WorldWideScience
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Applicability of Telemedicine in Bangladesh: Current Status and Future Prospects  

CERN Document Server

Telemedicine refers to the use of information and communication technology to provide and support health care mainly for the purpose of providing consultation. It is also a way to provide medical procedures or examinations to remote locations. It has the potential to improve both the quality and the access to health care services delivery while lowering costs even in the scarcity of resources. Understanding the potentiality of telemedicine, many developing countries are implementing telemedicine to provide health care facility to remote area where health care facilities are deficient. Bangladesh is not an exception to this either. In this paper we mention the reasons why Bangladesh has to move for telemedicine. We also present the past and on-going telemedicine activities and projects in Bangladesh. Analyzing these projects we have found out some factors which should be assessed carefully for successful implementation of telemedicine application. Finally we propose a prototype telemedicine network for Banglad...

Nessa, Ahasanun; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

2009-01-01

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Current Status and Perspectives of Nuclear Reactor Based Research in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been operating the country's only research reactor, a 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II, for the last 22 years. The reactor is equipped with a number of irradiation facilities: dry central thimble (DCT), neutron beam tubes (tangential, radial piercing, radial-1 and radial-2), pneumatic transfer system, rotary specimen rack (Lazy Suzan), thermal column, etc. Since its establishment, the BAEC TRIGA reactor has been playing pioneering role in scientific research and in providing services to the people. For example, the radioisotopes produced in this reactor are being used in different nuclear medicine centers of the country for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. On the other hand, with a view to opening a new avenue of fundamental and applied research in the country, a number of different experimental facilities were installed around the reactor in early nineties of the last century. With the aim of socio economic development of the country, these facilities are being used in various fields of research and utilization, such as, isotope production, material research using neutron scattering, materials characterization by neutron radiography, qualitative and quantitative assessment of elements in variety of sample matrices and nuclear data measurements using neutron activation analysis as well as training and service as centers of excellence in Science and Technology. The aim of this article is to explore the current status of nucle is to explore the current status of nuclear reactor based research in Bangladesh with special emphasis on neutron activation analysis and future plan of enhancing its utilization. (author)

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Current Status and Prospects for E-learning in the Promotion of Distance Education in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of e-learning as an advanced system for training and educating mass people using information and communication technologies (ICTs has been received an increasing level of interest in recent years in most of the western countries. In spite of socio-economic constraints, ICTs are rapidly expanding in the developing countries, and thus offering a new scope for the use of e-learning for the promotion of distance education. In Bangladesh, e-learning was first introduced as early as 1960s as a Radiobroadcast followed by a pilot project School Broadcasting Program (SBP in 1980s and then expanded by the establishment of the National Institute of Educational Media and Technology (NIEMT, which was later transformed into Bangladesh Institute of Distance Education (BIDE in 1985. The significant progress has been done after the establishment of the Bangladesh Open University (BOU in 1992 as the first and only national distance learning university. Within a decade of its establishment, enrollment of BOU students have reached nearly 400 thousands, and thus enlisted it as one of the mega-universities. BOU has been offering a variety of formal and non-formal academic programs from certificate to Masters levels using print, TV and radio broadcasts, audio-cassettes and face to face tutorials as the media of delivering its academic courses. Considering the rapid expansion of computer and internet in Bangladesh after 1998s, it is now appropriate time to consider inclusion of some interactive ICTs i.e. e-learning in delivering course materials of BOU or other institutes to promote distance education in Bangladesh. In this paper, we discuss the current situation and future prospects for e-learning in Bangladesh considering the current trend of ICTs expansion in the country.

Abu Sadeque Md. SELIM

2006-01-01

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Current Status and Prospects for E-learning in the Promotion of Distance Education in Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

The issue of e-learning as an advanced system for training and educating mass people using information and communication technologies (ICTs) has been received an increasing level of interest in recent years in most of the western countries. In spite of socio-economic constraints, ICTs are rapidly expanding in the developing countries, and thus offering a new scope for the use of e-learning for the promotion of distance education. In Bangladesh, e-learning was first introduced as early as 1960...

Selim, Abu Sadeque Md; Islam, Tofazzal

2006-01-01

5

Current status of education and training in nuclear technology in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority for the introduction, promotion and safety issues of nuclear science and technology in the country. During the last four decades, a significant development has been achieved in the field of food and agriculture, medicine, industries and environment using nuclear technology. Education and training in science and technology played a vital role to achieve the significant development in these fields. Some local public universities and BAEC training facilities at home and abroad have played mainly a key role to develop the human resource in the field of nuclear science and technology. Over the last four decades, BAEC with its various specialized establishments has played a focused role in the advancement, understanding and usage of nuclear science and technologies in the country. Through years of cumulative efforts, BAEC has developed a pool of research infrastructure, capacity and human resources having been trained extensively at home and abroad in their respective fields. The trained manpower in the different fields of science and technology are working in the country to solve some national problems like arsenic contamination in drinking water, iodine deficiency disease goitre, cancer and many others. BAEC is going to establish a Nuclear Training Institute which will also have residential facilities. Government has already assured to fund to establish the Nuclear Training Centre in the campus of AERE, Savar. BAEC placed a formal proposal for Affiliation with Jahangirnagar University for Awarding Post Graduate Degrees in different specialized fields of nuclear science and technology. As this might take some time for implementation; therefore, BAEC has decided to start the academic program immediately under the present set-up of the organization. With this view, BAEC proposes to affiliate its Nuclear Training Institute with the Jahangirnagar University for pursuing academic degree programmes i.e. post graduate diploma, M. S., M.Phil. and Ph.D. in the following specialized fields of nuclear science and technology: 1. Reactor Science and Technology; 2. Nuclear and related Analytical Science; 3. Nuclear safety and radiation control; 4. Nuclear Instrumentation and Control; 5. Nuclear Power and Energy; 6. Materials Science; 7. Radiation Medicine; 8. Nuclear Geology; 9. Radiological Science; 10. Radiation Biology; 11. Environmental and Molecular Biology

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Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

Ullah, Sana [Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

1999-09-01

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Status of radiation curing in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bangladesh is a small country covering about 148 thousand square kilometer area with a population of 120 million. It has only 15% urban area; most of the people live in the rural area. It is neither industrial nor developed. It is trying hard to stand on its feet combating all damages caused by frequent natural calamities like cyclones and floods. Thus, most of the technological activities are still being carried out on turnkey basis. However, some research and development institutions have already been developed to such an extent that transfer of technology can occur and the local industries can also benefit out of this endeavour

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Achieving the Millennium Development Goal for Under-five Mortality in Bangladesh: Current Status and Lessons for Issues and Challenges for Further Improvements  

OpenAIRE

The study assessed the achievements in, critically reviewed the relevant issues of, and put forward recommendations for achieving the target of the Millennium Development Goal relating to mortality of children aged less than five years (under-five mortality) in Bangladesh within 2015. To materialize the study objectives, a thorough literature review was done. Mortality of under-five children and infants decreased respectively to 65 from 151 and to 52 from 94 per 1,000 livebirths during 1990-2...

Sayem, Amir Mohammad; Nury, Abu Taher Md Sanaullah; Hossain, Md Delwar

2011-01-01

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Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

1997-06-01

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Arsenic Status at Different Depths in Some Soils of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the arsenic status of some selected soils in six thanas of three arsenic affected districts of Bangladesh. Eighteen soil samples taking three from each of 6 thanas representing 3 districts viz. Moulavibazar, Habiganj and Sylhet of Bangladesh were collected for the study. The soils were collected from 3 depths viz. 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm from each location. The arsenic content in soils of Moulavibazar, Habiganj and Sylhet districts ranged from 1.32-31.89, 0-16.87 and 0.66-17.57 ppm, respectively. Out of 18 samples, arsenic content was noticed for 11 samples at 0-15 cm depth (1.98-25.76 ppm, 15 samples at 15-30 cm depth (3.96-30.68 ppm and 14 samples at 30-45 cm depth (3.96-38.23 ppm. The highest arsenic content of 38.23 ppm was found at 30-45 cm depth in Sylhet district. Seven samples at 0-15 cm, 3 samples at 15-30 cm and 4 samples at 30-45 cm were free from arsenic contamination. Correlation study of arsenic contents of soils was done with some soil properties viz. sand, silt and clay contents, soil pH, EC and organic matter status. Results showed that arsenic content correlated significantly with different soil properties.

M.M. Hossain

2001-01-01

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Present status on the use of antibiotics and chemicals in shrimp hatcheries and grow-out ponds and their environmental implications in Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study is to document the current status on the use of antibiotics, chemicals and biological products used in shrimp hatcheries and grow-out ponds in Bangladesh. In the last decade, coastal aquaculture practised traditionally in south western and south eastern parts of Bangladesh has developed into a big industry. With the rapid expansion of shrimp grow-out facilities, the hatchery industry has progressed rapidly during the last five years. A major disease outbreak, namely whit...

Sheikh Aftabuddin; Mohammad Zafar; Kamal, Abuhena M.; Abdul Kader

2009-01-01

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Photovoltaic Based Solar Home Systems – Current State of Dissemination in Rural Areas of Bangladesh and Future Prospect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently only 53 percent of total population in Bangladesh has access to electricity and per capita generation being 265 kWh is very low compared to some other developing countries. This shortage of energy hinders the growth of the country’s overall economy. However, Bangladesh has a good potential for harnessing renewable energy resources, solar and biomass in particular. Steps are taken to harness renewable sources of energy to make the country less dependent on the traditional fossil fuels. This paper presents current power generation scenario in Bangladesh, assesses the availability of solar irradiation and potential for power generation using solar PV panels. This paper also investigates into the current status of dissemination of PV based solar home systems (SHSs in the rural areas of Bangladesh. Currently approximately 94 MW of power is generated from around 2 million SHSs already installed. Average growth rate of SHSs from 2003 up to December 2012 is around 58% which is among the highest in the world.

MUHAMMAD RIAZUL HAMID

2013-02-01

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Radwaste disposal strategy in Bangladesh: Present status and future trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Significant amounts of radioactive solid liquid and mixed wastes are generated in Bangladesh from peaceful uses of atomic energy including disused sealed sources and spent fuel from the research reactor and other hot laboratories in the country. At present these wastes are being collected, segregated, labeled and stored in an interim safe storage. A Central Waste Processing and Storage Facility (CWPSF) is fast nearing completion in the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar campus where the TRIGA Research Reactor, Isotope Production Laboratory, 14 MeV Neutron Generator, 37 x 102 TBq commercial irradiator and other hot facilities are situated. A national strategy exists for the management and disposal of various types of radioactive wastes. Gaseous and liquid wastes are discharged in the environment in a controlled manner following delay decay procedure. Short-lived low and intermediate level wastes (SL-LILW) and disused/spent sealed radioactive sources are being stored in an interim storage before storage in the CWPSF following short treatment and conditioning. As regards their disposal, the currently preferred option is engineered near surface repository. Site investigation work has progressed far enough toward the goal of establishing a demonstration repository at AERE, Savar by the year 2010. For small amount of long-lived highly active problem wastes including spent radium needles and disused radioactive sources, the safe management option is a long-term storage in the CWPSF after conditioning and treatment. But this is not considered as a sustainable solution. The real emphasis is placed on the development of inexpensive disposal methods and availing regional/international repositories. (author)

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REVIEWING THE STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH FROM A FOOD SECURITY PERSPECTIVE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to review the major food security issues in Bangladesh, with a brief reference to its past trend in agricultural output, constraints, and challenges in the coming decades. Food security relates directly to nutrition and health of a population which consequently influences a nation's socio-economic status. Despite Bangladesh has changed its status from a country with chronic food shortages to a self-sufficient one, it still faces food-security challenges. Few non-agricultural factors are identified as equally responsible for aggravating the food insecurity scenario. Since its independence in 1971, the country has constantly been facing issues like high population growth, political unrest, natural disasters which are contributing to food insecurity. Though industrialization is the order of the modern economy, agriculture remains the lifeblood of food security, especially for predominantly agrarian economies like Bangladesh. And this truth must be emphasized and implemented accordingly so that the predicted food crisis in near future can be successfully avoided. This article aims to review the performance of different agricultural sectors and to identify major setbacks to achieving food security in Bangladesh. This study is based on previously published researches on various food security issues in the context of Bangladesh.

Ghose Bishwajit

2014-01-01

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Women's autonomy and unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant women in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their pregnancy intention status among currently pregnant Bangladeshi women. This study is based on data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2007 (BDHS). A subset of interviews from currently pregnant women (718) were extracted from 10,146 married women of reproductive age. The BDHS 2007 used a pre-tested, structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, women's empowerment, and pregnancy information. Associations between unintended pregnancy and explanatory variables were assessed using bivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of women's autonomy on current pregnancy intention status after controlling for other variables. Results indicate that women's autonomy is a significant predictor of unintended pregnancy after adjusting for other factors. A unit increase in the autonomy scale decreases the odds of unintended pregnancy by 16%. Besides autonomy, our results also indicate that current age, number of children ever born, age at marriage, religion, media access, and contraceptive use exert strong influences over unintended pregnancy. Women who have ever used contraceptives are 82% more likely to classify their current pregnancies as unintended compared with women who are non-users of contraceptives. Improvement in women's autonomy and effective and efficient use of contraceptives may reduce unintended pregnancies as well as improve reproductive health outcomes. PMID:21989677

Rahman, Mosfequr

2012-08-01

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PANIC: current status  

Science.gov (United States)

PANIC, the PAnoramic Near Infrared Camera, is a new instrument for Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA) is a wide-field infraredimager for the CAHA 2.2 m and 3.5 m telescopes. The optics is a folded single optical train, pure lens optics, with a pixel scale of 0.45 arcsec/pixel (18 microns) at the 2.2 m telescope and 0.23 arcsec/pixel at the 3.5 m. A mosaic of four Hawaii-2RG detectorsprovides a field of view (FOV) of 0.5x0.5 degrees and 0.25x0.25 degrees, respectively. It will cover the photometric bandsfrom Z to K_s (0.8 to 2.5 microns) with a low thermal background due to cold stops. Here we present the current status of the project.

Cárdenas, M. C.; Rodríguez Gómez, J.

2011-11-01

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Status of Nuclear Activities of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority for acquisition, development and application of Nuclear Science and Technology and thus is playing the pioneering role for the development of the country's nuclear research programmes and thus helping to achieve the cherished goal of self-reliance through national efforts and international co-operation. Being firmly committed to the peaceful uses of Atomic Energy, programmes have been undertaken in Physical Sciences, Biological Sciences, Engineering and Nuclear Power Sector by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and some of the results have been transferred from laboratories to hospitals, agriculture, industries and environment for practical applications. In spite of some major constrains, presently BAEC's activities have increased many folds and keeping in view of the overall power crisis of the country efforts have also been given to establish Nuclear Power Plant in the country. (author)

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Pheromone use for insect control: present status and prospect in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The insect’s world is filled with many odors. Insects use these odors to cue them in a variety of complex social behaviors, including courtship, mating, and egg laying. Scientists and pest control specialists have known about these complex communication systems for decades. The main aim of this study was to visualize the availability, trends and differences in the sources of pheromone control in agricultural growth of Bangladesh. It also concerned on constrains and present use of pheromone and their possible recommendation on behalf of Bangladesh agriculture. It concentrated on the data during last three decades (1980-2010, comprising status of pheromone use in Bangladesh agriculture and its future. Review revealed that Bangladesh has been enormously successful in increasing pheromone use in agricultural production (especially for vegetables. Understanding of the nature of pheromones and their potential for pest control along with the future prospective of pheromone technique in agriculture were stated. Since the pheromone, technologies for control of major crop pests in Bangladesh are still limited. So that this review emphasized on more attention to the authority to increase the research works and project facilities related to develop and promote pheromone techniques. It is highly recommended to increase availability of pheromone in market, more investment in research and development, introduction of newly identified pheromone for specific pest, to assist government and non-government organizations to work with farmers to reduce harmful insecticide use and promote pheromone tactics as one part of integrated crop management (ICM.

Md. Azharul Islam

2012-06-01

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Present status on the use of antibiotics and chemicals in shrimp hatcheries and grow-out ponds and their environmental implications in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to document the current status on the use of antibiotics, chemicals and biological products used in shrimp hatcheries and grow-out ponds in Bangladesh. In the last decade, coastal aquaculture practised traditionally in south western and south eastern parts of Bangladesh has developed into a big industry. With the rapid expansion of shrimp grow-out facilities, the hatchery industry has progressed rapidly during the last five years. A major disease outbreak, namely white spot disease in 1995 struck the shrimp aquaculture throughout the country and resulted in increased use of chemotherapeutics for disinfection and treatment. Among the 50 operating hatcheries of Bangladesh, 40 (80% were surveyed in which 7 different antibiotics, 6 disinfectants and 2 different biological products were used for controlling common diseases. The study also covered 50 grow-out ponds of which 30 were in southwestern and 20 were in southeastern part of Bangladesh. The study included 8 semi-intensive and 42 extensive farms. Diseases were treated with 15 commercial products belonging to 3 antibiotics classes. The antibiotics currently used in shrimp aquaculture in Bangladesh are chloramphenicol in the name of CL-33, prefuran, oxytetracycline, furazolidone, erythromycin, neomycin sulphate, kenamycin sulphate and ciprofloxacin.

Sheikh Aftabuddin

2009-10-01

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Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis  

OpenAIRE

M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP) knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from t...

Islam, MR; Thorvaldsen G

2012-01-01

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Infant Anemia and Micronutrient Status : Studies of Early Determinants in Rural Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in infancy are common in low-income settings. These are partly due to maternal malnutrition and may impair child health and development. We studied the impact of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation, duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), growth and infection on infant anemia and micronutrient status. In the MINIMat trial in Matlab, Bangladesh, pregnant women were randomized to Early or Usual promotion of enrolment in a food supplementation...

Eneroth, Hanna

2011-01-01

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Present Status of Field Disease and Morphological Characteristics of Recommended Potato Varieties in Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

A study was undertaken to determine the present status of ten recommended potato varieties in Bangladesh. It was found that incidence of potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), potato Y potyvirus (PYV), scab, tuber rot and cutworm were significantly different in different varieties. Similarly, dry matter and starch percentage, number of tuber per plant and yield per plant varied significantly with the varieties. The variety Ailsa showed lowest infection of PLRV followed by Dheera and Cardinal a...

Hossain, M.; Ali, M. S.; Akhtar, M. I.; Huq, Z. N.; Hossain, A. E.

2002-01-01

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Does women's status matter for food security? Evidence from Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Using data from a survey of Bangladeshi households, this paper investigates the link between female status and food security. Employing three different indicators of female status – husband’s and wife’s assets brought at marriage, female share of household income and a composite index of women empowerment, the paper finds evidence of women’s status influencing food security. By raising the level of food security for some disadvantaged women’s groups female status is also found to be...

Razzaque, Mohammad A.; Toufique, Mohammad Mokammel Karim

2007-01-01

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Radiation education in Bangladesh: status need and opportunities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state, the provisions of radiation education and training have expanded greatly. Still then, since it is a developing country with high population growth rate, low literacy level and located thousands of miles away from the developed ones, it is difficult to transfer and disseminate knowledge, particularly about the subject of radiation at a speed and spread as required to meet the challenge of future. So, not only professional training but also institutional and formal academic knowledge and skill development is essential in the process of acquisition and transfer of such knowledge. Accordingly the courses on radiation and radioactivity including risk perception in general have to be vigorously pursued for the sake of safety and attaining basic concepts about health effects of different levels of radiation. (author)

Bakht, Delawar [Titas Gas Transmission and Distribution Co. Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh)

1999-09-01

25

Radiation education in Bangladesh: status need and opportunities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state, the provisions of radiation education and training have expanded greatly. Still then, since it is a developing country with high population growth rate, low literacy level and located thousands of miles away from the developed ones, it is difficult to transfer and disseminate knowledge, particularly about the subject of radiation at a speed and spread as required to meet the challenge of future. So, not only professional training but also institutional and formal academic knowledge and skill development is essential in the process of acquisition and transfer of such knowledge. Accordingly the courses on radiation and radioactivity including risk perception in general have to be vigorously pursued for the sake of safety and attaining basic concepts about health effects of different levels of radiation. (author)

26

Status of spent fuel in the 3MW BAEC MK-II research reactor facility of Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bangladesh has been operating a 3 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor since 1986. The reactor is installed in the campus of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Savar, which is located about 40 km northwest of Dhaka. It is one of the main nuclear research facilities in the country. The reactor uses TRIGA LEU fuel with uranium content of 20% by weight. The enrichment level of the fuel is 19.7%. So far the reactor has been operated for 5624 hours with a total cumulative burnup (BU) of 10 690 MWh (445 MWd). The main areas of use are: training of man-power for research reactor operation and applications, radioisotope (RI) production, neutron activation analysis (NAA), neutron radiography (NR) and neutron scattering. Radioisotopes produced to date are: I-131, Sc-46 and Tc-99m. Bangladesh is a peace loving country with a strong commitment towards nuclear nonproliferation. Accordingly, it has signed several multilateral and bilateral agreements, protocols, treaties, etc. prevailing in the International Nuclear Non-proliferation regime. Bangladesh has also signed a Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with the USA on 17 September 1981, which facilitated export of nuclear technology from the USA to Bangladesh. The research reactor was procured under the provisions of this agreement. In 2003, the tenure of the Agreement was extended up to 2012. At present, there does not exist any spent fuel element in the reactor facility. However, with the recently undertaken RI producti, with the recently undertaken RI production enhancement program, it is expected that the reactor will start generating spent fuels from the year 2012. It is to be mentioned that Bangladesh is aware of the US DOE's 'Take Back Program' in connection with the research reactor spent fuel of US origin, and is very much interested to take part in this program. The paper presents the current status of handling and storage facilities available for spent fuel and strategy for the safe management spent fuel to be generated from the research reactor in near future. (author)

27

Nutritional status and self-reported and performance-based evaluationof physical function of elderly persons in rural Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Aim: To investigate the impact of nutritional status on self-reported as well as performance-based indicators of physical function in a rural elderly population in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, included 457 randomly selected community living elderly persons aged 60 years or more (60-92years; 69±7years). Mobility, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), performance tests, handgrip strength, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and a structured questionn...

Ferdous, Tamanna; Cederholm, Tommy; Razzaque, Abdur; Wahlin, A?ke; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

2009-01-01

28

Biosimilar drugs: Current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food Drug Administration (FDA) and India were used to identify data for review. Literature suggest that biosimilars are similar biological products, i.e., comparable but not identical to the reference product, are not generic version of innovator product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and marketing approval is also more complicated. To improve access, US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation act 2009 and US FDA allowed "abbreviated pathway" for their approval. U.S law has defined new standards and terms and EMA scientific guidelines have also set detailed approval standards. India being one of the most preferred manufacturing destinations of biosimilars, there is a need for stringent safety and regulatory guidelines. The New India Guidelines "Draft Guidelines on Similar Biologics were announced in June 2012, by Department of Biotechnology at Boston bio and available online. PMID:25143877

Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

2014-07-01

29

Project 'Iren'. Current Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pulsed source of Intense Resonance Neutron (IREN), similar to the source-booster LUE-30 that operated at JINR till 2001, traditionally represents a combination of a driver - a linear electron accelerator LUE-200 and of a target-converter. At the first stage of realization of the IREN project it is planned to use a non-multiplying target-converter with truncated pulse duration. An electron gun (a source of electron) for LUE-200 was created and tested with the following parameters: beam current up to 5 A, electron energy up to 200 keV, repetition rate 50 Hz, pulse duration 400...500 ns

30

Florida Red Tide Current Status  

Science.gov (United States)

This Fish and Wildlife Research Institute website provides links to several Florida-based red tide sites. These sites include the current status of Florida's red tide, a photo gallery of red tide distribution maps, and regional Florida red tide statuses. The site expands further on its research and contains information on the Florida manatee, Florida panther, freshwater, geographic information systems/mapping, habitat, saltwater and wildlife. This is a nice resource for a broad overview of Florida ecosystems and natural resources.

2009-09-18

31

Engineered barriers: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137Cs), since they can provide containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

32

Hepcidin and iron status among pregnant women in Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Although hepcidin, a recently discovered peptide hormone, is considered a major regulator of iron metabolism and the anemia of chronic inflammation, its role in the anemia of pregnancy has not been characterized. Our objective was to characterize the role of hepcidin in the anemia of pregnancy. We examined the relationships between urinary hepcidin, iron status indicators, hemoglobin, erythropoietin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, and C-reactive protein in a cross-sectional study conducted among ...

Schulze, Kerry J.; Christian, Parul; Ruczinski, Ingo; Ray, Amanda L.; Nath, Avindra; Wu, Lee S. -f; Semba, Richard D.

2008-01-01

33

Adjustment Disorder: Current Diagnostic Status  

OpenAIRE

Adjustment disorder is a common diagnosis in psychiatric settings and carries a significant rate of morbidity. However, diagnostic criteria are vague and not much helpful in clinical practice. Also there has been relatively little research done on this disorder. In this article, we review the information that is available on the epidemiology, clinical features, validity, and current diagnostic status of adjustment disorder. In this article, the controversy surrounding the diagnosis is also hi...

Patra, Bichitra Nanda; Sarkar, Siddharth

2013-01-01

34

Current Status of Graphene Transistors  

OpenAIRE

This paper reviews the current status of graphene transistors as potential supplement to silicon CMOS technology. A short overview of graphene manufacturing and metrology methods is followed by an introduction of macroscopic graphene field effect transistors (FETs). The absence of an energy band gap is shown to result in severe shortcomings for logic applications. Possibilities to engineer a band gap in graphene FETs including quantum confinement in graphene Nanoribbons (GNR...

Lemme, Max C.

2009-01-01

35

Socio-Eonomic Status of Elderly of Bangladesh: A Statistical Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to gather overall information on socio-economic and health profiles of the senior citizens of Bangladesh based on primary data of from the three selected districts of the country. Simple statistical tools and logistic regression model are used to analyze the data. The analysis shows that 46% of the physically sound elderly are jobless and 15% aren’t engaged in job due to lack of physical fitness and other causes. The logistic regression analysis reveals that respondents’ age, level of education, physical fitness are significantly associated with the current occupation of elderly people.

Md. Nazrul Islam

2010-01-01

36

Adjustment disorder: current diagnostic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adjustment disorder is a common diagnosis in psychiatric settings and carries a significant rate of morbidity. However, diagnostic criteria are vague and not much helpful in clinical practice. Also there has been relatively little research done on this disorder. In this article, we review the information that is available on the epidemiology, clinical features, validity, and current diagnostic status of adjustment disorder. In this article, the controversy surrounding the diagnosis is also highlighted. It also discusses the differential and comorbid diagnosis. The various recommendations for DSM-V and ICD-11 conclude the article. PMID:23833335

Patra, Bichitra Nanda; Sarkar, Siddharth

2013-01-01

37

Plasma cell dyscrasias: current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a review of the current status of the monoclonal gammopathies (plasma cell dyscrasias). We begin with the recognition of a monoclonal protein in serum and urine. We briefly discuss the differential diagnosis of the monoclonal gammopathies. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as the management of multiple myeloma are addressed. Future approaches for the treatment of myeloma are provided. The variant forms of multiple myeloma, including smoldering myeloma, plasma cell leukemia, nonsecretory myeloma, IgD myeloma, osteosclerotic myeloma, solitary plasmacytoma of bone, and extramedullary plasmacytoma, are briefly reviewed. Diagnosis and treatment of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia are presented. The recognition and differential diagnosis of the heavy-chain diseases (gamma, alpha, and mu) are included. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance ("benign" monoclonal gammopathy) is presented in detail. Amyloidosis is not included in this review. PMID:3046767

Kyle, R A; Greipp, P A

1988-01-01

38

Association of Clinical Complications with Nutritional Status and the Prevalence of Leukopenia among Arsenic Patients in Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

This study conducted in Bangladesh reports the relationship of clinical complications with nutritional status and the prevalence of leukopenia among arsenic exposed patients living in the rural villages. A total of 115 exposed individuals diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were randomly selected from four known arsenic endemic villages, and age-matched 120 unexposed subjects were enrolled in the study program. The duration of arsenic exposure in about 37% of the patients was at least 10 yrs, w...

Kazi, Azizul I.; Khan, Monsur A.; Mahfuzur Rahman, M.; Ahm, Nurun Nabi; Islam, Laila N.

2004-01-01

39

Current status of Japanese detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status of the TAMA and CLIO detectors in Japan is reported in this paper. These two interferometric gravitational wave detectors are being developed for the large cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) which is a future plan for detecting gravitational wave signals at least once per year. TAMA300 is being upgraded to improve the sensitivity in a low-frequency region after the last observational experiment in 2004. To reduce the seismic noises, we are installing a new seismic isolation system, called the TAMA seismic attenuation system, for the four test masses. We confirmed stable mass locks of a cavity and improvements of length and angular fluctuations by using two SASs. We are currently optimizing the performance of the third and fourth SASs. We continue TAMA300 operation and R&D studies for the LCGT. The next data taking is planned for the summer of 2007. CLIO is a 100 m baseline length prototype detector for LCGT to investigate interferometer performance in cryogenic condition. The key features of CLIO are that it locates the Kamioka underground site for a low-seismic noise level, and adopts cryogenic Sapphire mirrors for low-thermal noise level. The first operation of the cryogenic interferometer was successfully demonstrated in February 2006. Current sensitivity at room temperature is close to the target sensitivity within a factor of 4. Several observational experiments at room temperature have been done. Once the displacement noise reaches the thermal noise level of room temperature, its improvement by cooling test mass mirrors should be demonstrated.

Tatsumi, Daisuke; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Arai, Koji; Nakagawa, Noriyasu; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Toshitaka; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Takamori, Akiteru; Bertolini, Alessandro; Sannibale, Virginio; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Márka, Szabolcs; Ando, Masaki; Tsubono, Kimio; Akutsu, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishitsuka, Hideki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Awaya, Norichika; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Araya, Akito; Telada, Souichi; Tomaru, Takayuki; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sato, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Shintomi, Takakazu

2007-10-01

40

Current status of converter steelmaking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This literature work is mainly focusing on the mechanisms of modern converter steelmaking and related with the evaluation of converter technology applied during the last decades and further to the future. The history of steelmaking has been briefly reviewed from bloomeries and early-steelmaking processes to the progress of modern converter process. The pneumatic converter processes were developed in the 1850`s and thereafter the basis for the rapid growth of steel industries was established for the next 100 years. The world production of steel has not continuously grown but fluctuating quite much. It reached 723 Mt in 1994. The production is believed to grow the forecast for the year 2003 being approximately 800 Mt. Electric arc furnace production is estimated to reach 280 Mt by 2003, and BOFIOH will reach 520 Mt by 2003. The current status of the converter steelmaking process is briefly described both on its theoretical bases and practical technological progresses. Developments which significantly improve the process are briefly discussed. Several more recent developments such as combined oxygen blowing process, increased scrap melting, post combustion and hot metal pretreatment are discussed. The future progress will be in further development of these process characteristics as well as in eventual emerging of the continuous converter process. (author)

Oghbasialasie, H.; Holappa, L.

1995-12-31

41

Robotic renal transplantation: Current status  

Science.gov (United States)

INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation (KT) has traditionally been performed by open renal transplantation, but recently, a few groups including our own have described a minimally invasive approach to KT. We aim to discuss the current status of robotic kidney transplantation (RKT) and describe our technique of RKT with regional hypothermia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used the search terms “minimally invasive” OR “robotic” OR “robot assisted” AND “kidney transplantation.” Papers written in English and concerning technical and/or clinical outcomes following minimally invasive kidney transplantation were selected. Three hundred and eighteen unique articles were retrieved and nine were relevant. Comparative outcomes data following RKT with regional hypothermia versus open KT (OKT) from our own group were also included. FINDINGS: Nine papers, so far, have evaluated the role of robotic approach in KT and have conclusively established the feasibility, safety, and reproducibility of RKT, although these studies have been performed by experienced robotic surgeons/teams. The contemporary published series note that rejection rates were similar in RKT and OKT patients. Mean serum creatinine at 6 months in RKT and OKT patients was equivalent, across the three series. Most of the studies also note a dramatic reduction in the wound-related complication rates. CONCLUSION: RKT appears to be a safe surgical alternative to the standard open approach of KT. RKT is associated with reduced postoperative pain, analgesic requirement, and better cosmesis. RKT, although in its infancy, appears to be associated with lower complication rates.

Sood, Akshay; Ghosh, Prasun; Menon, Mani; Jeong, Wooju; Bhandari, Mahendra; Ahlawat, Rajesh

2015-01-01

42

Current Status of JRR-3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

JRR-3 at the Tokai-Shirakata site of JAEA was in its regular maintenance period, when the Great East Japan Earthquake took place on 11th March 2011. The reactor building with the solid foundations and the equipment important to safety survived the earthquake without serious damage, and no radioactive leakage has been occurred. Recovery works, check and test to confirm the integrity of all components and structures, and seismic assessment necessary for proving that the seismic loads which worked on a structure or component by the earthquake accommodated within its allowable stress have been carried out. After our recovery works and verification of the integrity of JRR-3, we confirmed that the integrity is ensured, and then reported the fact to the regulatory body. As another topic, the regulatory body will introduce new regulatory requirements for research reactors. Now, JRR-3 considers applying the new requirements for restart. This paper presents the current status of JRR-3 including the recovery works, seismic assessment and new regulatory requirements.

Kinase, Masami; Arai, Masaji; Maruo, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

2013-07-01

43

Current status of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decision to devote the 1984 conference to nuclear power is timely and appropriate. Illinois has a long, and distinguished history in the development of civilian nuclear power. The concept was born at the University of Chicago, developed at Argonne National Laboratory and demonstrated on the Commonwealth Edison system at our pioneer Dresden Nuclear Station. Today, Illinois ranks number one in the nation in nuclear generation. With over a quarter century of commercial operating experience, nuclear power has proven its worth and become a significant and growing component of electric power supply domestically and throughout the world. Despite its initial acceptance, however, the nuclear power industry in the U.S. is now in the midst of a difficult period of readjustment stemming largely from the economic and regulatory problems of the past decade. As a result, the costs of plants under construction have increased dramatically, causing serious financial difficulties for several projects and their owners. At the same time, the U.S. is facing hard choices concerning its future energy supplies. Conferences such as this have an important role in clarifying the issues and helping to find solutions to today's pressing energy problems. This paper summarizes the status of nuclear power both here and abroad, discussing the implications of current events in the context of national energy policy and economic development here in Illinois

44

Present Status of Field Disease and Morphological Characteristics of Recommended Potato Varieties in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the present status of ten recommended potato varieties in Bangladesh. It was found that incidence of potato leaf roll virus (PLRV, potato Y potyvirus (PYV, scab, tuber rot and cutworm were significantly different in different varieties. Similarly, dry matter and starch percentage, number of tuber per plant and yield per plant varied significantly with the varieties. The variety Ailsa showed lowest infection of PLRV followed by Dheera and Cardinal and the highest infection was recorded in Patrones. The varieties Arinda, Chamak, Dheera, Heera and Kuroda were free from PYV infection. Whereas, Multa showed the highest infection of PYV. Lowest infection of scab was recorded in the variety Dheera and it was highest in Ailsa. The appearance of foliage was good looking in all varieties except the varieties Multa, Patrones and Ailsa. Varieties Ailsa, Chamak and Dheera showed late maturity as compared to other varieties. The highest dry matter and starch content were recorded in variety Dheera and it was lowest in Kuroda. The highest yield per plant was obtained from Chamak followed by Ailsa, Dheera, Heera and Cardinal and it was lowest in variety Patrones. Considering all aspects in both the seasons, two varieties namely, Chamak and Dheera were noted best performers in terms of disease severity, plant growth and yield.

M. Hossain

2002-01-01

45

The regulatory and waste safety infrastructure of Bangladesh: Present status and future direction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although nuclear energy and ionizing radiation exist as this planet earth exists, the history of human use of these energies is only a little over hundred years old. Nuclear and radiological practices are of immense benefit to society. But, like all other practices, nuclear and radiological practices also involve risks of a special type and nature. People and media are particularly sensitive to the use as well as to any accident or emergency involving the practices. Necessary laws and regulatory bodies have existed in many countries for a long time to control and keep the risks within acceptable limits. Nonetheless, accidents do occur and emergencies arise, which leads to the questioning of such regulatory systems' effectiveness. International interaction and co-operation are essential to addressing societal concerns appropriately. Bangladesh, though late, has also enacted laws and established a regulatory system to control the practices. This paper focuses on the country's regulatory status, hurdles being faced in implementing the legal requirements, and future thinking to increase effectiveness and efficiency. (author)

46

Iodine deficiency status of school going children in coastal region of bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: Bangladesh is an iodine deficient zone, affected mainly in the northern part i.e., in Himalayan belt along Brahmaputra and Jamuna River. Severity of' iodine deficiency can be assessed by prevalence of goitre and urinary iodine excretion. The latest nationwide survey of Iodine Deficiency Disorders of' Bangladesh in 1993 showed prevalence of goitre 47.1% in all age and sex group and 69% of the population had urinary iodine excretion 100 mcg/L. Conclusion: On the basis of goitre prevalence and urinary iodine excretion, coastal region of Bangladesh is a mild iodine deficient zone. (authors)

47

The Elderly Care Services and their Current Situation in Bangladesh: An Understanding from Theoretical Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the aging problem in theoretical perspectives with their relevance in the case of elderly population in Bangladesh highlighting the needs and problems encountered by the elderly. At the same time this study reviews the services for the elderly and their limitations in Bangladesh. The latest section of this article recommends some guidelines with the emphasis on social worker`s roles for the welfare of the elderly in Bangladesh.

Md. Ismail Hossain

2006-01-01

48

The Current Status of Primary Distance Indicators  

CERN Document Server

A review is given of the current status of the primary distance indicators. The relevance of these indicators for determining the local expansion rate and the age of globular clusters is briefly outlined.

Feast, M

2004-01-01

49

Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh:a multivariate analysis  

OpenAIRE

Background: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP) knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh. Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts) of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate ...

Thorvaldsen, Gunnar; Islam, Rakibul

2012-01-01

50

Present status and future prospects of industrial applications of isotopes in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionising radiation is used for quality assurance and quality control of many industrial products. Bangladesh is actively working on the industrial application of isotopes in the fields of non-destructive testing (NDT) of material, nuclear analytical technique, radiation technology, tracer technology through the participation in the UNDP/IAEA/RCA Project for Asia and the Pacific on the industrial application of isotopes and radiation technology. Bangladesh is developing NDT technology to such an extent and standard that the country is attaining self-reliance in this field for service and human resource development and the foreign dependence is becoming greatly reduced. Examples of recent achievements are given

51

Current status of viroid taxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viroids are the smallest autonomous infectious nucleic acids known so far. With a small circular RNA genome of about 250-400 nt, which apparently does not code for any protein, viroids replicate and move systemically in host plants. Since the discovery of the first viroid almost forty-five years ago, many different viroids have been isolated, characterized and, frequently, identified as the causal agents of plant diseases. The first viroid classification scheme was proposed in the early 1990s and adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) a few years later. Here, the current viroid taxonomy scheme and the criteria for viroid species demarcation are discussed, highlighting the main taxonomic questions currently under consideration by the ICTV Viroid Study Group. The impact of correct taxonomic annotation of viroid sequence variants is also addressed, taking into consideration the increasing application of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics for known and previously unrecognized viroids. PMID:25216773

Di Serio, F; Flores, R; Verhoeven, J Th J; Li, S-F; Pallás, V; Randles, J W; Sano, T; Vidalakis, G; Owens, R A

2014-12-01

52

Quality Assurance in Secondary Education Program of Bangladesh Open University: Present Status and Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present day in national and international perspectives, quality is the top of most agendas. Quality of education has significant impact and invaluable contribution to the area of development. Recently, the SSC & HSC program of BOU [Open School of Bangladesh Open University] have earned recognition of equivalency with the formal education…

Akhter, Zobaida

2008-01-01

53

Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh

Islam MR

2012-02-01

54

The current status of radiosurgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: Review the role of radiosurgery in recurrent malignant gliomas for palliative purposes. Review the role of radiosurgery in newly diagnosed malignant glioma as boost therapy and emphasize the randomized clinical trials underway. Review the role of radiosurgery in the management of patients with brain metastases and emphasize the major prognostic factors. Review the recently initiated clinical trials for brain metastases using radiosurgery. Review the role of radiosurgery in the management of benign tumors with specific emphasis on meningioma and acoustic neuroma. Emphasize the rationale for fractionation and present the preliminary results of fractionated stereotactic radiation. Stereotactic localization techniques, originally designed for neurosurgery, have been used to delivery high single doses of radiation to small intracranial targets for more than 25 years, a technique referred to as stereotactic radiosurgery. Radiosurgery has proven to be an attractive alternative to surgery in the management of several benign tumors, such as vestibular schwannomas with better preservation of hearing and facial nerve function than microsurgical resection. For other benign tumors such as meningioma and pituitary adenoma, preliminary results are promising, but longer range studies to confirm high tumor control rates are necessary. For patients with malignant glioma, radiosurgery has been used to escalate the radiation dose to enhance tumor control following surgery andnhance tumor control following surgery and radiation therapy. The rationale for this is grounded in the recent confirmatory randomized prospective trial verifying the value of brachytherapy in this disease. The results of radiosurgery from single institutional experiences for primary and recurrent malignant glioma indicate a palliative benefit as well as a potential survival benefit in a select sub-group of patients based on the appropriate mix of prognostic criteria such as patient age, performance status, tumor size and extent of resection. Several thousand patients with brain metastases have now been treated with radiosurgery with local control rates ranging from 80-100%. Although no prospective randomized comparison with resection has been undertaken, retrospective, well-controlled studies indicate that the overall survival outcome as well as quality of life of patients managed with radiosurgery is equivalent or superior to those managed with surgery. Several cost analysis evaluations indicate that radiosurgery may in fact prove to be the more cost-effective modality for these patients. Randomized trials further evaluating the role of radiosurgery are underway for patients with both metastatic disease as well as malignant glioma. Stereotactic radiotherapy combines the target and dose localization characteristics of radiosurgery with the biological advantages of dose fractionation made possible by the use of relocatable frames which serve to immobilize the patient and localize the target in a reproducible manner. The rationale, methods and limitation of stereotactic radiotherapy as well as the clinical experience and results will be reviewed

55

Engineered barriers: current status 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain substantially the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137Cs), since they can provide a measure of containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

56

Nanodosimetry: Principle and Current Status  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the success of theoretical track structure Monte Carlo simulations, showing that features of ionization patterns on the nanometer level are important for the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, several new methods for experimental track structure investigations have been developed in recent years. These methods all use the principle of density scaling in low-pressure gas to probe track structure in macroscopic dimensions, ideally with single-ionization resolution. The new field of experimental track structure investigation, which has been called nanodosimetry, can be approached in two ways: (1) the number of ionizations in a defined, ideally wall-less, sensitive volume is registered per single primary particle and cluster size distributions are obtained, or (2) the full track structure of an ion track segment is "imaged". Existing nanodosimetric methods are based on the first approach, but a track structure imaging detector is currently under development at Loma Linda University. This contribution will review the principle and existing technical approaches to nanodosimetry and will give an outlook on future developments and applications.

Schulte, Reinhard W.

2011-05-01

57

The status of neutral currents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The situation of particle physics today is quite puzzling. On the one hand, the Standard Model (SM) of strong and electroweak interactions is consistent with all confirmed experimental data but theoretically rather unsatisfactory. On the other hand, none of the many theoretical speculations which try to go beyond the SM has (yet) received the slightest experimental support. The solution to this dilemma can only come from new data: either from the detection of a new particle threshold at high energy colliders, or from the appearance of some small discrepancy in high-precision experiments. A crucial sector for testing the SM and its extensions is that of neutral currents (NC), where an impressive amount of data has been collected in recent years. While waiting for the next generation of experiments, it is certainly useful to take stock of our knowledge, determining the NC parameters as precisely as we can and putting limits on possible deviations from the SM. The present talk contains the results of a recent analysis along these lines: the first part illustrates how a set of 'model-independent' parameters can be extracted from the available NC data, the second part particularizes the analysis to the SM and to some superstring-inspired models with an additional Z' in their low-energy spectrum. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

58

Coronary MR angiography: current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since first described in the early 1990s, coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has evolved as a promising noninvasive modality for imaging of the coronary arteries and evaluation of coronary artery disease. Despite technical limitations, coronary MRA has established value for imaging of anomalous coronary arteries and assessment of bypass graft patency. Current research focuses on the development of optimal respiratory compensation strategies, improved spatial and temporal resolution and faster acquisition of image data. The accurate detection of stenoses and assessment of the severity of coronary atherosclerosis is presently being evaluated with large multi-center studies. With further technique enhancements and more clinical experience, coronary MRA is likely to become the dominant noninvasive modality in clinical cardiology. (orig.) [German] Seit ihrer Erstbeschreibung Anfang der 90er Jahre hat sich die koronare Magnetresonanzangiographie (MRA) zu einem vielversprechenden nichtinvasiven Verfahren zur Darstellung der Koronararterien und zur Beurteilung der koronaren Herzkrankheit entwickelt. Trotz ihrer technischen Grenzen ist die koronare MRA in der Darstellung von Koronararterienanomalien und der Beurteilung der Bypass-Durchgaengigkeit zweifellos von Nutzen. Der Forschungsschwerpunkt liegt derzeit auf der Entwicklung optimaler respiratorischer Kompensationsstrategien, einer verbesserten raeumlichen und zeitlichen Aufloesung und einer schnelleren Sammlung von Bilddaten. Die exakte Erfassung von Stenosen und die Einschaetzung der Schwere einer Atherosklerose werden gegenwaertig in grossen Multicenterstudien evaluiert. Mit technischen Verbesserungen und zunehmender klinischer Erfahrung verspricht die koronare MRA zum ueberragenden nichtinvasiven Verfahren in der klinischen Kardiologie zu werden. (orig.)

Danias, P.G. [Charles A. Dana Research Inst. and the Harvard-Thorndike Lab., Dept. of Medicine, Cardiovascular Div., Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Manning, W.J. [Charles A. Dana Research Inst. and the Harvard-Thorndike Lab., Dept. of Medicine, Cardiovascular Div., Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2000-06-01

59

Analysis of Financial Products of Capital Market in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Development  

OpenAIRE

The performance of existing financial products is an important issue in the capital market to increase the new products for reducing the risk of dependency on common stocks. The research aims are to evaluate the growth and development of existing financial instruments and to recommend for introducing new financial instruments in the capital market of Bangladesh. The data are taken from the Dhaka stock exchange for the year 1977 to 2010 for interpretation of development and the data from 20...

Mohammad Shahidul Islam; Shama Jahan

2012-01-01

60

Beagle 2: Mission to Mars — current status  

OpenAIRE

Beagle 2, developed in the UK, was launched on June 2, 2003. It landed on Mars on December 25th, 2003 in Isidis Planitia, a large sedimentary basin. To date, the team is awaiting signals from the Beagle 2 lander. Current status of the mission will be reported.

Gibson, E. K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Morgan, G. H.; Yau, D.; Stewart, J. L. C.; Leese, M. R.; Praine, I. J.; Sheridan, S.; Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Ebert, S.; Groesmann, F.; Roll, R.; Rosenbauer, H.

2004-01-01

61

The current status of Helicobacter pylori.  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT We present a review of the current status of Helicobacter pylori infection, and focus on the clinical issues facing physicians with regards to its pathogenicity, diagnosis and treatment. We have attempted to address the important clinical issues relevant to the subject, and summarize the currently accepted concepts concerning Helicobacter pylori. Our knowledge regarding Helicobacter pylori biology is enormous, but detailed knowledge on its transmission is s...

Bani-hani, Kamal E.

2002-01-01

62

Relationship of Intestinal Parasites, H. Pylori Infection with Anemia or Iron Status Among School age Children in Rural Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate an association of intestinal parasites orHelicobacter pylori infection with hemoglobin, anemia or iron statusamong rural school aged children in Bangladesh.METHODS: Data and specimens from a controlled trial amongchildren aged 6-15 years old to assess the nutritional impact offortified flour were used to carry out this additional analysis onfactors which effect anemia. Stool samples from 310 children werecollected at the end of the trial and were tested for Helicobacterpylori stool antigen and intestinal parasites. Data on hematologicalparameters were obtained from endline measurements of the trial.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was84% among children with the highest prevalence for Ascaris(71% followed by Trichuris (67% and Hookworm (31%. Theprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was 39.7%. A total of26.8% children were anemic, while low iron status as defined by alow serum ferritin (5.0mg/L respectively was present in 18% and 11% of the children. Nostatistically significant association was found between Helicobacterpylori or any intestinal parasites and hemoglobin concentration,anemia or iron status among the children. However, there was asignificant association between low hemoglobin concentration andlow iron status based on serum ferritin (Coefficient: -0.28, 95% CI-0.54, -0.03 or transferrin receptor level (Coefficient: -0.89, 95% CI-1.18, -0.59 as well as anemia and low iron status based on serumtransferrin receptor (OR 3.57; p<0.01.CONCLUSION: Our results are in line with other studies fromdeveloping countries that showed no significant association betweenintestinal parasites or Helicobacter pylori infection and anemia,hemoglobin or iron status.

Ahmed S Rahman

2013-09-01

63

Hepatitis B Vaccination in Bangladesh: a Suggestion Based on Current Evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionThe hepatitis B virus (HBV causes up to a million deaths worldwide and 16 million health care related infections in the tropics each year(1,2, and over 350 million become chronically infected carriers who have no significant liver disease; approximately three quarters of them are in Asia and the western pacific region(3,4. HBV infection is a potentially life threatening condition as many of the affected individuals progress to chronic hepatitis,cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC(3. In infants and children, acute hepatitis B infection is nearly always asymptomatic, whereas in adults it is usually the opposite. But on the other hand, the risk of becoming chronic carriage is much greater in children than in adults; as many as 90% of infants born to Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg positive mothers become carriers themselves and, therefore, in long term are more likely to developchronic liver disease(5. Currently, though several antiviral drugs are used,there is no reliable curative treatment for HBV once it has been acquired and prevention by universal immunization remains the strategy for reducing the number of acute infections, chronic carriage and the long-term burden from diseases such as HCC(4,6. In 1991, in an attempt to reduce the global impact of HBV infection, WHO recommended that hepatitis B vaccination should be integrated into national immunization programs in all countries(7.Some Asian countries, for instance, Thailand, haveadopted the policy of immunizing children universally against the disease as early as 1992, however many others lagged behind(4.The true prevalence of Hepatitis B in Bangladesh is yet to be ascertained by a reliable study. Data available from different studies show that it ranges between 0.8 and 5.4% depending on the study design, samples and laboratory methods used(8-10.These data were based on detection of HBsAg antigen; the rates would have been higher, had they been based on anti-HBc antibody(11. Relying on these statistics Bangladesh can be categorized as an intermediate endemic zone for HBV(12. Unfortunately, despite an increased prevalence of HBV infection, the country has not incorporated hepatitis B vaccination into its national childhood immunization policy until recently, most probably because of its economic constraints. Presently it offers three doses hepatitis B vaccine to all babies. It is felt that the current regimen was drawn in on the basis of ongoing uncertainties and disagreements surrounding the vaccine all over the globe.Uncertainties Surrounding HBV ImmunizationThe rationale of HBV immunization is illustrated in the box; however uncertainties surrounding HBV immunization do exist, these are:Box: Rationale of Hepatitis B Immunization The rationale of HBV vaccination is to prevent: · Episodes of acute hepatitis B · Chronic hepatitis B surface antigenaemia · Chronic hepatitis and the need for therapy · Hepatocellular carcinoma · HBV transmission Correspondence:Dr. Harunor Rashid, Research Fellow, Academic Departmentof Child Health, Queen Mary University of London, 38 NewRoad, London, E1 2AX, UKFax: +44(02073777167E-mail: h.rashid@qmul.ac.ukHep Mon 2006; 6 (1: 41-44 - Duration of vaccine- induced immunity:It has been shown that immunization with three doses of HBV vaccine provides acceptable level of seroprotection for at least five years(13. Titersdecreased to 99% of the 14 year olds had titers of |“|10mIU/mL while one year after the booster 10mIU/mL after 1 month of first, second and third vaccinations were 58%, 70% and 94% respectively(16. However, it has been observed in other studies that two doses of recombinant HBV vaccine given over 4 or 6 months provide adequate seroprotection (|“|10mIU/mL in |“|95% of adolescent vaccines(13,17. There were small variations in vaccine response between infants and teenagers. The range of protection for different doses is shown in Table(17. If we accept that a level of 80-95% seroprotection is sufficient for Bangladesh then a strategy with only two doses would be more economical.Table:

Shafquat Mohammed Rafiq

2006-12-01

64

Lung xenotransplantation: recent progress and current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xenotransplantation has undergone important progress in controlling initial hyperacute rejection in many preclinical models, with some cell, tissue, and organ xenografts advancing toward clinical trials. However, acute injury, driven primarily by innate immune and inflammatory responses, continues to limit results in lung xenograft models. The purpose of this article is to review the current status of lung xenotransplantation-including the seemingly unique challenges posed by this organ-and summarize proven and emerging means of overcoming acute lung xenograft injury. PMID:25040467

Harris, Donald G; Quinn, Kevin J; Dahi, Siamak; Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Pierson, Richard N

2014-11-01

65

Red Tide Current Status Statewide Information  

Science.gov (United States)

This summary report of current red tide conditions around Florida includes a map of sampling results and regional status reports. Reports are generally updated on Friday afternoon and additional information, if available, is provided on Tuesday afternoon. The web page also includes links to hotlines and reporting sites for red tide effects on marine animals and humans, shellfish information, volunteer opportunities, subscriptions, and related websites.

2009-11-30

66

Current status of cysticercosis in Vietnam  

OpenAIRE

This English review concerning the current status of cysticercosis in Vietnam has been compiled from various reports of studies conducted over the past 15 years, which have appeared in national publications in Vietnamese, in order to make the information available to the international community. Hospital surveys indicate that cysticercosis is emerging as a serious health problem in the country though most of the information comes from the Hanoi area. Many more men than women are being treated...

Willingham, A. L.; De, N. V.; Doanh, N. Q.; Cong, L. D.; Dung, T. V.; Dorny, P.; Cam, P. D.; Dalsgaard, A.

2003-01-01

67

Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the current status of the market and technology for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells and modules. Significant progress in CPV has been achieved, including record efficiencies for modules (36.7%) and cells (46%), as well as growth of large field installations in recent years. CPV technology may also have the potential to be cost-competitive on a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) basis in regions of high direct normal irradiance (DNI). The study includes an overview of all installations larger than 1 MW, information on companies currently active in the CPV field, efficiency data, and estimates of the LCOE in different scenarios.

Philipps, S. P.; Bett, A. W.; Horowitz, K.; Kurtz, S.

2015-01-01

68

Nutrition and Oxidative Parameters in Pregnancy, Size at Birth and Metabolic Status of the Offspring at 4.5 Years : The MINIMat Trial in Rural Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Undernutrition and oxidative stress in fetal life and infancy may lead to adverse health outcomes in the offspring. We studied nutrition and oxidative parameters in pregnancy and their associations with birth anthropometry and metabolic status in the children. In Matlab in rural Bangladesh, women were randomized to either early (Early) invitation to food supplementation or to start at their own liking (Usual). Women were also allocated to either; 1) 60 mg iron and 400 µg folic acid (Fe60F), ...

Lindstro?m, Emma

2012-01-01

69

Status of Tc-99m and 99Mo/99mTc generator production in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotope Production Division (RIPD) produced instant technetium-99m by solvent extraction method for several years. On R and D basis, the division produced portable sterile Tc-99m sublimation generator by irradiating titanium molybdate in the reactor. The division produced (4/batch) from imported fission Mo-99 till June 2005. Since August 2005, as per demand of the government hospitals, the division have been producing 12-14 pieces of 15 GBq chromatographic 99mTc-generators weekly by using the new generator production plant installed last year having online Mo-99 loading system with the of producing 50 generator per batch. Development of PZC and (n,?)99Mo based generator holds potential in Bangladesh. (author)

70

Promotion of well-switching to mitigate the current arsenic crisis in Bangladesh.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To survey tube wells and households in Araihazar upazila, Bangladesh, to set the stage for a long-term epidemiological study of the consequences of chronic arsenic exposure. METHODS: Water samples and household data were collected over a period of 4 months in 2000 from 4997 contiguous tube wells serving a population of 55000, the position of each well being determined to within +/- 30 m using Global Positioning System receivers. Arsenic concentrations were determined by graphite-fu...

van Geen Alexander; Ahsan Habibul; Horneman Allan H.; Dhar Ratan K.; Zheng Yan; Hussain Iftikhhar; Ahmed Kazi Matin; Gelman Andrew; Stute Martin; James, Simpson H.; Wallace Sean; Small Christopher; Parvez Faruque; Slavkovich Vesna; LoIacono Nancy J.

2002-01-01

71

Current status and installation of dental PACS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is difficult to implement in the best of situations, but evidence is growing that the benefits are significant. The aims of this study are to analyze the current status of full PACS and establish successful installation standard of dental PACS. Materials and Methods were based on the investigation of current working status and installation standard of PACS, and observation of variable issues to installation of dental PACS. By September 30, 2004, full PACS implementations in their facilities were 88.1% in specialized general hospitals (37 installations out of total 42 hospitals), 59.8% in general hospitals (144 installations out of total 241 hospitals), 12.3% in medical hospitals (116 installations out of total 941 hospitals) and 3.6% in dental hospitals (4 installations out of total 110 hospitals). Only 4 university dental hospitals currently have installed and are operating full PACS. Major obstacle to wide spread of dental PACS is initial high investments. Clinical environments of dental PACS differed from medical situation. Because of characteristic dental practice, the initial investments for dental PACS are generally much greater than those of medical PACS. Also new economic crisis makes users scruple. The best way to overcome these limitations is to establish an economic installation standard for dental PACS. Also the clear technical communication between the customer and the supplier before both sides are commit the supplier before both sides are committed to the obstacles are critical to its success.

72

Context and the Gendered Status of Teachers: Women's Empowerment through Leadership of Non-Formal Schooling in Rural Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Empowering women to control and change their lives continues to be an important goal for many nations. This article examines the empowering effects of being selected and trained to lead rural schools in Bangladesh, using survey and interview data from 152 village women working with the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee education programme.…

Sperandio, Jill

2011-01-01

73

Productive and reproductive efficiency of different genotypes of goat in Bangladesh influenced by nutritional status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experiment is being conducted in flood fed area in the western part and hilly area in the eastern part of Bangladesh covering rural and urban areas with Black Bengal and crossbred (Black Bengal X Shirohi) goats to find out the effect of nutrition on growth and reproductive performances. Pure Black Bengal goats and crossbred goats were selected from the rural area of two regions. Purity of the goats was ascertained through history of the animals as well as microsatellites test. Black Bengal goats were reared under normal grazing condition without any supplementation in both the regions. Crossbred goats were maintained in the urban area of the western part and kept on grazing as well as supplementation (green leaves and concentrates). All the experimental goats were dewormed and vaccinated against PPR regularly. The experiment started in January 2007 and still is continuing. Litter size, kidding interval, birth weight, weaning weight and yearling weight are the parameters that are being recoded. The results presented here represent the data from January 2007 to August 2008. The birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, litter size and kidding interval for different genotypes in different regions have been presented in a Table. Within the Black Bengal goats, birth weight, weaning weight and yearling weight were more in group maintained in hilly area than those reared in flood fed area. There was no significant difference of birth weight between two groups; howee of birth weight between two groups; however weaning weight and yearling weight of goats reared in hilly region were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those of goats reared in flood fed area. Reproductive parameters like litter size and kidding interval performances were also better in goats reared in hilly area. The flood fed area is inundated by floodwater every year; paddy is cultivated throughout the year and has very limited grazing land with high human population density. Animals in this area always suffer from malnutrition due to lack of sufficient forages. The hilly area remains free of flood, covered by dense forest and has a vast grazing land with low human population density. Animals in this area get sufficient forage naturally. The better performances in growth and reproduction in goats reared in hilly area is certainly for better nutrition that occurs naturally. On the hand, crossbred maintained urban area had better performances over Black Bengal goats. This may be for heterosis effect as well as supplementation of feeds. The preliminary study of this experiment indicates that nutrition as well as genotypes has significant influence in the production and reproduction performances of goats in Bangladesh. In fact, this is the first work on Black Bengal goats in the hilly area and crossbred goats of Bangladesh. Further experiment has been planned for confirming this fact. (author)

74

Diversity of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT of Bangladesh was considered hyperendemic for malaria. To better understand the contemporary malaria epidemiology and to develop new and innovative control strategies, comprehensive epidemiologic studies are ongoing in two endemic unions of Bandarban district of CHT. Within these studies entomological surveillance has been undertaken to study the role of the existing anopheline species involved in the malaria transmission cycle throughout the year. Methods CDC miniature light traps were deployed to collect anopheline mosquitoes from the sleeping room of the selected houses each month in a single union (Kuhalong. Molecular identification was carried out for available Anopheles species complexes. Circumsporozoite proteins (CSP for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax-210 (Pv-210 and Plasmodium vivax-247(Pv-247 were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from the female anopheline mosquitoes. To confirm CSP-ELISA results, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also performed. Results A total of 2,837 anopheline mosquitoes, of which 2,576 were female, belonging to 20 species were collected from July 2009?-June 2010. Anopheles jeyporiensis was the most abundant species (18.9%, followed by An. vagus (16.8% and An. kochi (14.4%. ELISA was performed on 2,467 female mosquitoes of 19 species. 15 (0.6% female anophelines belonging to eight species were found to be positive for Plasmodium infection by CSP-ELISA. Of those, 11 (0.4% mosquitoes were positive for P. falciparum and four (0.2% for Pv-210. No mosquito was found positive for Pv-247. An. maculatus (2.1%, 2/97 had the highest infection rate followed by An. umbrosus (1.7%, 2/115 and An. barbirostris (1.1%, 2/186. Other infected species were An. nigerrimus, An. nivipes, An. jeyporiensis, An. kochi, and An. vagus. Out of 11 P. falciparum CSP positive samples, seven turned out to be positive by PCR. None of the samples positive for Pv-210 was positive by PCR. In terms of abundance and incrimination, the results suggest that An. maculatus, An. jeyporiensis and An. nivipes play important roles in malaria transmission in Kuhalong. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that even in the presence of an insecticide impregnated bed-net intervention, a number of Anopheles species still play a role in the transmission of malaria. Further investigations are required to reveal the detailed biology and insecticide resistance patterns of the vector mosquito species in endemic areas in Bangladesh in order to assist with the planning and implementation of improved malaria control strategies.

Alam Mohammad

2012-07-01

75

The ENIQ pilot study: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

76

The ENIQ pilot study: current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

1998-11-01

77

MIRI telescope simulator (MTS) current status  

Science.gov (United States)

MTS (MIRI telescope simulator) is the Spanish contribution to the JWST Project. MTS is a part of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the Assembly Integration and Verification (AIV) and Calibration phase of the MIRI instrument at the RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) facilities. Briefly, MTS main objetive consists on delivering a diffraction-limited test beam, including the obscuration and mask pattern, to the MIRI instrument that reproduces the output beam of the JWST in environmental conditions similar to those corresponding to the flight. In this work, the current status of the project is reported on. Mainly, after a description of the whole instrument and the optomechanical performances required, the paper will be focused on the current status of the purchase and characterization of certain critical elements belonging to the different subsystems. The first step has been the verification of the thermoelastic behaviour of its structure, employing a mass prototype. Both extensometer measurements and optical measurements with alignment mirror cubes have been carried out during a thermal vacuum test of this MTS prototype. The correlation of the measurements, optically and mechanically, will provide a better knowledge of the structure behavior and will be used to define the integration process.

Herrada, F. J.; Eiriz, V.; Alcacera, M. A.; Aricha, A.; Balado, A.; Barandiaran, J.; Berenguer, T.; Diaz, E.; Figueroa, I.; Gonzalez, L. M.; Lopez, R.; Menendez, M.; Bernardo, A. M.; Reina, M.; Sanchez, A.; Garcia, G.; Jimenez, A.; Colombo, M.; Canchal, M. R.; Rodriguez, J. A.

2007-09-01

78

Status of Household’s Ducks and their Associated Factors under Scavenging System in a Southern Area of Bangladesh*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the status of household ducks and factors affects the productivity of ducks in Companiganj upazila under Noakhali district of Bangladesh. For this study the information was collected by direct interview using a questionnaire from 30 households. The study showed that duck rearing was mostly lead by the women (80% and their level of education varied from primary (43% to higher secondary (7%. The average farm size was found to be six and they were mostly local ducks (90%. Marshy lands were common (67% to the surroundings of the duck habitats. Most of the farmers depended on natural feed sources (60% while some provided supplementary feed (40% for their ducks. As a supplementary feed, 27% of the farmers used rice polish and17% used a mixture of rice polish and boil rice. Duck started their first laying at 6 months of age and the mean egg production per duck per year was 114 ±16 no. The diseases were more common during winter (63% than other seasons of the year. It was found that good egg production (> mean production was associated with the regular use of anthelmintics, supplementary feed, presence of marshy land and regular treatment. Zending was found to be good egg producer in marshy area than other three native breeds of ducks.

Ghosh S1, Haider N2 and Khan MKI1*

2012-01-01

79

Analysis of Financial Products of Capital Market in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Development  

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Full Text Available The performance of existing financial products is an important issue in the capital market to increase the new products for reducing the risk of dependency on common stocks. The research aims are to evaluate the growth and development of existing financial instruments and to recommend for introducing new financial instruments in the capital market of Bangladesh. The data are taken from the Dhaka stock exchange for the year 1977 to 2010 for interpretation of development and the data from 2003 to 2010 are taken for analysis and hypothesis test. There are only five products traded including three types of bonds. The average growth rate of market capitalization of common stocks, treasury bonds, mutual funds, corporate bonds & debentures are 71.02%, 124.74%, 99.85% and 105.41% respectively. The growth of market capitalization of all products is high. There is lot of scope in the market for absorbing the new products. The share of common stocks, treasury bond, corporate bond, debentures, mutual funds to total market capitalizations are 87.73%, 12.25%, 0.24%,0.17% and  0.83% respectively. The market is common stock based. The corporate bond market is very small. So, there should be increased new financial instruments in the capital market to reduce the dependency on share only. The proposed financial instruments are various types of preferred stock, bond, SWAP, option, futures, and forwards as recommendation.

Mohammad Shahidul Islam

2012-09-01

80

Evaluation of the impact of the voucher and accreditation approach on improving reproductive behaviors and RH status: Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost of delivering reproductive health services to low-income populations will always require total or partial subsidization by the government and/or development partners. Broadly termed "Demand-Side Financing" or "Output-Based Aid", includes a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the service user rather than the service provider. Initial findings from the few assessments of reproductive health voucher-and-accreditation programs suggest that, if implemented well, these programs have great potential for achieving the policy objectives of increasing access and use, reducing inequities and enhancing program efficiency and service quality. At this point in time, however, there is a paucity of evidence describing how the various voucher programs function in different settings, for various reproductive health services. Methods/Design Population Council-Nairobi, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to address the lack of evidence around the pros and cons of 'voucher and accreditation' approaches to improving the reproductive health of low income women in five developing countries. In Bangladesh, the activities will be conducted in 11 accredited health facilities where Demand Side Financing program is being implemented and compared with populations drawn from areas served by similar non-accredited facilities. Facility inventories, client exit interviews and service provider interviews will be used to collect comparable data across each facility for assessing readiness and quality of care. In-depth interviews with key stakeholders will be conducted to gain a deeper understanding about the program. A population-based survey will also be carried out in two types of locations: areas where vouchers are distributed and similar locations where vouchers are not distributed. Discussion This is a quasi-experimental study which will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving maternal health behaviors and status and reducing inequities at the population level. We expect a significant increase in the utilization of maternal health care services by the accredited health facilities in the experimental areas compared to the control areas as a direct result of the interventions. If the voucher scheme in Bangladesh is found effective, it may help other countries to adopt this approach for improving utilization of maternity care services for reducing maternal mortality.

Rahman Moshiur

2011-04-01

81

Current Scenario of the Small-scale Broiler Farming in Bangladesh: Potentials for the Future Projection  

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Full Text Available In Bangladesh, there are two types of broiler farming of which contract broiler farming is still under trial while independent small-scale broiler farming is dominant and performed for the development of broiler sector. The present study examined the potentials of small-scale independent broiler farms and farmers’ economic behavior in relation to farm size. Farm size is found to be closely related to farmers’ behavior and attitude. Farmers’ behavior and attitude appeared to be very crucial factor for the development of broiler production. The primary data were collected from the independent small-scale farms in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. The results showed that independent small-scale broiler farming is a profitable venture for rural farmers. Farmers are involving in this sector because of lower investment, less space requirement, utilization of family labor and quick returns. To examine the farmers’ behavior, farmers were classified into two income goal groups in terms of total per capita income: a First Income Goal Group (FIGG and b Second Income Goal Group (SIGG. The economic behaviors of the farmers were differed by income goal groups. Most of the farmers belonging to the FIGG were interested to enlarge their farm size, the opposed trend has been observed in farmers of SIGG. Economic behavior and attitude should be considered in making any suggestion and recommendation for changing the existing level of small-scale broiler farming.

Kaniz Quamrun Nahar Chhabi

2010-01-01

82

Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.iaccarino@unina.it; Venetucci, Pietro [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Diagnostic Imaging Department-Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy)

2012-12-15

83

Current status of the LORD experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current status of the Lunar Orbit Radio Detector (LORD) experiment to search for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR), using the Moon as both a target for the UHECR interaction and radiator for production Cherenkov radio emission. The scientific potential of this new technology is estimated for a reasonable configuration of experiment by analytic modeling. It is shown that such radio wave experiment can be competitive with modern projects in this field. The simplest technically realizable architecture for the first generation of the LORD instrument, disposed on a standard lunar space platform designed by Lavochkin association, is elaborated. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed, including effects associated with the finite depth of the regolith layer. The signature of the cascade signal is different from the background, and discrimination between CR and neutrino cascades might be possible.

Gusev, G.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 53, Moscow 117924 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gusev@sci.lebedev.ru; Chechin, V.A.; Lomonosov, B.N. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 53, Moscow 117924 (Russian Federation); Pichkhadze, K.M. [Lavochkin Association, Leningradskoe Shosse 24, Moscow Region, Chimki 141400 (Russian Federation); Polukhina, N.G.; Ryabov, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 53, Moscow 117924 (Russian Federation); Sysoev, V.K. [Lavochkin Association, Leningradskoe Shosse 24, Moscow Region, Chimki 141400 (Russian Federation); Tsarev, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 53, Moscow 117924 (Russian Federation)

2009-06-01

84

Biotechnology in Mauritius: current status and constraints  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Agriculture today faces the challenge of sustainable productivity and improved food security on a shrinking area of land under cultivation. Until recently, biotechnology has been viewed as an expensive technology affordable only by rich industrial countries. However, it is now increasingly considere [...] d as an essential tool for developing countries to tackle the numerous problems of underdevelopment. Unfortunately, to date, Mauritius, like many other countries in Africa, lags far behind in development, use and commercialisation of biotechnology. This paper outlines the current status of biotechnology in Mauritius, some important constraints faced, as well as how policy makers are planning to make Mauritius “assume the role of a service provider and know-how disseminator in the field of biotechnology by acting as a regional hub and a regional nursery”.

Daneshwar, Puchooa.

2004-08-15

85

Current status in Japan related to LMNPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current status of nuclear power plants in Japan is presented with the basic concepts against ageing of LWR plants which are considered to continue growing into the 21st century. Life management for aged NPPs is recognized to be important for the safe and reliable operation. In April 1996 MITI published the first report regarding the measures to cope with the aged NPPs. Two BWRs and one PWR were evaluated as aged NPPs in Phase-I Technical evaluation, which concluded that safe operation is possible with correct and adequate maintenance despite operation exceeded 30 years. The technology development items towards attaining further highly reliable management were indicated including the inspection/monitoring technology, the preventive maintenance/repair technology and ageing evaluation technology

86

Current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research and production of medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in China began in 1958. After more than 47 years development, a comparatively complete production and management system has been built up and well equipped. Department of isotopes of China Institute of Atomic Energy is the major producer and supplier in China. Up to date, there are 5 reactors and 4 cyclotrons for medical isotopes production. Till to May 2005, there are about 65 sets of PET including 11 sets of PET/CT, with about 43 small cyclotrons for clinical on line use. More than 395 sets of SPECT including 91 sets of coincident circuit have been built up in the whole nation. This review will introduce current status of radiopharmaceuticals in vivo in China. The emphases will be put on the following four aspects.

87

Current status of the LORD experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of the Lunar Orbit Radio Detector (LORD) experiment to search for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR), using the Moon as both a target for the UHECR interaction and radiator for production Cherenkov radio emission. The scientific potential of this new technology is estimated for a reasonable configuration of experiment by analytic modeling. It is shown that such radio wave experiment can be competitive with modern projects in this field. The simplest technically realizable architecture for the first generation of the LORD instrument, disposed on a standard lunar space platform designed by Lavochkin association, is elaborated. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed, including effects associated with the finite depth of the regolith layer. The signature of the cascade signal is different from the background, and discrimination between CR and neutrino cascades might be possible.

88

Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for ?-amyloid plaques, ?1 receptors, and dopamine D2 or D4 receptors; (2) 99mTc- and 18F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, 99mTc-labeled glucose derivatives, ?2 receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

89

Management of Village Common Forests in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh: Historical Background and Current Issues in Terms of Sustainability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the historical management system of village common forests (VCF in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT of Bangladesh and observe the current issues related to their sustainability. The study on historical context was based on secondary information to establish the linkages of VCF development and management in the CHT. Field visits to four VCF in the Bandarban Hill Districts were also conducted to cross check the information collected from secondary sources to observe the current status and management pattern of these VCF through semi-structured interviews, group discussion, key-informant interviews and biodiversity assessment. VCF in the CHT undoubtedly play an important role in biodiversity conservation and as well as supporting daily necessities of the community people. We found that VCF still are the source of fuel wood, herbs, roots, bamboo shoots, wild fruits, vines or leaves for cooking or medicinal use necessary to sustain the lives of the indigenous communities in the CHT. Field visits to different VCF show that the VCF are necessarily small in size (57 ha and around 108 families are dependent on these community managed village forests. A total of 163 plant species from 60 families were also recorded from these VCF including some rare plant and animal species which are not usually found in the reserve forests and the un-classed state forests due to continued deforestation and land degradation. However, population pressure combined with improved marketing facilities, ignorance, over exploitation, personal greed, tenure insecurity, faulty government policies regarding settlement of land and breakdown of the traditional systems exerting pressures on these VCF and the overall condition of these important biodiversity rich areas are degrading or shrinking in size and number gradually. Recognizing the traditional and customary resource rights of the indigenous communities in the CHT, acknowledging resource management system, providing tenure security, encouraging communities through legal and financial incentives in protecting these VCF or any other state owned forest areas solely for the conservation of biodiversity following an intensive management plan, resolving long lasting land related conflicts, and at the same time upholding the spirit of CHT Peace Accord 1997 could be important policy tools for the sustainability of these VCF in the CHT. Lessons learned from this study will be useful in formulating effective policies for community based forest management in Bangladesh and other developing countries.

Mohammed Jashimuddin

2012-07-01

90

Current status of human papillomavirus vaccines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm arising from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. It is the second most prevalent cancer among women. It can have several causes; an infection with some type of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer. Over 100 types of HPVs have been identified, and more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region. Among these, a number of HPVs types, containing types 16 and 18, are classified as "high-risk" HPVs that can cause cervical cancer. The HPVs vaccine prevents infection with certain species of HPVs associated with the development of cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers. Two HPVs vaccines are currently on the global market: quadrivalent HPVs vaccine and bivalent HPV vaccine that use virus-like particles as a vaccine antigen. This review discusses the current status of HPVs vaccines on the global market, clinical trials, and the future of HPVs vaccine development. PMID:25003090

Kim, Kwang Sung; Park, Shin Ae; Ko, Kyung-Nam; Yi, Seokjae; Cho, Yang Je

2014-07-01

91

Edible vaccines: Current status and future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

Lal P

2007-01-01

92

The current status of Helicobacter pylori.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

We present a review of the current status of Helicobacter pylori infection, and focus on the clinical issues facing physicians with regards to its pathogenicity, diagnosis and treatment. We have attempted to address the important clinical issues relevant to the subject, and summarize the currently accepted concepts concerning Helicobacter pylori. Our knowledge regarding Helicobacter pylori biology is enormous, but detailed knowledge on its transmission is still far from clear. Helicobacter pylori is mainly involved in gastrointestinal and possibly in other extra-intestinal disorders. There are differences in the clinical presentation in various geographical regions resulting from variations in the genetic make-up of Helicobacter pylori. There is still need for more simple, cost-effective, accurate and less invasive diagnostic techniques. The gold standard treatment is the one-week proton pump inhibitor-based triple regimen as first line, with quadruple therapy as a 2nd line. Helicobacter pylori resistance to the main antimicrobials needs to be defined in particular geographical areas.

Kamal E. Bani-Hani

2002-04-01

93

Association between Infant and Child-feeding Index and Nutritional Status: Results from a Cross-sectional Study among Children Attending an Urban Hospital in Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Integration of infant and child-feeding index (ICFI) addressing the multidimensional child-feeding practices into one age-specific summary index is gaining importance. This cross-sectional study was aimed at understanding the association between the ICFI and the nutritional status of 259 children, aged 6-23 months, who attended the paediatric outpatient department of the Dhaka Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh. The mean length-for-age z-score (LAZ) of children aged 12-23 months was signi...

Khatoon, Tahmina; Mollah, Md Abid Hossain; Choudhury, Ahmed Murtaza; Islam, M. Munirul; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur

2011-01-01

94

QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SECONDARY EDUCATION PROGRAME OF BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY: Present Status and Challenges  

OpenAIRE

In the present day in national and international perspectives, quality is the top of most agendas. Quality of education has significant impact and invaluable contribution to the area of development. Recently, the SSC & HSC program of BOU have earned recognition of equivalency with the formal education sector, which has naturally raised the question of quality assurance of these programs By applying the quantitative method, the study has assessed the present status of the quality of SSC & HSC ...

Akhter, Zobaida

2008-01-01

95

Current status of JENDL-3.3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current status of JENDL-3.3 is presented. Reevaluation work toward JENDL-3.3 has started last April for three years project to supply a consolidated new versions of JENDL by JAERI NDC (Nuclear Data center) with the cooperation of JNDC (Japanese Nuclear Data Committee). The working schedule has been fixed by the careful review of the summary report, `The problems of JENDL-3.2`, submitted to JNDC last March after one year discussions by a small advisory group: `Identifying the problems of JENDL-3.2`. To cope with the problems, two new subgroups are set up in the Subcommittee of Nuclear Data of JNDC. One is Heavy Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for the re-evaluation of major actinides (Th-232, U-233,235,236,238, Pu-236,239,241,242). The other is Intermediate Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for solving the inconsistencies between calculations and integral experiments relating to the fields of fusion neutronics and shielding applications as well as new evaluations such as Er elements. Supplying covariance data for important nuclides are one of the main feature of JENDL-3.3. Re-evaluated data will be released as JENDL-3.3 in the individual bases after the reviewing process by the experts. (author)

Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

1998-03-01

96

Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for ?-amyloid plaques, ?{sub 1} receptors, and dopamine D{sub 2} or D{sub 4} receptors; (2) {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 18}F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled glucose derivatives, ?{sub 2} receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

Jia, Hong-Mei; Liu, Bo-Li [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals

2014-04-01

97

Current Status of ESTA-Task2  

Science.gov (United States)

A report on the current status of the ESTA- Task 2 (oscillation frequencies comparison) is presented. Several types of comparisons have been made using the frequencies provided by different numerical codes. The equilibrium model is the same for all of them, and additionally some requirements such as boundary conditions, no re-meshing, etc, are also imposed. Some unexpected differences appear in the frequency and large separation comparisons. In the high frequency region these differences can be due to the order of the integration scheme used to solve the partial differential equations (or to the lack of number of mesh points in the outer layers). In the region around the fundamental radial mode and the low frequency region, important differences appear for the avoided crossing and the trapped modes respectively, the reason maybe due to the different sensitivity of each code to the profile of the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. The next step will be to test the accuracy of the codes using a model with a larger number of mesh points and with a better described Brunt-Väisälä frequency.

Moya, A.

98

Current Status of TRR-1/M1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1961, the first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1, having power of 1 MW was established. It was located at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) in Bangkok. TRR-1 was completely commissioned in June 1962. Plate typed high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U3O8-Al were used as fuel. Light water used as moderator and coolant. During 1975-1977, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. It is a circular hexagonal core typed reactor designed by General Atomics Company (GA). Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to Thai Research Reactor 1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. This swimming pool typed reactor uses low-enriched uranium (LEU) as fuel and light water as coolant and moderator. To date, the reactor has been operated with core No.12 that released power 1135 MWD to serve the user. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization, for example, to produce radioisotope, neutron beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. This report explains in detail regarding operational experience and current status of this reactor, for example, reactor operation and reactor utilization. (author)

99

Current Status of the Large Millimeter Telescope  

Science.gov (United States)

I will briefly describe the current status of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT), the near-term plans for the telescope and the initial suite of instrumentation. I will also summarize some of the results of the Early Science Phase that took place in the summer of 2013. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between Mexico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are complete at the 4600m LMT site on the summit of Volcan Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. First light with the LMT (inner 32mdiameter) was successfully conducted in June and July of 2011, as well as the Early Science Phase in May-July 2013 with observations at both the 3 and 1.1mm wave-bands. The LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

Chavez, M.; LMT Team

2014-03-01

100

Association of Clinical Complications with Nutritional Status and the Prevalence of Leukopenia among Arsenic Patients in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study conducted in Bangladesh reports the relationship of clinical complications with nutritional status and the prevalence of leukopenia among arsenic exposed patients living in the rural villages. A total of 115 exposed individuals diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were randomly selected from four known arsenic endemic villages, and age-matched 120 unexposed subjects were enrolled in the study program. The duration of arsenic exposure in about 37% of the patients was at least 10 yrs, while the population mean and range were 7.6 ± 5.2 yrs, and 1 – 25 yrs, respectively. The mean arsenic concentrations in the drinking water for the exposed and unexposed (control population were 218.1 μg/L and 11.3 μg/L, respectively. The spot urine sample of the arsenicosis patients contained an average of 234.6 μg/L arsenic. Although very few patients showed elevated WBC count, 16% had leukopenia (below normal count, and the whole population had significantly low WBC count than the control subjects. Prevalences of neutropenia and lymphocytosis were observed in patients with chronic exposure to high levels of arsenic in water. The body mass index was found to be lower than 18.5, the cut-off point for malnutrition (underweight, in about 28% of the arsenicosis cases compared to 15% of the controls. The monthly income and total calorie consumption per day showed the patients were underprivileged than the controls. Arsenical symptoms and complications were more severe in the nutritionally vulnerable (underweight patients than the overweight ones. Also, the incidences of leukopenia and anaemia were more common in the female patients who were underweight. The findings of this research demonstrate that the poor nutritional status of patients increases the complications of chronic arsenic toxicity; suggest the possibility of other sources of arsenic contamination different from drinking water in the study area; and establish a higher prevalence of leukopenia and lymphocytosis in arsenicosis patients.

Azizul I. Kazi

2004-09-01

101

QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SECONDARY EDUCATION PROGRAME OF BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY: Present Status and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present day in national and international perspectives, quality is the top of most agendas. Quality of education has significant impact and invaluable contribution to the area of development. Recently, the SSC & HSC program of BOU have earned recognition of equivalency with the formal education sector, which has naturally raised the question of quality assurance of these programs By applying the quantitative method, the study has assessed the present status of the quality of SSC & HSC program of BOU and also put some recommendations to meet the challenges for further development.

Zobaida AKHTER

2008-04-01

102

Current status of JMTR refurbishment project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JMTR is a light water moderated and cooled, beryllium reflected tank- type reactor using LUE silicide plate-type fuels. Its thermal power is 50 MW, maximum thermal and fast neutron flux is 4x1018 m-2s-1. First criticality was achieved in March 1968, and its operation was stopped from August, 2006 for the refurbishment. The refurbishment is scheduled from the beginning of FY2007 to the end of FY2010. The renewed and upgraded JMTR will be re-started from FY2011. An investigation on aged components (aged-investigation) was carried out for concrete structures of the JMTR reactor building, exhaust stack, etc., and for tanks in the primary cooling system, heat exchangers, pipes in the secondary cooling system, cooling tower, emergency generators and so on, in order to identify their integrity. The aged-investigation was carried out at the beginning of FY2007. As a result, some components were decided to replace from viewpoints of future maintenance and improvement of reliability, and some components or structures were decided to repair. A visual inspection of inner side of the pressure vessel was carried out using an underwater camera in FY2008, and no serious damage was observed. Up to now, refurbishment works are in progress according to the planned schedule. In FY2009, motors of primary cooling pumps, secondary cooling pumps, motors of drain pumps, pump in the primary water transfer line to the water purification system, beryllium reflector frame, low-voltage motor control centers are to be replaced. A nuclear instrumentation system, process control system, safety protection system and so on are to be replaced in FY2010. In this paper, current status of JMTR refurbishment project is presented. (author)

103

Beagle 2: Mission to Mars - Current Status  

Science.gov (United States)

Beagle 2 is a 72 kg probe (with a 32 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 was launched on June 2, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 landed on Mars on December 25th, 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 10.7 N and 268.6 W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest impact basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. The team is awaiting signals from the Beagle 2 lander at the time when this abstract was written. Current status of the mission will be reported. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Several fundamental properties can be used to determine the existence of an active or past biology on any planet, Earth or Mars. Beagle 2's targets for investigation included: (a) The presence of water, or the existence of minerals deposited from water to show that water was present, even if only transiently; (b) The detection of carbonaceous debris, the remains of organisms that might have lived in water or were washed to a final resting place by the action of water; (c) The structure of organic matter, to demonstrate that it might have been synthesized for a biological purpose; (d) The recognition of isotopic fractionation between carbonaceous phases (organic vs inorganic carbon phases), a condition which on Earth suggests that life emerged nearly 4 billion years ago.

Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Morgan, G. H.; Yau, D.; Stewart, J. L. C.; Leese, M. R.; Praine, I. J.; Sheridan, S.

2004-01-01

104

The status of storage of spent fuel from reactors. Bangladesh perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the current strategy with regard to the safe management and disposal of various waste types, spent fuels, amount of spent fuel stored, storage facilities as well as capacities, storage facilities under construction and planning, national policy for the back end of the fuel cycle and anticipated future trends are highlighted. (author)

105

Current status of the US RERTR Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the status of the RERTR Program. The main objective is to provide the audience with some orientation and sense of perspective that may assist in viewing the other program presentations as part of an overall effort, rather than as separate and unrelated activities

106

Current status of food irradiation in the world. Trend in Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review describes the current status of food irradiation in the world and particularly, its trends in Asia, based on the report of the economic scale investigation on the irradiation in United States and Japan (2001) and on the information of 12th International Meeting on Radiation Processing in France in 2001 and on personal communications. International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation promotes its activities of irradiation globally and 46 countries are affiliated. Food irradiation is allowed in 52 countries. In 1999, 257,000 t of food is irradiated in the world, of which 1/3 is due to spice. The facilities for the irradiation have such sources as 60Co and 137Cs ?-rays, electron beam of <10 MeV and X-ray with <5 MeV. Detection methods of irradiated foods are summarized by the project of Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Foods. The US is the most advanced country in the irradiation and, in Japan, only irradiation of potato is permitted. The detailed present status is also described of Bangladesh, China (the irradiation is most widely conducted in the world), India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. Recently Australia and New Zealand have started the irradiation. (K.H.)

107

STAY HERE, GO FURTHER: The Status of Open and Distance Education in Bangladesh Open University (BOU in comparison to two other South Asian Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distance education has emerged out of social compulsion, the dynamics of change and new cultures. It was the failure of traditional systems to be able to meet the demand in countries, where the resources available for tertiary education are limited, which basically gave birth to the new trend of education known as open and distance education. This new and innovative system of education has received a high level of acceptance in different countries as it offers flexible educational opportunities for continuing education to a large segment of their population. The increasing number of older adult learners with varying lifestyles in the population, increasing competitiveness of getting places in tertiary institutions, higher cost of education and a shortage of teachers are the main factors for increasing the popularity of distance education (Duncan, et al., 2003. Bangladesh has also taken the opportunity to provide a uniform and mass oriented universal system of education through open and distance education establishing Bangladesh Open University (BOU in 1992. Objectives of the Study: The main objectives of this study are-? to assess the overall status of BOU in comparison with the open universities of two neighboring South Asian countries considering the following aspects:•Administrative structural functions, •Courses and instructional strategies, •Learning opportunities, and •Library, laboratory and counselling facilities to explore the potential of improvement for BOU to enable it to meet the challenges of the country’s educational needs in the next millennium.

Monira JAHAN

2012-01-01

108

Prevalence of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in epidemic-prone border areas of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Information related to malaria vectors is very limited in Bangladesh. In the changing environment and various Anopheles species may be incriminated and play role in the transmission cycle. This study was designed with an intention to identify anopheline species and possible malaria vectors in the border belt areas, where the malaria is endemic in Bangladesh. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three border belt areas (Lengura, Deorgachh and Matiranga during the peak malaria transmission season (May to August. Three different methods were used: human landing catches, resting collecting by mouth aspirator and CDC light traps. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was done to detect Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax-210 and Plasmodium vivax-247 circumsporozoite proteins (CSP from the collected female species. Results A total of 634 female Anopheles mosquitoes belonging to 17 species were collected. Anopheles vagus (was the dominant species (18.6% followed by Anopheles nigerrimus (14.5% and Anopheles philippinensis (11.0%. Infection rate was found 2.6% within 622 mosquitoes tested with CSP-ELISA. Eight (1.3% mosquitoes belonging to five species were positive for P. falciparum, seven (1.1% mosquitoes belonging to five species were positive for P. vivax -210 and a single mosquito (0.2% identified as Anopheles maculatus was positive for P. vivax-247. No mixed infection was found. Highest infection rate was found in Anopheles karwari (22.2% followed by An. maculatus (14.3% and Anopheles barbirostris (9.5%. Other positive species were An. nigerrimus (4.4%, An. vagus (4.3%, Anopheles subpictus (1.5% and An. philippinensis (1.4%. Anopheles vagus and An. philippinensis were previously incriminated as malaria vector in Bangladesh. In contrast, An. karwari, An. maculatus, An. barbirostris, An. nigerrimus and An. subpictus had never previously been incriminated in Bangladesh. Conclusion Findings of this study suggested that in absence of major malaria vectors there is a possibility that other Anopheles species may have been playing role in malaria transmission in Bangladesh. Therefore, further studies are required with the positive mosquito species found in this study to investigate their possible role in malaria transmission in Bangladesh.

Nazib Forida

2010-01-01

109

Current status of VHTR development in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of the program at the beginning of fiscal 1982 is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the altering of the output helium temperature of the experimental VHTR to 9500. The modification is aimed at establishing the technical basis for post-experimental VHTR output helium temperature of 10000C. Notes are given on the design of the VHTR as well as various research and development efforts in Japan on multi-purpose nuclear heat applications and HTGR technology

110

Current status of fast reactor physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented

111

Relationship of Intestinal Parasites, H. Pylori Infection with Anemia or Iron Status Among School age Children in Rural Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To investigate an association of intestinal parasites orHelicobacter pylori infection with hemoglobin, anemia or iron statusamong rural school aged children in Bangladesh.METHODS: Data and specimens from a controlled trial amongchildren aged 6-15 years old to assess the nutritional impact offortified flour were used to carry out this additional analysis onfactors which effect anemia. Stool samples from 310 children werecollected at the end of the trial and were tested for Helicobacterpyl...

Rahman, Ahmed S.; Sarker, Shafiqul A.; Tahmeed Ahmed; Wahed, Mohammad A.; Rafiqul Islam; Sack, David A.

2013-01-01

112

Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in Spent Fuel Management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation in this area, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to elaborate the general recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. This report which is a result of the third IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (the first and second were held in 1984 and 1986) is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the status of spent fuel management programmes in a number of leading countries, with a description of the past and present IAEA activities in this field of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and with the Agency's plans for the next years, based on the proposals and recommendations of Member States. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 14 papers presented at the advisory group meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

113

Status of thyroidal radioiodine (I-131) uptake and urinary iodine in Bangladesh population: A re-look following implementation of universal iodination of salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodide plays a central role in thyroid physiology and in the production of thyroid hormones, which are essential for normal vertebrate growth and development. Radioiodine uptake test is one of the oldest radionuclide investigations for evaluation of thyroid function. On the other hand useful information about the nutritional status of a population can be obtained by measuring the prevalence of deficiency in a population. The main aim of this study was to find out the present status of urinary iodine and thyroid uptake status of people living in and around Dhaka City (Bangladesh). The present study was carried out over a period of three years from 1999 to 2002 involving 300 subjects inclusive of 216 females and 84 males. Efforts were made to randomly include people from a broad spectrum of social and economic strata, starting from people belonging to the lowest to the highest income groups; as well as people representing the urban, rural and suburban populations. Urinary iodine levels and 24 hour percentage radioiodine uptake by the thyroid were estimated in all subjects included in this study. Subsequently patients were grouped into four categories based on the values of their percentage 24-hour radioiodine uptake; e.g., Group-A (N-99) with lowest uptake (0-5%), Group-B (N=100) with uptake ranging between 5-10%, Group-C (N=73) with uptake ranging between 10-30% and Group D (N=28) with uptake above 30%. The median 24 hours RAIU values in groups A, B, C and D were 3, 7, values in groups A, B, C and D were 3, 7, 23 and 34% respectively. The corresponding mean urinary iodine levels in the four groups were 43.31, 33.95, 12.97 and 9.35?gm/dl respectively. The results have shown that 1.04, 3.48, 16.72 and 78.74% people studied had levels of urinary iodine indicating severe, moderate, mild or no iodine deficiency respectively as per the WHO Criteria (Severe: <2 ?gm /dl, Moderate: 2-4.9 ?gm /dl, mild: 5.0-9.9?gm /dl, normal: ? 10 ?gm /dl). It may be noted that the normal values of Thyroidal I-131 uptake were standardized in Bangladesh about two and half decades ago. The normal range of 24 hr radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) determined at that time was 10-45%. However in the present study the mean 24 hrs RAIU has been found to be 14.12 % with a SD of 8.33. With regard to urinary iodine, a previous study conducted in the year 1993 had reported that only about 31 % of the Bangladesh population had urinary iodine levels of more than 10gm/dl. But the present study has shown significant increase in the levels of urinary iodine, with more than 78% of people evaluated in the present study having normal levels of urinary iodine (above 10gm/dl). The present study has also demonstrated inverse relationship between urinary iodine level and thyroidal uptake of radioiodine (I-131). These results reflect the effectiveness of universal iodination of common salt in Bangladesh resulting in enhanced iodine status of our population. (author)

114

Current status of water chemistry in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present 28 BWRs including 2 ABWRs and 23 PWRs are in operation in Japan and generated 36.8? of total electric power in 1998. Totally 4 BWRs, of which two are ABWRs, are now under construction, and one BWR together with one ABWR is in the stage of planning. One gas-cooled reactor (Tokai-1) was shut down permanently in 1998 and last year entered into decommissioning stage. According to the Japanese 2001 plan of electric power supply, 13 nuclear power plants newly constructed are to start operation in the next 10 years. In this paper the recent status of water chemistry technology in Japanese nuclear power plants is briefly summarized together with a touch upon the activities in the fundamental research. (author)

115

CURRENT STATUS OF ANEUPLOIDY TESTING IN DROSOPHILA  

Science.gov (United States)

A committee of scientists was established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to appraise the current state of aneuploidy test methodology, to compile and analyze published data on the chemical induction of aneuploidy, and to provide guidance for additional test developme...

116

Supersymmetry: Current status and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the most recent data from e+e- and p bar p colliders and discuss the resulting constraints on the parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and their implications for future supersymmetry searches. We review the patterns of cascade decays of squarks and gluinos and discuss the present status of supersymmetry event generators for hadron colliders. We present the results of detailed simulations of ET and same sign dilepton events from supersymmetry at the Tevatron. Although the ET signal continues to be viable, it is concluded that the same sign dilepton signal may be too small unless squarks and gluinos are approximately degenerate. The ET and the same-sign dilepton signals from supersymmetry and the Standard Model backgrounds at the SSC are also discussed in detail. We also discuss other promising ways of searching for supersymmetry at the SSC including events containing Z degree bosons, and events containing n isolated leptons (n ? 3). Finally, we discuss how supersymmetry searches might be modified if the Higgs sectors is more complicated or if R-parity is not conserved due to baryon number violating interactions. 49 refs., 12 figs

117

Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R. [University of Cuenca (Ecuador). Faculty of Chemical Sciences; Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Garcia-Perez, M. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Cortez, L.A.B. [Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Oscullo, J. [National Center for Energy Control - CENACE (Ecuador); Olmedo, G. [Polytechnic School of the Army - ESPE (Ecuador)

2007-08-15

118

Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol

119

Sensing technology current status and future trends  

CERN Document Server

This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

2014-01-01

120

Current Status of Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer  

OpenAIRE

Brachytherapy was developed to treat prostate cancer 50 years ago. Current advanced techniques using transrectal ultrasonography were established 25 years ago. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) has enabled the prostate to be viewed with improved resolution with the use of modern ultrasound machines. Moreover, the development of software that can provide images captured in real time has improved treatment outcomes. Other new radiologic imaging technologies or a combination of magnetic resonance an...

Park, Dong Soo

2012-01-01

121

The current status of grazing incidence optics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The developments in the area of grazing incidence optics with emphasis on telescopes for use in X-ray astronomy are reviewed. The performance of existing high-resolution telescopes is outlined and compared with those expected from future missions like ROSAT and AXAF. Starting from the basic principles of X-ray reflection and scattering, an attempt is made to highlight the current understanding of X-ray mirror physics using new theoretical ideas as well as experimental laboratory results. (author)

122

Current status of the field of obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a new specialty of medicine fighting for recognition. Current treatments with diet, exercise, and lifestyle modification have a high failure rate. Few obesity drugs exist and they are not very effective. Research should focus on understanding basic mechanisms, the numerous etiologies of obesity, and new drug development. Understanding the mechanisms of bariatric surgery, which does work, will lead to new drugs and better treatment. PMID:24735507

Atkinson, Richard L

2014-06-01

123

Colletotrichum – current status and future directions  

OpenAIRE

A review is provided of the current state of understanding of Colletotrichum systematics, focusing on species-level data and the major clades. The taxonomic placement of the genus is discussed, and the evolution of our approach to species concepts and anamorph-teleomorph relationships is described. The application of multilocus technologies to phylogenetic analysis of Colletotrichum is reviewed, and selection of potential genes/loci for barcoding purposes is discussed. Host specificity and it...

Weir, B. S.; Johnston, P. R.; Damm, U.; Cannon, P. F.

2012-01-01

124

Ceramic materials for SOFCs: Current status  

OpenAIRE

It is well known that the main parts of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are build from ceramic materials. Namely the ceramic materials and composites, used for SOFCs manufacturing, are objects of the overview in the present work. The analysis carried out covers the last current publications in the field discussed. Special attention and examination in details have been done on patents state-of-the-art. After a background and short classification of the ceramic SOFCs materials the attention is f...

Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.; Ivanova, M.; Carda, J.; Machkova, M.

2002-01-01

125

Current Status of Hybrid Bearing Damage Detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in material development and processing have led to the introduction of ceramic hybrid bearings for many applications. The introduction of silicon nitride hybrid bearings into the high pressure oxidizer turbopump, on the space shuttle main engine, led NASA to solve a highly persistent and troublesome bearing problem. Hybrid bearings consist of ceramic balls and steel races. The majority of hybrid bearings utilize Si3N4 balls. The aerospace industry is currently studying the use of hybrid bearings and naturally the failure modes of these bearings become an issue in light of the limited data available. In today s turbine engines and helicopter transmissions, the health of the bearings is detected by the properties of the debris found in the lubrication line when damage begins to occur. Current oil debris sensor technology relies on the magnetic properties of the debris to detect damage. Since the ceramic rolling elements of hybrid bearings have no metallic properties, a new sensing system must be developed to indicate the system health if ceramic components are to be safely implemented in aerospace applications. The ceramic oil debris sensor must be capable of detecting ceramic and metallic component damage with sufficient reliability and forewarning to prevent a catastrophic failure. The objective of this research is to provide a background summary on what is currently known about hybrid bearing failure modes and to report preliminary results on the detection of silicon nitride debris, in oil, using a commercial particle counter.

Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Morales, Wilfredo

2004-01-01

126

Current Status of Radio Source Databases  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing astronomical data centres and databases show a notable lack in published information on sources of radio emission. We review the history and present status of radio-source catalogue archiving and on-line retrieval of radio source data. Large efforts were spent by the first author in collecting and restoring electronic versions of new and old source catalogues. Since 1994 a group around the second author started building the software tools to search and cross-identify objects between the major radio catalogues, maintained as the ``CATalog supporting System'' (CATS, http://cats.sao.ru) at the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO, Russia). These independent efforts in east and west have recently been joined. Almost 400 different source lists with 2,000,000 entries have been archived by us, well over 100 of these were prepared using a scanner, OCR software and strict proof-reading procedures. Some of them had to be typed by hand. All 5C and Penticton ``P''-surveys are now available and we are close to completing restoration of all WSRT survey lists. CATS has been developed by O. Verkhodanov, S. Trushkin and V. Chernenkov at SAO primarily to support RATAN-600 radio observations. Almost 70 well-known radio source catalogues and tables with about 1.3 million records are now available via ftp from CATS, as well as their documentation files. Twenty of the larger tables may be searched simultaneously for objects in rectangular boxes of coordinates. New routines for cross-matching are in progress. More and more catalogues are being ingested into CATS. CATS is supported by RFBR grant 96-07-89075.

Andernach, H.; Trushkin, S. A.

127

Current status of SFR development in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fast Reactor development experiences and status in Japan are summarized. Even though international SFR circumstances were against in 1980s and 1990s, e.g. CRBRP, SNR-300 and Superphenix terminations, we kept on with our R and D activities steadily aiming at positive development targets in Japan. As results of our efforts, it has shown that our commercialized SFR concept, Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) could meet the targets in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project. Further, Monju has finally achieved restart in May 2010 after having been shut for almost 15 years. A future plan of Monju is to be determined based on a direction of the national nuclear and energy policies that will be established in 2012. The undergoing FaCT project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, feasibility of the key technologies for JSFR has been evaluated and the project is waiting for launching the phase II due to the Tohoku large earthquake. It is considered that the nuclear development policy might be affected by the Tohoku large Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan. Nevertheless the significance of nuclear energy will not be changed and thus we will focus on the issues learnt from Fukushima accidents and reflect into the improvement of the safety of Monju and the safety design criteria for the next generation Fast Reactor systems. (orig.)

Ieda, Yoshiaki; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokyo (Japan). Project Promotion Office; Kotake, Shoji [Japan Atomic Power Company, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-03-15

128

Current status of neutron capture therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT

129

Current status and trends of radiation technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation technology(RT) is more intimate than the other nuclear technologies and closely related to the public. The present conditions of radiation and radioisotope utilization and economic scales of radiation and radioisotope application in USA, Japan and Korea were examined, and the current trends and prospects of radiation technology were investigated. For planning of extended uses of the technology, the programs of the USA Office of Isotope for Medicine and Science, and the privatization activities of commercial isotopes of DOE were observed. The 2nd 'Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan(CNEPP)' of MOST includes utilization of radiation and radioisotopes, the suggestions for the practice of it were made

130

Current status of the RERTR program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose of this paper is to review the progress which has been accomplished by the RERTR Program during the past year, the present status of the program, the activities which are now in progress, and the program plans for the coming years. The main program objectives have not changed during the past year. The primary goal of the RERTR Program is still to reduce the amount of HEU which is shipped and used around the world in research reactors and, with it, the nuclear proliferation potential which it creates. Also unchanged is the program objective to reduce HEU use without significant penalty to the reactors involved. This means that for every possible conversion, our technical goal is to achieve good experiment capabilities and the economic advantages that come from a long core lifetime and from relatively economical fuels. We also intend to limit as much as possible the modifications which may have to be made to the reactor in order to achieve conversion and, last but not least, we intend to avoid any significant problems that might appear in the safety and licensing areas. Other important goals are the sharing of information about reduced-enrichment technology and providing technical assistance to the U.S. Government on special problems that may affect implementation of its policies. The timetable of the RERTR Program has stretched slightly. At the time of the previous ANL Conference, a long range goal was set which was anticipated to require about five or six years. This happened in 1978 and, therefore, the long range goal was considered to be achievable by 1984. This final deadline, the time when the long term goal of technical convertibility of all research reactors can be achieved, has now been moved to 1986. In the meantime, good progress has been made towards the near-term goals. Much more detailed knowledge is available about what lies ahead from a technical point of view. In addition, the general level of confidence in the achievability of the goals that have been set for the Program is now much greater than it was two years ago

131

Current status of adult spinal deformity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose?To review the current literature for the nonoperative and operative treatment for adult spinal deformity. Recent Findings?With more than 11 million baby boomers joining the population of over 60 years of age in the United States, the incidence of lumbar deformity is greatly increasing. Recent literature suggests that a lack of evidence exists to support the effectiveness of nonoperative treatment for adult scoliosis. In regards to operative treatment, current literature reports a varying range of improved clinical outcomes, curve correction, and complication rates. The extension of fusion to S1 compared with L5 and lower thoracic levels compared with L1 remains a highly controversial topic among literature. Summary?Most adult deformity patients never seek nonoperative or operative treatment. Of the few that seek treatment, many can benefit from nonoperative treatment. However, in selected patients who have failed nonoperative treatment and who are candidates for surgical intervention, the literature reflects positive outcomes related to surgical intervention as compared with nonoperative treatment despite varying associated ranges in morbidity and mortality rates. If nonoperative therapy fails in addressing a patient's complaints, then an appropriate surgical procedure that relieves neural compression, corrects excessive sagittal or coronal imbalance, and results in a solidly fused, pain-free spine is warranted. PMID:24436852

Youssef, J A; Orndorff, D O; Patty, C A; Scott, M A; Price, H L; Hamlin, L F; Williams, T L; Uribe, J S; Deviren, V

2013-03-01

132

Current status of nuclear engineering education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 65 colleges and universities offering undergraduate degrees in nuclear engineering and the 15 schools offering strong nuclear engineering options are, in general, doing a good job to meet the current spectrum of job opportunities. But, nuclear engineering programs are not producing enough graduates to meet growing demands. They currently receive little aid and support from their customers --industry and government--in the form of scholarships, grants, faculty research support, student thesis and project support, or student summer jobs. There is not enough interaction between industry and universities. Most nuclear engineering programs are geared too closely to the technology of the present family of reactors and too little to the future breeder reactors and controlled thermonuclear reactors. In addition, nuclear engineering programs attract too few women and members of minority ethnic groups. Further study of the reasons for this fact is needed so that effective corrective action can be taken. Faculty in nuclear engineering programs should assume greater initiative to provide attractive and objective nuclear energy electives for technical and nontechnical students in other disciplines to improve their technical understanding of the safety and environmental issues involved. More aggressive and persistent efforts must be made by nuclear engineering schools to obtain industry support and involvement in their programs

133

Current status of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Distal pancreatectomy is the therapeutic option of choice for patients with a benign or malignant lesion located in the body and/or tail of the pancreas when surgical intervention is indicated. With recent advances in and wide spread use of imaging studies, lesions of the pancreas are being diagnosed more commonly and it is likely that this will translate into an increased number of patients undergoing surgical resection. The laparoscopic approach to pancreatic resections has not been adopted as rapidly as it has for most other general surgical procedures. This is despite the fact that the current literature appears to validate laparoscopy as an acceptable and safe approach for distal pancreatectomy in patients with benign lesions, and has demonstrated the known benefits inherent to the laparoscopic technique. These benefits include lower intraoperative blood loss, less pain and analgesic requirements, earlier return of bowel function, and shorter recovery and hospital stay. Yet controversy still exists for the role of laparoscopy in the resection of malignant lesions. Recent reports however, have shown that laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy can safely be performed in known malignancies and, most importantly, after a laparoscopic oncological resection, the oncological benchmarks that have been related to survival, (such as negative surgical margins and number of peripancreatic lymph nodes resected), can also be accomplished. We sought to review the current literature on distal pancreatectomy, specifically the indications, laparoscopic approaches, splenectomy and spleen-preserving techniques, intraoperative and short-term outcomes, morbidity, mortality and oncological outcomes. PMID:22971634

Rosales-Velderrain, A; Stauffer, J A; Bowers, S P; Asbun, H J

2012-09-01

134

On the current status of Modified Gravity  

CERN Document Server

We revisit the cosmological viability of the Hu $\\&$ Sawicki modified gravity scenario. The impact of such a modification on the different cosmological observables, including gravitational waves, is carefully described. The most recent cosmological data, as well as constraints on the relationship between the clustering parameter $\\sigma_8$ and the current matter mass-energy density $\\Omega_m$ from cluster number counts and weak lensing tomography, are considered in our numerical calculations. The strongest bound we find is $|f_{R0}| < 3.8 \\times 10^{-8}$ at $95\\%$ CL. Forthcoming cluster surveys covering 10,000 deg$^2$ in the sky, with galaxy surface densities of $\\mathcal{O}(10)$ arcmin$^{-2}$ could improve the precision in the $\\sigma_8$-$\\Omega_m$ relationship, tightening the above constraint.

Boubekeur, Lotfi; Mena, Olga; Ramirez, Hector

2014-01-01

135

Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

Paul Saenger

2009-01-01

136

Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

Saenger Paul

2009-08-01

137

Pharmacogenomics: historical perspective and current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pharmacogenomics and its predecessor pharmacogenetics study the contribution of genetic factors to the interindividual variability in drug efficacy and safety. One of the major goals of pharmacogenomics is to tailor drugs to individuals based on their genetic makeup and molecular profile. From early findings in the 1950s uncovering inherited deficiencies in drug metabolism that explained drug-related adverse events, to nowadays genome-wide approaches assessing genetic variation in multiple genes, pharmacogenomics has come a long way. The evolution of pharmacogenomics has paralleled the evolution of genotyping technologies, the completion of the human genome sequencing and the HapMap project. Despite these advances, the implementation of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice has yet been limited. Here we present an overview of the history and current applications of pharmacogenomics in patient selection, dosing, and drug development with illustrative examples of these categories. Some of the challenges in the field and future perspectives are also presented. PMID:23824846

Charlab, Rosane; Zhang, Lei

2013-01-01

138

[Plasma fractionation in the world: current status].  

Science.gov (United States)

From 22 to 25 million liters of plasma are fractionated yearly in about 70 fractionation plants, either private or government-owned, mainly located in industrialized countries, and with a capacity ranging from 50000 to three million liters. In an increasingly global environment, the plasma industry has recently gone through a major consolidation phase that has seen mergers and acquisitions, and has led to the closure of a number of small plants in Europe. Currently, some fifteen countries are involved into contract plasma fractionation programs to ensure a supply of plasma-derived medicinal products. The majority of the plasma for fractionation is obtained by automated plasmapheresis, the remaining (recovered plasma) being prepared from whole blood as a by-product of red cell production. Plasma for fractionation should be produced, and controlled following well established procedures to meet the strict quality requirements set by regulatory authorities and fractionators. The plasma fractionation technology still relies heavily on the cold ethanol fractionation process, but has been improved by the introduction of modern chromatographic purification methods, and efficient viral inactivation and removal treatments, ensuring quality and safety to a large portfolio of fractionated plasma products. The safety of these products with regards to the risk of transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease seems to be provided, based on current scientific data, by extensive removal of the infectious agent during certain fractionation steps. The leading plasma product is now the intravenous immunoglobulin G, which has replaced factor VIII and albumin in this role. The supply of plasma products (most specifically coagulation products and immunoglobulin) at an affordable price and in sufficient quantity remains an issue; the problem is particularly acute in developing countries, as the switch to recombinant factor VIII in rich countries has not solved the supply issue and has even led to an increase of the mean price of plasma-derived factor VIII to the developing world. In the last few years, the plasma fractionation industry has improved greatly, and should remain essential in the years to come for the procurement of many essential medicines. PMID:17499539

Burnouf, T

2007-05-01

139

Current Status of Engineering Education in America  

Science.gov (United States)

Many faculty believe that engineering education in America is at a crossroads and much change is needed. International competition in engineering and the global economy have major potential impact on the engineering workforce of the future. We must find ways to educate U.S. engineers to be competitive and creative contributors in the worldwide arena. Recent national reports are sounding the alarm that the U.S. is losing it leadership in technology and innovation, with consequences for economic prosperity and national security. The report Rising Above the Gathering Storm discusses this dilemma in detail and offers four recommendations to U.S. policymakers. The report Educating the Engineer of 2020 discusses new ways to prepare American engineers for the 21st Century. Furthermore, changes in ABET accreditation, along with new paradigms of teaching and new technology in the classroom, are changing the scholarship of engineering education. We must find ways to promote change in engineering faculty for this new opportunity in engineering educational scholarship. Future engineering students are now in K-12, which is becoming an increasingly diverse population that in the past has not been fully represented in engineering education. Current trends show disaffection for pursuing studies in science and engineering in the youth of our U.S. society. We must find new ways to portray engineering as an exciting and rewarding career, and certainly as an educational platform for professional careers beyond the baccalaureate degree.

Barr, Ronald E.

140

Current status of the PBMR licensing project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CNS is currently reviewing the PBMR conceptual design from a licensibility point of view. The PBMR concept is based on a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor - pebble bed reactor type. It is anticipated that the PBMR design will rely on inherent safety characteristics to contain fission products within fuel over the full range of design basis events. This feature combined with the high temperature integrity of the fuel and structural graphite, allows the safe use of a high coolant temperature, which allows consideration of the future development of this reactor for non-electrical applications of nuclear heat for industrial use. The CNS licensing approach requires that the licensing and design basis of the plant should respect prevailing international norms and practices and that a quantitative risk assessment should demonstrate compliance with the CNS fundamental safety standards. The first stage of the licensing process is now ongoing; this is a pre-application phase, which will result in a statement on licensibility being issued. Identification of the specific documentation requirements and information needed is required across every step of the licensing process. Top level regulatory requirements have been established for the PBMR. They include the CNS fundamental safety standard and basic licensing criteria, which describes requirements on licensees of nuclear installations regarding risk assessment and compliance with the safety criteria and define classification of licensing basis events. (author)

141

Current status of the LBNE neutrino beam  

CERN Document Server

The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a neutrino beamline facility located at Fermilab. The facility is designed to aim a beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed in South Dakota. The neutrinos are produced in a three-step process. First, protons from the Main Injector hit a solid target and produce mesons. Then, the charged mesons are focused by a set of focusing horns into the decay pipe, towards the far detector. Finally, the mesons that enter the decay pipe decay into neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined by an amalgam of the physics goals, the Monte Carlo modeling of the facility, and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~700 kW, however some of the parameters were chosen to be able to deal with a beam power of 2.3 MW. The LBNE Neutrino Beam has made significant changes to the initial design through consideration of numerous Value Engineering proposals and the current design is described.

Moore, Craig Damon; Crowley, Cory Francis; Hurh, Patrick; Hylen, James; Lundberg, Byron; Marchionni, Alberto; McGee, Mike; Mokhov, Nikolai V; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Plunkett, Rob; Reitzner, Sarah Diane; Stefanik, Andrew M; Velev, Gueorgui; Williams, Karlton; Zwaska, Robert Miles

2015-01-01

142

Current status of bone marrow transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Utilization of bone marrow transplantation as a therapeutic modality continues to increase. More and more institutions are initiating bone marrow transplant programs. During the 33-year period between 1955 and 1987, more than 20,000 patients received allogeneic bone marrow transplants; more than 50% of these were performed in the 3 years, 1985-1987. Transplantation is an effective therapy for acute leukemia; in some instances it is the preferred treatment. In chronic myelogenous leukemia, severe aplastic anemia, and some genetic and immune deficiency diseases, bone marrow transplantation provides the only possibility for cure. Bone marrow transplantation is associated with serious problems such as graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), graft failure, interstitial pneumonitis and, until recently, the requirement for an HLA-identical sibling donor. In the past few years, an increasing number of transplants have been performed using HLA-partially matched related or unrelated donors with some success, the level of which is yet to be determined. The development of acute GvHD (8) and interstitial pneumonitis (9, 10) can often be predicted by risk factor assessment. Special precautions can then be taken for patients at high risk of these complications. In this report, current data from the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry were summarized and several risk factors affecting outcome were identified. PMID:2487630

Bortin, M M; Horowitz, M M

1989-01-01

143

Current status of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of allogeneic bone marrow transplants continues to increase. During the 36-year period between 1955 and 1990, more than 33,000 patients received allogeneic bone marrow transplants; more than 45% of these were performed during the 3 years 1988-1990. Transplants are effective therapy for leukemia and other hematologic diseases. It is widely considered that transplants are the treatment of choice for aplastic anemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia, those who fail conventional therapy for acute leukemia and a variety of genetic, metabolic and immune deficiency disorders. Successful application of bone marrow transplantation is limited by complications such as graft failure, graft versus host disease GVHD and interstitial pneumonia and, until recently, the requirement for an HLA-identical sibling donor. In the past few years, an increasing number of transplants were performed using unrelated or HLA-partially matched related donors with some success. Development of post-transplant complications can often be predicted by risk factor assessment. In this report, current data from the IBMTR are summarized and several risk factors affecting outcome identified. PMID:1421039

Sobocinski, K A; Horowitz, M M; Rimm, A A; Bortin, M M

1992-01-01

144

Current status of schistosomiasis in Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosomiasis japonica is currently endemic in three very isolated areas in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Integrated schistosomiasis control programmes implemented in the Lindu and Napu Valleys during the period of 1982-2005 have successfully reduced the prevalence of schistosomiasis from 37% to 1% in Napu Valley and from 37% to 0.6% in Lindu Valley. Human prevalence surveys reveal that the prevalence tended to increase during the period of 2008-2011. The average prevalence fluctuated between 0.3% and 4.8% in Napu Valley and between 0.8% and 3.2% in Lindu Valley. During this period, the percentage of rats that were infected fluctuated between 7.9% and 18.2% in Napu Valley and between 6.7% and 9.8% in Lindu Valley. The average percentage of infected snails was 2.6% and 2.1% in the Napu and Lindu Valleys, respectively. In 2008, schistosomiasis was also found in a separate but adjacent place, i.e. Bada Valley. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in endemic villages in this area was 0.8% in 2008 and 5.9% in 2010, while the percentage of infected snails was 1% in 2010. These contemporary data clearly indicate a trend of increasing schistosomiasis prevalence in the three endemic areas in Central Sulawesi. PMID:23827192

Satrija, Fadjar; Ridwan, Yusuf; Jastal; Samarang; Rauf, Abdul

2015-01-01

145

Current Status of VHTR Technology Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900°C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950°C.

David Petti; Hans Gougar; Richard Wright; William Windes; Steve Herring; Richard Schultz; Paul Humrickhouse

2010-10-01

146

Current status of PHOBOS at sign RHIC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four experiments are currently approved for the first measurements with colliding heavy ion beams from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) which is scheduled to come into operation in Spring 1999. These experiments are named STAR, Phoenix, PHOBOS and Brahms. It is expected that central collisions of 100 GeV/u Au + Au at RHIC will lead to energy densities far above any so far attained in the laboratory and it is suspected and hoped that this situation will lead to qualitatively new physics perhaps associated with the creation of a large volume containing a plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons. All four experiments attempt to search for signatures of new physics through combinations of measurements of quantities such as the multiplicity of produced particles, the average transverse momentum of these particles, fluctuations in their multiplicity distribution, their flavor composition, the size scales of the volume from which they are emitted, mass shifts and changes in the decay widths of resonances which decay inside the high energy density volume etc. The PHOBOS detector addresses these issues with a Multiplicity Array which covers the pseudo-rapidity region -5.3 ? ? ? 5.3 with a coverage of 85% of 4? and also incorporates a Vertex Detector. The Multiplicity Array is complemented by two Multi-Particle Spectrometers, each of which cover the range 0.5 ? ? ? 1.5 and azimuthal angle range ?? = 11 degree. Various trigger and monitor detectors complete

147

Current status of fusion reactor blanket thermodynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies of liquid lithium have concentrated on its sorption characteristics for hydrogen isotopes and its interaction with common impurity elements. Hydrogen isotope sorption data (P-C-T relations, activity coefficients, Sieverts' constants, plateau pressures, isotope effects, free energies of formation, phase boundaries etc.) are presented in a tabular form that can be conveniently used to extract thermodynamic information for the ?-phase of the Li-LiH, Li-LiD, and Li-LiT systems and to construct complete phase diagrams. Recent solubility data for Li3N, Li2O, and Li2C2 in liquid lithium are discussed with emphasis on the prospects for removing these species by cold-trapping methods. Current studies on the sorption of hydrogen in solid lithium alloys (e.g., Li--Al and Li--Pb), made using a new technique (the hydrogen titration method), have shown that these alloys should lead to smaller blanket-tritium inventories than are attainable with liquid lithium and that the P-C-T relationships for hydrogen in Li--M alloys can be estimated from lithium activity data for these alloys

148

Current status of measles in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 20,000 to 30,000 cases of measles are reported annually in Japan, although the actual number of measles infections is considered to be five to ten times higher than the number of reported cases. Despite the availability of effective and safe live attenuated vaccines, regional outbreaks in Okinawa, transmission in adults, and secondary vaccine failures continue. Recent advances in molecular technology have contributed to molecular epidemiological studies, new concepts of asymptomatic infection, and the identification of different characteristics among measles virus genotypes. Measles virus strains isolated in Japan since 1984 were classified into the genotypes C1 (-1985), D3 (1985-1990), D5 (1990-1997), and Chicago-type D3 (1997-1999) from the results of sequencing the hemagglutinin gene. After 2000, the D5 genotype emerged, and, recently, the H1 genotype, which is now dominant, was introduced from Korea. Some of the currently circulating wild-types have different characteristics (high growth rate at 39 degrees C-40 degrees C). The cumulative vaccine coverage has reached 81%, but most measles cases involved unvaccinated individuals. Measles is a preventable disease and can be eradicated by increasing the vaccine coverage, and promoting the motivation for vaccination, in accordance with the worldwide measles strategy. PMID:12673398

Nakayama, Tetsuo; Zhou, Jianhui; Fujino, Motoko

2003-03-01

149

Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs

150

Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able to expect a creation of economic added value.

Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

2007-06-15

151

Congenital hyperinsulinism: current status and future perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnosis and treatment of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) have made a remarkable progress over the past 20 years and, currently, it is relatively rare to see patients who are left with severe psychomotor delay. The improvement was made possible by the recent developments in the understanding of the molecular and pathological basis of CHI. Known etiologies include inactivating mutations of the KATP channel genes (ABCC8 and KCNJ11) and HNF4A, HNF1A, HADH, and UCP2 or activating mutations of GLUD1, GCK, and SLC16A1. The understanding of the focal form of KATP channel CHI and its detection by (18)F-fluoro-L-DOPA positron emission tomography have revolutionized the management of CHI, and many patients can be cured without postoperative diabetes mellitus. The incidence of the focal form appears to be higher in Asian countries; therefore, the establishment of treatment systems is even more important in this population. In addition to diazoxide or long-term subcutaneous infusion of octreotide or glucagon, long-acting octreotide or lanreotide have also been used successfully until spontaneous remission. Because of these medications, near-total pancreatectomy is less often performed even for the diazoxide-unresponsive diffuse form of CHI. Other promising medications include pasireotide, small-molecule correctors such as sulfonylurea or carbamazepine, GLP1 receptor antagonists, or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Unsolved questions in this field include the identification of the remaining genes responsible for CHI, the mechanisms leading to transient CHI, and the mechanisms responsible for the spontaneous remission of CHI. This article reviews recent developments and hypothesis regarding these questions. PMID:25077087

Yorifuji, Tohru

2014-06-01

152

Current status of contraceptive vaginal rings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contraceptive vaginal rings (CVR) offer a new, effective contraceptive option, expanding the available choices of hormonal contraception. Various ring prototypes have been evaluated: progestin-only rings and combined progestin-estrogen rings, as well as different combination of progestins and estrogens. The progestin-only ring is intended for continuous use, whereas the combined ring has been designed for cyclic 3-week in/1-week out use, although several studies have explored alternative schemes of extended use. However, only two ring designs have reached the market: NuvaRing, a 1-month combined ring that releases etonogestrel and ethinylestradiol, and Progering, a 3-month progesterone-releasing ring for use in lactating women. A one year Nestorone/ethinyl estradiol CVR is approaching the final stages of development, as the Population Council is preparing to submit a new drug application to the Food and Drug Administration. The main advantages of CVRs are their effectiveness (similar or slightly better than the pill), ease of use without the need of remembering a daily routine, user ability to control initiation and discontinuation, nearly constant release rate allowing for lower doses, greater bioavailability and good cycle control with the combined ring, in comparison with oral contraceptives. Current prototypes in development include rings releasing progesterone receptor modulators, which would provide estrogen-free contraception, as well as combined rings releasing estradiol, instead of ethinyl-estradiol, providing a safer profile. Furthermore, intensive efforts towards developing dual protection rings, providing both contraception and protection against reproductive tract infections, offer hope that this greatly needed technology will soon undergo clinical testing and will be in the hands of women worldwide in the near future. PMID:23040125

Brache, Vivian; Payán, Luis José; Faundes, Aníbal

2013-03-01

153

The current status of HANARO utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) is now operating at 24 MW to meet the user's demands in a variety of utilization fields. The most active field is the neutron scattering and diffraction using the currently available HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction), FCD (Four Circle Diffraction), RSI (Residual Stress Instrument), and SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering). Using these instruments, we have been investigating such characteristics as materials' crystal structure and phase transition, residual stress, texture, and hard and soft matters. Through examination and inspection of the test specimens, NRF (Neutron Radiography Facility) is contributing to such fields as the nuclear industry, ordnance industry, aerospace industry, and archaeology. The second utilization field is the fuel and material irradiation test. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed atomized fuel powder and provided it to USA, France and Argentina. Under the RERTR program, KAERI has been contributing to the development of research reactor fuels of better quality. To test the reactor materials and fuels, instrumented and non-instrumented capsules are widely being used. To produce and supply RIs and pharmaceuticals for medical and industrial purposes, HANARO and its RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility) has been fully complying with demands so that the national welfare might be enhanced by our efforts. NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) is assisting the nuclear industry, environmental research and the promotion of the health area. To support all active utilizations, HANARO operators have been making every effort to not only improve the systems, if needed, but also to avoid the inadvertent reactor trip. Based upon this stable neutron supply, we have been developing and expanding the utilization fields and facilities. The PNS(Polarized Neutron Spectrometer) is under construction and the reflectometer is in preparation. The BNCT(Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) facility is expected to support medical doctors in their in-vitro tests by the end of next year. In the future, KAERI plans to install cold neutron source and research facilities and then HANARO would be a truly powerful neutron source in neutron beam application research. We will begin design and installation of the fuel test loop to support the Korean national nuclear energy program in accordance with the demand for nuclear fuel development. Advanced capsules will also be developed. More effective and value-added RI is also under development continuously. To increase the contribution of the NAA area, we are developing the user-oriented NAA system in HANARO. The irradiator for NTD-Si production is being designed and fabricated. We expect this service to be available for industries early next year. Through these viable activities, the number of users and tested samples, and allocatable beam times will be greatly increased. All of the related staff and groups are doing their best to satisfy the demand of users because HANARO is the Korean sole neutron source operated under the auspices of the taxpayers. (author)

154

The Current Practices of Teaching Grammar in CLT at Secondary School Level in Bangladesh: Problems and Probable Solutions  

OpenAIRE

Experience of teaching English in Bangladesh demonstrates that grammar is the least interesting learning item in ESOL classes. In other words, students often feel uninterested and bored with lectures dealing with grammar. Consequently, learners of English remain quite weak in grammar; they cannot use appropriate structures of grammar neither in spoken nor in written English even though they have completed English language programs at various levels of educational institutions. Besides, hug...

Sofe Ahmed

2013-01-01

155

Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

2010-01-01

156

Current status of studies on temperature fluctuation phenomena in LMFRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the current status of studies being performed in PNC on temperature fluctuation phenomena occurring in fast reactors. The studies concentrate on four problems: thermal stratification, thermal striping, core-plenum interaction and free surface sloshing. Both experimental and analytical approaches to reveal these phenomena and to establish design and safety evaluation methods are presented together with future works. (author)

157

Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India  

Science.gov (United States)

Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

Antony, Pavan John

2013-01-01

158

Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

159

Wave energy in Europe: current status and perspectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The progress in wave energy conversion in Europe during the past ten years is reviewed, and current activities and initiatives in the wave energy sector at National and Union level are described. Other important activities worldwide are summarized. The technical and economic status in wave energy conversion is outlined, and important wave energy developments are presented.

Clement, Alain [Exole Centrale de Nantes, Nantes, (France); McCullen, Pat [ESBI (Ireland); Falcao, Antonio [IST, Lisboa (Portugal); Firoentino, Antonio [Ponte di Archimede nello Streto di Messina, Messina (Italy); Gardner, Fred [Teamwork Technology (Netherlands); Hammarlund, Karin [Hammarlund A., Konsult (Sweden); Lemonis, George [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Attika (Greece); Lewis, Tony [University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

2002-10-01

160

CURRENT STATUS OF COMMERCIAL UTILITY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report discusses the current status of commercial flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes applied to coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. Major objectives of the work were to examine the impacts of the 1979 New Source Performance Standards on FGD system design and operatio...

161

Current status of robot-assisted gastric surgery  

OpenAIRE

In an effort to minimize the limitations of laparoscopy, a robotic surgery system was introduced, but its role for gastric cancer is still unclear. The objective of this article is to assess the current status of robotic surgery for gastric cancer and to predict future prospects. Although the current study was limited by its small number of patients and retrospective nature, robot-assisted gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer is a feasible and safe procedure fo...

Se-Jin Baek; Dong-Woo Lee; Sung-Soo Park; Seon-Hahn Kim

2011-01-01

162

CMS Data Analysis: Current Status and Future Strategy  

OpenAIRE

We present the current status of CMS data analysis architecture and describe work on future Grid-based distributed analysis prototypes. CMS has two main software frameworks related to data analysis: COBRA, the main framework, and IGUANA, the interactive visualisation framework. Software using these frameworks is used today in the world-wide production and analysis of CMS data. We describe their overall design and present examples of their current use with emphasis on interac...

Innocente, Vincenzo

2003-01-01

163

Current status and future direction of the MONK software package  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of the MONK criticality software package is summarized in terms of recent and current developments and envisaged directions for the future. The areas of the discussion are physics modeling, geometry modeling, source modeling, nuclear data, validation, supporting tools and customer services. In future development plan, MONK continues to be focused on meeting the short and long-term needs of the code user community. (J.P.N.)

164

Does history of concussion affect current cognitive status?  

OpenAIRE

The association between self reported history of concussion and current neurocognitive status is controversial. Some football studies suggest that athletes with a history of concussion display cognitive impairment relative to athletes with no history of concussion, but other studies have not been able to reproduce such findings. This study shows that there is no relation between the number of previous self reported episodes of concussion and current cognitive state, directly contradicting the...

Collie, A.; Mccrory, P.; Makdissi, M.

2006-01-01

165

Filariasis: Current status, treatment and recent advances in drug development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and loiasis caused by human filarial nematodes are diseases of tropical and subtropical countries causing considerable morbidity. The available control strategies have significant limitations such that current drugs are ineffective against macrofilariae (adult worms), require repeated and prolonged treatment over years and are threatened by emergence of drug resistance. Due to this concern, these diseases are the focus of renewed scientific interest and much has been done in filariasis research in the past decade. This review summarizes the current status of filariasis, different control strategies, recent advances in antifilarial chemotherapy including currently used drugs, their pros and cons, their mechanism of action, and recently discovered targets and prototypes. PMID:21521163

Katiyar, D; Singh, L K

2011-01-01

166

Promotion of well-switching to mitigate the current arsenic crisis in Bangladesh / Promotion de changement d'utilisation de puits afin de réduire l'exposition à l'arsenic au Bangladesh / Promoción del uso de pozos seleccionados para reducir la exposición al arsénico en Bangladesh  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Hacer un análisis sobre los pozos y los hogares de la upazila de Araihazar (Bangladesh), a fin de sentar las bases para llevar a cabo un estudio epidemiológico a largo plazo sobre las consecuencias de la exposición crónica a arsénico. MÉTODOS: Durante un periodo de 4 meses de 2000, se obtu [...] vieron muestras de agua a partir de 4997 pozos cercanos que abastecían a una población de 55 000 personas, y se reunieron datos de los hogares próximos; la situación de cada pozo se determinó con una precisión de ± 30 m utilizando receptores del Sistema Mundial de Determinación de la Posición. Las concentraciones de arsénico se analizaron mediante espectrometría de absorción atómica en horno de grafito. Se analizó asimismo la presencia de arsénico en muestras de agua subterránea recogidas cada 2 semanas durante todo un año en seis pozos, empleando para ello la técnica de espectrometría de masas de alta resolución por plasma de acoplación. RESULTADOS: La mitad de los pozos examinados en Araihazar habían sido practicados en los 5 años anteriores, y el 94% eran privados. Sólo un 48% de los pozos suministraban agua con un contenido de arsénico inferior a 50myg/l, el límite fijado actualmente en Bangladesh para el agua potable. Al igual que en otras regiones de Bangladesh y Bengala occidental (India), la concentración de arsénico en Araihazar varía mucho de un lugar a otro (intervalo: 5-860 myg/l), y es por tanto difícil de predecir. Debido a esa variabilidad, sin embargo, casi un 90% de los habitantes vive a menos de 100 m de un pozo salubre. La vigilancia de seis pozos que actualmente se ajustan al límite mencionado de 50 myg/l no reveló ningún dato que sugiriera la existencia de un ciclo estacional de las concentraciones de arsénico paralelo al ciclo hidrológico. Esto lleva a pensar que el cambio de pozos constituye una opción viable en Araihazar, al menos como solución a corto plazo. CONCLUSIÓN: Es preciso fomentar de manera más sistemática el uso de pozos seleccionados en Araihazar y en muchas otras partes de Bangladesh y Bengala occidental (India), y hay que conocer mejor las barreras sociales con que tropieza esa iniciativa para superarlas en la medida de lo posible. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To survey tube wells and households in Araihazar upazila, Bangladesh, to set the stage for a long-term epidemiological study of the consequences of chronic arsenic exposure. METHODS: Water samples and household data were collected over a period of 4 months in 2000 from 4997 contiguous tub [...] e wells serving a population of 55 000, the position of each well being determined to within ± 30 m using Global Positioning System receivers. Arsenic concentrations were determined by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. In addition, groundwater samples collected every 2 weeks for an entire year from six tube wells were analysed for arsenic by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. FINDINGS: Half of the wells surveyed in Araihazar had been installed in the previous 5 years; 94% were privately owned. Only about 48% of the surveyed wells supplied water with an arsenic content below 50 mug/l, the current Bangladesh standard for drinking-water. Similar to other regions of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, the distribution of arsenic in Araihazar is spatially highly variable (range: 5-860 mug/l) and therefore difficult to predict. Because of this variability, however, close to 90% of the inhabitants live within 100 m of a safe well. Monitoring of six tube wells currently meeting the 50 mug/l standard showed no indication of a seasonal cycle in arsenic concentrations coupled to the hydrological cycle. This suggests that well-switching is a viable option in Araihazar, at least for the short term. CONCLUSIONS: Well-switching should be more systematically encouraged in Araihazar and many other parts of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Social barriers to well-switching need to be

Alexander, van Geen; Habibul, Ahsan; Allan H., Horneman; Ratan K., Dhar; Yan, Zheng; Iftikhhar, Hussain; Kazi Matin, Ahmed; Andrew, Gelman; Martin, Stute; H. James, Simpson; Sean, Wallace; Christopher, Small; Faruque, Parvez; Vesna, Slavkovich; Nancy J., LoIacono; Marck, Becker; Zhongqi, Cheng; Hassina, Momotaj; Mohammad, Shahnewaz; Ashraf Ali, Seddique; Joseph H., Graziano.

2002-09-01

167

The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. Objective: We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. Methods: We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. Results: One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–2.8 times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0–3.0 times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.0 times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4–2.3 times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. Conclusions: This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.

Towfiqua Mahfuza Islam

2014-05-01

168

The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Background A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. Objective We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV) was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. Methods We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. Results One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–2.8) times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0–3.0) times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.0) times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4–2.3) times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. Conclusions This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh. PMID:24861340

Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Tareque, Md. Ismail; Tiedt, Andrew D.; Hoque, Nazrul

2014-01-01

169

Current status of the LHCf experiment and future plan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider forward (= LHCf experiment has successfully finished the first phase of data taking at LHC ?s = 0.9 and 7 TeV proton-proton collisions in 2010. As current status, we concentrate on analyzing the obtained data. As the first result, the energy spectra of photon measured by LHCf during = 7 TeV p-p collision has been published recently. Also the study of the upgraded version of LHCf detector for future = 14TeV run scenario is developed with the GSO scintillator. Another possible plan of p-A(nuclear collision in LHC is also studied. In this paper, as the current status of the experiment, analyses, and works for foreseen detector upgrade are summarized.

Tamura T.

2013-06-01

170

Current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is given of the current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems. At this moment only one comprehensive report is available. In order to review national activities a questionnaire has been distributed amongst national societies of medical physicists. From the 23 responding countries, 8 indicated that only limited efforts are underway, 8 answered that a working group is evaluating their specific national requirements while in 5 countries a document is drafted. The highlights of these reports have been summarized. (author)

171

Current Status on Narrow N Anti N States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An attempt is made to summarize the experimental status of narrow B anti B states as of mid-1979. In particular, concentration is placed on the current experimental situations and prospects regarding three serious contenders for the so-called baryonium states. Theoretical concepts of baryoniums, narrow N anti N states known as S(1935), anti pp(2020), and anti pp(2204), and some forthcoming results, and problems of the above three resonances are discussed. 31 references. (JFP)

Chung, S. U.

1979-09-01

172

Neural Synchrony in Cortical Networks: History, Concept and Current Status  

OpenAIRE

Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of ...

PeterUhlhaas; SergioNeuenschwander; DankoNikoli?

2009-01-01

173

Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae  

OpenAIRE

Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

Yuhuan Liu; Rongsheng Ruan; Zhenyi Du; Xiaodan Wu

2012-01-01

174

Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodiesel and future perspective of the technologies are also discussed.

Yuhuan Liu

2012-07-01

175

Current Status of Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound for Dental Purposes  

OpenAIRE

Over the past few years, tissue engineering applied to the dental field has achieved relevant results. Tissue engineering can be described by actions taken to improve biological functions. Several methods have been described to enhance cellular performance and low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has shown to play an important role in cell metabolism. The present article provides an overview about the current status of LIPUS as a tissue engineering tool to be used to enhance tooth and peri...

Rego, Emanuel Braga; Takata, Takashi; Tanne, Kazuo; Tanaka, Eiji

2012-01-01

176

Current Status of Social Studies (sosyal bilgiler) Education in Turkey  

OpenAIRE

This article aims to portray and discuss the current status of social studies education in Turkey in terms of both K-8 and pre-service teacher education levels. The article starts with a brief history about the Turkish social studies education followed by the recent curriculum reform movements in Turkey. Then, the curriculum changes and the reform movements in pre-service social studies teacher education are discussed by analyzing the related literature. The discussion indicates the dominancy...

Mehmet Aç?kal?n

2011-01-01

177

Vitamin D Status of Infants in Northeastern Rural Bangladesh: Preliminary Observations and a Review of Potential Determinants  

OpenAIRE

Vitamin D deficiency is a global public-health concern, even in tropical regions where the risk of deficiency was previously assumed to be low due to cutaneous vitamin D synthesis stimulated by exposure to sun. Poor vitamin D status, indicated by low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], has been observed in South Asian populations. However, limited information is available on the vitamin D status of young infants in this region. Therefore, to gain preliminary insights into t...

Roth, Daniel E.; Shah, M. Rashed; Black, Robert E.; Baqui, Abdullah H.

2010-01-01

178

Current Status of the SuperWASP Project  

OpenAIRE

We present the current status of the SuperWASP project, a Wide Angle Search for Planets. SuperWASP consists of up to 8 individual cameras using ultra-wide field lenses backed by high-quality passively cooled CCDs. Each camera covers 7.8 x 7.8 sq degrees of sky, for nearly 500 sq degrees of sky coverage. SuperWASP I, located in LaPalma, is currently operational with 5 cameras and is conducting a photometric survey of a large numbers of stars in the magnitude range ~7 to 15. T...

Christian, D. J.; Pollacco, D. L.; Clarkson, W. I.; Cameron, A. Collier; Evans, N.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Haswell, C. A.; Hellier, C.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Horne, K.; Kane, S. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Lister, T. A.; Norton, A. J.; Ryans, R.

2004-01-01

179

Current status of neutron scattering facilities in Serpong  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brief explanation of the research reactor as a neutron source is presented together with its current operation mode. The neutron beam facilities include one diffractometer for residual stress measurement, one diffractometer for single crystal structural determination and texture measurement, one high resolution powder diffractometer, one neutron radiography facility, one triple axis spectrometer, one small angle neutron scattering spectrometer and one high resolution small angle neutron scattering spectrometer. Current status of three instruments mostly related to this workshop, their performances and problems faced in the last year are presented as well as the future plan for refurbishment and development. (author)

Ikram, Abarrul [Materials Science Research Center, National Atomic Energy Agency, Serpong (Indonesia)

1999-10-01

180

The Current Status, Evolution and Future of Facial Reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial reconstructive surgery aims to establish anatomicnormality as closely as possible following disfigurement tooptimize functional and esthetic outcomes and the potential fornormal psychosocial patient reintegration. The purposes of thisarticle are to outline the current status of facial reconstructionand reflect upon possibilities for its future development.Current reconstructive methods include the use of non-vascularizedgrafts, non-microsurgical vascularized flap transfers,microvascular free tissue transplantation, and their combinations.Whatever the method chosen, the principles of reconstructionfor each facial region or esthetic subunit should berespected.Most facial defects can be addressed satisfactorily withthe described techniques. Reconstructions for total or subtotalfacial defects, however, remain disappointing. Current reconstructivetechniques and principles continue to become more refined, providing improvedoutcomes. In the future, composite tissue allotransplantation and tissue engineering of vascularizedcomposite tissue constructs may also be applicable for facial reconstruction, inparticular for total or subtotal facial defects that appear outside the limits of current reconstructivemethods.

Fu-Chan Wei

2008-10-01

181

Current status of molecular biomarkers in endometrial cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of the high and increasing incidence of endometrial cancer, our current models for prediction of prognosis and even more treatment response are suboptimal, and molecular biomarkers to assist clinical decision making are needed. In this review an overview is given of the currently known as well as promising prognostic and predictive biomarkers in endometrial carcinoma. Key clinical challenges, where use of molecular biomarkers can meet clinical needs, are highlighted. The current status for the presently most promising prognostic and predictive biomarkers in endometrial carcinoma is reviewed. DNA ploidy, p53 status, hormone receptor level, HER2, stathmin, L1 cell adhesion molecule expression and other biomarkers are discussed in relation to the scientific robustness of various essential steps in biomarker development and (current) clinical applicability for individualizing treatment strategies. Tumour heterogeneity and its consequences for biomarker assessment and the importance of developing standardised tests for implementation are discussed. To improve the development and clinical uptake of biomarkers, several strategies are proposed. PMID:25064587

Werner, H M J; Salvesen, H B

2014-09-01

182

Development of transport solutions for DYN3D. Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An outline of current status of development of transport solutions for pin-powerreconstruction in DYN3D has been presented. Presently, an advanced method of current coupling collision probability with flux expansion in zones is being developed and tested for cylindrical geometry. Results of test calculations for cylindrical cell shows very good agreement with the results obtained with MonteCarlo method. This convincing results encourage the development of a two dimensional solver and the implementation of this advanced pin power calculation method into DYN3D as further steps. In addition, the proposed methodology will be extended to solve multi-group and multi-region problem using currents from nodal solution as boundary conditions. (orig.)

183

Investigation on Current Status of World Nuclear Education and Training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All over the world, the interest of nuclear energy is increasing and the expectations of it are getting more as one of the most practical alternative energy resources. However, since 1990s, as a lot of nuclear specialists are being retired, now the problem of manpower shortage is taken into consideration for all of us and will be continued until 2011. In this point of view, the good quality of the professional nuclear training and education systems and the nuclear education centers are requested in order to breed and supply the next generation nuclear scientists and engineers. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore the current status of world nuclear education for both of nuclear power countries and potential nuclear power utilization countries in the near future. This report introduces the importance of nuclear energy, the current status of world nuclear power plants operation and the contribution of nuclear energy. Besides, it also includes the nuclear energy development plan of potential nuclear developing countries in the near future. In addition, this study also explores the nuclear training and education systems of the nuclear development countries and the current status of nuclear education in various fields such as government, industries, nuclear power plants ect. Especially, as considering the status of nuclear education classified such as Asia, the Americas, East and West Europe, the Middle East and Africa, it shows the different characteristics of nuclear education systems in each regions aimed to identify the good practices on the nuclear education systems. Finally, through observation of international cooperation and networks of the various nuclear organizations, this will be contributed to the development of nuclear education for member states and be suggested the various of the direction of development for nuclear education in Korea. The report presents in the basis of the recent status data of the world nuclear education systems collected from the IAEA Technical Meeting in 2009. However, due to the limitation time and access to the availability of the nuclear educational systems data, there are many needs not only to update the information and data continuously, but also to explore the world nuclear training and education systems over the next few years. In conclusion, the report is expected to be useful as a reference working material for developing the nuclear education in Korea

184

Current status of nuclear cardiology: a limited review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To summarize the current status of nuclear cardiology, the authors will focus on areas that the emphasize the specific advantages of nuclear cardiology methods: (a) their benign, noninvasive nature, (b) their pathophysiologic nature, and (c) the ease of their computer manipulation and analysis, permitting quantitative evaluation. The areas covered include: (a) blood pool scintigraphy and parametric imaging, (b) pharmacologic intervention for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, (c) scintigraphic studies for the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease, and (d) considerations of cost effectiveness

185

Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of corneal refractive surgery is to modify the anterior surface of the cornea for the correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. The air-tear film interface is a powerful refractive surface. Small changes in the curvature can induce large shifts in refractive power. The exquisite nature of laser-tissue interaction with corneal tissue allows successful application of lasers for refractive surgery. Numerous systems have been developed for clinical applications. An overview is provided of the current clinical and research status of laser refractive surgery.

Ren, Qiushi; Keates, Richard H.; Hill, Richard A.; Berns, Michael W.

1995-03-01

186

Current status of standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the wide-spread and application of acupuncture and moxibustion, the demand of its standardization construction is increasingly prominent. On the basis of further investigation into the standards of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, this article summarize the research status of Chinese standardization of acupuncture and moxibustion, analyse some problems existing in current construction of acupuncture and moxibustion standardization, and put forward several strategies for moving forward, in order to show an overall and objective understanding of acupuncture and moxibustion standardization. PMID:24300161

Hong, S H; Wu, F; Ding, S S; Wang, Z X; Chen, B; Chen, Z L; Guo, Y

2014-03-01

187

The MAO NASU Plate Archive Database. Current Status and Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

The preliminary online version of the database of the MAO NASU plate archive is constructed on the basis of the relational database management system MySQL and permits an easy supplement of database with new collections of astronegatives, provides a high flexibility in constructing SQL-queries for data search optimization, PHP Basic Authorization protected access to administrative interface and wide range of search parameters. The current status of the database will be reported and the brief description of the search engine and means of the database integrity support will be given. Methods and means of the data verification and tasks for the further development will be discussed.

Pakuliak, L. K.; Sergeeva, T. P.

2006-04-01

188

MONK and MCBEND: current status and recent developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MONK Monte Carlo criticality and reactor physics code and the MCBEND Monte Carlo radiation shielding and dosimetry code have each undergone a significant number of developments over the last few years. The codes are actively developed, maintained and supported by AMEC's ANSWERS Software Service, MCBEND11 was released in 2013; MONK10 is expected to be released in late 2013 or early 2014. This paper summarises the current status of MONK and MCBEND and the recent developments which have been carried out to the codes, and their supporting nuclear data libraries and visualisation package

189

Antitubercular drug development: current status and research strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent developments and novel research strategies are adopted widely to discover and develop the new drugs to treat tuberculosis. New antitubercular drugs are urgently needed because tuberculosis remains a global health problem as around nine million new cases are estimated each year with almost two million fatalities. It states the impact and outcomes that have made a significant effect in antitubercular drug development. We are presenting current status of tuberculosis, antitubercular drug development, novel molecular targets, novel agents in clinical and pre-clinical development and some efforts that are being made in the development of novel molecules based on different pharmacophores as lead compounds and recent strategies. PMID:23895192

Barot, Kuldipsinh P; Nikolova, Stoyanka; Ivanov, Illiyan; Ghate, Manjunath D

2013-10-01

190

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends  

CERN Document Server

Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

Loo, Jonathan

2011-01-01

191

ZnO growth technologies: current status and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of new technologies for ZnO nano materials and thin films is of critical importance for further fundamental investigations and practical applications. We discuss on the main technical control of the synthesis of zinc oxide and its properties, which are of significance in understanding the growth mechanism and further developing ZnO-based devices. Next, we present a brief summary of recent research activities, current status and progress in developing improved control of technological processes for zinc oxide as advanced material.

192

Women in physics in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Bangladesh has had a glorious physics tradition since the beginning of the last century, when the physicist S.N. Bose published a groundbreaking paper with Albert Einstein on Bose-Einstein statistics. However, women in Bangladesh traditionally have not been able to make their way in the realm of science in general and physics in particular. Since Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971, the situation has gradually changed and more and more women choose physics as an academic discipline. The percentage of women students in physics rose from 10% in 1970 to almost 30% in 2010. In recent years, women physicists have actively participated in many activities promoting science and technology, creating awareness among the public about the importance of physics education. The present status of women physicists in academic, research, and administrative programs in the government and private sectors in Bangladesh is reported. The greater inclusion of women scientists, particularly physicists, in policy-making roles on important issues of global and national interest is suggested.

Choudhury, Shamima K.

2013-03-01

193

Current status of CME/shock arrival time prediction  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the major solar transients, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their related interplanetary shocks have severe space weather effects and become the focus of study for both solar and space scientists. Predicting their evolutions in the heliosphere and arrival times at Earth is an important component of the space weather predictions. Various kinds of models in this aspect have been developed during the past decades. In this paper, we will present a view of the present status (during Solar Cycle 24 in 2014) of the space weather's objective to predict the arrival of coronal mass ejections and their interplanetary shock waves at Earth. This status, by implication, is relevant to their arrival elsewhere in the solar system. Application of this prediction status is clearly appropriate for operational magnetospheric and ionospheric situations including A - > B - > C…solar system missions. We review current empirical models, expansion speed model, drag-based models, physics-based models (and their real-time prediction's statistical experience in Solar Cycle 23), and MHD models. New observations in Solar Cycle 24, including techniques/models, are introduced as they could be incorporated to form new prediction models. The limitations of the present models and the direction of further development are also suggested.

Zhao, Xinhua; Dryer, Murray

2014-07-01

194

[The current status of development of anti-EGFR antibodies].  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of cetuximab, a mouse chimeric immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody, is approved as anti-epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)therapy for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in Japan. Further, panitumumab, matuzumab, nimotuzumab and zalutumumab which also target EGFR, are currently under clinical development. Cetuximab is the first that has been developed as an anti-EGFR antibody. Approximately 30% of the protein which constructs the mouse chimeric antibodies is from mouse, which yields the possibility that the mouse chimeric antibodies induce host immune-reaction. After cetuximab, the humanized monoclonal antibodies such as matuzumab and nimotuzumab, and fully humanized monoclonal antibodies such as panitumumab and zalutumumab, have been developed. In this article, we will introduce the current status of development of these four anti-EGFR antibodies, by focusing on the individual clinical trials using each anti-EGFR antibody. PMID:20495305

Ura, Takashi

2010-05-01

195

Study of Grants, new Mexico, uranium miners: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Uranium Epidemiology Study at the University of New Mexico was initiated in 1977 with the objective of assessing health effects of uranium mining in the Grants, New Mexico, area. The planned approach was a cohort study of mortality that would capitalize on the availability of health records at the Grants Clinic. The first year's work confirmed the study's feasibility (Buechley, 1979). Subsequent efforts have focused on the health and exposure data base and comprehensive follow-up. A retrospective cohort study of early miners is in progress; a prospective cohort study of miners who began working under the current federal standard is planned. This report will summarize the current status of the Uranium Epidemiology Study

196

Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy [...] -makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

Manuel, Calvopiña; Daniel, Romero; Byron, Castañeda; Yoshihisa, Hashiguchi; Hiromu, Sugiyama.

2014-11-01

197

Current status of zirconia-based fixed restorations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zirconium dioxide (zirconia) ceramics are currently used for fixed restorations as a framework material due to their mechanical and optical properties. This review article describes the current status of zirconia-based fixed restorations, including results of current in vitro studies and the clinical performance of these restorations. Adaptation of zirconia-based restorations fabricated with CAD/CAM technology is within an acceptable range to meet clinical requirements. In terms of fracture resistance, zirconia-based fixed partial dentures (FPDs) have the potential to withstand physiological occlusal forces applied in the posterior region, and therefore provide interesting alternatives to metal-ceramic restorations. Clinical evaluations have indicated an excellent clinical survival of zirconia-based FPDs and crown restorations. However, some clinical studies have revealed a high incidence of chipping of veneered porcelain. Full-coverage zirconia-based restorations with adequate retention do not require resin bonding for definitive cementation. Resin bonding, however, may be advantageous in certain clinical situations and is a necessity for bonded restorations, such as resin-bonded FPDs. Combined surface treatment using airborne particle abrasion and specific adhesives with a hydrophobic phosphate monomer are currently reliable for bonding to zirconia ceramics. Further clinical and in vitro studies are needed to obtain long-term clinical information on zirconia-based restorations. PMID:21206154

Komine, Futoshi; Blatz, Markus B; Matsumura, Hideo

2010-12-01

198

The current status of biosynthetic mesh for ventral hernia repair.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although synthetic mesh has dramatically reduced recurrence in elective hernia repair, its use in contaminated surgical fields has been traditionally associated with complications such as wound sepsis, enterocutaneous fistulas, and chronic prosthetic infection. Biologic meshes emerged in the late 1990s with a rapid popularity fueled largely by the demand for an appropriate substitute in lieu of synthetic mesh in these complex cases; however, the high cost and rate of hernia recurrence have tempered the initial enthusiasm. Biosynthetic meshes were developed as a possible cost-effective alternative to both synthetic and tissue-derived products. Using biodegradable polymers instead of animal or cadaver tissue, they provide a temporary scaffold for deposition of proteins and cells necessary for tissue ingrowth, neovascularization, and host integration. Herein we review the current status of biosynthetic meshes for hernia repair. PMID:25396323

Kim, Mimi; Oommen, Bindhu; Ross, Samuel W; Lincourt, Amy E; Matthews, Brent D; Heniford, B Todd; Augenstein, Vedra A

2014-11-01

199

Current Status Of Silicon Materials Research For Photovoltaic Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The desire for high solar cell efficiencies has been a strong factor in determining the course of recent silicon crystal growth research efforts for photovoltaics. This review, therefore, focuses on single-crystal, dislocation-free ingot growth methods (Czochralski growth, float zoning, and cold crucible growth) and on sheet growth technologies, generally multicrystalline, that have achieved moderately high (>13.5%) laboratory-scale efficiencies. These include dendritic web growth, growth from capillary dies, edge-supported pulling, ribbon-against-drop growth, and a recent technique termed crucible-free horizontal growth. Silicon ribbon crystals provide a favorable geometry and require no wafering, but they contain defects that limit solar cell performance. Growth processes, their current status, and cell efficiencies are discussed. Silicon material process steps before and after crystal growth are described, and the advantages of silicon are presented.

Ciszek, T. F.

1985-08-01

200

Current Status and Future Regulatory Direction on Sump Clogging Issue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A significant progress in resolving the sump clogging issue has been achieved since the USNRC Generic Letter 2004-01 was issued. In Korea, the issue was begun to be discussed in regulatory framework through safety review and plant inspection since 2005. KINS has performed the licensing review for several plants including Kori Unit 1 and SKN Units 3, 4, according to the technical requirement of USNRC. Due to the efforts from the industry side and regulatory side, the newly designed improved strainer can be installed at some plants. However, some challengeable concerns such as chemical effect and downstream effect still need a further research. The present paper is to discuss the current status of issue resolution and the related regulation based on the up-to-date achievements and review findings. Also the future regulatory direction on the new concerns related to the issue is discussed

201

HELOKA data acquisition and control system: Current development status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HELOKA experimental facility, aimed to test the test blanket modules (TBM) mock-ups and prototypes, is under construction at the Research Centre Karlsruhe. HELOKA is an '8-shape' helium loop (HL), which feeds the TBM test section with helium (1.4 kg/s, 300 deg. C, 8 MPa). The maximum temperature at the test section outlet is 500 deg. C. HELOKA data acquisition and control system (DACS) comprises the facility control system and instrumentation. In addition to DACS and working independently from it, the central interlock and safety system (CISS) ensures the facility machine protection and personnel safety, with specific interlock logic, acting upon off-normal events or conditions. The paper briefly describes HELOKA DACS and CISS and reports in detail on the current development status: the installation and commissioning of DACS stage 1 consisting of the supervisory control system (SCS) and the control and monitoring for the water cooling system (WCS) and the related power supply.

202

Indian fast reactor technology: current status and future programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper brings out the advantages of fast breeder reactor and importance of developing closed nuclear fuel cycle for the large scale energy production, which is followed by its salient safety features. Further, the current status and future strategy of the fast reactor programme since the inception through 40 MWt/13 MWe Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), is highlighted. The challenges and achievements in science and technology of FBRs focusing on safety are described with the particular reference to 500 MWe capacity Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), being commissioned at Kalpakkam. Roadmap with comprehensive R and D for the large scale deployment of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs) and timely introduction of metallic fuel reactors with emphasis on breeding gain and enhanced safety are being brought out in this paper. (author)

203

The current status of the Korean student health examination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.

Hye-Jung Shin

2013-08-01

204

Nano-JASMINE: current status and data output  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status of the Nano-JASMINE project is reported. Nano-JASMINE is a very small-sized (50 cm cubic form) satellite that is expected to carry out astrometric observations of nearby bright stars. The satellite will determine distances of more than 8000 stars by performing annual parallax measurements, which is the only direct method to measure the distance of an astronomical object. The mission is required to continue for more than two years to obtain reliable annual parallax measurements. In addition, Nano-JASMINE will serve as a preliminary to the main JASMINE mission. We expect that Nano-JASMINE will be launched in August 2011 from the Alcantara Space Center in Brazil using the Cyclone-4 rocket.

Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Yano, Taihei; Gouda, Naoteru; Niwa, Yoshito; Murooka, Jyunpei; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Sako, Nobutada; Nakasuka, Shin'ichi

2010-07-01

205

Development of Structural Materials for JSFR - Overview and Current Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarized the ongoing efforts regarding new core and structural materials that are to applied to the Japanese sodium cooled fast breeder reactors (JSFR) of which demonstration plant's operation is envisioned in around 2025. For core materials, oxide dispersed strengthened steel (ODS) and precipitation hardened (PH) ferritic steels will be applied. For structural materials, 316FR stainless steel and Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel are applied. The current status alloy design, acquisition of data necessary to establish material strength standard, fabrication techniques to meet the requirements of the design of JSFR both in terms of quality and quantity, and codification of the material strength standards regarding the new materials are overviewed. Further described is path forward to the application of the materials to the JSFR. (author)

206

Current status of the Fastbus Micro-Vax  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present hardware, firmware, and software design and status of the Fastbus Micro-VAX, a two board Fastbus module packaging of the DEC Micro-VAX II computing system, is described. The hardware currently features an Intel 80186, equipped with 64 kB of ROM, 32 kB of RAM, and an 82586/82501 Ethernet port, as a front end I/O processor, plus a high bandwidth Fastbus interface implemented in semi-custom ECL 100K VLSI with the Motorola MCA2500ECL macrocell array. Standard 80186 firmware implements multiple Fastbus segment drivers and interrupt receivers software compatible with the UPI, a limited Fastbus interprocessor network, and emulations of the DEC DEQNA Ethernet interface and an MSCP disk interface. Software includes device drivers for the non-DEC devices, plus appropriate standard access subroutines for the Fastbus and network devices

207

Current Status, Problems and Challenges in Lithium-sulfur Batteries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lithium-sulfur battery, fabricated with metal lithium as anode and sulfur as cathode, has received more attention as the most promising high energy power sources due to its high theoretical energy density (2600 Wh/kg. However, there are some serious and unavoidable problems for lithium-sulfur battery based on the dissolution-deposition processes in organic electrolyte, including serious structure change of metallic lithium anode, the lower utilization and poor cycle performance of active materials, which become a big barrier for the research and development of lithium-sulfur battery. The current status, problems and challenges of lithium-sulfur battery are summarized, including the sulfur-based cathode composites, electrolyte and lithium anode.

HU Jing-Jing, LI Guo-Ran, GAO Xue-Ping

2013-11-01

208

Semiparametric Additive Transformation Model under Current Status Data  

CERN Document Server

We consider the efficient estimation of the semiparametric additive transformation model with current status data. A wide range of survival models and econometric models can be incorporated into this general transformation framework. We apply the B-spline approach to simultaneously estimate the linear regression vector, the nondecreasing transformation function, and a set of nonparametric regression functions. We show that the parametric estimate is semiparametric efficient in the presence of multiple nonparametric nuisance functions. An explicit consistent B-spline estimate of the asymptotic variance is also provided. All nonparametric estimates are smooth, and shown to be uniformly consistent and have faster than cubic rate of convergence. Interestingly, we observe the convergence rate interfere phenomenon, i.e., the convergence rates of B-spline estimators are all slowed down to equal the slowest one. The constrained optimization is not required in our implementation. Numerical results are used to illustra...

Cheng, Guang

2011-01-01

209

Current status of small specimen technology in Charpy impact testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of small-scale specimen technology in Charpy impact testing for ferritic steels is presented, with emphasis on the effect of the notch dimensions (notch depth, notch root radius and notch angle) on the upper shelf energy (USE) and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The USE for miniaturized specimens, normalized by Bb2 or (Bb)3/2 (B is the specimen thickness, b the ligament size), is essentially independent of notch geometry and has a linear relationship with the USE of full size specimens, regardless of irradiation and alloy conditions. The DBTT of miniaturized specimens depends strongly on the notch dimensions; this dependence of the DBTT decreases as the DBTT of full size specimens increase due to neutron irradiation or thermal aging. These results may be useful in determining the USE and DBTT for full size specimens from those for miniaturized specimens. ((orig.))

210

Cobalt 60 gamma irradiation current status, trends and insights  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the current status, trends and insights into the continued, safe use of cobalt 60 gamma irradiation. Also presented are some of the many initiatives undertaken at MDS Nordion. Topics covered include our investment for the future supply of raw materials and the latest news from source production. Briefly presented are the tasks associated with the safe transport of cobalt 60 around the world. Discussed is cobalt 60 usage at the customer site; more specifically maintaining source integrity, source utilization and irradiator design trends. Highlighted are industry trends for North America, Europe and the rest of the world. Finally presented are the challenges and opportunities for the industry. Stressed in the paper is the need to work together

211

Nuclear power for sustainable development: Current status and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in nuclear power has been revived as a result of volatile fossil fuel prices, concerns about the security of energy supplies, and global climate change. This paper describes the current status and future plans for expansion of nuclear power, the advances in nuclear reactor technology, and their impacts on the associated risks and performance of nuclear power. Advanced nuclear reactors have been designed to be simpler and safer, and to have lower costs than currently operating reactors. By addressing many of the public health and safety risks that plagued the industry since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, these reactors may help break the current deadlock over nuclear power. In that case, nuclear power could make a significant contribution towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, significant issues persist, fueling reservations among the public and many decision makers. Nuclear safety, disposal of radioactive wastes, and proliferation of nuclear explosives need to be addressed in an effective and credible way if the necessary public support is to be obtained.

212

Design features and current status of HTR-10GT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 10MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-10), a pebble bed type reactor, is the first reactor worldwide which has inherent safety features. It reached its first criticality in 2000 and began to operate on full power in 2003. The power conversion system of the HTR-10 is a steam turbine generator system. Based on the success of the HTR-10, a new project, the gas turbine power conversion system coupled with the HTR-10, was launched, which is denoted as HTR-10GT. The HTGR gas turbine cycle is expected to have higher efficiency and better performance theoretically. Therefore, for the HTR-10GT, the gas turbine direct cycle is utilized instead of previous steam generator and steam turbine. The arrangement of helium turbine and electric generator is selected as single shaft configuration with a gear box between the two machines, for which the turbine speed is designed as 15000r/min and the generator is 3000 r/min. The rotors are supported by active magnetic bearings to avoid the contamination from any lubricant. The reactor core outlet temperature is designed as 750 deg. and inlet 330 deg. The plant power is controlled by adjusting reactor control rods and helium density simultaneously, so that it can remain high efficiency even in partial loading. The overspeed of the turbomachine is restricted by opening bypass valves to reduce pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of turbine. This presentation will show the main design features and current status of the design features and current status of the HTR-10GT project. (author)

213

Current Status of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an overview of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) to date and the current development status of the system. NORS is an element of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) used to resupply the ISS with Nitrogen and Oxygen following the impending retirement of the Space Shuttle. The paper will discuss why NASA is developing NORS, including a summary of other concepts considered, and other related concepts currently being developed by NASA. The current system architecture will be described, along with a summary of the current design of the NORS. The overall programmatic schedule of the NORS in the context of the upcoming shuttle retirement and future launch vehicle development will also be presented. Finally, the paper will examine the significant technical challenges encountered during the requirements and preliminary design phase of NORS development. A key challenge to the development of NORS is the international shipment - and associated regulations - of pressurized Oxygen, which is necessary due to the use of launch vehicles based in Japan and French Guiana to send NORS gasses to the ISS. The storage and use of relatively large quantities of high pressure (41,000 kPa) Oxygen and Nitrogen within the ISS, which is unprecedented both on the ISS and other space vehicles, has had a significant impact on the design and architecture of the system. The high pressure of the system also poses unique thermal considerations, which has led to the development of a heater system for thermal conditioning of high pressure gas to avoid thermal impacts on downstream hardware. The on-orbit envelope allocated to the NORS has changed (gotten smaller) and has impacted both the design and architecture of the system. Finally, the balance of safety considerations associated with these high pressure gasses, particularly high pressure Oxygen, with the functionality of the system has profoundly impacted the form of the system and will be discussed.

Dick, Brandon

2011-01-01

214

Current status of robot-assisted gastric surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an effort to minimize the limitations of laparoscopy, a robotic surgery system was introduced, but its role for gastric cancer is still unclear. The objective of this article is to assess the current status of robotic surgery for gastric cancer and to predict future prospects. Although the current study was limited by its small number of patients and retrospective nature, robot-assisted gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer is a feasible and safe procedure for experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Most studies have reported satisfactory results for postoperative short-term coutcomes, such as: postoperative oral feeding, gas out, hospital stay and complications, compared with laparoscopic surgery; the difference is a longer operation time. However, robotic surgery showed a shallow learning curve compared with the familarity of conventional open surgery; after the accumulation of several cases, robotic surgery could be expected to result in a similar operation time. Robotic-assisted gastrectomy can expand the indications of minimally invasive surgery to include advanced gastric cancer by improving the ability to perform lymphadenectomy. Moreover, ”total” robotic gastrectomy can be facilitated using a robot-sewing technique and gastric submucosal tumors near the gastroesophageal junction or pylorus can be resected safely by this novel technique. In conclusion, robot-assisted gastrectomy may offer a good alternative to conventional open or laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer, provided that long-term oncologic outcomes can be confirmed.

Se-Jin Baek

2011-01-01

215

Current status of Horonobe URL project in construction phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Horonobe URL project has been pursued by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) to establish and demonstrate site characterization methodologies, engineering technologies, and safety assessment methodologies for HLW geological disposal in relevant geological environment with sedimentary rock and saline groundwater distributing in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan. In the Horonobe URL project, surface-based investigation phase (Phase I) has already completed in the year 2005, and then construction phase (Phase II) has initiated in the same year. Currently, construction of the underground facilities such as shafts/galleries which were designed in Phase I, investigations of the geological environment in the excavated shafts/galleries and confirmation of applicability of engineering technologies has been alternately carried out as Phase II activities of the project. During the construction so far, monitoring for the construction safety such as convergence measurements, tunnel wall observation, sampling of groundwater and rock, investigations for evaluating excavation damaged/disturbed zone (EDZ/EdZ) along shafts/galleries were carried out. In addition, a shotcrete construction test and a grout injection test by using low alkaline cement material were carried in the horizontal galleries. In this paper, status of the URL construction and research activities mentioned above are outlined as the current achievement of the Horonobe URL project. (author)project. (author)

216

Plutonium metal exchange program : current status and statistical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rocky Flats Plutonium (Pu) Metal Sample Exchange program was conducted to insure the quality and intercomparability of measurements such as Pu assay, Pu isotopics, and impurity analyses. The Rocky Flats program was discontinued in 1989 after more than 30 years. In 2001, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) reestablished the Pu Metal Exchange program. In addition to the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston, six Department of Energy (DOE) facilities Argonne East, Argonne West, Livermore, Los Alamos, New Brunswick Laboratory, and Savannah River are currently participating in the program. Plutonium metal samples are prepared and distributed to the sites for destructive measurements to determine elemental concentration, isotopic abundance, and both metallic and nonmetallic impurity levels. The program provides independent verification of analytical measurement capabilies for each participating facility and allows problems in analytical methods to be identified. The current status of the program will be discussed with emphasis on the unique statistical analysis and modeling of the data developed for the program. The discussion includes the definition of the consensus values for each analyte (in the presence and absence of anomalous values and/or censored values), and interesting features of the data and the results.

Tandon, L. (Lav); Eglin, J. L. (Judith Lynn); Michalak, S. E. (Sarah E.); Picard, R. R.; Temer, D. J. (Donald J.)

2004-01-01

217

Current status of the Mallard population in the Nordic countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dabbling ducks (Anas ssp.) are cornerstone species in wetland bird communities and yet in many cases we lack sufficient data to judge the conservation status of the flyway population. In a first step to remedy this we here compile all available data on Mallard in the Nordic countries. We find increasing numbers of wintering Mallards and stable to increasing breeding populations. Data on breeding success is scarce but the available data show an increasing trend. In recent years the overall trend in hunting bag sizes is relatively stable even though there is some variation among countries. Thus all indicators suggest that the Nordic Mallard population is currently in good condition. However major knowledge gaps were identified with regard to release of hand-reared Mallards and the effect of short stopping for the trends observed locally. A detailed assessment of the effect of releases is urgently needed as well as an assessment of the role of short stopping in explaining current trends in winter population in certain parts of the European flyway.

Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär

218

Uas for Geo-Information Current Status and Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent and ongoing developments of state-of-the-art sensor technologies have resulted in smaller and lighter photogrammetric cameras with IMU, lidar scanners and other sensors that can now be integrated with and mounted on the larger Light UAS. This paper describes as an example the successful automatic flight of the 50-megapixel DigiCAM with AEROcontrol IMU developed by IGI flown on Geocopter's GC-201 unmanned helicopter system. The operational and technical requirements of UAS defined in new legislation remain however the safeguard to protect people and costly sensor payload assets. The current prospects of UAS-g face additional challenges related to end-user awareness and the return on investment. The current status of UAS legislation is given in this paper. This legislation justifies UAS-g operations of mapping coastal zones, forests, agricultural fields, and open mines. Sooner return on investment happens when the UAS legislation will be opening up airspace over urban areas (Class 2 approved UAS-g), to longer distances (BLOS operations), and to higher altitudes. UAS-g flights then become feasible to the maximum extent for cadastral mapping of larger areas, oil and gas pipeline monitoring, power line surveys, dike inspection, and highway and railway mapping.

Haarbrink, R. B.

2011-09-01

219

Marine current energy devices: Current status and possible future applications in Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a growing demand for the use of renewable energy technologies to generate electricity due to concerns over climate change. The oceans provide a huge potential resource of energy. Energy extraction using marine current energy devices (MCEDs) offers a sustainable alternative to conventional sources and a predictable alternative to other renewable energy technologies. A MCED utilises the kinetic energy of the tides as opposed to the potential energy which is utilised by a tidal barrage. Over the past decade MCEDs have become an increasingly popular method of energy extraction. However, marine current energy technology is still not economically viable on a large scale due to its current stage of development. Ireland has an excellent marine current energy resource as it is an island nation and experiences excellent marine current flows. This paper reviews marine current energy devices, including a detailed up-to-date description of the current status of development. Issues such as network integration, economics, and environmental implications are addressed as well as the application and costs of MCEDs in Ireland. (author)

220

Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

Kloska, Stephan P. [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Engelhorn, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Fiebach, Jochen B. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany)

2010-03-15

221

Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and potentials of classical radiotherapy After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. Technological levels of radiotherapy in developed countries An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and mached to point current status. Results of analysis and discussion The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%, as well as, ADAC (43.7% and Focus (CMS (27.4% systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%, although classic ”simulation” is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%. About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CFRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.. CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day. Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. Technological aspects and conclusion In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in technology and consequent improvements, as well as wide introduction of computers in radiotherapy, radiotherapy results have not changed significantly. Vendor development strategies do not point that this trend will change in the next 5 years. On the other hand, wide introduction of the PET in each radiotherapy chain ring (diagnostics, planning, follow-up, could improve results (local and regional control, as well as quality of patients' life.

Dabi?-Stankovi? Kata M.

2004-01-01

222

Public acceptance, market development and commercialization of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current status of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh with respect to public acceptance, commercial application, trade development and present research and development activities are summarized in the paper. Irradiated food products are generally accepted by people. To further boost public opinion on the usefulness of the technology, two national seminars were successfully organized in 1995 and 1996 respectively with wide participation and media coverage. A number of non-traditional items such as beef casing, flour, turtle meat, macaroni, peat soil, etc. were irradiated and successfully marketed during the last 5 years. Bangladesh adopted a ''Specification for Authorisation of Irradiation by Groups/Classes of Foods'' in 1995 in line with the ICGFI Guidelines. The Bangladesh Standard is essentially similar to the Harmonised Regulations adopted for the RCA countries in April 1998. About 1300 metric tons of different food items were irradiated for commercial purposes at the Gammatech Irradiation Facility in Chittagong during the past 5 years. Present research activities in Bangladesh include irradiation disinfestations of nematodes in ginger and turmeric, and mites and thrips from cut flowers. Work on identification of fruit flies, mites and thrips by using sensitive protein markers is in progress. (author)

223

Current status and perspectives of brachytherapy for breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Before the era of breast-conserving therapy, brachytherapy implants were used to treat large inoperable breast tumors. In later years, interstitial brachytherapy with rigid needles or multiple flexible catheters has been used to deliver an additional (boost) dose to the tumor bed after breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation. Reexcision followed by reirradiation using interstitial breast implants has also been implemented as an alternative to mastectomy to treat ipsilateral breast local recurrence after previous breast-conserving therapy. In the past two decades, the new concept of accelerated partial breast irradiation opened a new perspective for breast brachytherapy. The first technique utilized in early accelerated partial breast irradiation studies was multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy. Beyond classical interstitial brachytherapy, recently, new intracavitary applicators have been developed in the United States to decrease the existing barriers against the widespread use of multicatheter brachytherapy. Furthermore, interstitial low-dose-rate seed implants have also been implemented as an alternative for stepping-source multicatheter brachytherapy. In this article, we give an overview of the past achievements, current status, and future perspectives of breast brachytherapy. (author)

224

The JT-60SA Cryoplant Current Design Status  

Science.gov (United States)

In the framework of the ITER Broader Approach, CEA is carrying out the procurement of the Cryogenic System to the JA-EU Satellite Tokamak JT-60SA, which should be operated in Japan at JAEA, Naka in 2014. According to the Conceptual Design Report, JT-60SA is to operate for periods of at least 6 months per year, with major shutdown periods in between for maintenance and further installation upgrades. For this operation scenario, the cryoplant and the cryodistribution have to cope with different heat loads which depend on the different JT-60SA operating states. The cryoplant consists of one 4.5 K refrigerator and one 80 K helium loop, each pre-cooled by LN2. These cryogenic subsystems have to operate simultaneously in order to remove the heat loads from the superconducting magnets, 80 K shields and the divertor cryopumps. The first part of this study is based on the Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and presents the current design status of the JT-60SA cryogenic system. The second part is dedicated to the analysis of the cryoplant normal operation modes including the regeneration mode of the divertor cryopumps. Thanks to this analysis, the architecture of the present PFD is proposed in order to match the technical specifications of the cryoplant with the JT-60SA operation requirements.

Henry, D.; Michel, F.; Roussel, P.; Reynaud, P.; Journeaux, J. Y.; Maréchal, J. L.; Balaguer, D.; Roux, C.; Matsukawa, M.; Yoshida, K.

2008-03-01

225

Organ donation in China: current status, challenges, and future development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of effective immunosuppressive agents and advances in surgical practice are the main reasons for the success of transplantation in China. In some key areas such as liver, lung, and kidney transplants, Chinese transplant success rates are similar to the rates in developed countries. Organ donation also has developed rapidly. However, China is facing a serious organ shortage that restricts clinical treatment and medical research. This shortage is due to imperfect laws and improper management of organ donation, as well as Chinese traditional ethics. Finding an efficient way to make the number of donated organs keep pace with the need for organ transplants and to optimize allocation of organ resources is a long-term and arduous task. In some ways, Chinese organ donation nowadays is constrained more by legal issues than by medical issues. The current status of and challenges facing organ donation in China are analyzed with respect to ethics, management, laws, and policy, and the future development of transplantation in China is discussed. PMID:25488562

Sui, Weiguo; Zheng, Can; Yang, Ming; Dai, Yong

2014-12-01

226

Current status and future plan for APR Technology Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of a national long-term R and D program, the Advanced Power Reactor plus (APR+) technology development project (henceforth APR+ project) was launched in 2007. The aims of the project are to develop a Korean indigenous reactor design and competing with foreign Gen III+ reactors and to commercialize the reactor design and finally export it to the world after 2015. The APR+ project consists of three phases. In the first phase, a feasibility study was performed to make relative comparisons among the reactor concepts and the utility requirements of the top level were established. The second phase involves the development of the detail design and the procurement of the Standard Design Approval (SDA) from the Korean nuclear regulatory body. The third phase will be completed the APR+ design by optimizing core part of that. This paper describes the design overview and advanced design feature of APR+. And then, the current status and future plan of the APR+ project presents at the conclusion

227

Thorium-based nuclear fuel: current status and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Until the present time considerable efforts have already been made in the area of fabrication, utilization and reprocessing of Th-based fuels for different types of reactors, namely: by FRG and USA - for HTRs; FRG and Brazil, Italy - for LWRs; India - for HWRs and FBRs. Basic research of thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycles are also being undertaken by Australia, Canada, China, France, FRG, Romania, USSR and other countries. Main emphasis has been given to the utilization of thorium fuels in once-through nuclear fuel cycles, but in some projects closed thorium-uranium or thorium-plutonium fuel cycles are also considered. The purpose of the Technical Committee on the Utilization of Thorium-Based Nuclear Fuel: Current Status and Perspective was to review the world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration, obtained experience in the utilization of Th-based fuels in different types of reactors, basic research, fabrication and reprocessing of Th-based fuels. As a result of the panel discussion the recommendations on future Agency activities and list of major worldwide activities in the area of Th-based fuel were developed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers in this proceedings series

228

HELOKA data acquisition and control system: Current development status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

HELOKA experimental facility, aimed to test the test blanket modules (TBM) mock-ups and prototypes, is under construction at the Research Centre Karlsruhe. HELOKA is an '8-shape' helium loop (HL), which feeds the TBM test section with helium (1.4 kg/s, 300 deg. C, 8 MPa). The maximum temperature at the test section outlet is 500 deg. C. HELOKA data acquisition and control system (DACS) comprises the facility control system and instrumentation. In addition to DACS and working independently from it, the central interlock and safety system (CISS) ensures the facility machine protection and personnel safety, with specific interlock logic, acting upon off-normal events or conditions. The paper briefly describes HELOKA DACS and CISS and reports in detail on the current development status: the installation and commissioning of DACS stage 1 consisting of the supervisory control system (SCS) and the control and monitoring for the water cooling system (WCS) and the related power supply.

Jianu, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Reactor Safety, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: jianu@irs.fzk.de; Marchese, V. [FZK EURATOM Fusion Association (Germany); Ghidersa, B.E.; Messemer, G.; Ihli, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Reactor Safety, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2009-06-15

229

The Belgrade Plate Archive Database : current status and scientific tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

The plate archives of the Belgrade Astronomical Observatory contain more than 15000 glass photographic plates from the period 1936-1996. In addition to the other equipment the Observatory disposed of four instruments devoted especially to astrophotographic observations: Zeiss Refractor 65/1055 cm with special camera, Zeiss Astrograph 16/80 cm, Zeiss Refractor 20/302 cm with two photographic cameras 16/80 cm and Askania Equatorial refractor 13.5/100 cm. Scientific observations were performed in the framework of the programs like: minor planet follow-up, search for the new objects (33 new minor planets were discovered from BAO), comet investigation, systematic observations of the Sun, Moon, giant planets, natural and artifical satellites, variable stars, double and multiple stars, stellar clusters, etc. Rare phenomena, such as passages of Mercury and Venus across the solar disc, lunar occultations of stars and planets and special objects have been observed too. The current status of Belgrade Astrophtopgraphic Plate Archive (BAPA) Database is reported and a brief description of all phases of such a large Project is given. The preliminary computer-readable catalogue of relevant data from the period 1936-1966 is finished as a representative sample only. The Catalogue BAPA is included into WFPDB ( ) as one of the basic sources. A couple of statistical distributions as an example of the kind of informations which will be possible to extract from the database is given.

Protitch-Benishek, V.; Mihajlov, A.; Jakshich, T.; Benishek, V.

2007-08-01

230

Pathological examination of breast cancer biomarkers: current status in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the current status of pathological evaluation for biomarkers in Japan. The introduced issues are the international trends for estimation of biomarkers considering diagnosis and treatment decision, and pathological issues under discussion, and how Japanese Breast Cancer Society (JBCS) members have addressed issues related to pathology and biomarkers evaluation. As topics of immunohistochemical study, (1) ASCO/CAP guidelines, (2) Ki67 and other markers, (3) quantification and image analysis, (4) application of cytologic samples, (5) pre-analytical process, and (6) Japan Pathology Quality Assurance System are introduced. Various phases of concepts, guidelines, and methodologies are co-existed in today's clinical practice. It is expected in near future that conventional methods and molecular procedures will be emerged, and Japanese Quality assurance/Quality control (QA/QC) system will work practically. What we have to do in the next generation are to validate novel procedures, to evaluate the relationship between traditional concepts and newly proposed ideas, to establish a well organized QA/QC system, and to standardize pre-analytical process that are the basis of all procedures using pathological tissues. PMID:25239167

Masuda, Shinobu

2014-09-20

231

Management of reprocessed uranium. Current status and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is worldwide interest in developing advanced and innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles, minimizing waste and environmental impacts. As of the beginning of 2003, about 171000 tonnes heavy metal spent nuclear fuel is in storage, while smaller amounts have been reprocessed. In several countries, including France, India, Japan and the Russian Federation, spent fuel has been viewed as a national energy resource. Some countries hold reprocessed uranium as the result of their commercial reprocessing service contracts for reprocessing the spent fuel of others. Reprocessed uranium has a potential value for recycling either directly or after appropriate treatment. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in the management of reprocessed uranium. It includes the technical issues involved in managing reprocessed uranium which are RepU arisings, storage, chemical conversion, re-enrichment, fuel fabrication, transport, reactor irradiation, subsequent reprocessing and disposal options, as well as assessment of holistic environmental impacts. The objective of this document is to overview the information on the current status and future trends in the management of RepU and to identify major issues to be considered for future projects

232

The current status of radiological protection infraestructures in Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Without adequate and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure, the benefits associated with safe use of nuclear technology and atomic energy might be jeopardized. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the Atomic Energy Act No. 7 of 2003 established the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission as sole regulatory body responsible for regulating and controlling the safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the country. The Atomic Energy (Protection from ionizing radiation) Regulations, 2004 further specifies practices designed to ensure that unnecessary exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is avoided, that all exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable and that all the dose limits specified in the radiation protection standards are not exceeded. This is achieved through the systems of notification, authorizations through registration and licensing, safety and security of radiation sources as well as regulatory inspections and enforcements. These activities are performed by the Commission with operational funds allocated by the Government of Tanzania. The Commission further provides other services namely individual monitoring; calibration services; education and training to radiation workers, public as well as law enforcers; and safe management of radioactive waste. Despite such achievement, still there are a lot to be done in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Tanzania. These include issues such as gaps in our legislations, regulations and guidance, security of sources, enforcement of laws, etc. This paper describes and discusses the current status of the regulatory control activities and radiation protection services provided by the Commission and suggestions for further improvement of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania. (author)

233

Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:19668703

Uhlhaas, Peter J; Pipa, Gordon; Lima, Bruss; Melloni, Lucia; Neuenschwander, Sergio; Nikoli?, Danko; Singer, Wolf

2009-01-01

234

Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China. PMID:24329743

Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

2013-11-01

235

Current status of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality, which is becoming increasingly widespread due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has a long tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a second-generation promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we describe the current situation worldwide as far as the use of accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT is concerned (so-called Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT). In particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. (author)

236

Total electron content and scintillation studies: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Satellite beacon studies have contributed mainly in two areas of research, namely, total electron content (TEC) and small scale structures or irregularities, and both of these have important practical implications in trans-ionospheric radio propagation. The current status of these two fields of research is summarized, and recent developments in the study of equatorial anomaly using US NNSS satellite signals, geomagnetic storm effects, travelling ionospheric disturbances, nighttime enhancements, and slab thickness, which are of particular relevance to the equatorial and low latitudes, are reviewed. Recent initiatives on TEC modelling and comparison of existing models with observations are highlighted. New concepts like computerized ionospheric tomography are briefly outlined. Recent advances in the understanding of scintillation morphology particularly its longitude dependence and the variation of the width of the equatorial scintillation belt are summarized. Future directions in respect of multitechnique investigation of the low latitude ionosphere and the mesosphere, measurement of GHz scintillations, and spectral studies are pointed out. Important application areas of this field are also included. (author). 118 refs., 8 figs

237

Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

Azorin Nieto, J.

2015-01-01

238

Current status and prospects of radiopharmaceuticals in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiopharmaceuticals could not only serve as effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools in human diseases, but also allow the assessment of metabolism and functional processes by providing quick, non-invasive and real-time visualization of physiological and pathological processes in the living humans at the molecular level together with PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging modalities. They could provide new methods and new approaches of truly early diagnosis and therapy and possible pathways for the preventative medicine, translational medicine and personalized medicine. The present review provides an overview of current status of in vivo radiopharmaceuticals in China. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future was discussed. The addressed future trends include the following aspects. (1) Production of medical radioisotopes including 99Mo, 131I, 188/186Re and 123I. (2) Investigation on the basic radiopharmaceutical chemistry. (3) Development of receptor-based imaging agents. (4) Development of multi-modality imaging probes. (authors)

239

Current status and prospects for development of thermometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with results of an analysis carried out at the VNIIM with the purpose to ascertain the current status of thermometry as well as to make an attempt to determine a line of development of this field of measurements in future. The analysis was based on a survey of 150 industrial enterprises and scientific organizations. The results of the survey showed that during two last decades the accuracy of measuring instruments used in science and industry was increased almost tenfold. However, advances in the improvement of temperature measuring instruments were achieved not owing to new principles of designing thermometers, but due to rapid development of electronics, which allowed to solve the problem of accurate measurements of resistance and electromotive force and automatize measurement information processing. In most cases the contemporary measuring instruments perfectly meet the requirements to the measurement accuracy claimed by the enterprises surveyed and are provided with a necessary metrological assurance. Although there is a general understanding of the necessity to use the thermodynamic scale rather than the conditional one, we have no objective evidence with regard to how close we have to bring the international scale used in our everyday practice to the thermodynamic scale and what will be a benefit for development of science and industry. Increasing the accuracy of national standards does not affect, as a rule, the accuracy of temperature measurements in industry and scientific research since the main contribution to a total measurement error is made by components caused by an improper measurement procedure

240

Current status and prospects for development of thermometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper deals with results of an analysis carried out at the VNIIM with the purpose to ascertain the current status of thermometry as well as to make an attempt to determine a line of development of this field of measurements in future. The analysis was based on a survey of 150 industrial enterprises and scientific organizations. The results of the survey showed that during two last decades the accuracy of measuring instruments used in science and industry was increased almost tenfold. However, advances in the improvement of temperature measuring instruments were achieved not owing to new principles of designing thermometers, but due to rapid development of electronics, which allowed to solve the problem of accurate measurements of resistance and electromotive force and automatize measurement information processing. In most cases the contemporary measuring instruments perfectly meet the requirements to the measurement accuracy claimed by the enterprises surveyed and are provided with a necessary metrological assurance. Although there is a general understanding of the necessity to use the thermodynamic scale rather than the conditional one, we have no objective evidence with regard to how close we have to bring the international scale used in our everyday practice to the thermodynamic scale and what will be a benefit for development of science and industry. Increasing the accuracy of national standards does not affect, as a rule, the accuracy of temperature measurements in industry and scientific research since the main contribution to a total measurement error is made by components caused by an improper measurement procedure.

Pokhodun, A. I. [D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, 19 Moskovsky pr., Saint Petersburg, 190005 (Russian Federation)

2013-09-11

241

Advanced altitude simulation facility P8 - current status  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reports the current status of a DLR Lampoldshausen project towards the design, erection, and operation of an advanced altitude simulation facility at the European R&T Facility P8. The system will allow for testing subscale thrust chamber assemblies (TCAs) including surrounding supersonic flow around the nozzle. This facility will allow for investigation into the specific features of altitude simulation facilities but also on the interaction of nozzle and its exhaust plume and the surrounding coflow for subsonic, transitional, and low supersonic coflow conditions. The design bases entirely on the broad experience on design and operation of various altitude simulation facilities such as the satellite engine bench P1.0, the cryogenic and storable upper-stage engine facilities P4.1 and P4.2, sophisticated engineering design tools and continuous numerical effort. Knowledge about nozzle and thrust chamber design and operation bases on broad investigations carried out at the cold-flow facility P6.2 and the hot-fire M3 and P8 test benches.

Pauly, C.; Suslov, D.; Haidn, O. J.

2011-10-01

242

Oil development in China: Current status and future trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future of oil has become an important topic of the discussion of energy policy in China. This paper attempts to present a full picture of the current status and future trends of China’s oil development through system analysis. First, we map a Sankey diagram of China’s oil flow to reveal the physical pattern of China’s oil supply and consumption. Then, we present the historical and ongoing trends of China’s oil flow from key aspects such as oil demand, oil resource availability, technology improvement, and policy adjustment. Based on these understandings, we design three scenarios of China’s oil demand in 2030, and analyze policy implications for oil saving, automotive energy development, and energy security. From the analysis, we draw some conclusions for policy decisions, such as to control the total oil consumption to avoid energy security risks, to enhance oil saving in all sectors with road transportation as the emphasis, and to increase the investment on oil production and refining to secure oil supply and reduce emissions. - Highlights: ? A Sankey Diagram to reveal the physical pattern of China’s oil supply and consumption. ? Present the ongoing trends of China’s oil development. ? Discuss important policy issues such as oil saving, energy security, and emissions reduction.

243

Radionuclide transport by groundwater flow through the geosphere: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geosphere is an important barrier retaining radionuclides that have been released from the near field of a waste repository and retarding their return to Man. The assessment models that are used in the current Nirex assessments to describe the groundwater flow in the vicinity of the repository and the transport of radionuclides by the groundwater are summarized, and their data requirements are set out. The Nirex research programme is designed to provide improved and additional data for these models, to deepen the understanding of the important processes and to develop improved models to describe them. This document outlines the status of the assessment models and associated research programme in the spring of 1988. The programme complements existing knowledge in this field. Key areas are measurements of the physical properties of rocks, field and modelling studies of fractured rocks, measurements of sorption onto geological materials, investigation of the possible importance of colloid transport and saline interfaces, transport of naturally occurring elements over geological time-scales in natural geochemical systems, and participation in an international model validation exercise. (author)

244

Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

PeterUhlhaas

2009-07-01

245

Interface engineering for CVD graphene: current status and progress.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past decade, graphene and graphene-like 2D materials have drawn more and more attention in both academia and industry due to their fascinating properties. As an atomically thin 2D layered material, graphene has extremely high environmental susceptibility, that is, its properties are strongly affected by its surroundings. In this review, the current status and progress in graphene interface engineering are systematically discussed, including the interface between graphene (carbon sources) and an underlying growth substrate (catalyst), the interface between graphene and a supporting layer during a transfer process, as well as the interface between graphene and a modified substrate from the viewpoint of device applications. These key techniques involved in graphene synthesis, transfer, and device substrates can be further applied to other related 2D layered materials such as MoS2 . Moreover, by combining 2D crystals in one particular stack, 2D-based heterostructures with desired functionalities can be achieved, which opens up a new avenue for the future applications of 2D layered materials. PMID:25137126

Wan, Xi; Chen, Kun; Xu, Jianbin

2014-11-01

246

Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO2, Cr2O3, FeOx and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO3, Pb(Zrx Ti1?x)O3, BiFeO3 and PrxCa1?xMnO3; (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al2O3 and Gd2O3; (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In2Se3 and In2Te3. Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most proto focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors. (review article)

247

The current status of cattle breeding programmes in Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the South Asian and Pacific (SAP) countries have similarities in setting the policy and execution of dairy and beef cattle genetic improvement programmes, but the degree of involvement by the state and the private sectors varies with their socioeconomic priorities. Dairying plays an important role in socioeconomic development in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, while the economic output from livestock in Indonesia and Malaysia is dominated by the beef industry. Improving the productivity of cattle in SAP will required a multifaceted set of interventions that will involve not only proper management of local animal genetic resources, but also strengthening of local institutions for support of farming activities, including not only breeding-related services, but also services related to nutrition, health care, milk marketing and social services. These services are to be provided by a combination of governmental, non-governmental, and private institutions. A contribution by the government for policy setting and support in management of local resources is necessary to ensure sustainability and fair exchange of germplasm between countries

248

Current status of the nuclear matter incompressibility coefficient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the current status of the incompressibility coefficient of symmetric nuclear matter, Knm, as deduced from experimental data on excitation cross section, ?(E), of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) and the isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR), by inelastic ?-particle scattering, using the nonrelativistic and relativistic mean-field based random phase approximation (RPA). We will discuss the following problems: (1) Self-consistent (non-relativistic) Hartree-Fock (HF)-based RPA calculations and the need to carry out detailed and accurate calculations of the strength function distributions, S(E), and the transition densities, pt, of the isoscalar giant resonance within the HF-RPA theory. We will present results of our investigation concerning, (i) the consequences of violation of self-consistency in common applications of HF-based RPA on S(E) and p, of isoscalar giant resonances, and (ii) the effects of the spurious state mixing (SSM) on properties of the ISGDR. (2) The relation between the strength function S(E) and the excitation cross section a(E) of the isoscalar giant resonances (the ISGMR and the ISGDR, in particular) obtained by alpha-scattering. Here we present results of accurate microscopic calculations for S(E) and for ?(E), obtained within the folding-model distorted-wave-Born approximation with transition densities pt(r ) obtained from HF-RPA calculations. We provide an explanation for the discrepaprovide an explanation for the discrepancy between theory and experiment concerning S(E) of the ISGDR. (3) The apparent discrepancy of about 20 % in the value of Knm as predicted by the relativistic and the non-relativistic models. Our investigation suggests that this discrepancy is mainly due to the different values of the symmetry energy coefficient employed in the relativistic and the non-relativistic models

249

Simulation of Fusion Plasmas: Current Status and Future Direction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I. Introduction (Z. Lin, G. Y. Fu, J. Q. Dong) II. Role of theory and simulation in fusion sciences 1. The Impact of theory and simulation on tokomak experiments (H. R. Wilson, T.S. Hahm and F. Zonca) 2. Tokomak Transport Physics for the Era of ITER: Issues for Simulations (P.H. Diamond and T.S. Hahm) III. Status of fusion simulation and modeling 1. Nonlinear Governing Equations for Plasma Simulations (T. S. Hahm) 2. Equilibrium and stability (L.L. Lao, J. Manickam) 3. Transport modeling (R.E. Waltz) 4. Nonlinear MHD (G.Y. Fu) 5. Turbulence (Z. Lin and R.E. Waltz) 6. RF heating and current drive (D.A. Batchelor) 7. Edge physics Simulations (X.Q. Xu and C.S. Chang) 8. Energetic particle physics (F. Zonca, G.Y. Fu and S.J. Wang) 9. Time-dependent Integrated Modeling (R.V. Budny) 10. Validation and verification (J. Manickam) IV. Major initiatives on fusion simulation 1. US Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program and Fusion Energy Science (W. Tang) 2. EU Integrated Tokamak Modelling (ITM) Task Force (A. Becoulet) 3. Fusion Simulations Activities in Japan (A. Fukuyama, N. Nakajima, Y. Kishimoto, T. Ozeki, and M. Yagi) V. Cross-disciplinary research in fusion simulation 1. Applied mathematics: Models, Discretizations, and Solvers (D.E. Keyes) 2. Computational Science (K. Li) 3. Scientific Data and Workflow Management (S. Klasky, M. Beck, B. Ludaescher, N. Podhorszki, M.A. Vouk) 4. Collaborative tools (J. Manickam)ickam)

250

Current Status of Nanometer Beam Size Monitor for ATF2  

Science.gov (United States)

The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) is an extension of the ATF beamline extraction featuring an ILC-type ?nal focus system. Among the project's major purposes are establishment of hardware and beam handling technologies aimed at transverse focusing of ATF's electron beam to below 40 nm in the vertical. A laser-interferometer type high resolution beam size monitor named the "Shintake Monitor" is installed at ATF2's virtual interaction point, and plays a crucial role in achieving this aim. A laser interference fringe is formed by crossing two coherent laser rays. This functions as an interaction target for probing the electron beam. Beam size sensitivity of the monitor depends on the pitch of the interference fringe, and maximizes at about one ?fth of the pitch. The Shintake Monitor at ATF2 is designed to be capable of measuring beam sizes ranging from 6 ?m down to 20 nm in the vertical. A vertical beam size of approximately 300 nm has been measured during the run of May 2010. For this running period, ATF2 operated under a special optics con?guration with ten times the nominal IP beta function. For the most recent run, due to switching beam optics back to nominal, BG levels rose about 10 times from May. Shintake Monitor had been proven in May to ful?ll expectations provided BG is low. However with high BG, its accuracy decreased, which makes low S/N a major concern. In this paper, we describe the design and current status of the Shintake Monitor.

Yamaguchi, Yohei; Oroku, Masahiro; Yan, Jacqueline; Kamiya, Yoshio; Komamiya, Sachio; Yamanaka, Takashi; Suehara, Taikan; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Araki, Sakae; Urakawa, Junji

251

Current status of fast reactors and future plans in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Indian energy scenario projections for the future, the nuclear power through fast reactors is expected to play an important role of ? 20% of total installed capacity by 2052. Successful operation of 40 MWt/13 MWe capacity Fast Breeder Test Reactor(FBTR) since 1985, strong R and D executed in multidisciplinary domain backed up by manufacturing technology and construction of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) based on indigenous design have provided high confidence on the success of sodium cooled fast reactor technology. PFBR is a pool type MoX fuelled reactor designed with 2 primary sodium pumps, 2 secondary loops, 8 single wall integrated once through steam generators, and a rectangular containment. PFBR is presently under advanced stage of construction. Beyond PFBR, it is planned to construct 6 more FBRs of 500 MWe capacity each. Towards this, a systematic road map has been drawn for improved economy and enhanced safety through a number of measures. Road map for necessary R and D and manufacturing technology has been well detailed. The major features incorporated are twin unit concept, plant life increased to 60 years in comparison to 40 years for PFBR, reduction in number of steam generators from 8 to 6, reduction in special steel specific weight requirements, integrated primary sodium purification, enhanced reliability of shutdown systems, enhanced diversity in decay heat removal systems, enhanced in-service inspection, and compact plant layout.ce inspection, and compact plant layout. Beyond 2025, a series of 1000 MWe capacity metallic fuel with higher breeding potential are planned. R and D activities have been systematically formulated for metallic fuel development of both sodium bonded and mechanical bonded design. The paper addresses the highlights of current operating experience of FBTR and its life extension, construction status of PFBR, and design features of future sodium cooled fast reactors in India. (author)

252

EDIBLE VACCINES FROM GM CROPS: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE SCOPE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The idea of an edible vaccine is coming closer to reality as scientists have found a way to incorporate the protein gene with some antigen in some plants. The major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology are being overcome. In this context, genetically modified (GM plants are being investigated for the production of vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins. The development of GM crops to produce drugs and vaccines has received considerable investment and is relatively well advanced. The myth surrounding edible vaccines and 'food as pill' is the difficulty to control their intake and distribution, particularly in developing countries where education levels and literacy may be low. However, this concept suffers from the fact that the potency of this class of vaccines and drugs remains unmasked to the majority of the population, which has to be publicized and campaigned in a scientific manner, to make it realistic and useful for the common man. Creating edible vaccines involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. This process is known as "transformation," and the altered plants are called "transgenic plants." Like conventional subunit vaccines, edible vaccines are composed of antigenic proteins and are devoid of pathogenic genes. Thus, they have no way of establishing infection, assuring its safety, especially in immuno-compromised patients. Conventional subunit vaccines are expensive and technology-intensive, need purification, require refrigeration and produce poor mucosal response. In contrast, edible vaccines would enhance compliance, especially in children and because of oral administration, would eliminate the need for trained medical personnel. Their production is highly efficient and can be easily scaled up. If the technology is properly nurtured and given the right direction, it may usher into a new era where we will be asked to take “food” rather than “drugs” when we are ill. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

Doshi V

2013-06-01

253

Current status of the HIBMC and results of representative diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proton radiotherapy (PRT) has been spreading, since 1990 when 250 MeV proton beams with rotation gantry was developed for medical use. On the other hand, carbon-ion radiotherapy (CRT) that has both physical and biological features is available at 4 facilities in the world. HIBMC is the only facility to be able to use both particles. From Apr 2001 to Dec 2008, 2486 patients were treated with PRT in 2030 patients or with CRT in 456. Treatment to the Head and Neck (H and N: in 405 patients), the lung (245), the liver (371), and the prostatic carcinoma (1059) was a major subject. The 2-year local control rates is 72% in H and N (n = 163, T1:9, T2:18, T3:36, T4:79, malignant melanoma 48, adenoid cystic carcinoma 35, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 32, adenocarcinoma 14, others 34), 88% in lung (n = 116, T1:59, T2:42, T3:4, T4:6, SCC 30, adenocarcinoma 59, others 27), and 89% in liver cancer (n = 153, Proton: 130, carbon: 23). Biochemical disease free 3-year survival of 291 prostate cancer is 100% in 9 patients with initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level 20 ng/ml. These results are excellent comparable or superior to those of surgery. Thus, particle therapy is sophisticated radiotherapy, however the only problem to prohibit the progress is high costs for construction and maintenance. Facilities at which both proton and carbon ion beams can be used, including the rbon ion beams can be used, including the HIBMC, have to investigate the differential use. We started clinical randomized trial to compare both ion beams, and started biological examinations in a project aiming at the development of a laser driven proton radiotherapy. We stated about the current status of the HIBMC and the results of representative diseases.

254

Current status of the HIBMC and results of representative diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

The proton radiotherapy (PRT) has been spreading, since 1990 when 250 MeV proton beams with rotation gantry was developed for medical use. On the other hand, carbon-ion radiotherapy (CRT) that has both physical and biological features is available at 4 facilities in the world. HIBMC is the only facility to be able to use both particles. From Apr 2001 to Dec 2008, 2486 patients were treated with PRT in 2030 patients or with CRT in 456. Treatment to the Head and Neck (H&N: in 405 patients), the lung (245), the liver (371), and the prostatic carcinoma (1059) was a major subject. The 2-year local control rates is 72% in H&N (n = 163, T1:9, T2:18, T3:36, T4:79, malignant melanoma 48, adenoid cystic carcinoma 35, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 32, adenocarcinoma 14, others 34), 88% in lung (n = 116, T1:59, T2:42, T3:4, T4:6, SCC 30, adenocarcinoma 59, others 27), and 89% in liver cancer (n = 153, Proton: 130, carbon: 23). Biochemical disease free 3-year survival of 291 prostate cancer is 100% in 9 patients with initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level 20 ng/ml. These results are excellent comparable or superior to those of surgery. Thus, particle therapy is sophisticated radiotherapy, however the only problem to prohibit the progress is high costs for construction and maintenance. Facilities at which both proton and carbon ion beams can be used, including the HIBMC, have to investigate the differential use. We started clinical randomized trial to compare both ion beams, and started biological examinations in a project aiming at the development of a laser driven proton radiotherapy. We stated about the current status of the HIBMC and the results of representative diseases.

Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Niwa, Yasue; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Terashima, Kazuki; Arimura, Takeshi; Mima, Masayuki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Maeda, Takuya; Baba, Masashi; Akagi, Takashi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

2009-07-01

255

Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct support to RandD in line with other low emission fuel alternatives. RandD on cellulosic ethanol can also be supported by indirect measures. The most important measure in this respect is to ensure a correct pricing of fossil fuels now and in the future. Many argue that production and use of first generation biofuels will bridge the conversion to second generation biofuels. We doubt that the necessary cost reductions for second generation biofuels can be obtained from widespread use of first generation biofuels. First, the production processes are simply too different, and second, the advantage with all kinds of biofuels are that it easy to introduce into the transport market at once the technology is ripe. Some also argue that second generation biofuels need to be protected against competition from import of low cost first generation biofuels made in developing countries. However, with targeted support to second generation biofuels, there is no need to pay attention to the infant industry argument. Trade policy should only aim to correct for insufficient internalizing of GHG emission costs from the production of biofuels in countries without a price on carbon. It is by no means certain that second generation biofuels will play a central role in the decarbonizing of the transport market. Necessary cost reductions may not be achieved. The GHG emissions from land use change connected to large-scale growing of cellulosic feedstock may turn out to offset the gains from changing fuel. It is important to avoid a technological or political lock-in in biofuels. In other words, policies should be flexible, and it should be possible to terminate support programs within a short notice.(Author)

Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

2011-07-01

256

Current Status of the JET ITER-like Wall Project  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an overview of the status and relevant technical issues for the ITER-like Wall Project with emphasis on progress since the 11th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications.

Matthews, G. F.; Edwards, P.; Greuner, H.; Loving, A.; Maier, H.; Mertens, Ph; Philipps, V.; Riccardo, V.; Rubel, Marek J.; Ruset, C.; Scmidt, A.; Villedieu, E.

2009-01-01

257

The current status of utilization of research reactors in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seminars on utilization of research reactors were held to enhance experience exchanging among institutes and universities in China. The status of CARR (China Advanced Research Reactor) project is briefly described. The progress in BNCT program in China is introduced. (author)

258

Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Topics discussed include: the status of mass-chain evaluations, remote terminal access, other US Nuclear Data Network publications, formats and procedures subcommittee report, keyword follow-up (Phys. Rev. C), and atomic data and nuclear data tables

259

Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

Md Zahangir Alam

2013-10-01

260

Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

2007-01-01

261

Local population and regional environmental drivers of cholera in Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Regional environmental factors have been shown to be related to cholera. Previous work in Bangladesh found that temporal patterns of cholera are positively related to satellite-derived environmental variables including ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC). Methods This paper investigates whether local socio-economic status (SES) modifies the effect of regional environmental forces. The study area is Matlab, Bangladesh, an area of approximate...

Escamilla Veronica; Yunus Mohammad; Emch Michael; Feldacker Caryl; Ali Mohammad

2010-01-01

262

Current Status of Suomi NPP VIIRS Aerosol Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched on October 28, 2011. It provides Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) at two different spatial resolutions: a pixel level (~750 m at nadir) product called the Intermediate Product (IP) and an aggregated (~6 km at nadir) product called the Environmental Data Record (EDR). The VIIRS AOT is expected to provide continuity to the 10-km Aqua and Terra MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) AOT products that the air quality and public health community has been using. The VIIRS aerosol product suite also includes less mature products such as Suspended Matter (SM) and Aerosol Particle Size Parameter (APSP). An extensive validation of VIIRS best quality aerosol products with ground based L1.5 AERONET data shows that the AOT EDR product has an accuracy/precision of -0.01/0.11 and 0.01/0.08 over land and ocean respectively. Globally, VIIRS mean AOT EDR (0.20) is similar to Aqua MODIS (0.16) with some important regional and seasonal differences. Analysis of SM shows that the algorithm predominantly picks smoke both over land and ocean which is not in agreement with retrievals from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Space Observations (CALIPSO). Similarly, the Angstrom Exponent (AE) retrieval used as a proxy for particle size has no skill over land and only a marginal skill over ocean when compared to AERONET; although a bias of ~0.2 for over ocean retrievals meets specification (0.3), the correlation is low and the standard deviation is ~0.6 and does not meet specification (0.3). This evaluation places the VIIRS AOT product at the provisional maturity level (product is validated, may contain some errors, and ready for operational evaluation). However, several algorithm updates which include a better approach to retrieve surface reflectance are forthcoming. Current status of the aerosol products and improvements to the AOT and SM product based on algorithm updates will be presented.

Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.; Zhang, H.; Huang, J.; Remer, L. A.; Ciren, P.; Huang, H.

2013-12-01

263

Oilfield microseismic monitoring - current status, challenges and opportunties  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last 5-10 years microearthquake (microseismic) imaging has become an important diagnostic technique in the hydrocarbons industry. It is most commonly used for the 3D time-lapse imaging of fracture system development during high-pressure and flowrate hydraulic-fracturing operations, where it is commonly referred to as "frac-mapping". The technique has also seen less wide-spread, but increasing, usage in the long-term monitoring of primary-recovery (ie pressure depletion), the injection of water/steam/gas for secondary-recovery and also for subsurface disposal/storage (eg water/drill-cuttings/H2S/CO2). A significant turning point for microseismic monitoring was the successful imaging of the complex fracturing resulting from the stimulation of the Barnet Shale, Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Microseismic imaging was quickly recognized as the only technology that could provide detailed spatial-temporal information on the fracturing process, and significantly aided the development of sophisticated horizontal well completions. The commercial value of microseismic derived fracture properties, such as growth direction, height and length, has subsequently been recognized in shale and coal-seam gas developments throughout North America, and the rest of the world. The initial uptake and early development of this geophysical technology is however somewhat unusual in that it was largely driven by reservoir engineers, and is typically applied in non-ideal geophysical (wellsite) conditions, and also necessitates near real-time processing and interpretation. The geophysical problems typically faced in frac-mapping include limited network geometry, relatively poor data quality (due to small event magnitudes and ambient noise), automated processing requirements, velocity model uncertainty and incomplete geomechanical understanding of the source mechanism. Nonetheless it is an important and widely used technique. The paper considers the current status of microseismic monitoring in the oilfield. It will present typical operational scenarios, highlight the geophysical challenges already overcome and those still to be faced, and discuss some of the novel processing solutions that have been adopted to date, such as the move away from conventional arrival-time based event location methods. It will conclude by highlighting some of the outstanding challenges and opportunities that might benefit from wider scientific collaboration, including the geomechanical understanding of frac induced seismicity, and its relationship to enhanced permeability and fluid flow.

Jupe, A.

2011-12-01

264

Study of the Effect of Food Habit, Lifestyle and Daily Trip on Physical and Mental Status of Subjects at Islamic University in Kushtia, Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a qualitative (study that used framework analysis to examine by interviews among University personnel who live inside and outside the Islamic University campus in Kushtia, Bangladesh. In the present study, we found that subjects who live inside of the University feel better physically and mentally than the nonresident subjects. It was found that residents are more fit and feel better during and after class time. Resident subjects have less stress and maintain balanced diet for which they have good average BMI value than the nonresident subjects. In addition nonresident subjects have suffered diseases comparatively much more than resident subjects.

Shahjahan Ali

2012-04-01

265

MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher plants play an important role in closed ecological life support systems as oxygen pro-ducers, carbon dioxide and water recyclers, and as a food source. For an integration of higher plant chambers into the MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) loop, a detailed characterization and optimization of the full food production and preparation chain is needed. This implies the prediction and control of the nutritional quality of the final products consumed by the crew, the prediction of the wastes quality and quantity produced along the chain for further waste treatment (MELiSSA waste treatment) and the optimization of overall efficiencies. To reach this goal several issues have to be studied in an integrated manner: the physiological responses of crops to a range of environmental parameters, crop yield efficiencies and respective ratio and composition of edible and inedible biomass, the processability and storability of the produced food and last but not least composition of wastes in view of further degradation (fiber content). Within the Food Characterization (FC) project several compar-ative plant growth bench tests were carried out to obtain preliminary data regarding these aspects. Four pre-selected cultivars of each of the four energy-rich crops with worldwide usage -wheat, durum wheat, potato and soybean -were grown under well-characterized environmental conditions. The different cultivars of each species are screened for their performance in view of a closed loop application by parameter ranking. This comprises the characterization of edi-ble/inedible biomass ratio, nutritional quality, processability and overall performance under the specific conditions of hydroponic cultivation and artificial illumination. A second closely linked goal of the FC project is to develop a mechanistic physiological plant model, which will ease the integration of higher plants compartments in the MELiSSA concept by virtue of its predictive abilities. Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

266

Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations met at the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). All 7 panel members were present, together with 17 other individuals with various responsibilities and interests in the US Nuclear Data Network (USNDN). Status reports were presented to the panel by the five US evaluation centers, located at Brookhaven (BNL), Idaho Falls (INEL), Berkeley (LBL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and the University of Pennsylvania. The reports from the centers outlined the status of their mass chain evaluations and of a number of other projects related to this work; these areas are discussed in more detail in this report

267

Current status of the~IAU MDC Meteor Showers Database  

Science.gov (United States)

During the General Assembly of the IAU in Beijing in 2012, at the business meeting of Commission 22 the list of 31 newly established showers was approved and next officially accepted by the IAU. As a result, at the end of 2013, the list of all established showers contained 95 items. The IAU MDC Working List included 460 meteor showers, among them 95 had pro tempore status. The List of Shower Groups contained 24 complexes, three of them had established status. Jointly, the IAU MDC shower database contained data of 579 showers.

Jopek, T. J.; Ka?uchová, Z.

2014-07-01

268

HIV and AIDS in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Bangladesh initiated an early response to the HIV epidemic starting in the mid-1980s. Since then, the res-ponse has been enhanced considerably, and many HIV-prevention interventions among the most at-risk populations and the general youth are being undertaken. Alongside prevention activities, gathering of data has been a key activity fostered by both the Government and individual development partners. This paper reviews available sources of data, including routine surveillance (HIV and behavioural among most at-risk populations), general population surveys, and various research studies with the aim to understand the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in Bangladesh. Available data show that the HIV epidemic is still at relatively low levels and is concentrated mainly among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Dhaka city. In addition, when the passively-reported cases were analyzed, another population group that appears to be especially vulnerable is migrant workers who leave their families and travel abroad for work. However, all sources of data confirm that risk behaviours that make individuals vulnerable to HIV are high—this is apparent within most at-risk populations and the general population (adult males and youth males and females). Based on the current activities and the sources of data, modelling exercises of the future of the HIV epidemic in Dhaka suggest that, if interventions are not enhanced further, Bangladesh is likely to start with an IDU-driven epidemic, similar to other neighbouring countries, which will then move to other population groups, including sex workers, males who have sex with males, clients of sex workers, and ultimately their families. This review reiterates the often repeated message that if Bangladesh wants to be an example of how to avert an HIV epidemic, it needs to act now using evidence-based programming. PMID:18831227

Azim, Tasnim; Khan, Sharful Islam; Haseen, Fariha; Huq, Nafisa Lira; Henning, Lars; Pervez, Md. Moshtaq; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Sarafian, Isabelle

2008-01-01

269

Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients.

Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center

1993-08-04

270

Current Status and Future Directions of Targeted Peptide Radionuclide Therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current status: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is currently almost exclusively targeted at the somatostatin receptor (sst). Of the 5 receptor subtypes, sst2 is frequently very highly expressed at the cell surface of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Octreotide is a small and stable derivative of native somatostatin, which can be very well labeled with therapeutic radionuclides such as the beta-emitters ''9''0Y, ''1''7''7Lu or the Auger emitter ''1''1''1In, chelated in DTPA or DOTA, linked to the peptide. All current therapeutic octreotide derivatives are agonists that are internalized in the cell. The affinity for the sst2 receptor is better for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate than for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide or [DTPA]octreotide. ''9''0Y is a pure beta-emitter, with a half-life of 2.7 days, a high energy of 2.270 MeV, and a maximum penetration in tissue of 12mm. ''1''7''7Lu with a half-life of 6.7 days emits a low abundance of gamma photons as well as beta particles of 497 keV, with a maximum tissue penetration of 2 mm. ''1''7''7Lu-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Lu-DOTATE), ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Y-DOTATATE) and ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide (Y-DOTATOC) are today the most frequently used therapeutic radiopeptides. Main inclusion criteria: inoperable and/or metastatic NET, receptor-positivity in all known lesions demonstrated by sufficient uptake on ''1''1''1In-octreotide scintigraphy (intensity > liver parenchyma), life expectancy at least 3-6 months, sufficient bone marrow reserve (hemoglobin (HGB) ? 5 mmol/L, white blood cells (WBC) ? 2*109/L, platelets (PLT) ? 75*1012/L), sufficient renal function (serum creatinine 40 mL/min), sufficient hepatic and cardiac reserve. Karnofski score ?50. Efficacy: several groups have reported objective response rates (RECIST or WHO/SWOG; CT or MRI based). Complete remission (CR) is rarely seen, partial remission (PR; >50% shrinkage SWOG) in 7% - 37%, minor remission (MR, 25% - 50% shrinkage) in 13% - 17%, stable disease (SD) in 35% - 88% [incl. MR], and progression (PD, > 25% growth or new lesions) in around 20% of patients. Overall, better results are reported for Y-DOTATATE and Lu-DOTATATE than for Y-DOTATOC. Since cure is no feasible option in this category of advanced patients with mostly slow-growing tumors, overall survival (OS), and symptomatic relief / better quality of life, are the most important efficacy parameters. Currently there are no controlled clinical trials available comparing the effects of PRRT with the best standard of care. Nevertheless, the median OS of 4 years that was found in the Rotterdam study using Lu-DOTATATE compares favorably with the 3 years OS with Y-DOTATOC or the 1 year OS with high-dose 111In-DTPA-octreotide. Moreover, when the OS of matching subgroups in the Rotterdam Lu-DOTATATE study was compared with the OS in published studies in the literature using other treatment modalities, the OS of Lu-DOTATATE patients was always better than of their matched historic controls. Additionally, an extensive monitoring of quality of life (QOL) showed improvement of gobal health and performance scores with decrease of symptom scores in the majority of patients treated with Lu-DOTATATE. Toxicity: renal protection using commercially available solutions of mixed amino acids containing lysine and arginine, or using 1L of a mixture of 25g lysine and 25g arginine, is necessary to prevent renal damage from PRRT. Still, there is a risk of developing renal insufficiency after PRRT, expressed as a yearly percentage loss of creatinine clearance (parameter for GFR) which may continue for years after completion of PRRT. A minimum of 18 months of systematic follow-up after PRRT is required to assess the yearly percentage loss in GFR. Risk factors for renal insufficiency are a high cumulative renal radiation dose, especially if the biologic equivalent dose (BED, by applying the linear quadratic model) exceeds 35Gy - 40 Gy. Further risk factors are age over 65 yr, hypertension and diabetes. Especially patients with a combination of more than two of the above me

271

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-05-01

272

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future June 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-06-01

273

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-01-01

274

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-04-01

275

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2007-03-01

276

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JC Liljegren

2006-10-01

277

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

JC Liljegren

2007-02-01

278

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September – October 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

JW Voyles

2007-10-30

279

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November – December 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2007-12-01

280

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-04-01

281

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-03-01

282

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October – November 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

JW Voyles

2007-11-30

283

Current status of CHESS - the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the status of CHESS through its three-year construction period, which ends in the fall of 1981. Included are a brief description of beam lines, monochromators, station instrumentations and support facilities. Our experiences with source size and stability over the last year are reported, along with planned fall revisions and running schedule. (orig.)

284

Child Rights in Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Bangladesh is a densely populated country with populations about 160 millions. About half of the populations of Bangladesh are under the age of 18 who are considered as children and more than 20 million of them are under the age of 5. About 73% of children live in the rural areas and 27% live in the urban areas. One-third of these children continue to live below the international poverty line. The violation of child rights is a common matter in Bangladesh. The children have basic rights to e...

Mohajan, Haradhan

2014-01-01

285

Klimaflygtninge i Bangladesh?  

OpenAIRE

This project will be based on floods in Bangladesh, and how they affect the population. Bangladesh is a densely populated country, and when there is flooding in large parts of the country, it affects a lot of people. First, we explored the causes of the floods, including rainfall in Bangladesh and in India and the melt water from Himalaya. We focused on three years with major flooding; 1988, 1998 and 2004. Based on data from these years, we could see that the investigated causes had not c...

Hartvig, Isa K.; Olsen, Lea Dalgaard; Hull, Brynn Ida Dan

2012-01-01

286

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

JC Liljegren

2006-07-01

287

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

JC Liljegren

2006-08-01

288

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

JC Liljegren

2006-09-01

289

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-12-01

290

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-10-01

291

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-10-15

292

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - August 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-09-01

293

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - July 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-07-01

294

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-05-01

295

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-07-01

296

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-05-01

297

Chemotherapy in advanced bladder cancer: current status and future  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Bladder cancer occurs in the majority of cases in males. It represents the seventh most common cancer and the ninth most common cause of cancer deaths for men. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most predominant histological type. Bladder cancer is highly chemosensitive. In metastatic setting, chemotherapy based on cisplatin should be considered as standard treatment of choice for patients with good performance status (0-1) and good renal function-glomerular filtration rate...

Amzerin Mounia; Ismaili Nabil; Flechon Aude

2011-01-01

298

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - December 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-01-15

299

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-03-02

300

The current status of the U.S. MTBE industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the status of the MTBE industry from its beginnings as a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments and the need for the use of oxygenates in non-attainment areas. During 1990--93 three world scale merchant plants were constructed and in 1994 two more were brought on stream. The paper tabulates reasons why MTBE gained the lion's share of the oxygenates market. Finally the paper discusses the problems that now plague the industry and their causes

301

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-03-15

302

ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2009-02-15

303

Current status of sentinel node biopsy in urological malignancies  

OpenAIRE

Like in most other malignancies the lymph node status is of outstanding prognostic relevance and an important tool for the determination of adjuvant strategies for urological tumor entities, too. Even in the era of PET/CT and MRI with iron oxid nano-particles the radiological imaging technology is strongly limited in cases of metastases smaller than 5 mm. Therefore only the operative lymph node exploration is suitable for an exact lymph node staging. The dilemma, however, is that the extended...

Friedhelm Wawroschek; Jens de la Roche; Jens Uphoff; Alexander Winter

2010-01-01

304

Current status of Chinese nuclear power industry and technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China has been carrying out active international cooperation aiming to be a country where is to be an economical super power and an advanced country in nuclear power technology by the year early 2000, and China also has begun to be recognized as the largest potential market for the construction of nuclear power plants(NPPs) expecting to construct more than thirty nuclear power units by the year 2020. China has advanced technology in the basic nuclear science including liquid metal breeder reactor technology, nuclear material, medium and small size power plants, and isotope production technology, and also China has complete nuclear fuel cycle technology. However, China still has low NPP technology. Therefore, it is expected that China may have complementary cooperative relationship with China, it is expected that Korea may have an access to the advanced Chinese nuclear science technology, and may have a good opportunity to explore the Chinese market actively exporting excellent Korean NPP technology, and further may have a good position to the neighboring Asian countries' NPP markets. From this perspective, general Chinese social status, major nuclear R and D activity status, and correct NPP and technology status have been analyzed in this report, and this report is expected to be a useful resource for cooperating with China in future. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 16 refs. (Author)

305

Tiagabine: efficacy and safety in partial seizures – current status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jürgen Bauer, Déirdre Cooper-MahkornDepartment of Epileptology, Bonn University Hospital, GermanyAbstract: Tiagabine hydrochloride (TGB is a selective gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA reuptake inhibitor. TGB is effective as an add-on medication in adults and children 12 years and older in the treatment of partial seizures. Results of nonrandomized add-on trials with TGB show treatment success with seizure reduction of at least 50% in 33% to 46% of patients. In newly diagnosed patients with partial epilepsy, TGB monotherapy was as effective as carbamazepine. Comedication with TGB elevates the risk of nonconvulsive status (7.8% vs 2.7% without TGB. The most common side effects include dizziness/lightheadedness, asthenia/lack of energy and somnolence. TGB has no negative effects on cognition; it does not increase the risk of fractures or rash. TGB may interfere with color perception. TGB presents an intermediate risk for depression in patients with epilepsy (approximately 4%. Regarding the risk of overdose, 96–680 mg TGB (mean 224 mg caused seizures or coma. TGB is an antiepileptic drug exhibiting a specific anticonvulsive mechanism of action, the efficacy of which is relatively low when used in comedication. Critical side effects, such as the induction of nonconvulsive status epilepticus, further limit its use.Keywords: epilepsy, tiagabine, antiepileptic drugs, status epilepticus, pharmacotherapy

Jürgen Bauer

2008-09-01

306

Income Inequality and Health Status in the United States: Evidence from the Current Population Survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current Population Survey data on self-reported health status and income for the general population and those in poverty were analyzed. No consistent association was found between income inequality and individual health status. Previous findings of such an association were attributed to ecological fallacy or failure to control for individual…

Mellor, Jennifer M.; Milyo, Jeffrey

2002-01-01

307

The Metis Betterment Act: History and Current Status. Background Paper No. 6.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the history and current status of the eight Metis settlements established in the 1940s for people of mixed white and Indian blood living traditional Indian lifestyles in Alberta. The Ewing Commission first reported in 1936 on the Metis people who were not allocated reserves as status Indians and did not have squatters' rights on…

Alberta Dept. of Native Affairs, Edmonton.

308

Current status of nuclear power in Japan and JGC's activities in the nuclear field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of nuclear power and down stream status of radioactive waste treatment and disposal in Japan is described. The JGC Corporation and JGC's nuclear technologies is outlined. The joint work between China and JGC corporation is also introduced (7 ills.)

309

Double-blind cluster randomised controlled trial of wheat flour chapatti fortified with micronutrients on the status of vitamin A and iron in school-aged children in rural Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food fortification is a cost-effective and sustainable strategy to prevent or correct micronutrient deficiencies. A double-blind cluster (bari) randomised controlled trial was conducted in a rural community in Bangladesh to evaluate the impact of consumption of chapatti made of micronutrient-fortified wheat flour for 6 months by school-aged children on their vitamin A, haemoglobin and iron status. A total of 43 baris (group of households) were randomly selected. The baris were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. The intervention group received wheat flour fortified with added micronutrients (including 66?mg hydrogen-reduced elemental iron and 3030??g retinol equivalent as retinyl palmitate per kilogram of flour), while the control group received wheat flour without added micronutrients. A total of 352 children were enrolled in the trial, 203 in the intervention group and 149 in the control group. Analyses were carried out on children who completed the study (191 in the intervention group and 143 in the control group). Micronutrient-fortified wheat flour chapatti significantly increased serum retinol concentration at 6 months by 0.12??mol?L(-1) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06, 0.19; P?status, haemoglobin levels or anaemia was observed. Consumption of fortified chapattis demonstrated a significant improvement in the vitamin A status, but not in iron, haemoglobin or anaemia status. PMID:23800099

Rahman, Ahmed S; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, Faiz; Alam, Mohammad S; Wahed, Mohammad A; Sack, David A

2013-06-25

310

Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefi...

Rajib Kanti Das; Soman Chakraborty

2012-01-01

311

BIHARI REFUGEES STRANDED IN BANGLADESH SINCE 1971  

OpenAIRE

A relatively large number of Pakistanis known as the Bihari community have been stranded in Bangladesh since its independence in 1971. The objective of this paper is to analyze the status of the Bihari people and their problems. This paper argues that the Bihari community suffers from identity crisis of being Bangladeshis and Pakistanis or being refugees and minorities that are deprived of fundamental rights. The unresolved repatriation problem is a consequence of deliberate procrastinatio...

Mantoo, Shahnawaz A.

2013-01-01

312

Climate Migrants in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

This audio segment from PRI's The World Science Podcast explores the plight of the rising numbers of migrants, in the South Asian nation of Bangladesh, forced to leave their homes because of climate changes.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2010-02-12

313

The proton ''spin contents'': Current status ampersand perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present status of the phenomenological and theoretical interpretation of the EMC result on the polarized deep elastic scattering is reviewed. We focus our discussion on the possibility of a significant gluonic contribution to the proton spin via the axial anomaly. We contrast the variant perspectives on this question: the viewpoint that stresses the interpretation in terms of the parton distributions vs the one that concentrates on the matrix elements of local operators. Some remarks concerning the validity of OZI rule for the strange quark are also included. 53 refs

314

Current Status and Future Technical Challenges for Tokamak Magnets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnet technology for fusion in the last decade has been focusing mostly on the development of magnets for tokamaks--the most advanced fusion concept at the moment. The largest and the most complex tokamak under development is ITER. To demonstrate adequate design approaches to large magnets for ITER and to develop industrial capabilities, two large model coils and three insert coils, all using full-scale conductor, were built and tested by the international collaboration during 1994-2002. The status of the magnet technology and directions of future developments are discussed in this paper.

Martovetsky, N; Minervini, J; Okuno, K; Salpiero, E; Filatov, O

2002-11-11

315

[Quality assurance in medicine. Current status, future requirements].  

Science.gov (United States)

The term quality assurance is becoming increasingly important in medicine. Quality assurance has paved its way into the health reform laws as well as into the professional guidelines for physicians. The institutions bearing the financial burden have reacted accordingly by demanding quality assurance measures for the implementation of medical procedures. In the future, no procedure without documentation of quality assurance will be reimbursed. Quality assurance is thus turning into an important factor in medical practice and will gain relevance where diagnostic and therapeutic standards are to be set and met. This study gives an overview of status and development of quality assurance and its management in present and future medicine. PMID:9081903

Künzel, U

1996-12-01

316

Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

317

Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy  

CERN Document Server

Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

Andreeva, J; Belov, S; Casey, J; Dvorak, F; Gaidioz, B; Karavakis, E; Kodolova, O; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Krenek, A; Lanciotti, E; Maier, J; Mulac, M; Rocha Da Cunha Rodrigues, D F; Rocha, R; Saiz, P; Sidorova, I; Sitera, J; Tikhonenko, E; Vaibhav, K; Vocu, M; 10.1088/1742-6596/219/6/062002

2010-01-01

318

Impact of sea level rise in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple three-part diagram from UNEP GRID Vital Water Graphics showing what the impact of global warming will be on projected coastlines and populated areas of Bangladesh with a 1 and 1.5 m sea level rise relative to the current coastline.

UNEP GRID Arendal

319

Cancer control in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively and efficiently with the cancer problems through evidence-based decision making. PMID:24163419

Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

2013-12-01

320

Marginal regression approach for additive hazards models with clustered current status data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current status data arise naturally from tumorigenicity experiments, epidemiology studies, biomedicine, econometrics and demographic and sociology studies. Moreover, clustered current status data may occur with animals from the same litter in tumorigenicity experiments or with subjects from the same family in epidemiology studies. Because the only information extracted from current status data is whether the survival times are before or after the monitoring or censoring times, the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator of survival function converges at a rate of n(1/3) to a complicated limiting distribution. Hence, semiparametric regression models such as the additive hazards model have been extended for independent current status data to derive the test statistics, whose distributions converge at a rate of n(1/2) , for testing the regression parameters. However, a straightforward application of these statistical methods to clustered current status data is not appropriate because intracluster correlation needs to be taken into account. Therefore, this paper proposes two estimating functions for estimating the parameters in the additive hazards model for clustered current status data. The comparative results from simulation studies are presented, and the application of the proposed estimating functions to one real data set is illustrated. PMID:23913626

Su, Pei-Fang; Chi, Yunchan

2014-01-15

321

Fast wave current drive: Experimental status and reactor prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fast wave is one of the two possible wave polarizations which propagate according to the basic theory of cold plasmas. It is distinguished from the other (slow wave) branch by having an electric field vector which is mainly orthogonal to the confining magnetic field of the plasma. The plasma and fast wave qualitatively assume different behavior depending on the frequency range of the launched wave. The high frequency fast wave (HFFW), with a frequency (?2? /approximately/ GHz) much higher than the ion cyclotron frequency (?/sub i/), suffers electron Landau damping and drives current by supplying parallel momentum to superthermal electrons in a fashion similar to lower hybrid (slow wave) current drive. In the simple theory the HFFW should be superior to the slow wave and can propagate to very high density and temperature without impediment. Experiments, however, have not conclusively shown that HFFW current drive can be achieved at densities above the slow wave current drive limit, possibly due to conversion of the launched fast waves into slow waves by density fluctuations. Alternatively, the low frequency fast wave (LFFW), with frequencies (/approx lt/ 100 MHz) only a few times the ion cyclotron frequency, is damped by electron Landau damping and, in a hot plasma (/approx gt/ 10 keV), by electron transit time magnetic pumping; current drive is achieved by pushing superthermal electrons, and efficiency is prediocted to be slightly better than for lower hybrid current drive. Most significantly, the slow wave does not propagate in high density plasma when ? /approximately/ ?/sub i/, so parasitic coupling to the slow wave can be avoided, and no density and temperture limitations are foreseen. Experiments with fast wve current drive invariably find current drive efficiency as good as obtained in lower hybrid experiments at comparable, low temperatures. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

322

CURRENT STATUS AND POTENTIAL FOR PRIMARY ACL REPAIR  

OpenAIRE

ACL rupture occurs in hundreds of thousands active adolescents and young adults each year. Despite current treatment, post-traumatic osteoarthritis following these injuries is commonplace within a decade of injury in these young patients. Thus, there is widespread clinical and scientific interest in improving patient outcomes and preventing osteoarthritis. The current emphasis on the removal of the torn ACL and subsequent replacement with a tendon graft (ACL reconstruction) stems from adheren...

Murray, Martha M.

2009-01-01

323

Process development for dry reprocessing - current status and future plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

JNC has been developing a pyrometallurgical reprocessing process Gr based on the electrorefining of metal and oxide nuclear fuels. The basic pyrometallurgical process consists of anodic dissolution of spent fuels, partial recovery of U on a solid cathode, and electrolysis of Pu with the remaining U into a liquid Cd cathode using molten salt media at high temperatures. This report briefly describes the present status of the test facilities under construction. Oxide fuel electrolytic facility started U test, after finishing a col run test. In the metal fuel facility, the electrolytic cell for Pu is being equipped. Apparatus in glove boxes, reduction cell, electrorefining, evaporation cell, oxidation cell, etc, are explained. Facility for noble metal separation of Ru, Rh, and Pd from UO2 and PuO2 are scheduled. (S. Ohno)

324

The MiMeS Project: Overview and Current Status  

CERN Document Server

The Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Project is a consensus collaboration among many of the foremost international researchers of the physics of hot, massive stars, with the basic aim of understanding the origin, evolution and impact of magnetic fields in these objects. At the time of writing, MiMeS Large Programs have acquired over 950 high-resolution polarised spectra of about 150 individual stars with spectral types from B5-O4, discovering new magnetic fields in a dozen hot, massive stars. The quality of this spectral and magnetic mat\\'eriel is very high, and the Collaboration is keen to connect with colleagues capable of exploiting the data in new or unforeseen ways. In this paper we review the structure of the MiMeS observing programs and report the status of observations, data modeling and development of related theory.

Wade, G A; Bohlender, D A; Bouret, J -C; Cohen, D; Duez, V; Gagné, M; Grunhut, J; Henrichs, H F; Hill, N; Kochukhov, O; Mathis, S; Neiner, C; Oksala, M; Owocki, S; Petit, V; Shultz, M; Rivinius, T; Townsend, R; Vink, J S

2010-01-01

325

HappyFace - current status and future development plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HappyFace Project is a meta-monitoring tool, which is allow to monitor the Grid sites of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). It can also be used for any (complex) computing system, e.g. local or distributed computing resources. HappyFace provides fast access to all relevant monitoring sites and gets a complete overview about the status of all available sites on one page. It has an automatic querying system, a lot of testing modules can be plugged in and also the ability to design and add new modules is available. The project had been written in Python and PHP, but in the 3rd version of HappyFace the source code is fully migrated to Python and the web output uses only HTML templates, which makes it simpler.

326

Current status of TNF blocking therapy in heart failure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent experimental studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-? has deleterious cardiovascular effects. Tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists bind to TNF-a and functionally inactivate this cytokine and thereby reverse some of these effects. Various clinical studies of TNF-? antagonists have reported conflicting results. The present review analyses all reported clinical trials of TNF-? antagonists in congestive heart failure (CHF. The effect of these agents on clinical composite score, CHF hospitalizations, and mortality were compared. Early clinical studies of blocking TNF in patients with heart failure demonstrated promising results. However, recent large-scale, placebo-controlled trials have failed to show any improvement in the clinical status of heart failure. There have in fact, been some reports of worsening of heart failure with these agents. It may be concluded that TNF-? antagonists could adversely affect the clinical condition of patients with moderate to severe heart failure.

Gupta S

2005-08-01

327

Current status of radioisotope production in the year of 2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The RIPF(Radio Isotope Production Facility) is the unique facility in Korea which has been used for the isotope production. Through the survey on the radioisotope quantities of production and consumption in the domestic industry, we were trying to show the trend of isotope production. The quantities of Tc-99m, Mo-99, Cr-51, I-131 solution and I-131 capsule produced in the hot cell and clean room of RIPF were compared with the quantities at the previous year. Also the output of the labeling compound such as Hippuran, MIBG, RIHSA, Phytate, MDP, DISIDA, DTPA, etc was compared with the previous year by the radioactivity and the vial. We treated the sum of selling amount of industrial isotopes and tracer isotopes and the status of technical supports also.

Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S.; Shin, B. C

2004-02-01

328

Filtered neutron beams at the FMRB - review and current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of our experience with filtered neutron beams installed in beam tubes of the Research and Measurement Reactor Braunschweig since 1976: Desing of the filters and measurement of the beam parameters are reported and an outline of the research work done with the beams is given. The present status of the irradiation facility, which consists of 5 beams (144 keV, 24.5 keV, 2 keV, 0.2 keV and thermal neutrons), is described in some detail to allow understanding of the physical as well as the technical prerequisites for performing calibrations of neutron measuring instruments. An appendix contains the actual beam parameters. (orig.)

329

Macromolecular contrast agents for MR mammography: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Macromolecular contrast media (MMCM) encompass a new class of diagnostic drugs that can be applied with dynamic MRI to extract both physiologic and morphologic information in breast lesions. Kinetic analysis of dynamic MMCM-enhanced MR data in breast tumor patients provides useful estimates of tumor blood volume and microvascular permeability, typically increased in cancer. These tumor characteristics can be applied to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, to define the angiogenesis status of cancers, and to monitor tumor response to therapy. The most immediate challenge to the development of MMCM-enhanced mammography is the identification of those candidate compounds that demonstrate the requisite long intravascular distribution and have the high tolerance necessary for clinical use. Potential mammographic applications and limitations of various MMCM, defined by either experimental animal testing or clinical testing in patients, are reviewed in this article. (orig.)

330

Macromolecular contrast agents for MR mammography: current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Macromolecular contrast media (MMCM) encompass a new class of diagnostic drugs that can be applied with dynamic MRI to extract both physiologic and morphologic information in breast lesions. Kinetic analysis of dynamic MMCM-enhanced MR data in breast tumor patients provides useful estimates of tumor blood volume and microvascular permeability, typically increased in cancer. These tumor characteristics can be applied to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, to define the angiogenesis status of cancers, and to monitor tumor response to therapy. The most immediate challenge to the development of MMCM-enhanced mammography is the identification of those candidate compounds that demonstrate the requisite long intravascular distribution and have the high tolerance necessary for clinical use. Potential mammographic applications and limitations of various MMCM, defined by either experimental animal testing or clinical testing in patients, are reviewed in this article. (orig.)

Daldrup-Link, Heike E. [Department of Radiology, Technical University, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Brasch, Robert C. [Department of Radiology, Center for Pharmaceutical and Molecular Imaging, University of California, San Francisco (United States)

2003-02-01

331

Targeting to the hair follicles: current status and potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pilosebaceous unit is a complex structure that undergoes a specific growth cycle and comprises a few important drug targeting sites. For example, drugs can be targeted to the bulge region with stem cells or to the sebaceous glands. Interest in pilosebaceous units is directed towards their utilization as reservoirs for localized therapy and also as a transport pathway for systemic drug delivery. Improved investigative methods, such as differential stripping, are being developed in order to determine follicular penetration. This article reviews relevant aspects of effective follicle-targeting formulations and delivery systems as well as the activity status of hair follicles, and variations in follicle size and distribution throughout various body regions. Each of these factors strongly affects follicular permeation. We provide examples of improved penetration of particle-based formulations and of a size-dependent manner of follicular penetration. Contradictions are also discussed, indicating the need for detailed future investigations. PMID:20060268

Wosicka, Hanna; Cal, Krzysztof

2010-02-01

332

Optical/IR Interferometry: Concepts, Terminology, and the Current Status  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of optical/infrared interferometric methods by non-interferometric specialists is becoming more commonplace, and offers many opportunities for novel studies at high angular resolution. This paper presents an overview of current optical/IR interferometric methods for non-experts, with particular emphasis on the basic terminology and concepts. It also outlines the capabilities of current and planned interferometers and reviews some recent science applications. The goals are to provide the background needed for a non-expert to assess the utility of interferometry for potential scientific studies and to help identify those capabilities of existing arrays that offer the best prospects for future science exploitation.

Haniff, C.

2014-09-01

333

Brain perfusion CT in acute stroke: current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dynamic perfusion CT has become a widely accepted imaging modality for the diagnostic workup of acute stroke patients. Although compared with standard spiral CT the use of multislice CT has broadened the range from which perfusion data may be derived in a single scan run. The advent of multidetector row technology has not really overcome the limited 3D capability of this technique. Multidetector CT angiography (CTA) of the cerebral arteries may in part compensate for this by providing additional information about the cerebrovascular status. This article describes the basics of cerebral contrast bolus scanning with a special focus on optimization of contrast/noise in order to ensure high quality perfusion maps. Dedicated scan protocols including low tube voltage (80 kV) as well as the use of highly concentrated contrast media are amongst the requirements to achieve optimum contrast signal from the short bolus passage through the brain. Advanced pre and postprocessing algorithms may help reduce the noise level, which may become critical in unconscious stroke victims. Two theoretical concepts have been described for the calculation of tissue perfusion from contrast bolus studies, both of which can be equally employed for brain perfusion imaging. For each perfusion model there are some profound limitations regarding the validity of perfusion values derived from ischemic brain areas. This makes the use of absolute quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) values for the discrimination of the infarct core from periinfarct ischemia questionable. Multiparameter imaging using maps of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and a time parameter of the local bolus transit enables analyzing of the cerebral perfusion status in detail. Perfusion CT exceeds plain CT in depicting cerebral hypoperfusion at its earliest stage yielding a sensitivity of about 90% for the detection of embolic and hemodynamic lesions within cerebral hemispheres. Qualitative assessment of brain perfusion can be further enhanced by adding relative perfusion indices from regions of interest. Multislice CTA using a collimation of 4x1 mm and high pitch factors allows for isotropic scanning of the brain supplying arteries from the aortic arch to the vertex in a single run. Various image processing modalities such as multiplanar reformations, curved planar reconstructions, maximum intensity projections, and volume rendering techniques are available to deal with the extensive data and to bring out those vascular lesions, which are of relevance for individual stroke. With the advent of multidetector CT advanced stroke protocols combining plain CT, perfusion CT and CTA can routinely be accomplished within a very short timespan thus ensuring the role of CT in the diagnostic workup of acute stroke.

Koenig, Matthias E-mail: matthias.koenig@ruhr-uni-bochum.de

2003-03-01

334

Brain perfusion CT in acute stroke: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamic perfusion CT has become a widely accepted imaging modality for the diagnostic workup of acute stroke patients. Although compared with standard spiral CT the use of multislice CT has broadened the range from which perfusion data may be derived in a single scan run. The advent of multidetector row technology has not really overcome the limited 3D capability of this technique. Multidetector CT angiography (CTA) of the cerebral arteries may in part compensate for this by providing additional information about the cerebrovascular status. This article describes the basics of cerebral contrast bolus scanning with a special focus on optimization of contrast/noise in order to ensure high quality perfusion maps. Dedicated scan protocols including low tube voltage (80 kV) as well as the use of highly concentrated contrast media are amongst the requirements to achieve optimum contrast signal from the short bolus passage through the brain. Advanced pre and postprocessing algorithms may help reduce the noise level, which may become critical in unconscious stroke victims. Two theoretical concepts have been described for the calculation of tissue perfusion from contrast bolus studies, both of which can be equally employed for brain perfusion imaging. For each perfusion model there are some profound limitations regarding the validity of perfusion values derived from ischemic brain areas. This makes the use of absolute quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) values for the discrbral blood flow (CBF) values for the discrimination of the infarct core from periinfarct ischemia questionable. Multiparameter imaging using maps of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and a time parameter of the local bolus transit enables analyzing of the cerebral perfusion status in detail. Perfusion CT exceeds plain CT in depicting cerebral hypoperfusion at its earliest stage yielding a sensitivity of about 90% for the detection of embolic and hemodynamic lesions within cerebral hemispheres. Qualitative assessment of brain perfusion can be further enhanced by adding relative perfusion indices from regions of interest. Multislice CTA using a collimation of 4x1 mm and high pitch factors allows for isotropic scanning of the brain supplying arteries from the aortic arch to the vertex in a single run. Various image processing modalities such as multiplanar reformations, curved planar reconstructions, maximum intensity projections, and volume rendering techniques are available to deal with the extensive data and to bring out those vascular lesions, which are of relevance for individual stroke. With the advent of multidetector CT advanced stroke protocols combining plain CT, perfusion CT and CTA can routinely be accomplished within a very short timespan thus ensuring the role of CT in the diagnostic workup of acute stroke

335

Current Status in the Therapy of Liver Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and Wilson’s disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV infections are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, they are the focus of the development of new drugs. The current treatment of choice for HBV/HCV infection is an interferon-based combination therapy with oral antiviral drugs, like nucleos(tide analogues, which is associated with improving the therapeutic success and also preventing the development of resistances. Currently, two new protease inhibitors for HCV treatment are expected (deleobuvir, faldaprevir and together with the promising drug, daclatasvir (NS5A-inhibitor, currently in clinical trials, adequate therapy is to be expected in due course (circumventing the requirement of interferon with its side-effects, while in contrast, efficient HBV therapeutics are still lacking. In this respect, entry inhibitors, like Myrcludex B, the lead substance of the first entry inhibitor for HBV/HDV (hepatitis D infection, provide immense potential. The pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of Myrcludex B are described in detail.

Philipp Uhl

2014-04-01

336

Current status in the therapy of liver diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Wilson's disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infections are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, they are the focus of the development of new drugs. The current treatment of choice for HBV/HCV infection is an interferon-based combination therapy with oral antiviral drugs, like nucleos(t)ide analogues, which is associated with improving the therapeutic success and also preventing the development of resistances. Currently, two new protease inhibitors for HCV treatment are expected (deleobuvir, faldaprevir) and together with the promising drug, daclatasvir (NS5A-inhibitor, currently in clinical trials), adequate therapy is to be expected in due course (circumventing the requirement of interferon with its side-effects), while in contrast, efficient HBV therapeutics are still lacking. In this respect, entry inhibitors, like Myrcludex B, the lead substance of the first entry inhibitor for HBV/HDV (hepatitis D) infection, provide immense potential. The pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of Myrcludex B are described in detail. PMID:24786290

Uhl, Philipp; Fricker, Gert; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter

2014-01-01

337

San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties.

Majer, E.L.; Daley, T.M.; Myer, L.R.; Nihei, K.; Queen, J.; Sinton, J.; Murphy, J.; Fortuna, M.; Lynn, H.B.; Imhoff, M.A.; Wilson, R.

2001-02-26

338

Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions  

Science.gov (United States)

Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

2009-01-01

339

Current status of the hydrogeology at the WIPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current efforts to define the hydraulic system at the proposed WIPP site are described. These efforts are directed toward further refinement of the field data and conducting specific tests to determine the isotropy of the media and the appropriateness of their representation as porous or as fractured systems

340

Current status of the hydrogeology for the WIPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current efforts to define the hydraulic system at the proposed WIPP site are described. These efforts are directed toward further refinement of the field data and conducting specific tests to determine the isotropy of the media and the appropriateness of their representation as porous or as fractured systems

341

Measles: Current Status and Outbreak Control on Campus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current effort to eliminate measles in the United States has caused record low levels of the disease. This strategy must continue to be applied in order to break the transmission of measles on college campuses through high immunization levels, promotion of rapid reporting of cases, and quick responses to outbreaks. (Author/DF)

Amler, Robert W.; Orenstein, Walter A.

1984-01-01

342

Current status of renal biopsy for small renal masses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered. PMID:25237457

Ha, Seung Beom; Kwak, Cheol

2014-09-01

343

Organic Agricultural Research in Europe - Current Status and Future Prospects  

OpenAIRE

The paper takes a closer look at how organic farming research is organised in Europe and at what challenges researchers will face in the future. The paper looks at the history of organic farming research, informs on current research structures as well as on coordination activities and lists EU-funded research projects (as of 2002).

Niggli, Urs; Willer, Helga

2002-01-01

344

Transmission-blocking vaccines: uses and current status of development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria continues to cause incomprehensible human suffering throughout most of the tropics and subtropics: in sub-Saharan Africa it is estimated that 2 million children die each year as a direct cause of infection with Plasmodium. Vector control and malaria chemotherapy that were previously effective in controlling and treating malaria are now largely ineffective due to insecticide-resistant mosquitoes and drug-resistant parasites. As alternatives to these mainstays of control, an intensive effort to develop subunit vaccines targeted at various stages of the life has been undertaken. One such vaccine, directed against the sexual and sporogonic stages and referred to as a transmission-blocking vaccine, offers the hope of controlling malaria in geographically isolated areas, preventing re-introduction of the parasite in malaria-free zones, blocking the spread of drug-resistant or vaccine escape mutants, and reducing exposure to "virulent" strains of parasites. A series of potential transmission-blocking vaccine candidates have identified and the genes encoding these surface proteins have now been isolated and sequenced. One such vaccine candidate, Pfs25, is now being tested in human Phase I safety and immunogenicity studies. Here the use and status of transmission-blocking vaccines are reviewed. PMID:9088989

Kaslow, D C

1997-02-01

345

Current status of novel agents in advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastroesophageal (GE) adenocarcinomas are highly lethal malignancies and despite multiple chemotherapy options, 5-year survival rates remain dismal. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment but patients are often limited by toxicity and poor performance status. Because of molecular heterogeneity, it is essential to classify tumors based on the underlying oncogenic pathways and develop targeted therapies that act on individual tumors. Trastuzumab, a human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody, was the first such agent shown to improve response rate, progression free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) when added to cisplatin based chemotherapy in patients with HER2 over-expressing GE junction (GEJ) and gastric adenocarcinomas. However, HER2 over expressing GE tumors are in the minority and the need for additional targeted agents is urgent. Though many agents are in development, incorporating targeted therapy in the treatment of GE cancers comes with a unique set of challenges. In this review, we outline oncogenic pathways relevant to GE adenocarcinomas, including HER2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and c-Met, and discuss recent trials with agents targeting these pathways.

Kothari, Nishi

2015-01-01

346

Ultra-Rapid Opioid Detoxification: Current Status and Controversies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Opioid dependence is a major health problem and a cause of increasing concern to physicians and other health professionals worldwide. A crucial first step in intervention is detoxification. Recent trends in medical practice have seen the emergence of newer techniques that claim to accelerate the detoxification procedure and ensure prevention of relapse by rapid induction onto maintenance treatment with opioid antagonists such as naltrexone. This review delves into the theoretical and methodological aspects related to ultra-rapid opioid detoxification (opioid detoxification procedure using opioid antagonists, performed under general anaesthesia or heavy sedation and discusses the status of the same in light of the available evidence regarding its applicability, safety and effectiveness. Although useful in some respects (especially in completion rates for detoxification and subsequent induction onto naltrexone maintenance, the justification of this procedure lies in (a the resolution of the ethical conflicts surrounding the procedure and (b conduction of methodologically sound long-term studies to demonstrate greater efficacy over routine/standard detoxification procedures beyond the short-term detoxification period.

Singh J

2004-07-01

347

Advanced fuel technology and performance: Current status and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last years the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Division of the IAEA has been giving great attention to the collection, analysis and exchange of information in the field of reactor fuel technology. Most of these activities are being conducted in the framework of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT). The purpose of this Advisory Group Meeting on Advanced Fuel Technology and Performance was to update and to continue the previous work, and to review the experience of advanced fuel technology, its performance with regard to all types of reactors and to outline the future trends on the basis of national experience and discussions during the meeting. As a result of the meeting a Summary Report was prepared which reflected the status of the advanced nuclear fuel technology up to 1990. The 10 papers presented by participants of this meeting are also published here. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

348

Current status of sentinel node biopsy in urological malignancies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Like in most other malignancies the lymph node status is of outstanding prognostic relevance and an important tool for the determination of adjuvant strategies for urological tumor entities, too. Even in the era of PET/CT and MRI with iron oxid nano-particles the radiological imaging technology is strongly limited in cases of metastases smaller than 5 mm. Therefore only the operative lymph node exploration is suitable for an exact lymph node staging. The dilemma, however, is that the extended lymphadenectomy techniques feature a high morbidity and that any limitation of the dissection area results in a reduced detection rate of metastases in penile and prostate cancer. In contrast the sentinel- guided lymphadenectomy (SLND offers a short operation time and a low morbidity without the risk of a significantly reduced detection of lymph node positive patients. As a consequence of many published papers dealing with a few thousands of patients the European Association of Urology (EAU guidelines recommend the SLND in penile cancer (tumor stages ? T1G2 and as an option in prostate cancer. The latest studies of bladder, renal cell and testicular cancer promise the feasibility for these tumor entities, too. Up to which extend these thera- peutic concepts are able to replace or at least complement the default therapeutic procedures has to be shown in further studies.

Friedhelm Wawroschek

2010-08-01

349

Spent fuel management in China: Current status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the development of nuclear power in China, its status of operating nuclear power plants and progress of on-going NPP projects are described. With the arising of spent fuel from NPPs, a national policy of a closed nuclear fuel cycle has been determined. Following storage at reactor sites for at least 5 years (generally maximum 10 years), spent fuel will be transferred to an away-from-reactor pool type centralized storage facility. Adjacent to the storage facility, a multi-purpose reprocessing pilot plant will be set up by the end of this century. An industrial scale reprocessing plant would be succeeded around the year 2020. China's spent fuel management activities include at-reactor storage, transportation, away-from-reactor storage and reprocessing. Relatively detailed description of the work done up to now on spent fuel management and plans for the future are described. It should be noted that activities related to the management of high level radioactive waste are not included here. (author)

350

Prostate cancer chemoprevention: Current status and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemoprevention is a strategy that aims to reduce the incidence and burden of cancer through the development of agents to prevent, reverse or delay the carcinogenic process. Prostate cancer is a suitable target for prevention because it has a high incidence and prevalence, as well as a long latency and disease-related mortality, and furthermore it is a disease in which lifestyle and environmental factors may play critical roles. The development of chemoprevention strategies against prostate cancer will have a huge impact, both medically and economically. Large-scale clinical trials suggest that some agents such as selenium, lycopene, soy, green tea, vitamins D and E, anti-inflammatory and inhibitors of 5?-reductase are effective in preventing prostate cancer. Although each agent has the potential to affect the natural history of the disease, it is important to develop strategies to strategically proceed for the design and selection of test agents in order to demonstrate clinical benefit with the minimum of adverse effects. Appropriate selection of agent(s), disease stage, trial design and endpoints is critical in selecting the most promising regimens to accomplish these goals. This review highlights the present status of prostate cancer chemoprevention and discusses future prospects for chemopreventive strategies that are safe and clinically beneficial

351

A GROWING DILEMMA OF TOURISM DIFFUSION AND SUSTAINABILITY: WOWS AND WOES FOR BANGLADESH ECO-TOURISM!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tourism is one of the emerging and fastest growing industries in the world today. It is well said that every twelve tourists creates a new job. Current study discusses the diffusive nature of tourism that demands an inclusion of the concept “sustainability” which in turn creates the impression for “ecotourism”. Afterward the study tries to find out ecotourism possibility to explore and potential challenges with special context of Bangladesh tourism industry. The concept of ecotourism adds the concern for environment as well as socio-economic status. Ecotourism must be promoted for sustainable development by establishing a durable productive base that allows the local inhabitants and ecotourism service providers to enjoy rising standards of living and environmental conservation. This paper provides an idea of how different tourism destinations, especially ecotourism become an effective tool for the sustainable development in Bangladesh. Secondary data were used to address the objectives in this study. However, some marketing strategies are pointed out as recommendations based on which several action programs could be taken for establishing as well as standardizing Bangladesh as an eye-catching ecotourism destination.

Muhammad Shoeb-Ur-Rahman

2012-06-01

352

The LHCf experiment at CERN: motivations and current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LHCf is an experiment currently installed at CERN at the LHC complex. It consists of two small calorimeters each one placed 140 meters away from the ATLAS interaction point. Their purpose is to study forward production of neutral particles in proton-proton collisions at extremely low angles. The results will provide invaluable inputs to the many air-shower Monte Carlo codes currently used for modeling cosmic rays interactions in the Earth atmosphere. Depending on machine start up, data will be taken from 900 GeV in the centre of mass up to 14 TeV (laboratory equivalent collision energy of 1017eV), thus covering an energy range up to and beyond the 'knee' of the cosmic ray spectrum.

353

Current status of the recirculator project at LLNL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Heavy Ion Fusion Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has for several years been developing the world's first circular ion induction accelerator designed to transport space charge dominated beams. Currently, the machine extends to 90 degrees, or 10 half-lattice periods (HLP) with induction cores for acceleration placed on every other HLP. Full current transport with acceptable emittance growth without acceleration has been achieved. Recently, a time stability measurement revealed a 2% energy change with time due to a source heating effect. Correcting for this and conducting steering experiments has ascertained the energy to an accuracy of 0.2%. In addition, the charge centroid is maintained to within 0.6-mm throughout the bend section. Initial studies of matches dependencies on beam quality indicate significant effects.

Ahle, L; Autrey, D; Barnard, J; Craig, G; Debeling, A; Eylon, S; Friedman, A; Fritz, W; Grote, D P; Halaxa, E; Logan, B G; Lund, S M; Mant, G; Molvik, A W; Sangster, T C; Sharp, W M

1999-03-23

354

Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing; Current Status and Future Challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This contribution addresses the current understanding of gaseous nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics and microstructure development in iron and heat treatable steel will be explained. In these materials the nitrided/ nitrocarburized case can be subdivided in a compound layer consisting of iron (carbo-)nitrides and a diffusion zone, consisting of a dispersion of alloying element nitrides in ferrite. The compound layer provides beneficial tribological and corrosion performance, while the diffusion zone is responsible for improved fatigue performance. Furthermore, aspects of low temperature surface hardening of stainless steels in a gaseous environment will be addressed. Here, the developed case consists of expanded austenite and/or expanded martensite, which essentially is a super saturated solid solution of nitrogen/carbon in austenite/martensite. The current state of the art and necessary future research activities for improvement of the present understanding will be identified.

Somers, Marcel A. J.

355

Current status of superconducting synchronous motor in Saga University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since there are no iron cores in the rotor and stator windings of superconducting synchronous motors, some reactances are intrinsically smaller than the ones of conventional motors. So the low synchronous reactance would be expected to improve the torque-ampere ratio stability and the overload capacity. Two types of 30-kVA synchronous motors, such as rotating armature and rotating field have been constructed. The rotating armature type motor had been fabricated and tested. The results show the difficulty of holding a stator cryostat in a low-heat leak condition. The low synchronous impedance requires some control of the armature current and/or the motor field current. The rotating field type motor encountered a balancing problem due to the triple-pipe configuration of the helium supplier in the torque tube

356

IFMIF test cell design: Current status and key components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IFMIF (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility) test cell design has been further developed and optimized based on the existing modular test cell concept. Key features of the current test cell include actively cooled surrounding shielding walls with coverage of internal surfaces with stainless steel liner, independent two layer top shielding plugs for protecting the access cell from neutron and gamma radiation from the test cell, optimized piping and cabling plugs for accommodating pipe and cable penetrations and for minimizing neutron streaming, rearranged lithium quench tank to outside of the test cell, etc. According to preliminary neutronic calculation results, limited access to the quench tank area for maintenance after beam shut-off can be expected with the current arrangement. Maintenance of the lithium inlet and outlet pipes as well as the two beam ducts are also possible by introducing removable shielding plugs which can be removed and replaced in case of failure

357

IFMIF test cell design: Current status and key components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IFMIF (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility) test cell design has been further developed and optimized based on the existing modular test cell concept. Key features of the current test cell include actively cooled surrounding shielding walls with coverage of internal surfaces with stainless steel liner, independent two layer top shielding plugs for protecting the access cell from neutron and gamma radiation from the test cell, optimized piping and cabling plugs for accommodating pipe and cable penetrations and for minimizing neutron streaming, rearranged lithium quench tank to outside of the test cell, etc. According to preliminary neutronic calculation results, limited access to the quench tank area for maintenance after beam shut-off can be expected with the current arrangement. Maintenance of the lithium inlet and outlet pipes as well as the two beam ducts are also possible by introducing removable shielding plugs which can be removed and replaced in case of failure.

Tian, Kuo, E-mail: kuo.tian@kit.edu [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Arbeiter, Frederik; Heinzel, Volker; Heupel, Tobias; Kondo, Keitaro [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Mittwollen, Martin [Institute for Conveying Technology and Logistics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

2013-10-15

358

The LHCf experiment at CERN motivations and current status  

CERN Document Server

LHCf is an experiment currently installed at CERN at the LHC complex. It consists of two small calorimeters each one placed 140 meters away from the ATLAS interaction point. Their purpose is to study forward production of neutral particles in proton-proton collisions at extremely low angles. The results will provide invaluable inputs to the many air-shower Monte Carlo codes currently used for modeling cosmic rays interactions in the Earth atmosphere. Depending on machine start up, data will be taken from 900 GeV in the centre of mass up to 14 TeV (laboratory equivalent collision energy of 1017eV), thus covering an energy range up to and beyond the “knee” of the cosmic ray spectrum.

D'Alessandro, R; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Castellini, G; Faus, D A; Fukui, K; Grandi, M; Haguenauer, M; Itow, Y; Kasahara, K; Macina, D; Mase, T; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Menjo, H; Mizuishi, M; Muraki, Y; Papini, P; Perrot, A L; Ricciarini, S; Sako, T; Shimizu, Y; Taki, K; Tamura, T; Torii, S; Tricomi, A; Turner, W C; Velasco, J; Viciani, A; Yoshida, K

2009-01-01

359

Current Status in the Therapy of Liver Diseases  

OpenAIRE

Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Wilson’s disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infecti...

Philipp Uhl; Gert Fricker; Uwe Haberkorn; Walter Mier

2014-01-01

360

Current Status and Perspectives Regarding the Treatment of Osteosarcoma: Chemotherapy  

OpenAIRE

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in childhood and adolescence. The use of combination chemotherapy and surgery enables long-term survival in approximately 60-70% of cases. However, the necessity for surgery, the poor prognosis of patients with metastatic or recurrent disease (long-term survival in only about 20% of cases), and the lack of establishment of second-line chemotherapy suggest that improvements in chemotherapy are desperately needed. Currently, in an effort to ext...

Sakamoto, Akio; Iwamoto, Yukihide

2008-01-01

361

Double beta decay experiments: current status and prospects  

Science.gov (United States)

Double beta decay experiments are reviewed and the results of the most sensitive of them are examined. Current half-life values for two-neutrino double beta decay are presented together with the best available limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and decay with a Majoron emission. The most promising next-generation experiments with a Majorana-neutrino mass sensitivity of 0.01-0.1 eV are described.

Barabash, A. S.

2014-05-01

362

Atomic clock with nuclear transition: current status in TU Wien  

OpenAIRE

The nucleus of 229Thorium presents a unique isomer state of very low energy and long lifetime, current estimates are around 7.8 eV and seconds to hours respectively. This nuclear transitions therefore is a promising candidate for a novel type of frequency standard and several groups worldwide have set out to investigate this system. Our aim is to construct a "solid state nuclear clock", i.e. a frequency standard where Thorium ions are implanted into Calciumfluoride crystals ...

Kazakov, G. A.; Schreitl, M.; Winkler, G.; Sterba, J. H.; Steinhauser, G.; Schumm, T.

2011-01-01

363

Nitric oxide and phytohormone interactions: current status and perspectives  

OpenAIRE

Nitric oxide (NO) is currently considered a ubiquitous signal in plant systems, playing significant roles in a wide range of responses to environmental and endogenous cues. During the signaling events leading to these plant responses, NO frequently interacts with plant hormones and other endogenous molecules, at times originating remarkably complex signaling cascades. Accumulating evidence indicates that virtually all major classes of plant hormones may influence, at least to some degree, the...

Freschi, Luciano

2013-01-01

364

Current Status and Prospects for Microbubbles in Ultrasound Theranostics  

OpenAIRE

Encapsulated microbubbles have been developed over the past two decades to provide both improvements in imaging as well as new therapeutic applications. Microbubble contrast agents are used currently for clinical imaging where increased sensitivity to blood flow is required, such as echocardiography. These compressible spheres oscillate in an acoustic field, producing nonlinear responses which can be uniquely distinguished from surrounding tissue, resulting in substantial enhancements in imag...

Martin, K. Heath; Dayton, Paul A.

2013-01-01

365

Current status of maintenance therapy for advanced ovarian cancer  

OpenAIRE

Joanie Mayer Hope, Stephanie V BlankNew York University School of Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, New York NY, USAAbstract: Even after countered with and responding to maximal surgical and chemotherapy efforts, advanced ovarian cancer usually ultimately recurs. One strategy employed to forestall recurrence is maintenance chemotherapy, an extension of treatment following a complete response to conventional measures. Many agents have been studied and many more are currently...

Joanie Mayer Hope; Blank, Stephanie Amp Nbsp V.

2010-01-01

366

The current status of women in physics in Croatia  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an updated analysis on the number of female diploma and graduate physics students as well as the current career level of female and male physicists at Croatian research institutes and universities. Although the number of Croatian female physicists is relatively high, they are still under-represented in the highest scientific and decision-making positions. This is especially true for positions at universities.

Roller-Lutz, Zvjezdana; Kr?mar, Milica; Supek, Selma

2013-03-01

367

Current status of Tc-99m production in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technetium-99m is the workhorse of nuclear medicine and currently accounts for over 80% of all in vivo diagnostic procedures. In Thailand, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) had experiences in production of Technetium-99m by solvent extraction process and alternative technology for Technetium-99m generator based on zirconium molybdate and titanium molybdate gel generators were also studied. The paper describes past experiences and future plan of Technetium-99m production in Thailand. (author)

368

Marine Current Energy Status and it's Potential in Ireland  

OpenAIRE

The energy consumption in Ireland is primarily achieved by the combustion of fossil fuels. As well as fossil fuels continually becoming more expensive and fluctuating in price, their use as an energy source also has a negative impact on the environment. Ireland’s energy consumption can be separated into three separate divisions: transportation, electricity generation and heat energy. The use of marine current energy technologies will assist in sustainable development as well as being a solu...

O Rourke, Fergal; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony

2009-01-01

369

The Current Status of Organ Transplantation: The Role of Xenotransplantation?  

OpenAIRE

In the last few years, transplantation was an area of intense research activity. However, there is a worldwide shortage of donor organs for clinical transplantations. Currently, interest in xenotransplantation research is growing not only because of the increased demand for organs but also because of advances in molecular biology techniques that make possible the genetic or immunological manipulations of the animal donor rather than the human recipient. The better definitions of the mechanism...

Franssen, Colette; Lambrigts, D.; Degesves, S.; Coignoul, Freddy; Bouillenne, C.; Lamy, Maurice; Meurisse, Michel; Alexandre, G. P.

1998-01-01

370

The current status of public relations in Africa  

OpenAIRE

The European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA) initiated the European Body of knowledge Project (referred to as EBOK hereafter) in 1998 in order to share ideas on public relations in different European countries. The purpose of this project was firstly to compile a bibliography of European public relations literature and secondly a Delphi study was conducted in order to understand the current practice and theory of European public relations. Furthermore the authors...

Heerden, Gene

2003-01-01

371

Decommissioning and demolition in the European Union. Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Commission pursues the environmental and energy policy goals of limiting global warming to a maximum of 2 C and, therefore, reducing CO2 emissions by at least 20%. Nuclear power, with its present 30% contribution to the Community's electricity supply and the low CO2 emissions of the entire fuel cycle, makes an important contribution to an energy mix matching the 3 factors of competitiveness, security of supply, and sustainability. The decision to use nuclear power plants in their respective countries for electricity production is left to each member state. As of mid-2008, 146 nuclear power plants were in operation in the European Union, while 74 had been shut down permanently. Two nuclear power plants had been demolished completely, showing that the European Community is just at the beginning of the learning curve in this field. The importance of nuclear power plant decommissioning and demolition will increase in the future as replacement capacity in nuclear power generation will become necessary. The European Commission's activities in decommissioning and demolition date from the 1990s: The provisions about environmental impact assessment and the recommendations to apply Article 37 (potential impacts on water, soil and air) of the Euratom Treaty demand a description of decommissioning and demolition of nuclear power plants. In a ruling of 2002, the European Court of Justice assigns to the Community the required competences in the fimmunity the required competences in the fields of nuclear safety and, consequently, also decommissioning and demolition. The financial provisions necessary for these activities are covered in the Electricity Directive within the framework of the rules for a common single market in 2003. After a first status report, the Commission published recommendations about financing decommissioning and demolition in 2006. (orig.)

372

Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spent Fuel Management has always been one of the most important steps in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and it still is one of the most vital and common problem for all countries. Projections for spent fuel arisings by the year 2010 range between 400,000 and 450,000 t of spent nuclear fuel. It is recognized that this fuel will either be stored and later disposed of in a deep geological repository (once-through fuel cycle) or stored and then reprocessed (closed fuel cycle). While some countries have concluded which choice they will make, others are applying the ''wait and see'' attitude. This continues to place great emphasis on short and long term storage technologies since much of the spent fuel will remain in storage in the next 20 years. The nuclear community recognizes the importance that design, technological, economic and material problems in spent fuel storage concepts and continues to encourage the international cooperation in such areas. This past year several nations have made decisions which impact on the projected storage volume (the Federal Republic of Germany has cancelled their reprocessing plant) and plan to contract the reprocessing with other nations. Argentina has delayed its reprocessing efforts. At the same time, while there are plans for recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors, the plans for its use in fast reactors have been delayed. These unforeseen changes reflect the constantly changing nature of the back-end of the fuel cycle and reinforce the importance of cooperation in these activities. The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in spent fuel management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and to elaborate recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. Refs, figs and tabs

373

Status of Current Developments of RF Ion Source in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, review has been made for three categories of the RF ion source in order to meet the different objectives required from the low energy accelerator (100 keV) under installation. The first one in which the electron injection(Fig.1) is used to regulate the plasma performance and enhance the beam diagnostics. The source could deliver argon ion beams up to 1.2 mA at extraction voltage of 5 kV and discharge pressure of 10 m.Torr. The beam emittance is found in the range of 60 up to 150 m.rad.mm. The second known by RF driven source (Fig.2) in which the RF Antenna is immersed inside the vacuum arc like Penning source. The RF driven source is featured with its lower ignition voltage (50 up to 200 V) and higher plasma intensity. The source is considered self extracted ion current and could deliver ion currents of ?10 mA for thin beam (? ?4 mm.) and ?20 mA for broad beam ((? ?6 cm.) at ? 200 V extraction voltage. In the third one known by Audio Frequency Source (AFS),(Fig.3) in which the frequency of the RF supply is in the range of audio frequencies (10 kHz up to 100 kHz) instead of 15 MHz which is used with the first and second one. The optimized working condition of the source is defined at certain discharge pressure (0.2 Torr) and certain frequency (15 kHz/sec.) of the audio power supply. The source could yield ion and electron currents higher than the conventional types of ion sources. At this optimum operating condition of pressure and frequency oon of pressure and frequency of the AF supply, the source could yield an ion current up to 25 mA and electron current up to 60 mA at low extraction voltage (V = 50 up to 150 V). The ionization cross section is found to be mainly depending on the discharge pressure and frequency of the audio supply. (author)

374

Bangladesh: Ingestion study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Bangladesh, a countrywide statistical dietary survey was carried out on the food consumption. This formed part of the nutritional survey of rural and urban areas of Bangladesh covering 14 locations in the country and about 50 families at each location, who belonged to different income groups. In all, 4315 subjects in the age group of 20-50 years were studied and eleven main food components consumed by the population were identified. On the basis of the average consumption of these 11 food components in diet, raw food materials were purchased from the markets in and around Dhaka. The diets were prepared from these food materials in a cooking style typical of Bangladesh. These diet samples were homogenized using mixer blenders. The diet samples in Bangladesh were not freeze dried but oven dried at 100-110 deg. C instead. Therefore iodine, which is volatile in nature and could escape from samples during oven drying, was not studied. In Bangladesh, the diet samples collected for the study were analysed for ten elements. Out of them Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mg and Zn were analysed within the country itself using AAS, and for Cs, Sr, Th and U the aliquots of the samples were sent to the CRL for analysis using ICP-MS and ICP-AES

375

The current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid increase in world energy demand, the depletion of conventional energy sources and the pollution caused by conventional fuels have increased the importance of developing new and renewable energy sources. Additionally, technological developments have resulted in increased energy demand for the entire world, including Turkey, especially for electrical energy. At present, wind energy is receiving considerable attention. This report focuses on the current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world. An overview of wind energy in Turkey is presented, and its current status, application, support mechanisms and associated legislation in Turkey are described. Wind energy and its status in the world are also addressed. It can be concluded from this analysis that wind energy utilization in Turkey and throughout world has sharply increased. Turkey has an abundance of wind energy sources. - Research highlights: ?The importance of wind energy utilization. ?Wind energy status, potential, applications, legislations and supports in Turkey. ?An overview of wind energy the world.

376

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy: current status and issues of interest  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose. To develop and disseminate a report aimed primarily at practicing radiation oncology physicians and medical physicists that describes the current state-of-the-art of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Those areas needing further research and development are identified by category and recommendations are given, which should also be of interest to IMRT equipment manufacturers and research funding agencies. Methods and Materials. The National Cancer Institute formed a Collaborative Working Group of experts in IMRT to develop consensus guidelines and recommendations for implementation of IMRT and for further research through a critical analysis of the published data supplemented by clinical experience. A glossary of the words and phrases currently used in IMRT is given in the . Recommendations for new terminology are given where clarification is needed. Results. IMRT, an advanced form of external beam irradiation, is a type of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). It represents one of the most important technical advances in RT since the advent of the medical linear accelerator. 3D-CRT/IMRT is not just an add-on to the current radiation oncology process; it represents a radical change in practice, particularly for the radiation oncologist. For example, 3D-CRT/IMRT requires the use of 3D treatment planning capabilities, such as defining target volumes and organs at risk in three dimensions by drawing contours on cross-sectional images (i.e., CT,tours on cross-sectional images (i.e., CT, MRI) on a slice-by-slice basis as opposed to drawing beam portals on a simulator radiograph. In addition, IMRT requires that the physician clearly and quantitatively define the treatment objectives. Currently, most IMRT approaches will increase the time and effort required by physicians, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists, because IMRT planning and delivery systems are not yet robust enough to provide totally automated solutions for all disease sites. Considerable research is needed to model the clinical outcomes to allow truly automated solutions. Current IMRT delivery systems are essentially first-generation systems, and no single method stands out as the ultimate technique. The instrumentation and methods used for IMRT quality assurance procedures and testing are not yet well established. In addition, many fundamental questions regarding IMRT are still unanswered. For example, the radiobiologic consequences of altered time-dose fractionation are not completely understood. Also, because there may be a much greater ability to trade off dose heterogeneity in the target vs. avoidance of normal critical structures with IMRT compared with traditional RT techniques, conventional radiation oncology planning principles are challenged. All in all, this new process of planning and treatment delivery has significant potential for improving the therapeutic ratio and reducing toxicity. Also, although inefficient currently, it is expected that IMRT, when fully developed, will improve the overall efficiency with which external beam RT can be planned and delivered, and thus will potentially lower costs. Conclusion. Recommendations in the areas pertinent to IMRT, including dose-calculation algorithms, acceptance testing, commissioning and quality assurance, facility planning and radiation safety, and target volume and dose specification, are presented. Several of the areas in which future research and development are needed are also indicated. These broad recommendations are intended to be both technical and advisory in nature, but the ultimate responsibility for clinical decisions pertaining to the implementation and use of IMRT rests with the radiation oncologist and radiation oncology physicist. This is an evolving field, and modifications of these recommendations are expected as new technology and data become available

377

Current status of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy is increasingly carried out in an attempt to improve the cosmetic outcome of minimally-invasive procedures. However, the actual role of this novel technique remains to be determined. The present article reviews evidence and examines updates of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy outcomes reported in more contemporary studies. A comprehensive online systematic search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses criteria recommendations was carried out in January 2014, identifying data from 2008 to 2014 regarding robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy. The majority of medical evidence to date is based on case reports or retrospective studies. Current studies show that robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy is a feasible procedure carried out in an acceptable length of operative time, and resulting in a desirable cosmetic outcome and less postoperative pain. However, comparable studies show that robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy is inferior to the conventional approach, especially with regard to warm ischemia time. Furthermore, the numerous limitations that exist with the utilization of the current commercial single-site devices make robotic laparoendoscopic single-site PN more challenging and more complicated for surgeons compared with conventional procedures. Further significant improvements, along with more studies, are required in order to develop the ideal robotic laparoendoscopic single-site robotic platform and overcome the current limitations. For the time being, robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy procedures could be applicable in patients with low tumor size and complexity, and should not be routinely applied in all cases. PMID:25047133

Komninos, Christos; Tuliao, Patrick; Rha, Koon Ho

2014-10-01

378

Current status and prospects for development of an HSV vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects 530million people, is the leading cause of genital ulcer disease, and increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition. Although several candidate vaccines have been promising in animal models, prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines have not been effective in clinical trials thus far. Null results from the most recent prophylactic glycoprotein D2 subunit vaccine trial suggest that we must reevaluate our approach to HSV-2 vaccine development. We discuss HSV-2 pathogenesis, immunity, and vaccine efforts to date, as well as the current pipeline of candidate vaccines and design of trials to evaluate new vaccine constructs. PMID:24016811

Johnston, Christine; Koelle, David M; Wald, Anna

2014-03-20

379

Stenting of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: Current Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Minimally invasive image-guided insertion of self-expanding metal stents in the upper gastrointestinal tract is the current treatment of choice for palliation of malignant esophageal or gastroduodenal outlet obstructions. A concise review is presented of contemporary stenting practice of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the procedures in terms of appropriate patient evaluation, indications, and contraindications for treatment are analyzed, along with available stent designs, procedural steps, clinical outcomes, inadvertent complications, and future technology. Latest developments include biodegradable polymeric stents for benign disease and radioactive or drug-eluting stents for malignant obstructions.

380

Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview  

OpenAIRE

Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense op...

Vaidya, Ashok D. B.; Devasagayam, Thomas P. A.

2007-01-01

381

Current status of research and related activities in NAA application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

382

Current status of the accelerator-driven LNL BNCT project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An accelerator-driven, thermal neutron beam facility, aimed at the Boron Neutron Capture plus Photodynamic Therapy (BNCT+PDT) experimental treatment of extended skin melanoma, is currently under construction at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL). New, boron loaded compounds have been at the purpose synthesized and a wide vitro and in vivo radiobiological investigation is under way. Special microdosimetric detectors have been developed and constructed at LNL, for properly on-line monitoring of all BNCT dose components and their qualities. Both microdosimetric and radiobiological measurements are being performed at the new, HYTHOR thermal irradiation facility at the ENEA-Casaccia TAPIRO fast reactor. (author)

383

Superior vena caval stenting for SVC obstruction: Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Symptomatic obstruction of the superior vena cava is a debilitating and potentially life-threatening condition. Conventional surgery and radiation therapy have a historical role in the management of patients with malignant superior vena cava obstruction. Interventional radiologists can relieve these symptoms rapidly and safely in the vast majority of patients. The technical and clinical success rates are high and compare very favorably with currently available medical and surgical treatments. Although recurrent obstruction may occur, most patients can be treated by re-intervention.

384

Current Status of ICRF Heating Experiments on EAST  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radio frequency (RF) heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is one of the primary auxiliary heating methods for EAST. The ICRF system provides 6 MW power in primary phase and will be capable of 10 MW later. Three 1.5 MW ICRF systems in a frequency range of 25 MHz to 70 MHz have already been in operation. The ICRF heating launchers are designed to have two current straps with each driven by a RF power source of 1.5 MW. In this paper a brief introduction of the ICRF heating system capability in EAST and the preliminary results in EAST are presented. (magnetically confined plasma)

385

Liquid Acquisition Strategies for Exploration Missions: Current Status 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA is currently developing the propulsion system concepts for human exploration missions to the lunar surface. The propulsion concepts being investigated are considering the use of cryogenic propellants for the low gravity portion of the mission, that is, the lunar transit, lunar orbit insertion, lunar descent and the rendezvous in lunar orbit with a service module after ascent from the lunar surface. These propulsion concepts will require the vapor free delivery of the cryogenic propellants stored in the propulsion tanks to the exploration vehicles main propulsion system (MPS) engines and reaction control system (RCS) engines. Propellant management devices (PMD s) such as screen channel capillary liquid acquisition devices (LAD s), vanes and sponges currently are used for earth storable propellants in the Space Shuttle Orbiter OMS and RCS applications and spacecraft propulsion applications but only very limited propellant management capability exists for cryogenic propellants. NASA has begun a technology program to develop LAD cryogenic fluid management (CFM) technology through a government in-house ground test program of accurately measuring the bubble point delta-pressure for typical screen samples using LO2, LN2, LH2 and LCH4 as test fluids at various fluid temperatures and pressures. This presentation will document the CFM project s progress to date in concept designs, as well ground testing results.

Chato, David J.

2010-01-01

386

Vaccines against human diarrheal pathogens: current status and perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide, nearly 1.7 billion people per year contract diarrheal infectious diseases (DID) and almost 760?000 of infections are fatal. DID are a major problem in developing countries where poor sanitation prevails and food and water may become contaminated by fecal shedding. Diarrhea is caused by pathogens such as bacteria, protozoans and viruses. Important diarrheal pathogens are Vibrio cholerae, Shigella spp. and rotavirus, which can be prevented with vaccines for several years. The focus of this review is on currently available vaccines against these three pathogens, and on development of new vaccines. Currently, various types of vaccines based on traditional (killed, live attenuated, toxoid or conjugate vaccines) and reverse vaccinology (DNA/mRNA, vector, recombinant subunit, plant vaccines) are in development or already available. Development of new vaccines demands high levels of knowledge, experience, budget, and time, yet promising new vaccines often fail in preclinical and clinical studies. Efficacy of vaccination also depends on the route of delivery, and mucosal immunization in particular is of special interest for preventing DID. Furthermore, adjuvants, delivery systems and other vaccine components are essential for an adequate immune response. These aspects will be discussed in relation to the improvement of existing and development of new vaccines against DID. PMID:24861668

Böhles, Nathalie; Böhles, Nathalie; Busch, Kim; Busch, Kim; Hensel, Michael; Hensel, Michael

2014-01-01

387

Current status of the minke whales and conflicts of interest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Minke whales - the rorqual group of the family Balaenopteridae - are widely distributed and constitute an important major harvestable living resource of the sea. Recently, the Antarctic minke whale population has been estimated to be between 150,000 and 300,000. Populations being dynamic entities, the size of the minke whale population has been changing. Currently , the minke whale population in the Antarctic has been claimed to have increased considerably. However, the minke whale stock arriving off Brazil could be regarded as only a small discrete unit of breeding stock and an integral part of the Brazilian natural resource. Data analysis based on the past 21 years shows that this stock is relatively in a steady state, but with only a few annual fluctuations which are around a constant mean value; and these departures are attributable both to environmental conditions and the local operational parameters. Further, the analysis of overall data does not suggest any decline in the Brazilian stock and a MSY at about 58.5% can be taken without depleting the stock, provided no dramatic changes occur in the native Antarctic habitat where the minke whales return to feed. This would allow Brazil a carefully controlled rational utilization of this potentially valuable sea resource since enough exploitable numbers of minke whales have been estimated to be available for Area II. The current arguments of the conflicts between the Pro -and Anti-whaling groups are also briefly discussed.

K. V. Singarajah

1988-07-01

388

Current status of the minke whales and conflicts of interest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Minke whales - the rorqual group of the family Balaenopteridae - are widely distributed and constitute an important major harvestable living resource of the sea. Recently, the Antarctic minke whale population has been estimated to be between 150,000 and 300,000. Populations being dynamic entities, t [...] he size of the minke whale population has been changing. Currently , the minke whale population in the Antarctic has been claimed to have increased considerably. However, the minke whale stock arriving off Brazil could be regarded as only a small discrete unit of breeding stock and an integral part of the Brazilian natural resource. Data analysis based on the past 21 years shows that this stock is relatively in a steady state, but with only a few annual fluctuations which are around a constant mean value; and these departures are attributable both to environmental conditions and the local operational parameters. Further, the analysis of overall data does not suggest any decline in the Brazilian stock and a MSY at about 58.5% can be taken without depleting the stock, provided no dramatic changes occur in the native Antarctic habitat where the minke whales return to feed. This would allow Brazil a carefully controlled rational utilization of this potentially valuable sea resource since enough exploitable numbers of minke whales have been estimated to be available for Area II. The current arguments of the conflicts between the Pro -and Anti-whaling groups are also briefly discussed.

K. V., Singarajah.

1988-07-01

389

Radiation damage of biomolecules (RADAM) database development: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. However, as the underlying dependent physical, chemical and biological processes are too complex to treat them on a purely analytical level, most of our current and future understanding will rely on computer simulations, based on mathematical equations, algorithms and last, but not least, on the available atomic and molecular data. The viability of the simulated output and the success of any computer simulation will be determined by these data, which are treated as the input variables in each computer simulation performed. The radiation research community lacks a complete database for the cross sections of all the different processes involved in ion beam induced damage: ionization and excitation cross sections for ions with liquid water and biological molecules, all the possible electron – medium interactions, dielectric response data, electron attachment to biomolecules etc. In this paper we discuss current progress in the creation of such a database, outline the roadmap of the project and review plans for the exploitation of such a database in future simulations.

390

Solar water heating in Lebanon: Current status and future prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of solar thermal collectors is an economic alternative for water heating in Lebanon. More than 100,000m2 of collector area has been installed while the market can accommodate more than 1.5 million m2. The domestic sector, which is a main energy-consuming sector, stands to benefit the most from the implementation of such systems. Despite the lack of encouraging legislation, the solar thermal market has been continuously growing over the past decade. Both local manufacturers and importers have been active in the field. In addition, advanced forced circulation and collective systems are being used in large establishments, individual house and apartment buildings. Internationally funded demonstration projects using collective systems have been implemented in recent years with promising results. Simplified initial estimates indicate a payback period of 4-5 years while advanced mathematical models (RETScreen) indicate that the most advanced evacuated tube technology has a payback period of less than 9 years at current market prices. With decreasing cost per square meter of installed collectors, payback periods are expected to rapidly decrease. Regulatory support and tax breaks, if implemented, will have a positive effect on the market. The current increases in diesel prices are increasing demand on solar thermal water heaters. [Author

391

ENVIRONMENTAL CRITIQUE ON WATER SECTORAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF BANGLADESH  

OpenAIRE

The water resources sector of Bangladesh relies on the Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) to assess the possible positive and negative impacts on the environmental and social components of the project affected areas. The motivation of this research was to identify the key environmental components, gaps and lapses of current EIA practices in water resources sector of Bangladesh. Under the motivation, this study has determined the effectiveness of a water resources EIA (Gorai River Restora...

Shahriar Rahman

2014-01-01

392

Assessment of Current Status of Women Farmers in Japan Using Empowerment Indicators  

Science.gov (United States)

This research assessed the current status of Japanese women farmers using universal measurement of women empowerment. Two prefectures, Hiroshima and Shimane were selected. Stratified sampling technique was used to select respondents from each village while structured questionnaire was employed to collect data on economic, social, familial, legal, mobility and political status of the respondents. The result shows that status of women farmers was improved in the recent time compared to years back. This was revealed in the favourable responses to some statement questions such as; freedom and participation in voting, relationship with husband, participation in outside work and freedom of movement. However, their status as unpaid workers on family farms, lack of freedom to borrow and lend, inability to express their mind over the children to mother-in-law were the prevailing items of their disempowerment. Classifying respondents on the overall empowerment shows that majority of them were highly empowered. Inferential analysis using t-test to compare women farmers past and present status shows a significant difference, t = 4.827, p = 0.000. Relationship between personal characteristics of women farmers and their present empowerment status using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) coefficient r shows negative correlation between age and all empowerment indicators. Also marital status has negative correlation with familial and legal empowerment while mother-in-law and familial empowerment were positively correlated. It therefore suggests that status of women farmer in Japan has improved, compare to their situation years back.

Tijani, Sarafat A.; Yano, Izumi

393

The role of radiotherapy in urinary bladder cancer: current status  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The role of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of urinary bladder cancer has undergone several modifications along the last decades. In the beginning, definitive RT was used as treatment in an attempt to preserve the urinary bladder; however, the results were poor compared to those of radical surger [...] y. Recently, many protocols have been developed supporting the use of multi-modality therapy, and the concept of organ preservation began to be reconsidered. Although phase III randomized clinical studies comparing radical cystectomy with bladder preservation therapies do not exist, the conservative treatment may present low toxicity and high indexes of complete response for selected patients. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the subject in order to situate RT in the current treatment of urinary bladder cancer.

Gustavo Nader, Marta; Samir Abdallah, Hanna; Rafael, Gadia; Sebastião Francisco Miranda, Correa; Joao Luis Fernandes da, Silva; Heloisa de Andrade, Carvalho.

2012-04-01

394

Imaging in gastrointestinal stromal tumours: current status and future directions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) have distinct biological and treatment-related features posing challenges for imaging. In this review the importance of imaging in different stages of patient management is discussed, emphasizing the unique characteristics of GISTs. Potential pitfalls of using the standard response criteria on conventional imaging have been highlighted. These include size measurements, which may not adequately reflect response rates, pseudo-progression, and spurious new lesions. Furthermore, the role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in early response evaluation and in the detection of both primary and acquired resistance is explored. The current role and future directions of use of both conventional and metabolic imaging in the management of GISTs are discussed.

395

Gas evolution and migration in repositories: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considerable volumes of gas may be formed in a repository due to corrosion of metallic wastes and microbial degradation of certain organic wastes. The requirements for data and models to help understand the rate of formation of gases and their migration are described. The Nirex research programme in the area complements existing knowledge and takes additional priorities from the outcome of site assessments. Key areas currently being studied include: the rate of evolution of hydrogen from steel under anaerobic conditions; and of carbon dioxide and methane from cellulosic materials; characterisation of near- and far-field materials with respect to gas transport (permeabilities, capillary pressures, etc); and development of a comprehensive series of models covering gas evolution and migration in the near and far fields. (author)

396

Current status and prospects on microbial control in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically in Japan, studies on the diseases of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, as a factor affecting the well-being of the silk industry, have dominated insect pathology. However, work by Hidaka in 1933 demonstrated the possibility of controlling the pine moth, Dendrolimus spectabilis, with the fungus Beauveria bassiana and since then, various attempts have been made to develop a method to control insect pests using insect pathogens. The cypovirus product, Matsukemin, was the first microbial control product to be registered in 1974, and inactive and live Bacillus thuringiensis products were also registered and put on the market as pesticides in 1981 and 1982, respectively. Currently, there are 25 microbial insecticides on the market that constitute slightly less than 2% of all insecticides used in Japan. Adoption of biopesticides is likely to increase in the near future due to scientific advances and several new government policies that encourage the use of alternative pest control products. PMID:17462666

Kunimi, Yasuhisa

2007-07-01

397

Preparative purification of recombinant proteins: current status and future trends.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in fermentation technologies have resulted in the production of increased yields of proteins of economic, biopharmaceutical, and medicinal importance. Consequently, there is an absolute requirement for the development of rapid, cost-effective methodologies which facilitate the purification of such products in the absence of contaminants, such as superfluous proteins and endotoxins. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of a selection of key purification methodologies currently being applied in both academic and industrial settings and discuss how innovative and effective protocols such as aqueous two-phase partitioning, membrane chromatography, and high-performance tangential flow filtration may be applied independently of or in conjunction with more traditional protocols for downstream processing applications. PMID:24455685

Saraswat, Mayank; Musante, Luca; Ravidá, Alessandra; Shortt, Brian; Byrne, Barry; Holthofer, Harry

2013-01-01

398

Stem cell regeneration of degenerated intervertebral discs: current status (update).  

Science.gov (United States)

Low back pain, strongly associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, affects a large proportion of the population and has major social and economic costs. Current treatments remain inadequate, targeting the symptoms without addressing the underlying cause. As such, efforts are being directed towards development of therapies aimed at alleviating pain through the restoration of IVD function. The potential of cell-based therapies for the treatment of IVD degeneration are being actively explored, with an emphasis on cell/biomaterial tissue engineering. Adult mesenchymal stem cells, capable of differentiating down the discogenic lineage, have shown promise as a suitable cell source for IVD tissue engineering. However, a number of factors, (discussed in this review), remain to be addressed, including development of a differentiation protocol to produce the correct cell phenotype, identification of suitable biomaterials for cell delivery/implantation, and ensuring cell survival and correct function upon implantation into the degenerate IVD. PMID:24234817

Gilbert, Hamish T J; Hoyland, Judith A; Richardson, Stephen M

2013-12-01

399

Current status of nuclear fuel cycle examination facilities in KAERI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Examination Facilities (NFCEF) in KAERI are composed of 5 nuclear facilities, which are the Irradiated Materials Examination Facility (IMEF), the Post Irradiation Examination Facility (PIEF), the Chemical Analysis Facility (CAF), the Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility (RWTF), and the Radioactive Waste Form Examination Facility (RWFEF). The main role of NFCEF is to supply the hot cell examination services or radioactive waste management services to the clients. The objects of examinations in NFCEF hot cells are nuclear fuels, nuclear materials, or radioactive wastes. A good reliability on the examination is a first current topic in NFCEF. The second subject of NFCEF is the safety insurance of the facilities. To assure the safety during operation, several programs are introduced. (author)

400

Status report of small diameter eddy current probe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An eddy current probe with an outside diameter of 0.058 inches attached to a stem which will translate over an arc greater than 900 has been developed for the inspection of the internal surfaces of a welded part. The following design parameters have been accomplished: (1) design and build a state of the art probe with the smallest possible diameter; (2) design a hinge that will swing through an arc of greater than 900, provide room for a co-axial cable, and function as a low friction pivot with a diameter equal to or less than the probe; and (3) design and build a mechanical system to position and record the position of the above probe

401

Porcine dermis implants in soft-tissue reconstruction: current status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neil J Smart,1 Nicholas Bryan,2 John A Hunt,2 Ian R Daniels1 1Exeter Surgical Health Services Research Unit, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Exeter, UK; 2Clinical Engineering (UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Soft-tissue reconstruction for a variety of surgical conditions, such as abdominal wall hernia or pelvic organ prolapse, remains a challenge. There are numerous meshes available that may be simply categorized as either synthetic or biologic. Within biologic meshes, porcine dermal meshes have come to dominate the market. This review examines the current evidence for their use and the limitations of knowledge. Although there is increasing evidence to support their safety, long-term follow-up studies that support their efficacy are lacking. Numerous clinical trials that remain ongoing may help elucidate their precise role in soft-tissue reconstruction. Keywords: hernia, mesh, xenograft, biologic

Smart NJ

2014-03-01

402

Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccines: current status, pitfalls and future directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, a vaccine against malaria has not yet been licensed. Different approaches have been explored with different immune responses, but neither has fulfilled the criteria for being approved. The most advanced candidate, RTS,S, is undergoing Phase III studies and comprises virus-like particles, liposomes and immunostimulatory molecules. Other strategies are based on the use of polymeric particles, viral vectors or virosomes. Here, the authors have summarized the clinical advances that have been made in the field of Plasmodium falciparum to date, since it is the main causal agent of severe malaria. The best strategies to further develop a vaccine against malaria have also been discussed. In fact, an appropriate formulation should be immunogenic, safe and well tolerated, and as far as possible, avoid the use of needles and require a low number of immunizations. Moreover, issues such as storage, costs and so on, have to be taken into account. PMID:23151165

Salvador, Aiala; Hernández, Rosa M; Pedraz, José Luis; Igartua, Manoli

2012-09-01

403

Newcastle disease virus: current status and our understanding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the highly pathogenic viral diseases of avian species. ND is economically significant because of the huge mortality and morbidity associated with it. The disease is endemic in many third world countries where agriculture serves as the primary source of national income. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and is well characterized member among the avian paramyxovirus serotypes. In recent years, NDV has lured the virologists not only because of its pathogenic potential, but also for its oncolytic activity and its use as a vaccine vector for both humans and animals. The NDV based recombinant vaccine offers a pertinent choice for the construction of live attenuated vaccine due to its modular nature of transcription, minimum recombination frequency, and lack of DNA phase during replication. Our current understanding about the NDV biology is expanding rapidly because of the availability of modern molecular biology tools and high-throughput complete genome sequencing. PMID:24589707

Ganar, Ketan; Das, Moushumee; Sinha, Sugandha; Kumar, Sachin

2014-05-12

404

Current status of RMS and technical experience for regional cooperation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NNCA uses secure remote monitoring systems, both for reporting to the IAEA and for the bilateral cooperation with Sandia (SNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The NNCA system architecture has changed from a system using a Central Monitoring Station at the former TCNC, to direct internet reporting on a simultaneous basis to the IAEA and the NNCA. The NNCA reporting system is applied at 16 power reactors. This experience provides the basis for a detailed cost analysis and evaluation of trouble-shooting experience. Progress in establishing remote monitoring cooperation between the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's new Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPE) and Sandia is a precondition for regional cooperation. The ACPF system, which is currently in final testing, features network configuration and equipment that differ from safeguards standards for reasons of cost and flexibility. This allows the NNCA to take advantage of rapidly developing technologies at lower cost. (author)

405

The end of cheap oil: Current status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper, analyses the factors impacting the price of crude oil in order to examine the likely evolution of the oil market and attempts to answer the question, whether cheap oil is already a thing of the past. Based on data made publicly available mostly by the major oil companies, it examines the effects of demand and supply, the evolution of world oil reserves, the trends in new discoveries of new oilfields, the evolution of world Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and the depletion of oil resources. The analysis concludes that the world peak in conventional oil production-the point beyond which oil production will irreversibly start declining-is approaching and will be reached, even according to the most optimistic scenarios, before 2040 and quite possibly much sooner. If the appropriate solutions for substituting crude oil and for conserving the use of energy are not implemented in time, then the current upward trend in oil prices is bound to continue

406

Current status and future plan of JMTR hot laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hot Laboratory associated with the JMTR(Japan materials Testing Reactor, 50 MWt) was founded to examine the specimens irradiated mainly in the JMTR, and was put into service in 1971. PIE facilities at the beginning were 8 concrete cells, 4 microscope cells and 7 read cells, thereafter 5 steel cells, a shield type EPM(electron probe micro analyzer), a set of BOCA(BOiling water CApsule) assembling equipment and 4 glove boxes for PIEs of beryllium were added. A wide variety of PIEs has been carried out in the Hot Laboratory until now. Appropriate renewal was done for in cell apparatus, manipulators, power manipulators, shield window's glasses and so on, as these were worn out. In addition, currently a large restructuring of in cell apparatus is under was to accommodate user's new needs

407

Biotechnological production of muconic acid: current status and future prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Muconic acid (MA), a high value-added bio-product with reactive dicarboxylic groups and conjugated double bonds, has garnered increasing interest owing to its potential applications in the manufacture of new functional resins, bio-plastics, food additives, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. At the very least, MA can be used to produce commercially important bulk chemicals such as adipic acid, terephthalic acid and trimellitic acid. Recently, great progress has been made in the development of biotechnological routes for MA production. This present review provides a comprehensive and systematic overview of recent advances and challenges in biotechnological production of MA. Various biological methods are summarized and compared, and their constraints and possible solutions are also described. Finally, the future prospects are discussed with respect to the current state, challenges, and trends in this field, and the guidelines to develop high-performance microbial cell factories are also proposed for the MA production by systems metabolic engineering. PMID:24751381

Xie, Neng-Zhong; Liang, Hong; Huang, Ri-Bo; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

408

Astroparticles in Latin America: current status and outlook  

CERN Document Server

The successful installation and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina has been a milestone in Astroparticle research in Latin America, generating new regional research opportunities in the field. In this context, the LAGO project, begun in 2005 with the aim of studying the high-energy component of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). This observatory consists of different arrays of water-Cherenkov detectors installed in high altitude mountains throughout Latin America. Recently, it has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting studies on the solar modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux. Currently more than 80 scientists and students from Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Argentina are integrated into the LAGO Collaboration. The high level of regional integration in the scientific community reached thanks to this kind of major projects, has led to the recent formation of the CLES (Consorcio Latinoamericano de Experimentos Subterr\\'{a}neos). This organization promotes ...

Sidelnik, Iván

2014-01-01

409

A Survey on clustering Current status and challenging issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clustering is the art of subset from a dataset. It helps in identifying the hidden information and arranging data into its logical group based on an attribute or a set of attributes. Theintent of this paper is to explore a variety of clustering methodsand brief their working styles so that researches can have apartial view of methods discussed. This work presents gains andpitfalls and also associated worst case complexities of eachclustering method to some extent. The techniques discussed hereare just a snap shot of clustering algorithms. Currently modelbased algorithms are been used to improve efficiency of clusteringalgorithms. This paper would be helpful in devising the choice ofalgorithm for such a purpose.

Rama.B,

2010-12-01

410

Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The lack of industrially suitable microorganisms for converting biomass into fuel ethanol has traditionally been cited as a major technical roadblock to developing a bioethanol industry. In the last two decades, numerous microorganisms have been engineered to selectively produce ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass contains complex carbohydrates that necessitate utilizing microorganisms capable of fermenting sugars not fermentable by brewers' yeast. The most significant of these is xylose. The greatest successes have been in the engineering of gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Zymomonas mobilis. E. coli and K. oxytoca are naturally able to use a wide spectrum of sugars, and work has concentrated on engineering these strains to selectively produce ethanol. Z. mobilis produces ethanol at high yields, but ferments only glucose and fructose. Work on this organism has concentrated on introducing pathways for the fermentation of arabinose and xylose. The history of constructing these strains and current progress in refining them are detailed in this review. (orig.)

Dien, B.S.; Cotta, M.A. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Peoria, IL (United States); Jeffries, T.W. [Inst. for Microbial and Biochemical Technology, Forest Service, Forest Products Lab., USDA, Madison, WI (United States)

2004-07-01

411

Radiation protection standards: Their development and current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discusses basic standards for radiological protection, the practical application of standards, current issues, and future developments. The last few years have seen a major review of the basic standards for radiation protection as well as the introduction in many countries of new legislation laying down standards with regard to practices giving rise to radiation exposure, particularly that of electricity production from nuclear power. Topics covered include the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation effects and risk estimates, dose limits for occupational exposure, dose limits for individual members of the public, cost-benefit analysis, exposure of populations, the control of internal exposure, monitoring of exposures, the role of international bodies other than ICRP, and national standards. A glossary of dosimetric quantities and units is provided

412

Nitric oxide and phytohormone interactions: current status and perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitric oxide (NO) is currently considered a ubiquitous signal in plant systems, playing significant roles in a wide range of responses to environmental and endogenous cues. During the signaling events leading to these plant responses, NO frequently interacts with plant hormones and other endogenous molecules, at times originating remarkably complex signaling cascades. Accumulating evidence indicates that virtually all major classes of plant hormones may influence, at least to some degree, the endogenous levels of NO. In addition, studies conducted during the induction of diverse plant responses have demonstrated that NO may also affect biosynthesis, catabolism/conjugation, transport, perception, and/or transduction of different phytohormones, such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid, jasmonates, and brassinosteroids. Although still not completely elucidated, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between NO and plant hormones have recently been investigated in a number of species and plant responses. This review specifically focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanisms implicated in NO-phytohormone interactions during the regulation of developmental and metabolic plant events. The modifications triggered by NO on the transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic/degradative enzymes as well as proteins involved in the transport and signal transduction of distinct plant hormones will be contextualized during the control of developmental, metabolic, and defense responses in plants. Moreover, the direct post-translational modification of phytohormone biosynthetic enzymes and receptors through S-nitrosylation will also be discussed as a key mechanism for regulating plant physiological responses. Finally, some future perspectives toward a more complete understanding of NO-phytohormone interactions will also be presented and discussed. PMID:24130567

Freschi, Luciano

2013-01-01

413

Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is important to provide the user with an evaluated nuclear database of the highest quality, dependability, and currency. It is also important that the evaluated nuclear data are easily accessible to the user. In the past the panel concentrated its concern on the cycle time for the publication of A-chain evaluations. However, the panel now recognizes that publication cycle time is no longer the appropriate goal. Sometime in the future, publication of the evaluated A-chains will evolve from the present hard-copy Nuclear Data Sheets on library shelves to purely electronic publication, with the advent of universal access to terminals and the nuclear databases. Therefore, the literature cut-off date in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is rapidly becoming the only important measure of the currency of an evaluated A-chain. Also, it has become exceedingly important to ensure that access to the databases is as user-friendly as possible and to enable electronic publication of the evaluated data files. Considerable progress has been made in these areas: use of the on-line systems has almost doubled in the past year, and there has been initial development of tools for electronic evaluation, publication, and dissemination. Currently, the nuclear data effort is in transition between the traditional and future methods of dissemination of the evaluated data. Also, many of the factors that adversely affect the publication cycle time simultaneously affect the currency of the evaluated nuclear database. Therefore, the panel continues to examine factors that can influence cycle time: the number of evaluators, the frequency with which an evaluation can be updated, the review of the evaluation, and the production of the evaluation, which currently exists as a hard-copy issue of Nuclear Data Sheets

414

Treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease - current status and trends.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although less frequent than lumbar degenerative disc disease, cervical disc disease may be much more neurologically compromising due to anatomical particularities. Since its first description together with the typical signs and symptoms the operative therapy of cervical disc disease has undergone a changeful evolution over the years. The frequent shifts of paradigms in treatment are particularly noticeable compared to other neurosurgical diseases. Initially, the dorsal decompression of neural structures (laminectomy) with a more or less invasive posterior approach (posterior foraminotomy) was the primary aim of the operation. Because of anatomical limitations, a paradigm shift occurred in the middle of the last century, favouring an anterior approach and discectomy, without and with implantation of various spacers (arthrodesis). A large variety of different materials and designs for these implants as alternatives to autologous iliac crest bone were established, all with the aim of creating a solid fusion of the operated segment. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), regarded worldwide as the "gold standard" for the treatment of cervical disc disease, was later complemented by modified, minimally invasive or endoscopic techniques using anterior and posterior approaches. The fear of adjacent level disease in the vicinity of a fused cervical segment led to another paradigm shift in the last few years, away from fusing procedures, towards new motion preserving technologies (arthroplasty) and back to minimally invasive dorsal techniques for the treatment of cervical disc disease. This article reviews the evolution of the operative treatment of cervical disc disease in the last 80 years, outlines the advantages and disadvantages of each approach and technique and focuses on the rationale of the paradigm shifts. Current established and alternative treatment concepts are illuminated and discussed together with the currently relevant literature. PMID:18666050

Korinth, M C

2008-08-01

415

Current status and perspectives of treatment of disseminated melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Melanoma is considered to be one of the most malignant human neoplasms, characterized by a steadily increasing morbidity rate, which remains a challenge for modem oncology. Despite the significant progress in prevention, diagnosis and molecular biology, the practical use of this knowledge is still limited and surgery remains the main method of treatment. A particularly unfavorable clinical course is observed in patients with metastatic melanoma. Median survival in stage IV melanoma is 6-10 months, 2-year survival is less than 10%, and 5-year survival does not exceed 5%. Despite efforts aimed at developing new strategies which would improve survival, the results have not changed for more than two decades. This is related to the limited number of cytostatic drugs available for systemic melanoma treatment and the relative resistance of melanoma cells to most therapeutic agents. In clinical practice, the most widely used drug is dacarbazine, with the highest, but still unsatisfactory, response rate reaching some 20%. The lack of effective therapies calls for the exploration of different therapeutic paths, both medical and surgical. Some hopes of new modalities are associated with the theory of melanoma immunogenicity. Currently it is believed that immuno modulation may be the solution for effective treatment of melanoma and it should be noted that new drugs, scheduled to be registered by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, are immune system stimulating agentanoma, are immune system stimulating agents. Although targeted therapies are still not a standard of treatment and their use is mainly limited to clinical trials, they appear to be the future of effective treatment of metastatic melanoma. In this review we present the current methods of treatment of metastatic melanoma. (authors)

416

Cardiac PET perfusion tracers: current status and future directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is increasingly being used for noninvasive detection and evaluation of coronary artery disease. However, the widespread use of PET MPI has been limited by the shortcomings of the current PET perfusion tracers. The availability of these tracers is limited by the need for an onsite ((15)O water and (13)N ammonia) or nearby ((13)N ammonia) cyclotron or commitment to costly generators ((82)Rb). Owing to the short half-lives, such as 76 seconds for (82)Rb, 2.06 minutes for (15)O water, and 9.96 minutes for (13)N ammonia, their use in conjunction with treadmill exercise stress testing is either not possible ((82)Rb and (15)O water) or not practical ((13)N ammonia). Furthermore, the long positron range of (82)Rb makes image resolution suboptimal and its low myocardial extraction limits its defect resolution. In recent years, development of an (18)F-labeled PET perfusion tracer has gathered considerable interest. The longer half-life of (18)F (109 minutes) would make the tracer available as a unit dose from regional cyclotrons and allow use in conjunction with treadmill exercise testing. Furthermore, the short positron range of (18)F would result in better image resolution. Flurpiridaz F 18 is by far the most thoroughly studied in animal models and is the only (18)F-based PET MPI radiotracer currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Preclinical and clinical experience with Flurpiridaz F 18 demonstrated a high myocardial extraction fraction, high image and defect resolution, high myocardial uptake, slow myocardial clearance, and high myocardial-to-background contrast that was stable over time-important properties of an ideal PET MPI radiotracer. Preclinical data from other (18)F-labeled myocardial perfusion tracers are encouraging. PMID:25234078

Maddahi, Jamshid; Packard, René R S

2014-09-01

417

Current Status of the MLIS Uranium Enrichment Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Well-established energy security is extremely important for the national economy and future prosperity of the country. Many countries are trying to develop and use renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and tidal power to keep the natural environment clean and safe. Although some have disputed calling nuclear power (which produces {approx}40% of domestic electricity) 'green energy', it deserves credit for this label because of its low CO{sub 2} emission and fuel efficiency. While fuel costs in nuclear power generation are less than 30% and uranium enrichment is only {approx}40% of front-end fuel loop, uranium enrichment is a critical step in nuclear power generation. It is also politically sensitive worldwide due to potential proliferation aspects. Currently, gaseous diffusion and centrifuge are the technologies for uranium enrichment. Since the 70s, many countries have been trying to develop a more advanced and economic technology after the gaseous diffusion process started to loose its economic viability. Among the developed laser-assisted technologies, MLIS (Molecular Laser Isotope Separation) is still under investigation for industrial application while most other laser uranium enrichment technologies have been terminated. In this regard it is worthwhile to review the MLIS processes being developed currently, SILEX (Separation of Isotopes by Laser EXcitation) and CRISLA (Condensation Repression by Isotope Selective Laser Activation). Recently the Canadian company Cameco joined the GE-Hitachi venture by paying $123.8M for a 24% holding, and GE-Hitachi- Cameco is now running the GLE (Global Laser Enrichment) facility using SILEX technology in Wilmington, North Carolina to evaluate commercialization of the process.

Kim, Jae Woo; Rhee, Chang Kyu; Kim, Whung Whoe [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Maeng Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Eerkens, Jeff W. [Isotope Technologies Inc., Woodland (United States)

2009-05-15

418

Current Status of the MLIS Uranium Enrichment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Well-established energy security is extremely important for the national economy and future prosperity of the country. Many countries are trying to develop and use renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and tidal power to keep the natural environment clean and safe. Although some have disputed calling nuclear power (which produces ?40% of domestic electricity) 'green energy', it deserves credit for this label because of its low CO2 emission and fuel efficiency. While fuel costs in nuclear power generation are less than 30% and uranium enrichment is only ?40% of front-end fuel loop, uranium enrichment is a critical step in nuclear power generation. It is also politically sensitive worldwide due to potential proliferation aspects. Currently, gaseous diffusion and centrifuge are the technologies for uranium enrichment. Since the 70s, many countries have been trying to develop a more advanced and economic technology after the gaseous diffusion process started to loose its economic viability. Among the developed laser-assisted technologies, MLIS (Molecular Laser Isotope Separation) is still under investigation for industrial application while most other laser uranium enrichment technologies have been terminated. In this regard it is worthwhile to review the MLIS processes being developed currently, SILEX (Separation of Isotopes by Laser EXcitation) and CRISLA (Condensation Repression by Isotope Selective Laser Activation). Recently the Canadian companivation). Recently the Canadian company Cameco joined the GE-Hitachi venture by paying $123.8M for a 24% holding, and GE-Hitachi- Cameco is now running the GLE (Global Laser Enrichment) facility using SILEX technology in Wilmington, North Carolina to evaluate commercialization of the process

419

Current status on tissue factor activation of factor VIIa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free factor VIIa displays a zymogen-like behavior with low intrinsic activity. Formation of a complex between factor VIIa and tissue factor is necessary to enhance the procoagulant activity of factor VIIa, not only by providing membrane localization, substrate exosites and positioning the active site at an appropriate distance above the surface but also by allosteric enhancement of the enzymatic activity, and this event signals initiation of blood coagulation. The interaction is of high affinity and all the domains are engaged at the interface. The crosstalk between the protease domain of factor VIIa, in particular residue Met-306, and the N-terminal domain of tissue factor provides the starting point for the allosteric activation of factor VIIa. The pathway(s) of conformational transitions in factor VIIa ensuing tissue factor binding has not been entirely mapped. The present paper is a brief compilation of our current knowledge of the allosteric mechanism by which tissue factor induces and stabilizes the active conformation of factor VIIa. PMID:20153879

Persson, Egon; Olsen, Ole H

2010-04-01

420

Imidazolinone-tolerant crops: history, current status and future.  

Science.gov (United States)

Imidazolinone herbicides, which include imazapyr, imazapic, imazethapyr, imazamox, imazamethabenz and imazaquin, control weeds by inhibiting the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), also called acetolactate synthase (ALS). AHAS is a critical enzyme for the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids in plants. Several variant AHAS genes conferring imidazolinone tolerance were discovered in plants through mutagenesis and selection, and were used to create imidazolinone-tolerant maize (Zea mays L), wheat (Triticum aestivum L), rice (Oryza sativa L), oilseed rape (Brassica napus L) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L). These crops were developed using conventional breeding methods and commercialized as Clearfield* crops from 1992 to the present. Imidazolinone herbicides control a broad spectrum of grass and broadleaf weeds in imidazolinone-tolerant crops, including weeds that are closely related to the crop itself and some key parasitic weeds. Imidazolinone-tolerant crops may also prevent rotational crop injury and injury caused by interaction between AHAS-inhibiting herbicides and insecticides. A single target-site mutation in the AHAS gene may confer tolerance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides, so that it is technically possible to develop the imidazolinone-tolerance trait in many crops. Activities are currently directed toward the continued improvement of imidazolinone tolerance and development of new Clearfield* crops. Management of herbicide-resistant weeds and gene flow from crops to weeds are issues that must be considered with the development of any herbicide-resistant crop. Thus extensive stewardship programs have been developed to address these issues for Clearfield* crops. PMID:15627242

Tan, Siyuan; Evans, Richard R; Dahmer, Mark L; Singh, Bijay K; Shaner, Dale L

2005-03-01

421

Current Status of Interventional Radiology Treatment of Infrapopliteal Arterial Disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of infrapopliteal arteries has developed to a standard technique during the past two decades. With the introduction of innovative devices, a variety of techniques has been created and is still under investigation. Treatment options range from plain balloon angioplasty (POBA), all sorts of stent applications, such as bare metal, balloon expanding, self-expanding, coated and drug-eluting stents, and bio-absorbable stents, to latest developments, such as drug-eluting balloons. Regarding the scientific background, several prospective, randomized studies with relevant numbers of patients have been (or will be) published that are Level I evidence. In contrast to older studies, which primarily were based mostly on numeric parameters, such as diameters or residual stenoses, more recent study concepts focus increasingly on clinical features, such as amputation rate improvement or changes of clinical stages and quality of life standards. Although it is still not decided, which of the individual techniques might be the best one, we can definitely conclude that whatever treatment of infrapopliteal arteries will be used it is of substantial benefit for the patient. Therefore, the goal of this review is to give an overview about the current developments and techniques for the treatment of infrapopliteal arteries, to present clinical and technical results, to weigh individual techniques, and to discuss the recent developments.

422

Current Status and Future Prospects of Severe Accident Policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) issued the 'Policy on Severe Accident of Nuclear Power Plants' in August 2001. It required the licensee to take measures to minimize the possibility of severe accident and, if it should occur, to take proper actions to minimize the risk of radiation exposure to the public. The major elements included in the policy are: establishment of the safety goal, performance of the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), provisions for severe accidents prevention and mitigation capability, and set-up of a severe accident management program. Each element has been set up to move progressively toward upgrading in safety of currently and future operating plants. In response thereto, Korea Hydraulic and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) set up its own implementation plan, which was approved by the MOST. According to the plan, KHNP conducts PSA and establishes risk monitoring systems and severe accident management programs (SAMPs) for relevant installations. And Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) developed Safety Review Guidelines for PSA, SAMPs, and severe accident prevention and mitigation capability. Using these guidelines, KINS has been reviewing PSA results and SAMPs submitted by the licensee.

Kim, Han Chul; Hwang, Tae Suk; Kim, Tae Hyeong; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Se Won; Choi, Jong Soo; Lee, Jong In [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-01

423

Current Status and Future Prospects of Severe Accident Policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) issued the 'Policy on Severe Accident of Nuclear Power Plants' in August 2001. It required the licensee to take measures to minimize the possibility of severe accident and, if it should occur, to take proper actions to minimize the risk of radiation exposure to the public. The major elements included in the policy are: establishment of the safety goal, performance of the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), provisions for severe accidents prevention and mitigation capability, and set-up of a severe accident management program. Each element has been set up to move progressively toward upgrading in safety of currently and future operating plants. In response thereto, Korea Hydraulic and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) set up its own implementation plan, which was approved by the MOST. According to the plan, KHNP conducts PSA and establishes risk monitoring systems and severe accident management programs (SAMPs) for relevant installations. And Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) developed Safety Review Guidelines for PSA, SAMPs, and severe accident prevention and mitigation capability. Using these guidelines, KINS has been reviewing PSA results and SAMPs submitted by the licensee

424

Electronic publishing in radiology: beginnings, current status, and expanding horizons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic publishing in radiology began in the 1980s and gathered momentum as use of the personal computer and subsequently the World Wide Web became commonplace. The ease of access and wide distribution that the Internet affords have presented both experts and lay users with the challenge of distinguishing reliable from unreliable material. In the field of radiology, peer-reviewed journals, the sine qua non of reliability in the scientific realm, began to appear in online versions in 1988, and now, nearly all such journals currently have online versions. Electronic versions of textbooks and textbook-like material have become more common, although the vast majority of publishers' catalogs are traditional print books. Electronic material is more common in the fields of internal, emergency, and family medicine than in the field of diagnostic radiology. The latest publishing medium is the personal digital assistant. Challenges that face electronic publishing include the issues of permanent archiving, citation, and indexing. Peer review seems to be the best method for distinguishing reliable from unreliable information. The use of Web technology has improved the logistics of peer review, and some journals have begun posting peer reviews themselves on the Web alongside peer-reviewed articles. Electronic publishing has changed the manner in which radiologists obtain information, providing wider, more immediate access. PMID:17411694

Chew, Felix S; Llewellyn, Kevin; Olsen, Kathryn M

2004-10-01

425

Commercial US nuclear reactors and waste: the current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between March 1 and June 15, 1980, the declared size of the commercial light waste reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has decreased another 9 GWe. For the presently declared size: the 165 declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 153 GWe in 2001 and will consume about 870,000 MTU as enrichment feed; the theoretical rate of enrichment requirements will peak at about 19,000,000 SWUs/y in the year 2014; as few as two repositories each with capacity equivalent to 100,000 MTU would hold the waste; and predisposal storage reactor basins and AFRs (away-from-reactor basins) would peak at <85,000 MTU in the year 2020 if the two respositories were commissioned in the years 1997 and 2020. It should be noted that the number of declared LWRs has dropped from 226 on December 31, 1974 to 165 as of this writing. The oil equivalent of the energy loss, assuming a 50% efficiency in use as in cars, is 17,000 million barrels. This is about 10 years of the current rate of US consumption of OPEC oil

426

Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive-behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:24275966

Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Ting, Tracy V

2014-02-01

427

The current status of laser applications in dentistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A range of lasers is now available for use in dentistry. This paper summarizes key current and emerging applications for lasers in clinical practice. A major diagnostic application of low power lasers is the detection of caries, using fluorescence elicited from hydroxyapatite or from bacterial by-products. Laser fluorescence is an effective method for detecting and quantifying incipient occlusal and cervical carious lesions, and with further refinement could be used in the same manner for proximal lesions. Photoactivated dye techniques have been developed which use low power lasers to elicit a photochemical reaction. Photoactivated dye techniques can be used to disinfect root canals, periodontal pockets, cavity preparations and sites of peri-implantitis. Using similar principles, more powerful lasers can be used for photodynamic therapy in the treatment of malignancies of the oral mucosa. Laser-driven photochemical reactions can also be used for tooth whitening. In combination with fluoride, laser irradiation can improve the resistance of tooth structure to demineralization, and this application is of particular benefit for susceptible sites in high caries risk patients. Laser technology for caries removal, cavity preparation and soft tissue surgery is at a high state of refinement, having had several decades of development up to the present time. Used in conjunction with or as a replacement for traditional methods, it is expected that specific laser technologies will become an essential component of contemporary dental practice over the next decade. PMID:14640367

Walsh, L J

2003-09-01

428

Workaholism: An overview and current status of the research  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims: This article addresses the stable tendency of excessive and compulsive working (i.e., workaholism). The main aim is to provide an updated oversight of the research area related to definition, prevalence, assessment, causes, outcomes, intervention as well as proposed future research directions. The target-population is both researchers and clinicians. Methods: The findings are identified by narratively reviewing the literature. Results: Research into workaholism has expanded over the last two decades. Several screening instruments to identify workaholics have been developed. The vast majority of these are based on seemingly atheoretical foundations, lacking convergent validity with each other and with related constructs. Research generally shows that workaholism is related to impaired health and well-being as well as to conflicts between work and family life. Workaholism is probably caused and maintained by a range of factors, although solid empirical underpinnings for suggested antecedents are currently sparse. So far no well-evaluated interventions for workaholism exist. Conclusions: At present, workaholism as a construct lacks conceptual and empirical clarity. Future research efforts should prioritize longitudinal studies as well as studies incorporating unbiased, firm parameters of both health and behavior. PMID:25215209

Andreassen, Cecilie Schou

2014-01-01

429

Pushing the boundaries of ureteroscopy: current status and future perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Substantial advances in ureteroscopy have resulted in the incorporation of this procedure into routine urological practice in many centres worldwide. Subsequently, an abundance of clinical data and technological progression have enabled the development of novel solutions that have increased the efficacy of ureteroscopy, and reduced associated morbidity and costs. In addition the indications for this retrograde approach have been expanded, and pyelocalyceal diverticulum, infundibular stenosis, urolithiasis in pregnant women or in patients with urinary diversions, as well as upper urinary tract tumours can now be managed using this methodology. New endoscopes are continuously developed, with different manufacturers choosing various technical solutions to further increase the efficacy and safety-and sometimes decrease costs-of ureteroscopy, including miniaturization, inclusion of digital optical systems and dual working channels, and the introduction of disposable apparatus. The holmium laser, currently the most-versatile energy source available, enables tissue incision, tumour ablation, and intracorporeal lithotripsy. Modern ancillary instruments are diverse, flexible, and durable, and novel devices used in daily clinical practice can minimize ascendant migration of stone fragments and, therefore, decrease the failure rate of the retrograde ureteroscopic approach. However, the peak of ureteroscopy evolution seems to remain distant, with further improvement of endoscopes and ancillary instruments, and robot-assisted ureteroscopy representing only some of the areas in which future developments are possible. PMID:24890883

Geavlete, Petrisor; Multescu, Razvan; Geavlete, Bogdan

2014-07-01

430

Current status and perspectives of cell therapy in Chagas disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english One century after its discovery, Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a major health problem in Latin America. Mortality and morbidity are mainly due to chronic processes that lead to dysfunction of the cardiac and digestive systems. About one third of the chronic chag [...] asic individuals have or will develop the symptomatic forms of the disease, with cardiomyopathy being the most common chronic form. This is a progressively debilitating disease for which there are no currently available effective treatments other than heart transplantation. Like in other cardiac diseases, tissue engineering and cell therapy have been investigated in the past few years as a means of recovering the heart function lost as a consequence of chronic damage caused by the immune-mediated pathogenic mechanisms elicited in individuals with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. Here we review the studies of cell therapy in animal models and patients with chronic Chagas disease and the perspectives of the recovery of the heart function lost due to infection with T. cruzi.

Milena Botelho Pereira, Soares; Ricardo Ribeiro dos, Santos.

2009-07-01