WorldWideScience

Sample records for bangladesh current status

  1. Current Status and Perspectives of Nuclear Reactor Based Research in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been operating the country's only research reactor, a 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II, for the last 22 years. The reactor is equipped with a number of irradiation facilities: dry central thimble (DCT), neutron beam tubes (tangential, radial piercing, radial-1 and radial-2), pneumatic transfer system, rotary specimen rack (Lazy Suzan), thermal column, etc. Since its establishment, the BAEC TRIGA reactor has been playing pioneering role in scientific research and in providing services to the people. For example, the radioisotopes produced in this reactor are being used in different nuclear medicine centers of the country for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. On the other hand, with a view to opening a new avenue of fundamental and applied research in the country, a number of different experimental facilities were installed around the reactor in early nineties of the last century. With the aim of socio economic development of the country, these facilities are being used in various fields of research and utilization, such as, isotope production, material research using neutron scattering, materials characterization by neutron radiography, qualitative and quantitative assessment of elements in variety of sample matrices and nuclear data measurements using neutron activation analysis as well as training and service as centers of excellence in Science and Technology. The aim of this article is to explore the current status of nucle is to explore the current status of nuclear reactor based research in Bangladesh with special emphasis on neutron activation analysis and future plan of enhancing its utilization. (author)

  2. Current Status and Prospects for E-learning in the Promotion of Distance Education in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Sadeque Md. SELIM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of e-learning as an advanced system for training and educating mass people using information and communication technologies (ICTs has been received an increasing level of interest in recent years in most of the western countries. In spite of socio-economic constraints, ICTs are rapidly expanding in the developing countries, and thus offering a new scope for the use of e-learning for the promotion of distance education. In Bangladesh, e-learning was first introduced as early as 1960s as a Radiobroadcast followed by a pilot project School Broadcasting Program (SBP in 1980s and then expanded by the establishment of the National Institute of Educational Media and Technology (NIEMT, which was later transformed into Bangladesh Institute of Distance Education (BIDE in 1985. The significant progress has been done after the establishment of the Bangladesh Open University (BOU in 1992 as the first and only national distance learning university. Within a decade of its establishment, enrollment of BOU students have reached nearly 400 thousands, and thus enlisted it as one of the mega-universities. BOU has been offering a variety of formal and non-formal academic programs from certificate to Masters levels using print, TV and radio broadcasts, audio-cassettes and face to face tutorials as the media of delivering its academic courses. Considering the rapid expansion of computer and internet in Bangladesh after 1998s, it is now appropriate time to consider inclusion of some interactive ICTs i.e. e-learning in delivering course materials of BOU or other institutes to promote distance education in Bangladesh. In this paper, we discuss the current situation and future prospects for e-learning in Bangladesh considering the current trend of ICTs expansion in the country.

  3. Current Status and Prospects for E-learning in the Promotion of Distance Education in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Selim, Abu Sadeque Md; Islam, Tofazzal

    2006-01-01

    The issue of e-learning as an advanced system for training and educating mass people using information and communication technologies (ICTs) has been received an increasing level of interest in recent years in most of the western countries. In spite of socio-economic constraints, ICTs are rapidly expanding in the developing countries, and thus offering a new scope for the use of e-learning for the promotion of distance education. In Bangladesh, e-learning was first introduced as early as 1960...

  4. Current status of education and training in nuclear technology in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority for the introduction, promotion and safety issues of nuclear science and technology in the country. During the last four decades, a significant development has been achieved in the field of food and agriculture, medicine, industries and environment using nuclear technology. Education and training in science and technology played a vital role to achieve the significant development in these fields. Some local public universities and BAEC training facilities at home and abroad have played mainly a key role to develop the human resource in the field of nuclear science and technology. Over the last four decades, BAEC with its various specialized establishments has played a focused role in the advancement, understanding and usage of nuclear science and technologies in the country. Through years of cumulative efforts, BAEC has developed a pool of research infrastructure, capacity and human resources having been trained extensively at home and abroad in their respective fields. The trained manpower in the different fields of science and technology are working in the country to solve some national problems like arsenic contamination in drinking water, iodine deficiency disease goitre, cancer and many others. BAEC is going to establish a Nuclear Training Institute which will also have residential facilities. Government has already assured to fund to establish the Nuclear Training Centre in the campus of AERE, Savar. BAEC placed a formal proposal for Affiliation with Jahangirnagar University for Awarding Post Graduate Degrees in different specialized fields of nuclear science and technology. As this might take some time for implementation; therefore, BAEC has decided to start the academic program immediately under the present set-up of the organization. With this view, BAEC proposes to affiliate its Nuclear Training Institute with the Jahangirnagar University for pursuing academic degree programmes i.e. post graduate diploma, M. S., M.Phil. and Ph.D. in the following specialized fields of nuclear science and technology: 1. Reactor Science and Technology; 2. Nuclear and related Analytical Science; 3. Nuclear safety and radiation control; 4. Nuclear Instrumentation and Control; 5. Nuclear Power and Energy; 6. Materials Science; 7. Radiation Medicine; 8. Nuclear Geology; 9. Radiological Science; 10. Radiation Biology; 11. Environmental and Molecular Biology

  5. Determinants of the Current Use of Contraceptive Methods in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Kabir

    2001-01-01

    In this study used the, 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey, the 1993-94 and the 1996-97 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS) to investigate the determinants of contraceptive use among the currently married women under 50 years of age. Bi-variate analysis were used to assess the differentials and multivariate analysis used to find the determinants of the current contraceptive use. The results indicate that improvement of the status of women, access to mass media and reduction of chil...

  6. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  7. Status of radiation curing in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh is a small country covering about 148 thousand square kilometer area with a population of 120 million. It has only 15% urban area; most of the people live in the rural area. It is neither industrial nor developed. It is trying hard to stand on its feet combating all damages caused by frequent natural calamities like cyclones and floods. Thus, most of the technological activities are still being carried out on turnkey basis. However, some research and development institutions have already been developed to such an extent that transfer of technology can occur and the local industries can also benefit out of this endeavour

  8. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  9. Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed M. A. Hanifi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES. Objective: The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design: We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4. The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results: Analysing cause of death (CoD revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were the leading causes of deaths (37%, followed by communicable diseases (CDs (22%, perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%, and injury and accidents (6%; the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years, which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04. For adult and the elderly (15 years and older, NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%, followed by CDs (23%. For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005, and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0.001. Conclusions: Epidemiologic transition is taking place with a shift from the dominance of CDs to NCDs. SES inequity in mortality still persists – the poor suffer from CDs in all age groups, whereas those better off suffer more from NCDs than CDs. Policy makers thus need to consider the social distribution of diseases before developing any public health action targeted towards reducing mortality and the extent of disease burden in an equitable manner.

  10. Socio-Psychological Status of Female Heads of Households in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzima Zohra Habib

    2010-01-01

    This study describes and examines the resource position and socio-psychological status of female heads of household in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh. For this, 120 households led by females were selected by convenience sampling from Rajshahi city, Bangladesh. The women heads were individually interviewed with semi-structured questionnaire method, focusing on access to resources and socio-psychological problems of the women who lead and run their households. The results of descriptive analysis a...

  11. Photovoltaic Based Solar Home Systems – Current State of Dissemination in Rural Areas of Bangladesh and Future Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD RIAZUL HAMID

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently only 53 percent of total population in Bangladesh has access to electricity and per capita generation being 265 kWh is very low compared to some other developing countries. This shortage of energy hinders the growth of the country’s overall economy. However, Bangladesh has a good potential for harnessing renewable energy resources, solar and biomass in particular. Steps are taken to harness renewable sources of energy to make the country less dependent on the traditional fossil fuels. This paper presents current power generation scenario in Bangladesh, assesses the availability of solar irradiation and potential for power generation using solar PV panels. This paper also investigates into the current status of dissemination of PV based solar home systems (SHSs in the rural areas of Bangladesh. Currently approximately 94 MW of power is generated from around 2 million SHSs already installed. Average growth rate of SHSs from 2003 up to December 2012 is around 58% which is among the highest in the world.

  12. Radwaste disposal strategy in Bangladesh: Present status and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant amounts of radioactive solid liquid and mixed wastes are generated in Bangladesh from peaceful uses of atomic energy including disused sealed sources and spent fuel from the research reactor and other hot laboratories in the country. At present these wastes are being collected, segregated, labeled and stored in an interim safe storage. A Central Waste Processing and Storage Facility (CWPSF) is fast nearing completion in the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar campus where the TRIGA Research Reactor, Isotope Production Laboratory, 14 MeV Neutron Generator, 37 x 102 TBq commercial irradiator and other hot facilities are situated. A national strategy exists for the management and disposal of various types of radioactive wastes. Gaseous and liquid wastes are discharged in the environment in a controlled manner following delay decay procedure. Short-lived low and intermediate level wastes (SL-LILW) and disused/spent sealed radioactive sources are being stored in an interim storage before storage in the CWPSF following short treatment and conditioning. As regards their disposal, the currently preferred option is engineered near surface repository. Site investigation work has progressed far enough toward the goal of establishing a demonstration repository at AERE, Savar by the year 2010. For small amount of long-lived highly active problem wastes including spent radium needles and disused radioactive sources, the safe management option is a long-term storage in the CWPSF after conditioning and treatment. But this is not considered as a sustainable solution. The real emphasis is placed on the development of inexpensive disposal methods and availing regional/international repositories. (author)

  13. Status and decline causes of fish diversity of Baral River, Natore, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Fawzia A. Flowra; M. Ariful Islam; Syeda N. Jahan; M. Afzal Hussain; M. Manjurul Alam; Fathi A. Bashir; A. Ghaffar Mazlan; K. Das Simon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to desribe the status and decline causes of fish diversity inBaral river, Natore, Bangladesh. The study was conducted over a period from November 2010 to May2011 on the Bagatipara point of Baral river, Natore, Bangladesh. A total of 60 fish species of nine ordersand 21 families were identified. On the basis of availability the species were categorized in four statusesthat obtained as available (45%), less available (33.33%), rare (13.33%) and very rare (8.33%)....

  14. Pheromone use for insect control: present status and prospect in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Azharul Islam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect’s world is filled with many odors. Insects use these odors to cue them in a variety of complex social behaviors, including courtship, mating, and egg laying. Scientists and pest control specialists have known about these complex communication systems for decades. The main aim of this study was to visualize the availability, trends and differences in the sources of pheromone control in agricultural growth of Bangladesh. It also concerned on constrains and present use of pheromone and their possible recommendation on behalf of Bangladesh agriculture. It concentrated on the data during last three decades (1980-2010, comprising status of pheromone use in Bangladesh agriculture and its future. Review revealed that Bangladesh has been enormously successful in increasing pheromone use in agricultural production (especially for vegetables. Understanding of the nature of pheromones and their potential for pest control along with the future prospective of pheromone technique in agriculture were stated. Since the pheromone, technologies for control of major crop pests in Bangladesh are still limited. So that this review emphasized on more attention to the authority to increase the research works and project facilities related to develop and promote pheromone techniques. It is highly recommended to increase availability of pheromone in market, more investment in research and development, introduction of newly identified pheromone for specific pest, to assist government and non-government organizations to work with farmers to reduce harmful insecticide use and promote pheromone tactics as one part of integrated crop management (ICM.

  15. Status of Nuclear Activities of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority for acquisition, development and application of Nuclear Science and Technology and thus is playing the pioneering role for the development of the country's nuclear research programmes and thus helping to achieve the cherished goal of self-reliance through national efforts and international co-operation. Being firmly committed to the peaceful uses of Atomic Energy, programmes have been undertaken in Physical Sciences, Biological Sciences, Engineering and Nuclear Power Sector by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and some of the results have been transferred from laboratories to hospitals, agriculture, industries and environment for practical applications. In spite of some major constrains, presently BAEC's activities have increased many folds and keeping in view of the overall power crisis of the country efforts have also been given to establish Nuclear Power Plant in the country. (author)

  16. Forest-based Tourism in Bangladesh: Status, Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Akter; Yasushi Furukawa; Mahbubul Alam

    2009-01-01

    Bangladesh is a land of diverse forest-based natural attractions throughout the evergreen, semi-evergreen, and mangrove forest ecosystems. The article attempts at exploring various dimensions of ecotourism industry and critically analyzes the relationship among the stakeholders, overall strength-weakness of ecotourism sector and impediments hindering its development. National Parks, Ecoparks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves, and the like have been developed in the natural forest ecosystem...

  17. Impact of Grameen Bank Microcrdit Programme on Changing Livelihood Status of the Rural Women in Panchagarh District of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdoushi Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rural women in Bangladesh are the most deprived part of the society and majority of them are extremely poor. They have very limited access to income generating activities and consequently less opportunity to improve their livelihood status. Microcredit programme contributes to improve the livelihood status of rural women in Bangladesh. Approach: This study examines the extent of changes in livelihood status of rural women through their involvement in the microcredit programme of Bangladesh. Results: The study reveals that the rural women, after joining the microcredit programme, have been able to engage themselves in income generating activities and consequently improved significantly their livelihood status. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that microcredit programme plays a significant role in changing and improving livelihood status among the rural poor families.

  18. Radiation education in Bangladesh: status need and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state, the provisions of radiation education and training have expanded greatly. Still then, since it is a developing country with high population growth rate, low literacy level and located thousands of miles away from the developed ones, it is difficult to transfer and disseminate knowledge, particularly about the subject of radiation at a speed and spread as required to meet the challenge of future. So, not only professional training but also institutional and formal academic knowledge and skill development is essential in the process of acquisition and transfer of such knowledge. Accordingly the courses on radiation and radioactivity including risk perception in general have to be vigorously pursued for the sake of safety and attaining basic concepts about health effects of different levels of radiation. (author)

  19. Status of spent fuel in the 3MW BAEC MK-II research reactor facility of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh has been operating a 3 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor since 1986. The reactor is installed in the campus of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Savar, which is located about 40 km northwest of Dhaka. It is one of the main nuclear research facilities in the country. The reactor uses TRIGA LEU fuel with uranium content of 20% by weight. The enrichment level of the fuel is 19.7%. So far the reactor has been operated for 5624 hours with a total cumulative burnup (BU) of 10 690 MWh (445 MWd). The main areas of use are: training of man-power for research reactor operation and applications, radioisotope (RI) production, neutron activation analysis (NAA), neutron radiography (NR) and neutron scattering. Radioisotopes produced to date are: I-131, Sc-46 and Tc-99m. Bangladesh is a peace loving country with a strong commitment towards nuclear nonproliferation. Accordingly, it has signed several multilateral and bilateral agreements, protocols, treaties, etc. prevailing in the International Nuclear Non-proliferation regime. Bangladesh has also signed a Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with the USA on 17 September 1981, which facilitated export of nuclear technology from the USA to Bangladesh. The research reactor was procured under the provisions of this agreement. In 2003, the tenure of the Agreement was extended up to 2012. At present, there does not exist any spent fuel element in the reactor facility. However, with the recently undertaken RI producti, with the recently undertaken RI production enhancement program, it is expected that the reactor will start generating spent fuels from the year 2012. It is to be mentioned that Bangladesh is aware of the US DOE's 'Take Back Program' in connection with the research reactor spent fuel of US origin, and is very much interested to take part in this program. The paper presents the current status of handling and storage facilities available for spent fuel and strategy for the safe management spent fuel to be generated from the research reactor in near future. (author)

  20. Bangladesh: Currently the Worst, but Possibly the Future's Best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Garrett

    2015-02-01

    Garment workers in Bangladesh producing clothing for international brands have experienced repeated factory fires and building collapses in the last 10 years, resulting in more than 1,600 deaths and hundreds of disabling injuries. After the Tazreen Fashion fire in December 2012 and the Rana Plaza building collapse in April 2013, more than 190 international clothing brands and retailers signed an "Accord on Fire and Building Safety" with two international union federations. Full implementation of the provisions of the Accord would change "business as usual" in Bangladesh's garment industry and set a positive example for other countries and other industries with global supply chains. The components, challenges, and controversies of the Accord are detailed in the article. PMID:25816164

  1. FOREST-BASED TOURISM IN BANGLADESH: STATUS, PROBLEMS, AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Akter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a land of diverse forest-based natural attractions throughout the evergreen, semi-evergreen, and mangrove forest ecosystems. The article attempts at exploring various dimensions of ecotourism industry and critically analyzes the relationship among the stakeholders, overall strength-weakness of ecotourism sector and impediments hindering its development. National Parks, Ecoparks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves, and the like have been developed in the natural forest ecosystems to attract tourists from home and abroad. Cheap transportation, lodging and associated costs, unique scenic beauty and wilderness of all sites and socio-cultural diversity of indigenous communities living in the forest together make up the strength of the industry as a whole. The study identifies a number of impediments, including conflict among the stakeholders and forest degradation hindering expansion of ecotourism industry. For sustainable development of forest-based tourism, traditional ‘Top-down’ management approach is suggested to avoid and voice of all stakeholders needs to be considered in decision-making.

  2. Biosimilar drugs: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

    2014-01-01

    Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food D...

  3. Health and Nutritional Status of Young Foster Children Attending a Diarrhea Treatment Hospital in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Syed Golam Faruque; Farzana Ferdous; Shahnawaz Ahmed; Mohammad Abdul Malek; Gazi Imran; Fahmida Dil Farzana; Mohammod Jobayer Chisti; Durdana Akhter; Sumon Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    There is scarcity of evidence-based information about socio-demographic as well as ailment factors associated with foster children in Bangladesh. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine the socio-economic, health and nutritional status of young foster children in urban Dhaka. A total of 208 (1%; n = 208/28,948) under-5 foster children were enrolled in the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System of icddr,b between 1993-2012. Randomly selected under-5 children (n = 624) with a ratio o...

  4. Biosimilar drugs: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

    2014-07-01

    Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food Drug Administration (FDA) and India were used to identify data for review. Literature suggest that biosimilars are similar biological products, i.e., comparable but not identical to the reference product, are not generic version of innovator product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and marketing approval is also more complicated. To improve access, US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation act 2009 and US FDA allowed "abbreviated pathway" for their approval. U.S law has defined new standards and terms and EMA scientific guidelines have also set detailed approval standards. India being one of the most preferred manufacturing destinations of biosimilars, there is a need for stringent safety and regulatory guidelines. The New India Guidelines "Draft Guidelines on Similar Biologics were announced in June 2012, by Department of Biotechnology at Boston bio and available online. PMID:25143877

  5. Engineered barriers: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137Cs), since they can provide containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  6. Hepatitis E: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; Mateos Lindemann, María Luísa; Caridad Montalvo Villalba, María

    2013-11-01

    Acute hepatitis E is a very common disease in developing countries, to the point that, according to World Health Organization estimates, one third of the world's population has been exposed to HEV. It also causes outbreaks in refugee camps or after natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes. Sporadic cases of acute hepatitis have been observed in practically all European countries and other developed geographical areas, not only in travelers from endemic countries but also in people with no risk factors. But, lately, new aspects of this infection are appearing in industrialized countries such as the possibility of the disease becoming chronic in transplant patients, the immunocompromised in general, and even in patients with previous liver disease who are immunocompetent. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge on HEV infection. PMID:24038432

  7. Status and decline causes of fish diversity of Baral River, Natore, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia A. Flowra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to desribe the status and decline causes of fish diversity inBaral river, Natore, Bangladesh. The study was conducted over a period from November 2010 to May2011 on the Bagatipara point of Baral river, Natore, Bangladesh. A total of 60 fish species of nine ordersand 21 families were identified. On the basis of availability the species were categorized in four statusesthat obtained as available (45%, less available (33.33%, rare (13.33% and very rare (8.33%. Resultof the study identified five species as very rare which may extinct near future resulting declination of thefish diversity. Few man made decline causes like agro-industrial wastages, different obstacles of waterflow, excess use of river water, siltation and over fishing were observed as major threats for the diversityof fishes. The present work recommends preventing water pollution, ensuring water flow, developingfishermen’s awareness, implementation of fisheries laws and declaration of fish sanctuary to save fishdiversity of the study area. Besides, counter and random survey is recommended to cross check thefishes’ status for their proper management and conservation.

  8. Impact of Physician's Education on Adherence to Tuberculosis Treatment for Patients of Low Socioeconomic Status in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Shinwon; Khan, Omar Faruk; Seo, Jeong Ho; Kim, Dong Yeon; Park, Kyung-hwa; Jung, Sook-in; Chung, Eun-kyung; Jang, Hee-chang

    2013-01-01

    Successful tuberculosis control depends on good adherence to treatment. Yet, limited data are available on the efficacy of methods for improving the adherence of patients of low socioeconomic status. We evaluated the impact of physician-provided patient education on adherence to anti-tuberculosis medication in a low socioeconomic status and resource-limited setting. A pre-/post-intervention study was conducted at a suburban primary health care clinic in Bangladesh where an intensive education...

  9. Current Status of Graphene Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Lemme, Max C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of graphene transistors as potential supplement to silicon CMOS technology. A short overview of graphene manufacturing and metrology methods is followed by an introduction of macroscopic graphene field effect transistors (FETs). The absence of an energy band gap is shown to result in severe shortcomings for logic applications. Possibilities to engineer a band gap in graphene FETs including quantum confinement in graphene Nanoribbons (GNR...

  10. Current Status of Robotic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Giri, Subhasis; Sarkar, Diptendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Surgery has increasingly become a technology-driven specialty. Robotic assistance is considered one innovation within abdominal surgery over the past decade that has the potential to compensate for the drawbacks of conventional laparoscopy. The dramatic evolution of robotic surgery over the past 10 years is likely to be eclipsed by even greater advances over the next decade. We review the current status of robotic technology in surgery. The Medline database was searched for the terms “robo...

  11. Health and Nutritional Status of Young Foster Children Attending a Diarrhea Treatment Hospital in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Syed Golam Faruque

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is scarcity of evidence-based information about socio-demographic as well as ailment factors associated with foster children in Bangladesh. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine the socio-economic, health and nutritional status of young foster children in urban Dhaka. A total of 208 (1%; n = 208/28,948 under-5 foster children were enrolled in the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System of icddr,b between 1993-2012. Randomly selected under-5 children (n = 624 with a ratio of 1:3 were extracted and constituted as comparison group. Forty-three percent (n = 90 foster children were male. Lack of formal schooling of mother was higher among foster children compared to non-foster children (52% vs. 35%; p

  12. Men's role in women's antenatal health status: evidence from rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosiur; Islam, Mohammad Touhidul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Reza, Md Shahin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to extend notions of men's role in women's antenatal care (ANC) status in rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The analyses were based on response of 480 men aged 15 to 54 years, living with at least 1 child younger than 3 years. Only 27% men accompanied their wives for ANC. Men's perception of actual roles for ANC services was low: 63% approved of women undergoing checkups; 33% discussed their wives' pregnancy with health professionals. Only 18% scored highly on the overall index of knowledge. From multivariate analysis, it was found that the number of men accompanying their wives for ANC was higher among those respondents who were married for the first time in the age-group 25 to 34 years and aged 35 years or more, had their last child at age-group 20 to 24 years or 25 to 34 years, had completed primary or secondary and higher education, and had mass media facilities. PMID:22426562

  13. Percutaneous transapical access: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudiy, Yuriy; Kliger, Chad; Jelnin, Vladimir; Elisabeth, Alzola; Kronzon, Itzhak; Ruiz, Carlos E

    2014-09-01

    Percutaneous transapical access provides a direct route to many cardiac structures difficult to reach with conventional interventional approaches. With recent developments of new technologies in structural heart disease, there has been an increasing interest in the use of transapical access for cardiac interventions. Meticulous planning, careful access and closure techniques are essential. Development of novel imaging technologies and dedicated closure devices are warranted to allow a greater number of operators to successfully adopt percutaneous transapical access and further reduce complication rates. This article is an overview of the current status and utility of percutaneous transapical access with focus on multimodality imaging, technique and potential complications of this approach. PMID:25256337

  14. Oral health status among the tobacco and betel nut chewers in the Kishore Ganj District of Bangladesh. A statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswar, N

    2002-01-01

    A survey was taken among the people of the Kishore Ganj District in Bangladesh regarding their mouth status. A deep analysis was made with respect to the most common habit prevalent among the people namely "Tobacco and Betel nut chewing". This habit is prevalent among both the men and women in that district. The oral manifestations of 780 people were studied in depth and the results noted. PMID:12765097

  15. Current status of Japanese detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tatsumi, Daisuke; Arai, Koji; Nakagawa, Noriyasu; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Toshitaka; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Takamori, Akiteru; Bertolini, Alessandro; Sannibale, Virginio; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Marka, Szabolcs; Ando, Masaki; Tsubono, Kimio; Akutsu, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishitsuka, Hideki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Awaya, Norichika; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Araya, Akito; Telada, Souichi; Tomaru, Takayuki; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sato, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Shintomi, Takakazu

    2007-01-01

    Current status of TAMA and CLIO detectors in Japan is reported in this article. These two interferometric gravitational-wave detectors are being developed for the large cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) which is a future plan for detecting gravitational wave signals at least once per year. TAMA300 is being upgraded to improve the sensitivity in low frequency region after the last observation experiment in 2004. To reduce the seismic noises, we are installing new seismic isolation system, which is called TAMA Seismic Attenuation System, for the four test masses. We confirmed stable mass locks of a cavity and improvements of length and angular fluctuations by using two SASs. We are currently optimizing the performance of the third and fourth SASs. We continue TAMA300 operation and R&D studies for LCGT. Next data taking in the summer of 2007 is planned. CLIO is a 100-m baseline length prototype detector for LCGT to investigate interferometer performance in cryogenic condition. The key features of...

  16. Sinoprobe Datacenter Development: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y.; Dong, S.; Chen, Z.; Chen, G.; Cheng, M.

    2011-12-01

    The project of the Sinoprobe datacenter development is to build new IT infrastructures needed to store, visualize and manage all the data acquired by SinoProbe program.The SinoProbe data center is designed using service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles. More specifically, service component architecture (SCA) is used to implement sinoprobe data services. It also uses various advanced technologies such as Java/JEE for the platform, PostgresSQL/PostGIS for the data storage, ApacheDS for LDAP, CoachDB for the medadata storage, GeoServer for the GIS services, ExtJs and OpenLayer for the Ajax framework, and Apache Shiro for the security framework. Through the integration and development of various technologies used, the major services of the datacenter system are implemented including the security infrastructure services (user authentication and authorization), metadata services, data warehouse stores, data services, GIS services, and web portal. There are also visualization components including the development of a virtual globe to replace the currently used Google Earth. This poster presents the current status of the SinoProbe data center development, and the detailed discussion of the system.

  17. Current status of Japanese detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of the TAMA and CLIO detectors in Japan is reported in this paper. These two interferometric gravitational wave detectors are being developed for the large cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) which is a future plan for detecting gravitational wave signals at least once per year. TAMA300 is being upgraded to improve the sensitivity in a low-frequency region after the last observational experiment in 2004. To reduce the seismic noises, we are installing a new seismic isolation system, called the TAMA seismic attenuation system, for the four test masses. We confirmed stable mass locks of a cavity and improvements of length and angular fluctuations by using two SASs. We are currently optimizing the performance of the third and fourth SASs. We continue TAMA300 operation and R and D studies for the LCGT. The next data taking is planned for the summer of 2007. CLIO is a 100 m baseline length prototype detector for LCGT to investigate interferometer performance in cryogenic condition. The key features of CLIO are that it locates the Kamioka underground site for a low-seismic noise level, and adopts cryogenic Sapphire mirrors for low-thermal noise level. The first operation of the cryogenic interferometer was successfully demonstrated in February 2006. Current sensitivity at room temperature is close to the target sensitivity within a factor of 4. Several observational experiments at room temperature have been done. Once the displacement noise reaceen done. Once the displacement noise reaches the thermal noise level of room temperature, its improvement by cooling test mass mirrors should be demonstrated

  18. Current status of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision to devote the 1984 conference to nuclear power is timely and appropriate. Illinois has a long, and distinguished history in the development of civilian nuclear power. The concept was born at the University of Chicago, developed at Argonne National Laboratory and demonstrated on the Commonwealth Edison system at our pioneer Dresden Nuclear Station. Today, Illinois ranks number one in the nation in nuclear generation. With over a quarter century of commercial operating experience, nuclear power has proven its worth and become a significant and growing component of electric power supply domestically and throughout the world. Despite its initial acceptance, however, the nuclear power industry in the U.S. is now in the midst of a difficult period of readjustment stemming largely from the economic and regulatory problems of the past decade. As a result, the costs of plants under construction have increased dramatically, causing serious financial difficulties for several projects and their owners. At the same time, the U.S. is facing hard choices concerning its future energy supplies. Conferences such as this have an important role in clarifying the issues and helping to find solutions to today's pressing energy problems. This paper summarizes the status of nuclear power both here and abroad, discussing the implications of current events in the context of national energy policy and economic development here in Illinois

  19. The MAGPIE project: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Mega-Ampere Generator for Plasma Implosion Experiments (MAGPIE) is currently under construction in the Plasma Physics group at Imperial College, London. The generator is specifically designed to carry out radiative collapse experiments in hydrogen fibre Z-pinches. In order to achieve this goal, MAGPIE must be capable of delivering in excess of 1.5MA into a 150 mH load in under 200 ns. In the final generator, four 2.4 MV Marx banks charge four 5 ohm, coaxial, 100 ns single transit, water filled pulse forming lines (PFLs). The four PFLs are connected to a single coaxial vertical transfer line via four sychronously triggered trigatron switches. The vertical transfer line has an impedence of 1.25 ohm and therefore represents a matched load to the four PFLs. At the top of the transfer line a graded insulator stack makes up the vacuum-water interface. A magnetically insulated transmission line section then feeds the load. The total energy stored in the banks is 336 kJ making MAGPIE a multi terrawatt, long pulse generator. This paper reports on the general status of the programme and on details of the work carried out in characterising and optimising the trigatron switches

  20. Current status of zirconia restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsumura, Hideo; Ban, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taira

    2013-10-01

    During the past decade, zirconia-based ceramics have been successfully introduced into the clinic to fabricate fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), along with a dental computer-aided/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. In this article (1) development of dental ceramics, (2) the current status of dental CAD/CAM systems, (3) CAD/CAM and zirconia restoration, (4) bond between zirconia and veneering ceramics, (5) bond of zirconia with resin-based luting agents, (6) surface finish of zirconia restoration and antagonist enamel wear, and (7) clinical evaluation of zirconia restoration are reviewed. Yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) showed better mechanical properties and superior resistance to fracture than other conventional dental ceramics. Furthermore, ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline and alumina nanocomposites (Ce-TZP/A) had the highest fracture toughness and had resistance to low-temperature aging degradation. Both zirconia-based ceramics have been clinically available as an alternative to the metal framework for fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Marginal adaptation of zirconia-based FDPs is acceptable for clinical application. The most frequent clinical complication with zirconia-based FDPs was chipping of the veneering porcelain that was affected by many factors. The mechanism for the bonding between zirconia and veneering ceramics remains unknown. There was no clear evidence of chemical bonding and the bond strength between zirconia and porcelain was lower than that between metal and porcelain. There were two alternatives proposed that might avoid chipping of veneering porcelains. One was hybrid-structured FDPs comprising CAD/CAM-fabricated porcelain parts adhering to a CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia framework. Another option was full-contour zirconia FDPs using high translucent zirconia. Combined application of silica coating and/or silane coupler, and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate is currently one of the most reliable bonding systems for zirconia. Adhesive treatments could be applied to luting the restorations and fabricating hybrid-structured FDPs. Full-contour zirconia FDPs caused concern about the wear of antagonist enamel, because the hardness of Y-TZP was over double that of porcelain. However, this review demonstrates that highly polished zirconia yielded lower antagonist wear compared with porcelains. Polishing of zirconia is possible, but glazing is not recommended for the surface finish of zirconia. Clinical data since 2010 are included in this review. The zirconia frameworks rarely got damaged in many cases and complications often occurred in the veneering ceramic materials. Further clinical studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are required to investigate the possible influencing factors of technical failures. PMID:24140561

  1. Temporary Movement of Natural Persons (TMNP: Prospects and Constraints of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahidul Karim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporary Movement of Natural Persons (TMNP known as Mode-4 under the General Agreements of Trade inService (GATS is the real interest for Bangladesh in service negotiation. The research reveals the significanceof TMNP and its impact on the living standard of households and economic development of Bangladesh. It hasdemonstrated the scope for future diversification in profession and market to expand volume of labor exportfrom Bangladesh. In addition, this article has shown the constraints faced by Bangladesh in TMNP. The analysisis based on the secondary information and comprehensive database. Finally, the study depicts measures toimprove the current status of TMNP in light of major market access barriers.

  2. The status of storage of spent fuel from reactors: Bangladesh perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Bangladesh, a 3 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor is the main nuclear research facility in the country. The reactor has so far been operated for about 3428 hours with a total burn-up of about 5750 MWh. The reactor uses TRIGA LEU fuel with normal uranium content of 20% by weight. The enrichment level of the fuel is 19.7%. At the same time, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is seriously pursuing a project to establish a 600 MW PWR type nuclear power plant in the west-central part of the country in near future. In regard to the safe management, storage and disposal of wastes from the present operation of the research reactor and the future operation of the power reactor, BAEC is going ahead with specific plans and program. Presently, there is not a single spent fuel element in the reactor facility and with the present trend of burn-up, it seems that BAEC TRIGA will not generate any spent fuel by the year 2009. BAEC TRIGA facility has three Fuel Storage Pits made of stainless located in the floor of the reactor hall. These pits are meant for temporary storage of spent fuel elements as well as radioactive samples. The storage pits were designed to hold 19 TRIGA fuel elements in each pit. The pit can be water filled to accommodate storage of irradiated fuel elements. There are also 3 fuel storage racks, each capable of holding 10 fuel elements, located along the walls of the reactor tank to provide temporary storage of fuel-moderator of graphite dummytorage of fuel-moderator of graphite dummy elements. With regard to the management of the spent fuel from the proposed nuclear power plant, direct disposal after conditioning is envisaged rather than reprocessing. Water pool (wet) storage at the reactor site for a period of more than 30 years is being considered prior to the final disposal in a crystalline rock repository in the northern part of the country. A Central Waste Processing and Storage Facility (CWPSF) is fast nearing completion in the AERE, Savar campus. A national strategy exists for the management and disposal of various types of radioactive wastes including spent fuel. The authority for the control of all radiological and nuclear practices in Bangladesh is the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC). The legal basis for this control are the 'Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) Act 1993 and the Nuclear Safety and the Radiation Control Rules, 1997' which essentially incorporate the requirements of the international Basic Safety Standards. The Act requires a license to carry out any radiological and nuclear practice in the country while the rules prescribe the conditions to be fulfilled and the manner by which a license has to be obtained. Disused spent sealed sources are being stored in an interim storage in the CWPSF following short treatment and conditioning. As to their disposal the currently preferred option is engineered repository. Site investigation has progressed towards establishing a demonstration repository at AERE, Savar by the year 2010. For long-lived highly active problem wastes including spent radium needles and disused radioactive sources, the safe management option is a longterm storage in the CWPSF following treatment and conditioning. But this is not considered as a sustainable solution. The real emphasis is placed on the development of inexpensive disposal methods and availing regional/international repositories. A long-term storage is not a sustainable solution because it has got its own type of risks and uncertainties associated with it. The ideal disposal option for highly active highly toxic 'problem waste' will be a regional or an international geological repository particularly for countries like Bangladesh which has small resource base. Spent fuel storage facilities may be situated at-reactor (RA) or outside the boundary of a nuclear power station, in other words, away-from-reactor (AFR), possibly at a centralized site. Such facilities may also be classified by the medium of storage, either in the form of 'wet' or 'dry' storage. Wet storage facilities for s

  3. Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye (sarcophagus) are described, including the following issues: the accident; the sarcophagus; the radioactive inventory; the design basis criteria; the analysis of the present state; a way forward

  4. Support Vector Machines for Current Status Data

    OpenAIRE

    Travis-lumer, Yael; Goldberg, Yair

    2015-01-01

    Current status data is a data format where the time to event is restricted to knowledge of whether or not the failure time exceeds a random monitoring time. We develop a support vector machine learning method for current status data that estimates the failure time expectation as a function of the covariates. In order to obtain the support vector machine decision function, we minimize a regularized version of the empirical risk with respect to a data-dependent loss. We show t...

  5. Present status and future prospects of industrial applications of isotopes in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionising radiation is used for quality assurance and quality control of many industrial products. Bangladesh is actively working on the industrial application of isotopes in the fields of non-destructive testing (NDT) of material, nuclear analytical technique, radiation technology, tracer technology through the participation in the UNDP/IAEA/RCA Project for Asia and the Pacific on the industrial application of isotopes and radiation technology. Bangladesh is developing NDT technology to such an extent and standard that the country is attaining self-reliance in this field for service and human resource development and the foreign dependence is becoming greatly reduced. Examples of recent achievements are given

  6. Socio-economic Status of Women Influences of Domestic Violence: A Sociological Analysis at Urban Area in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rabi Ullah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available From the early stages women are confined at some definite work, position and role which generally differ to men in society. Their status is seen as below than men in patriarchal social structure like Bangladesh. Today the situation is more or less remaining same to some extent in their family roles and responsibilities that causes to domestic violence. The article mainly focuses on the socio-economic status of women and different forms of domestic violence at urban area in Dhaka city. The study shows the lower position of women at different levels and also high rate of verbal and psychological violence to women in their married life. Still dependency on men was found high in the urban area and most women were found not engaged in productive economic activities. The total respondent’s 150 married women living with their husband were interviewed to collect primary data in Dhaka city.

  7. Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh

  8. Current Status of RENO Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) is under construction to measure the value of the smallest and unknown neutrino mixing angle ?13. The experiment will compare the measured fluxes of electron antineutrinos at two detectors located at 290 m and 1.4 km distances from the center of the Yonggwang nuclear reactors in Korea, with world-second largest thermal power output of 16.4 GW. Construction of experimental halls and access tunnels for both near and far detector sites was completed in early 2009. The detectors are near completion, and data-taking is planned to start in mid 2010. An expected number of observed antineutrino is roughly 510 and 80 per day in the near detector and far detector, respectively. An estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.6%, and an expected statistical error is about 0.3%. With three years of data, the experiment will search for the mixing angle values of sin2(2?13) down to 0.02 in 90% C.L. limit. In this talk, the construction status will be presented. (author)

  9. Current status of viroid taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Serio, F; Flores, R; Verhoeven, J Th J; Li, S-F; Pallás, V; Randles, J W; Sano, T; Vidalakis, G; Owens, R A

    2014-12-01

    Viroids are the smallest autonomous infectious nucleic acids known so far. With a small circular RNA genome of about 250-400 nt, which apparently does not code for any protein, viroids replicate and move systemically in host plants. Since the discovery of the first viroid almost forty-five years ago, many different viroids have been isolated, characterized and, frequently, identified as the causal agents of plant diseases. The first viroid classification scheme was proposed in the early 1990s and adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) a few years later. Here, the current viroid taxonomy scheme and the criteria for viroid species demarcation are discussed, highlighting the main taxonomic questions currently under consideration by the ICTV Viroid Study Group. The impact of correct taxonomic annotation of viroid sequence variants is also addressed, taking into consideration the increasing application of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics for known and previously unrecognized viroids. PMID:25216773

  10. The current status of radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Review the role of radiosurgery in recurrent malignant gliomas for palliative purposes. Review the role of radiosurgery in newly diagnosed malignant glioma as boost therapy and emphasize the randomized clinical trials underway. Review the role of radiosurgery in the management of patients with brain metastases and emphasize the major prognostic factors. Review the recently initiated clinical trials for brain metastases using radiosurgery. Review the role of radiosurgery in the management of benign tumors with specific emphasis on meningioma and acoustic neuroma. Emphasize the rationale for fractionation and present the preliminary results of fractionated stereotactic radiation. Stereotactic localization techniques, originally designed for neurosurgery, have been used to delivery high single doses of radiation to small intracranial targets for more than 25 years, a technique referred to as stereotactic radiosurgery. Radiosurgery has proven to be an attractive alternative to surgery in the management of several benign tumors, such as vestibular schwannomas with better preservation of hearing and facial nerve function than microsurgical resection. For other benign tumors such as meningioma and pituitary adenoma, preliminary results are promising, but longer range studies to confirm high tumor control rates are necessary. For patients with malignant glioma, radiosurgery has been used to escalate the radiation dose to enhance tumor control following surgery andnhance tumor control following surgery and radiation therapy. The rationale for this is grounded in the recent confirmatory randomized prospective trial verifying the value of brachytherapy in this disease. The results of radiosurgery from single institutional experiences for primary and recurrent malignant glioma indicate a palliative benefit as well as a potential survival benefit in a select sub-group of patients based on the appropriate mix of prognostic criteria such as patient age, performance status, tumor size and extent of resection. Several thousand patients with brain metastases have now been treated with radiosurgery with local control rates ranging from 80-100%. Although no prospective randomized comparison with resection has been undertaken, retrospective, well-controlled studies indicate that the overall survival outcome as well as quality of life of patients managed with radiosurgery is equivalent or superior to those managed with surgery. Several cost analysis evaluations indicate that radiosurgery may in fact prove to be the more cost-effective modality for these patients. Randomized trials further evaluating the role of radiosurgery are underway for patients with both metastatic disease as well as malignant glioma. Stereotactic radiotherapy combines the target and dose localization characteristics of radiosurgery with the biological advantages of dose fractionation made possible by the use of relocatable frames which serve to immobilize the patient and localize the target in a reproducible manner. The rationale, methods and limitation of stereotactic radiotherapy as well as the clinical experience and results will be reviewed

  11. Current status of pacemaker technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first cardiac pacemaker was implanted twenty years ago, advances rendered have provided patients with increased reliability and therapeutic efficiency as well as subsequent incrementation in their life expectancy. Technological developments have yielded improvement in the main components such as electrode, the energy source and the electronic circuitry. A variety of leads are available to effect pacing requirements at ventricular and, in part, atrial levels. The introduction of lithium energy sources has prolonged the usefull life of pacemakers to more than 8 years. Consumption of current has been reduced by decreasing electrode surface area, shortening of pulse duration and employment of hybrid circuits. Microprocessing of the electronic components have enabled reduced size of pulse generators while providing increased reliability and capabilities for additional functions. Amelioration of electrophysiologic disturbances has been specifically approaches through increasing use of atrial and bifocal pacemakers, external programmability and overdrive pacing. (orig.)

  12. Engineered barriers: current status 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain substantially the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137Cs), since they can provide a measure of containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  13. Isotope-aided studies on the nutrient status of eight Bangladesh soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this pot investigation was to identify the lack of macro- and micronutrients by cereal, leguminous and oil crops grown on typical Bangladesh soils. Radioactive and stable tracers were applied in two pot experiments, one extensive experiment with four crops rice, mungbean, mustard, and barley and with six radionuclides, 32P, 75Se, 58Co, 65Zn and 85Sr, and one small experiment with barley and 15N-enriched urea. This report contains the results of the investigation and comments of treatment effects on dry matter yields, chemical concentrations and chemical yields, in relation to soil analyses and to obtained tracer measures of soil fertility. Some conclusions are drawn as regards fertilizer measures needed to increase crop production under Bangladesh village conditions and as regards the potential value of futher soil/fertilizer/plant- investigations using tracers for evaluation and assessment of soil fertility and fertilizer efficiency. (author)

  14. Community economic status and intimate partner violence against women in bangladesh: compositional or contextual effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderEnde, Kristin E; Sibley, Lynn M; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Yount, Kathryn M

    2015-06-01

    In this research, we used a multi-level contextual-effects analysis to disentangle the household- and community-level associations between income and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in Bangladesh. Our analyses of data from 2,668 women interviewed as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women showed that household income was negatively associated with women's risk of experiencing IPV. Controlling for residence in a low-income household, living in a low-income community was not associated with women's risk of experiencing IPV. These results support a household-level, not community-level, relationship between income and IPV in Bangladesh. PMID:25845617

  15. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring withi...

  16. Flood control embankments contribute to the improvement of the health status of children in rural Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Myaux, J. A.; Ali, M.; Chakraborty, J.; De Francisco, A

    1997-01-01

    Every year, Bangladesh experiences major floods that inundate about one-third of the country. Therefore, flood control projects that comprise earthen dikes and irrigation/drainage systems are built along the major rivers to protect the people living in low-lying areas, stabilize the river banks and improve agricultural productivity. However, the adverse effects of these projects are regularly emphasized, such as environmental degradation and reduction of fishing supplies. The Demographic Surv...

  17. Current status of rotational atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomey, Matthew I; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K

    2014-04-01

    Rotational atherectomy facilitates percutaneous coronary intervention for complex de novo lesions with severe calcification. A strategy of routine rotational atherectomy has not, however, conferred reduction in restenosis or major adverse cardiac events. As it is technically demanding, rotational atherectomy is also uncommon. At this 25-year anniversary since the introduction of rotational atherectomy, we sought to review the current state-of-the-art in rotational atherectomy technique, safety, and efficacy data in the modern era of drug-eluting stents, strategies to prevent and manage complications, including slow-flow/no-reflow and burr entrapment, and appropriate use in the context of the broader evolution in the management of stable ischemic heart disease. Fundamental elements of optimal technique include use of a single burr with burr-to-artery ratio of 0.5 to 0.6-rotational speed of 140,000 to 150,000 rpm, gradual burr advancement using a pecking motion, short ablation runs of 15 to 20 s, and avoidance of decelerations >5,000 rpm. Combined with meticulous technique, optimal antiplatelet therapy, vasodilators, flush solution, and provisional use of atropine, temporary pacing, vasopressors, and mechanical support may prevent slow-flow/no-reflow, which in contemporary series is reported in 0.0% to 2.6% of cases. On the basis of the results of recent large clinical trials, a subset of patients with complex coronary artery disease previously assigned to rotational atherectomy may be directed instead to medical therapy alone or bypass surgery. For patients with de novo severely calcified lesions for which rotational atherectomy remains appropriate, referral centers of excellence are required. PMID:24630879

  18. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which defines request types for inserting, updating and deleting coverages. A web client, designed for both novice and experienced users, is also available for the service and its extensions. The client offers an intuitive interface that allows users to work with multi-dimensional coverages by abstracting the specifics of the standard definitions of the requests. The Web Coverage Processing Service defines a language for on-the-fly processing and filtering multi-dimensional raster coverages. rasdaman exposes this service through the WCS processing extension. Demonstrations are provided online via the Earthlook website (earthlook.org) which presents use-cases from a wide variety of application domains, using the rasdaman system as processing engine.

  19. Current Status of Radioisotope Applications in Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhatnagar

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Reviews the current status of radioisotope applications in Defence- R&D Establishments, Defence Inspectorates, Ordnance Factories, Public Sector Undertakings under the Defence Ministry, Army, Navy and Air Force Establishments and Military Hospitals. It also lists the users of film badge service in Defence. Training programmes in radioisotope applications in Defence conducted by DRDO organisations have also been highlighted.

  20. Relationship of Intestinal Parasites, H. Pylori Infection with Anemia or Iron Status Among School age Children in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Rahman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate an association of intestinal parasites orHelicobacter pylori infection with hemoglobin, anemia or iron statusamong rural school aged children in Bangladesh.METHODS: Data and specimens from a controlled trial amongchildren aged 6-15 years old to assess the nutritional impact offortified flour were used to carry out this additional analysis onfactors which effect anemia. Stool samples from 310 children werecollected at the end of the trial and were tested for Helicobacterpylori stool antigen and intestinal parasites. Data on hematologicalparameters were obtained from endline measurements of the trial.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was84% among children with the highest prevalence for Ascaris(71% followed by Trichuris (67% and Hookworm (31%. Theprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was 39.7%. A total of26.8% children were anemic, while low iron status as defined by alow serum ferritin (5.0mg/L respectively was present in 18% and 11% of the children. Nostatistically significant association was found between Helicobacterpylori or any intestinal parasites and hemoglobin concentration,anemia or iron status among the children. However, there was asignificant association between low hemoglobin concentration andlow iron status based on serum ferritin (Coefficient: -0.28, 95% CI-0.54, -0.03 or transferrin receptor level (Coefficient: -0.89, 95% CI-1.18, -0.59 as well as anemia and low iron status based on serumtransferrin receptor (OR 3.57; p<0.01.CONCLUSION: Our results are in line with other studies fromdeveloping countries that showed no significant association betweenintestinal parasites or Helicobacter pylori infection and anemia,hemoglobin or iron status.

  1. Hepatitis B Vaccination in Bangladesh: a Suggestion Based on Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafquat Mohammed Rafiq

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe hepatitis B virus (HBV causes up to a million deaths worldwide and 16 million health care related infections in the tropics each year(1,2, and over 350 million become chronically infected carriers who have no significant liver disease; approximately three quarters of them are in Asia and the western pacific region(3,4. HBV infection is a potentially life threatening condition as many of the affected individuals progress to chronic hepatitis,cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC(3. In infants and children, acute hepatitis B infection is nearly always asymptomatic, whereas in adults it is usually the opposite. But on the other hand, the risk of becoming chronic carriage is much greater in children than in adults; as many as 90% of infants born to Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg positive mothers become carriers themselves and, therefore, in long term are more likely to developchronic liver disease(5. Currently, though several antiviral drugs are used,there is no reliable curative treatment for HBV once it has been acquired and prevention by universal immunization remains the strategy for reducing the number of acute infections, chronic carriage and the long-term burden from diseases such as HCC(4,6. In 1991, in an attempt to reduce the global impact of HBV infection, WHO recommended that hepatitis B vaccination should be integrated into national immunization programs in all countries(7.Some Asian countries, for instance, Thailand, haveadopted the policy of immunizing children universally against the disease as early as 1992, however many others lagged behind(4.The true prevalence of Hepatitis B in Bangladesh is yet to be ascertained by a reliable study. Data available from different studies show that it ranges between 0.8 and 5.4% depending on the study design, samples and laboratory methods used(8-10.These data were based on detection of HBsAg antigen; the rates would have been higher, had they been based on anti-HBc antibody(11. Relying on these statistics Bangladesh can be categorized as an intermediate endemic zone for HBV(12. Unfortunately, despite an increased prevalence of HBV infection, the country has not incorporated hepatitis B vaccination into its national childhood immunization policy until recently, most probably because of its economic constraints. Presently it offers three doses hepatitis B vaccine to all babies. It is felt that the current regimen was drawn in on the basis of ongoing uncertainties and disagreements surrounding the vaccine all over the globe.Uncertainties Surrounding HBV ImmunizationThe rationale of HBV immunization is illustrated in the box; however uncertainties surrounding HBV immunization do exist, these are:Box: Rationale of Hepatitis B Immunization The rationale of HBV vaccination is to prevent: · Episodes of acute hepatitis B · Chronic hepatitis B surface antigenaemia · Chronic hepatitis and the need for therapy · Hepatocellular carcinoma · HBV transmission Correspondence:Dr. Harunor Rashid, Research Fellow, Academic Departmentof Child Health, Queen Mary University of London, 38 NewRoad, London, E1 2AX, UKFax: +44(02073777167E-mail: h.rashid@qmul.ac.ukHep Mon 2006; 6 (1: 41-44 - Duration of vaccine- induced immunity:It has been shown that immunization with three doses of HBV vaccine provides acceptable level of seroprotection for at least five years(13. Titersdecreased to 99% of the 14 year olds had titers of |“|10mIU/mL while one year after the booster 10mIU/mL after 1 month of first, second and third vaccinations were 58%, 70% and 94% respectively(16. However, it has been observed in other studies that two doses of recombinant HBV vaccine given over 4 or 6 months provide adequate seroprotection (|“|10mIU/mL in |“|95% of adolescent vaccines(13,17. There were small variations in vaccine response between infants and teenagers. The range of protection for different doses is shown in Table(17. If we accept that a level of 80-95% seroprotection is sufficient for Bangladesh then a strategy with only two doses would be more economical.Table:

  2. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-07-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub-clinically affected. SOES and DCH made a few follow-up studies in some districts to know their overall situations after 9 to 18 years of their first exposure. The overall conclusion from these follow-up studies is (a) villagers are now more aware about the danger of drinking arsenic contaminated water (b) villagers are currently drinking less arsenic contaminated water (c) many villagers in affected village died of cancer (d) arsenic contaminated water is in use for agricultural irrigation and arsenic exposure from food chain could be future danger. Since at present more information is coming about health effects from low arsenic exposure, Bangladesh Government should immediately focus on their huge surface water management and reduce their permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water. PMID:25660323

  3. Polio eradication: Current status and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaumik, Soumyadeep

    2012-01-01

    For more than two decades mankind has been dreaming of a “polio-free world.” However the dream is yet to be realized owing to various problems related to transmission of wild polio virus transmission as well as vaccine-derived polio virus. These problems are as much scientific as human. The article briefly discusses the current status of polio control across the globe, and various challenges associated with it in a nation-wise manner.

  4. Current status of low energy EB machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam processing systems have been in use in a variety of applications such as curing of paints and printing inks, crosslinking of PE products, treating of rubber tire and so on. Low energy electron processing systems have become popular as self-shielded machines, which are compact and easy to use and do not require special facility as an irradiation room. This manuscript introduces the status of low energy EB (electron beam) machine through Nissin's products current

  5. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, S. P.; Bett, A. W.; Horowitz, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the current status of the market and technology for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells and modules. Significant progress in CPV has been achieved, including record efficiencies for modules (36.7%) and cells (46%), as well as growth of large field installations in recent years. CPV technology may also have the potential to be cost-competitive on a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) basis in regions of high direct normal irradiance (DNI). The study includes an overview of all installations larger than 1 MW, information on companies currently active in the CPV field, efficiency data, and estimates of the LCOE in different scenarios.

  6. WTO TRIPS Agreement- Current state of Pharmaceutical Industry and Policy Options for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abu Yusuf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS requires adoption of a minimum patentstandard for all countries. It is often argued by developing countries that the introduction of a uniform (and minimum patentstandard for all countries irrespective of their level of development would prevent people from access to medicines.Moreover, in developing countries, the drug expenses are being paid out of pockets by the patients unlike developedcountries where insurance companies bear the burden. In this regard an empirical study was conducted on pharmaceuticalstakeholders consisting of leading pharmaceutical companies, drug administration of Bangladesh (the regulatory authority,leading experts on industrial pharmacy, academics and leaders of Bangladesh Association of Pharmaceutical Industries.The study finds that price of medicines will go up and access to health will be denied once Bangladesh enters the patentregime. The perceived impact on the industry however is mixed. The paper concludes with some policy considerations thatthe government and the industry should consider to ensuring that the patients have access to medicines at an affordableprice.

  7. Productive and reproductive efficiency of different genotypes of goat in Bangladesh influenced by nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment is being conducted in flood fed area in the western part and hilly area in the eastern part of Bangladesh covering rural and urban areas with Black Bengal and crossbred (Black Bengal X Shirohi) goats to find out the effect of nutrition on growth and reproductive performances. Pure Black Bengal goats and crossbred goats were selected from the rural area of two regions. Purity of the goats was ascertained through history of the animals as well as microsatellites test. Black Bengal goats were reared under normal grazing condition without any supplementation in both the regions. Crossbred goats were maintained in the urban area of the western part and kept on grazing as well as supplementation (green leaves and concentrates). All the experimental goats were dewormed and vaccinated against PPR regularly. The experiment started in January 2007 and still is continuing. Litter size, kidding interval, birth weight, weaning weight and yearling weight are the parameters that are being recoded. The results presented here represent the data from January 2007 to August 2008. The birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, litter size and kidding interval for different genotypes in different regions have been presented in a Table. Within the Black Bengal goats, birth weight, weaning weight and yearling weight were more in group maintained in hilly area than those reared in flood fed area. There was no significant difference of birth weight between two groups; howee of birth weight between two groups; however weaning weight and yearling weight of goats reared in hilly region were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those of goats reared in flood fed area. Reproductive parameters like litter size and kidding interval performances were also better in goats reared in hilly area. The flood fed area is inundated by floodwater every year; paddy is cultivated throughout the year and has very limited grazing land with high human population density. Animals in this area always suffer from malnutrition due to lack of sufficient forages. The hilly area remains free of flood, covered by dense forest and has a vast grazing land with low human population density. Animals in this area get sufficient forage naturally. The better performances in growth and reproduction in goats reared in hilly area is certainly for better nutrition that occurs naturally. On the hand, crossbred maintained urban area had better performances over Black Bengal goats. This may be for heterosis effect as well as supplementation of feeds. The preliminary study of this experiment indicates that nutrition as well as genotypes has significant influence in the production and reproduction performances of goats in Bangladesh. In fact, this is the first work on Black Bengal goats in the hilly area and crossbred goats of Bangladesh. Further experiment has been planned for confirming this fact. (author)

  8. Diversity of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mohammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT of Bangladesh was considered hyperendemic for malaria. To better understand the contemporary malaria epidemiology and to develop new and innovative control strategies, comprehensive epidemiologic studies are ongoing in two endemic unions of Bandarban district of CHT. Within these studies entomological surveillance has been undertaken to study the role of the existing anopheline species involved in the malaria transmission cycle throughout the year. Methods CDC miniature light traps were deployed to collect anopheline mosquitoes from the sleeping room of the selected houses each month in a single union (Kuhalong. Molecular identification was carried out for available Anopheles species complexes. Circumsporozoite proteins (CSP for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax-210 (Pv-210 and Plasmodium vivax-247(Pv-247 were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from the female anopheline mosquitoes. To confirm CSP-ELISA results, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also performed. Results A total of 2,837 anopheline mosquitoes, of which 2,576 were female, belonging to 20 species were collected from July 2009?-June 2010. Anopheles jeyporiensis was the most abundant species (18.9%, followed by An. vagus (16.8% and An. kochi (14.4%. ELISA was performed on 2,467 female mosquitoes of 19 species. 15 (0.6% female anophelines belonging to eight species were found to be positive for Plasmodium infection by CSP-ELISA. Of those, 11 (0.4% mosquitoes were positive for P. falciparum and four (0.2% for Pv-210. No mosquito was found positive for Pv-247. An. maculatus (2.1%, 2/97 had the highest infection rate followed by An. umbrosus (1.7%, 2/115 and An. barbirostris (1.1%, 2/186. Other infected species were An. nigerrimus, An. nivipes, An. jeyporiensis, An. kochi, and An. vagus. Out of 11 P. falciparum CSP positive samples, seven turned out to be positive by PCR. None of the samples positive for Pv-210 was positive by PCR. In terms of abundance and incrimination, the results suggest that An. maculatus, An. jeyporiensis and An. nivipes play important roles in malaria transmission in Kuhalong. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that even in the presence of an insecticide impregnated bed-net intervention, a number of Anopheles species still play a role in the transmission of malaria. Further investigations are required to reveal the detailed biology and insecticide resistance patterns of the vector mosquito species in endemic areas in Bangladesh in order to assist with the planning and implementation of improved malaria control strategies.

  9. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron scattering experiments in Thailand have been done continuously since the start up of the reactor. In 1977, Thai research reactor was modified into TRIGA MARK III core. After that, the neutron spectrometer was installed again under a development program. Installation of upgrading spectrometer was delayed because of some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. However, these problems were solved and the setup is almost completed. The paper reports the current status of neutron spectrometer, the problems and plans for the experiments. (author)

  10. Status of Household’s Ducks and their Associated Factors under Scavenging System in a Southern Area of Bangladesh*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh S1, Haider N2 and Khan MKI1*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the status of household ducks and factors affects the productivity of ducks in Companiganj upazila under Noakhali district of Bangladesh. For this study the information was collected by direct interview using a questionnaire from 30 households. The study showed that duck rearing was mostly lead by the women (80% and their level of education varied from primary (43% to higher secondary (7%. The average farm size was found to be six and they were mostly local ducks (90%. Marshy lands were common (67% to the surroundings of the duck habitats. Most of the farmers depended on natural feed sources (60% while some provided supplementary feed (40% for their ducks. As a supplementary feed, 27% of the farmers used rice polish and17% used a mixture of rice polish and boil rice. Duck started their first laying at 6 months of age and the mean egg production per duck per year was 114 ±16 no. The diseases were more common during winter (63% than other seasons of the year. It was found that good egg production (> mean production was associated with the regular use of anthelmintics, supplementary feed, presence of marshy land and regular treatment. Zending was found to be good egg producer in marshy area than other three native breeds of ducks.

  11. Analysis of Financial Products of Capital Market in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahidul Islam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of existing financial products is an important issue in the capital market to increase the new products for reducing the risk of dependency on common stocks. The research aims are to evaluate the growth and development of existing financial instruments and to recommend for introducing new financial instruments in the capital market of Bangladesh. The data are taken from the Dhaka stock exchange for the year 1977 to 2010 for interpretation of development and the data from 2003 to 2010 are taken for analysis and hypothesis test. There are only five products traded including three types of bonds. The average growth rate of market capitalization of common stocks, treasury bonds, mutual funds, corporate bonds & debentures are 71.02%, 124.74%, 99.85% and 105.41% respectively. The growth of market capitalization of all products is high. There is lot of scope in the market for absorbing the new products. The share of common stocks, treasury bond, corporate bond, debentures, mutual funds to total market capitalizations are 87.73%, 12.25%, 0.24%,0.17% and  0.83% respectively. The market is common stock based. The corporate bond market is very small. So, there should be increased new financial instruments in the capital market to reduce the dependency on share only. The proposed financial instruments are various types of preferred stock, bond, SWAP, option, futures, and forwards as recommendation.

  12. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Management of Village Common Forests in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh: Historical Background and Current Issues in Terms of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jashimuddin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the historical management system of village common forests (VCF in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT of Bangladesh and observe the current issues related to their sustainability. The study on historical context was based on secondary information to establish the linkages of VCF development and management in the CHT. Field visits to four VCF in the Bandarban Hill Districts were also conducted to cross check the information collected from secondary sources to observe the current status and management pattern of these VCF through semi-structured interviews, group discussion, key-informant interviews and biodiversity assessment. VCF in the CHT undoubtedly play an important role in biodiversity conservation and as well as supporting daily necessities of the community people. We found that VCF still are the source of fuel wood, herbs, roots, bamboo shoots, wild fruits, vines or leaves for cooking or medicinal use necessary to sustain the lives of the indigenous communities in the CHT. Field visits to different VCF show that the VCF are necessarily small in size (57 ha and around 108 families are dependent on these community managed village forests. A total of 163 plant species from 60 families were also recorded from these VCF including some rare plant and animal species which are not usually found in the reserve forests and the un-classed state forests due to continued deforestation and land degradation. However, population pressure combined with improved marketing facilities, ignorance, over exploitation, personal greed, tenure insecurity, faulty government policies regarding settlement of land and breakdown of the traditional systems exerting pressures on these VCF and the overall condition of these important biodiversity rich areas are degrading or shrinking in size and number gradually. Recognizing the traditional and customary resource rights of the indigenous communities in the CHT, acknowledging resource management system, providing tenure security, encouraging communities through legal and financial incentives in protecting these VCF or any other state owned forest areas solely for the conservation of biodiversity following an intensive management plan, resolving long lasting land related conflicts, and at the same time upholding the spirit of CHT Peace Accord 1997 could be important policy tools for the sustainability of these VCF in the CHT. Lessons learned from this study will be useful in formulating effective policies for community based forest management in Bangladesh and other developing countries.

  14. Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for ?-amyloid plaques, ?1 receptors, and dopamine D2 or D4 receptors; (2) 99mTc- and 18F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, 99mTc-labeled glucose derivatives, ?2 receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Biotechnology in Mauritius: current status and constraints

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daneshwar, Puchooa.

    2004-08-15

    Full Text Available Agriculture today faces the challenge of sustainable productivity and improved food security on a shrinking area of land under cultivation. Until recently, biotechnology has been viewed as an expensive technology affordable only by rich industrial countries. However, it is now increasingly considere [...] d as an essential tool for developing countries to tackle the numerous problems of underdevelopment. Unfortunately, to date, Mauritius, like many other countries in Africa, lags far behind in development, use and commercialisation of biotechnology. This paper outlines the current status of biotechnology in Mauritius, some important constraints faced, as well as how policy makers are planning to make Mauritius “assume the role of a service provider and know-how disseminator in the field of biotechnology by acting as a regional hub and a regional nursery”.

  16. Current status of Pohang Neutron Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the current status of Pohang Neutron Facility, which is the pulsed neutron facility, based on the 70-MeV electron linear accelerator completed on Dec.1997. We have prepared the 15-m time-of-flight path, a Ta-target system, and the Data Acquisition System. Meanwhile we have measured the total cross-sections of Dy and Hf samples at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and the neutron capture cross-sections of 164Dy isotope at Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology both in Japan. We also were participated the experiment at the 122-m flight path of the IBR-30 pulsed neutron source of Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. (author)

  17. Current status of Pohang Neutron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G.N.; Lee, Y.S.; Cho, M.H. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang (KR)] [and others

    2000-03-01

    We present the current status of Pohang Neutron Facility, which is the pulsed neutron facility, based on the 70-MeV electron linear accelerator completed on Dec.1997. We have prepared the 15-m time-of-flight path, a Ta-target system, and the Data Acquisition System. Meanwhile we have measured the total cross-sections of Dy and Hf samples at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and the neutron capture cross-sections of {sup 164}Dy isotope at Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology both in Japan. We also were participated the experiment at the 122-m flight path of the IBR-30 pulsed neutron source of Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. (author)

  18. Current status of 4S plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports current status of the conceptual design of 4S (Super Safe Small and Simple) fast reactor being developed in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. 4S is a fast reactor with the electric output capacity of 50 MWe which pursuits simplification of plant configuration, simplification of maintenance work, higher safety and high economic advantage through continuous shop fabrication and assembly. In addition to these advantage, the core assembly unit of 4S can be applied to a reactor with larger output by arranging these units in a larger vessel without loss of superior features of 4S. Thus, 4S would become energy sources of not only developing countries but also developed countries

  19. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  20. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.iaccarino@unina.it; Venetucci, Pietro [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Diagnostic Imaging Department-Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  1. Current status of NDC fuel hot laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Development Corporation (NDC) fuel hot laboratory was established to investigate the causes for leaked rods and to confirm the integrity of the precedence irradiation fuels, in 1986. After that, it obtained a license to conduct PIE of the structural materials, such as stainless steels, inside the reactor in addition to fuels. So far we have conducted PIE of fuels and metallic materials including fuel assembly components and reactor internal components irradiated in Japanese PWR plants or some test reactors. To meet these PIE needs, we are making efforts to improve facilities and to install high advanced equipments. This paper describes current status of the facilities and PIE techniques in NDC fuel hot laboratory. (author)

  2. Current status in Japan related to LMNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status of nuclear power plants in Japan is presented with the basic concepts against ageing of LWR plants which are considered to continue growing into the 21st century. Life management for aged NPPs is recognized to be important for the safe and reliable operation. In April 1996 MITI published the first report regarding the measures to cope with the aged NPPs. Two BWRs and one PWR were evaluated as aged NPPs in Phase-I Technical evaluation, which concluded that safe operation is possible with correct and adequate maintenance despite operation exceeded 30 years. The technology development items towards attaining further highly reliable management were indicated including the inspection/monitoring technology, the preventive maintenance/repair technology and ageing evaluation technology

  3. Flare models. [solar physics current status review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    The current status of solar flare modeling is reviewed. Primary and secondary observational features that a proposed flare model should be capable of explaining are discussed, including energy storage and release, particle acceleration, mass ejection, heating of the temperature minimum region, X-ray, EUV, UV, visible and radio emission and mass flow. Consideration is then given to the twisted flux tube paramagnetic recombination model of Gold and Hoyle (1960), the current model of Alfven and Carlqvist (1967), closed current-sheet models such as those of Syrovatskii (1966, 1969, 1977) and Uchida and Sakurai (1977), open-field models such as those of Carmichael (1964) and Barnes and Sturrock (1972), the emerging flux model of Heyvaerts and Priest (1974, 1977, 1978) and the loop-flare models of Spicer (1977) and Colgate (1978). It is noted that no one model can yet account for all the observational features, and that there may turn out to be several types of flare, each requiring its own explanation.

  4. Status of coral reefs in South Asia: Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Sri Lanka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasuriya, A.; Zahir, H.; Muley, E.V.; Subramanian, B.R.; Venkataraman, K.; Wafar, M.V.M.; Khan, S.M.M.H.; Whittingham, E.

    2002-01-01

    and there has been little improvement in the last five years. Management is further affected due to the absence of funding, infrastructure and trained and motivated staff. Capacity to monitor the biophysical status of reefs has been improved and socio-economic...

  5. Edible vaccines: Current status and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  6. Report on current status of TAMUTRAP facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidling, P. D.; Mehlman, M.; Behling, S.; Boran, Y.; Fenker, B.; Melconian, D.; DGM Group Team

    2013-10-01

    The Texas A&M University Penning Trap (TAMUTRAP) facility is currently under construction and will take advantage of the radioactive ion beams to become available when the upgrade to the Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, TAMU Re-accelerated Exotics (T-REX) is completed The primary goal of the TAMU-TRAP facility is to test the Standard Model (SM) for a possible admixture of a scalar (S) or tensor (T) type of interaction in T = 2 superallowed beta delayed proton emitters. This information will be inferred from the shape of the observed proton energy spectrum. Additional goals for this facility are mass measurements, lifetime measurements, and ft values. The two main components in the TAMUTRAP facility are a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for cooling and bunching the ions and Penning trap system with two cylindrical Penning traps. Offline tests of the RFQ coupled to the injection optics has recently started, with beam being successfully injected into and extracted from the RFQ. Further tests are being performed in order to determine absolute efficiency of the RFQ and injection optics. Several additional parts of the TAMUTRAP beam line have also been fabricated and are being tested. A brief overview of the TAMUTRAP facility and its current status will be presented.

  7. Association of Clinical Complications with Nutritional Status and the Prevalence of Leukopenia among Arsenic Patients in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul I. Kazi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted in Bangladesh reports the relationship of clinical complications with nutritional status and the prevalence of leukopenia among arsenic exposed patients living in the rural villages. A total of 115 exposed individuals diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were randomly selected from four known arsenic endemic villages, and age-matched 120 unexposed subjects were enrolled in the study program. The duration of arsenic exposure in about 37% of the patients was at least 10 yrs, while the population mean and range were 7.6 ± 5.2 yrs, and 1 – 25 yrs, respectively. The mean arsenic concentrations in the drinking water for the exposed and unexposed (control population were 218.1 μg/L and 11.3 μg/L, respectively. The spot urine sample of the arsenicosis patients contained an average of 234.6 μg/L arsenic. Although very few patients showed elevated WBC count, 16% had leukopenia (below normal count, and the whole population had significantly low WBC count than the control subjects. Prevalences of neutropenia and lymphocytosis were observed in patients with chronic exposure to high levels of arsenic in water. The body mass index was found to be lower than 18.5, the cut-off point for malnutrition (underweight, in about 28% of the arsenicosis cases compared to 15% of the controls. The monthly income and total calorie consumption per day showed the patients were underprivileged than the controls. Arsenical symptoms and complications were more severe in the nutritionally vulnerable (underweight patients than the overweight ones. Also, the incidences of leukopenia and anaemia were more common in the female patients who were underweight. The findings of this research demonstrate that the poor nutritional status of patients increases the complications of chronic arsenic toxicity; suggest the possibility of other sources of arsenic contamination different from drinking water in the study area; and establish a higher prevalence of leukopenia and lymphocytosis in arsenicosis patients.

  8. Current status of JENDL-3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of JENDL-3.3 is presented. Reevaluation work toward JENDL-3.3 has started last April for three years project to supply a consolidated new versions of JENDL by JAERI NDC (Nuclear Data center) with the cooperation of JNDC (Japanese Nuclear Data Committee). The working schedule has been fixed by the careful review of the summary report, `The problems of JENDL-3.2`, submitted to JNDC last March after one year discussions by a small advisory group: `Identifying the problems of JENDL-3.2`. To cope with the problems, two new subgroups are set up in the Subcommittee of Nuclear Data of JNDC. One is Heavy Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for the re-evaluation of major actinides (Th-232, U-233,235,236,238, Pu-236,239,241,242). The other is Intermediate Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for solving the inconsistencies between calculations and integral experiments relating to the fields of fusion neutronics and shielding applications as well as new evaluations such as Er elements. Supplying covariance data for important nuclides are one of the main feature of JENDL-3.3. Re-evaluated data will be released as JENDL-3.3 in the individual bases after the reviewing process by the experts. (author)

  9. [Current status of migraine chronification in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowa, Hisanori

    2013-01-01

    Chronification of migraine headache is one of the major issues to resolve urgently. The prevalence of chronic migraine is close to 2?, and the chronification occurs in approximately 2.5? of episodic cases annually.The pathophysiology of transformation from episodic to chronic migraine is still unclear. It is considered that there are several risk factors for migraine chronification; 1) non-modifiable: age, low education/socioeconomic status, and head injury, 2) modifiable: attack frequency, obesity, medication overuse, stressful life events, caffeine overuse, snoring, and other pain syndrome, 3) currently putative: allodynia, proinflammatory states, prothrombotic states, and specific genes.There were a few clinical reports concerning to the migraine transformation from abroad, but few data from Japan. The prevalence of chronic daily headache in our headache clinic in Japan was 20-30?. The medication overuse headache was the most prevalent form in the highest attack frequency (>15 days/month) grope. Discontinuation of overused medication and administration of prophylactic medication were effective, and 40? of followed cases kept out of MOH at two years later. PMID:24291937

  10. Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hong-Mei; Liu, Bo-Li [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals

    2014-04-01

    The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for ?-amyloid plaques, ?{sub 1} receptors, and dopamine D{sub 2} or D{sub 4} receptors; (2) {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 18}F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled glucose derivatives, ?{sub 2} receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Current status of SSS preparation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISS needs tremendous amount of work due to the overflow of the information from each Member State and from the open source. Every Member State has different types of SSAC in term of the function, structure and activities. This paper is prepared to describe the role of the Korean SSAC in preparing the implementation of additional Protocol. For more than a year after the adoption of model additional protocol in the board of governors, Korean SSAC investigated the status of domestic nuclear industry and concluded as follows; 1. Korean industry has few activities listed in Annex 1 pursuant to article 2.a.(iv) of the additional Protocol mainly due to the electricity-oriented policy on the nuclear energy. 2. Implementation of additional Protocal may not hamper the development of peaceful nuclear activities. 3. Current atomic energy act does not cover the scope of the additional Protocol. 4. Before the signature of the Protocol, technical consultation with the Agency is indispensible. 5. New safeguards system needs closer cooperation between the Agency and the SSAC. The role of SSAC should be changed accordingly. (Yi, J. H.)

  12. Current status of the IREN project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A current status and a corrected time-schedule of the project of the new Intense Resonance Neutron pulsed source (IREN) realized in JINR (Dubna) for experiments dealing with fundamental and applied nuclear physics studies are discussed. This source is the upgraded variant of the existing IBR-30 pulsed booster. It consists of the 200 MeV electron linac and supplying by an electron beam the photo-neutron converter placed in the center of the very fast multiplying subcritical core. The existing buildings and beam infrastructure are planned to adopt for the new IREN source. The aim of the project is to improve essentially an energy resolution of the time-of-flight spectrometer and to increase twice (up to 1015 n/sec) an integral neutron yield. An implementation of the IREN project has started in June 1994 with the planned end in December 1997. But due to mainly insufficient financing the approved time-schedule is shifted. Now most optimistic time of start-up of the neutron source is the end of 1999

  13. IAEA occupational radiation protection programme: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As stated in Art.III.A.6 of its Statute, the International Atomic Energy Agency (commonly referred to as the Agency) is authorized to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operation as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision. The Agency s Occupational Radiation Protection Programme aims at harmonizing infrastructures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and for optimizing radiation protection in situation s of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation. Under its regular and technical cooperation programmes, the Agency has been assigning high priority to both the establishment of safety standards for labour conditions and for the application of these standards through, Interalia, direct assistance under its technical cooperation (TC) programme, the rendering of services, the promotion of education and training, the fostering of information exchange and the coordination of research and development. The purpose of this paper is to present the current status and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection. (authors)

  14. The status of storage of spent fuel from reactors. Bangladesh perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the current strategy with regard to the safe management and disposal of various waste types, spent fuels, amount of spent fuel stored, storage facilities as well as capacities, storage facilities under construction and planning, national policy for the back end of the fuel cycle and anticipated future trends are highlighted. (author)

  15. Current status of JMTR refurbishment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JMTR is a light water moderated and cooled, beryllium reflected tank- type reactor using LUE silicide plate-type fuels. Its thermal power is 50 MW, maximum thermal and fast neutron flux is 4x1018 m-2s-1. First criticality was achieved in March 1968, and its operation was stopped from August, 2006 for the refurbishment. The refurbishment is scheduled from the beginning of FY2007 to the end of FY2010. The renewed and upgraded JMTR will be re-started from FY2011. An investigation on aged components (aged-investigation) was carried out for concrete structures of the JMTR reactor building, exhaust stack, etc., and for tanks in the primary cooling system, heat exchangers, pipes in the secondary cooling system, cooling tower, emergency generators and so on, in order to identify their integrity. The aged-investigation was carried out at the beginning of FY2007. As a result, some components were decided to replace from viewpoints of future maintenance and improvement of reliability, and some components or structures were decided to repair. A visual inspection of inner side of the pressure vessel was carried out using an underwater camera in FY2008, and no serious damage was observed. Up to now, refurbishment works are in progress according to the planned schedule. In FY2009, motors of primary cooling pumps, secondary cooling pumps, motors of drain pumps, pump in the primary water transfer line to the water purification system, beryllium reflector frame, low-voltage motor control centers are to be replaced. A nuclear instrumentation system, process control system, safety protection system and so on are to be replaced in FY2010. In this paper, current status of JMTR refurbishment project is presented. (author)

  16. Management of Village Common Forests in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh: Historical Background and Current Issues in Terms of Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Jashimuddin; Makoto Inoue

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the historical management system of village common forests (VCF) in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh and observe the current issues related to their sustainability. The study on historical context was based on secondary information to establish the linkages of VCF development and management in the CHT. Field visits to four VCF in the Bandarban Hill Districts were also conducted to cross check the information collected from secondary source...

  17. Cancer care scenario in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, A. F. M. Kamal; Khan, Zohora Jameela; Islam, Johirul; Mahmud, Am

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country that is facing many challenges, especially in the health sector. Cancer management is a priority due to the current trend of increased incidence in this region. In this article, the current scenario of cancer in Bangladesh and its management with brief history is outlined. The combined effort of government and private sector is highlighted with the gradual progress in cancer management. Recent introduction of the state-of-the-art facilities and the training ...

  18. Prevalence of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in epidemic-prone border areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazib Forida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information related to malaria vectors is very limited in Bangladesh. In the changing environment and various Anopheles species may be incriminated and play role in the transmission cycle. This study was designed with an intention to identify anopheline species and possible malaria vectors in the border belt areas, where the malaria is endemic in Bangladesh. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three border belt areas (Lengura, Deorgachh and Matiranga during the peak malaria transmission season (May to August. Three different methods were used: human landing catches, resting collecting by mouth aspirator and CDC light traps. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was done to detect Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax-210 and Plasmodium vivax-247 circumsporozoite proteins (CSP from the collected female species. Results A total of 634 female Anopheles mosquitoes belonging to 17 species were collected. Anopheles vagus (was the dominant species (18.6% followed by Anopheles nigerrimus (14.5% and Anopheles philippinensis (11.0%. Infection rate was found 2.6% within 622 mosquitoes tested with CSP-ELISA. Eight (1.3% mosquitoes belonging to five species were positive for P. falciparum, seven (1.1% mosquitoes belonging to five species were positive for P. vivax -210 and a single mosquito (0.2% identified as Anopheles maculatus was positive for P. vivax-247. No mixed infection was found. Highest infection rate was found in Anopheles karwari (22.2% followed by An. maculatus (14.3% and Anopheles barbirostris (9.5%. Other positive species were An. nigerrimus (4.4%, An. vagus (4.3%, Anopheles subpictus (1.5% and An. philippinensis (1.4%. Anopheles vagus and An. philippinensis were previously incriminated as malaria vector in Bangladesh. In contrast, An. karwari, An. maculatus, An. barbirostris, An. nigerrimus and An. subpictus had never previously been incriminated in Bangladesh. Conclusion Findings of this study suggested that in absence of major malaria vectors there is a possibility that other Anopheles species may have been playing role in malaria transmission in Bangladesh. Therefore, further studies are required with the positive mosquito species found in this study to investigate their possible role in malaria transmission in Bangladesh.

  19. Current status of the world's research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from the IAEA's Research Reactor Database (RRDB) provides information with respect to the status of the world's research reactors. Some summary data are given. Recent initiatives by the IAEA regarding communications and information flow with respect to research reactors are discussed. Future plans and perspectives are also introduced. (author)

  20. Critical Consciousness: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Roderick J.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Voight, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors consider Paulo Freire's construct of critical consciousness (CC) and why it deserves more attention in research and discourse on youth political and civic development. His approach to education and similar ideas by other scholars of liberation aims to foster a critical analysis of society--and one's status within…

  1. Feed the Future Bangladesh: Baseline Integrated Household Survey

    US Agency for International Development — The Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey dataset is a thorough assessment of current standard of food security in Bangladesh taken from 2011-2012. The dataset...

  2. Status of thyroidal radioiodine (I-131) uptake and urinary iodine in Bangladesh population: A re-look following implementation of universal iodination of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodide plays a central role in thyroid physiology and in the production of thyroid hormones, which are essential for normal vertebrate growth and development. Radioiodine uptake test is one of the oldest radionuclide investigations for evaluation of thyroid function. On the other hand useful information about the nutritional status of a population can be obtained by measuring the prevalence of deficiency in a population. The main aim of this study was to find out the present status of urinary iodine and thyroid uptake status of people living in and around Dhaka City (Bangladesh). The present study was carried out over a period of three years from 1999 to 2002 involving 300 subjects inclusive of 216 females and 84 males. Efforts were made to randomly include people from a broad spectrum of social and economic strata, starting from people belonging to the lowest to the highest income groups; as well as people representing the urban, rural and suburban populations. Urinary iodine levels and 24 hour percentage radioiodine uptake by the thyroid were estimated in all subjects included in this study. Subsequently patients were grouped into four categories based on the values of their percentage 24-hour radioiodine uptake; e.g., Group-A (N-99) with lowest uptake (0-5%), Group-B (N=100) with uptake ranging between 5-10%, Group-C (N=73) with uptake ranging between 10-30% and Group D (N=28) with uptake above 30%. The median 24 hours RAIU values in groups A, B, C and D were 3, 7, values in groups A, B, C and D were 3, 7, 23 and 34% respectively. The corresponding mean urinary iodine levels in the four groups were 43.31, 33.95, 12.97 and 9.35?gm/dl respectively. The results have shown that 1.04, 3.48, 16.72 and 78.74% people studied had levels of urinary iodine indicating severe, moderate, mild or no iodine deficiency respectively as per the WHO Criteria (Severe: <2 ?gm /dl, Moderate: 2-4.9 ?gm /dl, mild: 5.0-9.9?gm /dl, normal: ? 10 ?gm /dl). It may be noted that the normal values of Thyroidal I-131 uptake were standardized in Bangladesh about two and half decades ago. The normal range of 24 hr radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) determined at that time was 10-45%. However in the present study the mean 24 hrs RAIU has been found to be 14.12 % with a SD of 8.33. With regard to urinary iodine, a previous study conducted in the year 1993 had reported that only about 31 % of the Bangladesh population had urinary iodine levels of more than 10gm/dl. But the present study has shown significant increase in the levels of urinary iodine, with more than 78% of people evaluated in the present study having normal levels of urinary iodine (above 10gm/dl). The present study has also demonstrated inverse relationship between urinary iodine level and thyroidal uptake of radioiodine (I-131). These results reflect the effectiveness of universal iodination of common salt in Bangladesh resulting in enhanced iodine status of our population. (author)

  3. Current status of fast reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented

  4. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thailand's neutron spectrometer has been installed soon after the startup of the reactor. The neutron scattering experiments have been done continuously, although there were some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. Development program has been planned for better experimental result. This paper reports the past and present status of neutron scattering equipment and experiments in Thailand. In addition, installation of a HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction) system is included within the scope of the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center project. (author)

  5. Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in Spent Fuel Management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation in this area, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to elaborate the general recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. This report which is a result of the third IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (the first and second were held in 1984 and 1986) is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the status of spent fuel management programmes in a number of leading countries, with a description of the past and present IAEA activities in this field of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and with the Agency's plans for the next years, based on the proposals and recommendations of Member States. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 14 papers presented at the advisory group meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. LWR reprocessing - Current status of major programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the near-term oversupply of uranium concentrate and the sharp decline in uranium prices, a number of major nations are nevertheless proceeding with plans for commercial-scale reprocessing of spent reactor fuel. This paper presents an overview of the world-wide status of light water reactor fuel reprocessing, discussing both operational experience in existing facilities and plans for expanding reprocessing capacity. Attention is directed toward developments in the major nuclear power nations, including France, Japan, the UK and the Federal Republic of Germany. The outlook for reprocessing in the United States is featured, focusing primarily on the prospects for initiating operation of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. The likely impact of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is considered, as well as emerging trends in Government reprocessing policy

  7. Current status of water chemistry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present 28 BWRs including 2 ABWRs and 23 PWRs are in operation in Japan and generated 36.8? of total electric power in 1998. Totally 4 BWRs, of which two are ABWRs, are now under construction, and one BWR together with one ABWR is in the stage of planning. One gas-cooled reactor (Tokai-1) was shut down permanently in 1998 and last year entered into decommissioning stage. According to the Japanese 2001 plan of electric power supply, 13 nuclear power plants newly constructed are to start operation in the next 10 years. In this paper the recent status of water chemistry technology in Japanese nuclear power plants is briefly summarized together with a touch upon the activities in the fundamental research. (author)

  8. Current status of the Synchrotron Radiation Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. J.; Altmann, K. N.; Bisognano, J. J.; Bosch, R. A.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.; Green, M. A.; Hansen, R. W. C.; Himpsel, F. J.; Höchst, H.; Julian, R. L.; Kleman, K.; Kubala, T.; Pedley, B.; Rogers, G. C.; Severson, M.; Stott, J. P.; Taylor, , J. W.; Trzeciak, W. S.; Wallace, D. J.; Wehlitz, R.; Bissen, M.

    2002-03-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Center operates the Aladdin electron storage ring at energies of 800 meV or 1 GeV in support of a broad range of national and international research programs with a major focus on the study of valence electrons, spectromicroscopy, and nanolithography. Upgrades to the storage ring have improved the stability of the source, and experiments with low emittance lattice configurations show the feasibility of increased brightness for new or enhanced research. Three recently installed undulators, two pure permanent magnet devices and an electromagnetic device, and the associated instrumentation offer experimentalists high flux combined with high resolution. The status of the existing instrumentation, recent scientific results, and an overview of plans for new undulator-based instruments to cover the photon energy range from 7.8 to 400+ eV will be presented.

  9. Supersymmetry: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the most recent data from e+e- and p bar p colliders and discuss the resulting constraints on the parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and their implications for future supersymmetry searches. We review the patterns of cascade decays of squarks and gluinos and discuss the present status of supersymmetry event generators for hadron colliders. We present the results of detailed simulations of ET and same sign dilepton events from supersymmetry at the Tevatron. Although the ET signal continues to be viable, it is concluded that the same sign dilepton signal may be too small unless squarks and gluinos are approximately degenerate. The ET and the same-sign dilepton signals from supersymmetry and the Standard Model backgrounds at the SSC are also discussed in detail. We also discuss other promising ways of searching for supersymmetry at the SSC including events containing Z degree bosons, and events containing n isolated leptons (n ? 3). Finally, we discuss how supersymmetry searches might be modified if the Higgs sectors is more complicated or if R-parity is not conserved due to baryon number violating interactions. 49 refs., 12 figs

  10. Supersymmetry: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors review the most recent data from e+e- and p anti p colliders and discuss the resulting constraints on the parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and their implications for future supersymmetry searches. They review the patterns of cascade decays of squarks and gluinos, and discuss the present status of supersymmetry event generators for hadron colliders. They present the results of detailed simulations of ET and same sign dilepton events from supersymmetry at the Tevatron. Although the ET signal continues to be viable, it is concluded that the same sign dilepton signal may be too small unless squarks and gluinos are approximately degenerate. The ET and same-sign dilepton signals from supersymmetry and the Standard Model backgrounds at the SSC are also discussed in detail. They also discuss other promising ways of searching for supersymmetry at the SSC including events containing Z0 bosons, and events containing n isolated leptons (n ? 3). Finally, they discuss how supersymmetry searches might be modified if the Higgs sector is more complicated or if R-parity is not conserved due to baryon number violating interactions

  11. Current Status of Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Dong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Brachytherapy was developed to treat prostate cancer 50 years ago. Current advanced techniques using transrectal ultrasonography were established 25 years ago. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) has enabled the prostate to be viewed with improved resolution with the use of modern ultrasound machines. Moreover, the development of software that can provide images captured in real time has improved treatment outcomes. Other new radiologic imaging technologies or a combination of magnetic resonance an...

  12. Sensing technology current status and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2014-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

  13. The current status of grazing incidence optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developments in the area of grazing incidence optics with emphasis on telescopes for use in X-ray astronomy are reviewed. The performance of existing high-resolution telescopes is outlined and compared with those expected from future missions like ROSAT and AXAF. Starting from the basic principles of X-ray reflection and scattering, an attempt is made to highlight the current understanding of X-ray mirror physics using new theoretical ideas as well as experimental laboratory results. (author)

  14. Avian influenza in Croatia - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Wild birds can carry a wide range of viral and other zoonotic agents, which may be transmitted to humans. From October 2005 to March 2006 HPAI H5N1 virus was isolated from wild birds (mute swans, black-headed gulls and a mallard duck) in Croatia at five locations. After isolation of H5N1 virus at 2006 from mallard duck near City of Zagreb (capital of Croatia) Department of Poultry Diseases with Clinic at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, has conducted monitoring of avian viruses that could endanger human health. Samples (999 pharyngeal and cloacal swabs) from 23 wild bird species were taken. After year 2006 Croatia has regular monitoring for avian influenza in wild birds and poultry (especially in the backyard flocks). During 2007 (6,928 wild birds and 18,000 blood samples from poultry) and 2008 (2,486 wild birds; 20,000 blood samples and 1,500 cloacal swabs from poultry) were taken. Isolation was performed with classical virus detection method by inoculation of 10 day old chicken embryos, and molecular methods by conventional PCR and Real Time PCR (M gene, H5, H7 and N1 genes), and serological methods by antibody detection from blood samples (inhibition hemagglutination and ELISA). All samples were HPAI virus negative but investigators from the Poultry Centre of the Croatian Veterinary Institute isolated from wild birds LPAI viruses: H2N3, H3N8, H5N3 and H10N7. The results obtained by these investigations and monitoring revealed the need for permanent moitoring revealed the need for permanent monitoring of wild bird's health status, especially the water birds species. Vaccination against AI is never practiced in Croatia. Quick and accurate detection of wild migratory birds infected with the H5N1 virus prevented the spread of the virus to the domestic poultry in Croatia which would have had enormous consequences. (author)

  15. Current status of neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT

  16. Current status of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Velderrain, A; Stauffer, J A; Bowers, S P; Asbun, H J

    2012-09-01

    Distal pancreatectomy is the therapeutic option of choice for patients with a benign or malignant lesion located in the body and/or tail of the pancreas when surgical intervention is indicated. With recent advances in and wide spread use of imaging studies, lesions of the pancreas are being diagnosed more commonly and it is likely that this will translate into an increased number of patients undergoing surgical resection. The laparoscopic approach to pancreatic resections has not been adopted as rapidly as it has for most other general surgical procedures. This is despite the fact that the current literature appears to validate laparoscopy as an acceptable and safe approach for distal pancreatectomy in patients with benign lesions, and has demonstrated the known benefits inherent to the laparoscopic technique. These benefits include lower intraoperative blood loss, less pain and analgesic requirements, earlier return of bowel function, and shorter recovery and hospital stay. Yet controversy still exists for the role of laparoscopy in the resection of malignant lesions. Recent reports however, have shown that laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy can safely be performed in known malignancies and, most importantly, after a laparoscopic oncological resection, the oncological benchmarks that have been related to survival, (such as negative surgical margins and number of peripancreatic lymph nodes resected), can also be accomplished. We sought to review the current literature on distal pancreatectomy, specifically the indications, laparoscopic approaches, splenectomy and spleen-preserving techniques, intraoperative and short-term outcomes, morbidity, mortality and oncological outcomes. PMID:22971634

  17. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saenger Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  18. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Saenger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  19. Clinical MR at 3 Telsa: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical MRI is mostly performed at field strengths up to 1.5 Tesla (T). Recently, approved clinical whole-body MR-systems with a field strength of 3 T became available. Its installation base is more rapidly growing than anticipated. While siting requirements and operation of these systems do not differ substantially from systems with lower field strength, there are differences in practical applications. Imaging applications can use the gain in signal-to-noise for increased spatial resolution or gain in speed. This comes at a trade off in increased sensitivity to field inhomogeneities and changes in relaxation times, which lead to changes in image contrast. The benefit of high field for spectroscopy consists in increased signal-to-noise-ratio and improvement in frequency resolution. The increase in energy deposition necessitates the use of special strategies to reduce the specific absorption rate (SAR). This paper summarizes the current state of MR at 3 T. (orig.)

  20. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Phh both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  1. [Plasma fractionation in the world: current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnouf, T

    2007-05-01

    From 22 to 25 million liters of plasma are fractionated yearly in about 70 fractionation plants, either private or government-owned, mainly located in industrialized countries, and with a capacity ranging from 50000 to three million liters. In an increasingly global environment, the plasma industry has recently gone through a major consolidation phase that has seen mergers and acquisitions, and has led to the closure of a number of small plants in Europe. Currently, some fifteen countries are involved into contract plasma fractionation programs to ensure a supply of plasma-derived medicinal products. The majority of the plasma for fractionation is obtained by automated plasmapheresis, the remaining (recovered plasma) being prepared from whole blood as a by-product of red cell production. Plasma for fractionation should be produced, and controlled following well established procedures to meet the strict quality requirements set by regulatory authorities and fractionators. The plasma fractionation technology still relies heavily on the cold ethanol fractionation process, but has been improved by the introduction of modern chromatographic purification methods, and efficient viral inactivation and removal treatments, ensuring quality and safety to a large portfolio of fractionated plasma products. The safety of these products with regards to the risk of transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease seems to be provided, based on current scientific data, by extensive removal of the infectious agent during certain fractionation steps. The leading plasma product is now the intravenous immunoglobulin G, which has replaced factor VIII and albumin in this role. The supply of plasma products (most specifically coagulation products and immunoglobulin) at an affordable price and in sufficient quantity remains an issue; the problem is particularly acute in developing countries, as the switch to recombinant factor VIII in rich countries has not solved the supply issue and has even led to an increase of the mean price of plasma-derived factor VIII to the developing world. In the last few years, the plasma fractionation industry has improved greatly, and should remain essential in the years to come for the procurement of many essential medicines. PMID:17499539

  2. Current status of DFDSMA Saligny Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current nuclear power program in Romania includes: Exploiting two CANDU-6 Canadian PHWR type reactors in operation since 1996 and 2007, respectively and Operating other two similar units projected on the same Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant site to be commissioned in 2014 and 2015, respectively. For the waste generated by Cernavoda NPP, the national radioactive waste management strategy includes a new near surface type repository to be commissioned in 2014. The repository will accommodate the LILW with short lived and certain amounts of long lived radio-nuclides as accepted according to a safety assessment for long term behavior of waste and repository system. The siting process of the new repository started in 1992 and has been developed following the IAEA guidelines and standards. Within its evolution, the siting process was reviewed several times by different IAEA expert missions, mentioning that the selected sites along with a proper design have a good prospects. In 1997, the Saligny site located inside the exclusion zone of Cernavoda NPP, was preferred taking into consideration both technical and non-technical factors, including further acceptance of the project implementation by the local communities. In 2008, ANDRAD, the current owner of the new near surface repository project, obtained a partial siting license, issued by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, CNCAN, a conformance program in order to obtain the siting license. In order to issobtain the siting license. In order to issue that license, CNCAN reviewed all process and conclusive safety documentation prepared by the main organizations that supported the R and D process for the new repository between 1992 and 2007. ANDRAD coordinated the actions of that conclusive work and mainly completed it asking an IAEA WATRP expert mission, acting for addressing experts' observations and recommendations and obtaining the acceptance of the local authorities and local communities that agreed for further work on the repository project. 2009 was a very important year in the project development and preparation of the new investment. ANDRAD is the beneficiary of 2 contracts that represent 2 PHARE projects approved by the European Commission to support ANDRAD in enhancing the development of the repository project. According to the objectives of this work, the two contracts provide ANDRAD all relevant safety and design support documentation for obtaining the siting and later construction licenses for the Saligny repository. (authors)

  3. Current Status of Nuclear Fuel Irradiation Test at HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in-pile testing of HANARO demand of not only the reactor core and structure material but also the nuclear fuel is recently increased to verify its irradiation performance, some fuel irradiation tests were planned and conducted using the irradiation test capsule in OR irradiation hole at HANARO. In this paper, the current status of irradiation test for the nuclear fuels at HANARO is reported. The current status of nuclear fuel irradiation test was reported. The irradiation test for plate, particle, pellet and metallic fuel for the development of research reactor, VHTR, LWR, SFR was planned and conducted at HANARO

  4. Current status of materials research for nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristic features of materials research for fusion reactors are briefly reviewed along the R and D scenarios of nuclear fusion reactors. Followed to a brief overview of fusion materials, R and D strategies of structural materials are provided. Materials issues and the current status of materials R and D activities, for 'ITER' and other near term machines, are introduced. As one of the two major materials R and D paths, materials for DEMOs and other long term fusion reactors are briefly introduced together with the current status of R and D activities, both domestic and international. (author)

  5. 20 CFR 404.120 - How we determine currently insured status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...false How we determine currently insured status. 404.120 Section 404.120 Employees...DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Insured Status and Quarters of Coverage Currently Insured Status § 404.120 How we determine...

  6. Current status of silicon solar cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in solar cell technology have led to the development of laboratory cells with efficiencies above 15% and production cells with efficiencies in the area of 13%. The increased output is largely the result of increases in the short-circuit current. The most significant gain in the amount of light entering the cell has been obtained through surface texturing by chemical etching techniques. Sheet resistances resulting from phosphorus diffusion in the 800 C temperature range yield junction depths on the order of 0.1 micrometer, leading to significant increases in the blue region of the cell spectral response. The inclusion of a back surface field in 10 ohm-cm cells has produced an increase in open-circuit voltage of about 50 mV and an increase in the minority carrier lifetime. It appears that a low emitter efficiency of the diffused region is the cause of poor voltages. Future research will be primarily directed toward correcting this deficiency and toward the development of low cost production methods.

  7. Current Status of VHTR Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Richard Wright; William Windes; Steve Herring; Richard Schultz; Paul Humrickhouse

    2010-10-01

    Abstract – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900°C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950°C.

  8. Current status of the LBNE neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Craig Damon; Crowley, Cory Francis; Hurh, Patrick; Hylen, James; Lundberg, Byron; Marchionni, Alberto; McGee, Mike; Mokhov, Nikolai V; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Plunkett, Rob; Reitzner, Sarah Diane; Stefanik, Andrew M; Velev, Gueorgui; Williams, Karlton; Zwaska, Robert Miles

    2015-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a neutrino beamline facility located at Fermilab. The facility is designed to aim a beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed in South Dakota. The neutrinos are produced in a three-step process. First, protons from the Main Injector hit a solid target and produce mesons. Then, the charged mesons are focused by a set of focusing horns into the decay pipe, towards the far detector. Finally, the mesons that enter the decay pipe decay into neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined by an amalgam of the physics goals, the Monte Carlo modeling of the facility, and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~700 kW, however some of the parameters were chosen to be able to deal with a beam power of 2.3 MW. The LBNE Neutrino Beam has made significant changes to the initial design through consideration of numerous Value Engineering proposals and the current design is described.

  9. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Current status of fusion reactor blanket thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies of liquid lithium have concentrated on its sorption characteristics for hydrogen isotopes and its interaction with common impurity elements. Hydrogen isotope sorption data (P-C-T relations, activity coefficients, Sieverts' constants, plateau pressures, isotope effects, free energies of formation, phase boundaries etc.) are presented in a tabular form that can be conveniently used to extract thermodynamic information for the ?-phase of the Li-LiH, Li-LiD, and Li-LiT systems and to construct complete phase diagrams. Recent solubility data for Li3N, Li2O, and Li2C2 in liquid lithium are discussed with emphasis on the prospects for removing these species by cold-trapping methods. Current studies on the sorption of hydrogen in solid lithium alloys (e.g., Li--Al and Li--Pb), made using a new technique (the hydrogen titration method), have shown that these alloys should lead to smaller blanket-tritium inventories than are attainable with liquid lithium and that the P-C-T relationships for hydrogen in Li--M alloys can be estimated from lithium activity data for these alloys

  11. Current status of adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the current use of adrenalectomy in the treatment of Cushing's disease, we reviewed seven consecutive patients who have undergone adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease at this medical center during 1983 to 1984. Seventy-one percent (5/7) had pituitary, or type I, Cushing's disease, while 29% (2/7) had adrenal, or type II, Cushing's disease from either an adenoma or an adrenocortical carcinoma. Presenting signs and symptoms, either initially or at the time of recurrence, were typical of Cushing's syndrome. Four of five patients with type I disease had recurrent disease after transphenoidal hypophysectomy, bilateral adrenalectomy, or unilateral adrenalectomy. In three of five patients, medical therapy of hypercortisolism was abandoned because of adverse side effects. Preoperative evaluation in all patients included cortisol and ACTH levels, dexamethasone suppression tests, and computerized tomography (both abdominal and head). In patients with a prior history of adrenalectomy, radiocholesterol scans were also performed and were useful. Angiographic procedures were not required in these patients. In patients with type I disease, posterior operative approaches were used. In patients with type II disease, an anterolateral approach was used. Posterolateral incisions are preferred over Hugh-Young incisions and provide better exposure with a reduced risk of poor wound healing. Morbidity and mortality included one death and three nonhealing wounds. In the six survivihree nonhealing wounds. In the six surviving patients, symptoms resolved with variable frequency. Findings suggestive of Nelson's syndrome (hyperpigmentation) have occurred in two patients; serial computerized tomographic scans fail to reveal evidence of pituitary tumors

  12. Current status of the PBMR licensing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CNS is currently reviewing the PBMR conceptual design from a licensibility point of view. The PBMR concept is based on a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor - pebble bed reactor type. It is anticipated that the PBMR design will rely on inherent safety characteristics to contain fission products within fuel over the full range of design basis events. This feature combined with the high temperature integrity of the fuel and structural graphite, allows the safe use of a high coolant temperature, which allows consideration of the future development of this reactor for non-electrical applications of nuclear heat for industrial use. The CNS licensing approach requires that the licensing and design basis of the plant should respect prevailing international norms and practices and that a quantitative risk assessment should demonstrate compliance with the CNS fundamental safety standards. The first stage of the licensing process is now ongoing; this is a pre-application phase, which will result in a statement on licensibility being issued. Identification of the specific documentation requirements and information needed is required across every step of the licensing process. Top level regulatory requirements have been established for the PBMR. They include the CNS fundamental safety standard and basic licensing criteria, which describes requirements on licensees of nuclear installations regarding risk assessment and compliance with the safety criteria and define classification of licensing basis events. (author)

  13. Current status of schistosomiasis in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satrija, Fadjar; Ridwan, Yusuf; Jastal; Samarang; Rauf, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica is currently endemic in three very isolated areas in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Integrated schistosomiasis control programmes implemented in the Lindu and Napu Valleys during the period of 1982-2005 have successfully reduced the prevalence of schistosomiasis from 37% to 1% in Napu Valley and from 37% to 0.6% in Lindu Valley. Human prevalence surveys reveal that the prevalence tended to increase during the period of 2008-2011. The average prevalence fluctuated between 0.3% and 4.8% in Napu Valley and between 0.8% and 3.2% in Lindu Valley. During this period, the percentage of rats that were infected fluctuated between 7.9% and 18.2% in Napu Valley and between 6.7% and 9.8% in Lindu Valley. The average percentage of infected snails was 2.6% and 2.1% in the Napu and Lindu Valleys, respectively. In 2008, schistosomiasis was also found in a separate but adjacent place, i.e. Bada Valley. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in endemic villages in this area was 0.8% in 2008 and 5.9% in 2010, while the percentage of infected snails was 1% in 2010. These contemporary data clearly indicate a trend of increasing schistosomiasis prevalence in the three endemic areas in Central Sulawesi. PMID:23827192

  14. HPV vaccine: Current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Biswas, Manash; Jose, Tony

    2015-04-01

    HPV Vaccine was introduced to prevent cervical cancer known to be caused by infection with one or more of the high risk subtypes of the Human papilloma virus (HPV). Since introduction, trials have proven its efficacy in preventing Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) beyond doubt and its effectiveness in preventing cervical cancer though presumptive is reasonably certain as per mathematical modelling. It also prevents other HPV related anogenital and oropharyngeal malignancies in both sexes. HPV vaccines have courted many controversies related to its efficacy, safety, ideal age of vaccination, use in HPV infected individuals and use in males. The currently available vaccines are based on L1 Viral like particles (VLP) and hence highly species specific, thermolabile, costly and are purely prophylactic. The quest for a cheaper, thermostable and broad spectrum vaccine has led to many newer prophylactic vaccines. Therapeutic vaccines were born out of the inescapable necessity considering high HPV related morbidity projected in the non HPV naïve population. Therapeutic vaccines would immediately reduce this burden and also help in the management of HPV related cancers alone or as part of combination strategies. Ongoing research is aimed at a total control over HPV related malignancies in the near future. PMID:25859081

  15. Current status of PHOBOS at sign RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four experiments are currently approved for the first measurements with colliding heavy ion beams from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) which is scheduled to come into operation in Spring 1999. These experiments are named STAR, Phoenix, PHOBOS and Brahms. It is expected that central collisions of 100 GeV/u Au + Au at RHIC will lead to energy densities far above any so far attained in the laboratory and it is suspected and hoped that this situation will lead to qualitatively new physics perhaps associated with the creation of a large volume containing a plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons. All four experiments attempt to search for signatures of new physics through combinations of measurements of quantities such as the multiplicity of produced particles, the average transverse momentum of these particles, fluctuations in their multiplicity distribution, their flavor composition, the size scales of the volume from which they are emitted, mass shifts and changes in the decay widths of resonances which decay inside the high energy density volume etc. The PHOBOS detector addresses these issues with a Multiplicity Array which covers the pseudo-rapidity region -5.3 ? ? ? 5.3 with a coverage of 85% of 4? and also incorporates a Vertex Detector. The Multiplicity Array is complemented by two Multi-Particle Spectrometers, each of which cover the range 0.5 ? ? ? 1.5 and azimuthal angle range ?? = 11 degree. Various trigger and monitor detectors complete PHOBOS

  16. Healthcare-seeking behaviour among the tribal people of Bangladesh: Can the current health system really meet their needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Azizur; Kielmann, Tara; McPake, Barbara; Normand, Charles

    2012-09-01

    Despite the wealth of studies on health and healthcare-seeking behaviour among the Bengali population in Bangladesh, relatively few studies have focused specifically on the tribal groups in the country. This study aimed at exploring the context, reasons, and choices in patterns of healthcare-seeking behaviour of the hill tribal population of Bangladesh to present the obstacles and challenges faced in accessing healthcare provision in the tribal areas. Participatory tools and techniques, including focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews, and participant-observations, were used involving 218 men, women, adolescent boys, and girls belonging to nine different tribal communities in six districts. Data were transcribed and analyzed using the narrative analysis approach. The following four main findings emerged from the study, suggesting that the tribal communities may differ from the predominant Bengali population in their health needs and priorities: (a) Traditional healers are still very popular among the tribal population in Bangladesh; (b) Perceptions of the quality and manner of treatment and communication can override costs when it comes to provider-preference; (c) Gender and age play a role in making decisions in households in relation to health matters and treatment-seeking; and (d) Distinct differences exist among the tribal people concerning their knowledge on health, awareness, and treatment-seeking behaviour. The findings challenge the present service-delivery system that has largely been based on the needs and priorities of the plainland population. The present system needs to be reviewed carefully to include a broader approach that takes the sociocultural factors into account, if meaningful improvements are to be made in the health of the tribal people of Bangladesh. PMID:23082637

  17. Understanding community perceptions, social norms and current practice related to respiratory infection in Bangladesh during 2009: a qualitative formative study

    OpenAIRE

    Nizame Fosiul A; Nasreen Sharifa; Unicomb Leanne; Southern Dorothy; Gurley Emily S; Arman Shaila; Kadir Mohammad A; Azziz-Baumgartner Eduardo; Luby Stephen P.; Winch Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Respiratory infections are the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh. Promoting respiratory hygiene may reduce infection transmission. This formative research explored community perceptions about respiratory infections. Methods We conducted 34 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions with community members and school children to explore respiratory hygiene related perceptions, practices, and social norms in an urban and a rural setting. We conducted uns...

  18. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able to expect a creation of economic added value

  19. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

    2007-06-15

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able to expect a creation of economic added value.

  20. Current radiological status of Utirik Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L

    1998-08-01

    A preliminary radiological survey was conducted at Utirik Atoll in 1978 as part of the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS). A dose assessment based on these limited data indicated a relatively low dose of about 0.12 mSv to people living on Utirik in 1978 (Robison et al., 1982). A much more detailed radiological survey was conducted in April of both 1993 and 1994. Aerial photos of the islands of Utirik Atoll were taken as part of the 1978 NMIRS. The sampling grids for the 1993 and 1994 surveys are shown overlaid on these aerial photos in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. External gamma measurements and a collection of either drinking coconuts or copra coconuts were made at each location. Pandanus, breadfruit, lime, and banana were collected where available. Ground water was collected in 1993/94 from four wells on Utirik Island and two wells on Aon Island. Surface soil and soil profiles were collected at some of the grid points on each of the islands at the atoll in 1993/94. A comparison of the number of samples collected in 1978 and 1993/94 are shown in Table 1. A detailed listing of the samples collected in the 1993/94 radiological survey at Utirik Atoll is given in Table 2. The number of vegetation samples collected in 1993/94 is nearly a factor of 7 greater than in 1978. Soil samples collected in 1993/94 exceeded the number collected in 1978 by more than a factor of 4. Consequently, extensive data are now available for the islands at Utirik Atoll and form the basis for the current dose assessment for the atoll.

  1. Current surgical status of thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touzopoulos P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Touzopoulos1, Michael Karanikas1, Paul Zarogoulidis2, Alexandros Mitrakas1, Konstantinos Porpodis2, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis3, Vasilis Zervas2, Ioannis Kouroumichakis4, Theodoros C Constantinidis5, Dimitrios Mikroulis6, Konstantinos E Tsimogiannis71First Surgery Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 2Pulmonary Department, "G. Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Surgery Department (NHS, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 4Second Internal Medicine Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 5Medical School, Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Protection, Democritus University of Thrace, Regional Laboratory of Public Health, Eastern Macedonia-Thrace, Greece; 6Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 7Surgery Department, "G. Hatzikosta" General Hospital of Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem for surgeons. The clinical importance of nodules is the need to exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5%–15% of patients. If fine needle aspiration cytology is positive, or suspicious for malignancy, surgery is recommended. During the past decade, with the tendency to develop smaller incisions, an endoscopic approach has been applied to thyroid surgery, called minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy. This approach was immediately followed by other minimally invasive or scarless neck techniques, such as the breast approach, axillary-breast approach, and robot-assisted method. All these techniques follow the same principles of surgery and oncology. This review presents the current surgical management of the thyroid gland, including the surgical techniques and compares them by describing benefits and drawbacks of each one.Keywords: thyroidectomy, surgical techniques, thyroid cancer

  2. Current status and future perspective of PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging modality that consists of systemic administration to a subject of a radiopharmaceutical labeled with a positron-emitting radionuclide. Following administration, its distribution in the organ or structure under study can be assessed as a function of time and space by (1) detecting the annihilation radiation resulting from the interaction of the positrons with matter, and (2) reconstructing the distribution of the radioactivity from a series of that used in computed tomography (CT). The nuclides most generally exhibit chemical properties that render them particularly desirable in physiological studies. The radionuclides most widely used in PET are F-18, C-11, O-15 and N-13. Regarding to the number of the current PET Centers worldwide (based on ICP data), more than 300 PET Centers were in operation in 2000. The use of PET technology grew rapidly compared to that in 1992 and 1996, particularly in the USA, which demonstrates a three-fold rise in PET installations. In 2001, 194 PET Centers were operating in the USA. In 1994, two clinical and research-oriented PET Centers at Seoul National University Hospital and Samsung Medical Center, was established as the first dedicated PET and Cyclotron machines in Korea, followed by two more PET facilities at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Ajou Medical Center, Yonsei University Medical Center, National Cancer Center and established their PET Center. Catholic Medical Sished their PET Center. Catholic Medical School and Pusan National University Hospital have finalized a plan to install PET machine in 2002, which results in total of nine PET Centers in Korea. Considering annual trends of PET application in four major PET centers in Korea in Asan Medical Center recent six years (from 1995 to 2000), a total of 11,564 patients have been studied every year and the number of PET studies has shown steep growth year upon year. We had, 1,020 PET patients in 1995. This number increased to 1,196, 1,756, 2,379, 3,015 and 4,414 in 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000, respectively. The application in cardiac disorders is minimal, and among various neuropsychiatric diseases, patients with epilepsy or dementia can benefit from PET studies. Recently, we investigated brain mapping and neuroreceptor works. PET is not a key application for evaluation of the cardiac patients in Korea because of the relatively low incidence of cardiac disease and less costly procedures such as SPECT can now be performed

  3. The current status of equine embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, E L; McCue, P M; Vanderwall, D

    1999-01-01

    The use of embryo transfer in the horse has increased steadily over the past two decades. However, several unique biological features as well as technical problems have limited its widespread use in the horse as compared with that in the cattle industry. Factors that affect embryo recovery include the day of recovery, number of ovulations, age of the donor and the quality of sire's semen. Generally, embryo recoveries are performed 7 or 8 d after ovulation unless the embryos are to be frozen, in which case recovery is performed 6 d after ovulation. Most embryos are recovered from single-ovulating mares. Because there is no commercially available hormonal preparation for inducing multiple ovulation in the horse, equine pituitary extract has been used to increase the number of ovulations in treated mares, but FSH of ovine or porcine origin is relatively ineffective in inducing multiple ovulation in the mare. Factors shown to affect pregnancy rates after embryo transfer include method of transfer, synchrony of the donor and recipient, embryo quality, and management of the recipient. One of the major improvements in equine embryo transfer over the last several years is the ability to store embryos at 5 degrees C and thus ship them to a centralized station for transfer into recipient mares. Embryos are collected by practitioners on the farm, cooled to 5 degrees C in a passive cooling unit and shipped to an embryo transfer station without a major decrease in fertility. However, progress in developing techniques for freezing equine embryos has been slow. Currently, only small, Day-6 equine embryos can be frozen with reasonable success. Additional studies are needed to refine the techniques for freezing embryos collected from mares 7 or 8 d after ovulation. Demand for the development of assisted reproductive techniques in the horse has increased dramatically. Collection of equine oocytes by transvaginal, ultrasound-guided puncture and the transfer of these oocytes into recipients is now being used to produce pregnancies from donors that had previously been unable to provide embryos. In vitro fertilization, however, has been essentially unsuccessful in the horse. One alternative to in vitro fertilization that has shown promise is intracytoplasmic sperm injection. However, culture conditions for in vitro-produced embryos appear to be inadequate. The continued demand for assisted reproductive technology will likely result in the further development of techniques that are suitable for use in the horse. PMID:10729065

  4. Anthelmintic treatment strategies: current status and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J C

    1997-11-01

    Despite the array of anthelmintics and endectocides and delivery systems available for use in the prevention and control of nematode parasites of ruminants, the number of highly effective control programs that have been developed and even the number of such programs that have been successfully implemented in commercial animal production, there have been no recent innovations or discoveries in regard to strategies, new anthelmintics, or systems for controlling nematode parasites through anthelmintic use. In the traditional sense of chemotherapy-chemoprophylaxis, we have probably achieved the maximum effect of what is possible from excellent anthelmintics developed by the pharmaceutical industry over the last 35 years, i.e. from thiabendazole through levamisole and morantel tartrate, to more advanced benzimidazoles and to the avermectins and milbemycins. At the core of all anthelmintic treatment-related problems is the lingering conception among a large body of animal producers that anthelmintic treatment is the only effort needed to control parasitism and its effects on host animals. This concept has given rise to the long-standing difficulty of drug resistance in sheep nematodes and the not remote possibility of its development in nematodes of cattle. Along with this are serious concerns over environmental toxicity, tissue residues and enormous financial investment to develop new and novel anthelmintic compounds. Progress is being made in current and intensive searches for development and testing of control approaches alternative to anthelmintics, e.g. helminth vaccines, biological control agents such as fungi, selection of resistant sires, alternative chemicals and nematode growth regulators. A timetable for when alternative controls can be developed fully and put into practical use cannot be predicted. It is universally acknowledged among parasitologists that existing anthelmintics must be preserved and utilized judiciously to ensure continued effectiveness. A major example is to be found in strategic or integrated control programs in Australia developed over the last 10 years to combat widespread drug resistance in sheep. Major imperatives for future programs and systems of controlling nematode parasites of ruminants are improved means of getting producers to adopt proven and sustainable methods. PMID:9460212

  5. Ceramic materials for SOFCs: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhukharov, V.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the main parts of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs are build from ceramic materials. Namely the ceramic materials and composites, used for SOFCs manufacturing, are objects of the overview in the present work. The analysis carried out covers the last current publications in the field discussed. Special attention and examination in details have been done on patents state-of-the-art. After a background and short classification of the ceramic SOFCs materials the attention is focused on cathode, electrolyte, anode, interconnection and sealing materials. Their requirements, structure, thermal stability, composition control and behavior, processing and performance are the object of overview. A correlation has been made between the phase diagrams oxygen incorporation and transport, and SOFC advantages, generally for materials of lanthanum- base perovskite family. In order to analyze the innovative investigations regarding the patent branch of the SOFCs development and application, an object of review was patents from Japan, USA, Germany and European Union. Some examples of the inventions with accent on the ceramic materials are shown. In addition the tendency regarding R & D activities of SOFCs development materials from the leading companies in the world is analyzed. On the base of the most important technological and economical parameters of cell cathode/electrolyte/anode materials an attempt for evaluation and correlation has been made and innovative conceptions are shown.

    Es bien sabido que los componentes principales de las celdas de combustible de óxido sólido (SOFCs estan constituidos por materiales cerámicos. Dichos materiales cerámicos y materiales compuestos que se utilizan en la fabricación de SOFCs son objeto de estudio en el presente trabajo. El análisis llevado a cabo incluye la revisión de las últimas publicaciones en la materia, con una especial atención y examen minucioso sobre las patentes más relevantes. Después de una revisión y breve clasificación de los materiales SOFCs cerámicos, el estudio se centra en la descripción del cátodo, electrolito y ánodo, así como de la unión y materiales de sellado. También se han estudiado sus requisitos, estructura, estabilidad térmica, control composicional y de comportamiento, procesado y rendimiento. Se ha establecido una correlación entre los diagramas de fase de incorporación y transporte de oxígeno y las ventajas de los SOFC, generalmente para materiales de la familia de las perovsquitas basadas en lantano. Con el fin de analizar las investigaciones innovadoras que conciernen al campo del desarrollo y aplicación de SOFCs, se han revisado patentes de Japón, Estados Unidos, Alemania y la Unión Europea. Se dan algunos ejemplos de dichas patentes en las que destaca el papel de los materiales cerámicos. Además, se ha analizado la tendencia en actividades de I + D sobre los SOFCs en compañías líderes mundiales. Se ha intentado realizar una evaluación y correlación en base a los parámetros tecnológicos y económicos más importantes de los materiales de celda cátodo/electrolito/ánodo y se han mostrado conceptos innovadores.

  6. The current status of HANARO utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) is now operating at 24 MW to meet the user's demands in a variety of utilization fields. The most active field is the neutron scattering and diffraction using the currently available HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction), FCD (Four Circle Diffraction), RSI (Residual Stress Instrument), and SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering). Using these instruments, we have been investigating such characteristics as materials' crystal structure and phase transition, residual stress, texture, and hard and soft matters. Through examination and inspection of the test specimens, NRF (Neutron Radiography Facility) is contributing to such fields as the nuclear industry, ordnance industry, aerospace industry, and archaeology. The second utilization field is the fuel and material irradiation test. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed atomized fuel powder and provided it to USA, France and Argentina. Under the RERTR program, KAERI has been contributing to the development of research reactor fuels of better quality. To test the reactor materials and fuels, instrumented and non-instrumented capsules are widely being used. To produce and supply RIs and pharmaceuticals for medical and industrial purposes, HANARO and its RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility) has been fully complying with demands so that the national welfare might be enhanced by our efforts. NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) is assisting the nuclear industry, environmental research and the promotion of the health area. To support all active utilizations, HANARO operators have been making every effort to not only improve the systems, if needed, but also to avoid the inadvertent reactor trip. Based upon this stable neutron supply, we have been developing and expanding the utilization fields and facilities. The PNS(Polarized Neutron Spectrometer) is under construction and the reflectometer is in preparation. The BNCT(Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) facility is expected to support medical doctors in their in-vitro tests by the end of next year. In the future, KAERI plans to install cold neutron source and research facilities and then HANARO would be a truly powerful neutron source in neutron beam application research. We will begin design and installation of the fuel test loop to support the Korean national nuclear energy program in accordance with the demand for nuclear fuel development. Advanced capsules will also be developed. More effective and value-added RI is also under development continuously. To increase the contribution of the NAA area, we are developing the user-oriented NAA system in HANARO. The irradiator for NTD-Si production is being designed and fabricated. We expect this service to be available for industries early next year. Through these viable activities, the number of users and tested samples, and allocatable beam times will be greatly increased. All of the related staff and groups are doing their best to satisfy the demand of users because HANARO is the Korean sole neutron source operated under the auspices of the taxpayers. (author)

  7. Biomonitoring of arsenic and lead in health indices (hair, blood, etc.) and their interactions and impacts on the nutritional status of Bangladesh population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka under the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission was recently awarded a research contract from the International Atomic Energy Agency to investigate the levels of micronutrients (K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn) and pollutants (As, Pb) in health indices (hair, blood, etc.) to study their interactions and impacts on the nutritional status of Bangladeshi population. The project was scheduled to start in December 2001 and to be completed by November 2002. To date, sampling and sample preparation techniques for heavy metal analysis in hair and blood using XRF/PIXE have been investigated, and some preliminary work on sample analysis has been performed. It indicates that both PIXE and XRF methods can be used for the determination of nutritionally important trace metals in health indices after a simple sample treatment for volume reduction either by oven or freeze drying. Results of Biochemical assessment of nutritional status of Bangladeshi pre-school children under normal and malnutrition conditions from a previous study has been given in the Results section of this paper. There has been found a positive correlation of malnutrition with some nutritional parameters such as fasting blood glucose, serum total protein, serum total albumin, and serum Cu and Zn levels. Hair Zn level had no significant correlation (p>0.05) with serum Zn level but hair Cu level had a positive correlation with serum Cu level. The trace element concentrations in hair of both normaement concentrations in hair of both normal and malnourished children in the age group of 1-5 years, as studied do not show any regular dependence on nutritional status of the subjects. Only the low copper content in the hair of the malnourished group can possibly be linked with nutritional disorders. (author)

  8. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  9. Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

  10. The World Space Observatory (WSO-UV) - Current status

    CERN Document Server

    Uslenghi, Michela; Pontoni, Cristian; Scuderi, Salvatore; Shustov, Boris

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the current status of the World Space Observatory WSO-UV, a space mission for UV astronomy, planned for launch at the beginning of next decade. It is based on a 1.7 m telescope, with focal plane instruments including high resolution spectrographs, long slit low resolution spectrographs and imaging cameras.

  11. Background on the NUHOMS system and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUHOMS is a modular system for the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel from all type reactors and is designed and operated in accordance with the requirements of the USA Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as well as applicable International Standards. This paper discusses the basic principles and current status of NUHOMS in operation. (author)

  12. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  13. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  14. Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Pavan John

    2013-01-01

    Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

  15. Current status of studies on temperature fluctuation phenomena in LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the current status of studies being performed in PNC on temperature fluctuation phenomena occurring in fast reactors. The studies concentrate on four problems: thermal stratification, thermal striping, core-plenum interaction and free surface sloshing. Both experimental and analytical approaches to reveal these phenomena and to establish design and safety evaluation methods are presented together with future works. (author)

  16. Current status and future direction of the MONK software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of the MONK criticality software package is summarized in terms of recent and current developments and envisaged directions for the future. The areas of the discussion are physics modeling, geometry modeling, source modeling, nuclear data, validation, supporting tools and customer services. In future development plan, MONK continues to be focused on meeting the short and long-term needs of the code user community. (J.P.N.)

  17. The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towfiqua Mahfuza Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. Objective: We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. Methods: We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. Results: One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–2.8 times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0–3.0 times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.0 times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4–2.3 times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. Conclusions: This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.

  18. Promotion of well-switching to mitigate the current arsenic crisis in Bangladesh / Promotion de changement d'utilisation de puits afin de réduire l'exposition à l'arsenic au Bangladesh / Promoción del uso de pozos seleccionados para reducir la exposición al arsénico en Bangladesh

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexander, van Geen; Habibul, Ahsan; Allan H., Horneman; Ratan K., Dhar; Yan, Zheng; Iftikhhar, Hussain; Kazi Matin, Ahmed; Andrew, Gelman; Martin, Stute; H. James, Simpson; Sean, Wallace; Christopher, Small; Faruque, Parvez; Vesna, Slavkovich; Nancy J., LoIacono; Marck, Becker; Zhongqi, Cheng; Hassina, Momotaj; Mohammad, Shahnewaz; Ashraf Ali, Seddique; Joseph H., Graziano.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Hacer un análisis sobre los pozos y los hogares de la upazila de Araihazar (Bangladesh), a fin de sentar las bases para llevar a cabo un estudio epidemiológico a largo plazo sobre las consecuencias de la exposición crónica a arsénico. MÉTODOS: Durante un periodo de 4 meses de 2000, se obtu [...] vieron muestras de agua a partir de 4997 pozos cercanos que abastecían a una población de 55 000 personas, y se reunieron datos de los hogares próximos; la situación de cada pozo se determinó con una precisión de ± 30 m utilizando receptores del Sistema Mundial de Determinación de la Posición. Las concentraciones de arsénico se analizaron mediante espectrometría de absorción atómica en horno de grafito. Se analizó asimismo la presencia de arsénico en muestras de agua subterránea recogidas cada 2 semanas durante todo un año en seis pozos, empleando para ello la técnica de espectrometría de masas de alta resolución por plasma de acoplación. RESULTADOS: La mitad de los pozos examinados en Araihazar habían sido practicados en los 5 años anteriores, y el 94% eran privados. Sólo un 48% de los pozos suministraban agua con un contenido de arsénico inferior a 50myg/l, el límite fijado actualmente en Bangladesh para el agua potable. Al igual que en otras regiones de Bangladesh y Bengala occidental (India), la concentración de arsénico en Araihazar varía mucho de un lugar a otro (intervalo: 5-860 myg/l), y es por tanto difícil de predecir. Debido a esa variabilidad, sin embargo, casi un 90% de los habitantes vive a menos de 100 m de un pozo salubre. La vigilancia de seis pozos que actualmente se ajustan al límite mencionado de 50 myg/l no reveló ningún dato que sugiriera la existencia de un ciclo estacional de las concentraciones de arsénico paralelo al ciclo hidrológico. Esto lleva a pensar que el cambio de pozos constituye una opción viable en Araihazar, al menos como solución a corto plazo. CONCLUSIÓN: Es preciso fomentar de manera más sistemática el uso de pozos seleccionados en Araihazar y en muchas otras partes de Bangladesh y Bengala occidental (India), y hay que conocer mejor las barreras sociales con que tropieza esa iniciativa para superarlas en la medida de lo posible. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To survey tube wells and households in Araihazar upazila, Bangladesh, to set the stage for a long-term epidemiological study of the consequences of chronic arsenic exposure. METHODS: Water samples and household data were collected over a period of 4 months in 2000 from 4997 contiguous tub [...] e wells serving a population of 55 000, the position of each well being determined to within ± 30 m using Global Positioning System receivers. Arsenic concentrations were determined by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. In addition, groundwater samples collected every 2 weeks for an entire year from six tube wells were analysed for arsenic by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. FINDINGS: Half of the wells surveyed in Araihazar had been installed in the previous 5 years; 94% were privately owned. Only about 48% of the surveyed wells supplied water with an arsenic content below 50 mug/l, the current Bangladesh standard for drinking-water. Similar to other regions of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, the distribution of arsenic in Araihazar is spatially highly variable (range: 5-860 mug/l) and therefore difficult to predict. Because of this variability, however, close to 90% of the inhabitants live within 100 m of a safe well. Monitoring of six tube wells currently meeting the 50 mug/l standard showed no indication of a seasonal cycle in arsenic concentrations coupled to the hydrological cycle. This suggests that well-switching is a viable option in Araihazar, at least for the short term. CONCLUSIONS: Well-switching should be more systematically encouraged in Araihazar and many other parts of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Social barriers to well-switching need to be better understood and, if possible, overcome.

  19. The IAEA waste safety standards: history, current status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the history and current status of the IAEA's safety standards in the field of management of radioactive waste. It explains the origins of the IAEA's programme of development of safety standards in the nuclear field, and goes on to discuss the hierarchic structure of the standards and the development process. The current status and the newly adopted overall structure of the standards - with reference to the standards in all areas (waste, nuclear installations, transport and radiation safety) - are presented with the aid of figures, showing the standards in force and those under development. The paper concludes with a brief look at the way in which these standards are being applied in individual IAEA Member States. (authors)

  20. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhuan Liu; Rongsheng Ruan; Zhenyi Du; Xiaodan Wu

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

  1. Nuclear liability legislation in Russia - current status and expected developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present report is provided by the experts of the Russian insurance business, a company member of the Russian Nuclear Pool, and not the experts of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation (RF Minatom). Considering the above, the following document will outline the current status of nuclear liability legislation and insurance in Russia from a viewpoint of the insurance companies and not RF Minatom. (author)

  2. CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI) on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered...

  3. Review of the current status of radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the current status of radiation risk estimation for low linear energy transfer radiation. Recent statements by various national and international organisations regarding risk estimates are critically discussed. The recently published revised population risk estimates from the study of Japanese bomb survivors are also reviewed and used with some unpublished data from Japan to calculate risk figures for a general work force. (author)

  4. Current status of fire protection regulations for German nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating nuclear power plants in Germany have been designed and constructed in different plant generations resulting in differences in the design and layout of fire protection features. Thus, it was necessary to assess the current fire safety status of the NPP. The systematic assessment of existing plants regarding the adequacy of their implemented fire protection features has been performed by deterministic and probabilistic methods. (author)

  5. Current status of neutron scattering facilities in Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brief explanation of the research reactor as a neutron source is presented together with its current operation mode. The neutron beam facilities include one diffractometer for residual stress measurement, one diffractometer for single crystal structural determination and texture measurement, one high resolution powder diffractometer, one neutron radiography facility, one triple axis spectrometer, one small angle neutron scattering spectrometer and one high resolution small angle neutron scattering spectrometer. Current status of three instruments mostly related to this workshop, their performances and problems faced in the last year are presented as well as the future plan for refurbishment and development. (author)

  6. The Current Status, Evolution and Future of Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chan Wei

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructive surgery aims to establish anatomicnormality as closely as possible following disfigurement tooptimize functional and esthetic outcomes and the potential fornormal psychosocial patient reintegration. The purposes of thisarticle are to outline the current status of facial reconstructionand reflect upon possibilities for its future development.Current reconstructive methods include the use of non-vascularizedgrafts, non-microsurgical vascularized flap transfers,microvascular free tissue transplantation, and their combinations.Whatever the method chosen, the principles of reconstructionfor each facial region or esthetic subunit should berespected.Most facial defects can be addressed satisfactorily withthe described techniques. Reconstructions for total or subtotalfacial defects, however, remain disappointing. Current reconstructivetechniques and principles continue to become more refined, providing improvedoutcomes. In the future, composite tissue allotransplantation and tissue engineering of vascularizedcomposite tissue constructs may also be applicable for facial reconstruction, inparticular for total or subtotal facial defects that appear outside the limits of current reconstructivemethods.

  7. Development of transport solutions for DYN3D. Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outline of current status of development of transport solutions for pin-powerreconstruction in DYN3D has been presented. Presently, an advanced method of current coupling collision probability with flux expansion in zones is being developed and tested for cylindrical geometry. Results of test calculations for cylindrical cell shows very good agreement with the results obtained with MonteCarlo method. This convincing results encourage the development of a two dimensional solver and the implementation of this advanced pin power calculation method into DYN3D as further steps. In addition, the proposed methodology will be extended to solve multi-group and multi-region problem using currents from nodal solution as boundary conditions. (orig.)

  8. Investigation on Current Status of World Nuclear Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All over the world, the interest of nuclear energy is increasing and the expectations of it are getting more as one of the most practical alternative energy resources. However, since 1990s, as a lot of nuclear specialists are being retired, now the problem of manpower shortage is taken into consideration for all of us and will be continued until 2011. In this point of view, the good quality of the professional nuclear training and education systems and the nuclear education centers are requested in order to breed and supply the next generation nuclear scientists and engineers. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore the current status of world nuclear education for both of nuclear power countries and potential nuclear power utilization countries in the near future. This report introduces the importance of nuclear energy, the current status of world nuclear power plants operation and the contribution of nuclear energy. Besides, it also includes the nuclear energy development plan of potential nuclear developing countries in the near future. In addition, this study also explores the nuclear training and education systems of the nuclear development countries and the current status of nuclear education in various fields such as government, industries, nuclear power plants ect. Especially, as considering the status of nuclear education classified such as Asia, the Americas, East and West Europe, the Middle East and Africa, it shows the different characteristics of nuclear education systems in each regions aimed to identify the good practices on the nuclear education systems. Finally, through observation of international cooperation and networks of the various nuclear organizations, this will be contributed to the development of nuclear education for member states and be suggested the various of the direction of development for nuclear education in Korea. The report presents in the basis of the recent status data of the world nuclear education systems collected from the IAEA Technical Meeting in 2009. However, due to the limitation time and access to the availability of the nuclear educational systems data, there are many needs not only to update the information and data continuously, but also to explore the world nuclear training and education systems over the next few years. In conclusion, the report is expected to be useful as a reference working material for developing the nuclear education in Korea

  9. Current status of global actinide cycle international demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of the Global Actinide Cycle International Demonstration (GACID) Project, being conducted under the GIF/SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) System Arrangement signed on February 15, 2006, has been summarized. The Project Arrangement for GACID was signed on September 27, 2007 and the following activities are underway as a part of the five years' effective period of the arrangement: MA (minor actinide) -bearing fuel raw material preparation, fuel fabrication, material property measurement, precedent irradiation tests in Joyo, irradiation behavior modeling and licensing study for pin-scale irradiations in Monju and Joyo, and program planning for future bundle-scale demonstration in Monju. (authors)

  10. Current status and some aspects of the future energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status of the energy production and of the energy sources in the world, European Union, Serbia and Montenegro and the Balkan states is analyzed. Some trends in the energy consumption and productions in some European states are analyzed. Some problems of the Serbia and Montenegro energy production system are compared with situation in neighbor states, Germany, and European Union. At present, anywhere in the world, the nuclear power in on the defensive. In some countries it has been even outlawed. Some parameters show that nuclear power, on the global scale and during this century at least, is absolutely essential and reasons for revival of nuclear energy are realistic. (author)

  11. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

  12. Thermoelectric microgenerators. Current status and prospects of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strutynska L. T.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of current status and prospects of using thermoelectric microgenerators, including organic-fueled ones, is performed. Developments of thermoelectric microgenerators presented in this review demonstrate that their increasingly wide use forms a separate, very important line of thermoelectricity – micropower generation with growing potential of practical applications for charging batteries, mobile phones, digital cameras and photocameras, power supply to small radio stations, other portable devices, including medical. The ways of increasing the efficiency of such devices and relevant lines of their wide use in practice are determined.

  13. ZnO growth technologies: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of new technologies for ZnO nano materials and thin films is of critical importance for further fundamental investigations and practical applications. We discuss on the main technical control of the synthesis of zinc oxide and its properties, which are of significance in understanding the growth mechanism and further developing ZnO-based devices. Next, we present a brief summary of recent research activities, current status and progress in developing improved control of technological processes for zinc oxide as advanced material.

  14. MONK and MCBEND: current status and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MONK Monte Carlo criticality and reactor physics code and the MCBEND Monte Carlo radiation shielding and dosimetry code have each undergone a significant number of developments over the last few years. The codes are actively developed, maintained and supported by AMEC's ANSWERS Software Service, MCBEND11 was released in 2013; MONK10 is expected to be released in late 2013 or early 2014. This paper summarises the current status of MONK and MCBEND and the recent developments which have been carried out to the codes, and their supporting nuclear data libraries and visualisation package

  15. The current status of the Canadian home fitness test.

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, R J

    1980-01-01

    The current status of the Canadian Home Fitness Test is reviewed. This simple procedure was originally conceived for the mass testing of fitness levels and for home use as a motivational tool in exercise programmes. The test is carried out on a double 8 inch step (such as a domestic staircase) at an age and sex-specific rhythm set by a long-playing record. Fitness is assessed from a combination of test-duration and the radial or carotid pulse count immediately following exercise. Use of the p...

  16. Laparoscopic surgery for inguinal hernia: Current status and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandarkar Deepraj

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair of inguinal hernia is one of the commonest operations performed by surgeons around the world. The treatment of this common problem has seen an evolution from the pure tissue repairs to the prosthetic repairs and in the recent past to laparoscopic repair. The fact that so many hernia repairs are practiced is a testimony to the fact that probably none is distinctly superior to the other. This review assesses the current status of surgery for repair of inguinal hernia and examines the various controversial issues surrounding the subject.

  17. Current status of the PSG Monte Carlo neutron transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PSG is a new Monte Carlo neutron transport code, developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The code is mainly intended for fuel assembly-level reactor physics calculations, such as group constant generation for deterministic reactor simulator codes. This paper presents the current status of the project and the essential capabilities of the code. Although the main application of PSG is in lattice calculations, the geometry is not restricted in two dimensions. This paper presents the validation of PSG against the experimental results of the three-dimensional MOX fuelled VENUS-2 reactor dosimetry benchmark. (authors)

  18. Current status of global climate change countermeasures in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After COP3 (The Third Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), many actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are now being taken by the national and local governments, industry and citizens. Japanese electric power industry has been voluntarily working to reduce CO2 emissions since the announcement of its ''Environmental Action Plan'' in November 1996. This paper overviews the current status of national government and electric power industry measures against global climate change in Japan, especially focusing on the important role of nuclear power generation in reducing CO2 emissions. 5 refs., 12 figs

  19. 21 CFR 210.1 - Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING OF DRUGS; GENERAL § 210.1 Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations. (a)...

  20. Study of Grants, new Mexico, uranium miners: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Epidemiology Study at the University of New Mexico was initiated in 1977 with the objective of assessing health effects of uranium mining in the Grants, New Mexico, area. The planned approach was a cohort study of mortality that would capitalize on the availability of health records at the Grants Clinic. The first year's work confirmed the study's feasibility (Buechley, 1979). Subsequent efforts have focused on the health and exposure data base and comprehensive follow-up. A retrospective cohort study of early miners is in progress; a prospective cohort study of miners who began working under the current federal standard is planned. This report will summarize the current status of the Uranium Epidemiology Study

  1. Generic Medicine Pricing Policies in Europe: Current Status and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Dylst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicine pricing is an area of national responsibility of European Union countries. This article aims to present the current status and impact of generic medicine pricing policies in ambulatory care in Europe. The study conducts a literature review of policies relating to free-pricing systems, price-regulated systems, price differentiation, price competition and discounts, and tendering procedures; and a survey of European generic medicine pricing policies. Competition from Indian generic medicine manufacturers, European variation in generic medicine prices and competition between generic medicine manufacturers by discount suggest that the potential savings to health care payers and patients from generic medicines are not fully realized in Europe. One way of attaining these savings may be to move away from competition by discount to competition by price. Free-pricing systems may drive medicine prices downwards under specific conditions. In price-regulated systems, regulation may lower prices of originator and generic medicines, but may also remove incentives for additional price reductions beyond those imposed by regulation. To date, little is known about the current status and impact of tendering procedures for medicines in ambulatory care. In conclusion, the European experience suggests that there is not a single approach towards developing generic medicine pricing policies in Europe.

  2. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Calvopiña; Daniel, Romero; Byron, Castañeda; Yoshihisa, Hashiguchi; Hiromu, Sugiyama.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy [...] -makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  3. Understanding community perceptions, social norms and current practice related to respiratory infection in Bangladesh during 2009: a qualitative formative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizame Fosiul A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory infections are the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh. Promoting respiratory hygiene may reduce infection transmission. This formative research explored community perceptions about respiratory infections. Methods We conducted 34 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions with community members and school children to explore respiratory hygiene related perceptions, practices, and social norms in an urban and a rural setting. We conducted unstructured observations on respiratory hygiene practices in public markets. Results Informants were not familiar with the term "respiratory infection"; most named diseases that had no relation to respiratory dysfunction. Informants reported that their community identified a number of 'good behaviors' related to respiratory hygiene, but they also noted, and we observed, that very few people practiced these. All informants cited hot/cold weather changes or using cold water as causes for catching cold. They associated transmission of respiratory infections with close contact with a sick person's breath, cough droplets, or spit; sharing a sick person's utensils and food. Informants suggested that avoiding such contact was the most effective method to prevent respiratory infection. Although informants perceived that handwashing after coughing or sneezing might prevent illness, they felt this was not typically feasible or practical. Conclusion Community perceptions of respiratory infections include both concerns with imbalances between hot and cold, and with person-to-person transmission. Many people were aware of measures that could prevent respiratory infection, but did not practice them. Interventions that leverage community understanding of person-to-person transmission and that encourage the practice of their identified 'good behaviors' related to respiratory hygiene may reduce respiratory disease transmission.

  4. Acceptability of Marital Violence among College Men and Women: Does Gender and Current Relationship Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Michael J.; Williams, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender, current relationship status, and the interaction between gender and relationship status on the acceptability of marital violence among college men and women. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of marital violence acceptability and current relationship status.…

  5. Current Diagnosis, Treatment and Etiology of Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin Kür?ad Akp?nar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Status Epilepticus (SE is a medical emergency that causes significant morbidity and mortality and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Although SE can be divided into two subgroups as convulsive and nonconvulsive, treatment principles are generally similar. Treatment should be prompt and underlying cause should be corrected. Although intravenous lorazepam is the first-line treatment due to a lower risk of relapse, diazepam becomes the first choice since loeazepan is not available in our country. Even though intravenous benzodiazepine stops seizures, intravenous antiepileptic drug (phenytoin, etc. should be administered at a loading dose. Patients with refractory status epilepticus should be supported with respect to vital, respiratory, metabolic and hemodynamic aspects and followed up in an intensive care unit to monitor cerebral electrical activity. The most common cause in the etiology is the cessation of antiepileptic drugs. The aim of SE treatment is to stop seizures and prevent complications and recurrence. In this paper, current diagnosis, treatment and etiology of SE are reviewed.

  6. The current status of TRR-II project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRR-II organization has been reorganized to enhance the project management and to minimize the interfaces among decommissioning, reactor reconstruction, and experimental facilities design. Several modifications suggested by the reviewing committee members to upgrade our reactor had been actualized in the present design. An extension of one year of the schedule due to the delay of old TRR removal engineering bid process was proposed by the project and approved by the authorities. The duration of the project will then be July 1998 - Dec. 2006. In the mean time, the project is able to spend more time exploring the design and construction techniques of reactor system, and training of personnel for neutron application research. The progresses of the project in the past 18 months and the current technical status of the project are described in the order of integral planning and management, TRR dismantling, TRR-II reconstruction, and TRR-II experimental facility. (orig.)

  7. The current status of the Korean student health examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Shin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.

  8. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS). Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  9. Current Status of TRISO Fuel Head-End Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) is proceeding with the construction and demonstration of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, and spent TRISO fuel should be generated after 2019. Hence, it is urgent to set up the treatment concept of the spent TRISO fuel. The fuel of high temperature gas cooled reactor is different from that of conventional nuclear reactor in terms of the composition. The fuel of HTGR is consisted of more than 95% of carbon, which makes it difficult to be effectively treated. In this report the features of the TRISO fuel treatment, points to be duly considered and current status of retreatment in foreign countries were summarized. Finally future research directions to establish efficient spent TRISO treatment process have been suggested

  10. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  11. The current status and future plans of the STACEE observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) represents a new type of atmospheric Cherenkov detector that achieves a low energy threshold for ?-ray detection by using heliostat mirrors in a pre-existing solar research facility. STACEE is designed to study astrophysical sources of ?-rays in the energy range of 50 to 500 GeV. A prototype of the experiment using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32) has previously detected the Crab nebula at high significance, demonstrating the viability of the technique. The completed version of STACEE will use 64 heliostats, and will have a total collection area of ?2300 m2. Astrophysics in the 10 to 300 GeV regime has proved to be elusive to both ground-based and satellite experiments and STACEE has the potential of filling an important niche in high energy astrophysics. Here we describe the current status and future goals of STACEE

  12. HELOKA data acquisition and control system: Current development status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HELOKA experimental facility, aimed to test the test blanket modules (TBM) mock-ups and prototypes, is under construction at the Research Centre Karlsruhe. HELOKA is an '8-shape' helium loop (HL), which feeds the TBM test section with helium (1.4 kg/s, 300 deg. C, 8 MPa). The maximum temperature at the test section outlet is 500 deg. C. HELOKA data acquisition and control system (DACS) comprises the facility control system and instrumentation. In addition to DACS and working independently from it, the central interlock and safety system (CISS) ensures the facility machine protection and personnel safety, with specific interlock logic, acting upon off-normal events or conditions. The paper briefly describes HELOKA DACS and CISS and reports in detail on the current development status: the installation and commissioning of DACS stage 1 consisting of the supervisory control system (SCS) and the control and monitoring for the water cooling system (WCS) and the related power supply.

  13. Current Status of High Voltage Engineering in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Syarif; Hidayat, Suwarno; Zoro, Reynaldo

    This paper reports current status of research activities in the field of high voltage engineering and its application in Indonesia. In general, the activities were driven by the application of high voltage (HV) and extra high voltage (EHV) transmission systems in the country. The operation and maintenance of HV and EHV equipments are greatly affected by the tropical climate of the country. This attracts researchers to investigate the effects of tropical climate on HV and EHV equipments. Other researches concentrated on the investigation of physics of tropical lightning and lightning protection. In this paper, applications and problems of high voltage engineering, research activities in universities, as well as in research institutes and utilities are briefly introduced.

  14. Current Research Status, Databases and Application of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs are the most frequent form of DNA variation in the genome. SNPs are genetic markers which are bi-allelic in nature and grow at a very fast rate. Current genomic databases contain information on several million SNPs. More than 6 million SNPs have been identified and the information is publicly available through the efforts of the SNP Consortium and others data bases. The NCBI plays a major role in facillating the identification and cataloging of SNPs through creation and maintenance of the public SNP database (dbSNP by the biomedical community worldwide and stimulate many areas of biological research including the identification of the genetic components of disease. In this review article, we are compiling the existing SNP databases, research status and their application.

  15. Current Status Of Silicon Materials Research For Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, T. F.

    1985-08-01

    The desire for high solar cell efficiencies has been a strong factor in determining the course of recent silicon crystal growth research efforts for photovoltaics. This review, therefore, focuses on single-crystal, dislocation-free ingot growth methods (Czochralski growth, float zoning, and cold crucible growth) and on sheet growth technologies, generally multicrystalline, that have achieved moderately high (>13.5%) laboratory-scale efficiencies. These include dendritic web growth, growth from capillary dies, edge-supported pulling, ribbon-against-drop growth, and a recent technique termed crucible-free horizontal growth. Silicon ribbon crystals provide a favorable geometry and require no wafering, but they contain defects that limit solar cell performance. Growth processes, their current status, and cell efficiencies are discussed. Silicon material process steps before and after crystal growth are described, and the advantages of silicon are presented.

  16. Current Status of QA For Nuclear Power Plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the current status of QA and our QA experiences with nuclear power plants against the background of the Japanese social and business environment. Accordingly, in 1972, 'The Guidance for Quality Assurance in Construction of Nuclear Power Plants' based on U. S. 10CEF50 Appendix B, was published by the Japan Electric Association. 'Jug-4101 The Guide for Quality Assurance of Nuclear Power Plants' has been prepared by referring to the IAEA QA code. The Guide has been accepted by the Japanese nuclear industry and applied to the QA programs of every organization concerned therewith. The Japanese approach to higher quality will naturally be different from that of other countries because of Japan's cultural, social, and economic conditions. Even higher quality is being aimed at through the LWR Improvement and Standardization Program and coordinated quality assurance efforts

  17. Cognitive behavioral therapy: Current status and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well. PMID:25689506

  18. Current status of thermoluminescence studies on minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of thermoluminescence (TL) in geological studies is being increasingly recognized, as may be judged from the considerable volume of literature accumulated over the past couple of decades; besides, a number of seminars, conferences and specialists' meetings have also been held on the subject of applied TL. However, these publications lie scattered over several periodicals and conference proceedings and an interested worker finds it difficult to obtain the gist of the contributions in one place. The present authors felt a need for this and have, therefore, attempted to bring together in this Report the current status of TL research about different minerals; applications in the fields of geochronology, ore-prospecting, stratigraphic correlation, geothermometry and other useful areas are also included. (author)

  19. Materials technology for fusion - Current status and future requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general status of the materials research and development activities currently under way in support of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors in the United States is reviewed. In the area of magnetic confinement configurations, attention is given to development programs for first wall materials, which are at various stages for possible austenitic stainless steels, high-strength Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, reactive and refractory metal alloys, specially designed long-range ordered and rapidly solidified alloys, and ferritic/martensitic steels, and for tritium breeding materials, electrical insulators, ceramics, and coolants. The development of materials for inertial confinement reactors is also surveyed in relation to the protection scheme employed for the first wall and the effects of pulsed neutron irradiation. Finally, the materials requirements and selection procedures for the ETF/INTOR and Starfire tokamak reactor designs are examined. Needs for the expansion of research on nonfirst-wall materials and inertial confinement fusion reactor material requirements are pointed out

  20. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ill Jang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS. Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  1. Design features and current status of HTR-10GT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 10MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-10), a pebble bed type reactor, is the first reactor worldwide which has inherent safety features. It reached its first criticality in 2000 and began to operate on full power in 2003. The power conversion system of the HTR-10 is a steam turbine generator system. Based on the success of the HTR-10, a new project, the gas turbine power conversion system coupled with the HTR-10, was launched, which is denoted as HTR-10GT. The HTGR gas turbine cycle is expected to have higher efficiency and better performance theoretically. Therefore, for the HTR-10GT, the gas turbine direct cycle is utilized instead of previous steam generator and steam turbine. The arrangement of helium turbine and electric generator is selected as single shaft configuration with a gear box between the two machines, for which the turbine speed is designed as 15000r/min and the generator is 3000 r/min. The rotors are supported by active magnetic bearings to avoid the contamination from any lubricant. The reactor core outlet temperature is designed as 750 deg. and inlet 330 deg. The plant power is controlled by adjusting reactor control rods and helium density simultaneously, so that it can remain high efficiency even in partial loading. The overspeed of the turbomachine is restricted by opening bypass valves to reduce pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of turbine. This presentation will show the main design features and current status of the design features and current status of the HTR-10GT project. (author)

  2. Public acceptance, market development and commercialization of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh with respect to public acceptance, commercial application, trade development and present research and development activities are summarized in the paper. Irradiated food products are generally accepted by people. To further boost public opinion on the usefulness of the technology, two national seminars were successfully organized in 1995 and 1996 respectively with wide participation and media coverage. A number of non-traditional items such as beef casing, flour, turtle meat, macaroni, peat soil, etc. were irradiated and successfully marketed during the last 5 years. Bangladesh adopted a ''Specification for Authorisation of Irradiation by Groups/Classes of Foods'' in 1995 in line with the ICGFI Guidelines. The Bangladesh Standard is essentially similar to the Harmonised Regulations adopted for the RCA countries in April 1998. About 1300 metric tons of different food items were irradiated for commercial purposes at the Gammatech Irradiation Facility in Chittagong during the past 5 years. Present research activities in Bangladesh include irradiation disinfestations of nematodes in ginger and turmeric, and mites and thrips from cut flowers. Work on identification of fruit flies, mites and thrips by using sensitive protein markers is in progress. (author)

  3. Regulatory and organizational framework for safe management and disposal of radioactive waste in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste (RW) in Bangladesh is generated from various applications. The wastes are generated from research and nuclear applications mainly in medicine, agriculture, industry and research. As with all radiation sources, radioactive waste is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed in order to protect humans and the environment. All these RW needs to be safely managed at all stages up-to and including the ultimate disposal as per international and national standards. Regulation of the safe management and disposal of radioactive wastes in Bangladesh is the responsibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) Act (Act No. XXI of 1993), in force since 22 July 1993 by approval of the National Parliament, assigns to Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) to regulate and to inspect nuclear activities regarding radiological and nuclear safety, physical protection of nuclear materials, in order to verify that such materials are used exclusively for peaceful purposes. For the fulfilment of these functions the Act grants the BAEC the necessary legal competence to develop, to establish and to apply a regulatory system to all nuclear activities carried out in Bangladesh. The legal and regulatory framework employed to achieve safe management and disposal of radioactive wastes is quite detailed in the NSRC Act and NSRC Rules-97. Radioactive waste management activities are carried out in a facility at Cenities are carried out in a facility at Central Radioactive Waste Storage and Processing Facility (CWSPF), Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar. This facility has been assigned to take all low-level radioactive wastes generated by nuclear applications in Bangladesh. Strategic guidelines for the management of the national nuclear activities and in particular for the radioactive waste management and decommissioning of the nuclear installations are provided in the NSRC Rules-97. Bangladesh is planning to sign the Joint Convention on the Safety of the Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of the Radioactive Waste Management. This paper describes briefly the regulatory and organizational framework in which the management of radioactive wastes is carried out in Bangladesh. It also presents the criteria developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (BAEC) to assess the long-term safety of disposal systems for radioactive wastes. The current status and future direction of the legal and regulatory framework for management and disposal of radioactive waste in Bangladesh is described. (author)

  4. Current Status of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) to date and the current development status of the system. NORS is an element of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) used to resupply the ISS with Nitrogen and Oxygen following the impending retirement of the Space Shuttle. The paper will discuss why NASA is developing NORS, including a summary of other concepts considered, and other related concepts currently being developed by NASA. The current system architecture will be described, along with a summary of the current design of the NORS. The overall programmatic schedule of the NORS in the context of the upcoming shuttle retirement and future launch vehicle development will also be presented. Finally, the paper will examine the significant technical challenges encountered during the requirements and preliminary design phase of NORS development. A key challenge to the development of NORS is the international shipment - and associated regulations - of pressurized Oxygen, which is necessary due to the use of launch vehicles based in Japan and French Guiana to send NORS gasses to the ISS. The storage and use of relatively large quantities of high pressure (41,000 kPa) Oxygen and Nitrogen within the ISS, which is unprecedented both on the ISS and other space vehicles, has had a significant impact on the design and architecture of the system. The high pressure of the system also poses unique thermal considerations, which has led to the development of a heater system for thermal conditioning of high pressure gas to avoid thermal impacts on downstream hardware. The on-orbit envelope allocated to the NORS has changed (gotten smaller) and has impacted both the design and architecture of the system. Finally, the balance of safety considerations associated with these high pressure gasses, particularly high pressure Oxygen, with the functionality of the system has profoundly impacted the form of the system and will be discussed.

  5. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Salinas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although surgical aortic valve replacement is the standard therapy for severe aortic stenosis (AS, about one third of patients are considered inoperable due to unacceptable surgical risk. Under medical treatment alone these patients have a very poor prognosis with a mortality rate of 50% at 2 years. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI has been used in these patients, and has shown robust results in the only randomized clinical trial of severe AS treatment performed so far. In this review, we will focus on the two commercially available systems: Edwards SAPIEN valve and CoreValve Revalving system. Both systems have demonstrated success rates of over 90% with 30-d mortality rates below 10% in the most recent transfemoral TAVI studies. Moreover, long-term studies have shown that the valves have good haemodynamic performance. Some studies are currently exploring the non-inferiority of TAVI procedures vs conventional surgery in high-risk patients, and long-term clinical results of the percutaneous valves. In this article we review the current status of TAVI including selection of patients, a comparison of available prostheses, results and complications of the procedure, clinical outcomes, and future perspectives.

  6. Current status of the Mallard population in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär

    Dabbling ducks (Anas ssp.) are cornerstone species in wetland bird communities and yet in many cases we lack sufficient data to judge the conservation status of the flyway population. In a first step to remedy this we here compile all available data on Mallard in the Nordic countries. We find increasing numbers of wintering Mallards and stable to increasing breeding populations. Data on breeding success is scarce but the available data show an increasing trend. In recent years the overall trend in hunting bag sizes is relatively stable even though there is some variation among countries. Thus all indicators suggest that the Nordic Mallard population is currently in good condition. However major knowledge gaps were identified with regard to release of hand-reared Mallards and the effect of short stopping for the trends observed locally. A detailed assessment of the effect of releases is urgently needed as well as an assessment of the role of short stopping in explaining current trends in winter population in certain parts of the European flyway.

  7. Current status of Horonobe URL project in construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Horonobe URL project has been pursued by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) to establish and demonstrate site characterization methodologies, engineering technologies, and safety assessment methodologies for HLW geological disposal in relevant geological environment with sedimentary rock and saline groundwater distributing in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan. In the Horonobe URL project, surface-based investigation phase (Phase I) has already completed in the year 2005, and then construction phase (Phase II) has initiated in the same year. Currently, construction of the underground facilities such as shafts/galleries which were designed in Phase I, investigations of the geological environment in the excavated shafts/galleries and confirmation of applicability of engineering technologies has been alternately carried out as Phase II activities of the project. During the construction so far, monitoring for the construction safety such as convergence measurements, tunnel wall observation, sampling of groundwater and rock, investigations for evaluating excavation damaged/disturbed zone (EDZ/EdZ) along shafts/galleries were carried out. In addition, a shotcrete construction test and a grout injection test by using low alkaline cement material were carried in the horizontal galleries. In this paper, status of the URL construction and research activities mentioned above are outlined as the current achievement of the Horonobe URL project. (author)project. (author)

  8. Current status of robot-assisted gastric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Jin Baek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to minimize the limitations of laparoscopy, a robotic surgery system was introduced, but its role for gastric cancer is still unclear. The objective of this article is to assess the current status of robotic surgery for gastric cancer and to predict future prospects. Although the current study was limited by its small number of patients and retrospective nature, robot-assisted gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer is a feasible and safe procedure for experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Most studies have reported satisfactory results for postoperative short-term coutcomes, such as: postoperative oral feeding, gas out, hospital stay and complications, compared with laparoscopic surgery; the difference is a longer operation time. However, robotic surgery showed a shallow learning curve compared with the familarity of conventional open surgery; after the accumulation of several cases, robotic surgery could be expected to result in a similar operation time. Robotic-assisted gastrectomy can expand the indications of minimally invasive surgery to include advanced gastric cancer by improving the ability to perform lymphadenectomy. Moreover, ”total” robotic gastrectomy can be facilitated using a robot-sewing technique and gastric submucosal tumors near the gastroesophageal junction or pylorus can be resected safely by this novel technique. In conclusion, robot-assisted gastrectomy may offer a good alternative to conventional open or laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer, provided that long-term oncologic outcomes can be confirmed.

  9. Astroparticles in Latin America: Current Status and Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful installation and operation of the Auger Observatory in Argentina has been a milestone in Astro particle research in Latin America, generating new regional research opportunities in the field. In this context, the LAGO (Large Aperture Gamma ray Burst) Observatory, began in 2005 with the aim of studying the high-energy component of the gamma ray bursts (GRBs). The observatory consists of different arrays of water Cherenkov detectors installed in high altitude mountains throughout Latin America. Recently, it has been demonstrated the feasibility of conducting studies on the solar modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux. Currently more than 80 scientists and students from Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Argentina are integrated into the LAGO Collaboration. The high level of regional integration in the scientific community reached thanks to this kind of major projects, has led to the recent formation of the CLES (Consorcio Latin-American de Experiment os Subterraneos). This organization promotes the creation and installation of the ANDES Underground Laboratory to be built inside the projected International Agua Negra tunnel between Argentina and Chile. The ANDES laboratory with over 1750 meters of rock cover, will be the first laboratory of its kind to be installed in the Southern Hemisphere. In this talk I will describe the current status of these enterprises in our region and its future possibilities.

  10. Personal dosimetric monitoring in Ukraine: current status and further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently Ukraine has mixed system for dosimetric monitoring. Nuclear power plants and some major nuclear facilities have their own dosimetry services, which are responsible for regular dosimetric monitoring of workers. Rest of occupationally exposed persons is monitored by dosimetry laboratories affiliated to the territorial authorities for sanitary and epidemiology supervision. In 2002-2003 Ukrainian Ministry of Health performed survey of the status of dosimetric monitoring and inventory of critical groups requiring such monitoring. Dosimetry services in Ukraine cover about 38,000 occupationally exposed workers, including 9,100 medical professionals, 16,400 employees of 5 nuclear power plants and ca.12,400 workers dealing with other sources of occupational exposure (industry, research). Territorial dosimetry services operate in 13 of 24 regions of Ukraine, using DTU-01 manual TLD readers produced with one exception in 1988-1990. The coverage of critical groups by dosimetric monitoring is variable and ranges from 38% to 100% depending on the region. Personnel of nuclear power plants (about 16,400 workers) is monitored by their own dosimetry services achieving absolute coverage of the main staff and temporary workers. Current inadequate status of dosimetric monitoring infrastructure in Ukraine demands an urgent elaboration of the united state system for monitoring and recording of individual doses. The proposed plan would allows to bring dosimetry infrastructure in Ukraine to the modern state which would be compatible with existing and future European and international radiation protection networks. Unitary structure of Ukraine, strong administrative command and good communications between regions of the country are positive factors in favour of efficient implementation of the proposed plan. Deficiencies are associated with limited funding of this effort. (authors)

  11. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of tlustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabi?-Stankovi? Kata M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and potentials of classical radiotherapy After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. Technological levels of radiotherapy in developed countries An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and mached to point current status. Results of analysis and discussion The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%, as well as, ADAC (43.7% and Focus (CMS (27.4% systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%, although classic ”simulation” is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%. About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CFRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.. CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day. Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. Technological aspects and conclusion In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in technology and consequent improvements, as well as wide introduction of computers in radiotherapy, radiotherapy results have not changed significantly. Vendor development strategies do not point that this trend will change in the next 5 years. On the other hand, wide introduction of the PET in each radiotherapy chain ring (diagnostics, planning, follow-up, could improve results (local and regional control, as well as quality of patients' life.

  13. Current status and future prospects on nuclear industry in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is ny great pleasure to have this chance of speaking at twenty-first KAIF/KNS Annual Conference, with the subject of the current status and future prospects of nuclear industry in Korea. As you all know, since the start of operation in Obninsk, the former Soviet Union, on June 26th, 1954, nuclear generation in the world has expanded continuously for the past 50 years. In 1973, when the first oil crisis hit the world, there were 147 nuclear power plants in operation, supplying only 0.8% of the world energy demand. About 30 years later, by the end of last year, 443 plants were in operation in 32 countries, supplying about 16% of the world power demand. Nuclear power generation is greatly contributing to the energy security of many countries and preservation of global environments. Recently, countries all over the world are becoming aware of the values and importance of nuclear energy which can help respond to energy crises caused by a sharp rise in oil prices and protect the earth from global warming. Due to its high energy density and ability to secure fuel supply at a lower cost, in addition to its cleanliness resulting from almost no emission of greenhouse gases, nuclear power generation is the practical alternative for energy security and the prevention of global warming. However, in the rapidly changing 21st century, the nuclear industries of the world, as well as Korea, are facing more challenges than ever before. The political and social disputes on nuclear geolitical and social disputes on nuclear generation are continuing while we all are facing urgent challenges, including the concerns about the safety of nuclear generation, procuring site to build nuclear power plants, and the improvement of competitiveness. Please allow me to remind you that it is very important for the world's nuclear societies to cooperate together in order to overcome diverse difficulties along our path and to contribute to the development of mankind and preservation of natural environments with nuclear power as a fundamental energy resource. Now, let me introduce you to the present the current status and future prospects of nuclear industry in Korea

  14. Thorium-based nuclear fuel: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until the present time considerable efforts have already been made in the area of fabrication, utilization and reprocessing of Th-based fuels for different types of reactors, namely: by FRG and USA - for HTRs; FRG and Brazil, Italy - for LWRs; India - for HWRs and FBRs. Basic research of thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycles are also being undertaken by Australia, Canada, China, France, FRG, Romania, USSR and other countries. Main emphasis has been given to the utilization of thorium fuels in once-through nuclear fuel cycles, but in some projects closed thorium-uranium or thorium-plutonium fuel cycles are also considered. The purpose of the Technical Committee on the Utilization of Thorium-Based Nuclear Fuel: Current Status and Perspective was to review the world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration, obtained experience in the utilization of Th-based fuels in different types of reactors, basic research, fabrication and reprocessing of Th-based fuels. As a result of the panel discussion the recommendations on future Agency activities and list of major worldwide activities in the area of Th-based fuel were developed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers in this proceedings series

  15. Current Status of Numerical-Relativity Simulations in Kyoto

    CERN Document Server

    Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    We describe the current status of our numerical simulations for the collapse of a massive stellar core to a BH and the BNS mergers, performed in the framework of full general relativity incorporating finite-temperature EOS and neutrino cooling. For the stellar core collapse simulation, we present the latest numerical results. We employed a purely nucleonic EOS (Shen-EOS). As an initial condition, we adopted a 100 $M_{\\odot}$ presupernova model calculated by Umeda and Nomoto. Changing the degree of rotation for the initial condition, we clarify the strong dependence of the outcome of the collapse on this. When the rotation is rapid enough, the shock wave formed at the core bounce is deformed to be a torus-like shape. Then, the infalling matter is accumulated in the central region due to the oblique shock at the torus surface, hitting the PNS and dissipating the kinetic energy there. As a result, outflows can be launched. The PNS eventually collapses to a BH and an accretion torus is formed around it. We also f...

  16. Current status of the development of international exemption principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past several years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been investigating the possibility of exempting certain radiation sources and practices from regulatory control. Initial efforts were conducted under the general heading of de minimis. Interest in this topic arises from international recognition that a significant fraction of the wastes from industry, research, medicine, and the nuclear fuel cycle are contaminated to such low levels that applying regulatory controls may be unwarranted. The IAEA evaluation has been conducted by Advisory Groups considering two interrelated topics: to establish principles for exemption, and to apply the principles to various areas of waste management. The IAEA Advisory Groups developed the criteria from modeled assessments of the potential radiation exposure pathways and scenarios for individuals and population groups following the unrestricted release of radioactive materials. Although the scenarios and models used by the IAEA are necessarily generic, consultants to the Advisory Groups attempted to identify the most important radiation exposure pathways based on available literature. This approach is intended to provide the basic framework for the numerical derivation of generic exempt quantities that would be conservative in most situations. This paper discusses the current status of the IAEA's efforts on the subject of exemption and presents the generic results expressed as overall exemption limits for municssed as overall exemption limits for municipal wastes and materials for recycle and reuse

  17. Current Status of Carl Sagan Observatory in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.

    The current status of Observatory "Carl Sagan" (OCS) of University of Sonora is presented. This project was born in 1996 focused to build a small solar-stellar observatory completely operated by remote control. The observatory will be at "Cerro Azul", a 2480 m peak in one of the best regions in the world for astronomical observation, at the Sonora-Arizona desert. The OCS, with three 16 cm solar telescopes and a 55 cm stellar telescope is one of the cheapest observatories, valuated in US200,000 Added to its scientific goals to study solar coronal holes and Supernovae Type 1A, the OCS has a strong educative and cultural program in Astronomy to all levels. At the end of 2001, we started the Program "Constelacion", to build small planetariums through all the countries with a cost of only US80,000. Also, the webcast system for transmission of the solar observations from the prototype OCS at the campus, was expanded to webcast educational programs in Astronomy since July of this year, including courses and diplomats for Latin American people. All of these advances are exposed here.

  18. Radionuclide transport by groundwater flow through the geosphere: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geosphere is an important barrier retaining radionuclides that have been released from the near field of a waste repository and retarding their return to Man. The assessment models that are used in the current Nirex assessments to describe the groundwater flow in the vicinity of the repository and the transport of radionuclides by the groundwater are summarized, and their data requirements are set out. The Nirex research programme is designed to provide improved and additional data for these models, to deepen the understanding of the important processes and to develop improved models to describe them. This document outlines the status of the assessment models and associated research programme in the spring of 1988. The programme complements existing knowledge in this field. Key areas are measurements of the physical properties of rocks, field and modelling studies of fractured rocks, measurements of sorption onto geological materials, investigation of the possible importance of colloid transport and saline interfaces, transport of naturally occurring elements over geological time-scales in natural geochemical systems, and participation in an international model validation exercise. (author)

  19. The current status of radiological protection infraestructures in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Without adequate and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure, the benefits associated with safe use of nuclear technology and atomic energy might be jeopardized. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the Atomic Energy Act No. 7 of 2003 established the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission as sole regulatory body responsible for regulating and controlling the safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the country. The Atomic Energy (Protection from ionizing radiation) Regulations, 2004 further specifies practices designed to ensure that unnecessary exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is avoided, that all exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable and that all the dose limits specified in the radiation protection standards are not exceeded. This is achieved through the systems of notification, authorizations through registration and licensing, safety and security of radiation sources as well as regulatory inspections and enforcements. These activities are performed by the Commission with operational funds allocated by the Government of Tanzania. The Commission further provides other services namely individual monitoring; calibration services; education and training to radiation workers, public as well as law enforcers; and safe management of radioactive waste. Despite such achievement, still there are a lot to be done in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Tanzania. These include issues such as gaps in our legislations, regulations and guidance, security of sources, enforcement of laws, etc. This paper describes and discusses the current status of the regulatory control activities and radiation protection services provided by the Commission and suggestions for further improvement of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania. (author)

  20. Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PeterUhlhaas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

  1. Management of reprocessed uranium. Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is worldwide interest in developing advanced and innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles, minimizing waste and environmental impacts. As of the beginning of 2003, about 171000 tonnes heavy metal spent nuclear fuel is in storage, while smaller amounts have been reprocessed. In several countries, including France, India, Japan and the Russian Federation, spent fuel has been viewed as a national energy resource. Some countries hold reprocessed uranium as the result of their commercial reprocessing service contracts for reprocessing the spent fuel of others. Reprocessed uranium has a potential value for recycling either directly or after appropriate treatment. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in the management of reprocessed uranium. It includes the technical issues involved in managing reprocessed uranium which are RepU arisings, storage, chemical conversion, re-enrichment, fuel fabrication, transport, reactor irradiation, subsequent reprocessing and disposal options, as well as assessment of holistic environmental impacts. The objective of this document is to overview the information on the current status and future trends in the management of RepU and to identify major issues to be considered for future projects

  2. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  3. [Current status of surface water acidification in Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang-yi; Kang, Rong-hua; Luo, Yao; Duan, Lei

    2013-05-01

    In order to evaluate the status of surface water acidification in Northeast China, chemical composition of 33 small streams was investigated in August, 2011. It was found that only a few waters located in Changbai Mountain had pH of lower than 6.0, and all waters had acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of higher than 0.2 meq x L(-1). This indicated that surface water acidification was not a regional environmental issue in Northeast China. HCO3- was the major anion, with SO4(2-) concentration mostly below 150 microeq x L(-1) and even much lower NO3- concentration. Low concentration of SO4(2-) and NO3- means no serious acid deposition in this area. However, the distribution of acidic forest soils, with low base cation weathering rate, could only provide limited buffering capacity for surface water to acidification in Northeast China, and the potential risk of water acidification still existed. Currently, acid deposition in Northeast Asia could hardly cause severe acidification of surface water. The neighboring countries should therefore not amplify the environmental impact by transboundary air pollutants from China. PMID:23914517

  4. Soil contamination in China: current status and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; Ma, Yibing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tang, Zhong; McGrath, Steve P

    2015-01-20

    China faces great challenges in protecting its soil from contamination caused by rapid industrialization and urbanization over the last three decades. Recent nationwide surveys show that 16% of the soil samples, 19% for the agricultural soils, are contaminated based on China’s soil environmental quality limits, mainly with heavy metals and metalloids. Comparisons with other regions of the world show that the current status of soil contamination, based on the total contaminant concentrations, is not worse in China. However, the concentrations of some heavy metals in Chinese soils appear to be increasing at much greater rates. Exceedance of the contaminant limits in food crops is widespread in some areas, especially southern China, due to elevated inputs of contaminants, acidic nature of the soil and crop species or cultivars prone to heavy metal accumulation. Minimizing the transfer of contaminants from soil to the food chain is a top priority. A number of options are proposed, including identification of the sources of contaminants to agricultural systems, minimization of contaminant inputs, reduction of heavy metal phytoavailability in soil with liming or other immobilizing materials, selection and breeding of low accumulating crop cultivars, adoption of appropriate water and fertilizer management, bioremediation, and change of land use to grow nonfood crops. Implementation of these strategies requires not only technological advances, but also social-economic evaluation and effective enforcement of environmental protection law. PMID:25514502

  5. Current status of vaccines against infectious bursal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hermann; Mundt, Egbert; Eterradossi, Nicolas; Islam, M Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the aetiological agent of the acute and highly contagious infectious bursal disease (IBD) or "Gumboro disease". IBD is one of the economically most important diseases that affects commercially produced chickens worldwide. Along with strict hygiene management of poultry farms, vaccination programmes with inactivated and live attenuated viruses have been used to prevent IBD. Live vaccines show a different degree of attenuation; many of them may cause bursal atrophy and thus immunosuppression with poor immune response to vaccination against other pathogens and an increase in vulnerability to various types of infections as possible consequences. Depending on their intrinsic characteristics or on the vaccination procedures, some of the vaccines may not induce full protection against the very virulent IBDV strains and antigenic variants observed in the last three decades. As chickens are most susceptible to IBDV in their first weeks of life, active immunity to the virus has to be induced early after hatching. However, maternally derived IBDV-specific antibodies may interfere with early vaccination with live vaccines. Thus new technologies and second-generation vaccines including rationally designed and subunit vaccines have been developed. Recently, live viral vector vaccines have been licensed in several countries and are reaching the market. Here, the current status of IBD vaccines is discussed. PMID:22515532

  6. CURRENT STATUS OF BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal mucosa is the preferred site for both systemic and local drug action. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it relatively permeable. The buccal region of the oral cavity is an attractive target for administration of the drug of choice, particularly in overcoming deficiencies associated with the latter mode of administration. Problems such as first-pass metabolism and drug degradation in the gastrointestinal environment can be circumvented by administering the drug via the buccal route. Moreover, rapid onset of action can be achieved relative to the oral route and the formulation can be removed if therapy is required to be discontinued. It is also possible to administer drugs to patients who unconscious and less co-operative. In buccal drug delivery systems mucoadhesion is the key element so various mucoadhesive polymers have been utilized in different dosages form. Mucoadhesion may be defined as the process where polymers attach to biological substrate or a synthetic or natural macromolecule, to mucus or an epithelial surface. When the biological substrate is attached to a mucosal layer then this phenomenon is known as mucoadhesion. The substrate possessing bioadhesive polymer can help in drug delivery for a prolonged period of time at a specific delivery site. Both natural and synthetic polymers are used for the preparation of mucoadhesive buccal patches. However, this review article provides a current status of buccal drug delivery of patches (films along with formulation development and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal patches.

  7. Estimating tissue iron burden: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John C

    2015-07-01

    Iron overload is becoming an increasing problem as haemoglobinopathy patients gain greater access to good medical care and as therapies for myelodysplastic syndromes improve. Therapeutic options for iron chelation therapy have increased and many patients now receive combination therapies. However, optimal utilization of iron chelation therapy requires knowledge not only of the total body iron burden but the relative iron distribution among the different organs. The physiological basis for extrahepatic iron deposition is presented in order to help identify patients at highest risk for cardiac and endocrine complications. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art for monitoring global iron overload status as well as its compartmentalization. Plasma markers, computerized tomography, liver biopsy, magnetic susceptibility devices and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are all discussed but MRI has come to dominate clinical practice. The potential impact of recent pancreatic and pituitary MRI studies on clinical practice are discussed as well as other works-in-progress. Clinical protocols are derived from experience in haemoglobinopathies but may provide useful guiding principles for other iron overload disorders, such as myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:25765344

  8. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China. PMID:24329743

  9. Current status of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality, which is becoming increasingly widespread due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has a long tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a second-generation promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we describe the current situation worldwide as far as the use of accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT is concerned (so-called Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT). In particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. (author)

  10. Radiation processing in India: Current status and future programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing in many industrial applications. In India, this technology has found extensive applications in area of healthcare, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, six commercial Co-60 gamma irradiators and three commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. Five demonstration plants housing a total of 18.5x107 GBq Co-60 have been set up to assess the techno-commercial viability of the processes such as radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, decontamination of spices, hygienization of sewage sludge, shelf-life extension of onions. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam treated pulp for viscose-rayon process, radiation processed 'hydrogel' burn/would dressings and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology in India is reviewed. (author)

  11. Radiation processing in India. Current status and future program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing in many industrial applications. In India, this technology has found extensive applications in area of healthcare, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, 6 commercial gamma irradiators housing about 1.5 million curie Co-60 and an annual turnover of over US$ 2 million and 3 commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. Five demonstration plants housing a total of 0.5 million curie Co-60 have been set up to assess the techno-commercial viability of the processes such as radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, decontamination of spices, hygienization of sewage sludge, shelf-life extension of onions. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam treated pulp for viscose-rayon process, radiation processed 'hydrogel' burn/wound dressings and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology in India is reviewed. (author)

  12. The UPM high temperature solar collector current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature solar energy research at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) is an attempt to study the merits of the fixed aperture optics collector for the equatorial region using the concept of the fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF). The general objective is to look for an alternative source of clean energy and a practical method of converting this energy to usable form for the projected industrialisation program of the country. The FMDF uses a stationary hemisphere bowl to capture the solar irradiance. The UPM bowl has a rim angle of 120 0 with radius of curvature of 27.9 m. This corresponds to an aperture diameter of 48 m and submerges 5.1 m in the ground. The bowl will later be tiled with 2446 square meters of mirror to form a spherical shape. And therefore will be able to collect about 1 MW of solar irradiance at the conical focus formed along the direction of the radius (high concentrated region) which then can be harnessed by different means. In this paper, we will report the current status and future works of the project, under construction at the site. We anticipate that the project will be completed and operated by the year 2000. (Author)

  13. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  14. The ALICE DAQ Current Status and Future Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Röhrich, D; Villalobos Baillie, O; Dénes, E; Eged, B; Sulyán, J; Kiss, T; Meggyesi, Z; Soos, C; Vissy, B; Tarján, D; Tóth, N; Novák, I; Csató, P; Rubin, G; Arregui, M; Carena, W; Chapeland, S; Divià, R; Schossmaier, K; Van de Vyvre, P; Vascotto, Alessandro; Stock, Reinhard; Rademakers, F; Lindenstruth, V; Skaali, B

    2001-01-01

    Proposal of abstract for CHEP2000The ALICE DAQ system has been designed to support an aggregate eventr building bandwidth of up to 2.5 GByte/s and a storage capability o fup to 1.25 GByte/s to mass storage.A general framework called the ALICE Data Acquisition Test Environment (DATE) system has been developed as a basis for prototyping the components of the DAQ. DATE supports a wide spectrum of configurations from simple systems to more complex systems with multiple detectors and multiple event builders.Prototypes of several key components of the ALICE DAQ have been developed and integrated with the DATE system, such as the ALICE Detector Data Link, the online data monitoring from ROOT and the interface to the Mass Storage systems. Combined tests of several of these components are pursued during the ALICE Data Challenges.The architecture of the ALICE DAQ system will be presented together with the current status of the different prototypes. The recent addition of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) to ALICE h...

  15. Current status and review of development of IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) has published the safety standards series of the standards, guides, and procedures related to nuclear safety with consistency. The draft of IAEA safety standards has been submitted and reviewed to all member states for the international broadest consensus and reflection of major comment before the approval by the IAEA Board of Governors (for Safety Fundamentals and Safety Requirements) or, on behalf of the Director General, by the Publications Committee (for Safety Guides). Recently, as the member state of IAEA, Korea has steadily reviewed the drafts of IAEA safety standards and presented the our comments, which are expected to be big aid of improvement and supplementation of the system and content of the Nuclear Acts and the regulatory guides related to nuclear safety. The objectives of this paper are to survey the current status of the development of IAEA safety standards and to introduce the main contents and proposed comments for the drafts of IAEA safety standards which have been reviewed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS) up to now

  16. Current status of feasibility studies on commercialized FBR cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magari, Takayuki; Kodaira, Kiyosi; Noda, Hirosi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2000-10-01

    Japan Nuclear Development Institute (JNC) have started the following feasibility studies (F/S) in order to develop a commercialized fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycle system satisfying the needs of the future society since JFY1999 with the electric companies. In the F/S, a number of candidate concepts will be selected from various options about the FBR system and the related fuel cycle system (reprocessing and fuel fabrication), featuring innovative technologies. The options are examined considering the attainable perspective for the followings: 1) safety, 2) economic competitiveness to future LWRs, 3) efficient utilization of uranium resources, 4) reduction of environmental burden and 5) enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation in order to determine the promising concepts making the most of the merits of the FBR cycle system and to define the necessary R and D tasks. In the end of JFY2000, we will determine the promising concepts from various options and summarize the results of the F/S (Phase I). Current status of these F/S activities was described in this paper. (author)

  17. Current status and prospects of radiopharmaceuticals in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiopharmaceuticals could not only serve as effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools in human diseases, but also allow the assessment of metabolism and functional processes by providing quick, non-invasive and real-time visualization of physiological and pathological processes in the living humans at the molecular level together with PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging modalities. They could provide new methods and new approaches of truly early diagnosis and therapy and possible pathways for the preventative medicine, translational medicine and personalized medicine. The present review provides an overview of current status of in vivo radiopharmaceuticals in China. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future was discussed. The addressed future trends include the following aspects. (1) Production of medical radioisotopes including 99Mo, 131I, 188/186Re and 123I. (2) Investigation on the basic radiopharmaceutical chemistry. (3) Development of receptor-based imaging agents. (4) Development of multi-modality imaging probes. (authors)

  18. Current Status of Pd- Reference Electrode Development Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate and stable in-core reference electrodes are needed in long-term corrosion potential measurements when water chemistry effects on corrosion of construction materials under radiation fields are studied. The experimental difficulties of measuring ECP inside the reactor pressure vessel are basically related to the high pressure, high temperature environments, which give significant problems connected with bringing electrochemical information across the pressure boundaries. Additionally, the sensors have to withstand exposure to high radiation and neutron flux. Currently, the most widely used in-core reference electrodes are either internal silver/silver chloride electrodes or zirconia membrane based pH sensors. A novel approach is to use a cathodically charged palladium (Pd) hydrogen electrode. This type of sensor is a suitable reference electrode for in-core corrosion potential measurements in constant pH solutions, because the potential determining components (H2,H+) are stable over the temperatures of interest and do not contaminate the measurement environment. In addition, the mechanisms of hydrogen reactions on palladium and platinum (Pt) surfaces have been extensively studied and are now reasonably well understood. A new Pd reference electrode has been tested in an out-of-core test loop in Halden. The electrode was installed into the flow through cell containing external pressure balanced silver/silver chloride reference electrodes, a r/silver chloride reference electrodes, a high temperature conductivity sensor and a temperature probe. This report discusses the current status of the in-core Pd reference electrode development work being performed at the OECD Halden Project. (author)

  19. Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Doo Seok; Thomas, Reji; Katiyar, R. S.; Scott, J. F.; Kohlstedt, H.; Petraru, A.; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2012-07-01

    The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO2, Cr2O3, FeOx and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO3, Pb(Zrx Ti1-x)O3, BiFeO3 and PrxCa1-xMnO3 (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al2O3 and Gd2O3; (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In2Se3 and In2Te3. Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors.

  20. Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO2, Cr2O3, FeOx and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO3, Pb(Zrx Ti1?x)O3, BiFeO3 and PrxCa1?xMnO3; (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al2O3 and Gd2O3; (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In2Se3 and In2Te3. Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most proto focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors. (review article)

  1. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  2. The current status of cattle breeding programmes in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the South Asian and Pacific (SAP) countries have similarities in setting the policy and execution of dairy and beef cattle genetic improvement programmes, but the degree of involvement by the state and the private sectors varies with their socioeconomic priorities. Dairying plays an important role in socioeconomic development in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, while the economic output from livestock in Indonesia and Malaysia is dominated by the beef industry. Improving the productivity of cattle in SAP will required a multifaceted set of interventions that will involve not only proper management of local animal genetic resources, but also strengthening of local institutions for support of farming activities, including not only breeding-related services, but also services related to nutrition, health care, milk marketing and social services. These services are to be provided by a combination of governmental, non-governmental, and private institutions. A contribution by the government for policy setting and support in management of local resources is necessary to ensure sustainability and fair exchange of germplasm between countries

  3. Current Status of the Refurbishment of Five Semi-Hot Cells at NRI Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the procedure and current status of refurbishment of five semi-hot cells at Nuclear Research Institute Rez (NRI Rez). Reconstruction is carried out at the Mechanical Testing Department of Integrity and Technical Engineering Division. The whole procedure from the start of the project (feasibility study, work schedule) to the current status of refurbishment is depicted in this paper. (author)

  4. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup

    2015-01-01

    Objective Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea. This study was designed to report on the current status of ART therapy in South Korea between January 1 and December 31 of 2010. Methods A revised survey, originally developed by the International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies, was sent to all available ART centers via email in 2013. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized into standard IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injections. These cases, the thawing embryo transfer (TET) cases, and other related procedures were surveyed. Results Data from 30,785 ART procedures were provided by 78 clinics. Of the 28,200 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, 92.2% of these cycles were completely transferred. In addition, 8,075 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, which represent a pregnancy rate of 28.6% per oocyte pick-up and 31.1% per embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET was three embryos (37.3%) followed by two embryos (36.3%) and one embryo (14.0%). Of the 6,648 TET cycles transferred, 2,356 clinical pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography. The most common number of embryos in the TET group was two embryos (43.4%) followed by three embryos (25.4%) and one embryo (18.9%). Conclusion The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer in the FET cycles was similar in 2009 and 2010. Among the FET cycles where one or two embryos were transferred, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer slightly increased from 2009 (28.7%) to 2010 (32.9%). PMID:25874168

  5. EDIBLE VACCINES FROM GM CROPS: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE SCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doshi V

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of an edible vaccine is coming closer to reality as scientists have found a way to incorporate the protein gene with some antigen in some plants. The major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology are being overcome. In this context, genetically modified (GM plants are being investigated for the production of vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins. The development of GM crops to produce drugs and vaccines has received considerable investment and is relatively well advanced. The myth surrounding edible vaccines and 'food as pill' is the difficulty to control their intake and distribution, particularly in developing countries where education levels and literacy may be low. However, this concept suffers from the fact that the potency of this class of vaccines and drugs remains unmasked to the majority of the population, which has to be publicized and campaigned in a scientific manner, to make it realistic and useful for the common man. Creating edible vaccines involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. This process is known as "transformation," and the altered plants are called "transgenic plants." Like conventional subunit vaccines, edible vaccines are composed of antigenic proteins and are devoid of pathogenic genes. Thus, they have no way of establishing infection, assuring its safety, especially in immuno-compromised patients. Conventional subunit vaccines are expensive and technology-intensive, need purification, require refrigeration and produce poor mucosal response. In contrast, edible vaccines would enhance compliance, especially in children and because of oral administration, would eliminate the need for trained medical personnel. Their production is highly efficient and can be easily scaled up. If the technology is properly nurtured and given the right direction, it may usher into a new era where we will be asked to take “food” rather than “drugs” when we are ill. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  6. Cognitive function in older adults according to current socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years. PMID:25565407

  7. Conversion of research and test reactors: status and current plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Global Threat Reduction's (GTRI) Conversion Program develops technology necessary to enable the conversion of civilian facilities using high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and targets. The Conversion program mission supports the minimization and, to the extent possible, elimination of the use of HEU in civil nuclear applications by working to convert research reactors and radioisotope production processes to the use of LEU fuel and targets throughout the world. During the Program's 27 years of existence, 46 research reactors have been converted from HEU to LEU fuels and processes have been developed for producing the medical isotope Mo-99 with LEU targets. Under GTRI the Conversion Program has accelerated the schedules and plans for conversion of additional research reactors operating with HEU. Also the Program emphasizes the development of advanced high-density LEU fuels to enable further conversions. The Conversion program coordinates with the other program functions of GTRI, most notably the Removal function, which removes fresh and spent HEU fuel from countries around the world. This paper summarizes the current status and plans for conversion of research reactors, in the U.S. and abroad, the supporting fuel development activities, and the development of processes for medical isotope production with LEU targets. Nuclear research and test reactors worldwide have been in operation for over 60 years, supporting nuclear sciencr over 60 years, supporting nuclear science and technology development, as well as providing an important role as a research tool in scientific fields including medicine, agriculture, industry, and basic research. Over 270 research reactors are currently operating in more than 50 countries. Starting in 1954, many research reactors outside the United States were provided under the Atoms for Peace initiative. Initial research reactors were fueled with low-enriched uranium (LEU) with a content of U235 of less than 20%. More advanced research reactors desired higher specific power and neutron flux and, to avoid costs associated with the development of higher density LEU fuels, those reactors used high-enriched uranium (HEU) material, with an enrichment of 20% or higher, and typically over 90%, with the existing fuel designs. As HEU fuel became readily available, it turned into the usual fuel for research and test reactors, even for some that had initially operated with LEU fuel.

  8. A functional inference for multivariate current status data with mismeasured covariate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi-Chung; Huang, Yih-Huei; Wu, Yuh-Jenn

    2014-07-01

    Covariate measurement error problems have been recently studied for current status failure time data but not yet for multivariate current status data. Motivated by the three-hypers dataset from a health survey study, where the failure times for three-hypers (hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia) are subject to current status censoring and the covariate self-reported body mass index may be subject to measurement error, we propose a functional inference method under the proportional odds model for multivariate current status data with mismeasured covariates. The new proposal utilizes the working independence strategy to handle correlated current status observations from the same subject, as well as the conditional score approach to handle mismeasured covariate without specifying the covariate distribution. The asymptotic theory, together with a stable computation procedure combining the Newton-Raphson and self-consistency algorithms, is established for the proposed estimation method. We evaluate the method through simulation studies and illustrate it with three-hypers data. PMID:24981606

  9. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct support to RandD in line with other low emission fuel alternatives. RandD on cellulosic ethanol can also be supported by indirect measures. The most important measure in this respect is to ensure a correct pricing of fossil fuels now and in the future. Many argue that production and use of first generation biofuels will bridge the conversion to second generation biofuels. We doubt that the necessary cost reductions for second generation biofuels can be obtained from widespread use of first generation biofuels. First, the production processes are simply too different, and second, the advantage with all kinds of biofuels are that it easy to introduce into the transport market at once the technology is ripe. Some also argue that second generation biofuels need to be protected against competition from import of low cost first generation biofuels made in developing countries. However, with targeted support to second generation biofuels, there is no need to pay attention to the infant industry argument. Trade policy should only aim to correct for insufficient internalizing of GHG emission costs from the production of biofuels in countries without a price on carbon. It is by no means certain that second generation biofuels will play a central role in the decarbonizing of the transport market. Necessary cost reductions may not be achieved. The GHG emissions from land use change connected to large-scale growing of cellulosic feedstock may turn out to offset the gains from changing fuel. It is important to avoid a technological or political lock-in in biofuels. In other words, policies should be flexible, and it should be possible to terminate support programs within a short notice.(Author)

  10. The current status of utilization of research reactors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminars on utilization of research reactors were held to enhance experience exchanging among institutes and universities in China. The status of CARR (China Advanced Research Reactor) project is briefly described. The progress in BNCT program in China is introduced. (author)

  11. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics discussed include: the status of mass-chain evaluations, remote terminal access, other US Nuclear Data Network publications, formats and procedures subcommittee report, keyword follow-up (Phys. Rev. C), and atomic data and nuclear data tables

  12. Indus-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source: current status and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, S. K.; Singh, Gurnam; Gupta, P. D.

    2013-03-01

    Indus Synchrotron Radiation complex at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology at Indore, India houses two synchrotron radiation sources: Indus-1 and Indus-2. Indus-1 is a 450 MeV source emitting in VUV/ soft x-ray region and operating at 100 mA since 1999. Indus-2 is designed for 2.5 GeV, 300 mA operation and is operating at 2 GeV and 100 mA since March 2010 in 24x7 mode and a beam lifetime of about 22 hrs has been achieved. Operation at 2.5 GeV and 100 mA has recently been demonstrated with the addition of in-house developed solid state RF amplifiers. Indus-2 can accommodate 21 bending magnet (BM) and 5 insertion device (ID) beamlines. Sixteen BM beamlines have been planned and six BM beamlines namely i) Angle Dispersive XRD ii) Energy dispersive XRD iii) Energy dispersive EXAFS iv) Soft and deep x-ray lithography v) X-ray fluorescence micro-probe and vi) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy beamlines have been commissioned. These are being used by researchers from different universities, national institutes and laboratories for carrying out several investigations. Two more beamlines namely 'Grazing incidence x-ray scattering' and 'Protein crystallography' are nearing commissioning. A number of materials research related problems have been investigated using these beamlines and several papers have already been published. Here we will report on the current status of the source, details of the beamlines already operational, beamlines to be commissioned soon and several up-gradation schemes that are being planned. Five IDs consisting of two soft x-ray planar undulators, one superconducting wavelength shifter / wiggler, one APPLE II soft x-ray helical undulator and one hard x-ray undulator will be installed during the next few years. Three new ID based beamli-nes for Atomic and Molecular physics, Angle integrated / Angle resolved PES and Magnetic Circular Dichroism experiments will be commissioned.

  13. Current status of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Bay-Nielsen, M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is becoming more common in many countries, but the quality of care, experience of the operating surgeon, and details of the surgical technique are not known in detail on a national level in Denmark. In a period of expanding surgical volume for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, it is important to know the typical indications for surgery, re-operation rates, details of surgical technique, and status of surgical training on a national level in order to rationalize interventions to improve outcome. METHODS: Data from the National Hernia Database for the last 8 years regarding laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair were used in combination with questionnaire data obtained from all surgical units in Denmark. The questionnaire included issues such as the number of operating surgeons in the department, number of residents training in the laparoscopic technique, and the experience level of the most experienced surgeon in the department regarding laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. The questionnaire also included details of the surgical technique. RESULTS: The frequency of laparoscopic repair has been increasing over the last 8 years and now accounts for about 16% of the total number of inguinal herniorrhaphies with the main indication nationwide being bilateral hernias and recurrent hernias. We found slight variations in surgical technique although all departments used the TAPP repair. The majority used adequate mesh sizes at or above 10 x 15 cm, and most departments used coils or tacks for mesh fixation and peritoneal closure. Fifteen of 25 departments had only one or two surgeons performing laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair and 12 of 25 departments did not have any young surgeons in training for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Ten departments had one surgeon in training, and three departments had two surgeons in training. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in Denmark is increasing in prevalence. Indications for surgery as well as operative techniques differ although all departments use the TAPP technique. Few surgeons are currently learning the laparoscopic technique, and it is therefore important to initiate meetings and courses to ensure uniform indications for surgery and operative techniques throughout the country Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12

  14. Economic Development of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country in the South Asia. Its illiterate and unskilled large population is a burden to the country. Agriculture is the main source of the income of the country. Government of the country is taking various steps to decrease poverty, but yet about one-third of people of Bangladesh are living below the national poverty line. More than half of the children of Bangladesh are underweight. The gross domestic product (GDP) is hovering around 6% for the last decade. Migrate...

  15. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations met at the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). All 7 panel members were present, together with 17 other individuals with various responsibilities and interests in the US Nuclear Data Network (USNDN). Status reports were presented to the panel by the five US evaluation centers, located at Brookhaven (BNL), Idaho Falls (INEL), Berkeley (LBL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and the University of Pennsylvania. The reports from the centers outlined the status of their mass chain evaluations and of a number of other projects related to this work; these areas are discussed in more detail in this report

  16. Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients

  17. Current Status and Future Directions of Targeted Peptide Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is currently almost exclusively targeted at the somatostatin receptor (sst). Of the 5 receptor subtypes, sst2 is frequently very highly expressed at the cell surface of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Octreotide is a small and stable derivative of native somatostatin, which can be very well labeled with therapeutic radionuclides such as the beta-emitters ''9''0Y, ''1''7''7Lu or the Auger emitter ''1''1''1In, chelated in DTPA or DOTA, linked to the peptide. All current therapeutic octreotide derivatives are agonists that are internalized in the cell. The affinity for the sst2 receptor is better for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate than for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide or [DTPA]octreotide. ''9''0Y is a pure beta-emitter, with a half-life of 2.7 days, a high energy of 2.270 MeV, and a maximum penetration in tissue of 12mm. ''1''7''7Lu with a half-life of 6.7 days emits a low abundance of gamma photons as well as beta particles of 497 keV, with a maximum tissue penetration of 2 mm. ''1''7''7Lu-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Lu-DOTATE), ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Y-DOTATATE) and ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide (Y-DOTATOC) are today the most frequently used therapeutic radiopeptides. Main inclusion criteria: inoperable and/or metastatic NET, receptor-positivity in all known lesions demonstrated by sufficient uptake on ''1''1''1In-octreotide scintigraphy (intensity > liver parenchyma), life expectancy at least 3-6 months, sufficient bone marrow reserve (hemoglobin (HGB) ? 5 mmol/L, white blood cells (WBC) ? 2*109/L, platelets (PLT) ? 75*1012/L), sufficient renal function (serum creatinine 40 mL/min), sufficient hepatic and cardiac reserve. Karnofski score ?50. Efficacy: several groups have reported objective response rates (RECIST or WHO/SWOG; CT or MRI based). Complete remission (CR) is rarely seen, partial remission (PR; >50% shrinkage SWOG) in 7% - 37%, minor remission (MR, 25% - 50% shrinkage) in 13% - 17%, stable disease (SD) in 35% - 88% [incl. MR], and progression (PD, > 25% growth or new lesions) in around 20% of patients. Overall, better results are reported for Y-DOTATATE and Lu-DOTATATE than for Y-DOTATOC. Since cure is no feasible option in this category of advanced patients with mostly slow-growing tumors, overall survival (OS), and symptomatic relief / better quality of life, are the most important efficacy parameters. Currently there are no controlled clinical trials available comparing the effects of PRRT with the best standard of care. Nevertheless, the median OS of 4 years that was found in the Rotterdam study using Lu-DOTATATE compares favorably with the 3 years OS with Y-DOTATOC or the 1 year OS with high-dose 111In-DTPA-octreotide. Moreover, when the OS of matching subgroups in the Rotterdam Lu-DOTATATE study was compared with the OS in published studies in the literature using other treatment modalities, the OS of Lu-DOTATATE patients was always better than of their matched historic controls. Additionally, an extensive monitoring of quality of life (QOL) showed improvement of gobal health and performance scores with decrease of symptom scores in the majority of patients treated with Lu-DOTATATE. Toxicity: renal protection using commercially available solutions of mixed amino acids containing lysine and arginine, or using 1L of a mixture of 25g lysine and 25g arginine, is necessary to prevent renal damage from PRRT. Still, there is a risk of developing renal insufficiency after PRRT, expressed as a yearly percentage loss of creatinine clearance (parameter for GFR) which may continue for years after completion of PRRT. A minimum of 18 months of systematic follow-up after PRRT is required to assess the yearly percentage loss in GFR. Risk factors for renal insufficiency are a high cumulative renal radiation dose, especially if the biologic equivalent dose (BED, by applying the linear quadratic model) exceeds 35Gy - 40 Gy. Further risk factors are age over 65 yr, hypertension and diabetes. Especially patients with a combination of more than two of the above me

  18. Current status of CHESS - the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the status of CHESS through its three-year construction period, which ends in the fall of 1981. Included are a brief description of beam lines, monochromators, station instrumentations and support facilities. Our experiences with source size and stability over the last year are reported, along with planned fall revisions and running schedule. (orig.)

  19. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. Keyboarding and Speech Recognition: Current Status and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Glenn A.; Erthal, Margaret J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the status and trends of instruction in both keyboarding and speech recognition among public schools in a Midwestern state. A survey was sent to 490 members of the state business education association who returned 213 (62.5%) usable responses. The subjects represented schools from kindergarten to college.…

  5. Current status on marine litter indicators in Nordic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Tairova, Zhanna

    Status for project on Marine litter in the Nordic waters. This includes a review of Nordic studies on marine litter indicators. Various studies as part of either research or existing monitoring have provided information on occurrence of marine litter in Nordic waters from Baltic Sea to the Arctic.

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September – October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2007-10-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October – November 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2007-11-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November – December 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. Impact of sea level rise in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNEP GRID Arendal

    A simple three-part diagram from UNEP GRID Vital Water Graphics showing what the impact of global warming will be on projected coastlines and populated areas of Bangladesh with a 1 and 1.5 m sea level rise relative to the current coastline.

  15. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively and efficiently with the cancer problems through evidence-based decision making. PMID:24163419

  16. Magnetic tomography for fuel cells-current status and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a survey about the status and open problems for magnetic tomography for fuel cells. A number of papers are reviewed which develop the subject including theory of simulation and inversion, uniqueness questions, reconstruction algorithms and real data applications. In particular, this work describes a number of yet unpublished results and experiments. Our goal is to provide a complete picture of the status-quo of magnetic tomography for fuel cells which includes the recent scientific and engineering results as well as an introduction into open questions and upcoming developments. We believe that magnetic tomography as an ill-posed and non-unique inverse source problem reflects key problems of many applied inverse problems. In particular, the challenges of real data applications reflect the challenges of the area of inverse problems as a whole and provide inside into generic problems of this important area of applied mathematics

  17. The current status and potential market for cogeneration in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government of the People's Republic of China has always favoured cogeneration and many local systems were built in the 1950s. By 1960, 20% of the thermal plants with an installed capacity of 0.6 MW or more were cogeneration. The article discusses cogeneration in China under the sub-headings of (i) existing status of China's cogeneration and (ii) potential market of China's cogeneration

  18. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  19. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  3. Current status and development of nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper dwells upon the Chinese nuclear power industry present-day status and future. The high growth rates of the GNP that has been more than doubled since 2000 imply higher energy consumption. According to the plan to develop the national nuclear power industry within 2005-2020 period approved in 2006, the Chinese NPP total capacity by 2020 should reach 40 GW(e), that is, it should be increased by 6 times

  4. Review and current status of hepatobiliary imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review will outline aspects of the normal hepatobiliary anatomy and physiology relevant to an understanding of cholescintigraphy and discuss factors of hepatobiliary diseases which impact on the design of new hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals. The synthesis, pharmacokinetics, and structure-distribution relationship of the existing /sup 99m/Tc hepatobiliary agents will be compared, and the clinical status of present cholescintigraphic agents will be summarized. Future trends in the design and use of hepatobiliary tracers will be presented

  5. Current status of the near surface repository in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive waste management at the Cernavoda NPP is based on collection, pretreatment and storage of all solid wastes. The disposal of operational and decommissioning wastes has been evaluated, based on the results of a research and development programme. A near surface disposal facility was selected and a siting process was implemented. The status of this project and its prospective are discussed in the paper. (author)

  6. Anomalons: Current status and first evidence from plastic track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of experiments have shown that enhanced cross sections exist for projectile fragments which are emitted in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The present status of these investigations is reviewed. An experiment is described in which this effect is measured with significantly better statistics. First results for fragments of charge 14 emerging from 1.8 GeV/nucleon 40Ar projectiles are presented. (orig.)

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - December 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - August 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  17. Current status of Chinese nuclear power industry and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has been carrying out active international cooperation aiming to be a country where is to be an economical super power and an advanced country in nuclear power technology by the year early 2000, and China also has begun to be recognized as the largest potential market for the construction of nuclear power plants(NPPs) expecting to construct more than thirty nuclear power units by the year 2020. China has advanced technology in the basic nuclear science including liquid metal breeder reactor technology, nuclear material, medium and small size power plants, and isotope production technology, and also China has complete nuclear fuel cycle technology. However, China still has low NPP technology. Therefore, it is expected that China may have complementary cooperative relationship with China, it is expected that Korea may have an access to the advanced Chinese nuclear science technology, and may have a good opportunity to explore the Chinese market actively exporting excellent Korean NPP technology, and further may have a good position to the neighboring Asian countries' NPP markets. From this perspective, general Chinese social status, major nuclear R and D activity status, and correct NPP and technology status have been analyzed in this report, and this report is expected to be a useful resource for cooperating with China in future. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 16 refs. (Author)

  18. Tiagabine: efficacy and safety in partial seizures – current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Bauer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Jürgen Bauer, Déirdre Cooper-MahkornDepartment of Epileptology, Bonn University Hospital, GermanyAbstract: Tiagabine hydrochloride (TGB is a selective gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA reuptake inhibitor. TGB is effective as an add-on medication in adults and children 12 years and older in the treatment of partial seizures. Results of nonrandomized add-on trials with TGB show treatment success with seizure reduction of at least 50% in 33% to 46% of patients. In newly diagnosed patients with partial epilepsy, TGB monotherapy was as effective as carbamazepine. Comedication with TGB elevates the risk of nonconvulsive status (7.8% vs 2.7% without TGB. The most common side effects include dizziness/lightheadedness, asthenia/lack of energy and somnolence. TGB has no negative effects on cognition; it does not increase the risk of fractures or rash. TGB may interfere with color perception. TGB presents an intermediate risk for depression in patients with epilepsy (approximately 4%. Regarding the risk of overdose, 96–680 mg TGB (mean 224 mg caused seizures or coma. TGB is an antiepileptic drug exhibiting a specific anticonvulsive mechanism of action, the efficacy of which is relatively low when used in comedication. Critical side effects, such as the induction of nonconvulsive status epilepticus, further limit its use.Keywords: epilepsy, tiagabine, antiepileptic drugs, status epilepticus, pharmacotherapy

  19. Current status of short-term countermeasures for nuclear or radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, short-term countermeasures are implemented. This report summarizes the current status of these countermeasures, such as sheltering, evacuation and iodine prophylaxis in OECD/NEA member countries. (author)

  20. Current status of evaluated heavy element decay data for reactor calculations. Problems and anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of evaluated heavy element decay data for reactor-related calculations is discussed. This includes a listing of data compilations and evaluations that have been published since the end of 1975 and are judged to be relevant to heavy element decay data. Detailed comments are also made on the current status of those actinide decay data which were identified as important at the First Advisory Group Meeting on Transactinium Isotope Nuclear Data, November 1975. (author)

  1. Microbiological aspects of biofuel production: Current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa S. Elshahed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel research is currently an area of immense interest due to the increase in global energy demand by emerging economies and the recent increases in global oil prices. Multiple approaches are currently being researched for the use of microorganisms in the production of various biofuel (e.g. alcohols, hydrogen, biodiesel, and biogas from multiple starting materials. This review provides a brief overview on the research currently underway on laboratory and industrial scales in the area of biofuels, with specific emphasis on the economic viability of various approaches currently being utilized.

  2. A GROWING DILEMMA OF TOURISM DIFFUSION AND SUSTAINABILITY: WOWS AND WOES FOR BANGLADESH ECO-TOURISM!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoeb-Ur-Rahman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the emerging and fastest growing industries in the world today. It is well said that every twelve tourists creates a new job. Current study discusses the diffusive nature of tourism that demands an inclusion of the concept “sustainability” which in turn creates the impression for “ecotourism”. Afterward the study tries to find out ecotourism possibility to explore and potential challenges with special context of Bangladesh tourism industry. The concept of ecotourism adds the concern for environment as well as socio-economic status. Ecotourism must be promoted for sustainable development by establishing a durable productive base that allows the local inhabitants and ecotourism service providers to enjoy rising standards of living and environmental conservation. This paper provides an idea of how different tourism destinations, especially ecotourism become an effective tool for the sustainable development in Bangladesh. Secondary data were used to address the objectives in this study. However, some marketing strategies are pointed out as recommendations based on which several action programs could be taken for establishing as well as standardizing Bangladesh as an eye-catching ecotourism destination.

  3. The proton ''spin contents'': Current status ampersand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of the phenomenological and theoretical interpretation of the EMC result on the polarized deep elastic scattering is reviewed. We focus our discussion on the possibility of a significant gluonic contribution to the proton spin via the axial anomaly. We contrast the variant perspectives on this question: the viewpoint that stresses the interpretation in terms of the parton distributions vs the one that concentrates on the matrix elements of local operators. Some remarks concerning the validity of OZI rule for the strange quark are also included. 53 refs

  4. Current Status and Challenges in Wind Energy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Badger, Jake

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the status and challenges in the development of atlases for the assessment of the regional and global wind resources. The text more specifically describes a methodology that is under development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. As the wind assessment is based on mesoscale modelling, some of the specific challenges in mesoscale modelling for wind energy purposes are discussed such as wind profiles and long-term statistics of the wind speed time series. Solutions to these challenges will help secure an economic and effective deployment of wind energy.

  5. Current status of the BAIKAL-GVD project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a status of the Baikal-GVD Project. The objective of this project is a construction of a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Lake Baikal. As an important milestone, the first GVD engineering array has been deployed and ran in April, 2011. Application of a completely new technology gave us an opportunity to study all the basic elements of the future full detector and to finalize the GVD technical design. We discuss the configuration and the design of the engineering array as well as data performance with the preliminary results

  6. Drug eluting stents: Current status and new developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Erta?

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the favorable impact of drug eluting stents on stent restenosis, their long-term reliability is considered worrisome by some because of stent thrombosis. Often attributed to adverse reactions to the stent platform, both the drugs and polymer characteristics have been further advanced with current technologies. The present review discussed current drug eluting stents and new developments.

  7. Effects of education and other socioeconomic factors on middle age mortality in rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hurt, L; Ronsmans, C.; Saha, S.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To examine socioeconomic gradients in mortality in adult women and their husbands in Bangladesh, paying particular attention to the independent effects of the educational status of each spouse.

  8. Policies for second generation biofuels :current status and future challanges

    OpenAIRE

    Eggert, Ha?kan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (R&D) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such altern...

  9. Status of high transport current ROEBEL assembled coated conductor cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assembling coated conductors (CC) into flat ROEBEL bars (RACC cable) was introduced in 2005 by the authors as a practicable method of reaching high transport currents in a low AC loss cable, which is a cable design suited for application in windings. The transport current of 1.02 kA in self-field at 77 K achieved so far, however, is still too low for several applications in electrical machinery such as larger transformers and generators/motors. A new cable concept for further increased currents was presented just recently. The goal of the new design was primarily to demonstrate the possibility of strongly increased transport currents without changing the important cable features for low AC losses. such as, for example, the transposition length of the strands. We present detailed investigations of the properties of this progressed cable design, which has threefold layered strands, an unchanged transposition pitch of 18.8 cm and finally the application of 45 coated conductors in the cable. A 1.1 m long sample (equivalent to six transposition lengths) was prepared from commercial Cu stabilized coated conductors purchased from Superpower. The measured new record DC transport current of the cable was 2628 A at 77 K in self-field (5 ?V cm-1 criterion). The use of three slightly different current carrying batches of strand material (± 10%) was a special feature of the cable, which allowed for interesting investigations of current redistribution effects in the cacurrent redistribution effects in the cable, by monitoring a representative strand of each batch during the critical current measurement. Although current redistribution effects showed a complex situation, the behaviour of the cable was found to be absolutely stable under all operational conditions, even above the critical current. The high self-field degradation of the critical current reached the order of 60% at 77 K, and could be modelled satisfactory with calculations based on a proven Biot-Savart-law approach, adapted to the specific boundary conditions given in this new cable design.

  10. Influence of Adult Knee Height, Age at First Birth, Migration, and Current Age on Adult Physical Function of Bangladeshi Mothers and Daughters in the United Kingdom and Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Barry Bogin; Diane Harper; Joy Merrell; Jasmin Chowdhury; Michael Heinrich; Vanja Garaj; Bablin Molik; Thompson, Janice L

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, Bangladeshi women have the lowest self-reported levels of physical activity and some of the highest levels of metabolic disease of all ethnic groups. To better understand these risks for poor health we employed life course and intergenerational hypotheses to predict lower body physical function in a sample of 121 Bangladeshi mothers (40–70 years old) and one of their adult daughters (17–36 years old) living in Bangladesh or in the UK. For the mothers, older age and ...

  11. Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Jennifer S.; Frenette, Catherine T.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. This cancer commonly arises against a background of chronic liver disease. As a result, a patient with HCC requires multidisciplinary care. Treatment options vary widely based on tumor burden and metastases. The most widely utilized staging system is the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system, which recommends treatments based on tumor size and the underlying liver disease and functional status of the patient. Treatment options range from surgical resection or transplantation to locoregional therapies with modalities such as radiofrequency ablation and transarterial chemoembolization to systemic chemotherapies. Future care involves the development of combination therapies that afford the best tumor response, further clarification of the patients best suited for therapies and the development of new oral chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26087860

  12. Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Jennifer S; Frenette, Catherine T

    2015-07-23

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. This cancer commonly arises against a background of chronic liver disease. As a result, a patient with HCC requires multidisciplinary care. Treatment options vary widely based on tumor burden and metastases. The most widely utilized staging system is the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system, which recommends treatments based on tumor size and the underlying liver disease and functional status of the patient. Treatment options range from surgical resection or transplantation to locoregional therapies with modalities such as radiofrequency ablation and transarterial chemoembolization to systemic chemotherapies. Future care involves the development of combination therapies that afford the best tumor response, further clarification of the patients best suited for therapies and the development of new oral chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26087860

  13. Filtered neutron beams at the FMRB - review and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of our experience with filtered neutron beams installed in beam tubes of the Research and Measurement Reactor Braunschweig since 1976: Desing of the filters and measurement of the beam parameters are reported and an outline of the research work done with the beams is given. The present status of the irradiation facility, which consists of 5 beams (144 keV, 24.5 keV, 2 keV, 0.2 keV and thermal neutrons), is described in some detail to allow understanding of the physical as well as the technical prerequisites for performing calibrations of neutron measuring instruments. An appendix contains the actual beam parameters. (orig.)

  14. HappyFace - current status and future development plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HappyFace Project is a meta-monitoring tool, which is allow to monitor the Grid sites of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). It can also be used for any (complex) computing system, e.g. local or distributed computing resources. HappyFace provides fast access to all relevant monitoring sites and gets a complete overview about the status of all available sites on one page. It has an automatic querying system, a lot of testing modules can be plugged in and also the ability to design and add new modules is available. The project had been written in Python and PHP, but in the 3rd version of HappyFace the source code is fully migrated to Python and the web output uses only HTML templates, which makes it simpler.

  15. Current status of IMS plasma wave research. [International Magnetospheric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a review of the status of magnetospheric plasma wave science as a result of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). The presence of an international effort has supported the development and completion of the numerous magnetospheric science spacecraft launched during the IMS, including GEOS, ISEE, and EXOS B. Ground-based VLF observations are considered along with coordinated ground-based and satellite observations. During the IMS, plasma wave research using satellite data has covered a wide range of subjects. Attention is given to magnetospheric electrostatic emissions, magnetospheric electromagnetic plasma waves, continuum radiation, auroral kilometric radiation, auroral zone plasma waves, plasma waves in the magnetosheath and near the mangetopause, and plasma waves at the bow shock.

  16. Targeting to the hair follicles: current status and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosicka, Hanna; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    The pilosebaceous unit is a complex structure that undergoes a specific growth cycle and comprises a few important drug targeting sites. For example, drugs can be targeted to the bulge region with stem cells or to the sebaceous glands. Interest in pilosebaceous units is directed towards their utilization as reservoirs for localized therapy and also as a transport pathway for systemic drug delivery. Improved investigative methods, such as differential stripping, are being developed in order to determine follicular penetration. This article reviews relevant aspects of effective follicle-targeting formulations and delivery systems as well as the activity status of hair follicles, and variations in follicle size and distribution throughout various body regions. Each of these factors strongly affects follicular permeation. We provide examples of improved penetration of particle-based formulations and of a size-dependent manner of follicular penetration. Contradictions are also discussed, indicating the need for detailed future investigations. PMID:20060268

  17. Free-roaming dog population estimation and status of the dog population management and rabies control program in dhaka city, bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzin, Tenzin; Ahmed, Rubaiya; Debnath, Nitish C; Ahmed, Garba; Yamage, Mat

    2015-05-01

    Beginning January 2012, a humane method of dog population management using a Catch-Neuter-Vaccinate-Release (CNVR) program was implemented in Dhaka City, Bangladesh as part of the national rabies control program. To enable this program, the size and distribution of the free-roaming dog population needed to be estimated. We present the results of a dog population survey and a pilot assessment of the CNVR program coverage in Dhaka City. Free-roaming dog population surveys were undertaken in 18 wards of Dhaka City on consecutive days using mark-resight methods. Data was analyzed using Lincoln-Petersen index-Chapman correction methods. The CNVR program was assessed over the two years (2012-2013) whilst the coverage of the CNVR program was assessed by estimating the proportion of dogs that were ear-notched (processed dogs) via dog population surveys. The free-roaming dog population was estimated to be 1,242 (95 % CI: 1205-1278) in the 18 sampled wards and 18,585 dogs in Dhaka City (52 dogs/km2) with an estimated human-to-free-roaming dog ratio of 828:1. During the two year CNVR program, a total of 6,665 dogs (3,357 male and 3,308 female) were neutered and vaccinated against rabies in 29 of the 92 city wards. A pilot population survey indicated a mean CNVR coverage of 60.6% (range 19.2-79.3%) with only eight wards achieving > 70% coverage. Given that the coverage in many neighborhoods was below the WHO-recommended threshold level of 70% for rabies eradications and since the CNVR program takes considerable time to implement throughout the entire Dhaka City area, a mass dog vaccination program in the non-CNVR coverage area is recommended to create herd immunity. The findings from this study are expected to guide dog population management and the rabies control program in Dhaka City and elsewhere in Bangladesh. PMID:25978406

  18. Free-Roaming Dog Population Estimation and Status of the Dog Population Management and Rabies Control Program in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzin, Tenzin; Ahmed, Rubaiya; Debnath, Nitish C.; Ahmed, Garba; Yamage, Mat

    2015-01-01

    Beginning January 2012, a humane method of dog population management using a Catch-Neuter-Vaccinate-Release (CNVR) program was implemented in Dhaka City, Bangladesh as part of the national rabies control program. To enable this program, the size and distribution of the free-roaming dog population needed to be estimated. We present the results of a dog population survey and a pilot assessment of the CNVR program coverage in Dhaka City. Free-roaming dog population surveys were undertaken in 18 wards of Dhaka City on consecutive days using mark-resight methods. Data was analyzed using Lincoln-Petersen index-Chapman correction methods. The CNVR program was assessed over the two years (2012–2013) whilst the coverage of the CNVR program was assessed by estimating the proportion of dogs that were ear-notched (processed dogs) via dog population surveys. The free-roaming dog population was estimated to be 1,242 (95 % CI: 1205–1278) in the 18 sampled wards and 18,585 dogs in Dhaka City (52 dogs/km2) with an estimated human-to-free-roaming dog ratio of 828:1. During the two year CNVR program, a total of 6,665 dogs (3,357 male and 3,308 female) were neutered and vaccinated against rabies in 29 of the 92 city wards. A pilot population survey indicated a mean CNVR coverage of 60.6% (range 19.2–79.3%) with only eight wards achieving > 70% coverage. Given that the coverage in many neighborhoods was below the WHO-recommended threshold level of 70% for rabies eradications and since the CNVR program takes considerable time to implement throughout the entire Dhaka City area, a mass dog vaccination program in the non-CNVR coverage area is recommended to create herd immunity. The findings from this study are expected to guide dog population management and the rabies control program in Dhaka City and elsewhere in Bangladesh. PMID:25978406

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL CRITIQUE ON WATER SECTORAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriar Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The water resources sector of Bangladesh relies on the Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) to assess the possible positive and negative impacts on the environmental and social components of the project affected areas. The motivation of this research was to identify the key environmental components, gaps and lapses of current EIA practices in water resources sector of Bangladesh. Under the motivation, this study has determined the effectiveness of a water resources EIA (Gorai River Restora...

  20. Bangladesh: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Bangladesh, a countrywide statistical dietary survey was carried out on the food consumption. This formed part of the nutritional survey of rural and urban areas of Bangladesh covering 14 locations in the country and about 50 families at each location, who belonged to different income groups. In all, 4315 subjects in the age group of 20-50 years were studied and eleven main food components consumed by the population were identified. On the basis of the average consumption of these 11 food components in diet, raw food materials were purchased from the markets in and around Dhaka. The diets were prepared from these food materials in a cooking style typical of Bangladesh. These diet samples were homogenized using mixer blenders. The diet samples in Bangladesh were not freeze dried but oven dried at 100-110 deg. C instead. Therefore iodine, which is volatile in nature and could escape from samples during oven drying, was not studied. In Bangladesh, the diet samples collected for the study were analysed for ten elements. Out of them Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mg and Zn were analysed within the country itself using AAS, and for Cs, Sr, Th and U the aliquots of the samples were sent to the CRL for analysis using ICP-MS and ICP-AES

  1. The current status of high temperature superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, B. P.; Burkhanov, G. S.

    1991-12-01

    The principal technological difficulties associated with the manufacture of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) wires based on yttrium and lanthanum ceramics are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the superconducting and mechanical properties of HTSC wires or ribbons are largely determined by their microstructure. Particular attention is given to the currently used method of producing HTSC wires whereby the ceramic powder is encased in a pipe shell and then deformed by different methods, such as rolling, drawing, or pressing. The requirements for the shell material are examined, and current densities are presented for HTSC wires produced in shells of copper, silver, aluminum, nickel, stainless steel, and zirconium.

  2. BIHARI REFUGEES STRANDED IN BANGLADESH SINCE 1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnawaz A. Mantoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A relatively large number of Pakistanis known as the Bihari community have been stranded in Bangladesh since its independence in 1971. The objective of this paper is to analyze the status of the Bihari people and their problems. This paper argues that the Bihari community suffers from identity crisis of being Bangladeshis and Pakistanis or being refugees and minorities that are deprived of fundamental rights. The unresolved repatriation problem is a consequence of deliberate procrastination and political indecision on the part of both Bangladesh and Pakistan governments. Neither of these governments have done much to resolve the problem of the Bihari community. The need of the hour is to resolve the problem so that these people can live a happy and dignified life and save the future of these refugees. Both governments should realize the magnitude of the problem and should adopt an amicable way in order to resolve it.

  3. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  4. Current Status in the Therapy of Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Uhl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and Wilson’s disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV infections are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, they are the focus of the development of new drugs. The current treatment of choice for HBV/HCV infection is an interferon-based combination therapy with oral antiviral drugs, like nucleos(tide analogues, which is associated with improving the therapeutic success and also preventing the development of resistances. Currently, two new protease inhibitors for HCV treatment are expected (deleobuvir, faldaprevir and together with the promising drug, daclatasvir (NS5A-inhibitor, currently in clinical trials, adequate therapy is to be expected in due course (circumventing the requirement of interferon with its side-effects, while in contrast, efficient HBV therapeutics are still lacking. In this respect, entry inhibitors, like Myrcludex B, the lead substance of the first entry inhibitor for HBV/HDV (hepatitis D infection, provide immense potential. The pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of Myrcludex B are described in detail.

  5. San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L.; Daley, T.M.; Myer, L.R.; Nihei, K.; Queen, J.; Sinton, J.; Murphy, J.; Fortuna, M.; Lynn, H.B.; Imhoff, M.A.; Wilson, R.

    2001-02-26

    The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties.

  6. Current status in the therapy of liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Philipp; Fricker, Gert; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Wilson's disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infections are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, they are the focus of the development of new drugs. The current treatment of choice for HBV/HCV infection is an interferon-based combination therapy with oral antiviral drugs, like nucleos(t)ide analogues, which is associated with improving the therapeutic success and also preventing the development of resistances. Currently, two new protease inhibitors for HCV treatment are expected (deleobuvir, faldaprevir) and together with the promising drug, daclatasvir (NS5A-inhibitor, currently in clinical trials), adequate therapy is to be expected in due course (circumventing the requirement of interferon with its side-effects), while in contrast, efficient HBV therapeutics are still lacking. In this respect, entry inhibitors, like Myrcludex B, the lead substance of the first entry inhibitor for HBV/HDV (hepatitis D) infection, provide immense potential. The pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of Myrcludex B are described in detail. PMID:24786290

  7. Current Status of Nucleon Decay Searches with Super-Kamiokande

    OpenAIRE

    Viren, Brett

    1999-01-01

    Evidence for Nucleon Decay has yet to be observed. Current results from the observation of a 45 kton-year exposure of Super-Kamiokande and lifetime limits for nucleons to decay via lepton + pion, lepton + eta and lepton + kaon modes are presented.

  8. Current status of training for medical radiation inspector in NIPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the prefectural government is performing medical inspection based on the Medical Service Law. The purpose of medical inspection is making it sure that medical procedures in a hospital being scientific, under suitable safety control and proper. Medical inspection is the only system where a governmental agency can go into medical institutions systematically. On the other hand, the Purpose of National Institute of Public Health is to improve public health through training public health personnel and performing research works on public health as is school of public health. In National Institute of Public Health, NIPH, it has many training courses. One of them is training course for medical radiation inspector. The purpose of this course is providing the knowledge and technology about medical radiation inspection by giving lectures and exercises on the knowledge about the radiation safety. Holding of this course is 1 time every year. A period of this course is about four weeks. The half of the contents is lectures about the foundation of radiation hygienics to the radiation safety control corresponding to new medical technology. Exercises, discussions, field training, visits to related institutes are also performed so that it can use for medical radiation inspection directly. In this presentation, the present status of education for medical radiation inspectors in Japan and the analysis of this educational course will be describeddescribed

  9. [Current status of dementia in admitions to national leprosariums nationwide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Asako; Watanabe, Kyoko; Yoshimura, Tachiko; Date, Kayoko; Yamashita, Kiyomi

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to get an overview of the following aspects of people admitted to 13 national leprosariums in Japan: the prevalence of dementia, medical and nursing systems, and facilities and equipment. Subjects included 1733 people admitted to wards for patients or disabled people in these leprosariums. Subjects were examined for cognitive function using Nishimura's behavioral rating scale for the mental states of the elderly (NMS), and for the prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We also investigated medical and nursing systems, facilities and equipment, and status of nursing education. The results showed that, 288 subjects (16.6%) had a diagnosis of dementia. According to the NMS, 47.5% of the subjects were categorized as mild to severe dementia, while cognitive dysfunction was observed in 63.5% if borderline cases were included. Non-specialist physicians managed 30.8% of the subjects in 4 institutions, and there were no certified nurses specialized in dementia management. Results from this study suggest that there is need for the placement of dementia specialists', improvement of specialized medical services, and human resource development of specialized nurses in leprosariums where many elderly people live. PMID:25826850

  10. Current status of demonstration for stationary fuel cell in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D.R. [Korea Gas Co., Ansan (Korea, Republic of). Research and Development Div.

    2009-07-01

    In 2006, the Korean Government launched the Residential Fuel Cell Monitoring Project to address the barriers to the widespread commercialization of fuel cells for residential power generation (RPG). This presentation reviewed the status on the development and dissemination of the residential fuel cell in Korea, with particular reference to a domestically developed proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell for RPG. The purpose of the project was to find a commercial product that is suitable to Korean life style and to solve reliability issues regarding grid connection. The paper showed that although residential fuel cell systems are available in Korea, their capital cost remains high and system durability is not sufficient. This large-scale demonstration test project for residential fuel cell systems was launched in an effort to reduce the cost to levels that are acceptable for wide scale use. A total of 210 unit were tested in order to evaluate the technical level and to investigate the problems that must be solved for mass market introduction.

  11. Prostate cancer chemoprevention: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemoprevention is a strategy that aims to reduce the incidence and burden of cancer through the development of agents to prevent, reverse or delay the carcinogenic process. Prostate cancer is a suitable target for prevention because it has a high incidence and prevalence, as well as a long latency and disease-related mortality, and furthermore it is a disease in which lifestyle and environmental factors may play critical roles. The development of chemoprevention strategies against prostate cancer will have a huge impact, both medically and economically. Large-scale clinical trials suggest that some agents such as selenium, lycopene, soy, green tea, vitamins D and E, anti-inflammatory and inhibitors of 5?-reductase are effective in preventing prostate cancer. Although each agent has the potential to affect the natural history of the disease, it is important to develop strategies to strategically proceed for the design and selection of test agents in order to demonstrate clinical benefit with the minimum of adverse effects. Appropriate selection of agent(s), disease stage, trial design and endpoints is critical in selecting the most promising regimens to accomplish these goals. This review highlights the present status of prostate cancer chemoprevention and discusses future prospects for chemopreventive strategies that are safe and clinically beneficial

  12. Advanced fuel technology and performance: Current status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Division of the IAEA has been giving great attention to the collection, analysis and exchange of information in the field of reactor fuel technology. Most of these activities are being conducted in the framework of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT). The purpose of this Advisory Group Meeting on Advanced Fuel Technology and Performance was to update and to continue the previous work, and to review the experience of advanced fuel technology, its performance with regard to all types of reactors and to outline the future trends on the basis of national experience and discussions during the meeting. As a result of the meeting a Summary Report was prepared which reflected the status of the advanced nuclear fuel technology up to 1990. The 10 papers presented by participants of this meeting are also published here. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations

  14. Electricity Crisis of Bangladesh: Result of Organizational Inefficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziauddin Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that the organizational inefficiency of the ‘BPDB’ and ‘Power Division’ of Ministry of Power, Energy, and Mineral Resources (MPEMR of Bangladesh is the main cause for current electricity crisis. Although there are changes in public sector management in the electricity sector of Bangladesh due to the NPM, the organization continue to value the bureaucratic and hierarchical organizational culture. Bangladesh government has taken several programs and has adopted policies for privatization and public-private-partnership. Still the Bangladesh government has not succeeded to mitigate the crisis. This industry faces long time negligence, corruption and inefficiency. Currently the crisis situation has become acute due to inadequate fund, weak governance and above all inefficiency. But the political interferences in organizational management, in bureaucratic activities, in personnel management and even in private investment process, are creating a huge problem for the development of this sector. This paper defines the Organizational management, efficiency, and weak governance of Bangladesh’s electricity industry. This paper examines the extent to which the electricity crisis of Bangladesh is the result of organizational inefficiency of the ‘BPDB’ and ‘Power Division’ of Ministry of Power, Energy, and Mineral Resources (MPEMR of Bangladesh. This organizational inefficiency is actually shared between inefficiency of public organization and political interferences. It is discussed in this paper not only the organizational inefficiency causes the electricity crisis but also political interference, wrong policies , inadequate fund also responsible. This paper will show how the organizational culture, structure and strategies of the ministry and BPDB have resulted in the crisis. Moreover country’s corrupted and chaotic political system, the roles of parliament and civil servants are also discussed in this essay. Current electricity crisis can be considerably overcome by increasing the efficiency of the ‘Power Division’ as well as by stopping the political interference in decision making and in bureaucracy.

  15. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM DEMAND IN MACEDONIA: CURRENT STATUS AND ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Petrevska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate current international tourism demand in Macedonia, as well as to make an attempt to forecast it in a short-term horizon by 2014. For this purpose, the past and current patterns are based on stylized facts obtained from secondary data spreading over a sample period from 2000-2011. Furthermore, the estimation of future trends is based on Box-Jenkins methodology. Several alternative specifications were introduced and upon the outcomes of standard indicators for accuracy testing, the research identified the most appropriate one. According to projected values, moderate, but constant increase of international tourist arrivals is expected. The paper strongly recommends this empirical evidence in a line of mitigating the potential negative impacts as well as in preparation of tourism development plan in Macedonia. Finally, its contribution lies in the fact that it enriches poorly-developed empirical academic work within this scientific area in Macedonia.

  16. Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing; Current Status and Future Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A. J.

    This contribution addresses the current understanding of gaseous nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics and microstructure development in iron and heat treatable steel will be explained. In these materials the nitrided/ nitrocarburized case can be subdivided in a compound layer consisting of iron (carbo-)nitrides and a diffusion zone, consisting of a dispersion of alloying element nitrides in ferrite. The compound layer provides beneficial tribological and corrosion performance, while the diffusion zone is responsible for improved fatigue performance. Furthermore, aspects of low temperature surface hardening of stainless steels in a gaseous environment will be addressed. Here, the developed case consists of expanded austenite and/or expanded martensite, which essentially is a super saturated solid solution of nitrogen/carbon in austenite/martensite. The current state of the art and necessary future research activities for improvement of the present understanding will be identified.

  17. Chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer has achieved remarkable progress in the past two decades. This progress has resulted in efforts to redefine the standard of care for patients with this disease. A brief review of the history of current chemoradiotherapy was conducted to clarify the rationale for this approach. An attempt was made to present problems that remain to be solved. The review showed that chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer is now becoming a vital treatment option for patients with advanced disease. Currently available and upcoming data are about to clarify important issues regarding proper patient selection, standard procedures, management of toxicities, ultimate cure, and quality of life. This newly developed and promising treatment option has, however, confounding problems to be solved. Meticulous collaboration in an experienced multidisciplinary team is required to address these problems and to spread this approach in daily clinical practice. (author). 128 refs

  18. [Robotic colorectal surgery: current status and future developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, D

    2013-08-01

    Robotic assistance has the potential to compensate for the limitations inherent in standard laparoscopic surgery. The daVinci® surgical system remains the only currently available commercial robotic system. It has found popularity in rectal cancer surgery where its application has consistently been shown to reduce the need to convert to open surgery. With this exception, the technological advances of the robotic system have not so far translated into any reproducible patient benefit. The first part of this manuscript presents an overview of the current daVinci® platform, its applications, the evidence base and future developments in colorectal surgery. The second part of the manuscript looks at other robot systems in development and the different innovations and strategies taken to advance minimally invasive surgery.The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental). PMID:23942959

  19. Current status of the Plasmodium falciparum genome project.

    OpenAIRE

    Dame, Jb; Arnot, DE; Bourke, Pf; Chakrabarti, D.; Christodoulou, Z.; Coppel, Rl; Cowman, Af; Craig, Ag; Fischer, K.; Foster, J.; Goodman, N.; Hinterberg, K.; Holder, Aa; Holt, Dc; Kemp, Dj

    1996-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum Genome Project is a collaborative effort by many laboratories that will provide detailed molecular information about the parasite, which may be used for developing practical control measures. Initial goals are to prepare an electronically indexed clone bank containing partially sequenced clones representing up to 80% of the parasite's genes and to prepare an ordered set of overlapping clones spanning each of the parasite's 14 chromosomes. Currently, clones of genomic...

  20. Current Status in the Therapy of Liver Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Uhl; Gert Fricker; Uwe Haberkorn; Walter Mier

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Wilson’s disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection...

  1. Translational research: current status, challenges and future strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Advances in translational research are expected to mitigate the recent drought in new drug development. Despite significant progress recently made in biological sciences, the results are decidedly mixed with significant breakthrough in some disease areas while extensive work remains to be completed in other areas. This review article provides a general survey of the current landscape of translational research so as to identify progress and areas of needs and the associated strategy. While sig...

  2. Current status of nuclear mass formulae and their predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chronological table of mass formulae is first presented as an overview of nuclear mass studies. Then, the current problem on this subject is mentioned, which is in short how to treat both shell and deformation effects consistently. Three typical groups studying along this line are picked out, and their theoretical frameworks are compared. In addition the recent trend of microscopic approach to nuclear masses is mentioned. The numerical comparison is shown among these treatments, and their predictability is also discussed. (author)

  3. The current status of public relations in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Heerden, Gene

    2003-01-01

    The European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA) initiated the European Body of knowledge Project (referred to as EBOK hereafter) in 1998 in order to share ideas on public relations in different European countries. The purpose of this project was firstly to compile a bibliography of European public relations literature and secondly a Delphi study was conducted in order to understand the current practice and theory of European public relations. Furthermore the authors...

  4. Current Status of the MiniBooNE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, H; Koutsoliotas, S; Church, E; VanDalen, G J; Johnson, R A; Raaf, Jennifer L; Suwonjandee, N; Bugel, L; Conrad, J M; Fleming, B T; Formaggio, J; Shaevitz, M H; Sorel, M; Zimmerman, E D; Smith, D; Bhat, C; Brice, S J; Brown, B C; Ford, R; García, F G; Kasper, P; Kobilarcik, T; Kourbanis, I; Malensek, A; Marsh, W; Martin, P; Mills, F; Moore, Cristopher; Nienaber, P; Russell, A; Spentzouris, P; Stefanski, R; Williams, T; Tayloe, R; Boissevain, J G; Espinoza, C; Garvey, G T; Hawker, E; Louis, W C; Mills, G B; Sandberg, V; Sapp, B; Schirato, R; Thompson, T N; VandeWater, R; White, D H; Imlay, R; Malik, A; Metcalf, W; Sung, M; Roe, B P; Bazarko, A O; Meyers, P D; Sands, W; Shoemaker, F C; Stancu, I

    2004-01-01

    MiniBooNE is an experiment designed to refute or confirm the LSND anti-nu_mu -> anti-nu_e oscillation result. MiniBooNE will look for oscillations of nu_mu -> nu_e in a closed-box appearance analysis. MiniBooNE began collecting data in 2002, and is expected to continue data taking through 2005. Current MiniBooNE results are presented.

  5. Preparative Purification of Recombinant Proteins: Current Status and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Mayank Saraswat; Luca Musante; Alessandra Ravidá; Brian Shortt; Barry Byrne; Harry Holthofer

    2013-01-01

    Advances in fermentation technologies have resulted in the production of increased yields of proteins of economic, biopharmaceutical, and medicinal importance. Consequently, there is an absolute requirement for the development of rapid, cost-effective methodologies which facilitate the purification of such products in the absence of contaminants, such as superfluous proteins and endotoxins. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of a selection of key purification methodologies currently be...

  6. The current status of gene therapy for Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Muramatsu, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    The recent development of viral vectors, especially vectors derived from adeno–associated virus (AAV), has translated gene therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) from animal experiments into clinical trials. The current gene therapy protocols used are based on three major strategies. The first protocol involves local production of dopamine via the introduction of dopamine–synthesizing enzyme genes into the putamen. The aromatic L–amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) gene has been transferred i...

  7. Current status of the minke whales and conflicts of interest

    OpenAIRE

    K. V. Singarajah

    1988-01-01

    Minke whales - the rorqual group of the family Balaenopteridae - are widely distributed and constitute an important major harvestable living resource of the sea. Recently, the Antarctic minke whale population has been estimated to be between 150,000 and 300,000. Populations being dynamic entities, the size of the minke whale population has been changing. Currently , the minke whale population in the Antarctic has been claimed to have increased considerably. However, the minke whale stock arri...

  8. Current Status and Prospects for Microbubbles in Ultrasound Theranostics

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, K. Heath; Dayton, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Encapsulated microbubbles have been developed over the past two decades to provide both improvements in imaging as well as new therapeutic applications. Microbubble contrast agents are used currently for clinical imaging where increased sensitivity to blood flow is required, such as echocardiography. These compressible spheres oscillate in an acoustic field, producing nonlinear responses which can be uniquely distinguished from surrounding tissue, resulting in substantial enhancements in imag...

  9. Current status of radio frequency source for proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with a proton linac radio frequency system which has been in operation for the past 13 years. It was enlarged in 1985 to increase the acceleration energy from 20 MeV to 40 MeV. Operation, modification and troubles with the radio frequency system after the enlargement are described. Before the enlargement, the ITT 1257 thyratron had a life of around or greater than one year. The main thyratron was replaced with the KU 275C type unit in 1986. They are different in average anode current and maximum anode voltage. As a result of the enlargement, the H.V. current increased greatly up to 2.5A (D.C.), which was very close to the rated average anode current of ITT 1257, leading to a decreased life of the bulbe. Other components replaced included rectifier diode, hold-off diode in the large power source, and trigger circuit. The TH 516 cavity and output line were improved to eliminate discharge. The bulbs are cleaned and the contactors of TH 516 filament electrodes are replaced each year during the regular maintenance period in summer. Checking of insulating oil, cooling systems, vaccum systems is also carried out during the maintenance period. (Nogami, K.)

  10. Current status of low-level-waste-segregation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adoption of improved waste segregation practices by waste generators and burial sites will result in the improved disposal of low-level wastes (LLW) in the future. Many of the problems connected with this disposal mode are directly attributable to or aggravated by the indiscriminate mixing of various waste types in burial trenches. Thus, subsidence effects, contact with ground fluids, movement of radioactivity in the vapor phase, migration of radionuclides due to the presence of chelating agents or products of biological degradation, deleterious chemical reactions, and other problems have occurred. Regulations are currently being promulgated which will require waste segregation to a high degree at LLW burial sites. The state-of-the-art of LLW segregation technology and current practices in the USA have been surveyed at representative facilities. Favorable experience has been reported at various sites following the application of segregation controls. This paper reports on the state-of-the-art survey and addresses current and projected LLW segregation practices and their relationship to other waste management activities

  11. Dual Burden of Underweight and Overweight among Women in Bangladesh: Patterns, Prevalence, and Sociodemographic Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul

    2015-03-01

    The discourse of dual burden caused through underweight and overweight is well-documented globally but this issue and its connection with women's health in Bangladesh is yet to be explored widely. To enrich the current debate, this study, in the context of Bangladesh, examines the patterns, prevalence, and socioeconomic factors influencing the ever-married women of being underweight and overweight over normal weight. Data used in this study have been extracted from the most recent 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. To achieve results connected with the research objectives, both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses have been employed. In bivariate analysis, we used seven categories of BMI cutoff points for Asian countries as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to investigate the net effect of socioeconomic factors on underweight, pre-overweight, and overweight over normal weight. The results confirm the co-existence of underweight and overweight among women as we found the prevalence of underweight, normal weight, pre-overweight, overweight, and obesity to be 24.1%, 46.7%, 12.8%, 13.5%, and 2.9% respectively. Compared to the richest, the women from the poorest households were significantly (p<0.001) most likely to be underweight (OR=2.75, 95% CI 2.27-3.35) and least likely to be overweight (OR=0.15, 95% CI 0.12-0.19) over normal weight. The urban women, compared to their rural counterparts, were significantly (p<0.001) less likely to be underweight (OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.71-0.91) and more likely to be overweight (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.18-1.51) than normal weight. The other socioeconomic grades that were most marked to be underweight and overweight are age, women's education, marital status, age at first childbirth, parity, number of children aged ?5 years at the household, and food security. The findings confirm the dual burden of both under- and overweight. Systematic and regular monitoring and surveillance of the social trajectory of nutritional status of women and men in Bangladesh is crucial to develop apposite strategy that addresses the persistent and chronic problem of underweight and the emerging problem of overweight. The dual existence of both types of malnutrition among women in Bangladesh must be taken into consideration so that public health interventions may be adopted through appropriate policy. PMID:25995726

  12. Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent Fuel Management has always been one of the most important steps in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and it still is one of the most vital and common problem for all countries. Projections for spent fuel arisings by the year 2010 range between 400,000 and 450,000 t of spent nuclear fuel. It is recognized that this fuel will either be stored and later disposed of in a deep geological repository (once-through fuel cycle) or stored and then reprocessed (closed fuel cycle). While some countries have concluded which choice they will make, others are applying the ''wait and see'' attitude. This continues to place great emphasis on short and long term storage technologies since much of the spent fuel will remain in storage in the next 20 years. The nuclear community recognizes the importance that design, technological, economic and material problems in spent fuel storage concepts and continues to encourage the international cooperation in such areas. This past year several nations have made decisions which impact on the projected storage volume (the Federal Republic of Germany has cancelled their reprocessing plant) and plan to contract the reprocessing with other nations. Argentina has delayed its reprocessing efforts. At the same time, while there are plans for recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors, the plans for its use in fast reactors have been delayed. These unforeseen changes reflect the constantly changing nature of the back-end of the fuel cycle and reinforce the importance of cooperation in these activities. The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in spent fuel management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and to elaborate recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Decommissioning and demolition in the European Union. Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission pursues the environmental and energy policy goals of limiting global warming to a maximum of 2 C and, therefore, reducing CO2 emissions by at least 20%. Nuclear power, with its present 30% contribution to the Community's electricity supply and the low CO2 emissions of the entire fuel cycle, makes an important contribution to an energy mix matching the 3 factors of competitiveness, security of supply, and sustainability. The decision to use nuclear power plants in their respective countries for electricity production is left to each member state. As of mid-2008, 146 nuclear power plants were in operation in the European Union, while 74 had been shut down permanently. Two nuclear power plants had been demolished completely, showing that the European Community is just at the beginning of the learning curve in this field. The importance of nuclear power plant decommissioning and demolition will increase in the future as replacement capacity in nuclear power generation will become necessary. The European Commission's activities in decommissioning and demolition date from the 1990s: The provisions about environmental impact assessment and the recommendations to apply Article 37 (potential impacts on water, soil and air) of the Euratom Treaty demand a description of decommissioning and demolition of nuclear power plants. In a ruling of 2002, the European Court of Justice assigns to the Community the required competences in the fimmunity the required competences in the fields of nuclear safety and, consequently, also decommissioning and demolition. The financial provisions necessary for these activities are covered in the Electricity Directive within the framework of the rules for a common single market in 2003. After a first status report, the Commission published recommendations about financing decommissioning and demolition in 2006. (orig.)

  14. Threatened medicinal plants of Menwarsar Pahalgam, Kashmir Himalayas: Distribution pattern and current conservation status

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Ahmad Baig; Duraisamy Ramamoorthy; Tariq Ahmad Bhat

    2013-01-01

    It is imperative to understand the distribution and conservation status of medicinal plants in their natural habitats, owing to their increased demand and value. We studied the distribution pattern and current conservation status of six threatened medicinal plants in Pahalgam valley, Kashmir Himalayas, by random quadrate sampling (n=216) in different habitat types. The different uses of medicinal plants were obtained by informal interviews and group discussions with family elders. Recent re-e...

  15. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Banglade...

  16. Climate Change Concern to Cattle Feed in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Hashim Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses the climate change concerns for livestock feeding management in Bangladesh as it causes strange behavior and variation of cattle diets and feed shortages in the last two decades. It is obvious from the recent literature that Bangladesh is one of the most climate change vulnerable country of the world to climate change. It causes cattle feed shortages, modification in major production of yields, alteration in a variety composition of rangeland and edifying variety of cattle feed setback. The climate change concern to cattle feed in Bangladesh are now real and need to overcome the problems by the subject to current research effort and value. Therefore, in this study specific justification is used to figure out the factors that are responsible and discussed the national lacking, required action, limitation and possible alternative options. Moreover, following on the national lacking, required action and limitations, this study incorporated a framework of approach and strategies for the policy makers of Bangladesh.

  17. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy: current status and issues of interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To develop and disseminate a report aimed primarily at practicing radiation oncology physicians and medical physicists that describes the current state-of-the-art of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Those areas needing further research and development are identified by category and recommendations are given, which should also be of interest to IMRT equipment manufacturers and research funding agencies. Methods and Materials. The National Cancer Institute formed a Collaborative Working Group of experts in IMRT to develop consensus guidelines and recommendations for implementation of IMRT and for further research through a critical analysis of the published data supplemented by clinical experience. A glossary of the words and phrases currently used in IMRT is given in the . Recommendations for new terminology are given where clarification is needed. Results. IMRT, an advanced form of external beam irradiation, is a type of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). It represents one of the most important technical advances in RT since the advent of the medical linear accelerator. 3D-CRT/IMRT is not just an add-on to the current radiation oncology process; it represents a radical change in practice, particularly for the radiation oncologist. For example, 3D-CRT/IMRT requires the use of 3D treatment planning capabilities, such as defining target volumes and organs at risk in three dimensions by drawing contours on cross-sectional images (i.e., CT,tours on cross-sectional images (i.e., CT, MRI) on a slice-by-slice basis as opposed to drawing beam portals on a simulator radiograph. In addition, IMRT requires that the physician clearly and quantitatively define the treatment objectives. Currently, most IMRT approaches will increase the time and effort required by physicians, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists, because IMRT planning and delivery systems are not yet robust enough to provide totally automated solutions for all disease sites. Considerable research is needed to model the clinical outcomes to allow truly automated solutions. Current IMRT delivery systems are essentially first-generation systems, and no single method stands out as the ultimate technique. The instrumentation and methods used for IMRT quality assurance procedures and testing are not yet well established. In addition, many fundamental questions regarding IMRT are still unanswered. For example, the radiobiologic consequences of altered time-dose fractionation are not completely understood. Also, because there may be a much greater ability to trade off dose heterogeneity in the target vs. avoidance of normal critical structures with IMRT compared with traditional RT techniques, conventional radiation oncology planning principles are challenged. All in all, this new process of planning and treatment delivery has significant potential for improving the therapeutic ratio and reducing toxicity. Also, although inefficient currently, it is expected that IMRT, when fully developed, will improve the overall efficiency with which external beam RT can be planned and delivered, and thus will potentially lower costs. Conclusion. Recommendations in the areas pertinent to IMRT, including dose-calculation algorithms, acceptance testing, commissioning and quality assurance, facility planning and radiation safety, and target volume and dose specification, are presented. Several of the areas in which future research and development are needed are also indicated. These broad recommendations are intended to be both technical and advisory in nature, but the ultimate responsibility for clinical decisions pertaining to the implementation and use of IMRT rests with the radiation oncologist and radiation oncology physicist. This is an evolving field, and modifications of these recommendations are expected as new technology and data become available

  18. Current Status of ICRF Heating Experiments on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio frequency (RF) heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is one of the primary auxiliary heating methods for EAST. The ICRF system provides 6 MW power in primary phase and will be capable of 10 MW later. Three 1.5 MW ICRF systems in a frequency range of 25 MHz to 70 MHz have already been in operation. The ICRF heating launchers are designed to have two current straps with each driven by a RF power source of 1.5 MW. In this paper a brief introduction of the ICRF heating system capability in EAST and the preliminary results in EAST are presented. (magnetically confined plasma)

  19. Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok D.B. Vaidya; Devasagayam, Thomas P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense oppo...

  20. Current status of radionuclide imaging in valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state-of-the-art in radionuclide imaging of valvular heart disease is based on different angiographic patterns in three left-sided valve abnormalities: pressure overload, volume overload, and inflow obstruction. In pressure overload, the left ventricle has normal dimensions or is minimally dilated the volume overload involves a left ventricular dilatation with a normal or reduced ejection fraction at rest the left ventricular function in inflow obstruction is normal, but in some cases may be depressed. Radionuclide angiography evaluates the effect of a valve abnormality on cardiac chamber and function thallium-201 imaging diagnoses regional myocardial blood flow and cell integrity and can evaluate the associated coronary artery disease

  1. Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

  2. Status and current sensitivity of the CELESTE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CELESTE experiment uses the heliostats of an old solar farm in the French Pyrenees to detect gamma ray air showers by the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. CELESTE has been operating since November 1999 with an array of 40 heliostats fully instrumented with 1 GHz flash ADCs. Significant advances have been made in the detector simulations and in the data analysis techniques. We report here on results from recent observations of the Crab nebula above an energy threshold of 50 GeV. The results and simulations illustrate the current sensitivity of the experiment

  3. Status and Current Sensitivity of the CELESTE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Naurois, Mathieu

    2000-01-01

    The CELESTE experiment uses the heliostats of an old solar farm in the French Pyrenees to detect gamma ray air showers by the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. CELESTE has been operating since November 1999 with an array of 40 heliostats fully instrumented with 1GHz flash ADCs. Significant advances have been made in the detector simulations and in the data analysis techniques. We report here on results from recent observations of the Crab nebula above an energy threshold of 50GeV. The results and simulations illustrate the current sensitivity of the experiment.

  4. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  5. Economic and Social Impact of Financial Crisis on Households: A Case Study of Bangladesh with Reference to Social Safety Net Programme (SSNPs)

    OpenAIRE

    Raihan, Selim

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of current global economic crisis on the economy of Bangladesh and evaluates the existing social safety net programmes in Bangladesh with a view to understanding the coverage and effectiveness of the programmes, as these SSNPs could be very important in mitigating the negative effects arising from the ongoing global economic crisis on Bangladesh.

  6. Current status of the minke whales and conflicts of interest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K. V., Singarajah.

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Minke whales - the rorqual group of the family Balaenopteridae - are widely distributed and constitute an important major harvestable living resource of the sea. Recently, the Antarctic minke whale population has been estimated to be between 150,000 and 300,000. Populations being dynamic entities, t [...] he size of the minke whale population has been changing. Currently , the minke whale population in the Antarctic has been claimed to have increased considerably. However, the minke whale stock arriving off Brazil could be regarded as only a small discrete unit of breeding stock and an integral part of the Brazilian natural resource. Data analysis based on the past 21 years shows that this stock is relatively in a steady state, but with only a few annual fluctuations which are around a constant mean value; and these departures are attributable both to environmental conditions and the local operational parameters. Further, the analysis of overall data does not suggest any decline in the Brazilian stock and a MSY at about 58.5% can be taken without depleting the stock, provided no dramatic changes occur in the native Antarctic habitat where the minke whales return to feed. This would allow Brazil a carefully controlled rational utilization of this potentially valuable sea resource since enough exploitable numbers of minke whales have been estimated to be available for Area II. The current arguments of the conflicts between the Pro -and Anti-whaling groups are also briefly discussed.

  7. Current status of the minke whales and conflicts of interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Singarajah

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Minke whales - the rorqual group of the family Balaenopteridae - are widely distributed and constitute an important major harvestable living resource of the sea. Recently, the Antarctic minke whale population has been estimated to be between 150,000 and 300,000. Populations being dynamic entities, the size of the minke whale population has been changing. Currently , the minke whale population in the Antarctic has been claimed to have increased considerably. However, the minke whale stock arriving off Brazil could be regarded as only a small discrete unit of breeding stock and an integral part of the Brazilian natural resource. Data analysis based on the past 21 years shows that this stock is relatively in a steady state, but with only a few annual fluctuations which are around a constant mean value; and these departures are attributable both to environmental conditions and the local operational parameters. Further, the analysis of overall data does not suggest any decline in the Brazilian stock and a MSY at about 58.5% can be taken without depleting the stock, provided no dramatic changes occur in the native Antarctic habitat where the minke whales return to feed. This would allow Brazil a carefully controlled rational utilization of this potentially valuable sea resource since enough exploitable numbers of minke whales have been estimated to be available for Area II. The current arguments of the conflicts between the Pro -and Anti-whaling groups are also briefly discussed.

  8. Current status of peroral cholangioscopy in biliary tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, Stefania; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Bassi, Marco; Fabbri, Carlo; Cennamo, Vincenzo

    2015-05-16

    Peroral cholangioscopy (POC) is an important tool for the management of a selected group of biliary diseases. Because of its direct visualization, POC allows targeted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. POC can be performed using a dedicated cholangioscope that is advanced through the accessory channel of a duodenoscope or via the insertion of a small-diameter endoscope directly into the bile duct. POC was first described in the 1970s, but the use of earlier generation devices was substantially limited by the cumbersome equipment setup and high repair costs. For nearly ten years, several technical improvements, including the single-operator system, high-quality images, the development of dedicated accessories and the increased size of the working channel, have led to increased diagnostic accuracy, thus assisting in the differentiation of benign and malignant intraductal lesions, targeting biopsies and the precise delineation of intraductal tumor spread before surgery. Furthermore, lithotripsy of difficult bile duct stones, ablative therapies for biliary malignancies and direct biliary drainage can be performed under POC control. Recent developments of new types of conventional POCs allow feasible, safe and effective procedures at reasonable costs. In the current review, we provide an updated overview of POC, focusing our attention on the main current clinical applications and on areas for future research. PMID:25992189

  9. The Current Status of Radiology in Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyong Gong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  "n"nThe availability of multimodal imaging techniques enables the acquisition of both structural and functional information of the brain, and it opens a unique window for revealing the brain activity and connectivity in neuro-psychiatric disorders.  The current lecture will review some of the most often used imaging modalities, with particular emphasis on MRI, in the research field of major neuro-psychiatric disorders from the functional perspective. Diffused tension image shows the white matter in vivo and provides us with useful parameters such as FA and ADC to assess the brain tissue integrity. Perfusion MRI helps to assess the cerebral blood flow relevant to functional alteration. BOLD fMRI is readily available for the functional brain assessment in psychiatry with task and non-task design (i.e. resting-state fMRI. The topic of fMRI will be focused, and in particular, the resting-state fMRI which has recently attracted considerable attentions and has shown potentials in future clinical applications. The current lecture will specifically focuse on the recent advances of MR imaging research in epilepsy, schizophrenia and major depressive disorders.     

  10. [Current status and prospects of portable NIR spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Yang; Lu, Qi-Peng; Gao, Hong-Zhi; Peng, Zhong-Qi

    2013-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a reliable, rapid, and non-destructive analytical method widely applied in as a number of fields such as agriculture, food, chemical and oil industry. In order to suit different applications, near-infrared spectrometers are now varied. Portable near-infrared spectrometers are needed for rapid on-site identification and analysis. Instruments of this kind are rugged, compact and easy to be transported. In this paper, the current states of portable near-infrared spectrometers are reviewed. Portable near-infrared spectrometers are built of different monochromator systems: filter, grating, Fourier-transform methods, acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a large number of new methods based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The first part focuses on working principles of different monochromator systems. Advantages and disadvantages of different systems are also briefly mentioned. Descriptions of each method are given in turn. Typical spectrometers of each kind are introduced, and some parameters of these instruments are listed. In the next part we discuss sampling adapters, display, power supply and some other parts, which are designed to make the spectrometer more portable and easier to use. In the end, the current states of portable near-infrared spectrometers are summarized. Future trends of development of portable near-infrared spectrometers in China and abroad are discussed. PMID:24555365

  11. Current status of lasers in soft tissue dental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, R M; Colvard, M D

    1993-07-01

    The aims of this paper are to briefly describe laser physics, the types of lasers currently available for use on soft tissues focusing primarily on CO2 and Nd:YAG laser energies, the histological effects of lasers on oral tissues, laser safety, the clinical applications of lasers on oral soft tissues, and future directions. Of the two types of lasers currently available for dental applications, both the CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers can be used for frenectomies, ablation of lesions, incisional and excisional biopsies, gingivectomies, gingivoplasties, soft tissue tuberosity reductions, operculum removal, coagulation of graft donor sites, and certain crown lengthening procedures. The advantages of lasers include a relatively bloodless surgical and post-surgical course, minimal swelling and scarring, coagulation, vaporization, and cutting, minimal or no suturing, reduction in surgical time, and, in a majority of cases, much less or no post-surgical pain. CO2 lasers, compared to Nd:YAG are faster for most procedures, with less depth of tissue penetration and a well-documented history. There have been recent reports on the use of the Nd:YAG laser for periodontal scaling, gingival curettage, and root desensitization, but further research needs to be conducted. Both the CO2 and the Nd:YAG laser have limited use in conventional flap therapy. PMID:8366410

  12. Radiation damage of biomolecules (RADAM) database development: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. However, as the underlying dependent physical, chemical and biological processes are too complex to treat them on a purely analytical level, most of our current and future understanding will rely on computer simulations, based on mathematical equations, algorithms and last, but not least, on the available atomic and molecular data. The viability of the simulated output and the success of any computer simulation will be determined by these data, which are treated as the input variables in each computer simulation performed. The radiation research community lacks a complete database for the cross sections of all the different processes involved in ion beam induced damage: ionization and excitation cross sections for ions with liquid water and biological molecules, all the possible electron – medium interactions, dielectric response data, electron attachment to biomolecules etc. In this paper we discuss current progress in the creation of such a database, outline the roadmap of the project and review plans for the exploitation of such a database in future simulations.

  13. Current Status of the SANAEM RFQ Accelerator Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Turemen, G; Ogur, S; Yildiz, V; Mete, O; Oz, S; Ozbey, A; Yildiz, H; Yaman, F; Akgun, Y; Alacakir, A; Bolukdemir, S; Bozbey, A; Sahin, A; Unel, G; Erhan, S

    2015-01-01

    The design and production studies of the proton beamline of SPP, which aims to acquire know-how on proton accelerator technology thru development of man power and serves as particle accelerator technologies test bench, continue at TAEK-SANAEM as a multi-phase project. For the first phase, 20 keV protons will be accelerated to 1.3 MeV by a single piece RFQ. Currently, the beam current and stability tests are ongoing for the Inductively Coupled Plasma ion source. The measured magnetic field maps of the Low Energy Beam Transport solenoids are being used for matching various beam configurations of the ion source to the RFQ by computer simulations. The installation of the low energy diagnostics box was completed in Q1 of 2015. The production of the RFQ cavity was started with aluminum 7075-T6 which will be subsequently coated by Copper to reduce the RF (Ohmic) losses. On the RF side, the development of the hybrid power supply based on solid state and tetrode amplifiers continues. All RF transmission components hav...

  14. Drug treatment of obesity: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Ashish Kumar; Dahiya, Neha

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic and a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Obesity strains the healthcare systems and has profound economic and psychosocial consequences. Historically, pharmacotherapy for obesity has witnessed the rise and fall of several promising drug candidates that had to be eventually withdrawn due to unacceptable safety concerns. Currently four drugs are approved for chronic weight management in obese adults: orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate extended release and naltrexone/bupropion extended release. While lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate were approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012, after a gap of 13 years following the licensing of orlistat, naltrexone/bupropion has been recently approved in 2014. This review provides a brief overview of these current therapeutic interventions available for management of obesity along with the evidence of their safety and efficacy. Additionally, several novel monotherapies as well as combination products are undergoing evaluation in various stages of clinical development. These therapies if proven successful will strengthen the existing armamentarium of antiobesity drugs and will be critical to combat the global public health crisis of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. PMID:25634851

  15. Current status of symptomatic medical therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Stewart A

    2008-04-01

    Symptomatic medical therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) have been disease modifying and have led to improvement in daily function, quality of life, and survival. For 40 years, these therapies have been primarily dopaminergic, and currently include the dopamine (DA) precursor levodopa (LD), DA agonists, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors, and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. The roles of all these classes of agents have evolved, with significant changes occurring since the early 2000s. This article reviews the current literature for each of these classes of drugs, with a focus on efficacy and place in the therapeutic scheme. Levodopa is no longer considered to be toxic and, thus, its early use is not only appropriate but recommended. Ergot agonists are no longer in use, and new agents administered in patch form or subcutaneous injections have been approved. The COMT inhibitor tolcapone, with its significant efficacy, has been reintroduced, and two new MAO inhibitors have been approved. Selected safety issues are discussed, including the incidence of melanoma in relation to LD; pathological gambling and DA agonists; hepatic toxicity of tolcapone; and the tyramine or so-called cheese reaction with MAO B inhibitors. The article closes with a discussion of future directions and new drugs under development. PMID:18394561

  16. Social ethics in South Africa: Initiating a dialogue between its relevance and current status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Willem, Fourie.

    Full Text Available South African biblical scholars - particularly those who focus on the Old Testament - are known for their engagement with themes that can be termed social ethical. This impulse is used as starting point to investigate the relevance of social ethics in South Africa and its current status. It is argue [...] d that social ethical reflection is of particular relevance for South Africa. This thesis is investigated in two ways. Firstly, the applicability of social ethics as academic field is examined and it is shown that post-apartheid South African political institutions, systems and processes themselves are subjected to major changes and developments - a traditional area of focus of social ethics. Secondly, the current status of social ethical reflection in theological journals based in South Africa is investigated. The article concludes by showing that the current status of social ethical reflection in South African academic theology does not reflect the perceived need for social ethical reflection.

  17. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (II): Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan needs to import around 80% of its energy requirements. In 1966, the first nuclear power plant began operation, nuclear energy has been a national strategic priority since 1973. Currently, 55 reactors provide around 30% of the country's electricity. Japanese energy policy has been conducted by the energy security and minimization of dependence of energy imports. The main factors regarding nuclear power are: - Continue to have nuclear power as a main factor of electricity production. - Recycle uranium and plutonium, and start domestic reprocessing from 2005. - Continue to develop fast breeder reactors to increase uranium utilization. - Promote the nuclear transparency to the public, emphasizing safety and non-proliferation. Also, the prospects of Asia's nuclear energy growth has been reviewed

  18. History and current status of commercial pulsed laser deposition equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will review the history of the scale-up of the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process from small areas ?1 cm2 up to 10 m2 starting in about 1987. It also documents the history of commercialization of PLD as various companies become involved in selling fully integrated laser deposition tools starting in 1989. The paper will highlight the current state of the art of commercial PLD equipment for R and D that is available on the market today from mainstream vendors as well as production-oriented applications directed at piezo-electric materials for microelectromechanical systems and high-temperature superconductors for coated-conductor applications. The paper clearly demonstrates that considerable improvements have been made to scaling this unique physical vapour deposition process to useful substrate sizes, and that commercial deposition equipment is readily available from a variety of vendors to address a wide variety of technologically important thin-film applications. (paper)

  19. Radiation protection standards: Their development and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses basic standards for radiological protection, the practical application of standards, current issues, and future developments. The last few years have seen a major review of the basic standards for radiation protection as well as the introduction in many countries of new legislation laying down standards with regard to practices giving rise to radiation exposure, particularly that of electricity production from nuclear power. Topics covered include the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation effects and risk estimates, dose limits for occupational exposure, dose limits for individual members of the public, cost-benefit analysis, exposure of populations, the control of internal exposure, monitoring of exposures, the role of international bodies other than ICRP, and national standards. A glossary of dosimetric quantities and units is provided

  20. Flecainide: Current status and perspectives in arrhythmia management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrikopoulos, George K; Pastromas, Sokratis; Tzeis, Stylianos

    2015-02-26

    Flecainide acetate is a class IC antiarrhythmic agent and its clinical efficacy has been confirmed by the results of several clinical trials. Nowadays, flecainide is recommended as one of the first line therapies for pharmacological conversion as well as maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation and/or supraventricular tachycardias. Based on the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial study results, flecainide is not recommended in patients with structural heart disease due to high proarrhythmic risk. Recent data support the role of flecainide in preventing ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia associated both with ryanodine receptor and calsequestrin mutations. We herein review the current clinical data related to flecainide use in clinical practice and some concerns about its role in the management of patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:25717355

  1. Current status of RMS and technical experience for regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNCA uses secure remote monitoring systems, both for reporting to the IAEA and for the bilateral cooperation with Sandia (SNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The NNCA system architecture has changed from a system using a Central Monitoring Station at the former TCNC, to direct internet reporting on a simultaneous basis to the IAEA and the NNCA. The NNCA reporting system is applied at 16 power reactors. This experience provides the basis for a detailed cost analysis and evaluation of trouble-shooting experience. Progress in establishing remote monitoring cooperation between the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's new Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPE) and Sandia is a precondition for regional cooperation. The ACPF system, which is currently in final testing, features network configuration and equipment that differ from safeguards standards for reasons of cost and flexibility. This allows the NNCA to take advantage of rapidly developing technologies at lower cost. (author)

  2. Current Status and Design Challenges in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Diwan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs will boost the capabilities of current wireless sensor networks, and will serve some novel applications, like multimedia surveillance. Today’s world is of automation and WMSN plays a very vital role in today’s world. WMSNs introduce several new research challenges, mainly related to mechanisms of deliver application level Quality-of-Service (e.g., latency minimization. The main research going on today in WMSN are on Video Streaming and on its Security area. The main focus of this research paper is on the problem related to video streaming of WMSN. This research paper introduces some of the solutions/suggestions with the help of which some of the problems like video streaming of wireless multimedia sensor network can be sorted.

  3. Current status and future development of neutron scattering in CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the 15 MW Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR) at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) in Beijing is the only neutron source available for neutron scattering experiments in China. A 60 MW tank-in-pool inverse neutron trap-type research reactor, China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), now is being built at CIAE to meet the increasing demand of neutron scattering research in China. According to design, the maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux would be expected to be 8x1014 n/cm2.s in the reflector region. Seven out of nine tangential horizontal beam tubes will be dedicated for neutron scattering experiments. A cold source, a hot source and a 30x60 m2 guide tube hall will also be constructed. In this paper, a brief introduction of HWRR, the existing neutron scattering facilities and research activities at HWRR, CARR, and the facilities to be built at CARR are presented. (author)

  4. History and current status of commercial pulsed laser deposition equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, James A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will review the history of the scale-up of the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process from small areas ?1 cm2 up to 10 m2 starting in about 1987. It also documents the history of commercialization of PLD as various companies become involved in selling fully integrated laser deposition tools starting in 1989. The paper will highlight the current state of the art of commercial PLD equipment for R&D that is available on the market today from mainstream vendors as well as production-oriented applications directed at piezo-electric materials for microelectromechanical systems and high-temperature superconductors for coated-conductor applications. The paper clearly demonstrates that considerable improvements have been made to scaling this unique physical vapour deposition process to useful substrate sizes, and that commercial deposition equipment is readily available from a variety of vendors to address a wide variety of technologically important thin-film applications.

  5. Current status of penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Heon; Lee, Seung Wook

    2015-02-01

    Although disease-free survival remains the primary goal of prostate cancer treatment, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains a common complication that affects the quality of life. Even though several preventive and therapeutic strategies are available for ED after radical prostatectomy (RP), no specific recommendations have been made on the optimal rehabilitation or treatment strategy. Several treatment options are available, including phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, vacuum erection devices, intracavernosal or intraurethral prostaglandin injections, and penile prostheses. Urologists must consider more effective ways to establish optimal treatments for ED after RP. ED is an important issue among patients with prostate cancer, and many patients hope for early ED recovery after surgery. This review highlights the currently available treatment options for ED after RP and discusses the limitations of each. PMID:25685296

  6. Aptamer Microarrays—Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Witt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microarray technologies are state of the art in biological research, which requires fast genome, proteome and transcriptome analysis technologies. Often antibodies are applied in protein microarrays as proteomic tools. Since the generation of antibodies against toxic targets or small molecules including organic compounds remains challenging the use of antibodies may be limited in this context. In contrast to this, aptamer microarrays provide alternative techniques to circumvent these limitations. In this article we review the latest developments in aptamer microarray technology. We discuss similarities and differences between DNA and aptamer microarrays and shed light on the post synthesis immobilization of aptamers including corresponding effects on the microarray performance. Finally, we highlight current limitations and future prospects of aptamer microarray technology.

  7. [Immunotherapy of solid tumors. Current status and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, M G; Tagliaferri, F; Stipa, F; Arklins, K; Cesareo, S; Sirovich, I

    1996-01-01

    Immunotherapy is the most recent therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cancer. It has not yet achieved an elevated curative efficiency and a wide clinical application. Nevertheless the possibilities of improvement seem very promising. The knowledge of the immune response mechanisms and the first clinical trials have determined a more efficient immunotherapy. Here we will critically analyze current immunotherapeutic strategies by reviewing the latest and the most important experimental works. The latest protocols of immunotherapy have been aimed to be more integrated in the physiological immune response schemes. The orientation of the experimental works have been changed from non specific immunotherapy using lymphokines to immunotherapy with specific lymphocytes expanded in vitro and, finally, the active specific immunotherapy in vivo by modificated tumoral vaccines or by variously manipulated tumoral antigens. PMID:8975338

  8. Electroactive Biofilms: Current Status and Future Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Reguera, Gemma [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ringeisen, Bradley [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; Wang, Zhiwu [ORNL; Feng, Yujie [Harbin Institute of Technology; Kim, Byung Hong [Harbin Institute of Technology & Korea Institute of Science and Technology

    2011-01-01

    Electroactive biofilms generated by electrochemically active microorganisms have many potential applications in bioenergy and chemicals production. This review assesses the effects of microbiological and process parameters on enrichment of such biofilms as well as critically evaluates the current knowledge of the mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer in BES systems. First we discuss the role of biofilm forming microorganisms vs. planktonic microorganisms. Physical, chemical and electrochemical parameters which dictate the enrichment and subsequent performance of the biofilms are discussed. Potential dependent biological parameters including biofilm growth rate, specific electron transfer rate and others and their relationship to BES system performance is assessed. A review of the mechanisms of electron transfer in BES systems is included followed by a discussion of biofilm and its exopolymeric components and their electrical conductivity. A discussion of the electroactive biofilms in biocathodes is also included. Finally, we identify the research needs for further development of the electroactive biofilms to enable commercial applications.

  9. Brain Cancer Stem Cells: Current Status on Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Bernier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, an aggressive brain tumor of astrocytic/neural stem cell origin, represents one of the most incurable cancers. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous. However, most tumors contain a subpopulation of cells that display neural stem cell characteristics in vitro and that can generate a new brain tumor upon transplantation in mice. Hence, previously identified molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell biology were found to represent the cornerstone of GBM stem cell self-renewal mechanism. GBM tumors are also notorious for their resistance to radiation therapy. Notably, GBM “cancer stem cells” were also found to be responsible for this radioresistance. Herein, we will analyze the data supporting or not the cancer stem cell model in GBM, overview the current knowledge regarding GBM stem cell self-renewal and radioresistance molecular mechanisms, and discuss the potential therapeutic application of these findings.

  10. Treatment of sepsis: current status of clinical immunotherapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Callaghan, A

    2012-02-03

    While antibiotics address the root cause of sepsis--that of pathogen infection--they fail to provide an adequate cure for the condition. Currently, 30% to 50% of septic patients die, and this figure is likely to increase in line with the proliferation of multi-drug resistant bacteria. With an increased understanding of the immune response, it has been proposed that modulation of this defence mechanism offers the best hope of cure. Many entry-points in the immune system have been identified and targeted therapies have been developed,but why are these not in routine clinical practice? This review examines the latest evidence for the use of immuno-modulating drugs, obtained from human clinical trials. We discuss cytokine-based therapies, steroids and anti-coagulants. Finally, consideration is given as to why successful therapies in the laboratory, and in vivo models, do not automatically translate into clinical benefit

  11. A Survey on clustering Current status and challenging issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama.B,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is the art of subset from a dataset. It helps in identifying the hidden information and arranging data into its logical group based on an attribute or a set of attributes. Theintent of this paper is to explore a variety of clustering methodsand brief their working styles so that researches can have apartial view of methods discussed. This work presents gains andpitfalls and also associated worst case complexities of eachclustering method to some extent. The techniques discussed hereare just a snap shot of clustering algorithms. Currently modelbased algorithms are been used to improve efficiency of clusteringalgorithms. This paper would be helpful in devising the choice ofalgorithm for such a purpose.

  12. History and current status of newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jane M; Therrell, Bradford L

    2010-04-01

    The impact of hemoglobinopathies on healthcare in the United States, particularly sickle cell disease (SCD), has been significant. Enactment of the Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act in 1972 significantly increased the federal interest in the SCDs and other hemoglobinopathies. Only since May 1, 2006, have all states required and provided universal newborn screening for SCD despite a national recommendation to this effect in 1987. In this article, we review the history of screening for SCD and other hemoglobinopathies, along with federal and state activities that have contributed to improved health outcomes for patients with SCD, as well as current newborn screening practices. We also chronicle the federal activities that have helped to shape and to refine laboratory screening and diagnostic proficiency. Finally, we review molecular testing strategies that have evolved and outline their possible future impacts on disease detection and outcome improvement. PMID:20207263

  13. The current status of the ionospheric observations in NICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Murata, Ken T.; Tsugawa, Takuya; Kato, Hisao; Ishibashi, Hiromitsu

    2012-07-01

    In Japan, NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) is in charge of space weather forecasting services as a Regional Warning Center of International Space Environment Service (ISES). Also, we have been operating WDC for Ionosphere since 1957. With help of geospace environment data exchanging among the international cooperation, NICT routinely operates daily space weather forecast service to provide information on nowcasts and forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. To monitor the ionospheric condition over Japan, we have been operating domestic ionosonde network We have four station, Wakkanai, Kokubunji, Yamagawa, Okinawa. Also we have an ionospheric observatory in Syowa Station, Antarctica. Also, we are operating south-east Asia low-latitute ionospheric network (SEALION). This is for the purpose of monitoring and forecasting equatorial ionospheric disturbances, especially plasma bubbles. In the present talk, we will introduce our current activities and future perspective of the ionospheric observations in NICT.

  14. [Minimal invasive surgery: historical review, current status and perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Stienen, Martin N; Corniola, Marco V; Schaller, Karl

    2014-10-29

    Lumbar spine surgery has been performed for decades using the so-called «dorsal open approach». Although established as a safe and effective procedure, it is associated to some extent with extensive collateral damage in the area of the operative field. For over ten years, minimal-invasive spine surgery (MISS) techniques, which are considerably less destructive and less traumatic, have earned their place as valuable and at times superior to the established dorsal open approach. Advantages include smaller skin incisions, less soft tissue and muscle damage, less peri-operative blood loss, lower infection rates, earlier postoperative return to function or work as well as shorter hospital stays. All these advantages, however, have to be carefully balanced against the potential disadvantages of MISS techniques, notably reduced orientation, steep learning curves, and increased radiation exposure from repeated imaging for guidance. This article gives an overview about the evolution and current role of MISS in lumbar spine surgery. PMID:25351695

  15. The role of radiotherapy in urinary bladder cancer: current status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Nader, Marta; Samir Abdallah, Hanna; Rafael, Gadia; Sebastião Francisco Miranda, Correa; Joao Luis Fernandes da, Silva; Heloisa de Andrade, Carvalho.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of urinary bladder cancer has undergone several modifications along the last decades. In the beginning, definitive RT was used as treatment in an attempt to preserve the urinary bladder; however, the results were poor compared to those of radical surger [...] y. Recently, many protocols have been developed supporting the use of multi-modality therapy, and the concept of organ preservation began to be reconsidered. Although phase III randomized clinical studies comparing radical cystectomy with bladder preservation therapies do not exist, the conservative treatment may present low toxicity and high indexes of complete response for selected patients. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the subject in order to situate RT in the current treatment of urinary bladder cancer.

  16. Astroparticles in Latin America: current status and outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Sidelnik, Iván

    2014-01-01

    The successful installation and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina has been a milestone in Astroparticle research in Latin America, generating new regional research opportunities in the field. In this context, the LAGO project, begun in 2005 with the aim of studying the high-energy component of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). This observatory consists of different arrays of water-Cherenkov detectors installed in high altitude mountains throughout Latin America. Recently, it has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting studies on the solar modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux. Currently more than 80 scientists and students from Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Argentina are integrated into the LAGO Collaboration. The high level of regional integration in the scientific community reached thanks to this kind of major projects, has led to the recent formation of the CLES (Consorcio Latinoamericano de Experimentos Subterr\\'{a}neos). This organization promotes ...

  17. Current status of liquid scintillation at Westinghouse Hanford Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present herein an overview of the current applications of liquid scintillation counting performed at Westinghouse Hanford Company. our goal is to ascertain, with the greatest reliability possible, the activity contained in a sample. We measure samples for unconditional release criteria. Additionally, we are testing experimental processes to determine the effectiveness of the removal of transuranics from liquids by precounting and postcounting spiked solutions. We use a variety of methods to count soils, oils, mixed waste, water samples, and other organic and inorganic materials. Some methods require a wet chemistryseparation while other methods may be mixed directly with a cocktail and counted. We do not present any separation methods. We make a concerted effort to discuss each of the several isotopes and gross activities that are of concern at the Hanford Site. We try to use only environment-friendly cocktails. We use several different liquid scintillation spectrometers because the Hanford Site contains many facilities

  18. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is important to provide the user with an evaluated nuclear database of the highest quality, dependability, and currency. It is also important that the evaluated nuclear data are easily accessible to the user. In the past the panel concentrated its concern on the cycle time for the publication of A-chain evaluations. However, the panel now recognizes that publication cycle time is no longer the appropriate goal. Sometime in the future, publication of the evaluated A-chains will evolve from the present hard-copy Nuclear Data Sheets on library shelves to purely electronic publication, with the advent of universal access to terminals and the nuclear databases. Therefore, the literature cut-off date in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is rapidly becoming the only important measure of the currency of an evaluated A-chain. Also, it has become exceedingly important to ensure that access to the databases is as user-friendly as possible and to enable electronic publication of the evaluated data files. Considerable progress has been made in these areas: use of the on-line systems has almost doubled in the past year, and there has been initial development of tools for electronic evaluation, publication, and dissemination. Currently, the nuclear data effort is in transition between the traditional and future methods of dissemination of the evaluated data. Also, many of the factors that adversely affect the publication cycle time simultaneously affect the currency of the evaluated nuclear database. Therefore, the panel continues to examine factors that can influence cycle time: the number of evaluators, the frequency with which an evaluation can be updated, the review of the evaluation, and the production of the evaluation, which currently exists as a hard-copy issue of Nuclear Data Sheets

  19. Cardiac PET perfusion tracers: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddahi, Jamshid; Packard, René R S

    2014-09-01

    PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is increasingly being used for noninvasive detection and evaluation of coronary artery disease. However, the widespread use of PET MPI has been limited by the shortcomings of the current PET perfusion tracers. The availability of these tracers is limited by the need for an onsite ((15)O water and (13)N ammonia) or nearby ((13)N ammonia) cyclotron or commitment to costly generators ((82)Rb). Owing to the short half-lives, such as 76 seconds for (82)Rb, 2.06 minutes for (15)O water, and 9.96 minutes for (13)N ammonia, their use in conjunction with treadmill exercise stress testing is either not possible ((82)Rb and (15)O water) or not practical ((13)N ammonia). Furthermore, the long positron range of (82)Rb makes image resolution suboptimal and its low myocardial extraction limits its defect resolution. In recent years, development of an (18)F-labeled PET perfusion tracer has gathered considerable interest. The longer half-life of (18)F (109 minutes) would make the tracer available as a unit dose from regional cyclotrons and allow use in conjunction with treadmill exercise testing. Furthermore, the short positron range of (18)F would result in better image resolution. Flurpiridaz F 18 is by far the most thoroughly studied in animal models and is the only (18)F-based PET MPI radiotracer currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Preclinical and clinical experience with Flurpiridaz F 18 demonstrated a high myocardial extraction fraction, high image and defect resolution, high myocardial uptake, slow myocardial clearance, and high myocardial-to-background contrast that was stable over time-important properties of an ideal PET MPI radiotracer. Preclinical data from other (18)F-labeled myocardial perfusion tracers are encouraging. PMID:25234078

  20. Current status and perspectives of treatment of disseminated melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is considered to be one of the most malignant human neoplasms, characterized by a steadily increasing morbidity rate, which remains a challenge for modem oncology. Despite the significant progress in prevention, diagnosis and molecular biology, the practical use of this knowledge is still limited and surgery remains the main method of treatment. A particularly unfavorable clinical course is observed in patients with metastatic melanoma. Median survival in stage IV melanoma is 6-10 months, 2-year survival is less than 10%, and 5-year survival does not exceed 5%. Despite efforts aimed at developing new strategies which would improve survival, the results have not changed for more than two decades. This is related to the limited number of cytostatic drugs available for systemic melanoma treatment and the relative resistance of melanoma cells to most therapeutic agents. In clinical practice, the most widely used drug is dacarbazine, with the highest, but still unsatisfactory, response rate reaching some 20%. The lack of effective therapies calls for the exploration of different therapeutic paths, both medical and surgical. Some hopes of new modalities are associated with the theory of melanoma immunogenicity. Currently it is believed that immuno modulation may be the solution for effective treatment of melanoma and it should be noted that new drugs, scheduled to be registered by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, are immune system stimulating agentanoma, are immune system stimulating agents. Although targeted therapies are still not a standard of treatment and their use is mainly limited to clinical trials, they appear to be the future of effective treatment of metastatic melanoma. In this review we present the current methods of treatment of metastatic melanoma. (authors)

  1. THE CURRENT STATUS OF ACADEMIC EDUCATION FINANCING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avram Marioara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At the moment academic education is imperative for any society based on knowledge or which tends to it. Academic education can be treated as the "engine" of the society development as it contributes to the individual development of citizens and the development of the community as a whole. Therefore, the amounts for academic education should not be treated as burdensome expenses, but as true long-term investments for the community development. However, the Romanian academic education funding has always been a sore spot and a highly controversial topic of debate for members of the political class and civil society. For a long time it has been searching for the optimal solutions in university funding as an essential lever for shaping and sustaining a high quality education system. Over time, academic education has been funded from multiple sources: not only from public funds and financial resources from individuals or companies, but also from its own resources. Although efforts have always been made to sustain academic education from public funds, the recent research in higher education funding reveals a decrease of the amounts allocated by the state. The economic and financial crisis has clearly made its mark even on public funding of state universities. In this pessimistic context, in order to carry out their missions, universities have been forced to find new sources of funding. In this paper we propose, by a persuasive presentation from a theoretical perspective, to illustrate key aspects of current funding of academic education in Romania. In this purpose we will analyze the funding mechanism for state universities and private universities and we will try to provide answers for the following questions: To what extent could the current system of financing academic education in Romania be improved and what can we do to improve it? Could new sources of funding be identified as to support the educational process?

  2. The mini-dome Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator array - Current program status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; O'Neill, Mark J.; Fraas, Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Over the last seven years, NASA Lewis, ENTECH, and Boeing have been developing a high-efficiency, lightweight space photovoltaic concentrator array. The authors report the current status of the mini-dome Fresnel lens concentrator program, emphasizing the latest results on the fabrication and testing of a space-qualifiable version of the concentrator lens and panel structure. Calculations indicated that such an array can achieve 300 W/sq m at a specific power of 100 W/kg. The authors describe the current status of component and prototype panel testing and the preliminary development of a flight panel for the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) flight experiment.

  3. Active and passive anticytokine immune therapies: current status and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Buanec, Hélène; Bensussan, Armand; Bagot, Martine; Gallo, Robert C; Zagury, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Anticytokine (AC) immune therapies derived from vaccine procedures aim at enhancing natural immune defense mechanisms ineffective to contain abnormally produced cytokines and counteract their pathogenic effects. Given their short half-life, cytokines, the production of which by effector immune cells (T and B lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells (APCs), natural killer (NK) and endothelial cells) is inducible and controlled by negative feedback regulation, (1) exert locally their signaling to paracrine/autocrine target responder cells carrying high-affinity membrane receptors and (2) are commonly present at minimal concentration in the body fluid (lymph, serum). Aberrant signaling triggered by cytokines, uncontrolly released by effector immune cells or produced by cancer and other pathologic cells, contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases including cancer, viral infections, allergy, and autoimmunity. To block these ectopic cytokine signaling and prevent their pathogenic effects, AC Abs supplied either by injections (passive AC immune therapy) or elicited by immunization with cytokine-derived immunogenes called Kinoids (active AC immune therapy) proved to be experimentally effective and safe. In this review, we detailed the rationale and the requirements for the use of AC immunotherapies in humans, the proof of efficacy of these medications in animal disease models, and their current clinical development and outcome, including adverse side effects they may generate. We particularly show that, to date, the benefit:risk ratio of AC immune therapies is highly positive. PMID:22608260

  4. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    CERN Document Server

    Panasyuk, M I; Garipov, G K; Ebisuzaki, T; Gorodetzky, P; Khrenov, B A; Klimov, P A; Morozenko, V S; Sakaki, N; Saprykin, O A; Sharakin, S A; Takizawa, Y; Tkachev, L G; Yashin, I V; Zotov, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high-transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (+/-4.5 deg), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4x10^3 sq.km. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (~2 sq.m) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16x16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 sq.m), which allows decreasing the energy thr...

  5. Mediterranean limnology: current status, gaps and the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel ALVAREZ COBELAS

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The current ecosystem paradigm in limnology is represented by the cold temperate, stratifying lake and the single-channelled river. However, the variety of inland water ecosystems is much higher, and so is the ecological complexity of many of them. Most Mediterranean limnosystems are quite distinct from the contemporary limnological paradigm. This overview will deal with the striking and exciting differences between Mediterranean and other temperate limnosystems. For example, most are very small, their catchment area is much larger than their size, and they experience both a longer vegetation period and a strong seasonality in water supply which occurs outside the hot season, often from groundwater sources. In addition, we encourage research on the often poorly known limnological processes taking place in Mediterranean regions by pointing at insufficiently covered research fields. Furthermore, competition for water among different users, arising from population increase in fertile and/or tourist areas, is certainly limiting the ability of many Mediterranean limnosystems to survive at present and in the near future, particularly in the face of the harsher environmental conditions that climatic change is triggering. A new paradigm on Mediterranean limnology is thus necessary. This will enable us to predict and mitigate more accurately the unstoppable effects of man-made change in these beautiful and still largely ignored ecosystems.

  6. Genetics of cerebral cavernous malformations: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, H; Pawlikowska, L; Lawton, M T; Kim, H

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular lesions which affect up to 0.5% of the general population, predisposing to headaches, seizures, cerebral hemorrhages and focal neurological deficits. CCM occurs in both sporadic and familial forms; familial cases follow an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance and are caused by mutations in CCM1 (KRIT1), CCM2 (MGC4607), or CCM3 (PDCD10). Somatic mutations within the three CCM genes have been identified in CCM lesions from both sporadic and familial patients. We reviewed articles published in PubMed in English prior to March 2015 and provide an update on CCM mutations and the screening strategies used to identify them. Further, we summarize the specific clinical features related to CCM genotypes. As 5% to 15% of familial CCM cases remain genetically unexplained, we also discuss future approaches to expand understanding of the genetic architecture of CCM. Finally, we discuss possible genetic modifiers of CCM disease severity and progression. Understanding the genetic architecture of CCM is essential for an earlier diagnosis of the disease, predictive testing of at-risk patients, and design of targeted medical therapies of which there are currently none available. PMID:25900426

  7. Sunscreens in the United States: current status and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Paul C; Tomecki, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Incidence rates of nonmelanoma skin cancer and melanoma has been on the rise in the United States for the past 20 years. UV radiation (UVR) exposure remains the most preventable environmental risk factor for these cancers. Aside from sun avoidance, sunscreens remain our best protection. UVR directly damages DNA and cause indirect cellular damage through the creation of reactive oxygen species, the sum of which leads to cutaneous immunosuppression and a tumorigenic milieu. The current generation of sunscreens protect from UVR through two main mechanisms: absorption and deflection. In the US, new Food and Drug Association rules require sunscreen manufacturers to evaluate their products not only on sun protection factor but also on broad spectrum UVA protection by the end of 2013. New labeling requirements will also be instituted. The American Academy of Dermatology and the American Academy of Pediatrics have provided specific recommendations for proper sun protection and sunscreen usage. Plant polyphenols such as those isolated from green tea, pomegranate, and grape seed remain an interesting avenue of research as additives to sunscreens or stand-alone products that appear to modulate the immunosuppressive effects of UVR on the skin. Additionally, although UVR induces endogenous cutaneous production of vitamin D, its damaging effects overshadow this positive benefit, especially in light of the ease of achieving recommended amounts of vitamin D through diet and supplementation. PMID:25207382

  8. Current status and perspectives of cell therapy in Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Botelho Pereira Soares

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One century after its discovery, Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a major health problem in Latin America. Mortality and morbidity are mainly due to chronic processes that lead to dysfunction of the cardiac and digestive systems. About one third of the chronic chagasic individuals have or will develop the symptomatic forms of the disease, with cardiomyopathy being the most common chronic form. This is a progressively debilitating disease for which there are no currently available effective treatments other than heart transplantation. Like in other cardiac diseases, tissue engineering and cell therapy have been investigated in the past few years as a means of recovering the heart function lost as a consequence of chronic damage caused by the immune-mediated pathogenic mechanisms elicited in individuals with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. Here we review the studies of cell therapy in animal models and patients with chronic Chagas disease and the perspectives of the recovery of the heart function lost due to infection with T. cruzi.

  9. Pushing the boundaries of ureteroscopy: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geavlete, Petrisor; Multescu, Razvan; Geavlete, Bogdan

    2014-07-01

    Substantial advances in ureteroscopy have resulted in the incorporation of this procedure into routine urological practice in many centres worldwide. Subsequently, an abundance of clinical data and technological progression have enabled the development of novel solutions that have increased the efficacy of ureteroscopy, and reduced associated morbidity and costs. In addition the indications for this retrograde approach have been expanded, and pyelocalyceal diverticulum, infundibular stenosis, urolithiasis in pregnant women or in patients with urinary diversions, as well as upper urinary tract tumours can now be managed using this methodology. New endoscopes are continuously developed, with different manufacturers choosing various technical solutions to further increase the efficacy and safety-and sometimes decrease costs-of ureteroscopy, including miniaturization, inclusion of digital optical systems and dual working channels, and the introduction of disposable apparatus. The holmium laser, currently the most-versatile energy source available, enables tissue incision, tumour ablation, and intracorporeal lithotripsy. Modern ancillary instruments are diverse, flexible, and durable, and novel devices used in daily clinical practice can minimize ascendant migration of stone fragments and, therefore, decrease the failure rate of the retrograde ureteroscopic approach. However, the peak of ureteroscopy evolution seems to remain distant, with further improvement of endoscopes and ancillary instruments, and robot-assisted ureteroscopy representing only some of the areas in which future developments are possible. PMID:24890883

  10. Clinical utility of ivabradine in cardiovascular disease management: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosano GMC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe MC Rosano,1,2 Cristiana Vitale,1,2 Ilaria Spoletini,1 Maurizio Volterrani11Department of Medical Sciences, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy; 2Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences Research Institute, St George's University of London, London, UK Abstract: Ivabradine is a selective antagonist of the funny channels with anti-anginal and anti-ischemic properties, approved for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD and heart failure (HF. It provides pure heart rate reduction, reducing the diastolic depolarization slope, without altering hemodynamic parameters. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the efficacy of ivabradine in patients with cardiovascular diseases, with a particular focus on its role in the clinical management of patients with CAD and HF. There is consistent evidence that ivabradine is effective in reducing angina pectoris symptoms and myocardial ischemia. At approved doses ivabradine is safe, improves exercise tolerance, and reduces heart rate. Available data from clinical trials support its use in the management of patients with stable CAD and chronic HF. Recent studies have cast doubt on the safety of non-approved high doses of ivabradine for the treatment of patients with CAD and without clinical HF, but have shown no concerns on the doses approved for clinical use. Keywords: ivabradine, coronary artery disease, heart failure, angina pectoris, exercise performance

  11. Precision viticulture in Brazil: Current research status on wine grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies associated to precision viticulture (PV are not currently used by Brazilian growers. To overcome this situation, a research is being carried out since 2011 in a vineyard of Merlot using a wide range of PV technologies. During this period, several PV research activities were performed which will be concluded in a couple of years. Therefore, final results depend on further variable evaluation which should be done by means of geostatistic, Geographic Information Systems and Principal Component Analysis. This paper briefly presents a series of methodological procedures used in different ways to attain the objective of this research project. In the sequence, it describes one final result and nine partial ones. Morphological and physicochemical analyses of soil showed that the vineyards are established on three taxonomic classes of soil – Argissolo, Cambissolo and Neossolo ?, which are formed by ten mapping units. The partial results are mainly related to the utilization of GIS, modeling and must and wine composition of five mapping units; however they show results of only one year. With the complete set of analyses, data should be spatialized and maps prepared. Then, it will be possible to recommend different practices to each soil type and to aid oenologists to direct wines to a specific quality pattern.

  12. The current status of fusion reactor blanket thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The available thermodynamic information is reviewed for three categories of materials that meet essential criteria for use as breeding blankets in D-T fueled fusion reactors: liquid lithium, solid lithium alloys, and lithium-containing ceramics. The leading candidate, liquid lithium, which also has potential for use as a coolant, has been studied more extensively than have the solid alloys or ceramics. Recent studies of liquid lithium have concentrated on its sorption characteristics for hydrogen isotopes and its ineraction with common impurity elements. Hydrogen isotope sorption data are presented in a tabular form that can be conveniently used to extract thermodynamic information for the ?-phases of the Li-LiH, Li-LiD, and Li-LiT systems and to construct complete phase diagrams. Recent solubility data for Li3N, Li2O, and Li2C2 in liquid lithium are discussed with emphasis on the prospects for their removal by cold-trapping methods. Current studies on the sorption of hydrogen in solid lithium alloys have shown that these alloys should lead to smaller blanket-tritium inventories than are attainable with liquid lithium. The kinetics of tritium release from these materials is briefly discussed. Research areas are pointed out where additional thermodynamic information is needed for all three material categories. (orig./RW)

  13. Medical treatment of radiation injuries-Current US status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear incident or major release of radioactive materials likely would result in vast numbers of patients, many of whom would require novel therapy. Fortunately, the numbers of radiation victims in the United States (USA) have been limited to date. If a mass-casualty situation occurs, there will be a need to perform rapid, accurate dose estimates and to provide appropriate medications and other treatment to ameliorate radiation injury. The medical management of radiation injury is complex. Radiation injury may include acute radiation sickness (ARS) from external and/or internal radiation exposure, internal organ damage from incorporated radioactive isotopes, and cutaneous injury. Human and animal data have shown that optimal medical care may nearly double the survivable dose of ionizing radiation. Current treatment strategies for radiation injuries are discussed with concentration on the medical management of the hematopoietic syndrome. In addition, priority areas for continuing and future research into both acute deterministic injuries and also long-term stochastic sequelae of radiation exposure have been identified. There are several near-term novel therapies that appear to offer excellent prognosis for radiation casualties, and these are also described

  14. Current status of the Hokkaido University electron linac facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have a 45 MeV electron linac at the Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University. This accelerator has been operating since 1974 and providing pulsed electron beams for about 1000 hours every year by a careful maintenance. The repetition and width of the beam can be selected from a single pulse to 200 PPS and from 10 ns to 3 ?s, respectively, depending on demands of experiments. The maximum beam power is about 1 kW, in which the electron energy is about 33 MeV and the average current is 30 ?A. The electron beam is utilized for many experiments. The main usages are the production of neutrons, electron beam irradiation, and beam measurement. The neutron source in this facility has been contributing to developments of moderators in the world. Neutron beams are used for developing new measurement techniques. The neutron transmission method with the neutron wavelength enables us to obtain crystallographic information of samples in two-dimensional space. We are also developing novel small-angle scattering instruments. There are other activities using electron beams; we are studying short-time chemical reactions at an excited state using the pulse radiolysis technique coupled with a successive pulsed-laser irradiation; we are developing a very fast electron-beam profile measurement system that uses an optical transaction radiation (OTR) screen combined with a fast-shuttering imaging device. (author)

  15. Current status of auditory aging and anti-aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingwei; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Ruxin; Yu, Zhuowei

    2014-01-01

    The development of presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss, is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The auditory periphery exhibits a progressive bilateral, symmetrical reduction of auditory sensitivity to sound from high to low frequencies. The central auditory nervous system shows symptoms of decline in age-related cognitive abilities, including difficulties in speech discrimination and reduced central auditory processing, ultimately resulting in auditory perceptual abnormalities. The pathophysiological mechanisms of presbycusis include excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, aging and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage that results in apoptosis in the auditory pathway. However, the originating signals that trigger these mechanisms remain unclear. For instance, it is still unknown whether insulin is involved in auditory aging. Auditory aging has preclinical lesions, which manifest as asymptomatic loss of periphery auditory nerves and changes in the plasticity of the central auditory nervous system. Currently, the diagnosis of preclinical, reversible lesions depends on the detection of auditory impairment by functional imaging, and the identification of physiological and molecular biological markers. However, despite recent improvements in the application of these markers, they remain under-utilized in clinical practice. The application of antisenescent approaches to the prevention of auditory aging has produced inconsistent results. Future research will focus on the identification of markers for the diagnosis of preclinical auditory aging and the development of effective interventions. PMID:23992133

  16. Viewpoint on the current status of researches on sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-guo WANG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a common complication after severe trauma and burn, and also one of the main causes of death. Recently, although some new progresses were seen in antibiotic therapy, the mortality of sepsis is still on the rise, and the death rate as a result of sepsis is higher than a total of that of prostate cancer, breast cancer and AIDS. Therefore, sepsis has obviously become one of the serious ailments threatening human health. The present paper introduced the international definition of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock, the current researches on diagnosis and therapy, and proposed that we should not only pay attention to pathogenesis and treatment, but also to sepsis prevention in sepsis researches, and we should try to find out the breakthrough in the interaction and dynamic balance between human being and pathogenic factors. Researches on the strategies to revert strong toxicity of infectious agents to non-toxic or weak pathogenic factors, and to conduct further research concerning biological characteristics of microorganisms and mechanism of drug resistance in order to render them to lose the drug resistance ability, or to increase its sensitivity to the drugs. The above suggested approaches might form the future strategies for preventing and controlling sepsis.

  17. Neuroprotection for Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection aims to prevent salvageable neurons from dying. Despite showing efficacy in experimental stroke studies, the concept of neuroprotection has failed in clinical trials. Reasons for the translational difficulties include a lack of methodological agreement between preclinical and clinical studies and the heterogeneity of stroke in humans compared to homogeneous strokes in animal models. Even when the international recommendations for preclinical stroke research, the Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR criteria, were followed, we have still seen limited success in the clinic, examples being NXY-059 and haematopoietic growth factors which fulfilled nearly all the STAIR criteria. However, there are a number of neuroprotective treatments under investigation in clinical trials such as hypothermia and ebselen. Moreover, promising neuroprotective treatments based on a deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiology of ischemic stroke such as inhibitors of NADPH oxidases and PSD-95 are currently evaluated in preclinical studies. Further concepts to improve translation include the investigation of neuroprotectants in multicenter preclinical Phase III-type studies, improved animal models, and close alignment between clinical trial and preclinical methodologies. Future successful translation will require both new concepts for preclinical testing and innovative approaches based on mechanistic insights into the ischemic cascade.

  18. New Fraunhofer Telescope Wendelstein: assembly, installation, and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Hans; Ageorges, Nancy; Kampf, Dirk; Hartl, Mike; Egner, Sebastian; Aniol, Peter; Ruder, Micheal; Abfalter, Christian; Hopp, Ulrich; Bender, Ralf; Gössl, Claus; Grupp, Frank; Lang-Bardl, Florian; Mitsch, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    Due to the exposed location of the Wendelstein observatory on the steep summit of mount Wendelstein no road exists to transport telescope components and heavy equipment to the observatory in order to install the new 2m Fraunhofer Telescope Wendelstein (FTW) in its new dome. A two step installation concept was therefore followed to mitigate any risks that essential hardware would not work once installed on the mountain. This paper reports on the telescope factory assembly and tests, including on-sky tests, which were performed in early summer 2011 at the factory site to make sure, that the telescope and all essential subsystems are working properly before the telescope would be installed on the mountain. The telescope was disassembled again to be transported to the mountain in summer. Lifting of all structural subsystems and the optics up to the mountain observatory with the help of a heavy lift helicopter will be presented in detail, also looking at specific design drivers, logistic aspects and special tools for installation of the telescope and its mirrors in its new dome. Handling and transport concept for the M1 mirror installation, which also will have to be used when the mirror is disassembled for recoating, are presented. Up to end of 2011 the telescope installation and pre-alignment could be completed including first on-sky tests. The system will undergo a detailed performance test campaign in the first halve of 2012. Current performance results of these commissioning activities will be reported.

  19. Current status of internal dosimetry service laboratories in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several technical documents related to internal dosimetry have been released by the IAEA and ICRP after nuclear and radiological accidents, such as the Chernobyl and Goiania. However, standard bioassay procedures and methodologies for bioassay data interpretation are still under discussion and, in some cases, not well understood by the professionals involved in this specific field of radiation protection. Therefore, both in routine and emergency monitoring, responses may differ markedly among Dosimetry Laboratories and it may be difficult to interpret and use the bioassay data generated. The resulting misunderstanding can impair countermeasures and remediation operations and enhance significant socio-economic and political consequences. Currently it is recognized worldwide the need to have a realistic evaluation of the reliability of the services provided by specific laboratory as well as a clear compliance with best practices and a permanent effort to improve data interpretation. The objective of this work is to ensure regular and systematic quality monitoring of the Accredited Laboratory Network composed by the Brazilian governmental Institutes which will comprise expert teams able to provide, upon request, reliable services in case of a radiological accidents and follow-up operations, as well as internal dose evaluation of occupationally exposed workers. (author)

  20. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is of paramount importance to achieve as short a cycle time as is reasonably possible in the evaluation and publication of the A-chains. The panel, therefore, has concentrated its efforts on identifying those factors that have tended to increase the cycle time and on finding ways to remove the obstacles. An important step was made during the past year to address reduction of the size of the published evaluations - another factor that can reduce cycle time. The Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) network adopted new format guidelines, which generated a 30% reduction by eliminating redundancy and/or duplication. A current problem appears to be the rate at which the A-chains are being evaluated, which, on the average, is only about one-half of what it could be. It is hoped that the situation will improve with an increase in the number of foreign centers and an increase in efficiency as more A-chains are recycled by the same evaluator who did the previous evaluation. Progress has been made in the area of on-line access to the nuclear data files in that a subcommittee report describing the requirements of an on-line system has been produced. 2 tabs

  1. "The current status of work on the origin of life"

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Work on the Origin of Life is poised to converge onto a fourth phase and, many of us hope, success. The first phase concerned prebiotic synthesis of the small molecules, amino acids, nucleotides, lipids and others, essential for life and spanned some forty years. The second overlapping phase was inspired by the symmetric of the DNA or RNA double helix, presumed that life must necessarily be based on some form of template replication of one strand by ligation of free nucleotides to create the second strand, melting of the two strands and cycling again. Spearheaded by L. Orgel, but with many others, this effort has, to date, failed. The third phase begins with the discovery that RNA molecules can act as enzymes, and posited the RNA world, in which RNA molecules dominated. This has led to slightly successful efforts to evolve an RNA sequence able to template replicate itself. Current success is an evolved ribozyme able to do so for 14 nucleotides. The forth phase is converging around four ideas: 1) liposomes, h...

  2. Mammary gland stem cells : current status and future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly understood. The mouse is a widely used model of mammary gland development, both directly by studying the mouse mammary epithelial cells themselves and indirectly, by studying development, morphogenesis, differentiation and carcinogenesis of xenotransplanted human breast epithelium in vivo. While in early studies, human or mouse epithelium was implanted as fragments into the mouse gland, more recent technical progress has allowed the self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of distinct cell populations or even individual cells to be interrogated. Here, we review and discuss similarities and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology.

  3. Current Status on Development of Sodium Waste Treatment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of sodium as a coolant necessitates the development of special post-operation procedures for the treatment of waste sodium, sodium contaminated equipment, or other purposes. Only a few power and research reactors with sodium coolant have been constructed and operated worldwide. They are close to the end of their design lifetime and, in some cases, the decommissioning is in progress. Conducted by countries that have operational experience with sodium cooled fast reactor, R and D programmes are intended to provide a solid basis for design and operation of sodium waste processing facilities as well as for decommissioning planning. Sodium waste, which has been generated from the test facilities related to the sodium since the beginning of the 1990s, requires now the safe sodium treatment in Korea. Each work activity with sodium should be properly planned and managed to avoid potential chemical reactions or explosions with a high risk of consequent environmental contamination. Special procedures should be implemented for removing and processing bulk quantities of sodium and sodium residuals in internal spaces and on internal surfaces of equipment. The objective of the report is to provide researchers with technical information necessary for the design and construction of technological facilities for sodium waste treatment by reviewing the current state of technical developments for advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and hazards of a sodium waste treatment process. Based on these results, a future plan for development of a sodium waste treatment process can be established

  4. Commercial US nuclear reactors and waste: the current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between March 1 and June 15, 1980, the declared size of the commercial light waste reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has decreased another 9 GWe. For the presently declared size: the 165 declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 153 GWe in 2001 and will consume about 870,000 MTU as enrichment feed; the theoretical rate of enrichment requirements will peak at about 19,000,000 SWUs/y in the year 2014; as few as two repositories each with capacity equivalent to 100,000 MTU would hold the waste; and predisposal storage reactor basins and AFRs (away-from-reactor basins) would peak at <85,000 MTU in the year 2020 if the two respositories were commissioned in the years 1997 and 2020. It should be noted that the number of declared LWRs has dropped from 226 on December 31, 1974 to 165 as of this writing. The oil equivalent of the energy loss, assuming a 50% efficiency in use as in cars, is 17,000 million barrels. This is about 10 years of the current rate of US consumption of OPEC oil

  5. Molecular ultrasound imaging: current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionising irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of pre-clinical and clinical ultrasound systems, the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic.

  6. Alpha-Particle Emitter Therapy: Overview, Current Status, and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of alpha-particle emitters to treat cancer has been recognized since the early 1900s. Targeted delivery of alpha-emitters provides the fundamental advantage of a more potent, cytotoxic type of radiation. Alpha-particles are helium nuclei that deposit DNA damaging energy along their track that is 100 to 1000 times greater than that of beta particles; the damage caused by alpha particles is predominately double-stranded DNA breaks severe enough so as to be almost completely irreparable. This means that a small number of tracks through a cell nucleus can sterilize a cell and that, because the damage is largely irreparable, alpha-particle radiation is not susceptible to resistance as seen with external radiotherapy (e.g., in hypoxic tissue) and chemotherapy (e.g., due to quiescence). Animal and cell culture studies have shown that, per unit absorbed dose, the acute biological effects of alpha-particles are 3 to 7 times greater than the damage caused by external beam or beta-particle radiation. Although one might expect that this high potency against targeted cells would also be accompanied by high toxicity to normal bystander cells, the short, 50 to 100 micron range of alpha-particles limits the amount of damage that is incurred by normal tissue. Advances in the targeted delivery of radionuclides, in radionuclide conjugation chemistry, and in the increased availability of alpha-emitters appropriate for clinical use have recently led to patient trials of alpha-particle-emitter labeled radiopharmaceuticals. Although alpha-emitters have been studied for many decades, their current use in humans for targeted therapy is an important milestone. The following alpha-particle emitters are currently in use or being investigated for use in human trials: astatine-211 (211At, 7.2 h), bismuth-212 (212Bi, 1 h), bismuth-213 (213Bi, 45.6 min), radium-223 (223Ra, 11.4 d), actinium-225 (225Ac, 10.0 d) and thorium-227 (227Th, 18.7 d). The short-lived alpha-emitters, 211At and 213Bi have both been investigated as radioimmunotherapeutics in human clinical trials. Astatine-211, has been used to treat glioblastoma and ovarian carcinoma patients; 213Bi has been investigated in leukemia patients. Peptide-conjugated 213Bi has also been investigated in glioblastoma patients. The longer-lived alpha emitters, 223Ra and 225Ac have also been used in human trials. Radium-223 has been used as a radium chloride (223RaCl2) to target skeletal metastases in hormone refractory prostate cancer patients. Actinium-225 has been used as an immunoconjugate against leukemia. These alpha-emitters have shown substantial and highly significant efficacy with minimal toxicity in clinical conditions that are otherwise untreatable. In addition to these clinical studies, there are extensive pre-clinical efforts in lymphoma, melanoma, pancreatic, gastric and breast carcinoma and also in bladder cancer using 213Bi. The generator system 211Pb/211Bi has been investigated, in combination with chemotherapy against a disseminated peritoneal disease model. Astatine-211 has perhaps the greatest history of pre-clinical investigation, encompassing numerous radiopharmaceuticals and pre- clinical models. Actinium-225, both as an immunoconjugate and as a radiopeptide has also been investigated pre-clinically. A227Th immunoconjugate has been investigated against lymphoma. This combination of clinical studies and pre-clinical studies suggests that alpha- emitter therapy will continue to move to the clinic over the foreseeable future, the emphasis, to date has focused on targeting metastatic spread, including regional spread as in the glioblastoma and ovarian carcinoma cases. Current cancer treatment is rarely effective once the tumor has metastasized. The eradication of such metastases requires a targeted therapy that is minimally susceptible to chemo- or radio-resistance, that is potent enough to sterilize individual tumor cells and cell clusters and that exhibits an acceptable toxicity. Targeted alpha-emitter therapy holds great promise in meeting these requirements. Current co

  7. Current status of the OPAL silicon microvertex project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the 1991 run of the OPAL detector at LEP, a complete two layer single-sided silicon microstrip detector array was installed around the beam-pipe. The detectors employed a novel biassing technique for the capacitively read out diode strips (Field Effect Transistors integrated on the silicon wafer) and the MX5 microplex read-out chip was used for the first time. The performance measured in OPAL for the ladders of 3 daisy-chained detectors (length 180mm) is very good with signal/noise of 22:1. The resolution of the detectors (measured to be around 5?m from test beam investigations) has allowed improvement in the impact parameter resolution of OPAL by greater than a factor of two. The beauty, tau and charm physics potential that this opens up is now being exploited. OPAL has plans to further upgrade to a detector giving both co-ordinates of the track intersection with the silicon barrels. To achieve this, ladder assemblies using two detectors of orthogonal strips glued back-to-back are being used. In addition, double-sided detectors of novel design have been fabricated and are being evaluated. Results from OPAL data taking at LEP, test beam results and laboratory measurements are presented. Both the performance of the detectors currently used in OPAL and those intended for future upgrades are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Laccase applications in biofuels production: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudanga, Tukayi; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize

    2014-08-01

    The desire to reduce dependence on the ever diminishing fossil fuel reserves coupled with the impetus towards green energy has seen increased research in biofuels as alternative sources of energy. Lignocellulose materials are one of the most promising feedstocks for advanced biofuels production. However, their utilisation is dependent on the efficient hydrolysis of polysaccharides, which in part is dependent on cost-effective and benign pretreatment of biomass to remove or modify lignin and release or expose sugars to hydrolytic enzymes. Laccase is one of the enzymes that are being investigated not only for potential use as pretreatment agents in biofuel production, mainly as a delignifying enzyme, but also as a biotechnological tool for removal of inhibitors (mainly phenolic) of subsequent enzymatic processes. The current review discusses the major advances in the application of laccase as a potential pretreatment strategy, the underlying principles as well as directions for future research in the search for better enzyme-based technologies for biofuel production. Future perspectives could include synergy between enzymes that may be required for optimal results and the adoption of the biorefinery concept in line with the move towards the global implementation of the bioeconomy strategy. PMID:24841120

  9. Efficacy and safety of laquinimod in multiple sclerosis: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggiag, Shalom; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    Laquinimod is a novel immunomodulatory agent, in development as a potential disease-modifying treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). Structurally related to linomide, its pharmacological predecessor, laquinimod combines anti-inflammatory and possibly clinically relevant neuroprotective effects with the convenience of oral administration. In this review we aim to highlight the immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of laquinimod, and to describe its effects in animal models of MS. Furthermore, we focus on current results of clinical studies in MS. Randomized, controlled clinical trials in relapsing MS demonstrate a dose-response effect on disease activity, measured by reduced clinical relapse rate, reduced number of brain MRI active lesions, as well as on sustained disability and brain atrophy. Laquinimod has a favourable tolerability and safety profile. A new phase III study, recently completed, will soon provide further details on the therapeutic potential of this drug. Laquinimod is a promising emerging treatment for relapsing-remitting MS that may provide a new therapeutic option in the near future. PMID:24228070

  10. Aetiology of childhood acute leukaemias: Current status of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute leukaemia is a consequence of malignant transformation of a haematopoietic progenitor cell. Molecular studies have revealed a prenatal origin of many childhood leukaemias. According to current models, a pre-leukaemic stem cell clone is generated by a first mutation in utero which, in a minority of children, progresses to leukaemia after receiving further postnatal genetic hits. The nature of pre- and postnatal events involved in leukemogenesis in children is not well understood. Although genetic predisposition and specific environmental exposures may account for individual cases, the bulk of childhood leukaemia cannot be explained by any of these factors. The higher incidence of the most common leukaemia subtype in affluent societies, as well as the age peak between 2-5 y, suggest a contributory role of socioeconomic factors. An abnormal immune response during delayed exposure to common infections provides a plausible mechanism for malignant progression of pre-leukaemic clones in a subgroup of children. As highlighted in this review, a common cause for all types and subtypes of childhood leukaemia is highly unlikely. Deeper insights into the pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia will rely on large-scale and combined epidemiological and bio-molecular studies. (authors)

  11. Neuroprotection for stroke: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnerup, Jens; Sutherland, Brad A; Buchan, Alastair M; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Neuroprotection aims to prevent salvageable neurons from dying. Despite showing efficacy in experimental stroke studies, the concept of neuroprotection has failed in clinical trials. Reasons for the translational difficulties include a lack of methodological agreement between preclinical and clinical studies and the heterogeneity of stroke in humans compared to homogeneous strokes in animal models. Even when the international recommendations for preclinical stroke research, the Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) criteria, were followed, we have still seen limited success in the clinic, examples being NXY-059 and haematopoietic growth factors which fulfilled nearly all the STAIR criteria. However, there are a number of neuroprotective treatments under investigation in clinical trials such as hypothermia and ebselen. Moreover, promising neuroprotective treatments based on a deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiology of ischemic stroke such as inhibitors of NADPH oxidases and PSD-95 are currently evaluated in preclinical studies. Further concepts to improve translation include the investigation of neuroprotectants in multicenter preclinical Phase III-type studies, improved animal models, and close alignment between clinical trial and preclinical methodologies. Future successful translation will require both new concepts for preclinical testing and innovative approaches based on mechanistic insights into the ischemic cascade. PMID:23109881

  12. Chemoradiotherapy for uterine cancer. Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional local treatment methods (surgery and radiation) for cervical cancer have reached a plateau in terms of survival benefit and, therefore, in this review, new treatment strategies (combined chemotherapy [CT] and local therapy) to overcome the poor prognosis were examined in high-risk groups. The effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) administered prior to radiotherapy (RT) has not been confirmed for any disease stages. But NAC followed by surgery may improve survival in patients with stage Ib2 compared with surgery alone; and in patients with stage Ib2 to IIB compared with RT alone. Five large randomized clinical trials (RCTs) demonstrated a significant survival benefit for patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), using a cisplatin (CDDP)-based regimen, with a 28%-50% relative reduction in the risk of death. In addition, the results of a meta-analysis of 19 RCTs of CCRT (1981-2000) involving 4580 patients showed that CCRT significantly improved overall survival (OS) hazard ratio ([HR] 0.71; P<0.0001), as well as progression-free survival (PFS; HR 0.61; P<0.0001). In line with these results, CCRT is currently recommended as standard therapy for advanced cancer (stage III/IVA) in the United States. However, there remains much controversy and uncertainty regarding the optimal therapeutic approaches, especially for patients with advanced cancer. Additional RCTs should be conducted to find the optimal CT regimen and RT for Japanese he optimal CT regimen and RT for Japanese patients, considering acute and late complications, as well as differences in pelvic anatomy, total radiation dose, and RT procedures between Japan and other countries. Evidence obtained from such studies should establish the optimal CCRT treatment protocol and define the patient population (disease stage) that the protocol really benefits. (author)

  13. Current STEREO Status on the Far Side of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William T.; Gurman, Joseph; Ossing, Daniel; Luhmann, Janet; Curtis, David; Schroeder, Peter; Mewaldt, Richard; Davis, Andrew; Wortman, Kristin; Russell, Christopher; Galvin, Antoinette; Kistler, Lynn; Ellis, Lorna; Howard, Russell; Vourlidas, Angelos; Rich, Nathan; Hutting, Lynn; Maksimovic, Milan; Bale, Stuart D.; Goetz, Keith

    2015-04-01

    The current positions of the two STEREO spacecraft on the opposite side of the Sun from Earth (superior solar conjunction) has forced some significant changes in the spacecraft and instrument operations. No communications are possible when the spacecraft is within 2 degrees of the Sun, requiring that the spacecraft be put into safe mode until communications can be restored. Unfortunately, communications were lost with the STEREO Behind spacecraft on October 1, 2014, during testing for superior solar conjunction operations. We will discuss what is known about the causes of loss of contact, the steps being taken to try to recover the Behind spacecraft, and what has been done to prevent a similar occurrence on STEREO Ahead.We will also discuss the effect of being on the far side of the Sun on the science operations of STEREO Ahead. Starting on August 20, 2014, the telemetry rate from the STEREO Ahead spacecraft has been tremendously reduced due to the need to keep the temperature of the feed horn on the high gain antenna below acceptable limits. However, the amount of telemetry that can be brought down has been highly reduced. Even so, significant science is still possible from STEREO's unique position on the solar far side. We will discuss the science and space weather products that are, or will be, available from each STEREO instrument, when those products will be available, and how they will be used. Some data, including the regular space weather beacon products, are brought down for an average of a few hours each day during the daily real-time passes, while the in situ and radio beacon data are being stored on the onboard recorder to provide a continuous 24-hour coverage for eventual downlink once the spacecraft is back to normal operations.

  14. The current status of tissue banking in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone and Tissue Banking has been undergoing a significant metamorphosis in Australia since the publication by Simonds et al in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1992. That paper dealt with the transmission of HIV-1 from a sero negative organ and tissue donor to seven unsuspecting recipients. Forty eight recipients all received material from that donor, and only 7 of them sero converted. Those 7 received tissue which had not been processed. The remaining 41 patients received processed tissue and did not sero converted. New emerging challenges have similarly been noted in the form of Hepatitis C, HIV-2 and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The Australian Orthopaedic Association has formed a National Bone and Tissue Banking Subcommittee, which in turn has produced a national guideline document. That Association aims to promote safety and efficiency in tissue banking, assist with the establishment of regional and institutional banks, maintain ongoing quality control programmes, and maintain a national register. Current testing protocol for donors and allograft segments will be explained. In addition, emphasis will be placed upon the need for a proper administrative structure within a bone and tissue blank, including the formation of a management board, listing of hierarchy and responsibility with positions, the maintenance of an up-to-date procedure manual, and a quality assurance programme. Internal safety audits are also mandatory. The paper will deal with the need for se. The paper will deal with the need for secondary sterilisation and outline both donor and recipient demographs throughout Australia. The Federal Department of Human Services and Health through its Therapeutic Goods Administration has recently published a Code of Good Manufacturing Practice. The implications of this code will be canvassed

  15. Ion-counting nanodosimetry: current status and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing interest in the study of interactions of ionizing radiation with condensed matter at the nanometer level. The motivation for this research is the hypothesis that the number of ionizations occurring within short segments of DNA-size subvolumes is a major factor determining the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. A novel dosimetry technique, called nanodosimetry, measures the spatial distribution of individual ionizations in an irradiated low-pressure gas model of DNA. The measurement of nanodosimetric event size spectra may enable improved characterization of radiation quality, with applications in proton and charged-particle therapy, radiation protection, and space research. We describe an ion-counting nanodosimeter developed for measuring radiation-induced ionization clusters in small, wall-less low-pressure gas volumes, simulating short DNA segments. It measures individual radiation-induced ions, deposited in 1 Torr propane within a tissue-equivalent cylindrical volume of 2-4 nm diameter and up to 100 nm length. We present first ionization cluster size distributions obtained with 13.6 MeV protons, 4.25 MeV alpha particles and 24.8 MeV carbon nuclei in propane; they correspond to a wide LET range of 4-500 keV/?m. We are currently developing plasmid-based assays to characterize the local clustering of DNA damage with biological methods. First results demonstrate that there is increasing complexity of DNA damage with increasing LET. Systy of DNA damage with increasing LET. Systematic comparison of biological and nanodosimetric data will help us to validate biophysical models predicting radiation quality based on nanodosimetric spectra. Possible applications for charged particle radiation therapy planning are discussed. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  16. Current status and future prospects of JMTR Hot Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) for research and development of nuclear fuels and materials to be utilized in nuclear field is available in three kinds of ? - ? hot cells; concrete, lead and steel cells in the JMTR Hot Laboratory (JMTR HL) associated with the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). In addition to PIEs, re-capsuling including re-instrumentation on the irradiated specimen is currently conducted for the power ramping tests of the LWR fuels using the Boiling Water Capsule (BOCA) or for the re-irradiation tests in the different neutron fields (coupling irradiation test). The newly developed techniques by the JMTR HL have provided us with the key information about the irradiation effects on mechanical and physical properties of the specimen in various environments as fission and fusion reactors. These techniques are focused on several topics as follows; (1) miniaturized specimen test as an advanced mechanical test, (2) slow strain rate tensile test (SSRT) and crack propagation measurement in high temperature and pressure water for the study of Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) of LWR core internals, (3) handling technique on materials containing tritium for the research and development of tritium breeders and neutron multiplier for fusion reactors, (4) jointing method using the conventional Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding for re-assembling of irradiation capsules and/or re-fabrication of specimen, and (5) Nondestructive examination using ultrasonic wave and infrared thermography for the quantitative evaluation of irradiation embrittlement of structural materials in fission and fusion reactors. As there are various PIE facilities around Oarai site, mutual exchange of PIE information, interchange of researchers and mutual utilization on PIE facilities are desired to raise the scientific and technical potential on PIE and to get the break-through of the study in the field of nuclear applications. (author)

  17. Current status of pain management in China: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y

    2001-01-01

    China is a large country with a huge population. It is estimated that 1.8 million patients suffer initially from cancer and 1.4 million patients die from it each year in Mainland China. Cancer ranks as the primary reason for death among the common diseases in cities and the second in rural areas. The management of pain is still a critical issue in the care of patients both with cancer and non-cancer pain. A national survey suggested that the fear of addicting patients was still a major barrier for medical professionals in prescribing opioid analgesics. The major reasons for poor management or negative factors of pain relief came from patients' own reasons including their over-concern about addiction to opioid analgesics, their reluctance to report pain and their resistance to use opioid analgesics. Oral long-acting opioids are the most commonly used drugs for third ladder pain management. With policy support from the government, the consumption of morphine for medical purposes has increased significantly for the first time in recent Chinese history as this new cancer pain relief policy has been developed in the country. As a result, the three-step analgesic ladder of the World Health Organization (WHO) has been gradually accepted by medical personnel and patients. Although pain management has been improved since the WHO's strategy of the three-step approach was implemented in China, variations still exist in different regions of the Mainland. Currently the three main aspects of work on pain measurement are going to be undertaken including (1) continuous support from government policy; (2) consistent education and training; and (3) better availability of drugs for medical use throughout the whole country. PMID:11798221

  18. Lung exploration by SPECT current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If SPECT of the lung is to be introduced as a routine clinical procedure the additional information provided must justify the complexity of the test. The transverse section images must depict adequately the relative distribution of a radiopharmaceutical in the lungs. For the thorax in particular, where there is a comparatively large spread of attenuation coefficients from lung to bone density, the use of a single mean attenuation coefficient must be validated. A rotating gamma camera system for SPECT of the lung uses standard doses of radiopharmaceuticals and only requires a modest addition to the capital cost of a computerized gamma camera facility. The present SPECT systems improve the depth resolution with some degradation of the conventional X and Y resolution but in view of the movement of the heart and lungs with respiration the spatial resolution is about 2 cm FWHM in three dimensions. A transmission-emission method to check the accuracy of SPECT images of the lung perfusion scan has been used. The correct total number of count in the transverse slices can be determined by the transmission-emission method and the resultant images are the best description of the distribution of activity in the lungs. With SPECT of the lung transverse section images can be obtained which are qualitative on a relative and absolute scale. Further developments in software and hardware will lead to improved SPECT images but currently three dimensional images of the lungs can be provimensional images of the lungs can be provided with adequate spatial and count density resolution. Availability of these images will help to characterise the size, contours, distribution, shape and depth of defects seen on perfusion and ventilation scans of patients with pulmonary disease

  19. Republished: Value of biomarkers in osteoarthritis: current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, M; Martel-Pelletier, J; Christiansen, C; Brandi, M-L; Bruyère, O; Chapurlat, R; Collette, J; Cooper, C; Giacovelli, G; Kanis, J A; Karsdal, M A; Kraus, V; Lems, W F; Meulenbelt, I; Pelletier, J-P; Raynauld, J-P; Reiter-Niesert, S; Rizzoli, R; Sandell, L J; Van Spil, W E; Reginster, J-Y

    2014-03-01

    Osteoarthritis affects the whole joint structure with progressive changes in cartilage, menisci, ligaments and subchondral bone, and synovial inflammation. Biomarkers are being developed to quantify joint remodelling and disease progression. This article was prepared following a working meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis convened to discuss the value of biochemical markers of matrix metabolism in drug development in osteoarthritis. The best candidates are generally molecules or molecular fragments present in cartilage, bone or synovium and may be specific to one type of joint tissue or common to them all. Many currently investigated biomarkers are associated with collagen metabolism in cartilage or bone, or aggrecan metabolism in cartilage. Other biomarkers are related to non-collagenous proteins, inflammation and/or fibrosis. Biomarkers in osteoarthritis can be categorised using the burden of disease, investigative, prognostic, efficacy of intervention, diagnostic and safety classification. There are a number of promising candidates, notably urinary C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type II and serum cartilage oligomeric protein, although none is sufficiently discriminating to differentiate between individual patients and controls (diagnostic) or between patients with different disease severities (burden of disease), predict prognosis in individuals with or without osteoarthritis (prognostic) or perform so consistently that it could function as a surrogate outcome in clinical trials (efficacy of intervention). Future avenues for research include exploration of underlying mechanisms of disease and development of new biomarkers; technological development; the 'omics' (genomics, metabolomics, proteomics and lipidomics); design of aggregate scores combining a panel of biomarkers and/or imaging markers into single diagnostic algorithms; and investigation into the relationship between biomarkers and prognosis. PMID:24534711

  20. Current status of surgical treatment for fulminant clostridium difficile colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Klobuka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality rates attributable to fulminant Clostridium difficile (C. difficile colitis remain high and are reported to be 38%-80%. Historically, the threshold for surgical intervention has been judged empirically because level I evidence to guide decision making is lacking. Studies of the surgical management of C. difficile infection have been limited by small sample size and the lack of a standard definition of fulminancy. Multiple small and medium-sized series have examined the surgical management of C. difficile. However, because of a lack of prospective, randomized studies, it has been difficult to identify the optimal point for surgical intervention in patients with severe fulminant C. difficile colitis. Our goal was to analyze the existing body of literature in an attempt to define host constellations, which would predict the development of the more aggressive form of this disease and hence justify an early or earlier surgical intervention. A Pubmed search was conducted using the keywords “fulminant”, “clostridium difficile”, “surgery”, and “colitis”. Reviews and meta-analyses proposing indications for surgical consultation or operative management in patients with C. difficile colitis were included. After analyzing current literature, we identified a number of parameters that are associated with unfavorable outcomes. The parameters include age greater than 65 years old, peritoneal signs on physical examination, abdominal distension, signs of end-organ failure, hypotension less than 90 mmHg systolic blood pressure, tachycardia greater than 100 bpm, vasopressor requirement, elevated WBC count of greater than at least 16 × 109/?L, serum lactate of greater than 2.2 mmol/L, and lastly, radiologic findings suggestive of pancolitis, ascites, megacolon, or colonic perforation. Even though fairly strong evidence exists in contemporary literature, we recommend use of these identified parameters with caution in clinical practice when it comes to the actual decision to treat certain patients more aggressively. The identified risk factors should be used to lower surgeons’ threshold for operative treatment early in the course of the disease.

  1. Oman: Current status, upstream and export developments, investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil production in Oman has consistently increased since 1980 to reach its current level of ca 800,000 bbl/d. Reserves total ca 5 billion bbl and gas reserves are over 20 trillion ft3, of which a third is being dedicated for export. The main operator is Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), which is 60% owned by the Omani government. Some production areas are taken up by other companies under production sharing contracts. Gas is used for local industrial purposes and a third of gas reserves are being dedicated to a liquefied natural gas export scheme planned to be on-stream by 2000. The government has been seeking foreign investment and increasing private-sector participation, an example being a Belgian-Omani consortium to construct a 100-MW gas-fired power station. However, opportunities for investing in the upstream oil/gas sector are limited since most prospective areas have already been taken up. The economic, political, and social problems which may affect future investment are discussed. Oman is essentially a one-resource economy and declines in oil prices have led to widening government deficits. Social expectations created by the oil-financed welfare state make it difficult for government expenditures to be cut back. There is lack of public debate in the state-controlled media and no public participation in policy and decision making. There is a perception of widening corruption in government and a nascent movement toward a more rigid Islamic view of socnt toward a more rigid Islamic view of society. Controls are needed to maintain a reasonable balance between oil revenues and public expenditures, while pressures from an increasingly literate and numerous population will demand changes to the traditional autocratic system of government. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery - Current status and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scarless surgery is the Holy Grail of surgery and the very raison d?etre of Minimal Access Surgery was the reduction of scars and thereby pain and suffering of the patients. The work of Muhe and Mouret in the late 80s, paved the way for mainstream laparoscopic procedures and it rapidly became the method of choice for many intra-abdominal procedures. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is a very exciting new modality in the field of minimal access surgery which works for further reducing the scars of standard laparoscopy and towards scarless surgery. Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES was developed for scarless surgery, but did not gain popularity due to a variety of reasons. NOTES stands for natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery, a term coined by a consortium in 2005. NOTES remains a research technique with only a few clinical cases having been reported. The lack of success of NOTES seems to have spurred on the interest in single-incision laparoscopy as an eminently doable technique in the present with minimum visible scarring, rendering a ?scarless? effect. Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS is, a term coined by a multidisciplinary consortium in 2008 for single-incision laparoscopic surgery. These are complementary technologies with similar difficulties of access, lack of triangulation and inadequate instrumentation as of date. LESS seems to offer an advantage to surgeons with its familiar field of view and instruments similar to those used in conventional laparoscopy. LESS remains a evolving special technique used successfully in many a centre, but with a significant way to go before it becomes mainstream. It currently stands between standard laparoscopy and NOTES in the armamentarium of minimal access surgery. This article outlines the development of LESS giving an overview of all the techniques and devices available and likely to be available in the future.

  3. Urinary iodine levels in three ecological zones of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Quazi, Salamatullah; Mohiduzzaman, M.; Khan, Moududur R.; Nahar, B.; Rahman, M. Mostafizur; Islam, M. Nurul; Baquer, M.; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yusuf, Harun K. M.

    1997-01-01

    Urinary iodine levels in children (5–11 years) and in adult males and females (15–44 years) of three ecological zones (hilly, flood-prone and plains) of Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the status of biochemical iodine deficiency in the country. Data indicated that a large majority of the population all over Bangladesh have biochemical iodine deficiency urinary iodine excretion (UIE) less than the accepted cut-off level of 10 ?g/dl. Adults were deficient to comparable degrees, 31.3%...

  4. Current status of the NSLS-II optical metrology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade, we have seen an ultra-fast progress in X-ray optics performances. This enhancement is directly linked to the development of the necessary tools to control these optical components. These metrology tools are necessary for the fabrication (to guide some polishing deterministic process) and also for the ultimate characterization used to validate surface parameters (often inside their own mechanical support) prior to installation in a beamline. It is now necessary to characterize optical surface figure, slope errors and roughness on meter-long optics over spatial frequencies as short as 0.1 mm and with slope errors reaching less than 100 nrad rms or surface figure errors close to 1 nm in order to not spoiled and preserve the high brightness made available by third and fourth generation synchrotron/FEL sources like NSLSII or LCLS. For this purpose, the new NSLS-II Optical Metrology Laboratory (NSLSII-OML) includes commercial instruments for measuring long spatial frequency figure errors, mid spatial frequencies and high frequency roughness and had started some R and D activities. The NSLSII-OML foresee some efforts on the development of new instruments for slope errors measurements with the construction of a long trace profiler/NOM that will be able to reach 50 nrad slope error accuracy. Effort towards the construction of new instruments with stitching capabilities using interferometer and Shack Hartmann and software configurable optical test (SCOTS) stations are also under consideration to be able to perform 2D mapping of the optical surfaces in order to feed a deterministic polishing process based on ion beam figuring (under development in collaboration with the NSLS II Optical Fabrication Group). In the same time, it also becomes clear that low emittance and high stability of NSLS-II X-ray beam combined with extended possible beamline offered by large experimental hall may and should be used for the metrology. Approved plan includes the construction of specialized beamline for at-wavelength metrology, radiometry, crystal optic characterization and instrumentation development. This paper provides a brief description of the instruments currently available in the laboratory and gives an overview of the very active R and D efforts within the NSLSII-OML

  5. Current status of the NSLS-II optical metrology laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idir, Mourad, E-mail: midir@bnl.gov [Photon Science Directorates, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Kaznatcheev, Konstantine [Photon Science Directorates, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Qian, Shinan [Photon Science Directorates, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Instrumentation Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY 11973 (United States); Conley, Ray [Photon Science Directorates, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2013-05-11

    During the last decade, we have seen an ultra-fast progress in X-ray optics performances. This enhancement is directly linked to the development of the necessary tools to control these optical components. These metrology tools are necessary for the fabrication (to guide some polishing deterministic process) and also for the ultimate characterization used to validate surface parameters (often inside their own mechanical support) prior to installation in a beamline. It is now necessary to characterize optical surface figure, slope errors and roughness on meter-long optics over spatial frequencies as short as 0.1 mm and with slope errors reaching less than 100 nrad rms or surface figure errors close to 1 nm in order to not spoiled and preserve the high brightness made available by third and fourth generation synchrotron/FEL sources like NSLSII or LCLS. For this purpose, the new NSLS-II Optical Metrology Laboratory (NSLSII-OML) includes commercial instruments for measuring long spatial frequency figure errors, mid spatial frequencies and high frequency roughness and had started some R and D activities. The NSLSII-OML foresee some efforts on the development of new instruments for slope errors measurements with the construction of a long trace profiler/NOM that will be able to reach 50 nrad slope error accuracy. Effort towards the construction of new instruments with stitching capabilities using interferometer and Shack Hartmann and software configurable optical test (SCOTS) stations are also under consideration to be able to perform 2D mapping of the optical surfaces in order to feed a deterministic polishing process based on ion beam figuring (under development in collaboration with the NSLS II Optical Fabrication Group). In the same time, it also becomes clear that low emittance and high stability of NSLS-II X-ray beam combined with extended possible beamline offered by large experimental hall may and should be used for the metrology. Approved plan includes the construction of specialized beamline for at-wavelength metrology, radiometry, crystal optic characterization and instrumentation development. This paper provides a brief description of the instruments currently available in the laboratory and gives an overview of the very active R and D efforts within the NSLSII-OML.

  6. Current status of the NSLS-II optical metrology laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idir, Mourad; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Qian, Shinan; Conley, Ray

    2013-05-01

    During the last decade, we have seen an ultra-fast progress in X-ray optics performances. This enhancement is directly linked to the development of the necessary tools to control these optical components. These metrology tools are necessary for the fabrication (to guide some polishing deterministic process) and also for the ultimate characterization used to validate surface parameters (often inside their own mechanical support) prior to installation in a beamline. It is now necessary to characterize optical surface figure, slope errors and roughness on meter-long optics over spatial frequencies as short as 0.1 mm and with slope errors reaching less than 100 nrad rms or surface figure errors close to 1 nm in order to not spoiled and preserve the high brightness made available by third and fourth generation synchrotron/FEL sources like NSLSII or LCLS. For this purpose, the new NSLS-II Optical Metrology Laboratory (NSLSII-OML) includes commercial instruments for measuring long spatial frequency figure errors, mid spatial frequencies and high frequency roughness and had started some R&D activities. The NSLSII-OML foresee some efforts on the development of new instruments for slope errors measurements with the construction of a long trace profiler/NOM that will be able to reach 50 nrad slope error accuracy. Effort towards the construction of new instruments with stitching capabilities using interferometer and Shack Hartmann and software configurable optical test (SCOTS) stations are also under consideration to be able to perform 2D mapping of the optical surfaces in order to feed a deterministic polishing process based on ion beam figuring (under development in collaboration with the NSLS II Optical Fabrication Group). In the same time, it also becomes clear that low emittance and high stability of NSLS-II X-ray beam combined with extended possible beamline offered by large experimental hall may and should be used for the metrology. Approved plan includes the construction of specialized beamline for at-wavelength metrology, radiometry, crystal optic characterization and instrumentation development. This paper provides a brief description of the instruments currently available in the laboratory and gives an overview of the very active R&D efforts within the NSLSII-OML.

  7. Extended Range Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon: Current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, A. K.; Abhilash, S.; Borah, N.; Joseph, S.; Chattopadhyay, R.; S, S.; Rajeevan, M.; Mandal, R.; Dey, A.

    2014-12-01

    The main focus of this study is to develop forecast consensus in the extended range prediction (ERP) of monsoon Intraseasonal oscillations using a suit of different variants of Climate Forecast system (CFS) model. In this CFS based Grand MME prediction system (CGMME), the ensemble members are generated by perturbing the initial condition and using different configurations of CFSv2. This is to address the role of different physical mechanisms known to have control on the error growth in the ERP in the 15-20 day time scale. The final formulation of CGMME is based on 21 ensembles of the standalone Global Forecast System (GFS) forced with bias corrected forecasted SST from CFS, 11 low resolution CFST126 and 11 high resolution CFST382. Thus, we develop the multi-model consensus forecast for the ERP of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) using a suite of different variants of CFS model. This coordinated international effort lead towards the development of specific tailor made regional forecast products over Indian region. Skill of deterministic and probabilistic categorical rainfall forecast as well the verification of large-scale low frequency monsoon intraseasonal oscillations has been carried out using hindcast from 2001-2012 during the monsoon season in which all models are initialized at every five days starting from 16May to 28 September. The skill of deterministic forecast from CGMME is better than the best participating single model ensemble configuration (SME). The CGMME approach is believed to quantify the uncertainty in both initial conditions and model formulation. Main improvement is attained in probabilistic forecast which is because of an increase in the ensemble spread, thereby reducing the error due to over-confident ensembles in a single model configuration. For probabilistic forecast, three tercile ranges are determined by ranking method based on the percentage of ensemble members from all the participating models falls in those three categories. CGMME further added value to both deterministic and probability forecast compared to raw SME's and this better skill is probably flows from large spread and improved spread-error relationship. CGMME system is currently capable of generating ER prediction in real time and successfully delivering its experimental operational ER forecast of ISM for the last few years.

  8. Current status of NADPH oxidase research in cardiovascular pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiño-Janeiro BK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bruno K Rodiño-Janeiro,1,2 Beatriz Paradela-Dobarro,1 María Isabel Castiñeiras-Landeira,1 Sergio Raposeiras-Roubín,1,3 José R González-Juanatey,1,3,4 Ezequiel Álvarez1,4 1Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 2European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble, France; 3Cardiology Department, University Clinic Hospital of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 4Medicine Department, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain Abstract: The implications of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular disease have been known for some decades. Rationally, therapeutic antioxidant strategies combating oxidative stress have been developed, but the results of clinical trials have not been as good as expected. Therefore, to move forward in the design of new therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disease based on prevention of production of reactive oxygen species, steps must be taken on two fronts, ie, comprehension of reduction-oxidation signaling pathways and the pathophysiologic roles of reactive oxygen species, and development of new, less toxic, and more selective nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase inhibitors, to clarify both the role of each NADPH oxidase isoform and their utility in clinical practice. In this review, we analyze the value of NADPH oxidase as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease and the old and new pharmacologic agents or strategies to prevent NADPH oxidase activity. Some inhibitors and different direct or indirect approaches are available. Regarding direct NADPH oxidase inhibition, the specificity of NADPH oxidase is the focus of current investigations, whereas the chemical structure-activity relationship studies of known inhibitors have provided pharmacophore models with which to search for new molecules. From a general point of view, small-molecule inhibitors are preferred because of their hydrosolubility and oral bioavailability. However, other possibilities are not closed, with peptide inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies against NADPH oxidase isoforms continuing to be under investigation as well as the ongoing search for naturally occurring compounds. Likewise, some different approaches include inhibition of assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex, subcellular translocation, post-transductional modifications, calcium entry/release, electron transfer, and genetic expression. High-throughput screens for any of these activities could provide new inhibitors. All this knowledge and the research presently underway will likely result in development of new drugs for inhibition of NADPH oxidase and application of therapeutic approaches based on their action, for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in the next few years. Keywords: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, NOX, cardiovascular therapeutic targets, inhibitors, pharmacophore models

  9. Current status of the sub-surface disposal facility development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sub-surface disposal facility under planning will accept wastes those concentration levels can be a few order higher than that disposed of in current Rokkasho LLW disposal center. Proposed waste contains the reactor core surrounding parts, the ion exchange resin, reactor core-internals replaced or decommissioned, and some of the waste from reprocessing plant operation and decommissioning. In 2004, Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC) submitted the report titled by 'Commonly Important Issues for the Safety Regulations of Radioactive Waste Disposal'. NSC recommended the risk-informed approach that combines the likelihood of a given scenario with its impact should be introduced in safety regulations governing radioactive waste disposal. The basic concept for the safety of the sub-surface disposal is under consideration by NSC. Considering key issues of NSC, the basic policy of the safety is proposed in terms of radiation protection both for natural processes and human activities, and requirements for the geology and engineered barriers are discussed. The BAT (Best Available Technique) and the predictable long-term behavior of geologic environment are experimentally introduced both in the design of facility and its safety assessment. The concept of co-operation among the site investigation, the facility design and the safety assessment is also proposed. The methodology of facility design is discussed based on the proposed basic policy of the safety. With in mind tbasic policy of the safety. With in mind the safety for the development, operation and closure of disposal facility, key components of the facility are extracted and safety requirements for the design are clarified. Based on safety requirements, safety functions to be added to the facility are assigned. It is examined how safety functions should be divided to key component. According to results of the examination, safety functions are classified as a) a function should be considered in the design for an independent component or should be synthesized among related components, b) a function should be evaluated through the performance assessment based on its specifications in order to judge the necessity of design adjustment. The function b) has an important role to clarify the feedback route from the result of performance assessment to the facility design. The applicability of the proposed design methodology to the bentonite barrier is examined. As a one possible realization of the risk-informed approach that combines the likelihood of a given scenario with its impact, the methodology to construct the likely scenario is examined. In this scenario, the most possible evolution of disposal system is evaluated based on the standard geologic environment, supposing the satisfactory performance of engineered barriers. The scenario should be comprehensively developed with transparency and traceability. At first, possible states of the facility are categorized based on the FEP list and the T-H-M-C coupling matrix. Considering the evolution of the facility from a certain state to another state, some possible bifurcation points are extracted. The logic tree analysis is applied to the bifurcation point and the most possible evolution concerning the bifurcation point is judged. The likely scenario is developed by the succession of judgments for extracted bifurcation points. The applicability of the methodology is examined to estimate the long-term evolution of the hydraulic conductivity of the bentonite barrier. (author)

  10. DWPF CATALYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION PROGRAM - REVIEW OF CURRENT STATUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.

    2009-07-10

    Significant progress has been made in the past two years in improving the understanding of acid consumption and catalytic hydrogen generation during the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processing of waste sludges in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). This report reviews issues listed in prior internal reviews, describes progress with respect to the recommendations made by the December 2006 external review panel, and presents a summary of the current understanding of catalytic hydrogen generation in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, are historically known catalysts for the conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Rh, Ru, and Pd are present in the DWPF SRAT feed as by-products of thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U in the original waste. Rhodium appears to become most active for hydrogen as the nitrite ion concentration becomes low (within a factor of ten of the Rh concentration). Prior to hydrogen generation, Rh is definitely active for nitrite destruction to N{sub 2}O and potentially active for nitrite to NO formation. These reactions are all consistent with the presence of a nitro-Rh complex catalyst, although definite proof for the existence of this complex during Savannah River Site (SRS) waste processing does not exist. Ruthenium does not appear to become active for hydrogen generation until nitrite destruction is nearly complete (perhaps less nitrite than Ru in the system). Catalytic activity of Ru during nitrite destruction is significantly lower than that of either Rh or Pd. Ru appears to start activating as Rh is deactivating from its maximum catalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The slow activation of the Ru, as inferred from the slow rate of increase in hydrogen generation that occurs after initiation, may imply that some species (perhaps Ru itself) has some bound nitrite on it. Ru, rather than Rh, is primarily responsible for the hydrogen generation in the SME cycle when the hydrogen levels are high enough to be noteworthy. Mercury has a role in catalytic hydrogen generation. Two potentially distinct roles have been identified. The most dramatic effect of Hg on hydrogen generation occurs between runs with and without any Hg. When a small amount of Hg is present, it has a major inhibiting effect on Rh-catalyzed H{sub 2} generation. The Rh-Ru-Hg matrix study showed that increasing mercury from 0.5 to 2.5 wt% in the SRAT receipt total solids did not improve the inhibiting effect significantly. The next most readily identified role for Hg is the impact it has on accelerating NO production from nitrite ion. This reaction shifts the time that the ideal concentration of nitrite relative to Rh occurs, and consequently causes the most active nitro-Rh species to form sooner. The potential consequences of this shift in timing are expected to be a function of other factors such as amount of excess acid, Rh concentration, etc. Graphical data from the Rh-Ru-Hg study suggested that Hg might also be responsible for partially inhibiting Ru-catalysis initially, but that the inhibition was not sustained through the SRAT and SME cycles. Continued processing led to a subsequent increase in hydrogen generation that was often abrupt and that frequently more than doubled the hydrogen generation rate. This phenomenon may have been a function of the extent of Hg stripping versus the initial Ru concentration in these tests. Palladium is an active catalyst, and activates during (or prior to) nitrite destruction to promote N{sub 2}O formation followed by a very small amount of hydrogen. Pd then appears to deactivate. Data to date indicate that Pd should not be a species of primary concern relative to Rh and Ru for hydrogen generation. Pd was a very mild catalyst for hydrogen generation compared to Rh and Ru in the simulated waste system. Pd was comparable to Rh in enhancing N{sub 2}O production when present at equal concentration. Pd, however, is almost always present at less than a quarter of the Rh concentration in S

  11. Marine Tidal Current Electric Power Generation Technology: State of the Art and Current Status

    OpenAIRE

    Benelghali, Seifeddine; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Fre?de?ric Charpentier, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The potential of electric power generation from marine tidal currents is enormous. Tidal currents are being recognized as a resource to be exploited for the sustainable generation of electrical power. The high load factors resulting from the fluid properties and the predictable resource characteristics make marine currents particularly attractive for power generation and advantageous when compared to other renewable energies. Moreover, international treaties related to climate control have tr...

  12. Iron-based superconductors: Current status of materials and pairing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Hideo; Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-01

    Since the discovery of high Tc iron-based superconductors in early 2008, more than 15,000 papers have been published as a result of intensive research. This paper describes the current status of iron-based superconductors (IBSC) covering most up-to-date research progress along with the some background research, focusing on materials (bulk and thin film) and pairing mechanism.

  13. Improving the Professional Status of Teaching: Perspectives of Future Teachers, Current Teachers, and Education Professors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianping; Hsieh, Chia-lin

    1999-01-01

    Examined future teachers', current teachers', and teacher educators' attitudes regarding various suggestions for improving the professional status of teaching. All groups rated extrinsic and intrinsic rewards for teaching the most important. They considered raising the standards of preservice programs and teacher certification important and…

  14. Current status of CARLOMAT, a program for automatic computation of lowest order cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodziej, Karol

    2008-01-01

    The current status of CARLOMAT, a program for automatic computation of the lowest order cross sections of multiparticle reactions is described, the results of comparisons with other multipurpose Monte Carlo programs are shown and some new results on e+e- -> b anti-b b anti-b u anti-d d anti-u are presented.

  15. Current status of carlomat, a program for automatic computation of lowest order cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of carlomat, a program for automatic computation of the lowest order cross sections of multiparticle reactions is described, the results of comparisons with other multipurpose Monte Carlo programs are shown and some new results on e+e-?bb-bar bb-bar ud-bar du-bar are presented

  16. Current status of neutron activation analysis using the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most sensitive, rapid, accurated methods for determination of trace elements in different materials. A review is made of the current status of the activities and the results in studying and developing NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and applying this method to different sectors of science and technology in Vietnam. (author)

  17. History, Current Status, and Future Prospects of Counseling in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Suh, Suhyun; Yang, Eunjoo; Jang, Yoo Jin

    2012-01-01

    Although the counseling profession was introduced to South Korea in the 1950s by American delegates of education, counseling has been only lately recognized as a specialized field that requires distinctive knowledge and skills. In this article, the authors describe the history and the current status of counseling in South Korea and then discuss…

  18. Current status of nuclear power generation in Japan and directions in water cooled reactor technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power demand aspects and current status of nuclear power generation in Japan are outlined. Although the future plan for nuclear power generation has not been determined yet the Japanese nuclear research centers and institutes are investigating and developing some projects on the next generation of light water reactors and other types of reactors. The paper describes these main activities

  19. Current Status of Diversity Initiatives in Selected Multinational Corporations. Diversity in the Workforce Series Report #3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentling, Rose Mary; Palma-Rivas, Nilda

    The current status of diversity initiatives in eight U.S.-based multinational corporations was examined through a process involving semistructured interviews of diversity managers and analysis of their annual reports for fiscal 1996 and related documents. The 8 corporations were randomly selected from the 30 multinational corporations in Illinois.…

  20. The current status of JNFL sub-surface disposal plan for relatively higher LLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2001, the investigation of geology and ground water in JNFL Rokkasho-mura site has been performing in order to acquire the basic data for the design and the safety assessment for the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) sub-surface disposal facility with engineered barrier. This paper briefly provides an overview and the current status of the project. (author)

  1. Current status of spallation product data. Nuclear engineering view-point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced isotopic transformation in spallation targets of accelerator-driven systems (ADS) is becoming a key factor in selecting the reference target material design options. The present paper gives an outlook of the current status of data on spallation products from the view-point of nuclear engineering stressing the isotopes whose accumulation would significantly effect the target performance. (author)

  2. A Survey on Frequent Pattern Mining: Current Status and Challenging Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, D. P.; Gupta, R. K.; Tiwari, A.

    2010-01-01

    Discovering association rules in huge databases is a core topic of data mining. This survey study aims at giving an overview of the previous researches done in this field, evaluating the current status of the work done and envisioning gaps in the current knowledge. The problem of mining association rules can be generalized in to two steps: (1) Finding all frequent itemsets and (2) generating rules from these itemsets. The first sub-task, which is to determine the frequent itemsets, is computa...

  3. Instantaneous translocation statuses on the fluctuation of ionic current for DNA through graphene nanopore

    CERN Document Server

    Lv, Wenping

    2013-01-01

    Graphene nanopore has the ultra-high DNA sequencing sensitivity for the atomic thickness and excellent electronic properties. Extracting the sequence information of DNA from the blocked ionic current is the crucial step for the ionic current based sequencing technology on nanopores. In this letter, the investigation of the effect of measurement induced noise of ionic current as well as the instantaneous translocation statuses from the fluctuation of ionic current signals for DNA through a graphene nanopore was carried out based on molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the molecular thermal noise of ionic current in a graphene nanopore was related with the time interval of measurement, and the tiny conformational and dynamical variations of DNA could be revealed from the fluctuation of the denoised ionic current through a graphene nanopore. Additionally, the neighborhood effect of ionic current blockage for DNA near a graphene nanopore (within 1.5 nm) was observed. These findings suggest that the ionic...

  4. Tidal current energy resource assessment in Ireland: Current status and future update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in renewable energy in Ireland has increased continually over the past decade. This interest is due primarily to security of supply issues and the effects of climate change. Ireland imports over 90% of its primary energy consumption, mostly in the form of fossil fuels. The exploitation of Ireland's vast indigenous renewable energy resources is required in order to reduce this over-dependence on fossil fuel imports to meet energy demand. Various targets have been set by the Irish government to incorporate renewable energy technologies into Ireland's energy market. As a result of these targets, the development in wind energy has increased substantially over the past decade; however this method of energy extraction is intermittent and unpredictable. Ireland has an excellent tidal current energy resource and the use of this resource will assist in the development of a sustainable energy future. Energy extraction using tidal current energy technologies offers a vast and predictable energy resource. This paper reviews the currently accepted tidal current energy resource assessment for Ireland. This assessment was compiled by Sustainable Energy Ireland in a report in 2004. The assessment employed a 2-dimensional numerical model of the tidal current velocities around Ireland, and from this numerical model the theoretical tidal current energy resource was identified. With the introduction of constraints and limitations, the technical, practical, accessible and viable chnical, practical, accessible and viable tidal current energy resources were obtained. The paper discusses why the assessment needs updating including the effect on the assessment of the current stage of development of tidal current turbines and their deployment technology. (author)

  5. Current R and D status on material motion and interactions relevant to core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the current status of research and development activities are briefly reviewed on evaluation of material-coolant interactions and material movement and relocation relevant to the safety of liquid-metal fast reactors. Since the status of European activities are well summarized in other papers submitted to the present meeting, the activities in Japan and the United States are highlighted in this paper. The review includes: out-of-pile experiments, in-pile experiments and relevant computer code development. It is emphasized that improved understanding on material motion has contributed to establishing more realistic and rational safety evaluation methods, where various mitigation mechanisms are inherently effective. (author)

  6. Menopausal stage, current life change, attitude toward women's roles, and perceived health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, N S

    1987-01-01

    The impact of menopausal stage, current life change, and attitude toward traditional women's role on perceived health status was studied in 249 women 40 to 55 years of age. Instruments included the Life Experiences Survey (LES), Index of Sex Role Orientation (ISRO), and the Perceived Health Status (PHS). The relationship between menopausal stage and PHS was inverse and significant, though small. That between the LES score and PHS was inverse and significant. No direct, significant relationship between the ISRO score and PHS was observed. Multiple regression analysis accounted for 15% of variance in PHS. PMID:3671122

  7. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  8. Climate Change and the Preparation of the Government of Bangladesh: Support Environmental Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Quasem, Saad

    2012-01-01

    As a coastal area that is susceptible to sea level rise and other stresses of climate change, its status as the most densely populated country, crowded cities and rocketing poverty levels-spread mostly across the rural areas, Bangladesh seems to be vulnerable to environmental migrants. While environmental migrants are a major problem, the key advantage of Bangladesh lies in its headway in forming adaptation policy. Using a political economy analysis, this paper examines whether the plans of t...

  9. The debate on labor standards and international trade: Lessons from Cambodia and Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Berik, Gu?nseli; Meulen Rodgers, Yana

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the status and enforcement of labor standards in two Asian economies (Cambodia and Bangladesh) that are experiencing strong pressures to cut labor costs and improve the price competitiveness of their textile and garment exports. Analysis of survey, interview, and compliance data indicate differing trajectories in compliance with basic labor standards. While problems persist in Bangladesh, compliance has improved in Cambodia following a trade agreement with the United State...

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities of child malnutrition in Bangladesh during 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Pulok, Mohammad Habibullah; Sabah, Md Nasim-Us Sabah; Enemark, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how socioeconomic status and demographic factors determine child malnutrition as well as how these factors account for socioeconomic inequality in child malnutrition over 2007-2011 in Bangladesh. The dataset of this study originates from two cross sectional rounds (2007 and 2011) of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). This study uses standard ordinary least square (OLS) models to estimate the determinants of child malnutrition. This study then employs...

  11. Prevalence of Food Insecurity among Women in Rural Area of North West Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Azizur Rahman; Rezaul Karim

    2013-01-01

    Food insecurity is a public health concern among rural poor in Bangladesh. Food insecurity is the insufficiency of good quality foods, reduced access to foods and inadequate intake of foods to meet ones physiological demands. Food insecurity is inversely associated with health and nutritional status of rural women of Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted using an interview-based pre tested questionnaire. Data were collected from 500 women in low-income areas of Nageswari and Ph...

  12. Children aged 12–59 months missed through the National Vitamin A Capsule Distribution Program in Bangladesh: ?ndings of the Nutritional Surveillance Project

    OpenAIRE

    Akhter, N.; Witten, C.; G. Stallkamp; Anderson, V.; de Pee, S.; Haselow, N.

    2009-01-01

    From January 1990 to December 2006, Helen Keller International implemented the Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP) in Bangladesh, which has been used to conduct regular surveillance and special surveys to provide information on health and nutritional status of children and mothers, and report on the coverage and impact of nutrition and health programs in Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB) distributes vitamin A Capsule (VAC) among children aged 12–59 months biannually. The NSP d...

  13. Bruchid Research in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    W. Islam; A.R. Khan

    2000-01-01

    The use of chemical pesticides against storage pests by farmers in developing countries like Bangladesh is inadequately docummented. The holistic view of pest control technology is required to evaluate its impact on net social welfare, the simultaneous determination of optimal storage operations, consumption and production over time, and optimal pest management. To make these variables operational the collaboration of biologists (especially pest management expert), economists, systems analyst...

  14. Jute breeding in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution, domestication, variability and adaptation of fibre jutes in Bangladesh are described. Domestication of fibre jutes, in evolutionary terms, is recent and the spectrum of variability within them is narrow. Yield improvement by breeding has been minimal and the reasons for this are suggested. Recent germplasm collecting expeditions to the eastern hill tracts of Bangladesh have revealed wide-spectrum diversity among the vegetable jutes grown there. Variability among the vegetable types can be utilized to improve the fibre types and to this end various hybridization schemes have now been initiated by the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute. The initial breeding priority is yield per se but ideotype characteristics have been delineated. The objectives of the breeding programme are likely to become more specific as the agronomic worth of these characteristics becomes more clearly defined. The rationale for mutation breeding in jute has been the narrow-spectrum diversity within the fibre types; the wide-spectrum diversity among the hill tract vegetable jutes should, however, be exploited in imaginative hybridization programmes before resorting to large-scale mutation breeding programmes. Mutation breeding may, however, be a valuable tool for inducing changes in fibre quality characteristics when technologists identify new uses for jute and specify their requirements. At present, however, quality is assessed subjectively. (author) (author)

  15. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  16. A study on current status of KAERI's international cooperation programs and strategies for effective implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on the status and analysis of standard agreement for technical cooperation, expert mission service and technical staff attachment. This report comprises a total of six chapters. Chapter II discusses the status of the technical cooperation agreement which took effect late 1998, and various other model agreements for technical cooperation. Chapter III provides information on the status, regulations, procedures for the expert mission service, and Chapter IV details the current status of the technical staff attachment and the related procedures. Chapter V deals with the utilization status and analysis of the English Counselor, and Chapter VI is the Conclusion. This report has tow objectives. First, we have never published reference books related to standard agreement for technical cooperation, expert mission service and technical staff attachment necessary for international joint research until now. As a result, the research divisions have often asked many questions to the office of international cooperation. Therefore, we expect that many difficulties will be removed and procedures simplified if the research divisions use this report as a reference book. Second, we plan to use this report reference book for policy decisions after establishing the database. (author). 5 tabs., 9 figs

  17. Current status of GEM: the best collider experiment at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broadly based international collaboration has been formed in order to exploit the physics opportunities offered by the construction of the SSC. Although the GEM detector will emphasize precise measurement of muons, electrons and photons, it will also provide excellent hadron calorimetry and tracking. The current status of the experiment and the anticipated capabilities of the GEM detector are reviewed briefly in this report. (orig.)

  18. Current status of studies concerned with evaluation of toxic effects of chemicals on the testes

    OpenAIRE

    Steinberger, Emil

    1981-01-01

    A brief review of the history of the subject is provided. An attempt is made to define the current status of the knowledge and the reasons why our knowledge in this area of science is poor. The information gained from studies employing lower species is contrasted with information on the human male. The most commonly utilized techniques for evaluating the effects of toxic agents on the male reproductive system is briefly summarized. The growth of knowledge in physiology, biochemistry, and horm...

  19. The current status of opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis in the Mekong Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Andrews, Ross H.; Nguyen, Van; Wongsaroj, Thitima; Sinuon, Muth; Odermatt, Peter; Nawa, Yukifumi; Liang, Song; Brindley, Paul J.; Sripa, Banchob

    2011-01-01

    This review highlights the current status and control of liver fluke infections in the Mekong Basin countries where Opisthorchis and Clonorchis are highly endemic. Updated data on prevalence and distribution have been summarized from presentations in the “96 Years of Opisthorchiasis. International Congress of Liver Flukes”. It is disturbing that despite treatment and control programs have been in place for decades, all countries of the Lower Mekong Basin are still highly endemic with O. v...

  20. Current status of uranium zirconium-hydride low enriched uranium fuel design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LEU fuels have been extensively tested out-of-pile and in limited in-pile pulse testing, and are now completing long term burnup testing in the Oak Ridge Reactor. The significant results of fuel characterization, out-of-pile testing, and in-pile testing of the uranium zirconium-hydride LEU fuels are summarized and the current status of performance verification is presented

  1. The current status of wind power utilization in Germany. Autumn expertise 1996/97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German market for wind power plants developed from the initial phase of growth into a phase of consolidation. In accordance with earlier studies, an enquiry has been performed among approx. 20 manufacturers, addressing primarily the chief management level. These manufacturers represent well over 90 % of the market volume in Germany, so that the information obtained can be regarded to give a representative picture of the current status of this branch of industry. (orig.)

  2. Current Status and Regulatory Aspects of Pesticides Considered to be Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2010-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are capable of persisting in the environment, transporting between phase media and accumulating to high levels, implying that they could pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. Consequently, most OCPs are designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and even as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The objective of this paper was to review the current status of pesticide POPs in Taiwan, including aldrin, chlordane, ch...

  3. Online-coupled meteorology and chemistry models: history, current status, and outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The climate-chemistry-aerosol-cloud-radiation feedbacks are important processes occurring in the atmosphere. Accurately simulating those feedbacks requires fully-coupled meteorology, climate, and chemistry models and presents significant challenges in terms of both scientific understanding and computational demand. This paper reviews the history and current status of the development and application of online-coupled meteorology and chemistry models, with a focus on five representative models ...

  4. Online coupled meteorology and chemistry models: history, current status, and outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The climate-chemistry-aerosol-cloud-radiation feedbacks are important processes occurring in the atmosphere. Accurately simulating those feedbacks requires fully-coupled meteorology, climate, and chemistry models and presents significant challenges in terms of both scientific understanding and computational demand. This paper reviews the history and current status of development and application of online coupled models. Several representative online coupled meteorology and chemistry models de...

  5. Current status of Kampo medicine curricula in all Japanese medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Arai Makoto; Katai Shuichi; Muramatsu Shin-ichi; Namiki Takao; Hanawa Toshihiko; Izumi Shun-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There have been a few but not precise surveys of the current status of traditional Japanese Kampo education at medical schools in Japan. Our aim was to identify problems and suggest solutions for a standardized Kampo educational model for all medical schools throughout Japan. Methods We surveyed all 80 medical schools in Japan regarding eight items related to teaching or studying Kampo medicine: (1) the number of class meetings, target school year(s), and type of classes; ...

  6. Penalized log-likelihood estimation for partly linear transformation models with current status data

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shuangge; Kosorok, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    We consider partly linear transformation models applied to current status data. The unknown quantities are the transformation function, a linear regression parameter and a nonparametric regression effect. It is shown that the penalized MLE for the regression parameter is asymptotically normal and efficient and converges at the parametric rate, although the penalized MLE for the transformation function and nonparametric regression effect are only $n^{1/3}$ consistent. Inferen...

  7. The current status of the JNFL subsurface disposal plan for relatively high low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2001, the investigation of the geology and groundwater at Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited's (JNFL) Rokkasho Mura site has been under way in order to acquire the basic data for the design and the safety assessment of the low level radioactive waste (LLW) subsurface disposal facility. The paper discusses subsurface disposal in Japan and provides a brief overview of the current status of the project. (author)

  8. Current status of ISO/TC 135 (non-destructive testing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of the technical committee; TC 135 of International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which is the technical committee for non-destructive testing (NDT), is introduced with a brief explanation of various non-destructive testing methods. The review also describes the characteristics of international standards and the international trend in NDT and the relation between non-destructive testing and vacuum technology. (author)

  9. Social ethics in South Africa : initiating a dialogue between its relevance and current status

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, Willem

    2013-01-01

    South African biblical scholars – particularly those who focus on the Old Testament – are known for their engagement with themes that can be termed social ethical. This impulse is used as starting point to investigate the relevance of social ethics in South Africa and its current status. It is argued that social ethical reflection is of particular relevance for South Africa. This thesis is investigated in two ways. Firstly, the applicability of social ethics as academic field ...

  10. Social ethics in South Africa: Initiating a dialogue between its relevance and current status

    OpenAIRE

    Willem Fourie

    2013-01-01

    South African biblical scholars – particularly those who focus on the Old Testament – are known for their engagement with themes that can be termed social ethical. This impulse is used as starting point to investigate the relevance of social ethics in South Africa and its current status. It is argued that social ethical reflection is of particular relevance for South Africa. This thesis is investigated in two ways. Firstly, the applicability of social ethics as academic field is examined ...

  11. Current status of electron beam treatment of flue gas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil resource especially coal will remain the main energy resource in China over the next 3 ?4 decades. Pollution of flue gas from fossil power station is one problem being desiderated to solve since 1990's. Electron beam treatment of flue gas as an advanced technique has been developed and used by some institutes and industries in China. The current status of flue gas treatment using electron beam and the development of electron accelerator in China are reviewed. (author)

  12. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Groves Trish; Højgaard Liselotte; Schroter Sara

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review aimed at making the processes and practices of grant review more consistent, transparent, and user friendly. Methods A survey to a convenience sample of 57 international public an...

  13. Load-Bearing Biomedical Applications of Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings - Current Status

    OpenAIRE

    Alakoski, Esa; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Soininen, Antti; Konttinen, Yrjö T.

    2008-01-01

    The current status of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings for biomedical applications is reviewed with emphasis on load-bearing coatings. Although diamond-like carbon coating materials have been studied for decades, no indisputably successful commercial biomedical applications for high load situations exist today. High internal stress, leading to insufficient adhesion of thick coatings, is the evident reason behind this delay of the break-through of DLC coatings for applications. Excellent adh...

  14. Computer-Aided Diagnosis in Medical Imaging: Historical Review, Current Status and Future Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. In this article, the motivation and philosophy for early development of CAD schemes are presented together with the current status and future potential of CAD in a PACS environment. With CAD, radiologists use the computer output as a “second opinion” and make the final decisions. CAD is a concept established by taking into account equally the roles of physicians and co...

  15. Current Status and Prevention Strategy for Coal-arsenic Poisoning in Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dasheng; An, Dong; Zhou, Yunsu; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from burning coal with high arsenic contents occurs in southwest Guizhou, China. Coal in this region contains extremely high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic exposure from coal-burning is much higher than exposure from arsenic-contaminated water in other areas of China. The current status and prevention strategies for arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic coal in southwest Guizhou, China, is reported here. Over 3,000 arsenic-intoxicated patients were diagnos...

  16. The Case of Web-Based Course on Taxation: Current Status, Problems and Future Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhigang

    This paper mainly introduces the case of the web-based course on taxation developed by Xiamen University. We analyze the current status, problems and future improvement of the web-based course. The web-based course has the basic contents and modules, but it has several problems including unclear object, lacking interaction, lacking examination module, lacking study management module, and the learning materials and the navigation are too simple. According to its problems, we put forward the measures to improve it.

  17. RFID Applications: Prospects and Challenges in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadar Muhammad Masum

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identification (RFID is an emerging technology, radio wave communication between a microchip and an electronic reader, consisting of data gathering, distribution, and management systems that has the ability to identify or scan information for remoting recognition of objects with increased speed and accuracy. An attempt has been made to know how using of RFID technology helps to improve services and business process efficiency in public and private sectors of Bangladesh. With this aim, we have conducted extensive literature survey. At the end of this attempt, we have come to the conclusion that the potential use of this technology includes RFID chipped passports, human implants, item-level tagging, inventory tracking and access control systems. RFID technology is at its early stage of adoption in Bangladesh with a few business applications and pilot studies. However, when tags begin to be associated with individuals, privacy is threatened. RFID is a new type of threat to personal information and must be treated as such; indeed, it must be recognized that existing privacy legislation is not adequate. This paper also explores some current and emerging applications of RFID in Bangladesh and examines the challenges including privacy and ethical issues arising from its use, as well as addressing potential means of handling those issues.

  18. Status of high temperature superconductor cable and fault current limiter projects at American Superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will describe the status of three key programs currently underway at American Superconductor Corp. The first program is the LIPA project which is a transmission voltage high temperature superconducting cable program, with funding support from the US Department of Energy. The 600 m cable, capable of carrying 574 MVA, was successfully installed and commissioned in LIPA grid on April 22, 2008. An overview of the project, system level design details and operational data will be provided. In addition, the status of the newly awarded LIPA II project will be described. The second program is Project Hydra, with funding support from the US Department of Homeland Security, to design, develop and demonstrate an HTS cable with fault current limiting functionality. The cable is 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The cable will be permanently installed and energized in Manhattan, New York in 2010. The initial status of Project Hydra will be presented. The final program to be discussed is a transmission voltage, high temperature superconducting fault current limiter funded by the US DOE. The project encompasses the design, construction and test of a 115 kV FCL for power transmission within a time frame of 4-5 years. Installation and testing are planned for a Southern California Edison substation. A project overview and progress under the first phase will be reported.

  19. Seismic proving test of ultimate piping strength (current status of preliminary tests)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1998 Fiscal Year, the 6 year program of piping tests was initiated with the following objectives: i) to clarify the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping, ii) to ascertain the seismic safety margin of the current seismic design code for piping, and iii) to assess new allowable stress rules. In order to resolve extensive technical issues before proceeding on to the seismic proving test of a large-scale piping system, a series of preliminary tests of materials, piping components and simplified piping systems is intended. In this paper, the current status of the material tests and the piping component tests is reported. (author)

  20. Seismic proving test of ultimate piping strength (current status of preliminary tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Namita, Y.; Abe, H.; Ichihashi, I. [Seismic Engineering Center, NUPEC, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Universtity, Hachioji (Japan); Ishiwata, M. [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Fujiwaka, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Yokota, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In 1998 Fiscal Year, the 6 year program of piping tests was initiated with the following objectives: i) to clarify the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping, ii) to ascertain the seismic safety margin of the current seismic design code for piping, and iii) to assess new allowable stress rules. In order to resolve extensive technical issues before proceeding on to the seismic proving test of a large-scale piping system, a series of preliminary tests of materials, piping components and simplified piping systems is intended. In this paper, the current status of the material tests and the piping component tests is reported. (author)