012-09-01

251

Current status of allogeneic HST for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HST) offers the only curative potential for patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). However, there is a paucity of data addressing this approach in CMML. The disease is a relatively under-represented myelodysplastic (MDS)/myeloproliferative subtype among transplant eligible patients. Non-randomized studies suggest that long-term remissions are achievable when using myeloablative or reduced intensity conditioning transplantation. Allogeneic SCT for CMML is often reported as part of MDS registry data. The largest series in adult patients reported a disappointing long-term relapse-free survival (RFS) of 18%. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer and Research Center group reported a 40% long-term RFS for a mixed group of adults and children with CMML who were transplanted over two decades. In this study, we performed a literature search and reviewed available data for adult CMML patients undergoing HST. The dearth of data that span two decades with changing transplant practices prohibited us from performing a formal meta-analysis. However, we elected to present the current status of HST in adult CMML patients. Carefully selected CMML patients may have the most benefit from this curative approach.

Cheng H; Kirtani VG; Gergis U

2012-04-01

252

The UPM high temperature solar collector current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high temperature solar energy research at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) is an attempt to study the merits of the fixed aperture optics collector for the equatorial region using the concept of the fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF). The general objective is to look for an alternative source of clean energy and a practical method of converting this energy to usable form for the projected industrialisation program of the country. The FMDF uses a stationary hemisphere bowl to capture the solar irradiance. The UPM bowl has a rim angle of 120 0 with radius of curvature of 27.9 m. This corresponds to an aperture diameter of 48 m and submerges 5.1 m in the ground. The bowl will later be tiled with 2446 square meters of mirror to form a spherical shape. And therefore will be able to collect about 1 MW of solar irradiance at the conical focus formed along the direction of the radius (high concentrated region) which then can be harnessed by different means. In this paper, we will report the current status and future works of the project, under construction at the site. We anticipate that the project will be completed and operated by the year 2000. (Author)

2000-01-01

253

Nonparametric estimation of current status data with dependent censoring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper discusses nonparametric estimation of a survival function when one observes only current status data (McKeown and Jewell, Lifetime Data Anal 16:215-230, 2010; Sun, The statistical analysis of interval-censored failure time data, 2006; Sun and Sun, Can J Stat 33:85-96, 2005). In this case, each subject is observed only once and the failure time of interest is observed to be either smaller or larger than the observation or censoring time. If the failure time and the observation time can be assumed to be independent, several methods have been developed for the problem. Here we will focus on the situation where the independent assumption does not hold and propose two simple estimation procedures under the copula model framework. The proposed estimates allow one to perform sensitivity analysis or identify the shape of a survival function among other uses. A simulation study performed indicates that the two methods work well and they are applied to a motivating example from a tumorigenicity study.

Wang C; Sun J; Sun L; Zhou J; Wang D

2012-10-01

254

Malaria at Parturition in Nigeria: Current Status and Delivery Outcome  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. To evaluate the current status of malaria at parturition and its impact on delivery outcome in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2500 mother-neonate pairs were enrolled at 4 sites over a 12-month period. Maternal and placental blood smears for malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit were determined. Results. Of the 2500 subjects enrolled, 625 were excluded from analysis because of breach in study protocol. The mean age of the remaining 1875 mothers was 29.0 ± 5.1 years. The prevalence of parasitaemia was 17% and 14% in the peripheral blood and placenta of the parturient women, respectively. Peripheral blood parasitaemia was negatively associated with increasing parity (P < .0001). Maternal age <20 years was significantly associated with both peripheral blood and placental parasitaemia. After adjusting for covariates only age <20 years was associated with placental parasitaemia. Peripheral blood parasitaemia in the women was associated with anaemia (PCV ?30%) lower mean hematocrit (P < .0001). lower mean birth weight (P < .001) and a higher proportion of low birth weight babies (LBW), (P = .025). Conclusion. In Nigeria, maternal age <20 years was the most important predisposing factor to malaria at parturition. The main impacts on pregnancy outcome were a twofold increase in rate of maternal anaemia and higher prevalence of LBW.

Mokuolu, Olugbenga A.; Falade, Catherine O.; Orogade, Adeola A.; Okafor, Henrietta U.; Adedoyin, Olanrewaju T.; Oguonu, Tagbo A.; Dada-Adegbola, Hannah O.; Oguntayo, O. A.; Ernest, Samuel K.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Callahan, Michael V.

2009-01-01

255

Malaria at parturition in Nigeria: current status and delivery outcome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the current status of malaria at parturition and its impact on delivery outcome in Nigeria. METHODS: A total of 2500 mother-neonate pairs were enrolled at 4 sites over a 12-month period. Maternal and placental blood smears for malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit were determined. RESULTS: Of the 2500 subjects enrolled, 625 were excluded from analysis because of breach in study protocol. The mean age of the remaining 1875 mothers was 29.0 +/- 5.1 years. The prevalence of parasitaemia was 17% and 14% in the peripheral blood and placenta of the parturient women, respectively. Peripheral blood parasitaemia was negatively associated with increasing parity (P < .0001). Maternal age <20 years was significantly associated with both peripheral blood and placental parasitaemia. After adjusting for covariates only age <20 years was associated with placental parasitaemia. Peripheral blood parasitaemia in the women was associated with anaemia (PCV < or =30%) lower mean hematocrit (P < .0001). lower mean birth weight (P < .001) and a higher proportion of low birth weight babies (LBW), (P = .025). CONCLUSION: In Nigeria, maternal age < 20 years was the most important predisposing factor to malaria at parturition. The main impacts on pregnancy outcome were a twofold increase in rate of maternal anaemia and higher prevalence of LBW.

Mokuolu OA; Falade CO; Orogade AA; Okafor HU; Adedoyin OT; Oguonu TA; Dada-Adegbola HO; Oguntayo OA; Ernest SK; Hamer DH; Callahan MV

2009-01-01

256

Malaria at Parturition in Nigeria: Current Status and Delivery Outcome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the current status of malaria at parturition and its impact on delivery outcome in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2500 mother-neonate pairs were enrolled at 4 sites over a 12-month period. Maternal and placental blood smears for malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit were determined. Results. Of the 2500 subjects enrolled, 625 were excluded from analysis because of breach in study protocol. The mean age of the remaining 1875 mothers was 29.0 ± 5.1 years. The prevalence of parasitaemia was 17% and 14% in the peripheral blood and placenta of the parturient women, respectively. Peripheral blood parasitaemia was negatively associated with increasing parity (P<.0001). Maternal age <20 years was significantly associated with both peripheral blood and placental parasitaemia. After adjusting for covariates only age <20 years was associated with placental parasitaemia. Peripheral blood parasitaemia in the women was associated with anaemia (PCV ?30%) lower mean hematocrit (P<.0001). lower mean birth weight (P<.001) and a higher proportion of low birth weight babies (LBW), (P=.025). Conclusion. In Nigeria, maternal age <20 years was the most important predisposing factor to malaria at parturition. The main impacts on pregnancy outcome were a twofold increase in rate of maternal anaemia and higher prevalence of LBW.

Olugbenga A. Mokuolu; Catherine O. Falade; Adeola A. Orogade; Henrietta U. Okafor; Olanrewaju T. Adedoyin; Tagbo A. Oguonu; Hannah O. Dada-Adegbola; O. A. Oguntayo; Samuel K. Ernest; Davidson H. Hamer; Michael V. Callahan

2009-01-01

257

Veterinary pharmacology: history, current status and future prospects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Veterinary therapeutics, based on the art of Materia Medica, has been practised for countless centuries, but the science of veterinary pharmacology is of very recent origin. This review traces the contribution of Materia Medica to veterinary therapeutics from the Egyptian period through to the Age of Enlightenment. The first tentative steps in the development of the science of veterinary pharmacology were taken in the 18th century, but it was not until the mid 20th century that the science replaced the art of Materia Medica. This review traces the 20th century developments in veterinary pharmacology, with emphasis on the explosion of knowledge in the 35 year period to 2010. The range of factors which have influenced the current status of the discipline are reviewed. Future developments are considered from the perspectives of what might be regarded as desirable and those innovations that might be anticipated. We end with words of encouragement for young colleagues intent upon pursuing a career in veterinary pharmacology.

Lees P; Fink-Gremmels J; Toutain PL

2013-04-01

258

Current status of the development of international exemption principles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the past several years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been investigating the possibility of exempting certain radiation sources and practices from regulatory control. Initial efforts were conducted under the general heading of de minimis. Interest in this topic arises from international recognition that a significant fraction of the wastes from industry, research, medicine, and the nuclear fuel cycle are contaminated to such low levels that applying regulatory controls may be unwarranted. The IAEA evaluation has been conducted by Advisory Groups considering two interrelated topics: to establish principles for exemption, and to apply the principles to various areas of waste management. The IAEA Advisory Groups developed the criteria from modeled assessments of the potential radiation exposure pathways and scenarios for individuals and population groups following the unrestricted release of radioactive materials. Although the scenarios and models used by the IAEA are necessarily generic, consultants to the Advisory Groups attempted to identify the most important radiation exposure pathways based on available literature. This approach is intended to provide the basic framework for the numerical derivation of generic exempt quantities that would be conservative in most situations. This paper discusses the current status of the IAEA's efforts on the subject of exemption and presents the generic results expressed as overall exemption limits for municipal wastes and materials for recycle and reuse

1988-09-01

259

Current status of pharyngolaryngo-esophagectomy and pharyngogastric anastomosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pharyngolaryngo-esophagectomy and pharyngogastric anastomosis (PLO & PGA) is one of the surgical options in the management of tumors arising from the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus. Indications of the operation and the outcome are changing over the years. To examine these, the experience of this operation in one Institute (the Head and Neck Division of the Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong at Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong) over the last 30 years was reviewed. METHODS: From 1966 to 1995, a total of 317 patients underwent PLO & PGA. The clinical results of 69 patients operated on between 1986 and 1995 were analyzed and compared with those of the two groups of patients reported previously from the same Institute to establish the current status of PLO & PGA. RESULTS: The demographic data of three groups of patients were similar. In previous years, 53% of the primary tumors were advanced laryngeal carcinomas extending to the hypopharynx, whereas the other 47% originated from hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal regions. In recent years, all patients belonged to the latter group. CONCLUSIONS: The hospital mortality has decreased from 31% to 9%, and the incidence of morbidity such as anastomotic leakage and bleeding has also been reduced, from 20% to 10%. This may be related to the introduction of transthoracic endoscopic mobilization of the esophagus and patient selection. The overall minor morbidity has, however, remained at about 49%, and the 5-year actuarial survival rate has improved, from 18% in the 1970s to 24.5% at present.

Wei WI; Lam LK; Yuen PW; Wong J

1998-05-01

260

Radiation processing in India. Current status and future program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation processing is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing in many industrial applications. In India, this technology has found extensive applications in area of healthcare, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, 6 commercial gamma irradiators housing about 1.5 million curie Co-60 and an annual turnover of over US$ 2 million and 3 commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. Five demonstration plants housing a total of 0.5 million curie Co-60 have been set up to assess the techno-commercial viability of the processes such as radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, decontamination of spices, hygienization of sewage sludge, shelf-life extension of onions. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam treated pulp for viscose-rayon process, radiation processed 'hydrogel' burn/wound dressings and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology in India is reviewed. (author)

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Radionuclide transport by groundwater flow through the geosphere: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geosphere is an important barrier retaining radionuclides that have been released from the near field of a waste repository and retarding their return to Man. The assessment models that are used in the current Nirex assessments to describe the groundwater flow in the vicinity of the repository and the transport of radionuclides by the groundwater are summarized, and their data requirements are set out. The Nirex research programme is designed to provide improved and additional data for these models, to deepen the understanding of the important processes and to develop improved models to describe them. This document outlines the status of the assessment models and associated research programme in the spring of 1988. The programme complements existing knowledge in this field. Key areas are measurements of the physical properties of rocks, field and modelling studies of fractured rocks, measurements of sorption onto geological materials, investigation of the possible importance of colloid transport and saline interfaces, transport of naturally occurring elements over geological time-scales in natural geochemical systems, and participation in an international model validation exercise. (author)

1989-01-01

262

Oil development in China: Current status and future trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The future of oil has become an important topic of the discussion of energy policy in China. This paper attempts to present a full picture of the current status and future trends of China’s oil development through system analysis. First, we map a Sankey diagram of China’s oil flow to reveal the physical pattern of China’s oil supply and consumption. Then, we present the historical and ongoing trends of China’s oil flow from key aspects such as oil demand, oil resource availability, technology improvement, and policy adjustment. Based on these understandings, we design three scenarios of China’s oil demand in 2030, and analyze policy implications for oil saving, automotive energy development, and energy security. From the analysis, we draw some conclusions for policy decisions, such as to control the total oil consumption to avoid energy security risks, to enhance oil saving in all sectors with road transportation as the emphasis, and to increase the investment on oil production and refining to secure oil supply and reduce emissions. - Highlights: ? A Sankey Diagram to reveal the physical pattern of China’s oil supply and consumption. ? Present the ongoing trends of China’s oil development. ? Discuss important policy issues such as oil saving, energy security, and emissions reduction.

2012-01-01

263

Thorium-based nuclear fuel: current status and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Until the present time considerable efforts have already been made in the area of fabrication, utilization and reprocessing of Th-based fuels for different types of reactors, namely: by FRG and USA - for HTRs; FRG and Brazil, Italy - for LWRs; India - for HWRs and FBRs. Basic research of thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycles are also being undertaken by Australia, Canada, China, France, FRG, Romania, USSR and other countries. Main emphasis has been given to the utilization of thorium fuels in once-through nuclear fuel cycles, but in some projects closed thorium-uranium or thorium-plutonium fuel cycles are also considered. The purpose of the Technical Committee on the Utilization of Thorium-Based Nuclear Fuel: Current Status and Perspective was to review the world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration, obtained experience in the utilization of Th-based fuels in different types of reactors, basic research, fabrication and reprocessing of Th-based fuels. As a result of the panel discussion the recommendations on future Agency activities and list of major worldwide activities in the area of Th-based fuel were developed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers in this proceedings series

1987-01-01

264

Current Status of Numerical-Relativity Simulations in Kyoto  

CERN Multimedia

We describe the current status of our numerical simulations for the collapse of a massive stellar core to a BH and the BNS mergers, performed in the framework of full general relativity incorporating finite-temperature EOS and neutrino cooling. For the stellar core collapse simulation, we present the latest numerical results. We employed a purely nucleonic EOS (Shen-EOS). As an initial condition, we adopted a 100 $M_{\\odot}$ presupernova model calculated by Umeda and Nomoto. Changing the degree of rotation for the initial condition, we clarify the strong dependence of the outcome of the collapse on this. When the rotation is rapid enough, the shock wave formed at the core bounce is deformed to be a torus-like shape. Then, the infalling matter is accumulated in the central region due to the oblique shock at the torus surface, hitting the PNS and dissipating the kinetic energy there. As a result, outflows can be launched. The PNS eventually collapses to a BH and an accretion torus is formed around it. We also f...

Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

2012-01-01

265

Current Status and Tasks in Development of Cable Recycling Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper shows current status and tasks in development of cable recycling technology and it’s items to be solved. Electric cable recycle system has been activated especially for copper conductor recycle in Japan. Previously removed cable coverings materials were mainly land filled. But landfill capacity is decreased and limited in recent years, at the same time, recycle technology was highly developed. A cable recycle technology has 4 tasks. (1) Applying new high efficiency separation system instead of electrostatic and gravity methods to classify mixed various kind of plastics materials including recently developed ecological material (ex PE, PVC, Rubber), (2) Removing heavy metal, especially lead from PVC material, (3) Treatment of optical glass fiber core, which has possibility going to be harmful micro particles, and (4) Establishment of social recycle system for electric wire and cable. Taking action for these tasks shall be proceeded under environmentally sensitive technology together with local government, user, manufacturer, and waste-disposal company on cost performance basis.

Ezure, Takashi; Goto, Kazuhiko

266

Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer.

Tsunehiro Takahashi; Yoshiro Saikawa; Yuko Kitagawa

2013-01-01

267

Current status and future perspectives: primary cilia and kidney injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cilia, membrane-enclosed organelles protruding from the apical side of the cells, can be divided into two classes, motile and primary cilia. During the past decades, motile cilia have been intensively studied. However, it was not until 1990s that people began to realize the importance of primary cilia as cellular specific sensors, particularly in kidney tubular epithelial cells. Furthermore, accumulating evidence indicates that primary cilia may be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and planar cell polarity. Many signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, and Hedgehog, have been located to the primary cilia. Thus, primary cilia have been regarded as a hub that integrates signals from the extracellular environment. More importantly, dysfunction of this organelle may contribute to the pathogenesis of a large spectrum of human genetic diseases named ciliopathies. The significance of primary cilia in acquired human diseases such as hypertension and diabetes has gradually drawn attention. Interestingly, recent reports disclosed that cilia length varies during kidney injury, and shortening of cilia enhances the sensitivity of epithelial cells to injury cues. This review briefly summarizes the current status of cilia research and explores the potential mechanisms of cilia length changes during kidney injury as well as provides some thoughts in order to allure more insightful ideas and promotes the further study of primary cilia in the context of kidney injury.

Wang S; Dong Z

2013-07-01

268

Current status of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality, which is becoming increasingly widespread due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has a long tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a second-generation promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we describe the current situation worldwide as far as the use of accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT is concerned (so-called Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT). In particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. (author)

2011-01-01

269

Nursing administration graduate programs: current status and future plans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Much controversy has been reported in the literature regarding the value of graduate programs in nursing administration. Yet a rapidly changing healthcare delivery system requires that nurse administrators be well prepared to deal with a fiscally restrained environment that demands the delivery of high-quality care OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to investigate the current status and future plans of graduate programs in nursing administration. We particularly focused on anticipated program reforms and relationships with external stakeholders. METHOD: A survey was mailed to 338 National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission and Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education accredited master's programs. Data from 105 completed surveys were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Graduate programs in nursing administration are alive and well. Programs appear to be adding needed content as suggested by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and American Organization of Nursing Executives and others to keep pace with a changing healthcare delivery system. Programs continue to explore creative ways to reach more students with fewer faculty resources.

Frank B; Aroian J; Tashea P

2003-05-01

270

Gender Disparities in Secondary Education in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Enrolment and success rates are very crucial for any educational system in the world but they are more important for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Gender differences in enrolment and success rates are also emerging issues. This study investigated the enrolment and success rate’s status in secondary educational system of Bangladesh along with internal efficiency rates involving completion rate, retention or survival rate, dropout rate and gender parity index. Some tests of hypotheses of homogeneity were also conducted. Among the findings higher female enrolment rate, lower female success rate, higher male completion rate, survival rate and higher female dropout rate were perceived along with different location, types of schools variations. Some policy implications were suggested with acknowledgement of some flaws in the female stipend Program in Bangladesh

Molla Huq; Pk Md. Motiur Rahman

2008-01-01

271

Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO2, Cr2O3, FeOx and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO3, Pb(Zrx Ti1?x)O3, BiFeO3 and PrxCa1?xMnO3; (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al2O3 and Gd2O3; (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In2Se3 and In2Te3. Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors. (review article)

2012-01-01

272

Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO(2), Cr(2)O(3), FeO(x) and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO(3), Pb(Zr(x) Ti(1-x))O(3), BiFeO(3) and Pr(x)Ca(1-x)MnO(3); (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al(2)O(3) and Gd(2)O(3); (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In(2)Se(3) and In(2)Te(3). Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors. PMID:22790779

Jeong, Doo Seok; Thomas, Reji; Katiyar, R S; Scott, J F; Kohlstedt, H; Petraru, A; Hwang, Cheol Seong

2012-06-28

273

CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI) on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered project in the direction of the government for fostering social entrepreneurs, putting emphasis on follow-up management and evaluation. Second, it must suggest a standard model for social entrepreneur promotion project. In other words, the projects with low performance should be reduced and education models appropriate for new circumstances and changes must be adopted through not only programs standardized in divisions, categories and local provinces, but also appointing expert instructors and project evaluation. Third, itâ??s necessary to propose specific guideline for detailed education operation according to education trainee and objectives of social entrepreneur. Fourth, it is needed to have more various contents development and distribution by strengthening support for specialized foundation, management and case studies related to fostering social entrepreneurs. Finally, it is even more required to spread awareness on social economics relating to programs for fostering social entrepreneur. With the long-term perspective, it is needed to render policy and specialization for fostering Korean-model social entrepreneurs, which is able to raise competent social entrepreneurs suitable for each stage of growth such as sourcing, incubation and launching social entrepreneurs.

Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon

2012-01-01

274

Current status of the construction of the Angra antineutrino detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: An antineutrino detector to be installed near the Angra II nuclear reactor in Angra dos Reis is currently under construction. The main goal is to measure the antineutrino flux and correlate it to the nuclear fuel fission and burn-up, developing a new tool to monitor nuclear reactors. For this purpose, a 1m3 water volume doped with 0:2% Gadolinium is implemented as the target for antineutrino interactions, in a box-shape detector. Cherenkov light produced in the target is collected by 40 photomultiplier tubes. We present the general status of the construction process, along with simulation results that validate the proposed design. All the mechanical parts of the central detector have been designed; some of them have been built and are used in an experimental setup dedicated to test the photomultiplier tubes. A study of the expected background of cosmic particles and the planned tools to deal with this background are also presented, as well as the results of background measurements performed with a prototype detector in the neutrino laboratory located in a container near the reactor. The prototype makes use of a photomultiplier tube looking at a 0:6 m3 cylindrical water volume, equipped with front-end electronics and a data acquisition module. The data acquisition software development relies on a public compiling framework and operational system. Data is acquired in a local server and transmitted to a remote machine located at the Brazilian Center for Physical Research (CBPF). A recently developed VME-standard data acquisition card equipped with 8 analog-to-digital and 8 time-to-digital conversion channels, which is now ready for production, is also presented.(author)

2011-01-01

275

Current status of the nuclear matter incompressibility coefficient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the current status of the incompressibility coefficient of symmetric nuclear matter, Knm, as deduced from experimental data on excitation cross section, ?(E), of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) and the isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR), by inelastic ?-particle scattering, using the nonrelativistic and relativistic mean-field based random phase approximation (RPA). We will discuss the following problems: (1) Self-consistent (non-relativistic) Hartree-Fock (HF)-based RPA calculations and the need to carry out detailed and accurate calculations of the strength function distributions, S(E), and the transition densities, pt, of the isoscalar giant resonance within the HF-RPA theory. We will present results of our investigation concerning, (i) the consequences of violation of self-consistency in common applications of HF-based RPA on S(E) and p, of isoscalar giant resonances, and (ii) the effects of the spurious state mixing (SSM) on properties of the ISGDR. (2) The relation between the strength function S(E) and the excitation cross section a(E) of the isoscalar giant resonances (the ISGMR and the ISGDR, in particular) obtained by alpha-scattering. Here we present results of accurate microscopic calculations for S(E) and for ?(E), obtained within the folding-model distorted-wave-Born approximation with transition densities pt(r ) obtained from HF-RPA calculations. We provide an explanation for the discrepancy between theory and experiment concerning S(E) of the ISGDR. (3) The apparent discrepancy of about 20 % in the value of Knm as predicted by the relativistic and the non-relativistic models. Our investigation suggests that this discrepancy is mainly due to the different values of the symmetry energy coefficient employed in the relativistic and the non-relativistic models

2003-01-01

276

Current status of transurethral prostatectomy: a korean multicenter study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: We aimed to verify the current status of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of 1,341 men who underwent TURP in 9 Korean medical centers between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups according to time periods: 2004-2005 (group 1) and 2006-2008 (group 2). To verify differences in the two patient groups, age, prostate volume, indications for TURP, preoperative International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and resected tissue weight were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 71.2 years and the mean IPSS was 22.7. The patients' characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The annual cases of TURP increased over the study period. The proportion of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) as an indication for TURP increased up to 58.3% in group 2 compared with 51.6% in group 1 (p=0.019). However, the proportion of patients who presented with acute urinary retention decreased from 35.5% to 30.3% with marginal statistical significance (p=0.051). Other indications such as hematuria, bladder stone, recurrent urinary tract infection, and hydronephrosis were not significantly different between the groups. The mean resected weights of the prostate were similar (17.5 g in group 1 and 18.3 g in group 2, respectively; p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: TURP has been steadily performed in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and it is expected to remain constant. LUTS was the most common indication for TURP in recent years.

Jang DG; Yoo C; Oh CY; Kim SJ; Kim SI; Kim CI; Kim HS; Park JY; Seong do H; Song YS; Yang WJ; Cho IR; Cho SY; Cheon SH; Im H; Cho JS

2011-06-01

277

Anatomy of the human mammary gland: Current status of knowledge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammary glands are unique to mammals, with the specific function of synthesizing, secreting, and delivering milk to the newborn. Given this function, it is only during a pregnancy/lactation cycle that the gland reaches a mature developmental state via hormonal influences at the cellular level that effect drastic modifications in the micro- and macro-anatomy of the gland, resulting in remodeling of the gland into a milk-secretory organ. Pubertal and post-pubertal development of the breast in females aids in preparing it to assume a functional state during pregnancy and lactation. Remarkably, this organ has the capacity to regress to a resting state upon cessation of lactation, and then undergo the same cycle of expansion and regression again in subsequent pregnancies during reproductive life. This plasticity suggests tight hormonal regulation, which is paramount for the normal function of the gland. This review presents the current status of knowledge of the normal macro- and micro-anatomy of the human mammary gland and the distinct changes it undergoes during the key developmental stages that characterize it, from embryonic life through to post-menopausal age. In addition, it discusses recent advances in our understanding of the normal function of the breast during lactation, with special reference to breastmilk, its composition, and how it can be utilized as a tool to advance knowledge on normal and aberrant breast development and function. Finally, anatomical and molecular traits associated with aberrant expansion of the breast are discussed to set the basis for future comparisons that may illuminate the origin of breast cancer. PMID:22997014

Hassiotou, Foteini; Geddes, Donna

2012-09-19

278

EDIBLE VACCINES FROM GM CROPS: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE SCOPE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The idea of an edible vaccine is coming closer to reality as scientists have found a way to incorporate the protein gene with some antigen in some plants. The major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology are being overcome. In this context, genetically modified (GM) plants are being investigated for the production of vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins. The development of GM crops to produce drugs and vaccines has received considerable investment and is relatively well advanced. The myth surrounding edible vaccines and 'food as pill' is the difficulty to control their intake and distribution, particularly in developing countries where education levels and literacy may be low. However, this concept suffers from the fact that the potency of this class of vaccines and drugs remains unmasked to the majority of the population, which has to be publicized and campaigned in a scientific manner, to make it realistic and useful for the common man. Creating edible vaccines involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. This process is known as "transformation," and the altered plants are called "transgenic plants." Like conventional subunit vaccines, edible vaccines are composed of antigenic proteins and are devoid of pathogenic genes. Thus, they have no way of establishing infection, assuring its safety, especially in immuno-compromised patients. Conventional subunit vaccines are expensive and technology-intensive, need purification, require refrigeration and produce poor mucosal response. In contrast, edible vaccines would enhance compliance, especially in children and because of oral administration, would eliminate the need for trained medical personnel. Their production is highly efficient and can be easily scaled up. If the technology is properly nurtured and given the right direction, it may usher into a new era where we will be asked to take “food” rather than “drugs” when we are ill. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

Doshi V; Rawal H; Mukherjee S

2013-01-01

279

Development and regulation of biosimilars: current status and future challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biologic medicinal products developed via rDNA technology as recombinant protein-based medicines that have been in clinical use since the early 1980s as original biopharmaceuticals have greatly contributed to the therapy of severe metabolic and degenerative diseases. The recent expiration of the data protection or patents for most of them created opportunities for the development of copy versions of original biopharmaceuticals with similar biologic activity (termed biosimilars). Production of these new products is expected to meet worldwide demand, promote market competition, maintain the incentives for innovation, and sustain the healthcare systems. The licencing of these products, however, relies on the experience gained with the original biopharmaceuticals. Critical issues related to this class of medicinal products include their terminology (to avoid confusion with generics and non-innovator copy versions that have not been tested according to the biosimilar guidelines), manufacturing, and regulation. The European Union (EU) has been the first to establish a regulatory framework for marketing authorization application (MAA) and has named these products biosimilars, a term also recently adopted by the US FDA. Unlike the conventional, more common small molecular weight human medicines and chemical generics, protein-based medicines exhibit higher molecular weight, complexity in structure and function that can be affected by changes in the manufacturing process. Therefore, biosimilars represent a relatively heterogeneous class of medicinal products that make their regulation quite challenging. According to the current understanding in the EU, a biosimilar is a copy version of an already authorized biopharmaceutical (or reference product) with similar biologic activity, physicochemical characteristics, efficacy, and safety, based on a full comparability exercise at quality, preclinical and clinical level to ensure similar efficacy and safety. Guidance has been provided through several Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) guidelines as well as individual scientific advice requested from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) by various companies for the development and regulation of biosimilars. This review is mainly focused on the current status of regulation of biosimilars in the EU as well as on future challenges lying ahead for the improvement of the requirements needed for the marketing authorization of biosimilars. Emphasis is given on the quality requirements concerning these medicinal products (biologics). PMID:23553340

Tsiftsoglou, Asterios S; Ruiz, Sol; Schneider, Christian K

2013-06-01

280

Development and regulation of biosimilars: current status and future challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biologic medicinal products developed via rDNA technology as recombinant protein-based medicines that have been in clinical use since the early 1980s as original biopharmaceuticals have greatly contributed to the therapy of severe metabolic and degenerative diseases. The recent expiration of the data protection or patents for most of them created opportunities for the development of copy versions of original biopharmaceuticals with similar biologic activity (termed biosimilars). Production of these new products is expected to meet worldwide demand, promote market competition, maintain the incentives for innovation, and sustain the healthcare systems. The licencing of these products, however, relies on the experience gained with the original biopharmaceuticals. Critical issues related to this class of medicinal products include their terminology (to avoid confusion with generics and non-innovator copy versions that have not been tested according to the biosimilar guidelines), manufacturing, and regulation. The European Union (EU) has been the first to establish a regulatory framework for marketing authorization application (MAA) and has named these products biosimilars, a term also recently adopted by the US FDA. Unlike the conventional, more common small molecular weight human medicines and chemical generics, protein-based medicines exhibit higher molecular weight, complexity in structure and function that can be affected by changes in the manufacturing process. Therefore, biosimilars represent a relatively heterogeneous class of medicinal products that make their regulation quite challenging. According to the current understanding in the EU, a biosimilar is a copy version of an already authorized biopharmaceutical (or reference product) with similar biologic activity, physicochemical characteristics, efficacy, and safety, based on a full comparability exercise at quality, preclinical and clinical level to ensure similar efficacy and safety. Guidance has been provided through several Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) guidelines as well as individual scientific advice requested from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) by various companies for the development and regulation of biosimilars. This review is mainly focused on the current status of regulation of biosimilars in the EU as well as on future challenges lying ahead for the improvement of the requirements needed for the marketing authorization of biosimilars. Emphasis is given on the quality requirements concerning these medicinal products (biologics).

Tsiftsoglou AS; Ruiz S; Schneider CK

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

The current status of forensic science laboratory accreditation in Europe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forensic science is gaining some solid ground in the area of effective crime prevention, especially in the areas where more sophisticated use of available technology is prevalent. All it takes is high-level cooperation among nations that can help them deal with criminality that adopts a cross-border nature more and more. It is apparent that cooperation will not be enough on its own and this development will require a network of qualified forensic laboratories spread over Europe. It is argued in this paper that forensic science laboratories play an important role in the fight against crime. Another, complimentary argument is that forensic science laboratories need to be better involved in the fight against crime. For this to be achieved, a good level of cooperation should be established and maintained. It is also noted that harmonization is required for such cooperation and seeking accreditation according to an internationally acceptable standard, such as ISO/IEC 17025, will eventually bring harmonization as an end result. Because, ISO/IEC 17025 as an international standard, has been a tool that helps forensic science laboratories in the current trend towards accreditation that can be observed not only in Europe, but also in the rest of the world of forensic science. In the introduction part, ISO/IEC 17025 states that "the acceptance of testing and calibration results between countries should be facilitated if laboratories comply with this international standard and if they obtain accreditation from bodies which have entered into mutual recognition agreements with equivalent bodies in other countries using this international standard." Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of this international standard will assist in the harmonization of standards and procedures. The background of forensic science cooperation in Europe will be explained by using an existing European forensic science network, i.e. ENFSI, in order to understand the current status of forensic science in Europe better. The Council of Europe and the European Union approaches to forensic science will also be discussed by looking at the legal instruments and documents published by these two European organizations. Data collected from 52 European forensic science laboratories will be examined and findings will be evaluated from a quality assurance and accreditation point of view. The need for harmonization and accreditation in forensic science will be emphasized. The steps that should be taken at the European level for increasing and strengthening the role of European forensic science laboratories in the fight against crime will be given as recommendations in the conclusion.

Malkoc E; Neuteboom W

2007-04-01

282

Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct support to RandD in line with other low emission fuel alternatives. RandD on cellulosic ethanol can also be supported by indirect measures. The most important measure in this respect is to ensure a correct pricing of fossil fuels now and in the future. Many argue that production and use of first generation biofuels will bridge the conversion to second generation biofuels. We doubt that the necessary cost reductions for second generation biofuels can be obtained from widespread use of first generation biofuels. First, the production processes are simply too different, and second, the advantage with all kinds of biofuels are that it easy to introduce into the transport market at once the technology is ripe. Some also argue that second generation biofuels need to be protected against competition from import of low cost first generation biofuels made in developing countries. However, with targeted support to second generation biofuels, there is no need to pay attention to the infant industry argument. Trade policy should only aim to correct for insufficient internalizing of GHG emission costs from the production of biofuels in countries without a price on carbon. It is by no means certain that second generation biofuels will play a central role in the decarbonizing of the transport market. Necessary cost reductions may not be achieved. The GHG emissions from land use change connected to large-scale growing of cellulosic feedstock may turn out to offset the gains from changing fuel. It is important to avoid a technological or political lock-in in biofuels. In other words, policies should be flexible, and it should be possible to terminate support programs within a short notice.(Author)

Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

2011-07-01

283

Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist…

Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

2007-01-01

284

Indus-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source: current status and utilization  

Science.gov (United States)

Indus Synchrotron Radiation complex at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology at Indore, India houses two synchrotron radiation sources: Indus-1 and Indus-2. Indus-1 is a 450 MeV source emitting in VUV/ soft x-ray region and operating at 100 mA since 1999. Indus-2 is designed for 2.5 GeV, 300 mA operation and is operating at 2 GeV and 100 mA since March 2010 in 24x7 mode and a beam lifetime of about 22 hrs has been achieved. Operation at 2.5 GeV and 100 mA has recently been demonstrated with the addition of in-house developed solid state RF amplifiers. Indus-2 can accommodate 21 bending magnet (BM) and 5 insertion device (ID) beamlines. Sixteen BM beamlines have been planned and six BM beamlines namely i) Angle Dispersive XRD ii) Energy dispersive XRD iii) Energy dispersive EXAFS iv) Soft and deep x-ray lithography v) X-ray fluorescence micro-probe and vi) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy beamlines have been commissioned. These are being used by researchers from different universities, national institutes and laboratories for carrying out several investigations. Two more beamlines namely 'Grazing incidence x-ray scattering' and 'Protein crystallography' are nearing commissioning. A number of materials research related problems have been investigated using these beamlines and several papers have already been published. Here we will report on the current status of the source, details of the beamlines already operational, beamlines to be commissioned soon and several up-gradation schemes that are being planned. Five IDs consisting of two soft x-ray planar undulators, one superconducting wavelength shifter / wiggler, one APPLE II soft x-ray helical undulator and one hard x-ray undulator will be installed during the next few years. Three new ID based beamli-nes for Atomic and Molecular physics, Angle integrated / Angle resolved PES and Magnetic Circular Dichroism experiments will be commissioned.

Deb, S. K.; Singh, Gurnam; Gupta, P. D.

2013-03-01

285

Current status of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is becoming more common in many countries, but the quality of care, experience of the operating surgeon, and details of the surgical technique are not known in detail on a national level in Denmark. In a period of expanding surgical volume for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, it is important to know the typical indications for surgery, re-operation rates, details of surgical technique, and status of surgical training on a national level in order to rationalize interventions to improve outcome. METHODS: Data from the National Hernia Database for the last 8 years regarding laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair were used in combination with questionnaire data obtained from all surgical units in Denmark. The questionnaire included issues such as the number of operating surgeons in the department, number of residents training in the laparoscopic technique, and the experience level of the most experienced surgeon in the department regarding laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. The questionnaire also included details of the surgical technique. RESULTS: The frequency of laparoscopic repair has been increasing over the last 8 years and now accounts for about 16% of the total number of inguinal herniorrhaphies with the main indication nationwide being bilateral hernias and recurrent hernias. We found slight variations in surgical technique although all departments used the TAPP repair. The majority used adequate mesh sizes at or above 10 x 15 cm, and most departments used coils or tacks for mesh fixation and peritoneal closure. Fifteen of 25 departments had only one or two surgeons performing laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair and 12 of 25 departments did not have any young surgeons in training for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Ten departments had one surgeon in training, and three departments had two surgeons in training. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in Denmark is increasing in prevalence. Indications for surgery as well as operative techniques differ although all departments use the TAPP technique. Few surgeons are currently learning the laparoscopic technique, and it is therefore important to initiate meetings and courses to ensure uniform indications for surgery and operative techniques throughout the country Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12

Rosenberg, Jacob; Bay-Nielsen, M

2008-01-01

286

Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients

1993-01-01

287

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September – October 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

JW Voyles

2007-10-30

288

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October – November 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

JW Voyles

2007-11-30

289

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future June 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-06-01

290

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-07-01

291

Current status and perspectives of synchrotron radiation in medicine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x-ray source for many medical applications. The present status of synchrotron angiography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy at laboratories around the world is reviewed and some future projections for these applications are addressed.

Thomlinson, W.

1996-11-01

292

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2006-10-01

293

Building renewable electricity supply in Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bangladesh is experiencing a severe electric power capacity crisis that is only likely to worsen over the next 15 years. Further, over 80% of Bangladesh`s population still lives with no electricity, and the rate of grid expansion to connect rural villages is threatened by the looming capacity shortage. There are a number of underlying reasons for the crisis, but ultimately the country lacks the fossil fuel resources required to conduct a large scale grid-expansion program. Alternative approaches to electrifying the country must be found. This paper outlines the prospects for wind and solar power in Bangladesh, and estimates the potential for commercial applications now and in the future. This includes a technical assessment, a market assessment, an environmental assessment, and a policy assessment. The paper concludes that Bangladesh holds the potential to cost-effectively meet a significant fraction of its future electricity demand through the use of renewable generation technologies, possibly adding as much renewable capacity as the current overall electric power capacity of the country. Many parts of the country have favorable solar and wind conditions and there are many potentially cost-effective applications. But the country must develop a policy framework that allows and encourages private investors to develop renewable energy projects in order to realize the enormous potential of renewables.

Fulton, L.M. [Independent Univ. Bangladesh, Dhaka (Bangladesh). School of Environmental Science and Management

1997-12-31

294

The current status of the U.S. MTBE industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the status of the MTBE industry from its beginnings as a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments and the need for the use of oxygenates in non-attainment areas. During 1990--93 three world scale merchant plants were constructed and in 1994 two more were brought on stream. The paper tabulates reasons why MTBE gained the lion's share of the oxygenates market. Finally the paper discusses the problems that now plague the industry and their causes.

1995-01-01

295

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

JC Liljegren

2006-08-01

296

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-03-02

297

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-03-15

298

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-02-15

299

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

JC Liljegren

2006-09-01

300

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

JC Liljegren

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Anomalons: Current status and first evidence from plastic track detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of experiments have shown that enhanced cross sections exist for projectile fragments which are emitted in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The present status of these investigations is reviewed. An experiment is described in which this effect is measured with significantly better statistics. First results for fragments of charge 14 emerging from 1.8 GeV/nucleon 40Ar projectiles are presented. (orig.)

1983-05-23

302

Anomalons: current status and first evidence from plastic track detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of experiments have shown that enhanced cross sections exist for projectile fragments which are emitted in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The present status of these investigations is reviewed. An experiment is described in which this effect is measured with significantly better statistics. First results for fragments of charge 14 emerging from 1.8 GeV/nucleon /sup 40/Ar projectiles are presented.

Heinrich, W.; Drechsel, H.; Trakowski, W.; Beer, J.; Brechtmann, C.; Dreute, J.; Rudat, R.; Sonntag, S. (Gesamthochschule Siegen (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Naturwissenschaften 1 - Physik); Benton, E.V.; Cassou, R.M.

1983-05-23

303

Current status of Chinese nuclear power industry and technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China has been carrying out active international cooperation aiming to be a country where is to be an economical super power and an advanced country in nuclear power technology by the year early 2000, and China also has begun to be recognized as the largest potential market for the construction of nuclear power plants(NPPs) expecting to construct more than thirty nuclear power units by the year 2020. China has advanced technology in the basic nuclear science including liquid metal breeder reactor technology, nuclear material, medium and small size power plants, and isotope production technology, and also China has complete nuclear fuel cycle technology. However, China still has low NPP technology. Therefore, it is expected that China may have complementary cooperative relationship with China, it is expected that Korea may have an access to the advanced Chinese nuclear science technology, and may have a good opportunity to explore the Chinese market actively exporting excellent Korean NPP technology, and further may have a good position to the neighboring Asian countries' NPP markets. From this perspective, general Chinese social status, major nuclear R and D activity status, and correct NPP and technology status have been analyzed in this report, and this report is expected to be a useful resource for cooperating with China in future. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 16 refs. (Author).

1996-01-01

304

Tiagabine: efficacy and safety in partial seizures – current status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jürgen Bauer, Déirdre Cooper-MahkornDepartment of Epileptology, Bonn University Hospital, GermanyAbstract: Tiagabine hydrochloride (TGB) is a selective gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) reuptake inhibitor. TGB is effective as an add-on medication in adults and children 12 years and older in the treatment of partial seizures. Results of nonrandomized add-on trials with TGB show treatment success with seizure reduction of at least 50% in 33% to 46% of patients. In newly diagnosed patients with partial epilepsy, TGB monotherapy was as effective as carbamazepine. Comedication with TGB elevates the risk of nonconvulsive status (7.8% vs 2.7% without TGB). The most common side effects include dizziness/lightheadedness, asthenia/lack of energy and somnolence. TGB has no negative effects on cognition; it does not increase the risk of fractures or rash. TGB may interfere with color perception. TGB presents an intermediate risk for depression in patients with epilepsy (approximately 4%). Regarding the risk of overdose, 96–680 mg TGB (mean 224 mg) caused seizures or coma. TGB is an antiepileptic drug exhibiting a specific anticonvulsive mechanism of action, the efficacy of which is relatively low when used in comedication. Critical side effects, such as the induction of nonconvulsive status epilepticus, further limit its use.Keywords: epilepsy, tiagabine, antiepileptic drugs, status epilepticus, pharmacotherapy

Jürgen Bauer; Déirdre Cooper-Mahkorn

2008-01-01

305

Impact of sea level rise in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple three-part diagram from UNEP GRID Vital Water Graphics showing what the impact of global warming will be on projected coastlines and populated areas of Bangladesh with a 1 and 1.5 m sea level rise relative to the current coastline.

Arendal, Unep G.

306

CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

307

Cancer Control in Bangladesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively and efficiently with the cancer problems through evidence-based decision making.

Hussain SA; Sullivan R

2013-10-01

308

The proton ''spin contents'': Current status ampersand perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present status of the phenomenological and theoretical interpretation of the EMC result on the polarized deep elastic scattering is reviewed. We focus our discussion on the possibility of a significant gluonic contribution to the proton spin via the axial anomaly. We contrast the variant perspectives on this question: the viewpoint that stresses the interpretation in terms of the parton distributions vs the one that concentrates on the matrix elements of local operators. Some remarks concerning the validity of OZI rule for the strange quark are also included. 53 refs

1990-01-01

309

[Current status and progress of fungal endophthalmitis treatment].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fungal endophthalmitis is a devastating infectious disease, with a poor visual prognosis and even possibility of eyeball enucleated. In recent years, the incidence of fungal endophthalmitis remarkably increased due to widely use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroid hormone. This pose a challenge to ophthalmologists and their capacity of treating fungal endophthalmitis need to be improved. It is necessary to introduce the present status and progress in fungal endophthalmitis treatment focus on medications, surgery and its etiological examination, especially the use of newer antifungal agents, including voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B.

Wang SR; Ye JJ

2012-11-01

310

[Current status and progress of fungal endophthalmitis treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal endophthalmitis is a devastating infectious disease, with a poor visual prognosis and even possibility of eyeball enucleated. In recent years, the incidence of fungal endophthalmitis remarkably increased due to widely use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroid hormone. This pose a challenge to ophthalmologists and their capacity of treating fungal endophthalmitis need to be improved. It is necessary to introduce the present status and progress in fungal endophthalmitis treatment focus on medications, surgery and its etiological examination, especially the use of newer antifungal agents, including voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B. PMID:23302278

Wang, Shu-ran; Ye, Jun-jie

2012-11-01

311

Current status of the BAIKAL-GVD project  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a status of the Baikal-GVD Project. The objective of this project is a construction of a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Lake Baikal. As an important milestone, the first GVD engineering array has been deployed and ran in April, 2011. Application of a completely new technology gave us an opportunity to study all the basic elements of the future full detector and to finalize the GVD technical design. We discuss the configuration and the design of the engineering array as well as data performance with the preliminary results.

Avrorin, A. V.; Aynutdinov, V. M.; Belolaptikov, I. A.; Bogorodsky, D. Yu.; Brudanin, V. B.; Budnev, N. M.; Danilchenko, I. A.; Domogatsky, G. V.; Doroshenko, A. A.; Dyachok, A. N.; Dzhilkibaev, Zh-A. M.; Fialkovsky, S. V.; Gaponenko, O. N.; Golubkov, K. V.; Gress, O. A.; Gress, T. I.; Grishin, O. G.; Kebkal, K. G.; Kebkal, O. G.; Klabukov, A. M.; Konishchev, K. V.; Korobchenko, A. V.; Koshechkin, A. P.; Koshel, F. K.; Kozhin, V. A.; Kulepov, V. F.; Kuleshov, D. A.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Ljashuk, V. I.; Milenin, M. B.; Mirgazov, R. A.; Osipova, E. R.; Pakhorukov, A. L.; Panfilov, A. I.; Pan'kov, A. L.; Pan'kov, L. V.; Perevalov, A. A.; Petukhov, D. A.; Pliskovsky, E. N.; Poleshuk, V. A.; Popova, E. G.; Rozanov, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. F.; Rjabov, E. V.; Shaybonov, B. A.; Shirokov, A. V.; Sheifler, A. A.; Skurikhin, A. V.; Suvorova, O. V.; Tarashchansky, B. A.; Yagunov, A. S.; Zagorodnikov, A. V.; Zhukov, V. A.; Zurbanov, V. L.

2013-10-01

312

The proton spin contents'': Current status perspectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present status of the phenomenological and theoretical interpretation of the EMC result on the polarized deep elastic scattering is reviewed. We focus our discussion on the possibility of a significant gluonic contribution to the proton spin via the axial anomaly. We contrast the variant perspectives on this question: the viewpoint that stresses the interpretation in terms of the parton distributions vs the one that concentrates on the matrix elements of local operators. Some remarks concerning the validity of OZI rule for the strange quark are also included. 53 refs.

Cheng, Ta-Pei (Missouri Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA). Dept. of Physics); Li, Ling-Fong (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1990-01-01

313

The current status of the U.S. MTBE industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the status of the MTBE industry from its beginnings as a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments and the need for the use of oxygenates in non-attainment areas. During 1990--93 three world scale merchant plants were constructed and in 1994 two more were brought on stream. The paper tabulates reasons why MTBE gained the lion`s share of the oxygenates market. Finally the paper discusses the problems that now plague the industry and their causes.

Rose, G.M. [Global Octanes Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

314

An epidemiological overview of malaria in Bangladesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bangladesh is one of the four major malaria-endemic countries in South-East Asia having approximately 34% of its population at risk of malaria. This paper aims at providing an overview of the malaria situation in this country. Relevant information was retrieved from published articles and reports in PubMed and Google Scholar. Malaria in Bangladesh is concentrated in 13 districts with a prevalence ranging between 3.1% and 36%, and is mostly caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Geographical conditions pose a potential risk for Plasmodium knowlesi malaria. Resistance to a number of drugs previously recommended for treatment has been reported. Low socio-economic status, poor schooling and close proximity to water bodies and forest areas comprise important risk factors. Despite the significant steps in Long Lasting Insecticide Net (LLIN)/Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) coverage in Bangladesh, there are still many challenges including the extension of malaria support to the remote areas of Bangladesh, where malaria prevalence is higher, and further improvements in the field of referral system and treatment.

Islam N; Bonovas S; Nikolopoulos GK

2013-01-01

315

[Nutritional iron status of infants fed according to current recommendations].  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the iron nutritional status of healthy term infants in a longitudinal study from 15 through 365 days of age. All infants were fed according to the present austrian recommendations. Serum hemoglobin (Hb) decreased from 15 through 122 days of age and remained constant thereafter. At 365 days of age, only 4.7% of the infants had hemoglobin levels below 11 g/dl, which is considered the borderline value for anemia. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of erythrocytes was changing during infancy. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) was constant from 122 days through 365 days of age. The upper normal value of 3 micrograms/gHb for infants older than 122 days of age corresponded to that for children older than one year and adults. Serum ferritin (SF) decreased from 15 through 183 days of age and remained constant thereafter. At 365 days of age, only 9.3% of the infants had SF below 10 micrograms/l, which is considered the borderline concentration for depletion of iron stores. We found no differences of iron nutritional status between infants who were breastfed longer than 122 days and infants who were breastfed shorter than 122 days or were fed formula. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and depletion of the iron stores is lower than in previous studies. Changes in infant nutrition during the last years resulted in higher iron intake and lower prevalence of iron deficiency. PMID:3807251

Pietschnig, B; Haschke, F; Vanura, H; Heil, M; Camaya, Z; Schuster, E; Schilling, R

316

Current experimental status of CuCl-research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The CuCl-experiments are reviewed. Various possibilities giving rise to a diamagnetic ac susceptibility shift are examined. The current experimental situation on the CuCl research is summarized and evaluated

1979-06-23

317

Anti-leprosy vaccines: current status and future prospects.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different types of leprosy vaccines are currently used in field trials in India. The rationale behind their use, the parameters for determining their efficacy, their merits and demerits are discussed and the future prospects are highlighted.

Kartikeyan S; Chaturvedi R; Deo M

1991-01-01

318

Fast wave current drive: Experimental status and reactor prospects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fast wave is one of the two possible wave polarizations which propagate according to the basic theory of cold plasmas. It is distinguished from the other (slow wave) branch by having an electric field vector which is mainly orthogonal to the confining magnetic field of the plasma. The plasma and fast wave qualitatively assume different behavior depending on the frequency range of the launched wave. The high frequency fast wave (HFFW), with a frequency (..omega..2..pi.. )approximately) GHz) much higher than the ion cyclotron frequency (..cap omega../sub i/), suffers electron Landau damping and drives current by supplying parallel momentum to superthermal electrons in a fashion similar to lower hybrid (slow wave) current drive. In the simple theory the HFFW should be superior to the slow wave and can propagate to very high density and temperature without impediment. Experiments, however, have not conclusively shown that HFFW current drive can be achieved at densities above the slow wave current drive limit, possibly due to conversion of the launched fast waves into slow waves by density fluctuations. Alternatively, the low frequency fast wave (LFFW), with frequencies ()approxreverse arrowlt) 100 MHz) only a few times the ion cyclotron frequency, is damped by electron Landau damping and, in a hot plasma ()approxreverse arrowgt) 10 keV), by electron transit time magnetic pumping; current drive is achieved by pushing superthermal electrons, and efficiency is prediocted to be slightly better than for lower hybrid current drive. Most significantly, the slow wave does not propagate in high density plasma when ..omega.. )approximately) ..cap omega../sub i/, so parasitic coupling to the slow wave can be avoided, and no density and temperture limitations are foreseen. Experiments with fast wve current drive invariably find current drive efficiency as good as obtained in lower hybrid experiments at comparable, low temperatures. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

Ehst, D.A.

1988-03-01

319

The design characteristics and current status of KMRR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The construction of the Korea Multi-purpose Research Reactor (KMRR) is scheduled to be completed by the end of 1994. The KMRR is equipped with several vertical holes for fuel test loop or capsule for the irradiation of reactor's structural materials, radioisotope production, neutron transmutation doping and neutron activation analysis. It also has several beam tubes for the neutron beam experiments. In this paper, the characteristics of neutron fluxes from physics analysis are summarized for the irradiation sites and experimental sites in the KMRR. And, the experimental facilities of the KMRR including hot cells for radioisotope production and irradiated material experiments are briefly described. Finally, mention is made of the construction status of the KMRR. (author)

1993-10-01

320

Macromolecular contrast agents for MR mammography: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Macromolecular contrast media (MMCM) encompass a new class of diagnostic drugs that can be applied with dynamic MRI to extract both physiologic and morphologic information in breast lesions. Kinetic analysis of dynamic MMCM-enhanced MR data in breast tumor patients provides useful estimates of tumor blood volume and microvascular permeability, typically increased in cancer. These tumor characteristics can be applied to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, to define the angiogenesis status of cancers, and to monitor tumor response to therapy. The most immediate challenge to the development of MMCM-enhanced mammography is the identification of those candidate compounds that demonstrate the requisite long intravascular distribution and have the high tolerance necessary for clinical use. Potential mammographic applications and limitations of various MMCM, defined by either experimental animal testing or clinical testing in patients, are reviewed in this article. (orig.)

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Current status of TNF blocking therapy in heart failure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent experimental studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) has deleterious cardiovascular effects. Tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists bind to TNF-a and functionally inactivate this cytokine and thereby reverse some of these effects. Various clinical studies of TNF-? antagonists have reported conflicting results. The present review analyses all reported clinical trials of TNF-? antagonists in congestive heart failure (CHF). The effect of these agents on clinical composite score, CHF hospitalizations, and mortality were compared. Early clinical studies of blocking TNF in patients with heart failure demonstrated promising results. However, recent large-scale, placebo-controlled trials have failed to show any improvement in the clinical status of heart failure. There have in fact, been some reports of worsening of heart failure with these agents. It may be concluded that TNF-? antagonists could adversely affect the clinical condition of patients with moderate to severe heart failure.

Gupta S; Tripathi C

2005-01-01

322

Macromolecular contrast agents for MR mammography: current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Macromolecular contrast media (MMCM) encompass a new class of diagnostic drugs that can be applied with dynamic MRI to extract both physiologic and morphologic information in breast lesions. Kinetic analysis of dynamic MMCM-enhanced MR data in breast tumor patients provides useful estimates of tumor blood volume and microvascular permeability, typically increased in cancer. These tumor characteristics can be applied to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, to define the angiogenesis status of cancers, and to monitor tumor response to therapy. The most immediate challenge to the development of MMCM-enhanced mammography is the identification of those candidate compounds that demonstrate the requisite long intravascular distribution and have the high tolerance necessary for clinical use. Potential mammographic applications and limitations of various MMCM, defined by either experimental animal testing or clinical testing in patients, are reviewed in this article. (orig.)

Daldrup-Link, Heike E. [Department of Radiology, Technical University, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Brasch, Robert C. [Department of Radiology, Center for Pharmaceutical and Molecular Imaging, University of California, San Francisco (United States)

2003-02-01

323

Pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence: status of current treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of medications for alcohol dependence remains modest, and there are no strong clinical predictors of treatment response. Approved medications include acamprosate (an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) modulator), disulfiram (an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor) and naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) while nalmefene (an opioid antagonist) is currently under review for approval in Europe. Clinical trials suggest that baclofen (a GABA-B agonist) and topiramate (an anticonvulsant) may be promising candidates, while several other drug candidates are currently evaluated at early clinical stages. PMID:23810221

Franck, Johan; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

2013-06-26

324

Current status and advances in flash fire modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When a dispersing cloud of flammable vapor is ignited, it can burn in a number of different ways. A flash fire or cloud fire occurs if ignition takes place within the flammable region of a gas cloud, generally at a point remote from the source. A review of the modeling of flash fires (cloud fires) is presented. The present understanding of flash fires is discussed through reference to past incidents and current models. Full scale flash fire trials are reviewed, providing a database of relevant experimental data. Outline proposals are given for improving the current prediction methodologies for the direct (burn fatalities) and indirect (escalation) effects of flash fires.

Rew, P.J.; Deaves, D.M. [W.S. Atkins Safety and Reliability, Epsom (United Kingdom); Madison, T. [Health and Safety Executive, Bootle (United Kingdom). Major Hazards Assessment Unit

1995-12-31

325

Rotavirus infection and the current status of rotavirus vaccines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among children, rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis worldwide and of diarrheal deaths in developing countries. Current vaccines (e.g., Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; RotaTeq, Merck and Company) effectively reduce rotaviral gastroenteritis, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. The tremendous burden of rotavirus-related diarrhea in children across the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. This review assesses the global epidemiological and economic burden of rotavirus diseases, summarizes the relevant principles of the development of rotavirus vaccines, and presents data on the efficacy and effectiveness of currently licensed vaccines in both developed and developing countries.

Chen SC; Tan LB; Huang LM; Chen KT

2012-04-01

326

Current status of the hydrogeology for the WIPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current efforts to define the hydraulic system at the proposed WIPP site are described. These efforts are directed toward further refinement of the field data and conducting specific tests to determine the isotropy of the media and the appropriateness of their representation as porous or as fractured systems.

1980-07-31

327

Current status of the hydrogeology at the WIPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current efforts to define the hydraulic system at the proposed WIPP site are described. These efforts are directed toward further refinement of the field data and conducting specific tests to determine the isotropy of the media and the appropriateness of their representation as porous or as fractured systems

1981-07-31

328

San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties.

2001-01-01

329

Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions  

Science.gov (United States)

Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

2009-01-01

330

Low-frequency sonophoresis: current status and future prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of ultrasound enhances skin permeability to drugs, a phenomenon referred to as sonophoresis. Significant strides have been made in sonophoresis research in recent years, especially under low-frequency conditions (20 kHzlidocaine and cyclosporin. Novel theoretical and experimental approaches have provided insights into the mechanisms of low-frequency sonophoresis. Current understanding of these mechanisms is presented. PMID:18450318

Ogura, Makoto; Paliwal, Sumit; Mitragotri, Samir

2008-04-03

331

Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions  

Science.gov (United States)

|Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

2009-01-01

332

San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties.

Majer, E.L.; Daley, T.M.; Myer, L.R.; Nihei, K.; Queen, J.; Sinton, J.; Murphy, J.; Fortuna, M.; Lynn, H.B.; Imhoff, M.A.; Wilson, R.

2001-02-26

333

Marginal regression approach for additive hazards models with clustered current status data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current status data arise naturally from tumorigenicity experiments, epidemiology studies, biomedicine, econometrics and demographic and sociology studies. Moreover, clustered current status data may occur with animals from the same litter in tumorigenicity experiments or with subjects from the same family in epidemiology studies. Because the only information extracted from current status data is whether the survival times are before or after the monitoring or censoring times, the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator of survival function converges at a rate of n(1?3) to a complicated limiting distribution. Hence, semiparametric regression models such as the additive hazards model have been extended for independent current status data to derive the test statistics, whose distributions converge at a rate of n(1?2) , for testing the regression parameters. However, a straightforward application of these statistical methods to clustered current status data is not appropriate because intracluster correlation needs to be taken into account. Therefore, this paper proposes two estimating functions for estimating the parameters in the additive hazards model for clustered current status data. The comparative results from simulation studies are presented, and the application of the proposed estimating functions to one real data set is illustrated. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Su PF; Chi Y

2013-08-01

334

The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations.

Mikolaitchouk, H. [Atomaudit Ltd., Kiev (Ukraine); Steinberg, N. [Atomaudit Ltd., Kiev (Ukraine)

1996-08-01

335

Advanced fuel technology and performance: Current status and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last years the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Division of the IAEA has been giving great attention to the collection, analysis and exchange of information in the field of reactor fuel technology. Most of these activities are being conducted in the framework of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT). The purpose of this Advisory Group Meeting on Advanced Fuel Technology and Performance was to update and to continue the previous work, and to review the experience of advanced fuel technology, its performance with regard to all types of reactors and to outline the future trends on the basis of national experience and discussions during the meeting. As a result of the meeting a Summary Report was prepared which reflected the status of the advanced nuclear fuel technology up to 1990. The 10 papers presented by participants of this meeting are also published here. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs.

1990-01-01

336

Ceramic powder synthesis-current status and future challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis of ceramic powders has been an area of research and development that continues to garner interest from scientists and engineers. Technological driving forces for this interest include new properties (e.g., 1), new microstructures (e.g., 2), lower processing temperatures (e.g., 3,4) and reproducibility that will reduce rejection rates (e.g., 5). The scientific driving force is development of model microstructures that will shed light on the fundamentals of processes such as dispersion, granulation, forming and densification and develop more precise relationships between microstructure and properties. Our {open_quotes}wish list{close_quotes} of controllable characteristics include particle size, particle size distribution, morphology, of aggregation, phase, bulk chemistry, chemical purity, surface chemistry and loss on ignition (volatile content). Our {open_quotes}wish list{close_quotes} needs of the ceramist to utilize multicomponent compositions (usually with respect to cation) and to be able to tailor it with a wide range of flexibility. For the purposes of this discussion, ceramic powder synthesis includes all processing routes for preparing a particulate inorganic compound where a chemical reaction is required at some point in the process. The focus of this paper is to provide an overview of present powder synthesis technology, briefly assess its overall status and provide a direction for its future.

Riman, R.E. [Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

1995-09-01

337

Current status of demonstration for stationary fuel cell in Korea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2006, the Korean Government launched the Residential Fuel Cell Monitoring Project to address the barriers to the widespread commercialization of fuel cells for residential power generation (RPG). This presentation reviewed the status on the development and dissemination of the residential fuel cell in Korea, with particular reference to a domestically developed proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell for RPG. The purpose of the project was to find a commercial product that is suitable to Korean life style and to solve reliability issues regarding grid connection. The paper showed that although residential fuel cell systems are available in Korea, their capital cost remains high and system durability is not sufficient. This large-scale demonstration test project for residential fuel cell systems was launched in an effort to reduce the cost to levels that are acceptable for wide scale use. A total of 210 unit were tested in order to evaluate the technical level and to investigate the problems that must be solved for mass market introduction.

Park, D.R. [Korea Gas Co., Ansan (Korea, Republic of). Research and Development Div.

2009-07-01

338

Chemotherapy in advanced bladder cancer: current status and future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Bladder cancer occurs in the majority of cases in males. It represents the seventh most common cancer and the ninth most common cause of cancer deaths for men. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most predominant histological type. Bladder cancer is highly chemosensitive. In metastatic setting, chemotherapy based on cisplatin should be considered as standard treatment of choice for patients with good performance status (0-1) and good renal function-glomerular filtration rate (GFR) > 60 mL/min. The standard treatment is based on cisplatin chemotherapy regimens type MVAC, HD-MVAC, gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC) or dose dense GC. In unfit patients, carboplatin based regimes; gemcitabine plus carboplatin or methotrexate plus carboplatin plus vinblastine (MCAVI) are reasonable options. The role of targeted therapies when used alone, or in combination with chemotherapy, or in maintenance, was evaluated; targeting angiogenesis seem to be very promising. The purpose of this literature review is to highlight the role of chemotherapy in the management of advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

Ismaili Nabil; Amzerin Mounia; Flechon Aude

2011-01-01

339

A GROWING DILEMMA OF TOURISM DIFFUSION AND SUSTAINABILITY: WOWS AND WOES FOR BANGLADESH ECO-TOURISM!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tourism is one of the emerging and fastest growing industries in the world today. It is well said that every twelve tourists creates a new job. Current study discusses the diffusive nature of tourism that demands an inclusion of the concept “sustainability” which in turn creates the impression for “ecotourism”. Afterward the study tries to find out ecotourism possibility to explore and potential challenges with special context of Bangladesh tourism industry. The concept of ecotourism adds the concern for environment as well as socio-economic status. Ecotourism must be promoted for sustainable development by establishing a durable productive base that allows the local inhabitants and ecotourism service providers to enjoy rising standards of living and environmental conservation. This paper provides an idea of how different tourism destinations, especially ecotourism become an effective tool for the sustainable development in Bangladesh. Secondary data were used to address the objectives in this study. However, some marketing strategies are pointed out as recommendations based on which several action programs could be taken for establishing as well as standardizing Bangladesh as an eye-catching ecotourism destination.

Muhammad Shoeb-Ur-Rahman; Rokeya Binte Shahid

2012-01-01

340

Current status of radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Loco-regional treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are important alternatives to curative transplantation or resection. Among them, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is accepted as the most popular technique showing excellent local tumor control and acceptable morbidity. The current role of RFA is well documented in the evidence-based practice guidelines of European Association of Study of Liver, American Association of Study of the Liver Disease and Japanese academic societies. Several randomized controlled trials have confirmed that RFA is superior to percutaneous ethanol injections in terms of local tumor control and survival. The overall survival after RFA is comparable to after surgical resection in a selected group of patients with smaller (< 3 cm) tumors. Currently, the clinical benefits of combined RFA with transarterial chemoembolization for intermediate stage HCC are increasingly being explored. Here we review the ongoing technical advancements of RFA and future potential.

Hyunchul Rhim; Hyo K Lim; Dongil Choi

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing; Current Status and Future Challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This contribution addresses the current understanding of gaseous nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics and microstructure development in iron and heat treatable steel will be explained. In these materials the nitrided/ nitrocarburized case can be subdivided in a compound layer consisting of iron (carbo-)nitrides and a diffusion zone, consisting of a dispersion of alloying element nitrides in ferrite. The compound layer provides beneficial tribological and corrosion performance, while the diffusion zone is responsible for improved fatigue performance. Furthermore, aspects of low temperature surface hardening of stainless steels in a gaseous environment will be addressed. Here, the developed case consists of expanded austenite and/or expanded martensite, which essentially is a super saturated solid solution of nitrogen/carbon in austenite/martensite. The current state of the art and necessary future research activities for improvement of the present understanding will be identified.

Somers, Marcel A. J.

342

Current status of the Idaho Center for Small Accelerators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Idaho Center for Small Accelerators at Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho, combines small, charged-particle accelerators owned by the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy with supporting equipment and university technical personnel. The facility is used for collaborative research and development with university, private sector and government organizations engaged in activities charged-particle accelerators. A review of current projects and facilities related to NDA/NDA will be given.

Harmon, J.F.; Knox, J.M. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

1995-12-31

343

Current status of Tc-99m production in Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technetium-99m is the workhorse of nuclear medicine and currently accounts for over 80% of all in vivo diagnostic procedures. In Thailand, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) had experiences in production of Technetium-99m by solvent extraction process and alternative technology for Technetium-99m generator based on zirconium molybdate and titanium molybdate gel generators were also studied. The paper describes past experiences and future plan of Technetium-99m production in Thailand. (author)

Charoen, Sakda [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

2003-03-01

344

Current status of prosthetic bypass grafts: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polymers such as Dacron and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) have been used in high flow states with relative success but with limited application at lower flow states. Newer polymers with greater compliance, biomimicry, and ability to evolve into hybrid prostheses, suitable as smaller vessels, are now being introduced. In view of the advances in tissue engineering, this makes possible the creation of an ideal off-the-shelf bypass graft. We present a broad overview of the current state of prosthetic bypass grafts.

Kannan RY; Salacinski HJ; Butler PE; Hamilton G; Seifalian AM

2005-07-01

345

Current status of prosthetic bypass grafts: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymers such as Dacron and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) have been used in high flow states with relative success but with limited application at lower flow states. Newer polymers with greater compliance, biomimicry, and ability to evolve into hybrid prostheses, suitable as smaller vessels, are now being introduced. In view of the advances in tissue engineering, this makes possible the creation of an ideal off-the-shelf bypass graft. We present a broad overview of the current state of prosthetic bypass grafts. PMID:15889440

Kannan, Ruben Y; Salacinski, Henryk J; Butler, Peter E; Hamilton, George; Seifalian, Alexander M

2005-07-01

346

Current status of radio frequency source for proton linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report deals with a proton linac radio frequency system which has been in operation for the past 13 years. It was enlarged in 1985 to increase the acceleration energy from 20 MeV to 40 MeV. Operation, modification and troubles with the radio frequency system after the enlargement are described. Before the enlargement, the ITT 1257 thyratron had a life of around or greater than one year. The main thyratron was replaced with the KU 275C type unit in 1986. They are different in average anode current and maximum anode voltage. As a result of the enlargement, the H.V. current increased greatly up to 2.5A (D.C.), which was very close to the rated average anode current of ITT 1257, leading to a decreased life of the bulbe. Other components replaced included rectifier diode, hold-off diode in the large power source, and trigger circuit. The TH 516 cavity and output line were improved to eliminate discharge. The bulbs are cleaned and the contactors of TH 516 filament electrodes are replaced each year during the regular maintenance period in summer. Checking of insulating oil, cooling systems, vaccum systems is also carried out during the maintenance period. (Nogami, K.)

1987-01-01

347

Current status of the research ethics committees in Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Many research ethics committees (RECs) have been established to review biomedical research involving human subjects in many research institutes. The purpose is "To protect rights and welfare of human research participants". It is necessary to determine how many research ethics committees have been established in Thailand and whether they have a high enough standard toprotect the rights and welfare of human research subjects. OBJECTIVE: To determine the status of research ethics committees in Thailand. MATERIAL AND METHOD: One hundred thirty survey questionnaires were distributed by mail to medical schools of universities, public hospitals under the Ministry of Public Health, private hospitals, and research institutes. RESULTS: Seventy-eight questionnaires were returned. Thirty respondents had standard Operating Procedures (SOP). Twenty-two RECs had their own office while 36 had to share the office with other departments or units. Board meeting frequency was once a month. The average number of committee members was 14 and the majority was scientific members. Absence of nonaffiliated members was found in RECs (20.6%). Thirty RECs had never provided training for REC members and investigators, the other 48 provided training at least once a year Decision are made by consensus in 51 and majority vote in 14 RECs. Twenty-two respondents managed conflicts of interest (COI) by asking those members to leave the meeting before a decision was finalized. Thirty-nine RECs required continuous review after approval of the protocols. CONCLUSION: Strong support from the organization leader is a key factor to efficiency and high standards of REC operation. Developing a network of RECs will be useful for future development. REC members still need knowledge to better protect the rights, safety, and well-being of research participants.

Panichkul S; Mahaisavariya P; Morakote N; Condo S; Caengow S; Ketunpanya A

2011-08-01

348

Current status and prospect: Coal water mixture technology in Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper covers the status of Coal Water Mixture (CWM) technology in Indonesia and also the prospect for implementing this technology. Advantageous use of a pipeline for coal transportation is geographically inconvenient. Characteristics of CWM for Indonesian coal and combustion characteristics of CWM for Indonesian coal are reviewed. The coal reserve estimated in Indonesia is about 36 billions tons with ratio of lignite and higher rank is 60:40. The main problems faced in the coal utilization in Indonesia is the transportation from the mines to the users. Remote, limited infrastructure and the geographic conditions are factors which contribute to the problems. The CWM made of Indonesian low rank coal from various origins has been prepared for further study. The CWM of various coal concentration up to 66% with good handling and storage stability was obtained. Rheological measurements of the obtained CWM shows that for high coal concentration (greater than about 40%), in addition to the yield stress, the solution also behaves as the power law model of fluid. Energy Technology Laboratory has just started to investigate the combustion characteristics of CWM. CWM in Indonesia has not been utilized commercially in the industrial boiler, so that needs to be studied comprehensively. The technical aspects in this is stressed on the combustion characteristics in the boiler furnace. LSDE has a state of the art coal combustion facility that includes a chemical analytic laboratory and a boiler simulator equipped with complete data acquisition. The experiments will have several numerical criteria to characterize CWS combustion process, i.e., Maximum Furnace Exit Temperature, firing rate, pressure drop in the test section, deposit strength and deposit weight, swirl flow number.

Sastrawinata, T. [PUSPIPTEK, Tangerang (Indonesia). Energy Technology Lab.; Suwono, A. [Bandung Inst. of Tech. (Indonesia)

1996-12-31

349

Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spent Fuel Management has always been one of the most important steps in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and it still is one of the most vital and common problem for all countries. Projections for spent fuel arisings by the year 2010 range between 400,000 and 450,000 t of spent nuclear fuel. It is recognized that this fuel will either be stored and later disposed of in a deep geological repository (once-through fuel cycle) or stored and then reprocessed (closed fuel cycle). While some countries have concluded which choice they will make, others are applying the ''wait and see'' attitude. This continues to place great emphasis on short and long term storage technologies since much of the spent fuel will remain in storage in the next 20 years. The nuclear community recognizes the importance that design, technological, economic and material problems in spent fuel storage concepts and continues to encourage the international cooperation in such areas. This past year several nations have made decisions which impact on the projected storage volume (the Federal Republic of Germany has cancelled their reprocessing plant) and plan to contract the reprocessing with other nations. Argentina has delayed its reprocessing efforts. At the same time, while there are plans for recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors, the plans for its use in fast reactors have been delayed. These unforeseen changes reflect the constantly changing nature of the back-end of the fuel cycle and reinforce the importance of cooperation in these activities. The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in spent fuel management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and to elaborate recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. Refs, figs and tabs.

1990-01-01

350

Current status of General Pathology training in Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One of the core subjects in university training of the physicians has been General Pathology. Responsibility for this has historically fallen on Internal Medicine specialists. However, we are unaware if this situation is currently maintained. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to the coordinators of the subject of the 39 Spanish medical schools to know, among other things, the current denomination of the subjects (traditionally known as «General Pathology»), number of credits, teaching activities included in the subject and number and specialty of the professors responsible for it. Some data from the medical schools that did not respond were obtained from their web pages. RESULTS: A total of 28 of the 39 (72%) medical schools existing in Spain answered the survey. The current denomination of the subject «General Pathology» varied greatly. The mean number of credits (one credit=20-25h) was 11.2 (range 3 to 29). In 22 of 34 schools (65%), the subject was taught in the third year of the studies, but in 21% of the schools, it was partially and in 15% of the schools, totally, taught in the second year. More than half of the professors (54%) who taught the subject were Internal Medicine specialists, although this responsibility was shared with other specialists in a large proportion. CONCLUSIONS: Teaching of General Pathology shows a marked heterogeneity that does not seem to be due to teaching or pedagogic criteria among the different schools of Spain. These facts may be due to less presence in the university setting of Internal Medicine compared to other specialties.

Casademont J; Porcel JM; Vargas Núñez JA; González Macías J

2013-06-01

351

Current status and prospects for development of an HSV vaccine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects 530million people, is the leading cause of genital ulcer disease, and increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition. Although several candidate vaccines have been promising in animal models, prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines have not been effective in clinical trials thus far. Negative results from the most recent prophylactic glycoprotein D2 subunit vaccine trial suggest that we must reevaluate our approach to HSV-2 vaccine development. We discuss HSV-2 pathogenesis, immunity, and vaccine efforts to date, as well as the current pipeline of candidate vaccines and design of trials to evaluate new vaccine constructs.

Johnston C; Koelle DM; Wald A

2013-09-01

352

Status and Current Sensitivity of the CELESTE Experiment  

CERN Document Server

The CELESTE experiment uses the heliostats of an old solar farm in the French Pyrenees to detect gamma ray air showers by the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. CELESTE has been operating since November 1999 with an array of 40 heliostats fully instrumented with 1GHz flash ADCs. Significant advances have been made in the detector simulations and in the data analysis techniques. We report here on results from recent observations of the Crab nebula above an energy threshold of 50GeV. The results and simulations illustrate the current sensitivity of the experiment.

De Naurois, Mathieu

2000-01-01

353

Current status and future perspectives of hepatocyte transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The imbalance between the number of potential beneficiaries and available organs, originates the search for new therapeutic alternatives, such as Hepatocyte transplantation (HT).Even though this is a treatment option for these patients, the lack of unanimity of criteria regarding indications and technique, different cryopreservation protocols, as well as the different methodology to assess the response to this therapy, highlights the need of a Consensus Conference to standardize criteria and consider future strategies to improve the technique and optimize the results.Our aim is to review and update the current state of hepatocyte transplantation, emphasizing the future research attempting to solve the problems and improve the results of this treatment.

Pareja E; Cortés M; Gómez-Lechón MJ; Maupoey J; San Juan F; López R; Mir J

2013-09-01

354

Current status of research and related activities in NAA application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

1999-01-01

355

Current status of safety analysis report for ANPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current situation concerning Armenian NPP safety analysis report is considered within the frame of accepted safety practice. Licensing procedure is being developed. Technical support group was established in the Armenian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ANRA). The task of the group is to study modern methods of NPP in depth safety analysis for technical assistance for the ANRA, and perform independent safety assessments. ANRA will be obliged to demand assistance from various foreign organisations for preparation of different parts of the Safety Analysis Report like determination though certain parts can be prepared in Armenia

1999-01-01

356

Current status of research and related activities in NAA application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

Ab. Khalik bin Haji Wood [Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

1999-10-01

357

Current status of studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and its precursor, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, have been responsible for studying the health of the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. Information obtained from studies at RERF have proved to be of great value to organisations such as UNSCEAR, ICRP and the American BEIR Committees in quantifying risks associated with radiation exposure. The aim of this article is to give an overview of some of the work currently being carried out at RERF, particularly in the area of epidemiology, based on a recent visit by the author to Hiroshima. (author).

Muirhead, C.R. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom))

1993-01-01

358

Mineral resources of Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a geological respect, the territory of Bangladesh is a large sedimentary basin primarily filled with Tertiary and Quaternary deposits of shallow and delta facies. The geological degree of study of the territory is low. Systematic work in this direc- tion has been done by the geological service of Bangladesh, the national oil company and departments of geology in two universities. Geological mapping of the scale 1: 50,000 in 1978 covered 15.5% of the country's area. The first oil field was discov- ered in 1947 in the central eastern region of the country. Since 1975, oil explora- tion work on the Bangladesh shelf has been done by six foreign companies, four of them drilled. The effectiveness of these operations is still not clear. Two of the largest coal fields have reserves of 550 and 700 million T. However, the great depth of occur- rence (1,000-1,300 m) makes it extraction unprofitable and technically difficult. Natural gas is the most important type of mineral in Bangladesh. Gas search has been done since the early 20th century. Its intensification in the 1950's resulted in the discovery of a number of fields (1955-1963) of industrial importance. The last dis- coveries of gas were made in 1979. According to certain estimates, the total established gas reserves of Bangladesh are 2.6 x 10 /su 16/ m3number, and possibly 6.38 x 10 /su 16/ m3number. Gas

Roos, E.

1981-01-01

359

Current status of the minke whales and conflicts of interest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Minke whales - the rorqual group of the family Balaenopteridae - are widely distributed and constitute an important major harvestable living resource of the sea. Recently, the Antarctic minke whale population has been estimated to be between 150,000 and 300,000. Populations being dynamic entities, the size of the minke whale population has been changing. Currently , the minke whale population in the Antarctic has been claimed to have increased considerably. However, the minke whale stock arriving off Brazil could be regarded as only a small discrete unit of breeding stock and an integral part of the Brazilian natural resource. Data analysis based on the past 21 years shows that this stock is relatively in a steady state, but with only a few annual fluctuations which are around a constant mean value; and these departures are attributable both to environmental conditions and the local operational parameters. Further, the analysis of overall data does not suggest any decline in the Brazilian stock and a MSY at about 58.5% can be taken without depleting the stock, provided no dramatic changes occur in the native Antarctic habitat where the minke whales return to feed. This would allow Brazil a carefully controlled rational utilization of this potentially valuable sea resource since enough exploitable numbers of minke whales have been estimated to be available for Area II. The current arguments of the conflicts between the Pro -and Anti-whaling groups are also briefly discussed.

K. V. Singarajah

1988-01-01

360

Human papillomavirus: current status and issues of vaccination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical cancer was initially suggested over 30 years ago, and today there is clear evidence that certain subtypes of HPV are the causative agents of such malignancies. Papillomaviruses make up a vast family that comprises hundreds of different viruses. These viruses infect epithelia in humans and animals and cause benign hyperproliferative lesions, commonly called warts or papillomas, which can occasionally progress to squamous cell cancer. HPV infections are considered the most common among sexually transmitted diseases. One of the most prevalent cancer types induced by HPV (mostly types 16 and 18) is cervical cancer. Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing this infectious disease. These prophylactic vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs), are extremely effective in providing protection from infection in almost 100 % of cases. VLP vaccines of HPV are subunit vaccines consisting only of the major viral capsid protein of HPV. There are two types of vaccine available: bivalent vaccine (against HPV-16/18) and quadrivalent vaccine (against HPV-6/11/16/18). Second-generation prophylactic HPV vaccines, currently in clinical trials, may hold several merits over the current bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines, such as protection against additional oncogenic HPV types, less dependence on cold-chain storage and distribution, and non-invasive methods of delivery.

Malik H; Khan FH; Ahsan H

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Medicinal foods from marine animals: current status and prospects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The lifestyle of human being is changing day by day toward the simplified and more convenient way of living. Human wellbeing is majorly dependent on the daily food habits that are in accordance with the habits of individual community and the surrounding environments. Although the food habits are simplified and fashioned according to the current lifestyle, many of the Asians are still showing much importance to the naturally derived and traditional foods. One such medicinally important natural source is the foods from marine organisms, which are an important growing notion for the development of marine nutraceuticals and functional foods. In this context, we have already brought the recent trends and applications of marine algal (macro and micro) foods in my previous volume. The current preliminary chapter of this book volume on marine animals and microbes describes about the prospects of various marine animals and their derived substances/materials as medicinal foods. In addition, this chapter encourages the new researchers as well as various health communities to implement the marine animal-based medicinal foods and their applications.

Kim SK; Pallela R

2012-01-01

362

Current status on design ground motion for buildings in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper firstly describes the design seismic force and design ground motion currently used in Japan. In the past, the static force representing the effect of earthquake motion on the structures was used directly for design. When computer technology advanced, and a precise analytical modelling became possible, analysis using time-dependent ground motion data became more common for seismic design analysis. The design static force is given considering some uncertainties due to variations of the ground motion properties, whereas the ground motion time history is regarded as a sample data picked up from the whole data set representing the average properties of design ground motions. In general, the design seismic force should be evaluated based on the ground motions corresponding to the site conditions and the specified occurrence rate of motion. However, the consideration of such characteristics has not been possible until recently, since the earthquake data was not sufficient and the simulation technique was not fully established either. These were made possible with many experiences of structural damage, accumulation of strong motion records with the recent advances in computing technology. Here, current evaluation practice of design ground motion is introduced and some problems to be solved in near future will be added. (author)

2007-01-01

363

Current status of gene therapy for brain tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadliest primary brain tumor in adults, with current treatments having limited impact on disease progression. Therefore the development of alternative treatment options is greatly needed. Gene therapy is a treatment strategy that relies on the delivery of genetic material, usually transgenes or viruses, into cells for therapeutic purposes, and has been applied to GBM with increasing promise. We have included selectively replication-competent oncolytic viruses within this strategy, although the virus acts directly as a complex biologic anti-tumor agent rather than as a classic gene delivery vehicle. GBM is a good candidate for gene therapy because tumors remain locally within the brain and only rarely metastasize to other tissues; the majority of cells in the brain are post-mitotic, which allows for specific targeting of dividing tumor cells; and tumors can often be accessed neurosurgically for administration of therapy. Delivery vehicles used for brain tumors include nonreplicating viral vectors, normal adult stem/progenitor cells, and oncolytic viruses. The therapeutic transgenes or viruses are typically cytotoxic or express prodrug activating suicide genes to kill glioma cells, immunostimulatory to induce or amplify anti-tumor immune responses, and/or modify the tumor microenvironment such as blocking angiogenesis. This review describes current preclinical and clinical gene therapy strategies for the treatment of glioma.

Murphy AM; Rabkin SD

2013-04-01

364

Childhood leukemias--current status and future perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current chemotherapy will cure at least 65% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The major challenge in ALL is to develop effective risk-directed therapy. This approach seeks to improve outcome, through more intensive therapy, for children at high risk of relapse, while reducing the side effects and long-term complications of treatment for those with a high likelihood of cure. The prognosis remains poor for most children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Despite the use of intensive chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, only 30% to 40% of these patients are long-term survivors. However, research has identified subgroups of patients who will respond well to therapy that is targeted to their specific biologic subtype of AML. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation remains the only curative treatment for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Current efforts focus on improving risk-directed and subtype-specific treatment for the childhood leukemias. Ultimately, it may be possible to target treatments to the specific genetic lesions of leukemic cells.

Pui CH

1995-09-01

365

Community-based cross-sectional seroprevalence study of hepatitis A in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To elucidate the age-distribution of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence across different socioeconomic status (SES) categories in Bangladesh which, despite scarce data, is generally deemed to have high endemicity.

Saha, Samir K; Saha, Setarunnahar; Shakur, Salim; Hanif, Mohammed; Habib, Md Ahsan; Datta, Sanjoy K; Bock, Hans L

366

Prostate cancer vaccines: current status and future potential.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Standard systemic treatment of prostate cancer today is comprised of antihormonal and cytostatic agents. Vaccine therapy of prostate cancer is principally attractive because of the presence of tumor-associated antigens such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and others. Most prostate cancer vaccine trials have demonstrated some activation of the immune system, limited clinical success, and few adverse effects.One strategy to overcome the problem of limited clinical success of vaccine therapies in prostate cancer could be strict patient selection. The clinical course of patients with prostate cancer (even in those with PSA relapse following surgery or radiotherapy with curative intention, or those with metastatic disease) can vary significantly. In patients with organ-confined prostate cancer, the most promising immunotherapeutic approach would be an adjuvant therapy following surgery or radiotherapy. Patients with PSA relapse following surgery or radiotherapy could also benefit from immunotherapy because tumor burden is usually low. However, most patients in prostate cancer vaccine trials had metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). High tumor burden correlates with immune escape phenomena. Nevertheless, 2 years ago, it was demonstrated, for the first time, that a tumor vaccine can prolong survival compared with placebo in patients with HRPC. This was demonstrated with the vaccine sipuleucel-T (APC-8015; Provenge), a mixture of cells obtained from the patient's peripheral blood by leukapheresis followed by density centrifugation and exposition. The Biologics License Application for this vaccine was denied by the US FDA in mid 2007, however, because the trial had failed to reach the primary endpoint (prolongation of time to tumor progression). Nevertheless, clinical trials with sipuleucel-T are ongoing, and the approach still looks promising. Another interesting approach is a vaccine made from whole tumor cells: GVAX. This vaccine is presently being studied in phase III trials against, and in combination with, docetaxel. The results from these trials will become available in the near future. Besides the precise definition of the disease status of patients with prostate cancer, combinations of vaccine therapy with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or hormonal therapy are approaches that look promising and deserve further investigation.

Doehn C; Böhmer T; Kausch I; Sommerauer M; Jocham D

2008-01-01

367

Prostate cancer vaccines: current status and future potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard systemic treatment of prostate cancer today is comprised of antihormonal and cytostatic agents. Vaccine therapy of prostate cancer is principally attractive because of the presence of tumor-associated antigens such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and others. Most prostate cancer vaccine trials have demonstrated some activation of the immune system, limited clinical success, and few adverse effects.One strategy to overcome the problem of limited clinical success of vaccine therapies in prostate cancer could be strict patient selection. The clinical course of patients with prostate cancer (even in those with PSA relapse following surgery or radiotherapy with curative intention, or those with metastatic disease) can vary significantly. In patients with organ-confined prostate cancer, the most promising immunotherapeutic approach would be an adjuvant therapy following surgery or radiotherapy. Patients with PSA relapse following surgery or radiotherapy could also benefit from immunotherapy because tumor burden is usually low. However, most patients in prostate cancer vaccine trials had metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). High tumor burden correlates with immune escape phenomena. Nevertheless, 2 years ago, it was demonstrated, for the first time, that a tumor vaccine can prolong survival compared with placebo in patients with HRPC. This was demonstrated with the vaccine sipuleucel-T (APC-8015; Provenge), a mixture of cells obtained from the patient's peripheral blood by leukapheresis followed by density centrifugation and exposition. The Biologics License Application for this vaccine was denied by the US FDA in mid 2007, however, because the trial had failed to reach the primary endpoint (prolongation of time to tumor progression). Nevertheless, clinical trials with sipuleucel-T are ongoing, and the approach still looks promising. Another interesting approach is a vaccine made from whole tumor cells: GVAX. This vaccine is presently being studied in phase III trials against, and in combination with, docetaxel. The results from these trials will become available in the near future. Besides the precise definition of the disease status of patients with prostate cancer, combinations of vaccine therapy with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or hormonal therapy are approaches that look promising and deserve further investigation. PMID:18345705

Doehn, Christian; Böhmer, Torsten; Kausch, Ingo; Sommerauer, Martin; Jocham, Dieter

2008-01-01

368

The current status of agricultural geothermal utilization in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper gives a brief introduction to current geothermal applications in agriculture in China and to existing problems. The major applications are: geothermal greenhouses, geothermal fish farming, geothermal incubation for poultry, geothermal irrigation, slaughtering, leather processing, drying and pool bathing for animals, etc. This paper focuses upon relevant technical properties of installations for geothermal utilization in agriculture. These installations in China feature low cost, energy conservation and easy operation. They are now in the process of expansion and have gained good economic returns as well as popularity. The paper also discusses existing problems. Though geothermal utilization has many special advantages, years of practical utilization by the author have proven that many technical problems require further study. (author).

Chu Bin (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, Research and Planning, Beijing (CN))

1989-01-01

369

Ligninolytic enzymes from Ganoderma spp: Current status and potential applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

White-rot fungal species belonging to Ganoderma have long been used as medicinal mushrooms in many Asian countries. In recent years, however, attention is not just being paid to their pharmacological properties, but to their other potentially valuable features as well, including their secretion of enzymes which decompose lignin. The current literature regarding lignin-modifying enzymes from the genus Ganoderma, their potential uses, and the components, structures and processes of lignocellulose degradation are discussed. The ligninolytic enzymes from the genus Ganoderma, as well as the number of additional enzymes that participate in lignin degradation, are summarized; further, the potential applications of these enzymes are analyzed and probed in this article. This review will provide insight on the valuable applications of Ganoderma spp. and will serve as a useful reference on the use of lignocellulose degradation as a means of environmental protection. PMID:22992227

Zhou, Xuan-Wei; Cong, Wei-Ran; Su, Kai-Qi; Zhang, Yong-Ming

2012-09-20

370

Current Status and Perspectives of Hyperthermia in Cancer Therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clinical trials of hyperthermia in combination with radiation therapy or chemotherapy undertaken over the past decades in Japan have been reviewed. Originally developed heating devices were mostly used for these trials, which include RF (radiofrequency) capacitive heating devices, a microwave heating device with a lens applicator, an RF intracavitary heating device, an RF current interstitial heating device, and ferromagnetic implant heating device. Non-randomized trials for various cancers, demonstrated higher response rate in thermoradiotherapy than in radiotherapy alone. Randomized trials undertaken for esophageal cancers also demonstrated improved local response with the combined use of hyperthermia. Furthermore, the complications associated with treatment were not generally serious. These clinical results indicate the benefit of combined treatment of hyperthermia and radiotherapy for various malignancies. On the other hand, the presently available heating devices are not satisfactory from the clinical viewpoints. With the advancement of heating and thermometry technologies, hyperthermia will be more widely and safely used in the treatment of cancers.

2004-08-23

371

Imaging in gastrointestinal stromal tumours: current status and future directions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) have distinct biological and treatment-related features posing challenges for imaging. In this review the importance of imaging in different stages of patient management is discussed, emphasizing the unique characteristics of GISTs. Potential pitfalls of using the standard response criteria on conventional imaging have been highlighted. These include size measurements, which may not adequately reflect response rates, pseudo-progression, and spurious new lesions. Furthermore, the role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in early response evaluation and in the detection of both primary and acquired resistance is explored. The current role and future directions of use of both conventional and metabolic imaging in the management of GISTs are discussed.

Kochhar, R., E-mail: rohit.kochhar@christie.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Manoharan, P. [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Leahy, M. [Department of Medical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Taylor, M.B. [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom)

2010-08-15

372

Imaging in gastrointestinal stromal tumours: current status and future directions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) have distinct biological and treatment-related features posing challenges for imaging. In this review the importance of imaging in different stages of patient management is discussed, emphasizing the unique characteristics of GISTs. Potential pitfalls of using the standard response criteria on conventional imaging have been highlighted. These include size measurements, which may not adequately reflect response rates, pseudo-progression, and spurious new lesions. Furthermore, the role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in early response evaluation and in the detection of both primary and acquired resistance is explored. The current role and future directions of use of both conventional and metabolic imaging in the management of GISTs are discussed.

2010-01-01

373

Magnetic resonance angiography: current status and future directions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract With recent improvement in hardware and software techniques, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has undergone significant changes in technique and approach. The advent of 3.0 T magnets has allowed reduction in exogenous contrast dose without compromising overall image quality. The use of novel intravascular contrast agents substantially increases the image windows and decreases contrast dose. Additionally, the lower risk and cost in non-contrast enhanced (NCE) MRA has sparked renewed interest in these methods. This article discusses the current state of both contrast-enhanced (CE) and NCE-MRA. New CE-MRA methods take advantage of dose reduction at 3.0 T, novel contrast agents, and parallel imaging methods. The risks of gadolinium-based contrast media, and the NCE-MRA methods of time-of-flight, steady-state free precession, and phase contrast are discussed.

Hartung Michael P; Grist Thomas M; François Christopher J

2011-01-01

374

Anthropogenic SO2/NOx committee--current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current activities of the Anthropogenic SO2/NOx Committee center around the compilation of Version 1 of the GEIA inventories. These inventories will be based on the GEIA-specified 1 degrees by 1 degrees grid (lower left corner at 180 degrees W/90 degrees S, west to east and south to north), reflect 1985 emissions and consist of two data sets: Version 1A inventories with annual emissions at one level and Version 1B inventories with seasonal emissions, two vertical levels (defined at 100 m) and sectoral split information. The basic information used for both versions of the GEIA inventories will be identical; i.e., emissions totals across both inventories will be the same. Work is being carried out in two complementary working groups; Carmen Benkovitz, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA heads the work on the annual inventory, Eva Voldner, Atmospheric Environment Services, Canada and Trevor Scholtz, ORTECH International, Canada, head the work on the seasonal inventory

1993-02-02

375

Current status of human parasitic infections in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The eradication of the 2 mosquito-borne parasitic diseases, malaria and lymphatic filariasis, is one of the greatest achievements of the parasite control campaigns in Taiwan. Most of the soil-transmitted nematode infections, with the exception of pinworm infection, are currently well controlled and limited to some aboriginal areas. Food-borne parasitic zoonosis such as infections with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Clonorchis sinensis, and Taenia saginata asiatica are not rare, but the former is seasonal and the latter 2 are ethnically and geographically associated. Intestinal protozoal infections with Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are at low levels but may be widely distributed. Opportunistic protozoal infections among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which included amebic colitis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and cerebral toxoplasmosis, are becoming increasingly important. The rapid increase in international travel and the introduction of large numbers of foreign workers from other countries in Southeast Asia may change the epidemiological patterns of parasitic infections in Taiwan. PMID:11605804

Yeh, T C; Lin, P R; Chen, E R; Shaio, M F

2001-09-01

376

Gas evolution and migration in repositories: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considerable volumes of gas may be formed in a repository due to corrosion of metallic wastes and microbial degradation of certain organic wastes. The requirements for data and models to help understand the rate of formation of gases and their migration are described. The Nirex research programme in the area complements existing knowledge and takes additional priorities from the outcome of site assessments. Key areas currently being studied include: the rate of evolution of hydrogen from steel under anaerobic conditions; and of carbon dioxide and methane from cellulosic materials; characterisation of near- and far-field materials with respect to gas transport (permeabilities, capillary pressures, etc); and development of a comprehensive series of models covering gas evolution and migration in the near and far fields. (author)

1988-01-01

377

Current status and future development of neutron scattering in CIAE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently, the 15 MW Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR) at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) in Beijing is the only neutron source available for neutron scattering experiments in China. A 60 MW tank-in-pool inverse neutron trap-type research reactor, China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), now is being built at CIAE to meet the increasing demand of neutron scattering research in China. According to design, the maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux would be expected to be 8x1014 n/cm2.s in the reflector region. Seven out of nine tangential horizontal beam tubes will be dedicated for neutron scattering experiments. A cold source, a hot source and a 30x60 m2 guide tube hall will also be constructed. In this paper, a brief introduction of HWRR, the existing neutron scattering facilities and research activities at HWRR, CARR, and the facilities to be built at CARR are presented. (author)

2003-01-01

378

Current status and future development of neutron scattering in CLAE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, the 15 MW Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR) at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) in Beijing is the only neutron source available for neutron scattering experiments in China. A 60 MW tank-in-pool inverse neutron trap-type research reactor, China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), now is being built at CIAE to meet the increasing demand of neutron scattering research in China. According to design, the maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux would be expected to be 8x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}.s in the reflector region. Seven out of nine tangential horizontal beam tubes will be dedicated for neutron scattering experiments. A cold source, a hot source and a 30x60 m{sup 2} guide tube hall will also be constructed. In this paper, a brief introduction of HWRR, the existing neutron scattering facilities and research activities at HWRR, CARR, and the facilities to be built at CARR are presented. (author)

Chen, D.F.; Gou, C.; Ye, C.T.; Guo, L.P.; Sun, K. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

2003-03-01

379

Origins, current status, and future challenges of green chemistry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the course of the past decade, green chemistry has demonstrated how fundamental scientific methodologies can protect human health and the environment in an economically beneficial manner. Significant progress is being made in several key research areas, such as catalysis, the design of safer chemicals and environmentally benign solvents, and the development of renewable feedstocks. Current and future chemists are being trained to design products and processes with an increased awareness for environmental impact. Outreach activities within the green chemistry community highlight the potential for chemistry to solve many of the global environmental challenges we now face. The origins and basis of green chemistry chart a course for achieving environmental and economic prosperity inherent in a sustainable world.

Anastas PT; Kirchhoff MM

2002-09-01

380

Brain Cancer Stem Cells: Current Status on Glioblastoma Multiforme  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor of astrocytic/neural stem cell origin, represents one of the most incurable cancers. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous. However, most tumors contain a subpopulation of cells that display neural stem cell characteristics in vitro and that can generate a new brain tumor upon transplantation in mice. Hence, previously identified molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell biology were found to represent the cornerstone of GBM stem cell self-renewal mechanism. GBM tumors are also notorious for their resistance to radiation therapy. Notably, GBM “cancer stem cells” were also found to be responsible for this radioresistance. Herein, we will analyze the data supporting or not the cancer stem cell model in GBM, overview the current knowledge regarding GBM stem cell self-renewal and radioresistance molecular mechanisms, and discuss the potential therapeutic application of these findings.

Sabrina Facchino; Mohamed Abdouh; Gilbert Bernier

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA): Current Status and Plans  

Science.gov (United States)

The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a low frequency radio telescope of novel design, being built in the sparsely populated outback of western Australia, by a consortium of US, Australian and Indian institutions. The pristine environment for radio frequency interference facilitates sensitive measurements in support of science goals ranging from cosmology to space weather. The array operates in the 80-300 MHz range, and comprises 512 antenna "tiles" scattered over a 3km diameter region, each composed of 16 dual-polarization broadband dipoles. The received signals are digitized in the field, and transported by optical fiber to a central processing facility for correlation. The design and hardware components will be described, and the current state of construction will be summarized. The plans for completion of construction, test and verification of the hardware, commissioning of the array, and science operations will be presented.

Whitney, Alan; Booler, T.; Bowman, J.; Emrich, D.; Goeke, B.; Remillard, R.

2011-05-01

382

Current status of PET-imaging probes of ?-amyloid plaques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss. One of pathological hallmarks of AD is the accumulation and deposition of ?-amyloid (A?) plaques which is a potential target for the early diagnosis of AD. Positron emission tomography (PET), a sensitive radionuclide imaging technique, has provided opportunities to detect A? plaques of AD. PET-imaging probes of A? plaques have been extensively developed during the last decade. [(18)F]Florbetapir, the (18)F-labeled PET-imaging probe of A? plaques, was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration. A number of follow-on PET-imaging probes are currently being developed in academia and pharmaceutical companies. This article will discuss the recent development of PET-imaging probes from [(11)C]PIB to [(18)F]Florbetapir, which are in clinic trials, and several follow-on probes in preclinical stage. PMID:23812777

Koo, Jaehyung; Byun, Youngjoo

2013-07-01

383

Current status of PET-imaging probes of ?-amyloid plaques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss. One of pathological hallmarks of AD is the accumulation and deposition of ?-amyloid (A?) plaques which is a potential target for the early diagnosis of AD. Positron emission tomography (PET), a sensitive radionuclide imaging technique, has provided opportunities to detect A? plaques of AD. PET-imaging probes of A? plaques have been extensively developed during the last decade. [(18)F]Florbetapir, the (18)F-labeled PET-imaging probe of A? plaques, was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration. A number of follow-on PET-imaging probes are currently being developed in academia and pharmaceutical companies. This article will discuss the recent development of PET-imaging probes from [(11)C]PIB to [(18)F]Florbetapir, which are in clinic trials, and several follow-on probes in preclinical stage.

Koo J; Byun Y

2013-07-01

384

Current status of left ventricular assist device technology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of long-term left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has revolutionized the treatment of end-stage heart failure. The most significant advance in this field has been the longer durability of devices secondary to a simpler pump design with fewer or no mechanical bearings and valves. Continuous-flow LVADs have recently been shown to provide safe and effective circulatory support and have replaced the first-generation fill-to-empty devices. The Thoratec HeartMate II and the HeartWare HVAD are currently the 2 most commonly implanted LVADs worldwide. As LVAD technology moves forward and new miniaturized, more durable, and reliable pumps are being developed, the number of recipients who will benefit from this technology continues to grow. Elimination of the driveline with fully implantable pumps, implantation of miniature pumps with minimally invasive surgical techniques, wireless data transmission, and improved patient selection will further transform this field in the next few years.

Molina EJ; Boyce SW

2013-01-01

385

Immunotherapy for Acne Vulgaris: Current Status and Future Directions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a high unmet clinical need for new and better treatments in acne vulgaris. Propionibacterium acnes has a strong proinflammatory activity and targets molecules involved in the innate cutaneous immunity, keratinocytes and sebaceous glands of the pilosebaceous follicle. The role of P. acnes in acne confers legitimacy on the possible benefits of immunization-based approaches, which may represent a solution for limiting the development of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes. Various immunization-based approaches have been developed over the last decades, including killed pathogen-based vaccines, vaccination against cell wall-anchored sialidase, monoclonal antibodies to the Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson factor of P. acnes, anti-Toll-like receptors vaccines and natural antimicrobial peptides. This review summarizes the current evidence and explores the challenges to making this a realistic treatment option for the future.

Simonart T

2013-09-01

386

Password Authentication Schemes: Current Status and Key Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Password authentication is one of the simplest and the most convenient authentication mechanisms to deal with secret data over insecure networks. It is more frequently required in areas such as computer networks, wireless networks, remote login systems, operation systems, and database management systems. In this paper, we shall present the result of our survey through all currently available password-authentication-related schemes and get them classified in terms of several crucial criteria. To be critical, most of the existing schemes are vulnerable to various attacks and fail to serve all the purposes an ideal password authentication scheme should. In order to see how different password authentication schemes compare in different situations, we define all possible attacks and goals that an ideal password authentication scheme should withstand and achieve. We should hope that the attacks and goals we offer here can also help future researchers develop better schemes.

Chwei-Shyong Tsai; Cheng-Chi Lee; Min-Shiang Hwang

2006-01-01

387

The role of radiotherapy in urinary bladder cancer: current status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of urinary bladder cancer has undergone several modifications along the last decades. In the beginning, definitive RT was used as treatment in an attempt to preserve the urinary bladder; however, the results were poor compared to those of radical surgery. Recently, many protocols have been developed supporting the use of multi-modality therapy, and the concept of organ preservation began to be reconsidered. Although phase III randomized clinical studies comparing radical cystectomy with bladder preservation therapies do not exist, the conservative treatment may present low toxicity and high indexes of complete response for selected patients. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the subject in order to situate RT in the current treatment of urinary bladder cancer.

Gustavo Nader Marta; Samir Abdallah Hanna; Rafael Gadia; Sebastião Francisco Miranda Correa; Joao Luis Fernandes da Silva; Heloisa de Andrade Carvalho

2012-01-01

388

The role of radiotherapy in urinary bladder cancer: current status  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The role of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of urinary bladder cancer has undergone several modifications along the last decades. In the beginning, definitive RT was used as treatment in an attempt to preserve the urinary bladder; however, the results were poor compared to those of radical surgery. Recently, many protocols have been developed supporting the use of multi-modality therapy, and the concept of organ preservation began to be reconsidered. Although phase III (more) randomized clinical studies comparing radical cystectomy with bladder preservation therapies do not exist, the conservative treatment may present low toxicity and high indexes of complete response for selected patients. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the subject in order to situate RT in the current treatment of urinary bladder cancer.

Marta, Gustavo Nader; Hanna, Samir Abdallah; Gadia, Rafael; Correa, Sebastião Francisco Miranda; Silva, Joao Luis Fernandes da; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade

2012-04-01

389

Current status of technology development on remote monitoring system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IAEA is planning to perform the remote monitoring system in nuclear facility in order to reinforce the economical and efficient inspection. National lab. in U.S. is developing the corresponding core technology and field trial will be done to test the remote monitoring system by considering the case that it replace the current safeguards system. U.S. setup the International Remote Monitoring Project to develop the technology. IAEA makes up remote monitoring team and setup the detail facility to apply remote monitoring system. Therefore, early participation in remote monitoring technology development will make contribution in international remote monitoring system and increase the transparency and confidence in domestic nuclear activities. (author). 12 refs., 20 figs

Yoon, Wan Ki; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, Y. D.; Na, W. W

1997-03-01

390

Nonpeptide ligands of neuropeptide FF: current status and structural insights.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) was first isolated from the bovine brain in 1985 and is linked with a variety of biological activities. NPFF, which belongs to the RF-amide family of peptides, interacts with two distinct G-protein-coupled receptors, NPFF(1) and NPFF(2). These receptors are distributed throughout the body. The NPFF system was initially described as an anti-opioid system and, while the NPFF system does affect the opioid system, it also has been implicated in pain modulation, changes in arterial blood pressure, feeding behavior and regulation of core body temperature and of monoamine systems. Most of this pharmacology has been realized from the peptide NPFF itself or through peptide analogs. The quest for nonpeptide tools for this receptor system has been limited by low selectivity and poor pharmacokinetic properties. Herein, we summarize the current knowledge from the scientific and patent literature that demonstrates a clear need for future medicinal chemistry efforts.

Mankus JV; McCurdy CR

2012-06-01

391

Current status and perspectives on protein-based pneumococcal vaccines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Despite the efforts to expand the availability of conjugate vaccines, pneumococcal diseases still pose an enormous burden worldwide. Therefore, several proteins have been investigated as alternative vaccines, alone or in combination with other antigens. With an increasing array of techniques, many of which arose from the publication of the bacterial genome, several proteins have been identified as potential vaccine candidates, and some have even progressed to clinical trials. Also, whole cell vaccines are being studied for the induction of broad ranging protective responses. Here, we briefly summarize the current knowledge on pneumococcal proteins that are being investigated as potential vaccine candidates against pneumococcal infections, and provide an insight on the future generation of protein-based vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Darrieux M; Goulart C; Briles D; Leite LC

2013-07-01

392

THE CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERY - CURRENT STATUS AND PROSPECTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Freshwater fishery in, objectively speaking, a modest sector of agriculture characteristic for its extreme production aspects, i. e. one of the most intensive agricultural sector are the trout ponds with over 140 ton of fish a year per 1 ha of water surface, the carp ponds with about 500 kg/ha are semi-intensive sector, while the management of over 60,000 ha of open water is completely extensive with catch less than 10 kg/ha, so such waters are used only for sport and recreation. The paper will analyse both subjective and objective causes of the current situation and propose the measures that might gain a high income-earning position for the sector in different economic categories, since the conditions for such development are realistic.

Krešimir Pažur

2001-01-01

393

[Human bocavirus and its current epidemic status in China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human bocavirus (HBoV) is classified in the family of parvovirdae, genus bocavirus. Besides parvovirus B19 and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), HBoV isone of the parvoviruses currently known to infect and cause illness in human. So far, four different HBoVs (HBoV1-4) have been successively reported. The incidence of HBoVs infection varies widely, the clinical presentations of patients are different, and HBoVs are often co-detected with other pathogens. There are already quite a few report of HBoVs infection, and this article reviews and discusses the biological characters, epidemic characters, pathogenic mechanism, phylogenetic analyses of HBoVs and the epidemiological situation in China.

He X; Cao KY

2013-01-01

394

Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES): current status and challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To give a conceptual description of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), review the early efforts in the NOTES field, and discuss its challenges and limitations. DATA SOURCES: The data were retrieved mainly from publications listed in MEDLINE, PubMed and China Wanfang Database from 2005 to 2009. The search term was "NOTES". STUDY SELECTION: The articles involved in the "NOTES" study were selected and the review articles were excluded from the comparison. RESULTS: A marked increase in quantity in articles was shown each year for NOTES studies from 2006 to 2009. Animal experiments with "NOTES" have been carried out in China from 2007, and two independent "NOTES" procedures on humans were reported in 2009. CONCLUSION: Although still in its infancy, the "NOTES" procedure is promising as another type of minimally invasive surgery and favorable alternative to current interventions.

Zhang XL; Yang YS; Sun G; Guo MZ

2010-01-01

395

Ligninolytic enzymes from Ganoderma spp: Current status and potential applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

White-rot fungal species belonging to Ganoderma have long been used as medicinal mushrooms in many Asian countries. In recent years, however, attention is not just being paid to their pharmacological properties, but to their other potentially valuable features as well, including their secretion of enzymes which decompose lignin. The current literature regarding lignin-modifying enzymes from the genus Ganoderma, their potential uses, and the components, structures and processes of lignocellulose degradation are discussed. The ligninolytic enzymes from the genus Ganoderma, as well as the number of additional enzymes that participate in lignin degradation, are summarized; further, the potential applications of these enzymes are analyzed and probed in this article. This review will provide insight on the valuable applications of Ganoderma spp. and will serve as a useful reference on the use of lignocellulose degradation as a means of environmental protection.

Zhou XW; Cong WR; Su KQ; Zhang YM

2013-11-01

396

Current Status of the MLIS Uranium Enrichment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Well-established energy security is extremely important for the national economy and future prosperity of the country. Many countries are trying to develop and use renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and tidal power to keep the natural environment clean and safe. Although some have disputed calling nuclear power (which produces ?40% of domestic electricity) 'green energy', it deserves credit for this label because of its low CO2 emission and fuel efficiency. While fuel costs in nuclear power generation are less than 30% and uranium enrichment is only ?40% of front-end fuel loop, uranium enrichment is a critical step in nuclear power generation. It is also politically sensitive worldwide due to potential proliferation aspects. Currently, gaseous diffusion and centrifuge are the technologies for uranium enrichment. Since the 70s, many countries have been trying to develop a more advanced and economic technology after the gaseous diffusion process started to loose its economic viability. Among the developed laser-assisted technologies, MLIS (Molecular Laser Isotope Separation) is still under investigation for industrial application while most other laser uranium enrichment technologies have been terminated. In this regard it is worthwhile to review the MLIS processes being developed currently, SILEX (Separation of Isotopes by Laser EXcitation) and CRISLA (Condensation Repression by Isotope Selective Laser Activation). Recently the Canadian company Cameco joined the GE-Hitachi venture by paying $123.8M for a 24% holding, and GE-Hitachi- Cameco is now running the GLE (Global Laser Enrichment) facility using SILEX technology in Wilmington, North Carolina to evaluate commercialization of the process

2009-01-01

397

Current status of temporomandibular joint arthroscopy in the United Kingdom.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In an era during which minimally invasive procedures are increasingly becoming the norm, arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) seems to be infrequently used for diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the TMJ. The reasons for this are not clear. The purpose of this study was to find out the current state of arthroscopy of the TMJ in the UK and, more specifically, how often it is used, the indications for its use, the level of experience of practising surgeons, and the reasons for not using it. Information was gathered between 2009 and 2010 from a postal and e-mail questionnaire to all oral and maxillofacial consultants in the UK. Of the 346 consultants, 215 (60%) responded to the questionnaire. Forty-two said that they currently used arthroscopy of the TMJ, and 33 of those (81%) have more than 5 years' experience. During the past year, a total of 8 consultants nationally have done 20 arthroscopies or more. Thirty-three of the procedures (81%) were done for both diagnosis and treatment. Lack of perceived need of patients and lack of interest in this specialty were the main reasons given for not doing arthroscopy, lack of training being a key secondary reason. The Storz and Olympus systems were the most commonly used within the UK. Results seem to support the opinion that arthroscopy of the TMJ is under-used, and consideration should be given to ensuring that trainees are instructed in its use, which is important in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the TMJ.

Thomas SM; Matthews NS

2012-10-01

398

Current Status of the MLIS Uranium Enrichment Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Well-established energy security is extremely important for the national economy and future prosperity of the country. Many countries are trying to develop and use renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and tidal power to keep the natural environment clean and safe. Although some have disputed calling nuclear power (which produces {approx}40% of domestic electricity) 'green energy', it deserves credit for this label because of its low CO{sub 2} emission and fuel efficiency. While fuel costs in nuclear power generation are less than 30% and uranium enrichment is only {approx}40% of front-end fuel loop, uranium enrichment is a critical step in nuclear power generation. It is also politically sensitive worldwide due to potential proliferation aspects. Currently, gaseous diffusion and centrifuge are the technologies for uranium enrichment. Since the 70s, many countries have been trying to develop a more advanced and economic technology after the gaseous diffusion process started to loose its economic viability. Among the developed laser-assisted technologies, MLIS (Molecular Laser Isotope Separation) is still under investigation for industrial application while most other laser uranium enrichment technologies have been terminated. In this regard it is worthwhile to review the MLIS processes being developed currently, SILEX (Separation of Isotopes by Laser EXcitation) and CRISLA (Condensation Repression by Isotope Selective Laser Activation). Recently the Canadian company Cameco joined the GE-Hitachi venture by paying $123.8M for a 24% holding, and GE-Hitachi- Cameco is now running the GLE (Global Laser Enrichment) facility using SILEX technology in Wilmington, North Carolina to evaluate commercialization of the process.

Kim, Jae Woo; Rhee, Chang Kyu; Kim, Whung Whoe [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Maeng Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Eerkens, Jeff W. [Isotope Technologies Inc., Woodland (United States)

2009-05-15

399

Electricity Crisis of Bangladesh: Result of Organizational Inefficiency?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is believed that the organizational inefficiency of the ‘BPDB’ and ‘Power Division’ of Ministry of Power, Energy, and Mineral Resources (MPEMR) of Bangladesh is the main cause for current electricity crisis. Although there are changes in public sector management in the electricity sector of Bangladesh due to the NPM, the organization continue to value the bureaucratic and hierarchical organizational culture. Bangladesh government has taken several programs and has adopted policies for privatization and public-private-partnership. Still the Bangladesh government has not succeeded to mitigate the crisis. This industry faces long time negligence, corruption and inefficiency. Currently the crisis situation has become acute due to inadequate fund, weak governance and above all inefficiency. But the political interferences in organizational management, in bureaucratic activities, in personnel management and even in private investment process, are creating a huge problem for the development of this sector. This paper defines the Organizational management, efficiency, and weak governance of Bangladesh’s electricity industry. This paper examines the extent to which the electricity crisis of Bangladesh is the result of organizational inefficiency of the ‘BPDB’ and ‘Power Division’ of Ministry of Power, Energy, and Mineral Resources (MPEMR) of Bangladesh. This organizational inefficiency is actually shared between inefficiency of public organization and political interferences. It is discussed in this paper not only the organizational inefficiency causes the electricity crisis but also political interference, wrong policies , inadequate fund also responsible. This paper will show how the organizational culture, structure and strategies of the ministry and BPDB have resulted in the crisis. Moreover country’s corrupted and chaotic political system, the roles of parliament and civil servants are also discussed in this essay. Current electricity crisis can be considerably overcome by increasing the efficiency of the ‘Power Division’ as well as by stopping the political interference in decision making and in bureaucracy.

Ziauddin Ahmed

2011-01-01

400

Estado actual de la terapia de resincronización cardiaca/ Current status of cardiac resynchronization therapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se revisa el estado actual de la terapia de resincronización cardiaca en sus diferentes aspectos: mecanismos de acción, indicaciones actuales y técnica de implante. Abstract in english The present document reviews various aspects of the current status of cardiac resynchronization therapy: mechanisms of action, current indications and implantation technique.

García-Bolao, Ignacio; Calvo, Naiara; Gavira, Juan José; Moreno-Galdós, Leire; Arguedas-Jiménez, Hugo; Canepa, Juan Pablo; García-De-Yébenes, Manuel

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
401

Personalized medicine in CLL: Current status and future perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common hematologic malignancy in the Western Hemisphere. Despite advances in research and the development of effective treatment regimens, CLL is still largely an incurable disease. Although several prognostic factors have been identified in recent years, most of the new prognostic factors are not utilized, and treatment decisions are still based on clinical staging and limited use of cytogenetic analysis. Patients with advanced disease are treated at diagnosis, whereas others, regardless of their prognostic indicators, are offered treatment only at disease progression. Furthermore, treatment guidelines for elderly or "unfit" patients are unavailable because most CLL trials have included mostly younger, healthier patients. Given the heterogeneity of the clinical manifestations and prognosis of CLL, patients are likely to benefit from a personalized therapeutic approach. Recent advances in CLL pathobiology research, the use of high-throughput technologies, and most importantly, the introduction of novel targeted therapies with high efficacy and low toxicity are currently transforming the treatment of CLL. A personalized approach that includes early intervention in selected patients with CLL is likely to bring physicians closer to the goal of attaining cures in most patients with CLL.

Rozovski U; Hazan-Halevy I; Keating MJ; Estrov Z

2013-07-01

402

Current Status on Development of Sodium Waste Treatment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of sodium as a coolant necessitates the development of special post-operation procedures for the treatment of waste sodium, sodium contaminated equipment, or other purposes. Only a few power and research reactors with sodium coolant have been constructed and operated worldwide. They are close to the end of their design lifetime and, in some cases, the decommissioning is in progress. Conducted by countries that have operational experience with sodium cooled fast reactor, R and D programmes are intended to provide a solid basis for design and operation of sodium waste processing facilities as well as for decommissioning planning. Sodium waste, which has been generated from the test facilities related to the sodium since the beginning of the 1990s, requires now the safe sodium treatment in Korea. Each work activity with sodium should be properly planned and managed to avoid potential chemical reactions or explosions with a high risk of consequent environmental contamination. Special procedures should be implemented for removing and processing bulk quantities of sodium and sodium residuals in internal spaces and on internal surfaces of equipment. The objective of the report is to provide researchers with technical information necessary for the design and construction of technological facilities for sodium waste treatment by reviewing the current state of technical developments for advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and hazards of a sodium waste treatment process. Based on these results, a future plan for development of a sodium waste treatment process can be established

2010-01-01

403

Current status and perspectives of cell therapy in Chagas disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One century after its discovery, Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a major health problem in Latin America. Mortality and morbidity are mainly due to chronic processes that lead to dysfunction of the cardiac and digestive systems. About one third of the chronic chagasic individuals have or will develop the symptomatic forms of the disease, with cardiomyopathy being the most common chronic form. This is a progressively debilitating disease for which there are no currently available effective treatments other than heart transplantation. Like in other cardiac diseases, tissue engineering and cell therapy have been investigated in the past few years as a means of recovering the heart function lost as a consequence of chronic damage caused by the immune-mediated pathogenic mechanisms elicited in individuals with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. Here we review the studies of cell therapy in animal models and patients with chronic Chagas disease and the perspectives of the recovery of the heart function lost due to infection with T. cruzi.

Milena Botelho Pereira Soares; Ricardo Ribeiro dos Santos

2009-01-01

404

Current status of the OPAL silicon microvertex project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the 1991 run of the OPAL detector at LEP, a complete two layer single-sided silicon microstrip detector array was installed around the beam-pipe. The detectors employed a novel biassing technique for the capacitively read out diode strips (Field Effect Transistors integrated on the silicon wafer) and the MX5 microplex read-out chip was used for the first time. The performance measured in OPAL for the ladders of 3 daisy-chained detectors (length 180mm) is very good with signal/noise of 22:1. The resolution of the detectors (measured to be around 5?m from test beam investigations) has allowed improvement in the impact parameter resolution of OPAL by greater than a factor of two. The beauty, tau and charm physics potential that this opens up is now being exploited. OPAL has plans to further upgrade to a detector giving both co-ordinates of the track intersection with the silicon barrels. To achieve this, ladder assemblies using two detectors of orthogonal strips glued back-to-back are being used. In addition, double-sided detectors of novel design have been fabricated and are being evaluated. Results from OPAL data taking at LEP, test beam results and laboratory measurements are presented. Both the performance of the detectors currently used in OPAL and those intended for future upgrades are discussed. (orig.)

1993-01-01

405

Current status of oral health research in Africa: an overview.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Research in oral health contributes effectively to decisions and strategies aimed at improving the oral health of populations. Further contributions to enhance current knowledge of oral health in Africa are required. OBJECTIVES: The principal objective of this study was to produce an analysis of oral health research published from different subregions of Africa and to estimate bilateral and multilateral international cooperation in oral health research during the period 2005-2010. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for published articles on topics related to oral health in Africa. A total of 935 oral health-related articles were retrieved during April and May 2011. RESULTS: Publications emanating from Nigeria and South Africa accounted for a striking 68% of all oral health-related material published from Africa during the study period. Researchers from 30 different countries had participated in collaboration on at least one published article. A total of 262 journals had published at least one item examining oral health in Africa, but only 29 journals had published more than seven articles. These 29 journals accounted for 66% of all published material and induced non-African reviews (26%) and African reviews (40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows strong variation among countries in the production of articles on oral health whereby rich countries produce greater quantities of published research and poorer nations more frequently develop research partnerships with other countries.

Kanoute A; Faye D; Bourgeois D

2012-12-01

406

Prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection: current status and future prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jessica L Nyholm1, Mark R Schleiss21Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women’s Health, and 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common cause of perinatal viral infection in the developed world, resulting in approximately 40,000 congenitally infected infants in the United States each year. Congenital CMV infection can produce varying degrees of neurodevelopmental disabilities. The significant impact of congenital CMV has led the Institute of Medicine to rank development of a CMV vaccine as a top priority. Vaccine development has been ongoing; however no licensed CMV vaccine is currently available. Treatment of pregnant women with CMV hyperimmune globulin has shown promising results, but has not been studied in ran