Electron momentum density, band structure, and structural properties of SrS
Sharma, G., E-mail: gsphysics@gmail.com [University of Kota, Department of Pure and Applied Physics (India); Munjal, N.; Vyas, V. [Banasthali University, Department of Physics (India); Kumar, R.; Sharma, B. K. [University of Rajasthan, Department of Physics (India); Joshi, K. B. [MLS University, Department of Physics (India)
2013-10-15
The electron momentum density, the electronic band structure, and the structural properties of SrS are presented in this paper. The isotropic Compton profile, anisotropies in the directional Compton profiles, the electronic band structure and density of states are calculated using the ab initio periodic linear combination of atomic orbitals method with the CRYSTAL06 code. Structural parameters of SrS-lattice constants and bulk moduli in the B1 and B2 phases-are computed together with the transition pressure. The computed parameters are well in agreement with earlier investigations. To compare the calculated isotropic Compton profile, measurement on polycrystalline SrS is performed using 5Ci-{sup 241}Am Compton spectrometer. Additionally, charge transfer is studied by means of the Compton profiles computed from the ionic model. The nature of bonding in the isovalent SrS and SrO compounds is compared on the basis of equal-valenceelectron-density profiles and the bonding in SrS is found to be more covalent than in SrO.
Magnon band structure and magnon density in one-dimensional magnonic crystals
Qiu, Rong-ke, E-mail: rkqiu@163.com [Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Huang, Te [Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Zhang, Zhi-dong [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)
2014-11-15
By using Callen's Green's function method and the Tyablikov and Anderson–Callen decoupling approximations, we systematically study the magnon band structure and magnon density perpendicular to the superlattice plane of one-dimensional magnonic crystals, with a superlattice consisting of two magnetic layers with ferromagnetic (FM) or antiferromagnetic (AFM) interlayer exchange coupling. The effects of temperature, interlayer coupling, anisotropy and external magnetic field on the magnon-energy band and magnon density in the K{sub x}-direction are investigated in three situations: a) the magnon band of magnetic superlattices with FM interlayer coupling, b) separate and c) overlapping magnon bands of magnetic superlattices with AFM interlayer coupling. In the present work, a quantum approach is developed to study the magnon band structure and magnon density of magnonic crystals and the results are beneficial for the design of magnonic-crystal waveguides or gigahertz-range spin-wave filters. - Highlights: • A quantum approach has been developed to study the magnon band of magnonic crystals. • The separate and overlapping magnon bands of magnetic superlattices are investigated. • The results are beneficial for the design of gigahertz-range spin-wave filters.
Yu Wang
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract:We investigate a theoretical model of molecular metalwire constructed from linear polynuclear metal complexes. In particular we study the linear Crn metal complex and Cr molecular metalwire. The electron density distributions of the model nanowire and the linear Crn metal complexes, with n = 3, 5, and 7, are calculated by employing CRYSTAL98 package with topological analysis. The preliminary results indicate that the bonding types between any two neighboring Cr are all the same, namely the polarized open-shell interaction. The pattern of electron density distribution in metal complexes resembles that of the model Cr nanowire as the number of metal ions increases. The conductivity of the model Cr nanowire is also tested by performing the band structure calculation.
Confidence bands in density estimation
Giné, Evarist; 10.1214/09-AOS738
2010-01-01
Given a sample from some unknown continuous density $f:\\mathbb{R}\\to\\mathbb{R}$, we construct adaptive confidence bands that are honest for all densities in a "generic" subset of the union of $t$-H\\"older balls, $0
Band structure of semiconductors
Tsidilkovski, I M
2013-01-01
Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio
After constructing a stress and strain model, the valence bands of in-plane biaxial tensile strained Si is calculated by k · p method. In the paper we calculate the accurate anisotropy valance bands and the splitting energy between light and heavy hole bands. The results show that the valance bands are highly distorted, and the anisotropy is more obvious. To obtain the density of states (DOS) effective mass, which is a very important parameter for device modeling, a DOS effective mass model of biaxial tensile strained Si is constructed based on the valance band calculation. This model can be directly used in the device model of metal—oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). It also a provides valuable reference for biaxial tensile strained silicon MOSFET design. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Hybrid density functional theory study of Cu(In1−xGaxSe2 band structure for solar cell application
Xu-Dong Chen
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Cu(In1−xGaxSe2 (CIGS alloy based thin film photovoltaic solar cells have attracted more and more attention due to its large optical absorption coefficient, long term stability, low cost and high efficiency. However, the previous theoretical investigation of this material with first principle calculation cannot fulfill the requirement of experimental development, especially the accurate description of band structure and density of states. In this work, we use first principle calculation based on hybrid density functional theory to investigate the feature of CIGS, with B3LYP applied in the CuIn1−xGaxSe2 stimulation of the band structure and density of states. We report the simulation of the lattice parameter, band gap and chemical composition. The band gaps of CuGaSe2, CuIn0.25Ga0.75Se2, CuIn0.5Ga0.5Se2, CuIn0.75Ga0.25Se2 and CuInSe2 are obtained as 1.568 eV, 1.445 eV, 1.416 eV, 1.275 eV and 1.205 eV according to our calculation, which agree well with the available experimental values. The band structure of CIGS is also in accordance with the current theory.
We give a method for obtaining renormalized electronic structures arising from quasiparticle band structures of actual Hubbard systems, using some of the self-energies deduced in paper I of this series. The quasiparticle band structures are determined from an appropriate modification of the augmented plane-wave method, and the renormalized density of states is found from the spectral functions. We calculate the quasiparticle structure of a Ce system, which presents the three characteristic types of resonances of the pseudogap regime mentioned in paper I of this series and also the electronic structure of Y-Ba-Cu-O, which seems to display the characteristics of a standard Fermi liquid or a marginal Fermi liquid
Kim, Y H; Görling, A; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Staedele, Martin; Goerling, Andreas
2002-01-01
We calculate the imaginary part of the frequency-dependent dielectric function of bulk silicon by applying time-dependent density-functional theory based on the exact-exchange (EXX) Kohn-Sham (KS) band structure and the adiabatic local-density approximation (ALDA) kernel. The position of the E2 absorption peak calculated with the EXX band structure at the independent-particle level is in excellent agreement with experiments, which demonstrates the good quality of EXX `KS quasiparticles'. The excitonic E1 peak that is missing at the independent-particle level remains absent if two-particle interaction effects are taken into account within the time-dependent LDA, demonstrating the incapability of the ALDA kernel to describe excitonic effects.
Band Structures of Plasmonic Polarons
Caruso, Fabio; Lambert, Henry; Giustino, Feliciano
2015-03-01
In angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), the acceleration of a photo-electron upon photon absorption may trigger shake-up excitations in the sample, leading to the emission of phonons, electron-hole pairs, and plasmons, the latter being collective charge-density fluctuations. Using state-of-the-art many-body calculations based on the `GW plus cumulant' approach, we show that electron-plasmon interactions induce plasmonic polaron bands in group IV transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2). We find that the energy vs. momentum dispersion relations of these plasmonic structures closely follow the standard valence bands, although they appear broadened and blueshifted by the plasmon energy. Based on our results we identify general criteria for observing plasmonic polaron bands in the angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of solids.
The electronic structure of single-crystal WO3 and Na0.67WO3 (a sodiumtungsten bronze) has been measured using soft x-ray absorption and resonant soft x-ray emission oxygen K-edge spectroscopies. The spectral features show clear differences in energy and intensity between WO3 and Na0.67WO3. The x-ray emission spectrum of metallic Na0.67WO3 terminates in a distinct Fermi edge. The rigid-band model fails to explain the electronic structure of Na0.67WO3 in terms of a simple addition of electrons to the conduction band of WO3. Instead, Na bonding and Na 3sO 2p hybridization need to be considered for the sodiumtungsten bronze, along with occupation of the bottom of the conduction band. Furthermore, the anisotropy in the band structure of monoclinic ?-WO3 revealed by the experimental spectra with orbital-resolved geometry is explained via density functional theory calculations. For ?-WO3 itself, good agreement is found between the experimental O K-edge spectra and the theoretical partial density of states of O 2p orbitals. Indirect and direct bandgaps of insulating WO3 are determined from extrapolating separations between spectral leading edges and accounting for the corehole energy shift in the absorption process. The O 2p non-bonding states show upward band dispersion as a function of incident photon energy for both compounds, which is explained using the calculated band structure and experimental geometry. (paper)
Full text: The light alkaline-earths form an interesting series of metal oxides from a chemical and structural perspective. Calcium and magnesium oxides are often considered 'ideal' ionic solids and occur naturally in cubic rocksalt structures, whilst beryllium oxide displays some properties typical of covalent solids and occurs in the hexagonal wurtzite structure. A number of theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of these oxides have been reported in the literature (see, for example, Kotani and Akai), and compared with available optical and photoemission measurements. However, these techniques do not reveal the complete band structure and cannot always be compared directly with the calculations. A thorough test of various theoretical models requires measurement of the full band-dispersions of these oxides. Towards this end, some progress has been made by Tjeng et al. using angle-resolved photoemission on MgO, but to our knowledge, similar experiments have not been performed for the other alkaline-earth oxides. We report direct measurements of the full band dispersions of BeO, MgO and CaO using electron momentum spectroscopy and compare our results with LCAO calculations using CRYSTAL98 software. Such comparisons can be used to critically assess the quantitative accuracy of various approximations used in current density functional theories
Split Hubbard bands at low densities
Hansen, Daniel; Perepelitsky, Edward; Shastry, B. Sriram
2011-05-01
We present a numerical scheme for the Hubbard model that throws light on the rather esoteric nature of the upper and lower Hubbard bands, which have been invoked often in literature. We present a self-consistent solution of the ladder-diagram equations for the Hubbard model, and show that these provide, at least in the limit of low densities of particles, a vivid picture of the Hubbard split bands. We also address the currently topical problem of decay of the doublon states that are measured in optical trap studies, using both the ladder scheme and also an exact two-particle calculation of a relevant Green’s function.
We learned how to create 3-dimensionally periodic dielectric structures which are to photon waves, as semiconductor crystals are to electron waves. That is, these photonic crystals have a photonic bandgap, a band of frequencies in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, irrespective of propagation direction in space. Photonic bandgaps provide for spontaneous emission inhibition and allow for a new class of electromagnetic micro-cavities. If the perfect 3-dimensional periodicity is broken by a local defect, then local electromagnetic modes can occur within the forbidden bandgap. The addition of extra dielectric material locally, inside the photonic crystal, produces open-quotes donorclose quotes modes. Conversely, the local removal of dielectric material from the photonic crystal produces open-quotes acceptorclose quotes modes. Therefore, it will now be possible to make high-Q electromagnetic cavities of volume approx-lt 1 cubic wavelength, for short wavelengths at which metallic cavities are useless. These new dielectric micro-resonators can cover the range all the way from millimeter waves, down to ultraviolet wavelengths
Band offsets of semiconductor heterostructures: a hybrid density functional study
Wadehra, Amita; Nicklas, Jeremy W.; Wilkins, John W.
2010-01-01
We demonstrate the accuracy of the hybrid functional HSE06 for computing band offsets of semiconductor alloy heterostructures. The highlight of this study is the computation of conduction band offsets with a reliability that has eluded standard density functional theory. A high-quality special quasirandom structure models an infinite random pseudobinary alloy for constructing heterostructures along the (001) growth direction. Our excellent results for a variety of heterostructures establish H...
Brouet, V.; Yang, W.L.; Zhou, X.J.; Hussain, Z.; Moore, R.G.; He, R.; Lu, D.H.; Shen, Z.X.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.
2010-02-15
We present a detailed ARPES investigation of the RTe{sub 3} family, which sets this system as an ideal 'textbook' example for the formation of a nesting driven Charge Density Wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDW instabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi Surface (FS) (up to 0.4eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k-space. An additional advantage of RTe{sub 3} is that the band structure can be very accurately described by a simple 2D tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure, by comparing our ARPES measurements with Linear Muffin-Tin Orbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and, for the first time, of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k-space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDW interaction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n(Ef), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.
Simon, L; Vonau, F; Aubel, D [Laboratoire de Physique et de Spectroscopie Electronique, CNRS-UMR7014, 4, rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse (France)
2007-09-05
The authors show that an accurate determination of the band structure can be achieved by using Fourier transform scanning tunnelling microscopy (FT-STM) techniques in the case of a semi-metallic ErSi{sub 2} layer grown on a Si(111) substrate. This material provides an ideally confined 2D electron and hole gas that is reflected in a complex standing wave pattern at 77 K. The quasi-particles exist over a wide energy range from -800 to +300 meV without mixing with silicon bulk excitations. The Fourier transform of dI/dV maps have been successfully interpreted using the concept of the joint density of states (JDOS), which will be properly introduced. We present here an intuitive interpretation of the quasiparticle interference process based on a geometric construction which also allows us to clearly demonstrate that hole-hole and hole-electron quantum interferences dominate over electron-electron quantum interference.
The authors show that an accurate determination of the band structure can be achieved by using Fourier transform scanning tunnelling microscopy (FT-STM) techniques in the case of a semi-metallic ErSi2 layer grown on a Si(111) substrate. This material provides an ideally confined 2D electron and hole gas that is reflected in a complex standing wave pattern at 77 K. The quasi-particles exist over a wide energy range from -800 to +300 meV without mixing with silicon bulk excitations. The Fourier transform of dI/dV maps have been successfully interpreted using the concept of the joint density of states (JDOS), which will be properly introduced. We present here an intuitive interpretation of the quasiparticle interference process based on a geometric construction which also allows us to clearly demonstrate that hole-hole and hole-electron quantum interferences dominate over electron-electron quantum interference
Microstrip microwave band gap structures
V Subramanian
2008-04-01
Microwave band gap structures exhibit certain stop band characteristics based on the periodicity, impedance contrast and effective refractive index contrast. These structures though formed in one-, two- and three-dimensional periodicity, are huge in size. In this paper, microstrip-based microwave band gap structures are formed by removing the substrate material in a periodic manner. This paper also demonstrates that these structures can serve as a non-destructive characterization tool for materials, a duplexor and frequency selective coupler. The paper presents both experimental results and theoretical simulation based on a commercially available finite element methodology for comparison.
Hussain, Zahid; Brouet, Veronique; Yang, Wanli; Zhou, Xingjiang; Hussain, Zahid; Moore, R.G.; He, R.; Lu, D. H.; Shen, Z.X.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.B.; Ru, N.; Fisher, R.
2008-01-16
We present a detailed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) investigation of the RTe3 family, which sets this system as an ideal"textbook" example for the formation of a nesting driven charge density wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDWinstabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi surface (up to 0.4 eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k space. An additional advantage of RTe3 is that theband structure can be very accurately described by a simple two dimensional tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure by comparing our ARPES measurements with the linear muffin-tinorbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R, and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDWinteraction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n (EF), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.
Band Anticrossing in Dilute Germanium Carbides Using Hybrid Density Functionals
Stephenson, Chad A.; O'brien, William A.; Qi, Meng; Penninger, Michael; Schneider, William F.; Wistey, Mark A.
2016-04-01
Dilute germanium carbides (Ge1- x C x ) offer a direct bandgap for compact silicon photonics, but widely varying properties have been reported. This work reports improved band structure calculations for Ge1- x C x using ab initio simulations that employ the HSE06 exchange-correlation density functional. Contrary to Vegard's law, the conduction band minimum at Γ is consistently found to decrease with increasing C content, while L and X valleys change much more slowly. The calculated Ge bandgap is within 11% of experimental values. A decrease in energy at the Γ conduction band valley of (170 meV ± 50)/%C is predicted, leading to a direct bandgap for x > 0.008. These results indicate a promising material for Group IV lasers.
Band structure and nuclear dynamics
The relation between the Variable Moment of Inertia model and the Interacting Boson Model are discussed from a phenomenological viewpoint. New results on ground state mean-square radii in nuclei far from stability are reported, and a discussion of band structure extending to high angular momentum states and methods of extracting information on the underlying dynamics is given
High-energy band structure of gold
Christensen, N. Egede
1976-01-01
The band structure of gold for energies far above the Fermi level has been calculated using the relativistic augmented-plane-wave method. The calculated f-band edge (Γ6-) lies 15.6 eV above the Fermi level is agreement with recent photoemission work. The band model is applied to interpret...
High-spin states of 79Br have been studied in the reaction 76Ge(7Li, 4nγ) at 32 MeV. A gamma-detector array with twelve Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors was used. The positive-parity yrast states, interpreted as a rotationally aligned g(9(2)) proton band, and the negative-parity ground state band have been extended to spins of (33(2+)) and (25(2-)), respectively. Lifetime measurements indicate that both bands have a similar quadrupole deformation of β2 ∼ 0.2. The positive-parity α = -(1(2)) band has been identified. Several new inter-band transitions are observed. A cranked-shell model analysis shows that the νg(9(2)) and πg(9(2)) alignments occur in the positive-parity and the negative-parity bands at rotational frequencies of ℎω ∼ 0.6 and 0.4 MeV, respectively. The level energies and the electromagnetic properties of the g(9(2)) band can be well reproduced by a particle-rotor model calculation with an axially symmetric core
Michiardi, Matteo; Aguilera, Irene; Bianchi, Marco; Eustáquio de Carvalho, Vagner; Orlando Ladeira, Luiz; Gomes Teixeira, Nayara; Avellar Soares, Edmar; Friedrich, Christoph; Blügel, Stefan; Hofmann, Philip
2014-01-01
The bulk band structure of Bi2Te3 has been determined by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and compared to first-principles calculations. We have performed calculations using the local density approximation (LDA) of density functional theory and the one-shot GW approximation within the al...
Density Measurements in Air by Optically Exciting the Cordes Bands of I2
Balla, R. Jeffrey; Exton, Reginald J.
2000-01-01
We describe an optical method based on laser-induced fluorescence for obtaining instantaneous measurements of density along a line in low-density air seeded with I2. The Cordes bands of I2 (D(sup 1)sigma(sup +, sub u)) left arrow X(sup 1)sigma(sup +, sub g)) are excited with a tunable ArF excimer laser. air densities in the range (0.1-6.5) x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) are measured over 295-583 K using the density-dependent emission ratio of two emission bands of I2; the 340 nm bands and the diffuse-structured McLennan bands near 320 nm.
Electronic band structure of CdF2
Energy distribution curves (EDC) of electrons photoemitted (hν1 = 21.22 eV and hν2 = 40.8 eV) from the valence band (F-2p) and the Cd 4d band of a CdF2 crystal are measured and the valence and conduction band structures are calculated using the local empirical pseudopotential method (EPM). Comparison of the measured and calculated data show that the three main maxima measured in the valence band correspond well to the maxima in X5, L3, and X5 obtained in the calculated histogram of the valence band density of states. The influence of the final-state structure on the position of peaks in the valence band is not observed on EDCs obtained for both, hν1 and hν2 photoemission exciting energies. For Cd 4d band the wide splitting of 1.46 eV is obtained only for hν1 = 21.22 eV while it is not obtained on EDC for hν2 = 40.8 eV. This Cd 4d band splitting may be caused by the influence of the final density-of-states maximum obtained in conduction band in X1-point. The results obtained are compared with reflectivity data available in the literature. (author)
Schneider, Guenter; Foster, David H.
2014-03-01
Large scale structure prediction for novel materials requires computationally inexpensive lattice relaxation methods, which are typically based on density functional theory (DFT) using a semi-local approximation for the exchange-correlation functional. These methods provide structural parameters accurate to within a few percent, but cannot predict band-gaps. Band-gap calculations, require much more computationally expensive methods such as hybrid functionals or the GW approximation. Such an accuracy-tiered method fails dramatically for Cu3PSe4. When the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is used to relax the lattice and ions, band-gaps calculated using both the single shot GGA+GW method and the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional method are a full 0.5 eV lower than the band gaps calculated for the unrelaxed, experimental structure. The GW and HSE methods predict accurate band gaps only when used with the correct experimental structure. We show that in Cu3PSe4, the calculated band-gap depends strongly on the P-Se bondlength, which can be explained by the P-Se* anti-bonding character of the lowest conduction band state. We show this effect for different lattice relaxation methods including recently developed meta-GGAs.
Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites
Khan, Banaras [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saifullah [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Jalali-Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan (UI), 81744 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, Imad [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar, E-mail: ahma5532@gmail.com [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan)
2015-10-25
The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX{sub 3} (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures.
Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites
The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX3 (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures
Structure of rotational bands in 253No
In-beam gamma-ray and conversion electron spectroscopic studies have been performed on the 253 No nucleus. A strongly coupled rotational band has been identified and the improved statistics allows an assignment of the band structure as built on the 9/2-[734]? ground state. The results agree with previously known transition energies but disagree with the tentative structural assignments made in earlier work. (orig.)
Band Structure and Optical Properties of Ordered AuCu3
Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Lengkeek, H. P.
1979-01-01
initio band structure obtained by the relativistic linear muffin-tin orbitals method. The band calculation reveals that ordered AuCu3 has distinct copper and gold d bands positioned in and hybridizing with an s band common to copper and gold. The calculated state density is found to be in good agreement...
Superdeformed rotational bands with density dependent pairing interactions
The cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method, applied in a previous study to SD bands of even Hg and Pb isotopes, is extended by including pairing correlations described by a zero-range density-dependent interaction. This more realistic description of the pairing channel modifies the balance between the neutron and proton pairing energies and introduces an orbital variation of the pairing gaps. This results in a retarded alignment, significantly improving the agreement with data in both the A=150 and 190 mass regions. The behavior expected for SD bands in odd-N or odd-Z nuclei is discussed on the basis of the quasiparticle routhians calculated for the even-even isotopes. (orig.)
The band structures of 121,123I nuclei have been studied using a version of the particle-rotor-model in which the experimental excitation energies of the neighbouring (A-1) cores can be fed directly as input parameters. The calculations have been carried out with axially symmetric Nilsson potential with both prolate and oblate deformations. The parameters of the model have been chosen from earlier theoretical work and experimental odd-even mass differences. Only the Coriolis attenuation factor has been treated as adjustable parameter. The theoretical band structures are in very good agreement with the available experimental data. (orig.)
Band structure of CdTe under high pressure
The band structures and density of states of cadmium telluride (CdTe) under various pressures ranging from normal to 4.5 Mbar are obtained. The electronic band structure at normal pressure of CdTe (ZnS structure) is analyzed and the direct band gap value is found to be 1.654 eV. CdTe becomes metal and superconductor under high pressure but before that it undergoes structural phase transition from ZnS phase to NaCl phase. The equilibrium lattice constant, bulk modulus and the phase transition pressure at which the compounds undergo structural phase transition from ZnS to NaCl are predicted from the total energy calculations. The density of states at the Fermi level (N(EF)) gets enhanced after metallization, which leads to the superconductivity in CdTe. In our calculation, the metallization pressure (PM = 1.935 Mbar) and the corresponding reduced volume ((V/V0)M = 0.458) are estimated. Metallization occurs via direct closing of band gap at Γ point. (author)
Production of S-band Accelerating Structures
Piel, C; Vogel, H; Vom Stein, P
2004-01-01
ACCEL currently produces accelerating structures for several scientific laboratories. Multi-cell cavities at S-band frequencies are required for the projects CLIC-driver-linac, DLS and ASP pre-injector linac and the MAMI-C microtron. Based on those projects differences and similarities in design, production technologies and requirements will be addressed.
Band structure analysis in SiGe nanowires
Amato, Michele [' Centro S3' , CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, via Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2 Pad. Morselli, I-42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Palummo, Maurizia [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (Italy); CNR-INFM-SMC, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma, ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Ossicini, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.ossicini@unimore.it [' Centro S3' , CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, via Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena (Italy) and Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2 Pad. Morselli, I-42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy) and European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility - ETSF (Italy) and Centro Interdipartimentale ' En and Tech' , Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2 Pad. Morselli, I-42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy)
2012-06-05
One of the main challenges for Silicon-Germanium nanowires (SiGe NWs) electronics is the possibility to modulate and engine their electronic properties in an easy way, in order to obtain a material with the desired electronic features. Diameter and composition constitute two crucial ways for the modification of the band gap and of the band structure of SiGe NWs. Within the framework of density functional theory we present results of ab initio calculations regarding the band structure dependence of SiGe NWs on diameter and composition. We point out the main differences with respect to the case of pure Si and Ge wires and we discuss the particular features of SiGe NWs that are useful for future technological applications.
Detangling Flat Bands via Fano Structures
Bodyfelt, Joshua; Flach, Sergej; Leykam, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton; Matthies, Peter
2014-03-01
Translationally invariant lattices with flat bands (FB) in the band structure possess irreducible compact localized flat band states (FBS). The number of unit cells involved in one irreducible FBS defines the FB class of the model. For class 1, we transform and detangle the FBS and dispersive states into a Fano lattice. Inverting the scheme, we end up with a continuum of FB models for any FB class. In the case of an on-site disorder potential, the symmetric part lifts the FB degeneracy, keeping compact localization of FBS. The antisymmetric part yields Fano-induced Cauchy tails for the potential felt by the dispersive states. As a result, weak disorder enforces different energy dependent localization length scales, and highly nontrivial mode profiles at the FB energy. Scattering by perturbed FBS can then be understood as Fano resonance.
Complex banded structures in directional solidification processes
Korzhenevskii, A. L.; Rozas, R. E.; Horbach, J.
2016-01-01
A combination of theory and numerical simulation is used to investigate impurity superstructures that form in rapid directional solidification (RDS) processes in the presence of a temperature gradient and a pulling velocity with an oscillatory component. Based on a capillary wave model, we show that the RDS processes are associated with a rich morphology of banded structures, including frequency locking and the transition to chaos.
Photo field emission spectroscopy of the tantalum band structure
Photo field emission (PFE) currents of clean and barium covered tantalum tips have been measured with single lines of the mercury arc spectrum and phase-sensitive detection. Field strength and work function were determined from Fowler-Nordheim plots of the FE currents. Shoulders in the PFE current-voltage characteristics could be correlated to transitions in the band structure of tantalum according to a recently proposed two-step PFE model. A comparison with the relativistic calculations of Mattheiss and the nonrelativistic bands of Petroff and Viswanathan shows that Mattheiss' bands are more appropriate. Beside direct transitions several nondirect transitions from the different features composing the upper two density of states maxima below the Fermi edge of tantalum have been found. (Auth.)
Coral Skeleton Density Banding: Biotic Response to Changes in Sea Surface Temperature
Hill, C. A.; Sivaguru, M.; Fried, G. A.; Fouke, B. W.
2010-12-01
Density bands in the CaCO3 (aragonite) skeleton of scleractinian corals are commonly used as chronometers, where crystalline couplets of high and low density bands represent the span of one year. Isotopic analysis of these density bands provides a sensitive reconstructive tool for paleoclimatology and paleoecology. However, the detailed biotic mechanisms controlling coral skeleton aragonite nucleation and crystallization events and resulting skeletal growth rate remain uncertain. The coral tissue organic matrix, composed of macromolecules secreted by the calicoblastic ectoderm, is closely associated with skeletal precipitation and is itself incorporated into the skeleton. We postulate that density banding is primarily controlled by changes in the rate of aragonite crystal precipitation mediated by the coral holobiont response to changes in sea surface temperature (SST). To test this hypothesis, data were collected from coral skeleton-tissue biopsies (2.5 cm in diameter) extracted from four species of Montastraea growing on the fringing reef tract of Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. Annual mean variation in SST on Curacao range from 29o in mid-September to 26o C in late February. Samples were collected at strategic time periods spanning the 3o C annual variations in SST. Our nanometer-scale optical analyses of skeletal morphology have revealed consistent changes between high- and low-skeletal density bands, resulting in an 11% increase in the volume of aragonite precipitated in high-density skeletal bands. The re-localization and/or change in abundance of mucus, carbonic anhydrase (a molecule that catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide), calmodulin (a calcium-binding protein) and the change in density of gastrodermal symbiotic dinoflagellates has permitted estimates of seasonally-fluctuating carbon allocation by the coral holobiont in response to changing environmental conditions. This digital reconstruction of over 2000 images of one-micron-thick histological sections of Montastraea annularis tissue yields a three-dimensional digital elevation map of coral tissue. This technique allows three-dimensional mapping of the cellular and molecular components of coral tissue in the context of the structure of an entire polyp.
Nonequilibrium band structure of nano-devices
Hackenbuchner, S.; Sabathil, M.; Majewski, J. A.; Zandler, G.; Vogl, P.; Beham, E.; Zrenner, A.; Lugli, P.
2002-03-01
A method is developed for calculating, in a consistent manner, the realistic electronic structure of three-dimensional (3-D) heterostructure quantum devices under bias and its current density close to equilibrium. The nonequilibrium electronic structure is characterized by local Fermi levels that are calculated self-consistently. We have applied this scheme to predict asymmetric Stark shifts and tunneling of confined electrons and holes in single-dot GaAs/InGaAs photodiodes.
Adjoining of negative stiffness and negative density bands in an elastic metamaterial
Oh, Joo Hwan; Seung, Hong Min; Kim, Yoon Young
2016-02-01
In this paper, we explore an elastic metamaterial adjoining the frequency band of negative density and that of negative stiffness. If the band-adjoining occurs, a fully continuous widened stop band covering the entire ranges of the negative density and stiffness can form. The resulting stop band can be useful for various vibration applications such as vibration shielding. We show that the band-adjoining frequency is characterized by a standing wave with peculiar "unbalanced" motions. Experiments with the symmetric Lamb waves were conducted to validate the theoretical prediction and the effects of perturbed adjoining band on wave physics are also investigated.
Emission bands of phosphorus and calculation of band structure of rare earth phosphides
The method of x-ray emission spectroscopy has been used to investigate the electronic structure of monophosphides of rare-earth metals (REM). The fluorescence K bands of phosphorus have been obtained in LaP, PrP, SmP, GdP, TbP, DyP, HoP, ErP, TmP, YbP, and LuP and also the Lsub(2,3) bands of phosphorus in ErP, TmP, YbP, and LuP. Using the Green function technique involving the muffin-tin potential, the energy spectrum for ErP has been calculated in the single-electron approximation. The hystogram of electronic state distribution N(E) is compared with the experimental K and Lsub(2,3) bands of phosphorus in ErP. The agreement between the main details of N(E) and that of x-ray spectra allows to state that the model used provides a good description of the electron density distribution in crystals of REM monophosphides. In accordance with the character of the N(E) distribution the compounds under study are classified as semimetals or semiconductors with a very narrow forbidden band
Electronic Band Structure of Transparent Conductor: Nb-Doped Anatase TiO2
Hitosugi, Taro; Kamisaka, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Koichi; Nogawa, Hiroyuki; Furubayashi, Yutaka; Nakao, Shoichiro; Yamada, Naoomi; Chikamatsu, Akira; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Oshima, Masaharu; Hirose, Yasushi; Shimada, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Tetsuya
2008-11-01
We have investigated electronic band structure of a transparent conducting oxide, Nb-doped anatase TiO2 (TNO), by means of first-principles band calculations and photoemission measurements. The band calculations revealed that Nb 4d orbitals are strongly hybridized with Ti 3d ones to form a d-nature conduction band, without impurity states in the in-gap region, resulting in high carrier density exceeding 1021 cm-3 and excellent optical transparency in the visible region. Furthermore, we confirmed that the results of valence band and core-level photoemission measurements are consistent with prediction by the present band calculations.
Photoemission and density functional theory study of Ir(111); energy band gap mapping
Pletikosi?, I.; Kralj, M.; ok?evi?, D.; Brako, R.; Lazi?, P.; Pervan, P.
2010-04-01
We have performed combined angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structure of the Ir(111) surface, with the focus on the existence of energy band gaps. The investigation was motivated by the experimental results suggesting Ir(111) as an ideal support for the growth of weakly bonded graphene. Therefore, our prime interest was electronic structure around the \\bar {\\mathrm {K}} symmetry point. In accordance with DFT calculations, ARPES has shown a wide energy band gap with the shape of a parallelogram centred around the \\bar {\\mathrm {K}} point. Within the gap three surface states were identified; one just below the Fermi level and two spin-orbit split surface states at the bottom of the gap.
Photoemission and density functional theory study of Ir(111); energy band gap mapping
We have performed combined angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structure of the Ir(111) surface, with the focus on the existence of energy band gaps. The investigation was motivated by the experimental results suggesting Ir(111) as an ideal support for the growth of weakly bonded graphene. Therefore, our prime interest was electronic structure around the K-bar symmetry point. In accordance with DFT calculations, ARPES has shown a wide energy band gap with the shape of a parallelogram centred around the K-bar point. Within the gap three surface states were identified; one just below the Fermi level and two spin-orbit split surface states at the bottom of the gap.
Band structure in Platinum nuclei (A ? 182)
In this thesis, the author studies the band structure in Platinum nuclei and has divided his work in 5 parts: in the first, the author makes a general presentation of nucleus physics with a high angular momentum and introduces to the deformed nucleus notion -axial, triaxial or mixing of different deformations. The notion of form co-existence will be used to interpret the experimental results. In the second part, the author describes the detection means which have been used to make measurements. An abstract of theoretical notions, usefull for the understanding of fusion-evaporation reaction is presented. The author explains the details, performances and different modes of using of 'Chateau de cristal' and others used spectrometers. In the third part, the author presents all experimental data. He has effected ? coincidence measurements for Pt, Au and Ir nuclei. In the fourth part, for a classical analysis or an interpretation in the frame of cranking model the author presents theoretical models which are adapted at the study of high spin states and band structures
New silicon band in haiweete structure
The structure of the mineral haiweete from Brazil has been determined [automatic Enraf-Nonius diffractometer, R=11.8%, 1260 reflections with I>3?(I)]. The experimental data were obtained from a block single crystal with the misorientation of blocks up to 10 deg. The parameters of the orthorhombic unit cell are: a=14.263(3), b=17.988(3), c=18.395(3) A, V=4719.5 A3, sp. gr. P212121, Z=8. The refined chemical formula of the mineral is Ca(UO2)2[Si5O12(OH)2]4.5H2O. The specific features of the mineral structure distinguishing it from other members of this group were established, including the formation of an original silicate band
Analysis of the electronic structure of crystals through band structure unfolding
Gordienko, A. B.; Kosobutsky, A. V.
2016-03-01
In this work, we consider an alternative implementation of the band structure unfolding method within the framework of the density functional theory, which combines the advantages of the basis of localized functions and plane waves. This approach has been used to analyze the electronic structure of the ordered CuCl x Br1- x copper halide alloys and F 0 center in MgO that enables us to reveal qualitatively the features remaining hidden when using the standard supercell method, because of the complex band structure of systems with defects.
Photonic Crystal Narrow Band Filters Using Biperiodic Structures
M. Djavid
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, we propose a new type of photonic crystal band-pass and band-stop filter based on biperiodic structure. Usually two types of photonic crystal band-pass filters are utilized in optical circuit. In the first one Fabry-Perot cavities are used while in the second one cavity-coupled waveguide are used. We optimize the second structure in this study. Then we show that by little changing in the band-pass structure, a band-stop filter is attained. Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD method we achieve output efficiency over 98% for band-pass filter and below 3% for band-stop filter. Also we investigate filter tunability parameters which affecting central frequency of these filters. Further analysis shows that the central frequency of transmission band (stop band can be changed by altering the refractive index of bigger rods in biperiodic structure.
Electronic band structure of tetracene-TCNQ and perylene-TCNQ compounds
Shokaryev, I.; Buurma, A. J. C.; Jurchescu, O. D.; Uijttewaal, M. A.; de Wijs, G.A.; Palstra, T. T. M.; Groot, R.A. de
2008-01-01
The relationship between the crystal structures, band structures, and electronic properties of acene-TCNQ complexes has been investigated. We focus on the newly synthesized crystals of the charge-transfer salt tetracene-TCNQ and similar to it. perylene-TCNQ, potentially interesting for realization of ambipolar transport. The band structures were calculated from first principles using density-functional theory (DFT). Despite the similarity in the crystal structures of the acene-TCNQ complexes ...
Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls
Fitch W
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/97
First principle study of band structure of SrMO3 perovskites
Daga, Avinash; Sharma, Smita
2016-05-01
First principle study of band structure calculations in the local density approximations (LDA) as well as in the generalized gradient approximations (GGA) have been used to determine the electronic structure of SrMO3 where M stands for Ti, Zr and Mo. Occurrence of band gap proves SrTiO3 and SrZrO3 to be insulating. A small band gap is observed in SrMoO3 perovskite signifies it to be metallic. Band structures are found to compare well with the available data in the literature showing the relevance of this approach. ABINIT computer code has been used to carry out all the calculations.
Collective multiphonon band structure in 168Er
The large number of positive and negative parity bands assigned in 168Er decay scheme offered a great challenge to nuclear theory. A variety of collective nuclear models have been applied to analyze the few lower bands. Recently there is renewed interest in the nature of the Kπ=02, 03 and Kπ=41 + bands. Here a study in the dynamic PPQ model is reported
Dual-band electromagnetic band gap structure for noise isolation in mixed signal SiP
Rotaru, M. D.; Sykulski, J.K.
2010-01-01
A compact dual-band electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) structure is proposed. It is shown through numerical simulation using 3D electromagnetic finite element modelling that by adding a slit to the classical mushroom shape an extra resonance is introduced and thus dual-band EBG structures can be built by cascading these new elements. It is also demonstrated that this novel approach can be used to isolate noise in a system such as a dual band transceiver integrated into a mixed signal system in a ...
Band-Structure of Thallium by the LMTO Method
Holtham, P. M.; Jan, J. P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt
1977-01-01
The relativistic band structure of thallium has been calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method. The positions and extents of the bands were found to follow the Wigner-Seitz rule approximately, and the origin of the dispersion of the bands was established from the canonical s and...
Density changes between sheared zones and their surrounding amorphous matrix as a result of plastic deformation in a cold-rolled metallic glass (melt-spun Al88Y7Fe5) were determined using high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) detector intensities supplemented by electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and nano-beam diffraction analyses. Sheared zones or shear bands were observed as regions of bright or dark contrast arising from a higher or lower density relative to the matrix. Moreover, abrupt contrast changes from bright to dark and vice versa were found within individual shear bands. We associate the decrease in density mainly with an enhanced free volume in the shear bands and the increase in density with concomitant changes of the mass. This interpretation is further supported by changes in the zero loss and Plasmon signal originating from such sites. The limits of this new approach are discussed. - Highlights: • We describe a novel approach for measuring densities in shear bands of metallic glasses. • The linear relation of the dark-field intensity I/I0 and the mass thickness ρt was used. • Individual shear bands showed abrupt contrast changes from bright to dark and vice versa. • Density changes ranging from about −10% to +6% were found for such shear bands. • Mixtures of amorphous/medium range ordered domains were found within the shear bands
Self energy corrections to the ''ab initio'' band structure: Chromium
We describe the effect of many particle corrections to improve the electronic energy spectrum calculated in the framework of the Density Functional Formalism (DFF). We show that it is possible to consider an n particle diagram like a correction to the DFF results for electronic structure, if we take into account the electron-electron interaction with non-zero transmitted momentum q or energy ?. The model is proposed for calculating the leading term of the self-energy expansion as a power series in interactions, i.e. the second order term under the conditions q=O and ??O. This model is illustrated by calculating the electronic band structure and optical properties of anti ferromagnetic chromium. The self-energy correction leads to a better agreement between the theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of electronic properties. (author). 40 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs
Electronic band structure of a Carbon nanotube superlattice
A. A. Shokri
2014-03-01
Full Text Available By employing the theoretical method based on tight-binding, we study electronic band structure of single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT superlattices, which the system is the made of the junction between the zigzag and armchair carbon nanotubes. Exactly at the place of connection, it is appeared the pentagon–heptagon pairs as topological defect in carbon hexagonal network. The calculations are based on the tight binding model in the nearest-neighbor approximation. We seek to describe electronic band structure in the presence of the pentagon-heptagon pairs. Our calculation show that the pentagon–heptagon pairs defect in the nanotube structures is not only responsible for a change in a nanotube diameter, but also governs the electronic behaviour around Fermi level. Also, we obtain the Fermi energy of the system via integration of the density of states and matching it to the number of electron in the unit cell. The numerical results may be useful to design of electronic devices based on CNTs.
Graphene Nano ribbon Conductance Model in Parabolic Band Structure
Many experimental measurements have been done on GNR conductance. In this paper, analytical model of GNR conductance is presented. Moreover, comparison with published data which illustrates good agreement between them is studied. Conductance of GNR as a one-dimensional device channel with parabolic band structures near the charge neutrality point is improved. Based on quantum confinement effect, the conductance of GNR in parabolic part of the band structure, also the temperature-dependent conductance which displays minimum conductance near the charge neutrality point are calculated. Graphene nano ribbon (GNR) with parabolic band structure near the minimum band energy terminates Fermi-Dirac integral base method on band structure study. While band structure is parabola, semiconducting GNRs conductance is a function of Fermi-Dirac integral which is based on Maxwell approximation in nondegenerate limit especially for a long channel
Elucidating the stop bands of structurally colored systems through recursion
Amir, Ariel
2012-01-01
Interference phenomena are the source of some of the spectacular colors of animals and plants in nature. In some of these systems, the physical structure consists of an ordered array of layers with alternating high and low refractive indices. This periodicity leads to an optical band structure that is analogous to the electronic band structure encountered in semiconductor physics; namely, specific bands of wavelengths (the stop bands) are perfectly reflected. Here, we present a minimal model for optical band structure in a periodic multilayer and solve it using recursion relations. We present experimental data for various beetles, whose optical structure resembles the proposed model. The stop bands emerge in the limit of an infinite number of layers by finding the fixed point of the recursive relations. In order for these to converge, an infinitesimal amount of absorption needs to be present, reminiscent of the regularization procedures commonly used in physics calculations. Thus, using only the phenomenon of...
Graphene Nanoribbon Conductance Model in Parabolic Band Structure
Mohammad Taghi Ahmadi
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Many experimental measurements have been done on GNR conductance. In this paper, analytical model of GNR conductance is presented. Moreover, comparison with published data which illustrates good agreement between them is studied. Conductance of GNR as a one-dimensional device channel with parabolic band structures near the charge neutrality point is improved. Based on quantum confinement effect, the conductance of GNR in parabolic part of the band structure, also the temperature-dependent conductance which displays minimum conductance near the charge neutrality point are calculated. Graphene nanoribbon (GNR with parabolic band structure near the minimum band energy terminates Fermi-Dirac integral base method on band structure study. While band structure is parabola, semiconducting GNRs conductance is a function of Fermi-Dirac integral which is based on Maxwell approximation in nondegenerate limit especially for a long channel.
α-cluster structure and density waves in oblate nuclei
Pentagon and triangle shapes in 28Si and 12C are discussed in relation to nuclear density waves. In the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics calculations, the Kπ=5- band in 28Si and the Kπ=3- band in 12C are described by the pentagon and triangle shapes, respectively. These negative-parity bands can be interpreted as the parity partners of the Kπ=0+ ground bands and they are constructed from the parity-asymmetric-intrinsic states. The pentagon and the triangle shapes originate in 7α- and 3α-cluster structures, respectively. In a mean-field picture, they are described also by the static one-dimensional density waves at the edge of the oblate states. In analyses with ideal α-cluster models using Brink-Bloch cluster wave functions and that with a simplified model, we show that the static edge density waves for the pentagon and triangle shapes can be understood by spontaneous breaking of axial symmetry, i.e., the instability of the oblate states with respect to the edge density waves. The density wave is enhanced in the Z=N nuclei due to the proton-neutron coherent density waves, while it is suppressed in Z≠N nuclei.
Density structures inside the plasmasphere: Cluster observations
Darrouzet, F.; Decreau, P.M.E.; De Keyser, J.; Masson, A.; Gallagher, D.L.; Santolik, O.; Sandel, B.R.; Trotignon, J.G.; Rauch, J.L.; Le Guirriec, E.; Canu, P.; Sedgemore-Schulthess, F.; Andre, M.; Lemaire, J.F.
2004-01-01
The electron density profiles derived from the EFW and WHISPER instruments on board the four Cluster spacecraft reveal density structures inside the plasmasphere and at its outer boundary, the plasmapause. We have conducted a statistical study to characterize these density structures. We focus on...
Two-Dimensional Ferroelectric Photonic Crystals: Optics and Band Structure
Simsek, Sevket; Mamedov, Amirullah M.; Ozbay, Ekmel
2013-01-01
In this report we present an investigation of the optical properties and band structure calculations for the photonic structures based on the functional materials- ferroelectrics. A theoretical approach to the optical properties of the 2D and 3D photonic crystals which yields further insight in the phenomenon of the reflection from different families of lattice planes in relation to the presence of photonic gaps or photonic bands. We calculate the photonic bands and optical properties of LiNb...
Bi-directional evolutionary optimization for photonic band gap structures
Meng, Fei; Huang, Xiaodong; Jia, Baohua
2015-12-01
Toward an efficient and easy-implement optimization for photonic band gap structures, this paper extends the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method for maximizing photonic band gaps. Photonic crystals are assumed to be periodically composed of two dielectric materials with the different permittivity. Based on the finite element analysis and sensitivity analysis, BESO starts from a simple initial design without any band gap and gradually re-distributes dielectric materials within the unit cell so that the resulting photonic crystal possesses a maximum band gap between two specified adjacent bands. Numerical examples demonstrated the proposed optimization algorithm can successfully obtain the band gaps from the first to the tenth band for both transverse magnetic and electric polarizations. Some optimized photonic crystals exhibit novel patterns markedly different from traditional designs of photonic crystals.
All-Optical Reconstruction of Crystal Band Structure
Vampa, G.; Hammond, T. J.; Thir, N.; Schmidt, B. E.; Lgar, F.; McDonald, C. R.; Brabec, T.; Klug, D. D.; Corkum, P. B.
2015-11-01
The band structure of matter determines its properties. In solids, it is typically mapped with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, in which the momentum and the energy of incoherent electrons are independently measured. Sometimes, however, photoelectrons are difficult or impossible to detect. Here we demonstrate an all-optical technique to reconstruct momentum-dependent band gaps by exploiting the coherent motion of electron-hole pairs driven by intense midinfrared femtosecond laser pulses. Applying the method to experimental data for a semiconductor ZnO crystal, we identify the split-off valence band as making the greatest contribution to tunneling to the conduction band. Our new band structure measurement technique is intrinsically bulk sensitive, does not require a vacuum, and has high temporal resolution, making it suitable to study reactions at ambient conditions, matter under extreme pressures, and ultrafast transient modifications to band structures.
Structural and electronic properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) using density functional theory
The first principles calculations have been carried out to investigate the structural, electronic band structure density of states along with the projected density of states for poly(vinyl alcohol). Our structural calculation suggests that the poly(vinyl alcohol) exhibits monoclinic structure. The calculated structural lattice parameters are in excellent agreement with available experimental values. The band structure calculations reveal that the direct and indirect band gaps are 5.55 eV and 5.363 eV respectively in accordance with experimental values
Pressure effects on band structures in dense lithium
We studied the change of the band structures in some structures of Li predicted at high pressures, using GGA and GW calculations. The width of the 1s band coming from the 1s electron of Li shows broadening by the pressurization, which is the normal behavior of bands at high pressure. The width of the band just below the Fermi level decreases by the pressurization, which is an opposite behavior to the normal bands. The character of this narrowing band is mostly p-like with a little s-like portion. The band gaps in some structures are really observed even by the GGA calculations. The gaps by the GW calculations increase to about 1.5 times the GGA values. Generally the one-shot GW calculation (diagonal only calculations) gives more reliable values than the GGA, but it may fail to predict band gaps for the case where band dispersion shows complex crossing near the Fermi level. There remains some structures for which GW calculations with off-diagonal elements taken into account are needed to identify the phase to be metallic or semiconducting.
Valence and conduction band structure of the quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor Sn S2
Racke, David A.; Neupane, Mahesh R.; Monti, Oliver L. A.
2016-02-01
We present the momentum-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of both the valence and the conduction band region in the quasi-two-dimensional van der Waals-layered indirect band gap semiconductor Sn S2 . Using a combination of angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission (AR-2PPE) spectroscopy, we characterize the band structure of bulk Sn S2 . Comparison with density functional theory calculations shows excellent quantitative agreement in the valence band region and reveals several localized bands that likely originate from defects such as sulfur vacancies. Evidence for a moderate density of defects is also observed by AR-2PPE in the conduction band region, leading to localized bands not present in the computational results. The energetic structure and dispersion of the conduction bands is captured well by the computational treatment, with some quantitative discrepancies remaining. Our results provide a broader understanding of the electronic structure of Sn S2 in particular and van der Waals-layered semiconductors in general.
Band Structure and Effective Mass in Monolayer MoS2.
Wu, Ming-Ting; Fan, Jun-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Ting; Chang, Shu-Tong; Lin, Chung-Yi
2015-11-01
Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide is a very promising two-dimensional material for future transistor technology. Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), owing to the unique electronic properties of its atomically thin two-dimensional layered structure, can be made into a high-performance metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, or MOSFET. In this work, we focus on band structure and carrier mobility calculations for MoS2. We use the tight-binding method to calculate the band structure, including a consideration of the linear combination of different atomic orbitals, the interaction of neighboring atoms, and spin-orbit coupling for different tight-binding matrices. With information about the band structure, we can obtain the density of states, the effective mass, and other physical quantities. Carrier mobility using the Kubo-Greenwood formula is calculated based on the tight-binding band structure. PMID:26726660
Atomic structure of amorphous shear bands in boron carbide.
Reddy, K Madhav; Liu, P; Hirata, A; Fujita, T; Chen, M W
2013-01-01
Amorphous shear bands are the main deformation and failure mode of super-hard boron carbide subjected to shock loading and high pressures at room temperature. Nevertheless, the formation mechanisms of the amorphous shear bands remain a long-standing scientific curiosity mainly because of the lack of experimental structure information of the disordered shear bands, comprising light elements of carbon and boron only. Here we report the atomic structure of the amorphous shear bands in boron carbide characterized by state-of-the-art aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Distorted icosahedra, displaced from the crystalline matrix, were observed in nano-sized amorphous bands that produce dislocation-like local shear strains. These experimental results provide direct experimental evidence that the formation of amorphous shear bands in boron carbide results from the disassembly of the icosahedra, driven by shear stresses. PMID:24052052
Density structures inside the plasmasphere: Cluster observations
F. Darrouzet
2004-07-01
Full Text Available The electron density profiles derived from the EFW and WHISPER instruments on board the four Cluster spacecraft reveal density structures inside the plasmasphere and at its outer boundary, the plasmapause. We have conducted a statistical study to characterize these density structures. We focus on the plasmasphere crossing on 11 April 2002, during which Cluster observed several density irregularities inside the plasmasphere, as well as a plasmaspheric plume. We derive the density gradient vectors from simultaneous density measurements by the four spacecraft. We also determine the normal velocity of the boundaries of the plume and of the irregularities from the time delays between those boundaries in the four individual density profiles, assuming they are planar. These new observations yield novel insights about the occurrence of density irregularities, their geometry and their dynamics. These in-situ measurements are compared with global images of the plasmasphere from the EUV imager on board the IMAGE satellite.
Band structures and shape coexistence in 187Pt
High-spin states in 187Pt have been studied by means of ?-ray spectroscopy techniques. Known bands have been significantly extended and new bands have been found. The band structures are discussed in the framework of the cranking model and negative-parity states are compared with calculations performed with a semi-microscopic axial-rotor plus one-quasiparticle coupling model. Shape coexistence is observed from low excitation energy. (orig.)
Alpha-cluster structure and density wave in oblate nuclei
Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko
2011-01-01
Pentagon and triangle shapes in Si-28 and C-12 are discussed in relation with nuclear density wave. In the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics calculations, the $K^\\pi=5^-$ band in Si-28 and the $K^\\pi=3^-$ band in C-12 are described by the pentagon and triangle shapes, respectively. These negative-parity bands can be interpreted as the parity partners of the $K^\\pi=0^+$ ground bands and they are constructed from the parity-asymmetric-intrinsic states. The pentagon and the triangle shapes originate in 7alpha and 3alpha cluster structures, respectively. In a mean-field picture, they are described also by the static one-dimensional density wave at the edge of the oblate states. In analysis with ideal alpha cluster models using Brink-Bloch cluster wave functions and that with a simplified model, we show that the static edge density wave for the pentagon and triangle shapes can be understood by spontaneous breaking of axial symmetry, i.e., the instability of the oblate states with respect to the edge density wave....
Momentum-dependent band spin splitting in semiconducting MnO2: a density functional calculation.
Noda, Yusuke; Ohno, Kaoru; Nakamura, Shinichiro
2016-05-11
Recently, manganese-oxide compounds have attracted considerable attention, in particular, as candidate materials for photochemical water-splitting reactions. Here, we investigate electronic states of pristine manganese dioxides (MnO2) in different crystal phases using spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT) with Hubbard U correction. Geometrical structures and band dispersions of α-, β-, δ-, and λ-MnO2 crystals with collinear magnetic [ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM)] orders are discussed in detail. We reveal that penalty energies that arise by violating the Goodenough-Kanamori rule are important and the origin of the magnetic interactions of the MnO2 crystals is governed by the superexchange interactions of Mn-O-Mn groups. In addition, it is found that momentum-dependent band spin splitting occurs in the AFM α-, β-, and δ-MnO2 crystals while no spin splitting occurs in the AFM λ-MnO2 crystal. Our results show that spin-split band dispersions stem from the different orientations of Mn-centred oxygen octahedra. Such interesting electronic states of the MnO2 crystals are unraveled by our discussion on the relationship between the effective (spin-dependent) single-electron potentials and the space-group symmetry operations that map up-spin Mn atoms onto down-spin Mn atoms. This work provides a basis to understand the relationship between the spin-dependent electronic states and the crystallography of manganese oxides. Another relationship to the recent experimental observations of the photochemical oxygen evolution of MnO2 crystals is also discussed. PMID:27119122
Shell model description of band structure in 48Cr
The band structure for normal and abnormal parity bands in 48Cr are described using the m-scheme shell model. In addition to full fp-shell, two particles in the 1d3/2 orbital are allowed in order to describe intruder states. The interaction includes fp-, sd- and mixed matrix elements
Nguyen-Minh, T.; Sidor, J.J.; Petrov, R.H.; Kestens, L.A.I.
2015-01-01
Due to progressive deformation, the dislocation densities in crystals are accumulated and the resistance of grains to further deformation increases. Homogeneous deformation becomes energetically less favorable, which may result for some orientations in strain localization. In-grain shear banding, a typical kind of localized deformation in metals with BCC crystal structure, has been accounted for by the geometric softening of crystals. In this study, the occurrence of shear bands in rotated Go...
Band structure of metal diboride AlB2 under high pressure
The band structure, density of states (DOS), electronic charge distribution and superconductivity of Aluminium diboride (AlB2) as a function of pressure are investigated. The normal pressure, band structure, DOS and superconducting transition temperature of AlB2 agree well with the previous calculations. The high pressure band structure exhibits significant deviations from the normal pressure band structure. It is found that, the charge transfer from s state to p and d states will cause superconductivity in AlB2. According to the present calculation, at normal pressure, the superconducting transition of AlB2 occurs at 13.57 K which is comparable with the previous theoretical observation of 9K. On further increase of pressure, Tc increases considerably and its maximum value may exceed 32K (at .683 Mbar). The high pressure Tc values are reported for the first time and this metal diboride (AlB2) is identified as pressure induced superconductors. (author)
The Valence Band (VB) electronic structure of graphite is investigated via two VB probes, namely Core-Valence-Valence (CVV) Auger emission and VB photoemission, both induced by X-Ray (h?=1486.6 eV) irradiation. The associated spectral structure is resolved by taking either the spectrum second derivative or the spectrum difference with respect to a smooth curve. Comparison between the two derived curves shows that both probes reproduce the VB Density Of States (DOS) in the upper VB region, while many body effects (Coulomb interaction between two final state holes of s-character) distort the CVV spectrum in the lower VB region
Grüning, Myrta; Marini, Andrea; Rubio Secades, Ángel
2006-01-01
Theoretically the Kohn-Sham band gap differs from the exact quasiparticle energy gap by the derivative discontinuity of the exchange-correlation functional. In practice for semiconductors and insulators the band gap calculated within any local or semilocal density approximations underestimates severely the experimental energy gap. On the other hand, calculations with an >exact> exchange potential derived from many-body perturbation theory via the optimized effective potential suggest that imp...
Band Structure Engineering of Multinary Chalcogenide Topological Insulators
Chen, Shiyou; X. G. Gong; Duan, Chun-gang; Zhu, Zi-qiang; Chu, Jun-Hao; Walsh, Aron; Yao, Yu-Gui; Ma, Jie; Wei, Su-Huai
2011-01-01
Topological insulators (TIs) have been found in strained binary HgTe and ternary I-III-VI2 chalcopyrite compounds such as CuTlSe2 which have inverted band structures. However, the non-trivial band gaps of these existing binary and ternary TIs are limited to small values, usually around 10 meV or less. In this work, we reveal that a large non-trivial band gap requires the material having a large negative crystal field splitting $\\Delta_{CF}$ at top of the valence band and a moderately large ne...
Weisman, Jennifer L.; Lee, Timothy J.; Salama, Farid; Gordon-Head, Martin; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We investigate the electronic absorption spectra of several maximally pericondensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon radical cations with time dependent density functional theory calculations. We find interesting trends in the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths for this series containing pyrene through circumcoronene, the largest species containing more than 50 carbon atoms. We discuss the implications of these new results for the size and structure distribution of the diffuse interstellar band carriers.
Structure of nearly degenerate dipole bands in 108Ag
The high spin negative parity states of 108Ag have been investigated with the 11B + 100Mo reaction at 39 MeV beam energy using the INGA facility at TIFR, Mumbai. From the γ–γ coincidence analysis, an excited negative parity band has been established and found to be nearly degenerate with the ground state band. The spin and parity of the levels are assigned using angular correlation and polarization measurements. This pair of degenerate bands in 108Ag is studied using the recently developed microscopic triaxial projected shell model approach. The observed energy levels and the ratio of the electromagnetic transition probabilities of these bands in this isotope are well reproduced by the present model. Further, it is shown that the partner band has a different quasiparticle structure as compared to the yrast band
Structure of nearly degenerate dipole bands in {sup 108}Ag
Sethi, J. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Palit, R., E-mail: palit@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Saha, S.; Trivedi, T. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Bhat, G.H.; Sheikh, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006 (India); Datta, P. [Ananda Mohan College, Kolkata 700009 (India); Carroll, J.J. [US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Chattopadhyay, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Donthi, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Garg, U. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Jadhav, S.; Jain, H.C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Karamian, S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Kumar, S. [University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Litz, M.S. [US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Mehta, D. [Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Naidu, B.S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Naik, Z. [Sambalpur University, Sambalpur 143005 (India); Sihotra, S. [Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); and others
2013-08-09
The high spin negative parity states of {sup 108}Ag have been investigated with the {sup 11}B + {sup 100}Mo reaction at 39 MeV beam energy using the INGA facility at TIFR, Mumbai. From the γ–γ coincidence analysis, an excited negative parity band has been established and found to be nearly degenerate with the ground state band. The spin and parity of the levels are assigned using angular correlation and polarization measurements. This pair of degenerate bands in {sup 108}Ag is studied using the recently developed microscopic triaxial projected shell model approach. The observed energy levels and the ratio of the electromagnetic transition probabilities of these bands in this isotope are well reproduced by the present model. Further, it is shown that the partner band has a different quasiparticle structure as compared to the yrast band.
Structure of nearly degenerate dipole bands in 108Ag
Sethi, J.; Palit, R.; Saha, S.; Trivedi, T.; Bhat, G. H.; Sheikh, J. A.; Datta, P.; Carroll, J. J.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Donthi, R.; Garg, U.; Jadhav, S.; Jain, H. C.; Karamian, S.; Kumar, S.; Litz, M. S.; Mehta, D.; Naidu, B. S.; Naik, Z.; Sihotra, S.; Walker, P. M.
2013-08-01
The high spin negative parity states of 108Ag have been investigated with the 11B + 100Mo reaction at 39 MeV beam energy using the INGA facility at TIFR, Mumbai. From the γ-γ coincidence analysis, an excited negative parity band has been established and found to be nearly degenerate with the ground state band. The spin and parity of the levels are assigned using angular correlation and polarization measurements. This pair of degenerate bands in 108Ag is studied using the recently developed microscopic triaxial projected shell model approach. The observed energy levels and the ratio of the electromagnetic transition probabilities of these bands in this isotope are well reproduced by the present model. Further, it is shown that the partner band has a different quasiparticle structure as compared to the yrast band.
Band structure engineering of topological insulator heterojunctions
Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Yeom, Han Woong; Jhi, Seung-Hoon
2016-02-01
We investigate the topological surface states in heterostructures formed from a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) and a two-dimensional insulating thin film, using first-principles calculations and the tight-binding method. Utilizing a single Bi or Sb bilayer on top of the topological insulators B i2S e3 , B i2T e3 , B i2T e2Se , and S b2T e3 , we find that the surface states evolve in very peculiar but predictable ways. We show that strong hybridization between the bilayer and TI substrates causes the topological surface states to migrate to the top bilayer. It is found that the difference in the work function of constituent layers, which determines the band alignment and the strength of hybridization, governs the character of newly emerged Dirac states.
Band Structure in Yang-Mills Theories
Bachas, Constantin
2016-01-01
We show how Yang-Mills theory on $S^3\\times R$ can exhibit a spectrum with continuous bands if coupled either to a topological 3-form gauge field, or to a dynamical axion with heavy Peccei-Quinn scale. The basic mechanism consists in associating winding histories to a bosonic zero mode whose role is to convert a circle in configuration space into a helix. The zero mode is, respectively, the holonomy of the 3-form field or the axion momentum. In these models different theta sectors coexist but are not mixed by local operators. Our analysis sheds light on, and extends Seiberg's proposal for modifying the topological sums in quantum field theories. It refutes a recent claim that $B+L$ violation at LHC is unsuppressed.
Microscopic calculations of both the normal and the superdeformed rotational bands have been performed for a number of rare earth nuclei. The ''universal'' Woods-Saxon potential and the extended Strutinsky method have been used. Excited bands up to a prescribed energy limit E* (usually 2.5 to 3.5 MeV) have been calculated individually by minimizing the corresponding nuclear energies over the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations. This turns out to be essential, when comparing with experimental results for the known discrete bands. An important influence of the superdeformed neutron (N=86) shell closure on the microscopically calculated rotational-level densities is illustrated and discussed
Dependence of conduction band energy and electron mobility on fluid density. [Tetramethylsilane
Holroyd, R.A.; Cipollini, N.E.
1979-01-01
Measurements of electron mobility and conduction band energy are reported as a function of density for neopentane and tetramethylsilane. Electron mobilities are for the gas phase at a temperature just above the critical temperature and for densities between 0.1 and 3.0 x 10/sup 21/ molecules/cc. The band energies (V/sub 0/) are for the gas phase over the same density range and temperature as well as for the liquid from 25/sup 0/ to the critical temperature. These data permit a comparison between V/sub 0/ and electron mobility over the entire density range. At low densities V/sub 0/ from work function shifts is given by (h/sup 2//2..pi..m)N..cap alpha.., where the parameter ..cap alpha.. can be evaluated from mobility data. At an intermediate density there is a transition and V/sub 0/ changes abruptly to more negative values; in this transition region the mobility is minimum. Throughout the intermediate and high density range V/sub 0/ remains negative and changes only very slowly. The electron mobility is a maximum at a density of 3.5 x 10/sup 21/ molecules/cc where V/sub 0/ is a minimum. In this density range the electron is scattered by density fluctuations which perturb the potential.
Erdinç, Bahattin; McCabe, Emma; Duran, Duygu; Secuk, Nurullah; Gülebağlan, Sinem; Doğan, Emel; Aycibin, Murat; Akkuş, Harun
2014-01-01
In this study, the geometric structural optimization, electronic band structure and total density of states for electrons of ferroelectric Bi2NbO5F structure with space group Pca21 at room temperature have been investigated by Augmented Plane Wave method (APW) using the density functional theory (DFT) under the local density approximation (LDA). The ground state properties of ferroelectric Bi2NbO5F structure are studied. The computed ground state properties and experimental results are consis...
Banded Electron Structure Formation in the Inner Magnetosphere
Liemohn, M. W.; Khazanov, G. V.
1997-01-01
Banded electron structures in energy-time spectrograms have been observed in the inner magnetosphere concurrent with a sudden relaxation of geomagnetic activity. In this study, the formation of these banded structures is considered with a global, bounce-averaged model of electron transport, and it is concluded that this structure is a natural occurrence when plasma sheet electrons are captured on closed drift paths near the Earth. These bands do not appear unless there is capture of plasma sheet electrons; convection along open drift paths making open pass around the Earth do not have time to develop this feature. The separation of high-energy bands from the injection population due to the preferential advection of the gradient-curvature drift creates spikes in the energy distribution, which overlap to form a series of bands in the energy spectrograms. The lowest band is the bulk of the injected population in the sub-key energy range. Using the Kp history for an observed banded structure event, a cloud of plasma sheet electrons is captured and the development of their distribution function is examined and discussed.
Defect band-gap structures for triggering single-photon emission
Dung, H T; Welsch, D G; Dung, Ho Trung; Kn\\"{o}ll, Ludwig; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar
2003-01-01
A 3D analysis of the spontaneous decay of a single dipole embedded in a planar multilayer structure is given, with special emphasis on Kerr-tunable photonic band-gap materials for single-photon emission on demand. It is shown that the change in the density of states near a defect resonance is much more pronounced than that one near the band edges. In particular, operation near the band edge as suggested from a 1D analysis is little suited for controlling the photon emission.
Density functional theory and electronic structure
The paper presents an overview of the density functional theory and provides a brief appraisal of the latest developments of the theory. Particular emphasis is placed on the understanding of the electronic structure of materials via the density functional theory. 37 refs, 1 tab
Electrical properties and band structures of Pb1-x Snx Te alloys
Both p type alloys Pb0.72Sn0.28Te and Pb0.53Sn0.47Te have been studied in the present work. The main obtained results are the following: the materials have a two-valence band structure, the first band following non-parabolic Cohen's dispersion law; at low temperatures, carriers are scattered by ionized impurities; the Coulomb potentials being screened almost completely, impurities act like neutral centers. At room temperature, scattering by acoustic modes can explain lattice mobility behavior; reversing of the thermo-power, for samples with carrier densities of about 1020 cm-3, is possibly due to inter-band scattering between both valence bands; a very simple picture of the band parameters variations as a function of alloy fraction is suggested. (author)
A Hybrid Density Functional Theory Study of Band Gap Tuning in ZnO through Pressure
The structural transformation and electronic structure of ZnO under hydrostatic pressure are investigated using the HSE06 range-separated hybrid functional. We show that wurtzite ZnO under pressure undergoes a structural transition to a graphite-like phase. We also find that the band gap of wurtzite phase is always direct, whereas the new phase can display either direct or indirect band structure. Furthermore, the gap is greatly enhanced by pressure and no semi-metallic phase is observed. This is drastically different from our previous results of AlN and GaN [Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 (2012) 022104
Band structure in the doubly magic nucleus 56Ni
Band structures near yrast lines of the Z=N doubly magic nucleus 56Ni are investigated with the configuration-dependent cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky approach. The observed deformed bands are confirmed as highly deformed and their properties are explained theoretically. The calculated transition quadrupole moments Qt, ?1.7 eb at low spin as well as the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia J(1) and J(2) for configurations of interest are found to be generally in good agreement with the observed results. Two terminating states at 20+ and 29- for the two observed bands and other terminations in 56Ni are also predicted. It is found that the configuration-dependent cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky approach is better in the description of nuclear properties and band structures at high spin than other models. (author)
Analytical formulas for carrier density and Fermi energy in semiconductors with a tight-binding band
Wenhan, Cao
2015-04-01
Analytical formulas for evaluating the relation of carrier density and Fermi energy for semiconductors with a tight-binding band have been proposed. The series expansions for a carrier density with fast convergency have been obtained by means of a Bessel function. A simple and analytical formula for Fermi energy has been derived with the help of the Gauss integration method. The results of the proposed formulas are in good agreement with accurate numerical solutions. The formulas have been successfully used in the calculation of carrier density and Fermi energy in a miniband superlattice system. Their accuracy is in the order of 10-5.
Design for maximum band-gaps in beam structures
Olhoff, Niels; Niu, Bin; Cheng, Gengdong
2012-01-01
This paper aims to extend earlier optimum design results for transversely vibrating Bernoulli-Euler beams by determining new optimum band-gap beam structures for (i) different combinations of classical boundary conditions, (ii) much larger values of the orders n and n-1 of adjacent upper and lower...... eigenfrequencies of maximized band-gaps, and (iii) different values of a minimum cross-sectional area constraint. The periodicity of the optimum beams and the attenuation of their band-gaps are also discussed....
Photonic band gap of superconductor-medium structure: Two-dimensional triangular lattice
Liu, Wan-guo; Pan, Feng-ming, E-mail: fmpan@nuaa.edu.cn; Cai, Li-wei
2014-05-15
Highlights: • Plane wave expansion is generalized to superconductor-medium periodic structure. • A wider band gap appears than that in conventional photonic crystals. • Part of original energy levels are rearranged upon consideration of the superconductivity. • Band gap width decreases monotonically with penetration length, but not with the filling factor. • Band gaps can be partially shut down or opened by adjusting filling factor. - Abstract: Based on London theory a general form of wave equation is formulated for both dielectric medium and superconductor. Using the wave equation and applying plane wave expansion, we have numerically calculated the band structures and density of states of a photonic crystal, whose intersection is constructed by a two-dimensional triangular lattice of superconductor padding in dielectric medium. Results indicate a wider band gap in the superconductor-medium photonic crystal than that in conventional photonic crystals. And part of original energy levels are found to be rearranged upon consideration of the superconductivity. The dependence of band gap on penetration length and filling factor is also discussed. Band gap width decreases monotonically with the penetration length, but not with the filling factor. Band gaps can be partially shut down or opened by adjusting filling factor.
Kerkyacharian, Gerard; Picard, Dominique
2011-01-01
Let $X_1,...,X_n$ be a random sample from some unknown probability density $f$ defined on a compact homogeneous manifold $\\mathbf M$ of dimension $d \\ge 1$. Consider a 'needlet frame' $\\{\\phi_{j \\eta}\\}$ describing a localised projection onto the space of eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator on $\\mathbf M$ with corresponding eigenvalues less than $2^{2j}$, as constructed in \\cite{GP10}. We prove non-asymptotic concentration inequalities for the uniform deviations of the linear needlet density estimator $f_n(j)$ obtained from an empirical estimate of the needlet projection $\\sum_\\eta \\phi_{j \\eta} \\int f \\phi_{j \\eta}$ of $f$. We apply these results to construct risk-adaptive estimators and nonasymptotic confidence bands for the unknown density $f$. The confidence bands are adaptive over classes of differentiable and H\\"{older}-continuous functions on $\\mathbf M$ that attain their H\\"{o}lder exponents.
Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.
2003-01-01
We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared to ...... in determining the gain nonlinearity and hence the modulation and switching speed of lasers and optical amplifiers.......We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared to...... the case of parabolic bands. The nonparabolic bands and the consequent change in the density of states reduce considerably the degree of gain saturation while decreasing the time constant governing the relaxation. This results in a measurable reduction of the role played by carrier-carrier scattering...
Computing the band structure and energy gap of penta-graphene by using DFT and G0W0 approximations
Einollahzadeh, H.; Dariani, R. S.; Fazeli, S. M.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider the optimum coordinate of the penta-graphene. Penta-graphene is a new stable carbon allotrope which is stronger than graphene. Here, we compare the band gap of penta-graphene with various density functional theory (DFT) methods. We plot the band structure of penta-graphene which calculated with the generalized gradient approximation functional, about Fermi energy.
Hybrid functional band gap calculation of SnO6 containing perovskites and their derived structures
We have studied the properties of SnO6 octahedra-containing perovskites and their derived structures using ab initio calculations with different density functionals. In order to predict the correct band gap of the materials, we have used B3LYP hybrid density functional, and the results of B3LYP were compared with those obtained using the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation data. The calculations have been conducted for the orthorhombic ground state of the SnO6 containing perovskites. We also have expended the hybrid density functional calculation to the ASnO3/A'SnO3 system with different cation orderings. We propose an empirical relationship between the tolerance factor and the band gap of SnO6 containing oxide materials based on first principles calculation. - Graphical abstract: (a) Structure of ASnO3 for orthorhombic ground state. The green ball is A (Ba, Sr, Ca) cation and the small (red) ball on edge is oxygen. SnO6 octahedrons are plotted as polyhedron. (b) Band gap of ASnO3 as a function of the tolerance factor for different density functionals. The experimental values of the band gap are marked as green pentagons. (c) ASnO3/A'SnO3 superlattices with two types cation arrangement: [001] layered structure and [111] rocksalt structure, respectively. (d) B3LYP hybrid functional band gaps of ASnO3, [001] ordered superlattices, and [111] ordered superlattices of ASnO3/A'SnO3 as a function of the effective tolerance factor. Note the empirical linear relationship between the band gap and effective tolerance factor. - Highlights: • We report the hybrid functional band gap calculation of ASnO3 and ASnO3/A'SnO3. • The band gap of ASnO3 using B3LYP functional reproduces the experimental value. • We propose the linear relationship between the tolerance factor and the band gap
Two-Dimensional Ferroelectric Photonic Crystals: Optics and Band Structure
Simsek, Sevket; Ozbay, Ekmel
2013-01-01
In this report we present an investigation of the optical properties and band structure calculations for the photonic structures based on the functional materials- ferroelectrics. A theoretical approach to the optical properties of the 2D and 3D photonic crystals which yields further insight in the phenomenon of the reflection from different families of lattice planes in relation to the presence of photonic gaps or photonic bands. We calculate the photonic bands and optical properties of LiNbO3 based photonic crystals. Calculations of reflection and transmission spectra show the features correspond to the onset of diffraction, as well as to additional reflectance structures at large values of the angle of incidence.
Unoccupied band structure of wurtzite GaN(0001)
Valla, T.; Johnson, P.D. [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Dhesi, S.S.; Smith, K.E. [Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Doppalapudi, D.; Moustakas, T.D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Shirley, E.L. [NIST, PHY B208, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)
1999-02-01
We report an inverse photoemission study of the unoccupied states of thin-film {ital n}-type wurtzite GaN. For incident electron energies below 30 eV, free-electron bands do not provide a good description of the initial state. However, using a calculated quasiparticle band structure for the initial state, we can obtain good agreement between our measurements and the calculated low-lying conduction bands. No evidence of unoccupied surface states is observed in the probed part of the Brillouin zone, confirming earlier angle resolved photoemission studies, which identified the surface states on GaN(0001) as occupied dangling bond states, resonant with the valence band. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Effect of Band Structure on the Symmetry of Superconducting States
Kuboki, Kazuhiro
2001-01-01
Effects of the band structure on the symmetry of superconducting (SC) states are studied. For a square lattice system with a nearest-neighbor attractive interaction, SC states with various symmetries are found by changing the band structure, or, the shape of the Fermi surface. The spin-triplet ($(p_x + ip_y)$-wave) and spin-singlet ($d$- or s-wave) SC states, and states with their coexistence ($d + ip_y$, $s + ip_y$) can be stabilized within the same type of interaction. The stability of inte...
Self-isospectrality, tri-supersymmetry and band structure
Correa, Francisco; Nieto, Luis-Miguel; Plyushchay, Mikhail S
2008-01-01
We reveal an unexpected hidden supersymmetric structure in a self-isospectral system constructed on the base of the periodic finite-gap associated Lame equation. It admits three different choices of the Z_2-grading, under which three basic nontrivial integrals of motion coherently change their fermionic/bosonic nature, and generate a certain nonlinear supersymmetry. These integrals reflect the band structure, its separability, and characteristic properties of the band-edge states of the system, which can be interpreted as an electron in one-dimensional crystal produced by periodic electric and magnetic fields.
Strain effects on band structure of wurtzite ZnO: a GGA + U study
Band structures in wurtzite bulk ZnO/Zn1−xMgxO are calculated using first-principles based on the framework of generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory with the introduction of the on-site Coulomb interaction. Strain effects on band gap, splitting energies of valence bands, electron and hole effective masses in strained bulk ZnO are discussed. According to the results, the band gap increases gradually with increasing stress in strained ZnO as an Mg content of Zn1−xMgxO substrate less than 0.3, which is consistent with the experimental results. It is further demonstrated that electron mass of conduction band (CB) under stress increases slightly. There are almost no changes in effective masses of light hole band (LHB) and heavy hole band (HHB) along [00k] and [k00] directions under stress, and stress leads to an obvious decrease in effective masses of crystal splitting band (CSB) along the same directions. (semiconductor materials)
Band Structure and Quantum Confined Stark Effect in InN/GaN superlattices
Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede; Svane, Axel
2012-01-01
> 5 the band gap closes and the systems become “metallic”. These effects are related to the existence of the built-in electric fields that strongly influence valence- and conduction-band profiles and thus determine effective band gap and emission energies of the superlattices. Varying the widths of......InN/GaN superlattices offer an important way of band gap engineering in the blue-green range of the spectrum. This approach represents a more controlled method than the band gap tuning in quantum well systems by application of InGaN alloys. The electronic structures of short-period wurtzite In......N/GaN(0001) superlattices are investigated, and the variation of the band gap with the thicknesses of the well and the barrier is discussed. Superlattices of the form mInN/nGaN with n ≥ m are simulated using band structure calculations in the Local Density Approximation with a semiempirical correction for...
Fine structure in the profiles of strong diffuse interstellar bands
Galazutdinov, G. A.; Lo Curto, G.; Kre?owski, J.
2008-06-01
High-resolution echelle spectra of five reddened OB stars are used to analyse details of the profiles of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 4726, 4735, 5418, 5850, 6196, 6376, 6379 together with the well studied 5797, 5780 and 6614 ones. All targets do not show Doppler splitting in the interstellar CH 4300 band with the applied resolving power R = 115000. The profiles of DIBs differ from object to object except 5418 which looks invariant in our sample: the DIB is a good candidate for further study of possible isotopic effect. We also found that the width of bands at 5797 and 6614 probably is more sensitive to the temperature (and density) effects than that of other DIBs in the sample, though almost all diffuse bands are narrowest in most ?-type object (HD179406) of the sample. On the other hand, it can be just peculiar effect as in a case of unusual line of sight HD147889 which demonstrates very broad 5780 and 6614 diffuse bands what hardly can be explained by temperature effects. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 3.6-m telescope and the HARPS spectrograph (R = 115000). E-mail: gala@kasi.re.kr (GAG); glocurto@eso.org (GLC); jacek@astri.uni.torun.pl (JK)
Band-gap corrected density functional theory calculations for InAs/GaSb type II superlattices
Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Boulevard, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States)
2014-12-07
We performed pseudopotential based density functional theory (DFT) calculations for GaSb/InAs type II superlattices (T2SLs), with bandgap errors from the local density approximation mitigated by applying an empirical method to correct the bulk bandgaps. Specifically, this work (1) compared the calculated bandgaps with experimental data and non-self-consistent atomistic methods; (2) calculated the T2SL band structures with varying structural parameters; (3) investigated the interfacial effects associated with the no-common-atom heterostructure; and (4) studied the strain effect due to lattice mismatch between the two components. This work demonstrates the feasibility of applying the DFT method to more exotic heterostructures and defect problems related to this material system.
Band-gap corrected density functional theory calculations for InAs/GaSb type II superlattices
We performed pseudopotential based density functional theory (DFT) calculations for GaSb/InAs type II superlattices (T2SLs), with bandgap errors from the local density approximation mitigated by applying an empirical method to correct the bulk bandgaps. Specifically, this work (1) compared the calculated bandgaps with experimental data and non-self-consistent atomistic methods; (2) calculated the T2SL band structures with varying structural parameters; (3) investigated the interfacial effects associated with the no-common-atom heterostructure; and (4) studied the strain effect due to lattice mismatch between the two components. This work demonstrates the feasibility of applying the DFT method to more exotic heterostructures and defect problems related to this material system
Reconfigurable wave band structure of an artificial square ice
Iacocca, Ezio; Gliga, Sebastian; Stamps, Robert L.; Heinonen, Olle
2016-04-01
Artificial square ices are structures composed of magnetic nanoelements arranged on the sites of a two-dimensional square lattice, such that there are four interacting magnetic elements at each vertex, leading to geometrical frustration. Using a semianalytical approach, we show that square ices exhibit a rich spin-wave band structure that is tunable both by external magnetic fields and the magnetization configuration of individual elements. Internal degrees of freedom can give rise to equilibrium states with bent magnetization at the element edges leading to characteristic excitations; in the presence of magnetostatic interactions these form separate bands analogous to impurity bands in semiconductors. Full-scale micromagnetic simulations corroborate our semianalytical approach. Our results show that artificial square ices can be viewed as reconfigurable and tunable magnonic crystals that can be used as metamaterials for spin-wave-based applications at the nanoscale.
Acoustic band gaps in 2D liquid phononic crystals of rectangular structure
We present band structure results for a new two dimensional (2D) rectangular array geometry of water (mercury) cylinders of square cross section in a mercury (water) host. The results show that the water/mercury system, consisting of low-density cylinders in a high-density host, is the most favourable configuration for obtaining large acoustic gaps. Otherwise, only very small stop gaps can be found for the mercury/water systems. For a given cylinder width value, the lowest band gap may not always have the maximum width, but at some value in both systems the lowest band gap will always have the largest width. The differences in the case of circular cylinders are also discussed. (author)
Multi-band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with dual cross-wires structure
Yao, Li-fang; Li, Min-hua; Zhai, Xiao-min; Wang, Hui-bo; Dong, Jian-feng
2015-11-01
A five-band metamaterial absorber (MMA) based on a simple planar structure is proposed. It utilizes different areas of a single unit cell to match impedance, and produces different absorptive frequencies. Numerical calculation shows that the MMA has five different absorption peaks at 3.78 GHz, 7.66 GHz, 10.9 GHz, 14.5 GHz and 16.7 GHz, and their absorption rates reach 95.5%, 98.6%, 95.7%, 96.6% and 99.8%, respectively. The proposed structure is polarization insensitive for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) incident waves. Also, the absorptive characteristics over large incident angles are examined. In addition, we analyze the absorption mechanism by the surface current density and power flow density distributions. This simple structure provides a way to design multi-band MMA, and also saves the cost of fabrication.
Geller, G.B.; Blazeck, T.S. [Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, West Miffin, Pennsylvania 15122-0079 (United States)] Wolf, W. [c/o Molecular Simulations Inc., San Diego, California 92121-3752 (United States)] Mannstadt, W. [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3112 (United States)
1999-03-01
Electron band structures have been calculated from first principles using the Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (FLAPW) computational code (1), including nonlocal screened exchange (sX-LDA) and spin-orbit effects (2, 3) for representative elemental, binary III-V and II-VI semiconductors, and configurationally optimized In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As. Predicted band gaps for narrow gap semiconductors (Ge, InAs, In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As and InSb) are all within 20{percent} of experimental values, compared with errors of over 100{percent} (negative band gaps) obtained with previous calculations based on the Local Density Approximation. Effects of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As conduction band dispersion on TPV device quantum efficiency are illustrated. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
X-band photonic band-gap accelerator structure breakdown experiment
Marsh, Roark A.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Laurent, Lisa L.; Lewandowski, James R.; Yeremian, A. Dian; Tantawi, Sami G.
2011-02-01
In order to understand the performance of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures under realistic high gradient, high power, high repetition rate operation, a PBG accelerator structure was designed and tested at X band (11.424 GHz). The structure consisted of a single test cell with matching cells before and after the structure. The design followed principles previously established in testing a series of conventional pillbox structures. The PBG structure was tested at an accelerating gradient of 65MV/m yielding a breakdown rate of two breakdowns per hour at 60 Hz. An accelerating gradient above 110MV/m was demonstrated at a higher breakdown rate. Significant pulsed heating occurred on the surface of the inner rods of the PBG structure, with a temperature rise of 85 K estimated when operating in 100 ns pulses at a gradient of 100MV/m and a surface magnetic field of 890kA/m. A temperature rise of up to 250 K was estimated for some shots. The iris surfaces, the location of peak electric field, surprisingly had no damage, but the inner rods, the location of the peak magnetic fields and a large temperature rise, had significant damage. Breakdown in accelerator structures is generally understood in terms of electric field effects. These PBG structure results highlight the unexpected role of magnetic fields in breakdown. The hypothesis is presented that the moderate level electric field on the inner rods, about 14MV/m, is enhanced at small tips and projections caused by pulsed heating, leading to breakdown. Future PBG structures should be built to minimize pulsed surface heating and temperature rise.
X-Band Photonic Band-Gap Accelerator Structure Breakdown Experiment
Marsh, Roark A.; /MIT /MIT /NIFS, Gifu /JAERI, Kyoto /LLNL, Livermore; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.; /MIT; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Laurent, Lisa L.; Lewandowski, James R.; Yeremian, A.Dian; Tantawi, Sami G.; /SLAC
2012-06-11
In order to understand the performance of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures under realistic high gradient, high power, high repetition rate operation, a PBG accelerator structure was designed and tested at X band (11.424 GHz). The structure consisted of a single test cell with matching cells before and after the structure. The design followed principles previously established in testing a series of conventional pillbox structures. The PBG structure was tested at an accelerating gradient of 65 MV/m yielding a breakdown rate of two breakdowns per hour at 60 Hz. An accelerating gradient above 110 MV/m was demonstrated at a higher breakdown rate. Significant pulsed heating occurred on the surface of the inner rods of the PBG structure, with a temperature rise of 85 K estimated when operating in 100 ns pulses at a gradient of 100 MV/m and a surface magnetic field of 890 kA/m. A temperature rise of up to 250 K was estimated for some shots. The iris surfaces, the location of peak electric field, surprisingly had no damage, but the inner rods, the location of the peak magnetic fields and a large temperature rise, had significant damage. Breakdown in accelerator structures is generally understood in terms of electric field effects. These PBG structure results highlight the unexpected role of magnetic fields in breakdown. The hypothesis is presented that the moderate level electric field on the inner rods, about 14 MV/m, is enhanced at small tips and projections caused by pulsed heating, leading to breakdown. Future PBG structures should be built to minimize pulsed surface heating and temperature rise.
The photonic band gap structures of obliquely incident electromagnetic waves propagating in a one-dimension plasma photonic crystal with collision have been studied on the basis of electromagnetic theory and transfer matrix approach. The dispersion relations for both the transverse electric wave case and the transverse magnetic wave case are deduced. And the photonic band gap structures, with their function dependence on the microplasma layer density, microplasma width, collision frequency, background material dielectric constant, and incident angle, are computed. The results show that there exist two photonic band gap structures in an adsorptive plasma photonic crystal: one is a normal photonic band gap structure and the other is an absorption photonic band gap structure. Parameter dependence of the effects is calculated and discussed.
First-principles study on band structure and transport property of GaP nanoribbon
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The transport property of impurity substituted GaP nanoribbon is investigated. • The band structure can be tuned with substitution impurity in GaP nanoribbon. • The electron density is found to be more in phosphorus sites along GaP nanoribbon. • The impurity substitution in GaP nanoribbon modifies the density of states. - Abstract: The band structure and the electronic transport properties of pure, indium, arsenic and aluminum substituted gallium phosphide nanoribbon and defect gallium phosphide nanoribbon are investigated using first-principles studies. The band structure of pure and impurity substituted GaP nanoribbons exhibit metallic nature. The density of states can be altered with the substitution impurity and also by creating defects in the nanostructure. The electron density increases for indium, arsenic and aluminum substitution in GaP nanoribbon. The transmission across the gallium phosphide can be modified with the substitution impurity and defect in the nanoribbon. The transmission can be enhanced with the substitution impurity at different energy intervals. The findings of the present study give an insight to tailor gallium phosphide nanostructures in optoelectronic applications
Multi-band and broadband acoustic metamaterial with resonant structures
We design an acoustic metamaterial (AM) with multi-band of negative modulus composed of different sized split hollow spheres (SHSs). From acoustic transmitted experiment, the AM exhibits simultaneously negative modulus at frequencies 914, 1298 and 1514 Hz. Based on the multi-band designed concept, broadband AM is fabricated by arraying gradually sized SHS. The transmission results indicate that this medium can achieve negative modulus at the frequency range from 900 to 1500 Hz. This kind of broadband AM is very convenient to couple with other structures to gain the double-negative AM.
Electronic band structure of magnetic bilayer graphene superlattices
Pham, C. Huy; Nguyen, T. Thuong [Theoretical and Computational Physics Department, Institute of Physics, VAST, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh Distr., Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); SISSA/International School for Advanced Study, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Nguyen, V. Lien, E-mail: nvlien@iop.vast.ac.vn [Theoretical and Computational Physics Department, Institute of Physics, VAST, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh Distr., Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Institute for Bio-Medical Physics, 109A Pasteur, 1st Distr., Hochiminh City (Viet Nam)
2014-09-28
Electronic band structure of the bilayer graphene superlattices with ?-function magnetic barriers and zero average magnetic flux is studied within the four-band continuum model, using the transfer matrix method. The periodic magnetic potential effects on the zero-energy touching point between the lowest conduction and the highest valence minibands of pristine bilayer graphene are exactly analyzed. Magnetic potential is shown also to generate the finite-energy touching points between higher minibands at the edges of Brillouin zone. The positions of these points and the related dispersions are determined in the case of symmetric potentials.
Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures
Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Østergaard, John Erland; Leosson, Kristjan; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2001-01-01
Using near-held optical microscopy, we investigate propagation and scattering of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP's) excited in the wavelength range of 780-820 nm at nanostructured gold-film surfaces with areas of 200-nm-wide scatterers arranged in a 400-nm-period triangular lattice containing line...... defects. We observe the SPP reflection by such an area and SPP guiding along line defects at 782 nm, as well as significant deterioration of these effects is 815 nm, thereby directly demonstrating the SPP band gap effect and showing first examples of SPP channel waveguides in surface band gap structures....
Band structures of delafossite transparent conductive oxides from a self-consistent GW approach
Trani, Fabio; Vidal, Julien; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L.
2010-08-01
We present a comparative study of the electronic band structures of the compounds CuMO2 (M=B,Al,In,Ga) which belong to the family of delafossite transparent conductive oxides. The theoretical approaches we use are the standard local-density approximation (LDA) to density-functional theory, LDA+U , hybrid functionals, and perturbative GW on top of LDA or self-consistent Coulomb hole plus screened exchange calculations. The latter approach, state-of-the-art theoretical approach for quasiparticle band structures, predicts direct band gaps that are compatible with experimental optical gaps only after including the strong polaronic and excitonic effects present in these materials. For what concerns the so-called band-gap anomaly of delafossite compounds, we find that GW approaches yield the same qualitative trends with increasing anion atomic number as the LDA: accounting for the oscillator strength at the absorption edge is the key to explain the experimental trend. None of the methods that we applied beyond the simple LDA is in agreement with the small indirect gaps found by many early experiments. This supports the recent view that the absorption bands identified as a sign of the indirect experimental gaps are likely due to defect states in the gap and are not a property of the pristine material.
Inter-band optoelectronic properties in quantum dot structure of low band gap III-V semiconductors
Dey, Anup, E-mail: a-dey2002@yahoo.com [Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Kalyani Government Engineering College, Kalyani 741235 (India); Maiti, Biswajit [Physics Department, Kalyani Government Engineering College, Kalyani 741235 (India); Chanda, Debasree [Department of Engineering and Technological Studies, Kalyani University, Kalyani 741235 (India)
2014-04-14
A generalized theory is developed to study inter-band optical absorption coefficient (IOAC) and material gain (MG) in quantum dot structures of narrow gap III-V compound semiconductor considering the wave-vector (k{sup ?}) dependence of the optical transition matrix element. The band structures of these low band gap semiconducting materials with sufficiently separated split-off valance band are frequently described by the three energy band model of Kane. This has been adopted for analysis of the IOAC and MG taking InAs, InSb, Hg{sub 1?x}Cd{sub x}Te, and In{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1?y} lattice matched to InP, as example of IIIV compound semiconductors, having varied split-off energy band compared to their bulk band gap energy. It has been found that magnitude of the IOAC for quantum dots increases with increasing incident photon energy and the lines of absorption are more closely spaced in the three band model of Kane than those with parabolic energy band approximations reflecting the direct the influence of energy band parameters. The results show a significant deviation to the MG spectrum of narrow-gap materials having band nonparabolicity compared to the parabolic band model approximations. The results reflect the important role of valence band split-off energies in these narrow gap semiconductors.
Coupling effect of quantum wells on band structure
Jie, Chen; Weiyou, Zeng
2015-10-01
The coupling effects of quantum wells on band structure are numerically investigated by using the Matlab programming language. In a one dimensional finite quantum well with the potential barrier V0, the calculation is performed by increasing the number of inserted barriers with the same height Vb, and by, respectively, varying the thickness ratio of separated wells to inserted barriers and the height ratio of Vb to V0. Our calculations show that coupling is strongly influenced by the above parameters of the inserted barriers and wells. When these variables change, the width of the energy bands and gaps can be tuned. Our investigation shows that it is possible for quantum wells to achieve the desired width of the bands and gaps.
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BANDED STRUCTURES IN DUAL-PHASE STEELS
Benoit Krebs
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Dual-Phase (DP steels are composed of martensite islands dispersed in a ductile ferrite matrix, which provides a good balance between strength and ductility. Current processing conditions (continuous casting followed by hot and cold rolling generate 'banded structures' i.e., irregular, parallel and alternating bands of ferrite and martensite, which are detrimental to mechanical properties and especially for in-use properties. We present an original and simple method to quantify the intensity and wavelength of these bands. This method, based on the analysis of covariance function of binary images, is firstly tested on model images. It is compared with ASTM E-1268 standard and appears to be more robust. Then it is applied on real DP steel microstructures and proves to be sufficiently sensitive to discriminate samples resulting from different thermo-mechanical routes.
Mid-frequency Band Dynamics of Large Space Structures
Coppolino, Robert N.; Adams, Douglas S.
2004-01-01
High and low intensity dynamic environments experienced by a spacecraft during launch and on-orbit operations, respectively, induce structural loads and motions, which are difficult to reliably predict. Structural dynamics in low- and mid-frequency bands are sensitive to component interface uncertainty and non-linearity as evidenced in laboratory testing and flight operations. Analytical tools for prediction of linear system response are not necessarily adequate for reliable prediction of mid-frequency band dynamics and analysis of measured laboratory and flight data. A new MATLAB toolbox, designed to address the key challenges of mid-frequency band dynamics, is introduced in this paper. Finite-element models of major subassemblies are defined following rational frequency-wavelength guidelines. For computational efficiency, these subassemblies are described as linear, component mode models. The complete structural system model is composed of component mode subassemblies and linear or non-linear joint descriptions. Computation and display of structural dynamic responses are accomplished employing well-established, stable numerical methods, modern signal processing procedures and descriptive graphical tools. Parametric sensitivity and Monte-Carlo based system identification tools are used to reconcile models with experimental data and investigate the effects of uncertainties. Models and dynamic responses are exported for employment in applications, such as detailed structural integrity and mechanical-optical-control performance analyses.
Electronic band structure and optical properties of the cubic, Sc, Y and La hydride systems
Electronic band structure calculations are used to interpret the optical spectra of the cubic Sc, Y and La hydride systems. Self-consistent band calculations of ScH2 and YH2 were carried out. The respective joint densities of states are computed and compared to the dielectric functions determined from the optical measurements. Additional calculations were performed in which the Fermi level or band gap energies are rigidly shifted by a small energy increment. These calculations are then used to simulate the derivative structure in thermomodulation spectra and relate the origin of experimental interband features to the calculated energy bands. While good systematic agreement is obtained for several spectral features, the origin of low-energy interband transitions in YH2 cannot be explained by these calculated bands. A lattice-size-dependent premature occupation of octahedral sites by hydrogen atoms in the fcc metal lattice is suggested to account for this discrepancy. Various non-self-consistent calculations are used to examine the effect of such a premature occupation. Measurements of the optical absorptivity of LaH/sub x/ with 1.6 2 lattice. These experimental results also suggest that, in contrast to recent calculations, LaH3 is a small-band-gap semiconductor
Band structure, cohesive properties, and Compton profile of γ- and α-cerium
Podloucky, R.; Glötzel, D.
1983-03-01
Recent Compton scattering experiments on the high-volume (γ) and low-volume (α) phases of fcc cerium and their interpretation in terms of the renormalized-free-atom model cast severe doubts on the promotional model of Pauling and Zachariasen for the γ-α transition. Stimulated by these results, we have extended a previous self-consistent local-density band-structure investigation to study the Compton profiles of γ- and α-cerium. For the band structure, Bloch functions, and their Fourier transforms we use the linear muffin-tin orbital method in the atomic-sphere approximation. We analyze the calculated Compton profiles in terms of band structure and local angular momentum character of the wave functions. The change in band structure and wave functions under compression (with approximately one electron per atom in the 4f band of both phases) accounts well for the observed change in the Compton profile. This provides further evidence against the promotional model in agreement with the analysis of Kornstädt et al. In addition, we study the cohesive energy of fcc cerium as a function of volume in the local-density approximation. For α-cerium in the 4f1(5d 6s)3 configuration we find a cohesive energy of 5.4 eV/atom in good agreement with experiment, whereas the "promotional" 4f0(5d 6s)4 state yields a binding energy of 0.6 eV/atom only. Therefore the fourth valence electron has to be a 4f electron, and α-cerium has to be regarded as an f-band metal.
Development of X-band accelerating structures for high gradients
Bini, S.; Chimenti, V.; Marcelli, A.; Palumbo, L.; Spataro, B.; A. Dolgashev, V.; Tantawi, S.; D. Yeremian, A.; Higashi, Y.; G. Grimaldi, M.; Romano, L.; Ruffino, F.; Parodi, R.
2012-07-01
Short copper standing wave (SW) structures operating at an X-band frequency have been recently designed and manufactured at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) using the vacuum brazing technique. High power tests of the structures have been performed at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. In this manuscript we report the results of these tests and the activity in progress to enhance the high gradient performance of the next generation of structures, particularly the technological characterization of high performance coatings obtained via molybdenum sputtering.
Analysis of photonic band-gap structures in stratified medium
Tong, Ming-Sze; Yinchao, Chen; Lu, Yilong; Krozer, Viktor; Kagoshima, Kenichi; Kim, Hyeong-Seok; Chang, Tae-Gyu
2005-01-01
Purpose - To demonstrate the flexibility and advantages of a non-uniform pseudo-spectral time domain (nu-PSTD) method through studies of the wave propagation characteristics on photonic band-gap (PBG) structures in stratified medium Design/methodology/approach - A nu-PSTD method is proposed in...... one-dimensional (1D) periodic and defective cases of PBG structures. Nevertheless, the findings reveal strong implications that flexibility of sampling and memory savings can be realized in multi-dimensional structures. Practical implications - The proposed method can be applied to various practical...
Nuclear energy density optimization: Shell structure
Kortelainen, M.; McDonnell, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Olsen, E.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Sarich, J.; Schunck, N.; Wild, S. M.; Davesne, D.; Erler, J.; Pastore, A.
2014-05-01
Background: Nuclear density functional theory is the only microscopical theory that can be applied throughout the entire nuclear landscape. Its key ingredient is the energy density functional. Purpose: In this work, we propose a new parametrization unedf2 of the Skyrme energy density functional. Methods: The functional optimization is carried out using the pounders optimization algorithm within the framework of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory. Compared to the previous parametrization unedf1, restrictions on the tensor term of the energy density have been lifted, yielding a very general form of the energy density functional up to second order in derivatives of the one-body density matrix. In order to impose constraints on all the parameters of the functional, selected data on single-particle splittings in spherical doubly-magic nuclei have been included into the experimental dataset. Results: The agreement with both bulk and spectroscopic nuclear properties achieved by the resulting unedf2 parametrization is comparable with unedf1. While there is a small improvement on single-particle spectra and binding energies of closed shell nuclei, the reproduction of fission barriers and fission isomer excitation energies has degraded. As compared to previous unedf parametrizations, the parameter confidence interval for unedf2 is narrower. In particular, our results overlap well with those obtained in previous systematic studies of the spin-orbit and tensor terms. Conclusions: unedf2 can be viewed as an all-around Skyrme EDF that performs reasonably well for both global nuclear properties and shell structure. However, after adding new data aiming to better constrain the nuclear functional, its quality has improved only marginally. These results suggest that the standard Skyrme energy density has reached its limits, and significant changes to the form of the functional are needed.
The band structure of metallic sodium is calculated, using for the first time the self-consistent field variational cellular method. In order to implement the self-consistency in the variational cellular theory, the crystal electronic charge density was calculated within the muffin-tin approximation. The comparison between our results and those derived from other calculations leads to the conclusion that the proposed self-consistent version of the variational cellular method is fast and accurate. (author)
Band structures of ionic solids measured using electron momentum spectroscopy
Full text: The electronic band structure of solids is paramount in our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of these solids. Quantum chemical models have now been developed to provide predictions of the electronic band structure of solids however it is their ability to reproduce many body (correlation) interactions between electrons that determines their success. Comparisons of these models with experimental data has unfortunately been limited though as their success has mainly been judged using metallic and semiconducting materials. Experimental data on ionic solids is scarcer and as such it is somewhat unclear as to weather or not the quantum mechanical models have universal application. We present here experimental data on the electronic band structure of simple Group 1A ionic solids, measured using electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS). Using electron impact ionisation this technique maps the absolute square of the wavefunction in momentum space. This is a fundamental observable of the electronic structure and provides a comprehensive test for theoretical models. We will compare our experimental results with predictions made primarily through the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) approximation highlighting both the successes and failures of these models
Engineering Design of a Multipurpose X-band Accelerating Structure
Gudkov, Dmitry; Samoshkin, Alexander; Zennaro, Riccardo; Dehler, Micha; Raguin, Jean-Yves
2010-01-01
Both FEL projects, SwissFEL and Fermi-Elettra each require an X-band RF accelerating structure for optimal bunch compression at the respective injectors. As the CLIC project is pursuing a program for producing and testing the X-band high-gradient RF structures, a collaboration between PSI, Elettra and CERN has been established to build a multipurpose X-band accelerating structure. This paper focuses on its engineering design, which is based on the disked cells jointed together by diffusion bonding. Vacuum brazing and laser beam welding is used for auxiliary components. The accelerating structure consists of two coupler subassemblies, 73 disks and includes a wakefield monitor and diagnostic waveguides. The engineering study includes the external cooling system, consisting of two parallel cooling circuits and an RF tuning system, which allows phase advance tuning of the cell by deforming the outer wall. The engineering solution for the installation and sealing of the wake field monitor feed-through devices that...
S Chakraborty; R Ramesh; J M Lough
2000-03-01
Density, 18O and 13C were measured along two tracks, one close to the central growth axis and the other, ∼20° off the axis, in a coral (Porites lutea) collected from the Stanley Reef, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The 18O variations in the coral are well correlated with sea surface temperature changes. The common variances between the two tracks were about 60% in the 18O, 13C and the skeletal density variations. Part of the noise (40%) could be due to the difficulty of sampling exactly time contemporaneous parts of each band along the two tracks and part of it could be due to genuine intraband variability. In spite of the intraband variability, the time series obtained from the two tracks are similar, indicating that the dominant causative factor for the isotopic variations is external, i.e., the environmental conditions that prevail during the growth of the coral; density band formation does not appear to be directly controlled by the sea surface temperature.
First direct observation of a nearly ideal graphene band structure
Sprinkle, M.; Siegel, D.; Hu, Y.; Hicks, J.; Tejeda, A.; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.; Le Fvre, P.; Bertran, F.; Vizzini, S.; Enriquez, H.; Chiang, S.; Soukiassian, P.; Berger, C.; de Heer, W.A.; Lanzara, A.; Conrad, E.H.; (CNRS-UMR); (UCB); (CEAS); (SOLEIL); (GIT)
2009-12-10
Angle-resolved photoemission and x-ray diffraction experiments show that multilayer epitaxial graphene grown on the SiC(000{bar 1}) surface is a new form of carbon that is composed of effectively isolated graphene sheets. The unique rotational stacking of these films causes adjacent graphene layers to electronically decouple leading to a set of nearly independent linearly dispersing bands (Dirac cones) at the graphene K point. Each cone corresponds to an individual macroscale graphene sheet in a multilayer stack where AB-stacked sheets can be considered as low density faults.
Study of the band structures in 104Pd
Complete text of publication follows. During the past years, beside the A ∼ 130 mass region, chiral candidate twin bands have been found also in odd-odd and odd-mass rhodium isotopes with A ∼ 100. The role of triaxial deformation of the core in degeneracy of chiral band doubling has been pointed out in 102Ru and 103Rh. More recently, a study of 106Ag has revealed that gamma softness has marked implications for the phenomenon of nuclear chirality. In order to further examine this effect on the stability of chiral geometry we studied the band structures of 104Pd, the core nucleus of 106Ag. High-spin states in 104Pd have been studied through the 96Zr(13C,5n) reaction at beam energies of 51 and 58 MeV, using the Euroball IV γ-ray spectrometer. The γ rays were measured in coincidence with charged particles detected by the Diamant array in order to eliminate the contaminants from the stronger (13C,xn) reaction channels. A total of ∼ 2 x 109 triple- and higher-fold coincidence events were stored among which ∼ 4.5 x 108 belonged to the 104Pd reaction channel. On the basis of the analysis of γγγ-coincidence data, several new high-spin bands have been established. The ground state band has been extended up to Ex ∼12 MeV with Iπ=(26+), while the previously published negative-parity bands have been extended up to Ex ∼11 and ∼9 MeV with Iπ=(23-) and (20-), respectively. The theoretical interpretation of the experimental results obtained is in progress
Air Density Measurements in a Mach 10 Wake Using Iodine Cordes Bands
Balla, Robert J.; Everhart, Joel L.
2012-01-01
An exploratory study designed to examine the viability of making air density measurements in a Mach 10 flow using laser-induced fluorescence of the iodine Cordes bands is presented. Experiments are performed in the NASA Langley Research Center 31 in. Mach 10 air wind tunnel in the hypersonic near wake of a multipurpose crew vehicle model. To introduce iodine into the wake, a 0.5% iodine/nitrogen mixture is seeded using a pressure tap at the rear of the model. Air density was measured at 56 points along a 7 mm line and three stagnation pressures of 6.21, 8.62, and 10.0 MPa (900, 1250, and 1450 psi). Average results over time and space show rho(sub wake)/rho(sub freestream) of 0.145 plus or minus 0.010, independent of freestream air density. Average off-body results over time and space agree to better than 7.5% with computed densities from onbody pressure measurements. Densities measured during a single 60 s run at 10.0 MPa are time-dependent and steadily decrease by 15%. This decrease is attributed to model forebody heating by the flow.
Band structure in the polymer quantization of the harmonic oscillator
Barbero Gonzlez, Jess Fernando; Prieto, Jorge; Villaseor, Eduardo J. S.
2013-01-01
We discuss the detailed structure of the spectrum of the Hamiltonian for the polymerized harmonic oscillator and compare it with the spectrum in the standard quantization. As we will see the non-separability of the Hilbert space implies that the point spectrum consists of bands similar to the ones appearing in the treatment of periodic potentials. This feature of the spectrum of the polymeric harmonic oscillator may be relevant for the discussion of the polymer quantization of the scalar fiel...
Two-Phase Shear Band Structures at Uniform Stress
Britton, Melanie M.; Callaghan, Paul T.
1997-06-01
Using NMR microscopy we measure the velocity distribution for a wormlike surfactant solution in the gap of a small angle cone-and-plate rheometer. This system, cetylpyridinium chloride/sodium salicylate 100 mM/60 mM, exhibits biphasic shear band structure when the applied shear rate exceeds the critical rate of strain beyond which a plateau is observed in the shear stress. The structure is characterized by two low/high shear interfaces and the region of high shear evolves by increasing width as the average gap shear is increased.
Tuning of X-band traveling-wave accelerating structures
This paper derives and explains the full procedure used to tune an X-band traveling-wave accelerating structure from the “bead-pull” measurement data. The local reflection of each cell caused by frequency detuning is calculated from the measured field profile deduced from the reflection from a dielectric perturbation (so-called “bead”) and is corrected by monitoring the input reflection coefficient. The structure output matching is made by tuning the last two cells to cancel the reflected wave. This method also gives the relationship of the reflection and frequency detuning, making it possible to evaluate the dimensional tolerances achieved in manufacture
Collinear load study for X-band linear accelerator structure
Jin, K; Jiang, D M; Liu, Y Z
2002-01-01
The collinear load consists of few disk-loaded cavities coated with high-resistance material on the inside walls. The load terminates the accelerator section and forms a part of actual accelerating structure with collinear to the electron beam. Not only can it dissipate residual RF power of the accelerator section in the form of skin losses, but also the particles are still accelerated in the structure. In this paper, the design and technology of an X-band constant power-loss collinear load are described in detail and some results are presented.
Structure of high-spin bands in 104Pd
Complete text of publication follows. High-spin states of 104Pd were studied through the 96Zr(13C,5n) reaction at beam energies of 51 and 58 MeV, using the Euroball IV γ-ray spectrometer in conjunction with the Diamant charged particle array. On the basis of the analysis of γγγ-coincidence data, the previously known rotation-like structures (bands 1,2,3,4) have been extended up to Ex∼6, 13, 11 and 9 MeV with Iπ=(12+), (26+), (23-) and (20-), respectively. Besides the major sideband structures, two new negative parity cascades (bands 5,6) were found and built up to Ex∼8 MeV with Iπ=(17-) and (18-). The 104Pd nucleus with its 6 valence protons and 8 valence neutrons relative to 90Zr lies in the upper part of the g9/2 proton subshell and in the middle part of the d5/2, g7/2 neutron subshell where the low-Ωh11/2 orbitals intrude already at small deformations. To get a deeper insight into the structure of the observed bands, total routhian surface (trs) calculations based on the Woods-Saxon cranking formalism were performed. Comparing the experimental Routhians E' and aligned angular momenta Ix with the trs results (Fig. 1), we assign two-quasiparticle ν(h11/2)2 configuration to the positive-parity bands 1 and 2. According to this expectation, the alignment of a h11/2 neutron pair is clearly visible at ℎω∼0.4 MeV frequency with nearly the full possible alignment gain of ∼10ℎ. As in the negative-parity bands 3,4,5 and 6 the νh11/2 alignment seems to be blocked, their configuration contains one neutron in the h11/2 orbit. Furthermore, the second quasineutron is expected to have a g7/2, d5/2 origin due to their parity. This assumption is supported by the good agreement of the experimental data with the trs results and accordingly we suggest νh11/2(d5/2, g7/2) configurations for these bands.
Zhang, Xianguang; Matsuura, Kiyotaka; Ohno, Munekazu
2014-09-01
The grain growth behavior of austenite reversely transformed from ferrite/pearlite (F/P)-banded and non-banded steels has been studied. It was found that the grain-coarsening temperature [the temperature at which abnormal grain growth (AGG) occurs] of the initially banded F/P structure is quite low compared with that of the non-banded sample. In the F/P-banded sample, the abnormal grains always originate from the former ferrite region. The occurrence of AGG is essentially attributable not to the austenite nucleation process during heating but to the grain growth process after the completion of austenizing. It was proposed that the lowered grain-coarsening temperature in the banded structure is due to the non-uniform pinning-effect of AlN precipitates between former ferrite and pearlite regions.
We have investigated trap density of states (trap DOS) in n-channel organic field-effect transistors based on N,N ’-bis(cyclohexyl)naphthalene diimide (Cy-NDI) and dimethyldicyanoquinonediimine (DMDCNQI). A new method is proposed to extract trap DOS from the Arrhenius plot of the temperature-dependent transconductance. Double exponential trap DOS are observed, in which Cy-NDI has considerable deep states, by contrast, DMDCNQI has substantial tail states. In addition, numerical simulation of the transistor characteristics has been conducted by assuming an exponential trap distribution and the interface approximation. Temperature dependence of transfer characteristics are well reproduced only using several parameters, and the trap DOS obtained from the simulated characteristics are in good agreement with the assumed trap DOS, indicating that our analysis is self-consistent. Although the experimentally obtained Meyer-Neldel temperature is related to the trap distribution width, the simulation satisfies the Meyer-Neldel rule only very phenomenologically. The simulation also reveals that the subthreshold swing is not always a good indicator of the total trap amount, because it also largely depends on the trap distribution width. Finally, band transport is explored from the simulation having a small number of traps. A crossing point of the transfer curves and negative activation energy above a certain gate voltage are observed in the simulated characteristics, where the critical VG above which band transport is realized is determined by the sum of the trapped and free charge states below the conduction band edge
Band gap and electronic structure of MgSiN{sub 2}
Quirk, J. B., E-mail: james.quirk09@imperial.ac.uk; Råsander, M.; McGilvery, C. M.; Moram, M. A. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Palgrave, R. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, Gordon Street WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)
2014-09-15
Density functional theory calculations and electron energy loss spectroscopy indicate that the electronic structure of ordered orthorhombic MgSiN{sub 2} is similar to that of wurtzite AlN. A band gap of 5.7 eV was calculated for both MgSiN{sub 2} (indirect) and AlN (direct) using the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof approximation. Correction with respect to the experimental room-temperature band gap of AlN indicates that the true band gap of MgSiN{sub 2} is 6.2 eV. MgSiN{sub 2} has an additional direct gap of 6.3 eV at the Γ point.
Band gap and electronic structure of MgSiN2
Density functional theory calculations and electron energy loss spectroscopy indicate that the electronic structure of ordered orthorhombic MgSiN2 is similar to that of wurtzite AlN. A band gap of 5.7 eV was calculated for both MgSiN2 (indirect) and AlN (direct) using the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof approximation. Correction with respect to the experimental room-temperature band gap of AlN indicates that the true band gap of MgSiN2 is 6.2 eV. MgSiN2 has an additional direct gap of 6.3 eV at the Γ point.
Tang, Chi-Pui; Cao, Jie; Xiong, Shi-Jie
2015-06-01
On basis of the first principle calculation we show that a crystalline structure of silicon, as a novel allotrope with nanotubular holes along two perpendicular directions, is stable. The calculations on geometrical and electronic properties reveal that this allotrope possesses a direct band gap wider by 0.5 eV than the indirect one of silicon with diamond structure. The crystal belongs to I41/AMD space group, showing anisotropic optical properties and Young modulus. The bulk modulus is 64.4 GPa and the density is 1.9 g/cm3, lower than that of the diamond silicon due to the presence of nanotubular holes. It is hopeful that the allotrope may widely expand applications of silicon in many fields due to its direct band gap and specific nanotubular structure.
On basis of the first principle calculation we show that a crystalline structure of silicon, as a novel allotrope with nanotubular holes along two perpendicular directions, is stable. The calculations on geometrical and electronic properties reveal that this allotrope possesses a direct band gap wider by 0.5 eV than the indirect one of silicon with diamond structure. The crystal belongs to I41/AMD space group, showing anisotropic optical properties and Young modulus. The bulk modulus is 64.4 GPa and the density is 1.9 g/cm3, lower than that of the diamond silicon due to the presence of nanotubular holes. It is hopeful that the allotrope may widely expand applications of silicon in many fields due to its direct band gap and specific nanotubular structure
Mesospheric ozone densities retrieved from OSIRIS observations of the oxygen A-band dayglow
Sheese, Patrick
The Odin satellite was launched into orbit in early 2001 with one of its main objectives being to investigate ozone and ozone-related chemistry in the middle atmosphere. One of Odin's two instruments is the OSIRIS instrument, which scans the Earth's limb, observing Rayleigh-scattered sunlight with high vertical resolution and near-global coverage. An important feature that OSIRIS observes in the mesosphere is the emission of molecular oxygen A-band dayglow, the intensity of which is dependent on local ozone density. A kinetic-photochemical model of the A-band dayglow has been developed in order to forward model the OSIRIS observations. The model takes into account the most current measurements of photochemical reaction coefficients, line strengths, and incident solar flux, and assumes an MSIS background atmosphere. The observations and forward model are used in an iterative optimal estimation technique to solve the inverse problem of retrieving ozone density profiles between altitudes of 70 - 95 km. The results form a climatological database of upper mesospheric ozone, which is compared with near-coincident ozone retrievals from the SABER instrument aboard the TIMED satellite. A detailed error analysis is performed on the retrievals determining the sensitivity of the results to different sources of error, such as instrument noise, errors in the forward model parameters, and errors in the retrieval method itself. The retrievals are also examined to determine vertical, latitudinal, and seasonal variations. Variations are compared to previous and concurrent measurements from a number of other sources.
Correlation between surface chemistry, density and band gap in nanocrystalline WO3 thin films
Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ramana, C.V.
2012-03-01
Nanocrystalline WO3 thin films were produced by sputter-deposition by varying the ratio of argon to oxygen in the reactive gas mixture during deposition. The surface chemistry, physical characteristics, and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 films were evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), and spectrophotometric measurements. The effect of ultra-microstructure was significant on the optical properties of WO3 films. The XPS analyses indicate the formation of stoichiometric WO3 with tungsten existing in fully oxidized valence state (W6+). However, WO3 films grown at high oxygen concentration (>60%) in the sputtering gas mixture were over stoichiometric with excess oxygen. XRR simulations, which are based on isotropic WO3 film - SiO2 interface - Si substrate model, indicate that the density of WO3 films is sensitive to the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The spectral transmission of the films increased with the increasing oxygen. The band gap of these films increases from 2.78 eV to 3.25 eV with increasing oxygen. A direct correlation between the film-density and band gap in nanocrystalline WO3 films is established based on the observed results.
k.p Parameters with Accuracy Control from Preexistent First-Principles Band Structure Calculations
Sipahi, Guilherme; Bastos, Carlos M. O.; Sabino, Fernando P.; Faria Junior, Paulo E.; de Campos, Tiago; da Silva, Juarez L. F.
The k.p method is a successful approach to obtain band structure, optical and transport properties of semiconductors. It overtakes the ab initio methods in confined systems due to its low computational cost since it is a continuum method that does not require all the atoms' orbital information. From an effective one-electron Hamiltonian, the k.p matrix representation can be calculated using perturbation theory and the parameters identified by symmetry arguments. The parameters determination, however, needs a complementary approach. In this paper, we developed a general method to extract the k.p parameters from preexistent band structures of bulk materials that is not limited by the crystal symmetry or by the model. To demonstrate our approach, we applied it to zinc blende GaAs band structure calculated by hybrid density functional theory within the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof functional (DFT-HSE), for the usual 8 ×8 k.p Hamiltonian. Our parameters reproduced the DFT-HSE band structure with great accuracy up to 20% of the first Brillouin zone (FBZ). Furthermore, for fitting regions ranging from 7-20% of FBZ, the parameters lie inside the range of values reported by the most reliable studies in the literature. The authors acknowledge financial support from the Brazilian agencies CNPq (Grant #246549/2012-2) and FAPESP (Grants #2011/19333-4, #2012/05618-0 and #2013/23393-8).
Dual-band metamaterial with a windmill-like structure
Xiong, Han; Hong, Jing-Song; Jin, Da-Lin
2013-01-01
A broadband negative refractive index metamaterial based on a windmill-like structure is proposed, and investigated numerically and experimentally at the microwave frequency range. From the numerical and experimental results, effect media parameters are retrieved, which clearly show that two broad frequency bands exist in which the permittivity and permeability are negative. The two negative bands are from 9.1 GHz to 10.5 GHz and from 12.05 GHz to 14.65 GHz respectively, and the negative bandwidth is 4 GHz. Due to the good bandwidth performance, the metallic cell with double negative property obtained in this paper is suitable for use in the design of multiband or broadband microwave devices.
Dual-band metamaterial with a windmill-like structure
A broadband negative refractive index metamaterial based on a windmill-like structure is proposed, and investigated numerically and experimentally at the microwave frequency range. From the numerical and experimental results, effect media parameters are retrieved, which clearly show that two broad frequency bands exist in which the permittivity and permeability are negative. The two negative bands are from 9.1 GHz to 10.5 GHz and from 12.05 GHz to 14.65 GHz respectively, and the negative bandwidth is 4 GHz. Due to the good bandwidth performance, the metallic cell with double negative property obtained in this paper is suitable for use in the design of multiband or broadband microwave devices. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Background and purpose: We previously determined that the density of a rapidly migrating DNA end-binding complex (termed 'band-A') predicts radiosensitivity of human normal and tumor cells. The goal of this study was first to identify the protein components of band-A and to determine if the protein levels of band-A components would correlate with band-A density and radiosensitivity. Patients and methods: DNA end-binding protein complex (DNA-EBC) protein components were identified by adding antibodies specific for a variety of DNA repair-associated proteins to the DNA-EBC reaction and then noting which antibodies super-shifted various DNA-EBC bands. Band-A levels were correlated with SF2 for a panel of primary human fibroblasts heterozygous for sequence-proven mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. The nuclear protein levels of band-A components were determined in each BRCA1 heterozygote by western hybridization. Results: DNA-EBC analysis of human nuclear proteins revealed 10 identifiable bands. The density of the most rapidly migrating DNA-EBC band correlated closely with both BRCA-mutation status and radiosensitivity (r2=0.85). This band was absent in cells with homozygous mutations in their ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated protein (ATM) genes. This band was also completely supershifted by the addition of antibodies to ATM, Ku70, DNA ligase III, Rpa32, Rpa14, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4, WRN, BLM, RAD51 and p53. However, the intranuclear concentrations of these proteins did not correlate with either the SF2 or DNA-EBC density. Neither BRCA1 or BRCA2 could be detected in band-A. Conclusions: DNA-EBC analysis of human nuclear extracts resulted in 10 bands, at least six of which contained ATM. The density of one of the DNA-EBCs predicted the radiosensitization caused by BRCA haploinsufficiency, and this band contains Ku70, ATM, DNA ligase III, Rpa32, Rpa14, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4, WRN, BLM, RAD51 and p53 but not BRCA 1 or 2. The density of band-A was independent of the nuclear concentration of any of its known component
Zubrägel, Ch.; Schneider, F.; Neumann, M.; Hähner, G.; Wöll, Ch.; Grunze, M.
1994-03-01
Several ultrathin films of oriented alkane chains were studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy using UV photons in the energy range of 20-200 eV. From the experimental data the full valence band structure has been determined for self-assembled films of long-chain n-alkanethiols, Langmuir-Blodgett films of Cd-arachidate and thin films of hexatriacontane. Significant deviations from band structures obtained by ab initio calculations of Karpfen are found at the boundary of the one-dimensional Brillouin zone. Furthermore it is demonstrated that a mapping of the one-dimensional band structure can be used for precisely determining tilt angles of alkane chains.
Fabrication of x-band accelerating structures at Fermilab
Tug T Arkan et al.
2004-07-20
The RF Technology Development group at Fermilab is working together with the NLC and GLC groups at SLAC and KEK on developing technology for room temperature X-band accelerating structures for a future linear collider. We built six 60-cm long, high phase advance, detuned structures (HDS or FXB series). These structures have 150 degrees phase advance per cell, and are intended for high gradient tests. The structures were brazed in a vacuum furnace with a partial pressure of argon, rather than in a hydrogen atmosphere. We have also begun to build 60-cm long, damped and detuned structures (HDDS or FXC/FXD series). We have built 5 FXC and 1 FXD structures. Our goal was to build six structures for the 8-pack test at SLAC by the end of March 2004, as part of the GLC/NLC effort to demonstrate the readiness of room temperature RF technology for a linear collider. This paper describes the RF structure factory infrastructure (clean rooms, vacuum furnaces, vacuum equipment, RF equipment etc.), and the fabrication techniques utilized (the machining of copper cells/couplers, quality control, etching, vacuum brazing, cleanliness requirements etc.) for the production of FXB and FXC/FXD structures.
Band structure mapping and calculations of CuInS2(001)
The ternary compound semiconductor CuInS2 is used as an absorber material for thin film solar cells. A better understanding of the detailed electronic structure might lead to an improvement of the junction properties with respect to the still limited photo voltage of the present devices. We report on band structure mapping via ARUPS on thin epitaxial layers of CuInS2(001) prepared on sulfur passivated GaAs(100). To have a better control on the deposition process we introduced a MOMBE type deposition with an organic sulfur precursor. Samples were prepared and precharacterized in a dedicated UHV deposition and analysis system. ARUPS measurements were conducted at the beamline TGM7 at BESSY II. We discuss the experimentally determined band structure in comparison to recent augmented spherical wave (ASW) calculations as based on density functional theory and the local density approximation (LDA). Beside earlier calculations presented by Zunger for some high symmetry directions along κ perpendicularto our calculations include for κ parallel the experimental parameters of an ARUPS experiment thus allowing a direct comparison with our experimentally derived data rather than an idealistic run on the boundary of the Brillouin-zone. Additionally we derive the effective mass from the valence band curvature
The crystal and electronic band structure of the diamond-like semiconductor Ag2ZnSiS4
Highlights: ? The structure of Ag2ZnSiS4 is solved and refined in the space group Pn using single crystal X-ray diffraction. ? Electronic band structure calculations show that Ag2ZnSiS4 is a direct band gap semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 1.88 eV. ? The optical band gap of Ag2ZnSiS4 was experimentally determined as 3.28 eV. - Abstract: Single crystals of the new diamond-like semiconductor Ag2ZnSiS4 have been synthesized using high-temperature, solid state synthesis at 800 C. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic, noncentrosymmetric space group Pn with a = 6.4052(1) ?, b = 6.5484(1) ?, c = 7.9340(1) ?, ? = 90.455(1) and R1 (for all data) = 2.42%. The electronic band structure and density of states were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) and the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method within the Wien2k program suite. The calculated band structure suggests that Ag2ZnSiS4 is a direct band gap semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 1.88 eV at the ?-point. The calculated density of states of Ag2ZnSiS4 is compared with that of AgGaS2. The band gap of Ag2ZnSiS4 was also determined experimentally as 3.28 eV via optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.
Wakefield Monitor Experiments with X-Band Accelerating Structures
Lillestøl, Reidar; Corsini, Roberto; Döbert, Steffen; Farabolini, Wilfrid; Malina, Lukas; Pfingstner, Juergen; Wuensch, Walter
2015-01-01
The accelerating structures for CLIC must be aligned with a precision of a few um with respect to the beam trajectory in order to mitigate emittance growth due to transverse wake fields. We report on first results from wake field monitor tests in an X-band structure, with a probe beam at the CLIC Test Facility. The monitors are currently installed in the CLIC Two-Beam Module. In order to fully demonstrate the feasibility of using wakefield monitors for CLIC, the precision of the monitors must be verified using a probe beam while simultaneously filling the structure with high power rf used to drive the accelerating mode. We outline plans to perform such a demonstration in the CLIC Test Facility.
Electronic structure and energy band offsets for ultrathin silicon nitride on Si(1 0 0)
For the interfaces of CVD Si3N4 on Si(1 0 0) and directly-nitrided Si(1 0 0), chemical bonding features, energy band offsets and defect state density distributions have been studied using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and total photoelectron yield spectroscopy. At nitride-Si(1 0 0) interfaces, Si-N bonding states in which each Si atom is bonded with one or three N atoms are formed predominantly, being presumably related to the structural strain induced by Si-N bonding at the interface. For nearly stoichiometric SiNx (x?1.3) in the thickness range of 1.0-17 nm which was prepared by 750 deg. C CVD or 700 deg. C direct-nitridation, the energy band gap was determined to be 5.40.1 eV from the energy loss spectra of N 1s photoelectrons. By analyzing the valence band spectra of thin SiNx/Si(1 0 0) heterostructures, the valence band offset between such SiNx and Si(1 0 0) was obtained to be 1.90.1 eV. For the direct-nitridation of Si(1 0 0) at 600 or 700 deg. C, an interface state density as low as ?1010 eV-1 cm-2 near Si midgap was confirmed by total photoelectron yield measurements
Band structure in the polymer quantization of the harmonic oscillator
We discuss the detailed structure of the spectrum of the Hamiltonian for the polymerized harmonic oscillator and compare it with the spectrum in the standard quantization. As we will see the non-separability of the Hilbert space implies that the point spectrum consists of bands similar to the ones appearing in the treatment of periodic potentials. This feature of the spectrum of the polymeric harmonic oscillator may be relevant for the discussion of the polymer quantization of the scalar field and may have interesting consequences for the statistical mechanics of these models. (paper)
Large aperture S-band structures in KEK injector linac
Upgrade of KEKB Injector Linac is ongoing for super KEKB project. The positron beam intensity is required to be 4nC per bunch. Use of the flux concentrator and the large aperture S-band structures (LAS) in the positron capture system can give us four times larger population of positrons than that of our previous system. Ten LAS are set in the downstream of the positron target. The new system starts its first operation with positron generation in this spring (2014). In the present paper the system design is briefly reviewed and the operation of LAS is reported. (author)
Tunneling and the band structure of chaotic systems
The dispersion laws of chaotic periodic systems are computed using the semiclassical periodic orbit theory to approximate the trace of the powers of the evolution operator. Aside from the usual real trajectories, complex orbits are also included. These turn out to be fundamental for a proper description of the band structure since they incorporate conduction processes through tunneling mechanisms. The results obtained, illustrated with the kicked-Harper model, are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations, even in the extreme quantum regime. (authors). 14 refs., 1 fig
Schwöbel, André, E-mail: aschwoebel@surface.tu-darmstadt.de [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Materials Science Department, Surface Science Division, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Precht, Ruben; Motzko, Markus; Carrillo Solano, Mercedes A. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Materials Science Department, Surface Science Division, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Calvet, Wolfram [Helmholzzentrum Berlin GmbH, Solar Energy Research, Heterogeneous Materials Systems, Albert Einstein Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hausbrand, René; Jaegermann, Wolfram [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Materials Science Department, Surface Science Division, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)
2014-12-01
Highlights: • In situ photoemission of LiPON solid Li-ion electrolyte. • We find that the valence band is similar to the known phosphates. • We find evidence for a resonance at the O1s edge shown by a Fano profile. • We find that the top of the valence band is due to N2p states. - Abstract: Lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) is a solid state electrolyte commonly used in thin film batteries (TFBs). Advanced TFBs face the issue of detrimental electrode–electrolyte interlayer formation, related to the electronic structure of the interface. In this contribution, we study the valence band structure of LiPON using resonant photoemission and synchrotron photoemission with variable excitation energies. The identification of different valence band features is done according to the known valence band features of meta- and orthophosphates. Additionally we compare our results with partial density of states simulations from literature. We find that the valence band structure is similar to the known metaphosphates with an additional contribution of nitrogen states at the top of the valence band. From the results we conclude that synchrotron X-ray photoemission (XPS) is a useful tool to study the valence band structure of nitridated alkali phosphate glasses.
Highlights: In situ photoemission of LiPON solid Li-ion electrolyte. We find that the valence band is similar to the known phosphates. We find evidence for a resonance at the O1s edge shown by a Fano profile. We find that the top of the valence band is due to N2p states. - Abstract: Lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) is a solid state electrolyte commonly used in thin film batteries (TFBs). Advanced TFBs face the issue of detrimental electrodeelectrolyte interlayer formation, related to the electronic structure of the interface. In this contribution, we study the valence band structure of LiPON using resonant photoemission and synchrotron photoemission with variable excitation energies. The identification of different valence band features is done according to the known valence band features of meta- and orthophosphates. Additionally we compare our results with partial density of states simulations from literature. We find that the valence band structure is similar to the known metaphosphates with an additional contribution of nitrogen states at the top of the valence band. From the results we conclude that synchrotron X-ray photoemission (XPS) is a useful tool to study the valence band structure of nitridated alkali phosphate glasses
Alpha-cluster structure and density wave in oblate nuclei
Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Hidaka, Yoshimasa
2011-01-01
Pentagon and triangle shapes in Si-28 and C-12 are discussed in relation with nuclear density wave. In the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics calculations, the $K^\\pi=5^-$ band in Si-28 and the $K^\\pi=3^-$ band in C-12 are described by the pentagon and triangle shapes, respectively. These negative-parity bands can be interpreted as the parity partners of the $K^\\pi=0^+$ ground bands and they are constructed from the parity-asymmetric-intrinsic states. The pentagon and the triangle shapes orig...
A first principle study of band structure of III-nitride compounds
The band structure of both phases, zinc-blende and wurtzite, of aluminum nitride, indium nitride and gallium nitride has been studied using computational methods. The study has been done using first principle full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method, within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). For the exchange correlation potential, generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and an alternative form of GGA proposed by Engel and Vosko (GGA-EV) have been used. Results obtained for band structure of these compounds have been compared with experimental results as well as other first principle computations. Our results show a significant improvement over other theoretical work and are closer to the experimental data
Ardisana, R. N.; Miller, C. A.; Sivaguru, M.; Fouke, B. W.
2013-12-01
Corals are a key reservoir of biodiversity in coastal, shallow water tropical marine environments, and density banding in their aragonite skeletons is used as a sensitive record of paleoclimate. Therefore, the cellular response of corals to environmental change and its expression in skeletal structure is of significant importance. Chromatophores, pigment-bearing cells within the ectoderm of hermatypic corals, serve to both enhance the photosynthetic activity of zooxanthellae symbionts, as well as protect the coral animal from harmful UV radiation. Yet connections have not previously been drawn between chromatophore tissue density and the development of skeletal density bands. A histological analysis of the coral Montastrea faveolata has therefore been conducted across a bathymetric gradient of 1-20 m on the southern Caribbean island of Curaçao. A combination of field and laboratory photography, serial block face imaging (SBFI), two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM), and 3D image analysis has been applied to test whether M. faveolata adapts to increasing water depth and decreasing photosynthetically active radiation by shifting toward a more heterotrophic lifestyle (decreasing zooxanthellae tissue density, increasing mucocyte tissue density, and decreasing chromatophores density). This study is among the first to collect and evaluate histological data in the spatial context of an entire unprocessed coral polyp. TPLSM was used to optically thin section unprocessed tissue biopsies with quantitative image analysis to yield a nanometer-scale three-dimensional map of the quantity and distribution of the symbionts (zooxanthellae) and a host fluorescent pigments (chromatophores), which is thought to have photoprotective properties, within the context of an entire coral polyp. Preliminary results have offered new insight regarding the three-dimensional distribution and abundance of chromatophores and have identified: (1) M. faveolata tissue collected from 8M SWD do not contain the abundant chromatophores present in M. faveolata collected from 20M SWD; and (2) a distinct difference in size and distribution of chromatophores between M. faveolata collected from 8-20M SWD. These results suggest that chromatophore cells may have an important photoenhancing function (reflection of light to help facilitate the collection of usable light that reaches the symbiotic algae for effective photosynthesis) rather than a photoinhibitive function (absorbing or refract light that may be harmful to zooxanthellae) which has been previously hypothesized.
Density and temperature structure over northern Europe
Philbrick, C. R.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Grossmann, K. U.; Lange, G.; Offermann, D.; Baker, K. D.; Krankowsky, D.; von Zahn, U.
1985-03-01
During the Energy Budget Campaign, a number of profiles of the density and temperature were obtained to study the structure and variability of the atmosphere. The measurements were made using rocketborne instrumentation launched from Esrange, Sweden, and Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, during November and December 1980. The techniques included meteorological temperature sondes, passive falling sphere, accelerometer instrumented falling spheres, density gauges, mass spectrometers and infrared emission experiments. The instruments provided data covering the altitude range from 20 to 150 km. The measurements were made during periods which have been grouped into three categories by level of geomagnetic activity. Analysis has been made to compare the results and to examine the wave features and variations in the vertical profiles for scales ranging between hundreds of meters and tens of kilometers. Most of the features observed fit qualitatively within the range expected for internal gravity waves. However, the features in the profiles during one of the measurement periods are unusual and may be due to aurorally generated shock waves. The geomagnetic storm conditions caused temperature increases in the lower thermosphere which maximized in the 120-140 km region.
Effect of tool eccentricity on surface periodic banded structures in friction stir welding
Guo, N.; Wang, M. R.; Meng, Q.; Zhou, L.; Tang, D. Y.
2015-12-01
This paper describes the relationship between tool eccentricity and surface formation of periodic banded structures in friction stir welding. Motion characteristics of welding tool are calculated to explore the forming mechanism of banded structures. The results reveal that the welding tool motion differences on advancing side and retreating side caused by eccentricity are crucial for the formation of banded structures. The crests and troughs of banded structures form during tool motion on retreating side and advancing side, respectively.
Band Structure and Transport Properties of $CrO_{2}$
Lewis, S P; Sasaki, T; Lewis, Steven P.; Allen, Phillip B.; Sasaki, Taizo
1996-01-01
Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA) is used to calculate the energy bands of both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of metallic CrO_2. The Fermi level lies in a peak in the paramagnetic density of states, and the ferromagnetic phase is more stable. As first predicted by Schwarz, the magnetic moment is 2 \\mu_B per Cr atom, with the Fermi level for minority spins lying in an insulating gap between oxygen p and chromium d states ("half-metallic" behavior.) The A_1g Raman frequency is predicted to be 587 cm^{-1}. Drude plasma frequencies are of order 2eV, as seen experimentally by Chase. The measured resistivity is used to find the electron mean-free path l, which is only a few angstroms at 600K, but nevertheless, resistivity continues to rise as temperature increases. This puts CrO_2 into the category of "bad metals" in common with the high T_c superconductors, the high T metallic phase of VO_2, and the ferromagnet SrRuO_3. In common with both SrRuO_3 and Sr_2RuO_4, the measured specific heat \\gamma ...
Direct carrier multiplication (DCM) occurs when a highly excited electron-hole pair decays by transferring its excess energy to the electrons rather than to the lattice, possibly exciting additional electron-hole pairs. Atomistic electronic structure calculations have shown that DCM can be induced by electron-hole Coulomb interactions, in an impact-ionization-like process whose rate is proportional to the density of biexciton states ?XX. Here we introduce a DCM 'figure of merit' R2(E) which is proportional to the ratio between the biexciton density of states ?XX and the single-exciton density of states ?x, restricted to single-exciton and biexciton states that are coupled by Coulomb interactions. Using R2(E), we consider GaAs, InAs, InP, GaSb, InSb, CdSe, Ge, Si, and PbSe nanocrystals of different sizes. Although DCM can be affected by both quantum-confinement effects (reflecting the underly electronic structure of the confined dot-interior states) and surface effects, here we are interested to isolate the former. To this end the nanocrystal energy levels are obtained from the corresponding bulk band structure via the truncated crystal approximation. We find that PbSe, Si, GaAs, CdSe, and InP nanocrystals have larger DCM figure of merit than the other nanocrystals. Our calculations suggest that high DCM efficiency requires high degeneracy of the corresponding bulk band-edge states. Interestingly, by considering band structure effects we find that as the dot size increases the DCM critical energy E0 (the energy at which R2(E) becomes (ge)1) is reduced, suggesting improved DCM. However, whether the normalized E0/(varepsilon)g increases or decreases as the dot size increases depends on dot material
Zerveas, George; Caruso, Enrico; Baccarani, Giorgio; Czornomaz, Lukas; Daix, Nicolas; Esseni, David; Gnani, Elena; Gnudi, Antonio; Grassi, Roberto; Luisier, Mathieu; Markussen, Troels; Osgnach, Patrik; Palestri, Pierpaolo; Schenk, Andreas; Selmi, Luca; Sousa, Marilyne; Stokbro, Kurt; Visciarelli, Michele
2016-01-01
We present and thoroughly compare band-structures computed with density functional theory, tight-binding, k p and non-parabolic effective mass models. Parameter sets for the non-parabolic ?, the L and X valleys and intervalley bandgaps are extracted for bulk InAs, GaAs and InGaAs. We then consider quantum-wells with thickness ranging from 3 nm to 10 nm and the bandgap dependence on film thickness is compared with experiments for In0.53Ga0.47 As quantum-wells. The impact of the band-structure on the drain current of nanoscale MOSFETs is simulated with ballistic transport models, the results provide a rigorous assessment of III-V semiconductor band structure calculation methods and calibrated band parameters for device simulations.
Systematic design of phononic band-gap materials and structures by topology optimization
Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Sndergaard
2003-01-01
design and optimize periodic materials and structures exhibiting phononic band gaps. Firstly, we optimize infinitely periodic band-gap materials by maximizing the relative size of the band gaps. Then, finite structures subjected to periodic loading are optimized in order to either minimize the structural...
Karakalos, S.; Ladas, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras and FORTH/ICE-HT, POB 1414, 26504 Rion (Patras) (Greece); Janecek, P.; Sutara, F.; Nehasil, V. [Department of Electronic and Vacuum Physics, Charles University, V.Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Tsud, N. [Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, 34012 Basovizza-Trieste (Italy); Prince, K. [Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, 34012 Basovizza-Trieste (Italy); INFM, Laboratorio TASC, in Area Science Park, Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, 34012 Basovizza-Trieste (Italy); Matolin, V. [Department of Electronic and Vacuum Physics, Charles University, V.Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Chab, V. [Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Cucrovarnicka 10, 16200 Prague (Czech Republic); Papanicolaou, N.I. [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, P.O. Box 1186, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)], E-mail: nikpap@uoi.gr; Dianat, A.; Gross, A. [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)
2008-03-31
Photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation and ab-initio electronic structure calculations were used in order to describe the fine structure of the valence band in the Sn/Ni(111) system. The characteristic contributions of each metal in the valence band photoemission spectra obtained with a photon energy of 80 eV and their changes upon the formation of the ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{sup o} Sn/Ni(111) surface alloy were also born out in the calculated density-of-states curves in fair agreement with the experiments. The Sn-Ni interaction leads to a considerable broadening of the valence band width at the bimetallic surfaces.
Structure of negative parity yrast bands in odd mass 125-131Ce nuclei
Arun Bharti; Suram Singh; S K Khosa
2010-04-01
The negative parity yrast bands of neutron-deficient 125-131Ce nuclei are studied by using the projected shell model approach. Energy levels, transition energies and (1)/(2) ratios are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. The calculations reproduce the band-head spins of negative parity yrast bands and indicate the multi-quasiparticle structure for these bands.
The photonic band gap of obliquely incident terahertz electromagnetic waves in a one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal is studied. The periodic structure consists of lossless dielectric and inhomogeneous plasma with a parabolic density profile. The dispersion relation and the THz wave transmittance are analyzed based on the electromagnetic equations and transfer matrix method. The dependence of effective plasma frequency and photonic band gap characteristics on dielectric and plasma thickness, plasma density, and incident angle are discussed in detail. A theoretical calculation for effective plasma frequency is presented and compared with numerical results. Results of these two methods are in good agreement
Askari, Nasim; Mirzaie, Reza; Eslami, Esmaeil
2015-11-01
The photonic band gap of obliquely incident terahertz electromagnetic waves in a one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal is studied. The periodic structure consists of lossless dielectric and inhomogeneous plasma with a parabolic density profile. The dispersion relation and the THz wave transmittance are analyzed based on the electromagnetic equations and transfer matrix method. The dependence of effective plasma frequency and photonic band gap characteristics on dielectric and plasma thickness, plasma density, and incident angle are discussed in detail. A theoretical calculation for effective plasma frequency is presented and compared with numerical results. Results of these two methods are in good agreement.
Electronic band structure and optical properties of ferroelectric TGS, TGSe and TGFB crystals
Structural and electronic properties of the ferroelectric TGS, TGSe and TGFB crystals were studied by the ab initio method in the framework of the density functional theory. Equation of state (total energy vs. unit cell volume), band structure, density of electronic states and dielectric functions in the range of valence electrons excitations have been calculated using the plane waves and pseudopotentials. The comparable structural and electronic characteristics of TGS, TGSe and TGFB crystals are obtained for the first time and discussed in relation to the reference experimental data. The semiempirical dispersion-correction approach implemented in CASTEP code has been applied to the materials studied and has been shown to produce results more close to the experimental data. Correlation of the total energy difference Ep – Ef for paraelectric and ferroelectric phases and Curie temperatures of the ferroelectric phase transitions has been revealed for TGS, TGSe and TGFB crystals, that was not reported before. - Highlights: • Band structure of the crystals studied are calculated with dispersion corrections. • Correlation between total energy differences and Curie temperatures has been found. • Influence of the lone electron pairs of oxygen have been studied in TGS and TGSe. • Differences of dielectric functions of TGS, TGSe, and TGFB are explained
A Brief Introduction to Band Structure in Three Dimensions
Iannucci, Peter
2011-01-01
Without our ability to model and manipulate the band structure of semiconducting materials, the modern digital computer would be impractically large, hot, and expensive. In the undergraduate QM curriculum, we studied the effect of spatially periodic potentials on the spectrum of a charged particle in one dimension. We would like to understand how to extend these methods to model actual crystalline materials. Along the way, we will explore the construction of periodic potentials in three dimensions, and we use this framework to relate the single-particle Hamiltonian to the potential contribution from each atom. We then construct a crude model system analogous to the semiconductor silicon, and demonstrate the appearance of level splitting and band gaps as the strength of the potential is varied, in accordance with our intuition from the one-dimensional case. We discuss refinements of the model to include many-particle effects, and finally we show how a careful choice of the potential function leads to good agre...
Density functional study of the structure, thermodynamics and electronic properties of CdGeAs2
Structural, thermodynamic and electronic properties of CdGeAs2 with chalcopyrite structure are investigated in the framework of density functional theory. We employ the linear combination of atomic orbitals method with the Gaussian basis sets and present the results for the equation of state, the Grueneisen constant, the electronic band structure and the pressure coefficients of the valence and conduction levels in CdGeAs2. (author)
The state of bistable defects in crystalline silicon such as iron-boron pairs or the boron-oxygen defect can be changed at room temperature. In this letter, we experimentally demonstrate that the chemical state of a group of defects can be changed to represent a bit of information. The state can then be read without direct contact via the intensity of the emitted band-band photoluminescence signal of the group of defects, via their impact on the carrier lifetime. The theoretical limit of the information density is then computed. The information density is shown to be low for two-dimensional storage but significant for three-dimensional data storage. Finally, we compute the maximum storage capacity as a function of the lower limit of the photoluminescence detector sensitivity
Photonic band gaps in three-dimensional network structures with short-range order
We present a systematic study of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in three-dimensional (3D) photonic amorphous structures (PASs) with short-range order. From calculations of the density of optical states (DOS) for PASs with different topologies, we find that tetrahedrally connected dielectric networks produce the largest isotropic PBGs. Local uniformity and tetrahedral order are essential to the formation of PBGs in PASs, in addition to short-range geometric order. This work demonstrates that it is possible to create broad, isotropic PBGs for vector light fields in 3D PASs without long-range order.
Influence of Structural Parameters on a Novel Metamaterial Absorber Structure at K-band Frequency
Cuong, Tran Manh; Thuy, Nguyen Thi; Tuan, Le Anh
2016-05-01
Metamaterials nowadays continue to gain attention thanks to their special electromagnetic characteristics. An increasing number of studies are being conducted on the absolute electromagnetic absorber configurations of high impedance surface materials at a certain frequency band. These configurations are usually fabricated with a layer of metal structure based on a dielectric sheet. In this study, we present an optimal design of a novel electromagnetic absorber metamaterial configuration working at a 23-GHz frequency range (K band).
Measured intrinsic defect density throughout the entire band gap at the Si/SiO2 interface
Sands, D.; Brunson, K. M.; Tayarani-Najaran, M. H.
1992-08-01
Conductance-frequency measurements down to temperatures of 100 K have been performed on both p-type and n-type silicon oxidized in dry oxygen at 900 degrees C. The metal electrode capacitors used were not given a post-metallization anneal in forming gas. This has allowed measurements of the intrinsic density of states, capture cross section, and surface potential fluctuations to within 0.06 eV of the band edges. Two peaks in the defect density at energies of 0.3 eV and 0.85 eV above the valence band are clearly visible above an asymmetric background, which rises rapidly towards the conduction band edge. The capture cross section is near constant at approximately 1016 cm2 across the gap and independent of temperature. The surface potential fluctuations reveal a peak value of approximately 70 meV centred at 0.4 eV above the valence band superimposed on a constant background of approximately 40 meV. The authors attribute the peaks in the density of states to the amphoteric trivalent silicon Pb centres. The probable causes of the asymmetric background are either the tail of a defect peak centred around the conduction band edge, or states descending from the conduction band induced by stress within the oxide.
Band structure and optical functions of K2ZnCl4 crystals in ferroelectric phase
Band electronic structure (BS), density of states (DOS), and optical functions of K2ZnCl4 crystal for the orthorhombic space group of symmetry Pna21 corresponding to the ferroelectric phase (12 formula units in the crystallographic unit cell) have been calculated for the first time using the density functional theory based code VASP (Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Program). The valence-to-conduction band gap Eg of the crystal is found to be direct in the Γ-point of Brillouin zone. The effective masses m* have been calculated for the top valence and bottom conduction bands for different points and directions of Brillouin zone of the crystal and the results obtained have been analyzed. Peculiarities of the photon energy dependences n(E) and k(E) of refractive (n) and absorption (k) indices obtained in the range 0-28 eV have been identified on the basis of BS and DOS of the crystal. Calculated optical functions agree satisfactorily with the experimental data n(E) in the range of crystal's transparency, E < 5 eV.
Photonic band gaps with layer-by-layer double-etched structures
Periodic layer-by-layer dielectric structures with full three-dimensional photonic band gaps have been designed and fabricated. In contrast to previous layer-by-layer structures the rods in each successive layer are at an angle of 70.5 degree to each other, achieved by etching both sides of a silicon wafer. Photonic band-structure calculations are utilized to optimize the photonic band gap by varying the structural geometry. The structure has been fabricated by double etching Si wafers producing millimeter wave photonic band gaps between 300 and 500 GHz, in excellent agreement with band calculations. Overetching this structure produces a multiply connected geometry and increases both the size and frequency of the photonic band gap, in very good agreement with experimental measurements. This new robust double-etched structure doubles the frequency possible from a single Si wafer, and can be scaled to produced band gaps at higher frequencies. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Computing the band structure and energy gap of penta-graphene by using DFT and G0W0 approximations
Einollahzadeh, H.; Dariani, R. S.; Fazeli, S. M.
2016-03-01
In this paper, we consider the optimum coordinate of the penta-graphene. Penta-graphene is a new stable carbon allotrope which is stronger than graphene. Here, we compare the band gap of penta-graphene with various density functional theory (DFT) methods. We plot the band structure of penta-graphene which calculated with the generalized gradient approximation functional HTCH407, about Fermi energy. Then, one-shot GW (G0W0) correction for precise computations of band structure is applied. Quasi-direct band gap of penta-graphene is obtained around 4.1-4.3 eV by G0W0 correction. Penta-graphene is an insulator and can be expected to have broad applications in future, especially in nanoelectronics and nanomechanics.
Nuclear energy density optimization: Shell structure
Kortelainen, M; Nazarewicz, W; Olsen, E; Reinhard, P -G; Sarich, J; Schunck, N; Wild, S M; Davesne, D; Erler, J; Pastore, A
2013-01-01
Nuclear density functional theory is the only microscopical theory that can be applied throughout the entire nuclear landscape. Its key ingredient is the energy density functional. In this work, we propose a new parameterization UNEDF2 of the local Skyrme energy density functional. The functional optimization is carried out using the POUNDerS optimization algorithm within the framework of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory. Compared to the previous parameterization UNEDF1, restrictions on the tensor term of the energy density have been lifted, yielding the most general form of the Skyrme energy density functional up to second order in derivatives of the one-body local density. In order to impose constraints on all the parameters of the functional, selected data on single-particle splittings in spherical doubly-magic nuclei have been included into the experimental dataset. The agreement with both bulk and spectroscopic nuclear properties achieved by the resulting UNEDF2 parameterization is comparable wi...
The papers connected with the calculation of the energetic band structure of elements of the beginning and the end of the third transition period, such as Lu, Hf, Ir, Pt and Au, are considered. It is noted that the best agreement between theoretical and experimental ata is observed in casds when the crystalline potential is plotted on relativistic wave functions with complete Slater exchange. The application of the relativistic method of attached flat waves to calculate band structure and partial densities of transition metal states is considered. The effect of relativistic effects on the energetic band structure and energy distribution of complete and partical densities of states of the elements of the third transition period is discussed
Hyperspectral bands prediction based on inter-band spectral correlation structure
Ahmed, Ayman M.; Sharkawy, Mohamed El.; Elramly, Salwa H.
2013-02-01
Hyperspectral imaging has been widely studied in many applications; notably in climate changes, vegetation, and desert studies. However, such kind of imaging brings a huge amount of data, which requires transmission, processing, and storage resources for both airborne and spaceborne imaging. Compression of hyperspectral data cubes is an effective solution for these problems. Lossless compression of the hyperspectral data usually results in low compression ratio, which may not meet the available resources; on the other hand, lossy compression may give the desired ratio, but with a significant degradation effect on object identification performance of the hyperspectral data. Moreover, most hyperspectral data compression techniques exploits the similarities in spectral dimensions; which requires bands reordering or regrouping, to make use of the spectral redundancy. In this paper, we analyze the spectral cross correlation between bands for AVIRIS and Hyperion hyperspectral data; spectral cross correlation matrix is calculated, assessing the strength of the spectral matrix, we propose new technique to find highly correlated groups of bands in the hyperspectral data cube based on "inter band correlation square", and finally, we propose a new technique of band regrouping based on correlation values weights for different group of bands as network of correlation.
Experimental determination of the band structure of photonic crystals of colloidal silica spheres
A photonic band structure of colloidal crystals of silica spheres is analytically determined by a band model with three fitting parameters: the sphere size, the effective refractive index, and the band-gap. Optical properties of the crystals annealed at various temperatures were characterized by a procedure similar to X-ray diffraction technique, and the width of photonic band-gap measured from the transmission spectra experimentally servers as an additional check on the validation of the model. The photonic band structures defined by the band-gap, the refractive index, and the Brillouin zone are obviously superior to the use of the Bragg's expression involving simple zone folding.
DeHaas-vanAlphen Effect and LMTO Band-structure of LaSn3
Boulet, R. M.; Jan, J. -P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt
1982-01-01
Results of de Haas-van Alphen experiments in the intermetallic compound LaSn3 can be explained by a linear muffin-tin orbital band structure calculation without involving the f bands of lanthanum.......Results of de Haas-van Alphen experiments in the intermetallic compound LaSn3 can be explained by a linear muffin-tin orbital band structure calculation without involving the f bands of lanthanum....
The effects of band structure on recombination processes in narrow gap materials and laser diodes
The work described in this thesis investigates the effects of band structure modifications, brought about by Landau confinement, hydrostatic pressure and uniaxial stress, on recombination processes in narrow-gap materials and laser diodes. The effects of Landau confinement on the characteristics of InSb-based emission devices operating at a wavelength of ∼5μm at 77K were studied. The change in performance due to the magnetic field applied along both the cavity and the growth direction and thereby simulating quasi-quantum wire and quasi-quantum dot structures clearly demonstrated the benefits, such as reduced threshold and temperature sensitivity, gained by the reduced dimensionality. On the other hand, suppression of LO-phonon emission due to the discrete nature of the density of states was observed, for the first time, in an interband laser device. Interband recombination dynamics were studied in In1-xGaxSb and PbSe over a range of excited carrier densities and temperatures down to 30K. Detailed analysis of the results found that the Auger-1 mechanism is reduced in In1-xGaxSb as a function of Ga-fraction due to the increased bandgap energy, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. In PbSe, the Auger-1 rate was observed to dominate at low excited carrier concentrations in spite of near-mirror bands, and was found to be approximately constant between 300K and 70K and was seen to be quenched in the low temperature regime. Stimulated emission was seen to be the most efficient recombination mechanism at high excited carrier densities at low temperatures. The Auger coefficient in PbSe was found to be one to two orders of magnitude lower than for materials with a Kane band structure (Hg1-xCdxTe) with comparable bandgap. An experimental technique was developed which enables measurements at high hydrostatic pressures and high magnetic fields at low temperatures. Hydrostatic pressures were applied to a 1.5μm laser diode at different temperatures revealing the effects of pressure on the band structure and hence the laser characteristics. A visible laser diode was measured under the simultaneous application of hydrostatic pressure and uniaxial stress. The change in performance was satisfactorily explained in terms of leakage of carriers into the X-minimum in the cladding region, the process that has been suspected of being one of the major loss mechanisms in visible laser diodes. (author)
Handbook of the band structure of elemental solids from Z = 1 to Z = 112
Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitris A
2015-01-01
This handbook presents electronic structure data and tabulations of Slater-Koster parameters for the whole periodic table. This second edition presents data sets for all elements up to Z = 112, Copernicium, whereas the first edition contained only 53 elements. In this new edition, results are given for the equation of state of the elements together with the parameters of a Birch fit, so that the reader can regenerate the results and derive additional information, such as Pressure-Volume relations and variation of Bulk Modulus with Pressure. For each element, in addition to the equation of state, the energy bands, densities of states, and a set of tight-binding parameters is provided. For a majority of elements, the tight-binding parameters are presented for both a two- and three-center approximation. For the hcp structure, new three-center tight-binding results are given. Other new material in this edition include: energy bands and densities of states of all rare-earth metals, a discussion of the McMillan-Gas...
Band structures of ZnTe:O alloys with isolated oxygen and with clustered oxygen impurities
Highlights: • Band structures of ZnTe:O alloy highly depends on the status of oxygen. • Clustered oxygen lowers the bandgap while isolated oxygen increases the bandgap. • The solar adsorption efficiency of ZnTe:O can be improved by oxygen clustering. -- Abstract: First-principles calculations reveal that band structures of ZnTe:O alloys highly depend on the configuration of oxygen in the alloy. For alloys with isolated oxygen, the calculated band structure shows the formation of intermediate states between valence and conduction band and the shift of conduction band to higher energy level. It expands the gap between valence and conduction band. For alloys with clustered oxygen, the formation of intermediate band is still observed, while the gap between valence and conduction band is decreased. For alloys with oxygen impurities adjacent to Zn vacancy, the band structure only shows the decrease of the gap between valence and conduction band without the formation of any intermediate band. These results suggest the critical role of Zn–O bonding in determining the energy level of the impurity states. On the basis of our results, a possible band engineering approach is suggested in order to improve the performance of ZnTe:O alloy as intermediate band solar adsorbent
Self-consistent band structure of the rutile dioxides NbO2, RuO2, and IrO2
Xu, J. H.; Jarlborg, T.; Freeman, A. J.
1989-10-01
The electronic structures of the rutile dioxides NbO2, RuO2, and IrO2 have been determined from self-consistent semirelativistic linear muffin-tin-orbital band calculations. The basis set is completed with s and p functions from ``empty spheres'' inserted in the open parts of the structure. The band results are analyzed in terms of Fermi-surface features, band positions, x-ray photoemission spectra, and joint density-of-state functions. Comparisons with available experimental data are, in general, favorable. In particular, the effects from self-consistency are pointed out by comparison with earlier non-self-consistent band results.
Electron densities and chemical bonding in TiC, TiN and TiO derived from energy band calculations
It was the aim of this paper to describe the chemical bonding of TiC, TiN and TiO by means of energy bands and electron densities. Using the respective potentials we have calculated the bandstructure of a finer k-grid with the linearized APW method to obtain accurate densities of states (DOS). These DOS wer partitioned into local partial contributions and the metal d DOS were further decomposed into tsub(2g) and esub(g) symmetry components in order to additionally characterize bonding. The electron densities corresponding to the occupied valence states are obtained from the LAPW calculations. They provide further insight into characteristic trends in the series from TiC to TiO: around the nonmetal site the density shows increasing localisation; around the metal site the deviation from spherical symmetry changes from esub(g) to tsub(2g). Electron density plots of characteristic band states allow to describe different types of bonding occurring in these systems. For TiC and TiN recent measurements of the electron densities exist for samples of TiCsub(0.94) and TiNsub(0.99), where defects cause static displacements of the Ti atoms. If this effect can be compensated by an atomic model one hopefully can extrapolate to stoichiometric composition. This procedure allows a comparison with structure factors derived from theoretical electron densities. The agreement for TiN is very good. For TiC the extrapolated data agree in terms of the deviations from spherical symmetry near the Ti site with the LAPW data, but the densities around both atoms are more localized than in theory. An explanation could be: a) the defects affect the electronic structure in TiCsub(0.94) with respect to TiCsub(1.0): b) the applied atomic model does not properly extrapolate to stoichiometry, because parameters of this model correlate or become unphysical. (Author)
Rietveld analysis and electronic bands structure on Tc superconductors systems
A procedure for simultaneous refinement of structural and micro-structural disorder parameters for polycrystalline YBa2Cu3O7-x system is proposed. It is based on Rietveld method combined with Fourier analysis for broadened peaks Another purpose of this paper consists in electronic structure determination studied by using the self-consistent Tight Binding Linear Muffin-Tin Orbital Atomic Spheres Approximation TB-LMTO-ASA methods. The Rietveld method uses an analytical function that describes the profiles, usually pseudo-Voigt (pV) or Pearson VII (PVII). The parameters of the analytical profiles describe its amplitude, position and peak shape. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) is supposed to vary with the diffraction angle in agreement with the Caglioti, Paoletti and Ricci's relationship. The best structural parameters are determined in the least squares sense by the minimisation a classical residual using the Marquardt method. In this case, the peak profiles were modelled by the pseudo-Voigt function corrected by the instrumental asymmetry. The physical information obtained are: scale factor, lattice parameters, atomic position and displacements, atomic occupation numbers, temperature factor (isotropy or anisotropy), preferred orientation parameter, crystalline size and micro-strain along different crystallographic directions, distributions of crystallite size and micro-strain functions. This procedure was implemented on computer code and it has a friendly graphical interface based on pull down menus technique. From the experimental point of view the X-ray diffraction data were collected using a horizontal powder diffractometer in the Bragg-Brentano (BB) geometry with a Ni filtered CuKα, λ = 1.54178 A, at room temperature using a DRON 2 set-up. The diffraction profiles were measured with a proportional gas detector, a single channel pulse-height discrimination and a standard associated counting circuit. The electronic band calculations are based on the TB-LMTO program version 47 under 2.03 LINUX operating system version. The main steps of our calculations are: the generation of the overlapping potentials from the atomic Hartree potentials and the finding of the MT-radii, the calculation and drawing of the sphere overlaps, the finding of the interstitial spheres, the generation of the structure constants and the performing of self-consistent calculations. The LMTO method can be regarded as an LCAO (linear combination atomic orbitals) formalism in which the muffin-tin potential (MT), rather than the atomic potential, defines the set of basis functions used to construct the trial functions of the variational procedure. (authors)
Global Kinetic Modeling of Banded Electron Structures in the Plasmasphere
Liemohn, M. W.; Khazanov, G. V.
1997-01-01
Significant fluxes of 10 eV to 30 keV electrons have been detected in the plasmasphere, appearing as banded structures in energy with broad spatial extents and slowly evolving over several days. It is thought that these populations are decaying plasma sheet electrons injected into the corotating region of near-Earth space. This capture can occur when the convective electric field drops rapidly and the Alfven boundary suddenly outward, trapping the inner edge of the plasma sheet along closed drift paths. Our bounce-averaged kinetic model of superthermal electron transport is able to simulate this capture and the subsequent drift, diffusion, and decay of the plasma cloud. Results of this simulation will be shown and discussed, from the initial injection during the elevated convection to the final loss of the particles. It is thought that not only Coulomb collisions but also wave-particle interactions play a significant role in altering the plasma cloud. Quasilinear diffusion is currently being incorporated into the model and the importance of this mechanism will be examined. Also, the high anisotropy of the trapped population could be unstable and generate plasma waves. These and other processes will be investigated to determine the final fate of the cloud and to quantify where, how, and when the energy of the plasma cloud is deposited. Comparisons with CRRES observations of these events are shown to verify the model and explain the data.
Refractory Coated/Lined Low Density Structures Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses the development of refractory coated or lined low density structures applicable for advanced future propulsion system technologies. The...
Band Structure and Fermi-Surface Properties of Ordered beta-Brass
Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Christensen, N. E.
1973-01-01
The band structure of ordered β-brass (β′-CuZn) has been calculated throughout the Brillouin zone by the augmented-plane-wave method. The present band model differs from previous calculations with respect to the position and width of the Cu 3d band. The derived dielectric function ε2(ω) and the...
Band structure, metallization and superconductivity of GaP and GaN under high pressure
The electronic band structure, metallization, structural phase transition and superconductivity of cubic zinc blende-type GaP and GaN are investigated. The equilibrium lattice constant, bulk modulus and pressure at which the compounds undergo a structural phase transition from ZnS structure to NaCl structure are predicted from the total energy calculations. The density of states at the Fermi level (N(EF)) is enhanced after metallization, which leads to the superconductivity in GaP and GaN. The superconducting transition temperatures (Tc) of GaP and GaN are obtained as a function of pressure for both the ZnS and NaCl structures and GaP and GaN come under the category of pressure-induced superconductors. When pressure is increased Tc increases in both the normal and high-pressure structures. The dependence of Tc on the electron-phonon mass enhancement factor λ shows that GaP and GaN are electron-phonon-mediated superconductors. Also, it is found that GaP and GaN retained in their normal structure under high pressure give appreciably high Tc. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Electronic band structures and photovoltaic properties of MWO4 (M=Zn, Mg, Ca, Sr) compounds
Divalent metal tungstates, MWO4, with wolframite (M=Zn and Mg) and scheelite (M=Ca and Sr) structures were prepared using a conventional solid state reaction method. Their electronic band structures were investigated by a combination of electronic band structure calculations and electrochemical measurements. From these investigations, it was found that the band structures (i.e. band positions and band gaps) of the divalent metal tungstates were significantly influenced by their crystal structural environments, such as the W-O bond length. Their photovoltaic properties were evaluated by applying to the working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The dye-sensitized solar cells employing the wolframite-structured metal tungstates (ZnWO4 and MgWO4) exhibited better performance than those using the scheelite-structured metal tungstates (CaWO4 and SrWO4), which was attributed to their enhanced electron transfer resulting from their appropriate band positions. - Graphical abstract: The electronic band structures of divalent metal tungstates are described from the combination of experimental results and theoretical calculations, and their electronic structure-dependent photovoltaic performances are also studied. Highlights: ? MWO4 compounds with wolframite (M=Zn and Mg) and scheelite structure (M=Ca and Sr) were prepared. ? Their electronic band structures were investigated by the calculations and the measurements. ? Their photovoltaic properties were determined by the crystal and electronic structures.
SGFM applied to the calculation of surface band structure of V
The surface Green function matching (SGFM) method has been developed recently to deal with a great variety of problems in a unified way. The method was first developed for continuum systems. The recent advances for discrete structures can deal with surfaces, interfaces, quantum wells, superlattices, intercalated layered compounds, and other systems. Several applications of this formalism are being carried out. In the present note we will describe how the formalism applies to the calculation of the electronic surface band structure of vanadium which is a quite interesting transition metal with very active magnetic properties at the surface, in particular at the (100) surface. It is straightforward, on the basis of the calculation presented here, to obtain the magnetic moment on the surface, for example, through the method followed by G. Allan or the surface paramagnon density which should be particularly enhanced at this surface as compared to the bulk
Çakan, Aslı; Sevik, Cem; Bulutay, Ceyhun
2016-03-01
The properties of a semiconductor are drastically modified when the crystal point group symmetry is broken under an arbitrary strain. We investigate the family of semiconductors consisting of GaAs, GaSb, InAs and InSb, considering their electronic band structure and deformation potentials subject to various strains based on hybrid density functional theory. Guided by these first-principles results, we develop strain-compliant local pseudopotentials for use in the empirical pseudopotential method (EPM). We demonstrate that the newly proposed empirical pseudopotentials perform well close to band edges and under anisotropic crystal deformations. Using the EPM, we explore the heavy hole-light hole mixing characteristics under different stress directions, which may be useful in manipulating their transport properties and optical selection rules. The very low 5 Ry cutoff targeted in the generated pseudopotentials paves the way for large-scale EPM-based electronic structure computations involving these lattice mismatched constituents.
Conduction-band edge and Shubnikov-de Haas effect in low-electron-density SrTiO3
Allen, S. James; Jalan, Bharat; Lee, SungBin; Ouellette, Daniel G.; Khalsa, Guru; Jaroszynski, Jan; Stemmer, Susanne; MacDonald, Allan H.
2013-07-01
The Shubnikov-de Haas effect is used to explore the conduction-band edge of high mobility SrTiO3 films doped with La. The results largely confirm the earlier measurements by Uwe [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.0021-492210.1143/JJAP.24.L335 24 (Suppl. 24-2), 335 (1985)]. The band edge dispersion differs significantly from the predictions of ab initio electronic structure theory.
Novel semiconductor solar cell structures: The quantum dot intermediate band solar cell
The Quantum Dot Intermediate Band Solar Cell (QD-IBSC) has been proposed for studying experimentally the operating principles of a generic class of photovoltaic devices, the intermediate band solar cells (IBSC). The performance of an IBSC is based on the properties of a semiconductor-like material which is characterised by the existence of an intermediate band (IB) located within what would otherwise be its conventional bandgap. The improvement in efficiency of the cell arises from its potential (i) to absorb below bandgap energy photons and thus produce additional photocurrent, and (ii) to inject this enhanced photocurrent without degrading its output photo-voltage. The implementation of the IBSC using quantum dots (QDs) takes advantage of the discrete nature of the carrier density of states in a 0-dimensional nano-structure, an essential property for realising the IB concept. In the QD-IBSC, the IB arises from the confined electron states in an array of quantum dots. This paper reviews the operation of the first prototype QD-IBSCs and discusses some of the lessons learnt from their characterisation
Novel semiconductor solar cell structures: The quantum dot intermediate band solar cell
Marti, A. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: amarti@etsit.upm.es; Lopez, N. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Antolin, E. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Canovas, E. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Stanley, C. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Farmer, C. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Cuadra, L. [Departamento de Teoria de la Senal y Comunicaciones- Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, km. 33600, 28805-Alcala de Henares (Madrid) (Spain); Luque, A. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2006-07-26
The Quantum Dot Intermediate Band Solar Cell (QD-IBSC) has been proposed for studying experimentally the operating principles of a generic class of photovoltaic devices, the intermediate band solar cells (IBSC). The performance of an IBSC is based on the properties of a semiconductor-like material which is characterised by the existence of an intermediate band (IB) located within what would otherwise be its conventional bandgap. The improvement in efficiency of the cell arises from its potential (i) to absorb below bandgap energy photons and thus produce additional photocurrent, and (ii) to inject this enhanced photocurrent without degrading its output photo-voltage. The implementation of the IBSC using quantum dots (QDs) takes advantage of the discrete nature of the carrier density of states in a 0-dimensional nano-structure, an essential property for realising the IB concept. In the QD-IBSC, the IB arises from the confined electron states in an array of quantum dots. This paper reviews the operation of the first prototype QD-IBSCs and discusses some of the lessons learnt from their characterisation.
Mutual influence of structural distortion and superconductivity in systems with degenerate bands
Ghosh, Haranath; Behera, S N; Ghatak, S. K; Ray, D K
1996-01-01
The interplay between the band Jahn-Teller distortion and the superconductivity is studied for the system whose Fermi level lies in two-fold degenerate band. Assuming that the lattice distortion is coupled to the orbital electron density and the superconductivity arises due to BCS pairing mechanism between the electrons, the phase diagram is obtained for different doping with respect to half-filled band situation. The coexistence phase of superconductivity and distortion occurs within limited...
Crystal structure and band gap studies of sodalite: experimental and calculated results
Pan, Lijun; Liu, Wanchao; Chen, Weiguang; Yan, Kun; Yang, Huizhi; Yu, Jia
2016-02-01
In this paper, we investigated the crystal structural properties of sodalite sample by X-ray diffraction and the band gap studies by means of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and compared with the calculated results using density functional theory. The results of X-ray diffraction suggests that the chemical formula should be Na8(AlSiO6)4(OH)22(H2O). The optimized lattice parameter is found to be larger 0.45% than experimental value and the calculations demonstrated the structural details of the hydrogen bond located in sodalite cage. The hydrogen bond formed by water molecule and hydroxyl is implied from charge distribution analysis. As the rotation angle of O-O lines in hydrogen bond is 51.8, the structure should be of the lowest energy. The optical band gap is measured to be 4.5-4.7eV experimentally, while, the calculated value is 4.16eV which is attributed to the localized state below Fermi level formed by the hydrogen bonds. Our results are favorable for the understanding the role of sodalite in silicate mud and contribute to further disposals and treatments.
Physical properties and electronic band structure of noncentrosymmetric Th7Co3 superconductor
Sahakyan, M.; Tran, V. H.
2016-05-01
The physical properties of the noncentrosymmetric superconductor Th7Co3 have been investigated by means of ac-magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, specific heat, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistance and Hall effect measurements. From these data it is established that Th7Co3 is a dirty type-II superconductor with {{T}\\text{c}}=1.8+/- 0.02 K, Hc2\\text{orb} ∼ 0.23 . The electronic specific heat in the superconducting state is reasonably fitted to an oblate spheroidal gap model. Calculations of scalar relativistic and fully relativistic electronic band structures reveal considerable differences in the degenerate structure, resulting from asymmetric spin–orbit coupling (ASOC). A large splitting energy of spin-up spin-down bands at the Fermi level E F, Δ {{E}\\text{ASOC}}∼ 100 meV is observed and a sizeable ratio Δ {{E}\\text{ASOC}}/{{k}\\text{B}}{{T}\\text{c}}∼ 640 could classify the studied compound into the class of noncentrosymmetric superconductors with strong ASOC. The noncentrosymmetry of the crystal structure and the atomic relativistic effects are both responsible for an importance of ASOC in Th7Co3. The calculated results for the density of states show a Van Hove singularity just below E F and dominant role of the 6d electrons of Th to the superconductivity.
Electronic structure and band parameters for ZnX (X = O, S, Se, Te)
Karazhanov, S Z; Grossner, U; Kjekhus, A; Fjellvag, H; Svensson, B G
2006-01-01
First-principles density-functional calculations have been performed for zinc monochalcogenides with zinc-blende- and wurtzite-type structures. It is shown that the local-density approximation underestimates the band gap, misplaces the energy levels of the Zn-3d states, and overestimates the crystal-field splitting energy. Without spinorbit coupling, the order of the states at the top of VB is found to be normal for all the ZnX phases considered. Upon inclusion of the spinorbit coupling in calculations, ZnO in zinc-blende- and wurtzite-type phases become anomalous. It is shown that the Zn-3d electrons are responsible for the anomalous order. The effective masses of electrons and holes have been calculated and found that holes are much anisotropic and heavier than the electrons in agreement with experimental findings. The typical errors in calculated band gaps and related parameters originate from strong Coulomb correlations, which are found to be highly significant in ZnO. The LDA+U approach is found to corre...
Evolution of band structures in MoS2-based homo- and heterobilayers
Zhu, H. L.; Zhou, C. J.; Huang, X. J.; Wang, X. L.; Xu, H. Z.; Lin, Yong; Yang, W. H.; Wu, Y. P.; Lin, W.; Guo, F.
2016-02-01
Density functional theory calculations have been performed to elucidate the detailed evolution of band structures in MoS2-based homo- and heterobilayers. By constructing the energy-band alignments we observed that biaxial tensile and compressive strain in the constituent transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayer shifts the states at the K C, Q C, and K V points down and up, respectively, while the states at the ΓV point are almost unaltered. In contrast, interlayer coupling tends to modify the states at the ΓV and Q C points by splitting the band-edge states of two strained or unstrained constituent TMD monolayers, while it does not affect the states at the K C and K V points. Considering the combined actions of strain and interlayer coupling, the relevant electronic parameters, especially the detailed evolution processes, of the band structures of the investigated bilayer systems can be clearly described. When further applying the extra biaxial strain to the three bilayer systems, it is found that energy differences ΔE(K C ‑ Q C) and ΔE(K V ‑ ΓV) decrease linearly as the increasing of the biaxial strain. According to the varying trends of ΔE(K C ‑ Q C) and ΔE(K V ‑ ΓV), MoS2 bilayer will maintain the indirect-bandgap character under any compressive or tensile strain. Differently, WS2/MoS2 heterobilayer transforms interestingly to the direct-bandgap material under the strain from ‑1.6% to ‑1.2% with the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum located at the K C and K V point respectively. The direct-to-indirect bandgap transition can be obtained for the WSe2/MoS2 heterobilayer when applying much larger extra tensile or compressive strain. The results offer an effective route to verify and tailor the electronic properties of TMD homo- and heterostructures and can be helpful in evaluating the performance of TMD-based electronic devices.
The magneto-optical properties of semiconductors and the band structure of gallium nitride
This thesis has applied magneto-optical techniques to enable a better understanding of the band structure of gallium nitride, particularly the complex behaviour expected as a result of strong valence band mixing. Effective hole masses are deduced from free excitonic-like transitions observed in magneto-reflectivity, to give a heavy A hole mass of 1.3 mo and the first experimental suggestion of a light B band mass. From the Landau-level-like transitions, once the phonon correction to the electron dispersion is considered, the deduced A valence band dispersion confirms the heavy mass, but also shows a large non-parabolicity. The effect of strain on the valence band is seen through different hole contributions to the g factor in the donor-bound exciton luminescence from heteroepitaxial compared with homoepitaxial material. Not only are the g-factors sensitive to strain, but they also are sensitive to the state of binding, being very different for the B 1s and 2s excitonic states. Despite this, in lower dimensional structures the observation of an enhanced g-factor suggests a re-ordered valence band in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells with respect to GaN epilayers, caused by a reversal of the states in the strained AlxGa1-xN barriers. The role of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarisation was found to be important in both quantitatively understanding the increased exciton binding energy with the reduction of the dimensionality in the wells, and observing a resonant phenomenon from an undoped GaN/AlxGa1-xN single heterojunction. The oscillating peak intensity was understood in terms of the changing screening efficiency of the two-dimensional electron gas. Finally, many-body effects within an electron-hole plasma in lnxAlyGa1-x-yAs quantum wells have been explored to study the effects of mass renormalisation at carrier densities typically present in laser devices. A peak in the mass renormalisation confirms the importance of excitonic correlations in the excited plasma. (author)
Refractory Coated/Lined Low Density Structures Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this proposed effort is the development of refractory coated or lined low density structures. Lightweight structures are desirable for space...
Band-structure calculations and structure-factor estimates of Cu - their complementarity
Rather than an uncritical comparison of experimental and theoretical values, the various sets of structure-factor values of copper metal derived from experimental diffraction procedures are mutally compared as also are the various sets of theoretical values derived from band-structure calculations. This approach reveals the presence of outlier sets in each group and allows recognition of their condition before any attempt is made to intercompare the groups. Within the experimental group, the γ-ray values do not appear to sustain the absolute status originally claimed from them. Within the theoretical group, an inadequacy in defining the core contribution is indicated. The latter conclusion suggests that it is an inappropriate operation to make direct comparison between diffraction-sourced experimental values of structure factors and theoretical values from band-structure calculations. Instead, the latter should be used on a complementary basis with the full (sin θ)/λ range of experimental values to establish the best core contribution. The minor valence-bond contribution to scattering, which is largely restricted to the low (sin θ)/λ region, is most sensitively defined by reference to band-structure prediction of photoemission spectral distribution. Attention is drawn to the possible significance of the form-factor curve versus (sin θ)/λ being dependent on the unit-cell dimension. (orig.)
Band structure of sup 7 sup 9 Br
Ray, I; Bhattacharya, S; Saha-Sarkar, M; Sethi, B; Chatterjee, J M; Chattopadhyay, S; Goswami, A; Muralithar, S; Singh, R P; Bhowmik, R K
1999-01-01
High-spin states of sup 7 sup 9 Br have been studied in the reaction sup 7 sup 6 Ge( sup 7 Li, 4n gamma) at 32 MeV. A gamma-detector array with twelve Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors was used. The positive-parity yrast states, interpreted as a rotationally aligned g sub ( sub 9 sub ( sub 2 sub ) sub ) proton band, and the negative-parity ground state band have been extended to spins of (33(2 sup +)) and (25(2 sup -)), respectively. Lifetime measurements indicate that both bands have a similar quadrupole deformation of beta sub 2 approx 0.2. The positive-parity alpha = -(1(2)) band has been identified. Several new inter-band transitions are observed. A cranked-shell model analysis shows that the nu g sub ( sub 9 sub ( sub 2 sub ) sub ) and pi g sub ( sub 9 sub ( sub 2 sub ) sub ) alignments occur in the positive-parity and the negative-parity bands at rotational frequencies of Planck constant omega approx 0.6 and 0.4 MeV, respectively. The level energies and the electromagnetic properties of the g sub ( sub ...
Enhanced conduction band density of states in intermetallic EuTSi3 (T = Rh, Ir)
Maurya, Arvind; Bonville, P.; Thamizhavel, A.; Dhar, S. K.
2015-09-01
We report on the physical properties of single crystalline EuRhSi3 and polycrystalline EuIrSi3, inferred from magnetization, electrical transport, heat capacity and 151Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy. These previously known compounds crystallise in the tetragonal BaNiSn3-type structure. The single crystal magnetization in EuRhSi3 has a strongly anisotropic behaviour at 2 K with a spin-flop field of 13 T, and we present a model of these magnetic properties which allows the exchange constants to be determined. In both compounds, specific heat shows the presence of a cascade of two close transitions near 50 K, and the 151Eu Mössbauer spectra demonstrate that the intermediate phase has an incommensurate amplitude modulated structure. We find anomalously large values, with respect to other members of the series, for the RKKY Néel temperature, for the spin-flop field (13 T), for the spin-wave gap (≃ 20-25 K) inferred from both resistivity and specific heat data, for the spin-disorder resistivity in EuIrSi3 (≃ 240 μ Ω cm) and for the saturated hyperfine field (52 T). The enhanced values of the quantities that depend on the electronic density of states at the Fermi level, imply that the latter must be strongly enhanced in these two materials. EuIrSi3 exhibits a giant magnetoresistance ratio, with values exceeding 600% at 2 K in a field of 14 T.
Gu, Zhi-Gang; Heinke, Lars; Wöll, Christof; Neumann, Tobias; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Li, Qiang; Fink, Karin; Gordan, Ovidiu D.; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.
2015-11-01
The electronic properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are increasingly attracting the attention due to potential applications in sensor techniques and (micro-) electronic engineering, for instance, as low-k-dielectric in semiconductor technology. Here, the band gap and the band structure of MOFs of type HKUST-1 are studied in detail by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry applied to thin surface-mounted MOF films and by means of quantum chemical calculations. The analysis of the density of states, the band structure, and the excitation spectrum reveal the importance of the empty Cu-3d orbitals for the electronic properties of HKUST-1. This study shows that, in contrast to common belief, even in the case of this fairly "simple" MOF, the excitation spectra cannot be explained by a superposition of "intra-unit" excitations within the individual building blocks. Instead, "inter-unit" excitations also have to be considered.
Gu, Zhi-Gang [Institut für Funktionelle Grenzflächen (IFG), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350002 Fuzhou (China); Heinke, Lars, E-mail: Lars.Heinke@KIT.edu; Wöll, Christof [Institut für Funktionelle Grenzflächen (IFG), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Neumann, Tobias; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Li, Qiang; Fink, Karin [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gordan, Ovidiu D.; Zahn, Dietrich R. T. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)
2015-11-02
The electronic properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are increasingly attracting the attention due to potential applications in sensor techniques and (micro-) electronic engineering, for instance, as low-k-dielectric in semiconductor technology. Here, the band gap and the band structure of MOFs of type HKUST-1 are studied in detail by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry applied to thin surface-mounted MOF films and by means of quantum chemical calculations. The analysis of the density of states, the band structure, and the excitation spectrum reveal the importance of the empty Cu-3d orbitals for the electronic properties of HKUST-1. This study shows that, in contrast to common belief, even in the case of this fairly “simple” MOF, the excitation spectra cannot be explained by a superposition of “intra-unit” excitations within the individual building blocks. Instead, “inter-unit” excitations also have to be considered.
The electronic properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are increasingly attracting the attention due to potential applications in sensor techniques and (micro-) electronic engineering, for instance, as low-k-dielectric in semiconductor technology. Here, the band gap and the band structure of MOFs of type HKUST-1 are studied in detail by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry applied to thin surface-mounted MOF films and by means of quantum chemical calculations. The analysis of the density of states, the band structure, and the excitation spectrum reveal the importance of the empty Cu-3d orbitals for the electronic properties of HKUST-1. This study shows that, in contrast to common belief, even in the case of this fairly “simple” MOF, the excitation spectra cannot be explained by a superposition of “intra-unit” excitations within the individual building blocks. Instead, “inter-unit” excitations also have to be considered
Arpan Deyasi and Gourab Kumar Ghosh
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Transmission coefficient, eigen states and tunneling current density of a potentially symmetric quantum double barrier structure has been numerically computed using transfer matrix technique for qualitative analysis of resonant tunneling probability when realistic band structure of higher band gap material is taken into account. GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs material composition is taken as an example for calculation, and thickness of the barrier and well regions are varied along with material compositions of AlxGa1-xAs to study the effect on electrical parameters; and also to observe the existence of quasi-bound states. Effective mass mismatch at junctions is considered following envelope function approximation, and conduction band discontinuity is taken into account for computational purpose. Under low biasing condition, negative differential regions (NDR can be obtained which speaks in favor of tunneling current.
Insight into the band structure engineering of single-layer SnS2 with in-plane biaxial strain.
Zhou, Wei; Umezawa, Naoto
2016-03-01
The effects of in-plane biaxial strain on the electronic structure of a photofunctional material, single-layer SnS2, were systematically investigated using hybrid density functional calculations. The bonding diagram for the band gap was firstly proposed based on the crystal orbital overlap population analysis. The conduction band-edge of single-layer SnS2 is determined by the anti-bonding interaction between Sn-5s and S-3p orbitals, while the valence band-edge comes from the anti-bonding between the neighboring S atoms. It is found that the compressive strain not only decreases the indirect band gap of single-layer SnS2, but also effectively promotes the band-edges of the conduction band to realize the overall water splitting. Besides, the dispersion of the valence band of single-layer SnS2 becomes weaker with increasing tensile strain which is beneficial for the photo-excitation through direct transitions. PMID:26912413
Density functional theory study of the electronic structure of fluorite Cu2Se
We have investigated the electronic structure of fluorite Cu2Se using density functional theory calculations within the LDA, PBE and AM05 approximations as well as the non-local hybrid PBE0 and HSE approximations. We find that Cu2Se is a zero gap semiconductor when using either a local or semi-local density functional approximation while the PBE0 functional opens up a gap. For the HSE approximation, we find that the presence of a gap depends on the range separation for the non-local exchange. For the occupied part in the density of states we find that LDA, PBE, AM05, PBE0 and HSE agree with regard to the overall electronic structure. However, the hybrid functionals result in peaks shifted towards lower energy compared to LDA, PBE and AM05. The valence bands obtained using the hybrid functionals are in good agreement with experimental valence band spectra. We also find that the PBE, PBE0 and HSE approximations give similar results regarding bulk properties, such as lattice constants and bulk modulus. In addition, we have investigated the localization of the Cu d-states and its effect on the band gap in the material using the LDA + U approach. We find that a sufficiently high U indeed opens up a gap; however, this U leads to valence bands that disagree with experimental observations. (paper)
Fujioka, Masaya; Shibuya, Taizo; Nakai, Junya; Yoshiyasu, Keigo; Sakai, Yuki; Takano, Yoshihiko; Kamihara, Yoichi; Matoba, Masanori
2012-01-01
The thermoelectric properties and electronic band structures for Se-doped Co3SnInS2 were examined. The parent compound of this material (Co3Sn2S2) has two kinds of Sn sites (Sn1 and Sn2 sites). The density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the indium substitution at the Sn2 site induces a metallic band structure, on the other hand, a semiconducting band structure is obtained from substitution at the Sn1 site. However, according to the previous reports, since the indium atom prefe...
Efficiency of tunable band-gap structures for single-photon emission
Dung, H T; Welsch, D G; Dung, Ho Trung; Kn\\"{o}ll, Ludwig; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar
2004-01-01
The efficiency of recently proposed single-photon emitting sources based on tunable planar band-gap structures is examined. The analysis is based on the study of the total and ``radiative'' decay rates, the expectation value of emitted radiation energy and its collimating cone. It is shown that the scheme operating in the frequency range near the defect resonance of a defect band-gap structure is more efficient than the one operating near the band edge of a perfect band-gap structure.
Band structure and optical properties of highly anisotropic LiBa2[B10O16(OH)3] decaborate crystal
The band structure (BS), charge density distribution and linear-optical properties of the anisotropic crystal LiBa2[B10O16(OH)3] (LBBOH) are calculated using a self-consistent norm-conserving pseudopotential method within the framework of the local-density approximation theory. A high anisotropy of the band energy gap (4.22 eV for the E parallel b, 4.46 eV for the E parallel c) and giant birefringence (up to 0.20) are found. Comparison of the theoretically calculated and the experimentally measured polarised spectra of the imaginary part of the dielectric susceptibility ε2 shows a good agreement. The anisotropy of the charge density distribution, BS dispersion and of the optical spectra originate from anisotropy between the 2pzB-2pzO and 2py,xB-2py,yO bonding orbitals. The observed anisotropy in the LBBOH is principally different from that of β-BaB2O4 (BBO) single crystals. In the LBBOH single crystals the anisotropy of optical and charge density distribution is caused by different projection of the orbitals originating from particular borate clusters on the particular crystallographic axes, contrary to the BBO, where the anisotropy is caused prevailingly by a different local site symmetry of oxygen within the borate planes. The observed anisotropy is analysed in terms of the band energy dispersion and space charge density distribution
Rudin, Sven P.
2013-01-01
Systematically studying the crystal, magnetic, and electronic structures of PuGa3 with density functional theory (DFT) reveals the entanglement of the three types of structure. Magnetic structure affects the energy more strongly than crystal structure. For DFT to correctly order the crystal structures in agreement with experiment requires special treatment of the electronic correlation in the 5f states, exemplified here by the GGA+U approach. The upper and lower Hubbard bands change with incr...
Linares, A.; Canalda, J C; Cagiao, M. E.; García-Gutiérrez, M. C.; Nogales, A.; Martín-Gullón, I.; J. de Vera; Ezquerra, T A
2008-01-01
A study is presented of the electrical properties of a series of nanocomposites based on high density polyethylene (HDPE) as a matrix and either carbon nanofiber (CNF) or multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) as a nanoadditive. The measurements of the electrical conductivity over a broad-band of frequencies (10-2 > F/Hz > 109)allow improvement of the description of the electrical properties of polymer nanocomposites based on either carbon nanofibers or carbon nanotubes. Despite the lack of ...
The Density-Functional method, with Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals, has been applied to eight crystals; the lattice equilibrium parameters, and the lattice formation energies have been calculated at the Hartree-Fock level (HF), at the hybrid Hartree-Fock Density-Functional level (DFT/HF), and at the Kohn-Sham Density-Functional level (DFT). The band structures and the electronic charge distributions calculated at the DFT and HF levels are compared
Christensen, N. Egede; Feuerbacher, B.
1974-01-01
The electronic energy-band structure of tungsten has been calculated by means of the relativistic-augmented-plane-wave method. A series of mutually related potentials are constructed by varying the electronic configuration and the amount of Slater exchange included. The best band structure is obt...
Structures of High Density Molecular Fluids
Baer, B; Cynn, H; Iota, V; Yoo, C-S
2002-02-01
The goal of this proposal is to develop an in-situ probe for high density molecular fluids. We will, therefore, use Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) applied to laser heated samples in a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) to investigate molecular fluids at simultaneous conditions of high temperatures (T > 2000K) and high pressures (P > 10 GPa.) Temperatures sufficient to populate vibrational levels above the ground state will allow the vibrational potential to be mapped by CARS. A system capable of heating and probing these samples will be constructed. Furthermore, the techniques that enable a sample to be sufficiently heated and probed while held at static high pressure in a diamond-anvil-cell will be developed. This will be an in-situ investigation of simple molecules under conditions relevant to the study of detonation chemistry and the Jovain planet interiors using state of the art non-linear spectroscopy, diamond-anvil-cells, and laser heating technology.
New bismuth borophosphate Bi4BPO10 was obtained by spontaneous crystallization from the melt of correspondent composition at 804 °C. Crystal structure with orthorhombic lattice parameters: a = 22.5731(3) Å, b = 14.0523(2) Å, c = 5.5149(1) Å, V = 1749.34(4), Z = 8, SG Pcab was determined by X-ray powder diffraction technique. The [Bi2O2]2+ -layers, which are typical for bismuth oxide compounds, transform into cationic endless strips of 4 bismuth atoms width directed along the c-axis in Bi4BPO10. The strips combining stacks are separated by flat triangle [BO3]3− -anions within stacks. Neighboring stacks are separated by tetrahedral [PO4]3−-anions and shifted relatively to each other. Bismuth atoms are placed in 5–7 vertex oxygen irregular polyhedra. Bi4BPO10 is stable up to 812 °C, then melts according to the peritectic law. The absorption spectrum in the range 350–700 nm was obtained and the width of the forbidden band was estimated as 3.46 eV. The band electronic structure of Bi4BPO10 was modeled using DFT approach. The calculated band gap (3.56 eV) is in good agreement with the experimentally obtained data. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • New bismuth borophosphate with composition Bi4BPO10 was synthesized. • The crystal structure was determined by X-ray powder diffraction technique. • Bismuth-oxygen part [Bi4O3]6+ forms endless strips of 4 bismuth atoms width. • Electronic structure was modeled by DFT method. • The calculated band gap (3.56 eV) is very close to the experimental one (3.46 eV)
Band structure effects for dripped neutrons in neutron star crust
Chamel, Nicolas
2004-01-01
The outer layers of a neutron star are supposed to be formed of a solid Coulomb lattice of neutron rich nuclei. At densities above neutron drip density (about one thousandth of nuclear saturation density), this lattice is immersed in a neutron fluid. Bragg scattering of those dripped neutrons by the nuclei which has been usually neglected is investigated, within a simple mean field model with Bloch type boundary conditions. The main purpose of this work is to provide some estimates for the en...
Photonic band structures in one-dimensional photonic crystals containing Dirac materials
We have investigated the band structures of one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) composed of Dirac materials and ordinary dielectric media. It is found that there exist an omnidirectional passing band and a kind of special band, which result from the interaction of the evanescent and propagating waves. Due to the interface effect and strong dispersion, the electromagnetic fields inside the special bands are strongly enhanced. It is also shown that the properties of these bands are invariant upon the lattice constant but sensitive to the resonant conditions
Viet Luong, Mui; Cadatal-Raduban, Marilou; Empizo, Melvin John F.; Arita, Ren; Minami, Yuki; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Azechi, Hiroshi; Pham, Minh Hong; Nguyen, Hung Dai; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki
2015-12-01
We report the electronic structures and density of states (DOS) of perfect LiCAF and LiSAF crystals calculated from density functional theory (DFT) with local density approximation (LDA) using optimized lattice constants. DOS calculations reveal that the valence band is mainly derived from F 2p, thereby resulting to a very narrow valence band manifold. Meanwhile, the conduction band is mainly derived from Ca 4s or Sr 5s resulting to Sr having a broader band dispersion compared to Ca. Both fluoride compounds have indirect band gaps with LiCAF having a band gap of 8.02 eV and LiSAF a band gap of 7.92 eV. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report on the electronic structure of LiSAF calculated using DFT with LDA. Our results suggest that when doped with Ce3+, the shorter 5d-conduction band distance in Ce:LiSAF combined with the difficulty of growing high-purity crystals lead to the more pronounced excited state absorption (ESA) and solarization effect experimentally observed in Ce:LiSAF, limiting its potential as a laser material compared with Ce:LiCAF.
Engineering Electronic Band Structure for New Elpasolite Scintillators
Du, Mao-Hua; Biswas, Koushik; Singh, David
2012-02-01
The utilization of scintillator materials is one of the primary methods for radiation detection. Elpasolites are a large family of quaternary halides that have recently attracted considerable interest for their potential applications as ?-ray and neutron scintillators. A large number (on the order of 10^3) of different chemical compositions exist in the elpasolite family of compounds. This wide range of compositions offers numerous opportunities for fine-tuning the material chemistry to target specific scintillation properties, but they also pose significant challenges in identifying the most promising ones. Many elpasolite scintillator materials currently under development suffer from low light output and long scintillation decay time. The low light output is partially due to a large band gap while the long scintillation decay time is a result of the slow carrier transport to Ce impurities, where carriers recombine to emit photons. We suggest that these problems may be mitigated by optimizing the band gap and carrier mobility by selecting constituent elements of proper electronegativity. For example, cations with lower electronegativity may lower the conduction band and increase the conduction band dispersion simultaneously, resulting in higher light output and faster scintillation. We demonstrate by first-principles calculations that the strategy of manipulating electronegativity can lead to a number of new elpasolite compounds that are potentially brighter and faster scintillators.
Quasiparticle surface band structure and photoelectric threshold of Ge(111)-2x1
The surface-state energies of the Ge(111)-2x1 surface are calculated using a quasiparticle self-energy approach. The surface structural parameters are determined through a local-density-functional total-energy minimization resulting in a buckled ?-bonded-chain geometry. The quasiparticle energies are computed using a first-order expansion of the electron self-energy operator in the screened Coulomb interaction with a model static dielectric matrix. Our calculated surface-state band gaps and dispersions of both the occupied and unoccupied surface states agree well with experiments. Further, the photoelectric threshold ? is found to be 4.73 eV, compared to 4.74--4.80 eV obtained experimentally
De Haas-van Alphen effect and energy band structure in UB2
We grew a single crystal of UB2 with the hexagonal structure and observed the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillation. All of the dHvA branches, which are about seven in number, are detected in the limited angle regions. They are well explained by the 5f-itinerant relativistic band theory with an exchange and correlation potential in a local density approximation. Namely, UB2 is a compensated metal with an equal number of electron and hole. The Fermi surface consists of two closed but corrugated Fermi surfaces. The cyclotron masses are moderately heavy, ranging from 1.2 to 7.7 m0. (author)
The Density Functional Theory Study of Structural and Electronical Properties of ZnO Clusters
O.V. Bovgyra
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Density functional theory studies of structural and electronic properties of small clusters were performed. For each cluster an optimization of structure and the basic properties of the band structure were conducted. It was determined that with increasing (n energetically more efficient in the small clusters is stabilization from the ring to fulleren-like structures containing tetragonal and hexagonal faces and all atoms have coordination number equal three. Among the clusters (ZnO12 with doped atoms most stable are clusters where Zn was replaced by Mn, Cu and Co atoms. Band gap in the electronic spectrum of doped clusters decreases due to p-d hybridization orbitals of the impurity atom with the orbitals of the oxygen atom.
Vibrational dynamics and band structure of methyl-terminated Ge(111)
Hund, Zachary M.; Nihill, Kevin J.; Campi, Davide; Wong, Keith T.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Bernasconi, M.; Benedek, G.; Sibener, S. J.
2015-09-01
A combined synthesis, experiment, and theory approach, using elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering along with ab initio density functional perturbation theory, has been used to investigate the vibrational dynamics and band structure of a recently synthesized organic-functionalized semiconductor interface. Specifically, the thermal properties and lattice dynamics of the underlying Ge(111) semiconductor crystal in the presence of a commensurate (1 1) methyl adlayer were defined for atomically flat methylated Ge(111) surfaces. The mean-square atomic displacements were evaluated by analysis of the thermal attenuation of the elastic He diffraction intensities using the Debye-Waller model, revealing an interface with hybrid characteristics. The methyl adlayer vibrational modes are coupled with the Ge(111) substrate, resulting in significantly softer in-plane motion relative to rigid motion in the surface normal. Inelastic helium time-of-flight measurements revealed the excitations of the Rayleigh wave across the surface Brillouin zone, and such measurements were in agreement with the dispersion curves that were produced using density functional perturbation theory. The dispersion relations for H-Ge(111) indicated that a deviation in energy and lineshape for the Rayleigh wave was present along the nearest-neighbor direction. The effects of mass loading, as determined by calculations for CD3-Ge(111), as well as by force constants, were less significant than the hybridization between the Rayleigh wave and methyl adlayer librations. The presence of mutually similar hybridization effects for CH3-Ge(111) and CH3-Si(111) surfaces extends the understanding of the relationship between the vibrational dynamics and the band structure of various semiconductor surfaces that have been functionalized with organic overlayers.
Vibrational dynamics and band structure of methyl-terminated Ge(111).
Hund, Zachary M; Nihill, Kevin J; Campi, Davide; Wong, Keith T; Lewis, Nathan S; Bernasconi, M; Benedek, G; Sibener, S J
2015-09-28
A combined synthesis, experiment, and theory approach, using elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering along with ab initio density functional perturbation theory, has been used to investigate the vibrational dynamics and band structure of a recently synthesized organic-functionalized semiconductor interface. Specifically, the thermal properties and lattice dynamics of the underlying Ge(111) semiconductor crystal in the presence of a commensurate (1 1) methyl adlayer were defined for atomically flat methylated Ge(111) surfaces. The mean-square atomic displacements were evaluated by analysis of the thermal attenuation of the elastic He diffraction intensities using the Debye-Waller model, revealing an interface with hybrid characteristics. The methyl adlayer vibrational modes are coupled with the Ge(111) substrate, resulting in significantly softer in-plane motion relative to rigid motion in the surface normal. Inelastic helium time-of-flight measurements revealed the excitations of the Rayleigh wave across the surface Brillouin zone, and such measurements were in agreement with the dispersion curves that were produced using density functional perturbation theory. The dispersion relations for H-Ge(111) indicated that a deviation in energy and lineshape for the Rayleigh wave was present along the nearest-neighbor direction. The effects of mass loading, as determined by calculations for CD3-Ge(111), as well as by force constants, were less significant than the hybridization between the Rayleigh wave and methyl adlayer librations. The presence of mutually similar hybridization effects for CH3-Ge(111) and CH3-Si(111) surfaces extends the understanding of the relationship between the vibrational dynamics and the band structure of various semiconductor surfaces that have been functionalized with organic overlayers. PMID:26429030
Vibrational dynamics and band structure of methyl-terminated Ge(111)
A combined synthesis, experiment, and theory approach, using elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering along with ab initio density functional perturbation theory, has been used to investigate the vibrational dynamics and band structure of a recently synthesized organic-functionalized semiconductor interface. Specifically, the thermal properties and lattice dynamics of the underlying Ge(111) semiconductor crystal in the presence of a commensurate (1 × 1) methyl adlayer were defined for atomically flat methylated Ge(111) surfaces. The mean-square atomic displacements were evaluated by analysis of the thermal attenuation of the elastic He diffraction intensities using the Debye-Waller model, revealing an interface with hybrid characteristics. The methyl adlayer vibrational modes are coupled with the Ge(111) substrate, resulting in significantly softer in-plane motion relative to rigid motion in the surface normal. Inelastic helium time-of-flight measurements revealed the excitations of the Rayleigh wave across the surface Brillouin zone, and such measurements were in agreement with the dispersion curves that were produced using density functional perturbation theory. The dispersion relations for H-Ge(111) indicated that a deviation in energy and lineshape for the Rayleigh wave was present along the nearest-neighbor direction. The effects of mass loading, as determined by calculations for CD3-Ge(111), as well as by force constants, were less significant than the hybridization between the Rayleigh wave and methyl adlayer librations. The presence of mutually similar hybridization effects for CH3-Ge(111) and CH3-Si(111) surfaces extends the understanding of the relationship between the vibrational dynamics and the band structure of various semiconductor surfaces that have been functionalized with organic overlayers
Band structures in 121Xe and 119Xe excited by 12C induced reactions
Band structures in 119,121Xe produced by 110,112Cd (12C,3n) reaction have been investigated using in-beam ? spectroscopic techniques. Details of the structures of the hsub(11/2) and gsub(7/2) bands are presented. A new dsub(3/2) decoupled band has been observed in 121Xe and a possible gsub(9/2) band in 119Xe. These collective features are discussed in the framework of the triaxial-rotor-plus-particle model, and the IFBA model. (orig.)
The simulated annealing basin-hopping method incorporating the penalty function was used to predict the lowest-energy structures for ultrathin tungsten nanowires and nanotubes of different sizes. These predicted structures indicate that tungsten one-dimensional structures at this small scale do not possess B.C.C. configuration as in bulk tungsten material. In order to analyze the relationship between multi-shell geometries and electronic transfer, the electronic and structural properties of tungsten wires and tubes including partial density of state and band structures which were determined and analyzed by quantum chemistry calculations. In addition, in order to understand the application feasibility of these nanowires and tubes on nano-devices such as field emitters or chemical catalysts, the electronic stability of these ultrathin tungsten nanowires was also investigated by density functional theory calculations.
Zhang, Yubo; Sun, Xiudong; Zhang, Peihong; Yuan, Xun; Huang, Fuqiang; Zhang, Wenqing
2012-03-01
Cu-based quaternary chalcogenide semiconductors (Cu2-II-IV-VI4) are a large group of materials that hold great promises for a variety of applications, especially as thin-film solar cell absorbers. However, despite intensive research activities, a systematic understanding of the evolution of the electronic and structural properties with chemical compositions of these materials is still lacking. In this paper, we present first-principles calculations of the structural and electronic properties of eight such semiconductors (Cu2-II-IV-VI4, with II = Zn and Cd; IV = Ge and Sn; VI = S and Se). The variation of the structural parameters with chemical compositions, investigated using the HSE06 hybrid functional, follows a few interesting trends. The quasiparticle bandgap, calculated using the state-of-the-art GW approximation, also varies systematically with chemical compositions. Effects of cation disordering on the band gaps are also investigated. This systematic understanding of the structural parameters and quasiparticle band gaps would be useful for future structural characterization and material design.
Estimating tropical forest structure using LIDAR AND X-BAND INSAR
Palace, M. W.; Treuhaft, R. N.; Keller, M. M.; Sullivan, F.; Roberto dos Santos, J.; Goncalves, F. G.; Shimbo, J.; Neumann, M.; Madsen, S. N.; Hensley, S.
2013-12-01
Tropical forests are considered the most structurally complex of all forests and are experiencing rapid change due to anthropogenic and climatic factors. The high carbon stocks and fluxes make understanding tropical forests highly important to both regional and global studies involving ecosystems and climate. Large and remote areas in the tropics are prime targets for the use of remotely sensed data. Radar and lidar have previously been used to estimate forest structure, with an emphasis on biomass. These two remote sensing methods have the potential to yield much more information about forest structure, specifically through the use of X-band radar and waveform lidar data. We examined forest structure using both field-based and remotely sensed data in the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil. We measured multiple structural parameters for about 70 plots in the field within a 25 x 15 km area that have TanDEM-X single-pass horizontally and vertically polarized radar interferometric data. High resolution airborne lidar were collected over a 22 sq km portion of the same area, within which 33 plots were co-located. Preliminary analyses suggest that X-band interferometric coherence decreases by about a factor of 2 (from 0.95 to 0.45) with increasing field-measured vertical extent (average heights of 7-25 m) and biomass (10-430 Mg/ha) for a vertical wavelength of 39 m, further suggesting, as has been observed at C-band, that interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is substantially more sensitive to forest structure/biomass than SAR. Unlike InSAR coherence versus biomass, SAR power at X-band versus biomass shows no trend. Moreover, airborne lidar coherence at the same vertical wavenumbers as InSAR is also shown to decrease as a function of biomass, as well. Although the lidar coherence decrease is about 15% more than the InSAR, implying that lidar penetrates more than InSAR, these preliminary results suggest that X-band InSAR may be useful for structure and biomass estimation over large spatial scales not attainable with airborne lidar. In this study, we employed a set of less commonly used lidar metrics that we consider analogous to field-based measurements, such as the number of canopy maxima, measures of canopy vegetation distribution diversity and evenness (entropy), and estimates of gap fraction. We incorporated these metrics, as well as lidar coherence metrics pulled from discrete Fourier transforms of pseudowaveforms, and hypothetical stand characteristics of best-fit synthetic vegetation profiles into multiple regression analysis of forest biometric properties. Among simple and complex measures of forest structure, ranging from tree density, diameter at breast height, and various canopy geometry parameters, we found strong relationships with lidar canopy vegetation profile parameters. We suggest that the sole use of lidar height is limited in understanding biomass in a forest with little variation across the landscape and that there are many parameters that may be gleaned by lidar data that inform on forest biometric properties.
Optimum design of band-gap beam structures
Olhoff, Niels; Niu, Bin; Cheng, Gengdong
2012-01-01
significantly suppressed for a range of external excitation frequencies. Maximization of the band-gap is therefore an obvious objective for optimum design. This problem is sometimes formulated by optimizing a parameterized design model which assumes multiple periodicity in the design. However, it is shown in...... vibrating Bernoulli–Euler beams subjected to free, standing wave vibration or forced, time-harmonic wave propagation, and to study the associated creation of periodicity of the optimized beam designs. The beams are assumed to have variable cross-sectional area, given total volume and length, and to be made...... cross-sectional area. To study the band-gap for travelling waves, a repeated inner segment of the optimized beams is analyzed using Floquet theory and the waveguide finite element (WFE) method. Finally, the frequency response is computed for the optimized beams when these are subjected to an external...
Recent Results from Broad-Band Intensity Mapping Measurements of Cosmic Large Scale Structure
Zemcov, Michael B.; CIBER, Herschel-SPIRE
2016-01-01
Intensity mapping integrates the total emission in a given spectral band over the universe's history. Tomographic measurements of cosmic structure can be performed using specific line tracers observed in narrow bands, but a wealth of information is also available from broad-band observations performed by instruments capable of capturing high-fidelity, wide-angle images of extragalactic emission. Sensitive to the continuum emission from faint and diffuse sources, these broad-band measurements provide a view on cosmic structure traced by components not readily detected in point source surveys. After accounting for measurement effects and astrophysical foregrounds, the angular power spectra of such data can be compared to predictions from models to yield powerful insights into the history of cosmic structure formation. This talk will highlight some recent measurements of large scale structure performed using broad-band intensity mapping methods that have given new insights on faint, distant, and diffuse components in the extragalactic background light.
Band structures in 98Ru and 99Ru
The level schemes of 98sup(,)99Ru were studied with the reactions 8Mo(α,3nγ) and 98Mo(α,4nγ) at Esub(α) = 35 to 55 MeV, using a large variety of in-beam γ-ray detection techniques and conversion-electron measurements. A search for the 3- state was carried out with the reaction 98Ru(p,p'). The ground-state band of 98Ru was excited up to Jsup(π) = (12)+ and a negative-parity band up to (15)-. New levels in 98Ru were found at Esub(x) = 2285 (Jsup(π) = 4+), 2435 (Jsup(π) = (3-,4+), 2671, 3540, 4224, 4847, 4915 (Jsup(π) = (12)sup()), 4989 (Jsup(π) = (12sup())), 5521 (Jsup(π) = (13)-), 5889, 6591 (Jsup(π) = (15)-), and 7621 keV. New unambiguous spin and parity assignments were made for the levels at Esub(x) = 2014 and 3852 keV, as Jsup(π) = 3+ and 9-, respectivley. New levels in 99Ru were found at Esub(x) = 1976, 2021 (Jsup(π) = (15/2+)), 2393, 2401 (Jsup(π) = (17/2+)), 2875 (π = (+)), 3037, 3201 (Jsup(π) = (23/2)-), 3460 (J = (17/2)), 3484 (Jsup(π) = (21/2+)), 3985, 4224 (Jsup(π) = (27/2-)), and 5359 keV. The 1070 keV, Jsup(π) = 11/2- level in 99Ru has a half-life of 2.8 ns. A strongly excited negative-parity band is built on this level. A positive-parity band based on the ground state was excited up to Jsup(π) = (21/2+). The level schemes are well reproduced by the interacting boson model in the vibrational limit. (orig.)
''Shears bands'' in Pb nuclei - a new nuclear structure effect
In nuclei in the mass region around A = 190-200 a large number of regular dipole sequences have recently been found. In these bands the gain in angular momentum may not be created by collective rotation as is usual for more deformed nuclei, but stems from aligning the proton and neutron spins in the direction of the total spin axis. Calculations within the framework of the tilted axis cranking model reproduce the available experimental data and support the alignment picture. (orig.)
Plasma density measurements using chirped pulse broad-band Raman amplification
Vieux, G; Farmer, J P; Hur, M S; Issac, R C; Jaraszynski, D A
2013-01-01
Stimulated Raman backscattering is used as a non-destructive method to determine the density of plasma media at localized positions in space and time. By colliding two counter-propagating, ultra-short laser pulses with a spectral bandwidth larger than twice the plasma frequency, amplification occurs at the Stokes wavelengths, which results in regions of gain and loss separated by twice the plasma frequency, from which the plasma density can be deduced. By varying the relative delay between the laser pulses, and therefore the position and timing of the interaction, the spatio-temporal distribution of the plasma density can be mapped out.
Wang, Dong, E-mail: wang.dong.539@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Maekura, Takayuki; Kamezawa, Sho [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Yamamoto, Keisuke; Nakashima, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)
2015-02-16
We demonstrated direct band gap (DBG) electroluminescence (EL) at room temperature from n-type bulk germanium (Ge) using a fin type asymmetric lateral metal/Ge/metal structure with TiN/Ge and HfGe/Ge contacts, which was fabricated using a low temperature (<400?C) process. Small electron and hole barrier heights were obtained for TiN/Ge and HfGe/Ge contacts, respectively. DBG EL spectrum peaked at 1.55??m was clearly observed even at a small current density of 2.2??A/?m. Superlinear increase in EL intensity was also observed with increasing current density, due to superlinear increase in population of elections in direct conduction band. The efficiency of hole injection was also clarified.
The influence of arrangement and content of substituents (B, In) in BGaAs, InGaAs, and BInGaAs alloys on the stabilities and band gaps is investigated using density-functional supercell calculations. The stability of ternary alloys decreases from InGaAs over BGaAs to GaAsN. Typical substituent structures show the following stability order: isolated substituents - [110] chains - clusters - twisted [111] chains - (200/211) arrangements (most stable). This is valid for both the In- and B-poor as well as the In- and B-rich alloys. From the fact that grown InGaAs provides a different gap than the most stable arrangement one can conclude that other structures (isolated indium atoms or InmAs clusters) are formed during the growth. Simultaneous substitutions (BInGaAs) of larger (In) and smaller (B) atoms prefer arrangements in larger distances (220) for isovalent boron substitution and in In-B bonds for antisite boron substitution. The high degree boron antisite substitution induces partially occupied acceptor bands which lead to a strong reduction of the band gap in comparison to the isovalent substitution. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Acoustic band pinning in the phononic crystal plates of anti-symmetric structure
Acoustic bands are studied numerically for a Lamb wave propagating in an anti-symmetric structure of a one-dimensional periodic plate by using the method of supercell plane-wave expansion. The results show that all the bands are pinned in pairs at the Brillouin zone boundary as long as the anti-symmetry remains and acoustic band gaps (ABGs) only appear between certain bands. In order to reveal the relationship between the band pinning and the anti-symmetry, the method of eigenmode analysis is introduced to calculate the displacement fields of different plate structures. Further, the method of harmony response analysis is employed to calculate the reference spectra to verify the accuracy of numerical calculations of acoustic band map, and both the locations and widths of ABGs in the acoustic band map are in good agreement with those of the reference spectra. The investigations show that the pinning effect is very sensitive to the anti-symmetry of periodic plates, and by introducing different types of breakages, more ABGs or narrow pass bands will appear, which is meaningful in band gap engineering. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)
Photonic band structures are investigated for both diamond and hexagonal diamond crystals composed of dielectric spheres, and absolute photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in both cases. In agreement with both Karathanos and Moroz's calculations, a large PBG occurs between the eighth and ninth bands in diamond crystal, but a PBG in hexagonal diamond crystal is found to occur between the sixteenth and seventeenth bands because of the doubling of dielectric spheres in the primitive cell. To explore the physical mechanism of how the photonic band gap might be broadened, we have compared the electric field distributions (|E|2) of the 'valence' and 'conduction' band edges. Results show that the field intensity for the 'conduction' band locates in the inner core of the sphere while that of the 'valence' band concentrates in the outer shell. With this motivation, double-layer spheres are designed to enhance the corresponding photonic band gaps; the PBG is increased by 35% for the diamond structure, and 14% for the hexagonal diamond structure
Structure of Dipole Bands in 112In: Through Lifetime Measurement
High-spin states of the 112In nucleus have been populated via 100Mo(16O, p3n) reaction at 80 MeV beam energy. Lifetimes of excited states of dipole bands have been measured using Doppler-shift attenuation method. The B(M1) transition rates deduced from the measured lifetimes show a rapid decrease with increasing angular momentum. The decrease in B(M1) values are well accounted by the prediction of tilted axis cranking calculations. These measurements confirm the presence of shears mechanism in this nuclei.
Physical properties and electronic band structure of noncentrosymmetric Th7Co3 superconductor.
Sahakyan, M; Tran, V H
2016-05-25
The physical properties of the noncentrosymmetric superconductor Th7Co3 have been investigated by means of ac-magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, specific heat, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistance and Hall effect measurements. From these data it is established that Th7Co3 is a dirty type-II superconductor with [Formula: see text] K, [Formula: see text] and moderate electron-phonon coupling [Formula: see text]. Some evidences for anisotropic superconducting gap are found, including e.g. reduced specific heat jump ([Formula: see text]) at T c, diminished superconducting energy gap ([Formula: see text]) as compared to the BCS values, power law field dependence of the Sommerfeld coefficient at 0.4 K ([Formula: see text]), and a concave curvature of the [Formula: see text] line. The magnitudes of the thermodynamic critical field and the energy gap are consistent with mean-squared anisotropy parameter [Formula: see text]. The electronic specific heat in the superconducting state is reasonably fitted to an oblate spheroidal gap model. Calculations of scalar relativistic and fully relativistic electronic band structures reveal considerable differences in the degenerate structure, resulting from asymmetric spin-orbit coupling (ASOC). A large splitting energy of spin-up spin-down bands at the Fermi level E F, [Formula: see text] meV is observed and a sizeable ratio [Formula: see text] could classify the studied compound into the class of noncentrosymmetric superconductors with strong ASOC. The noncentrosymmetry of the crystal structure and the atomic relativistic effects are both responsible for an importance of ASOC in Th7Co3. The calculated results for the density of states show a Van Hove singularity just below E F and dominant role of the 6d electrons of Th to the superconductivity. PMID:27120582
Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS
Kozyukhin, S., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Jain, H. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)
2011-04-15
High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x}, As{sub x}S{sub 100-x}, Ge{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} and Ge{sub x}S{sub 100-x} chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.
Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS
High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary AsxSe100−x, AsxS100−x, GexSe100−x and GexS100−x chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.
Compact electromagnetic bandgap structures for notch band in ultra-wideband applications.
Rotaru, Mihai; Sykulski, Jan
2010-01-01
This paper introduces a novel approach to create notch band filters in the front-end of ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems based on electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structures. The concept presented here can be implemented in any structure that has a microstrip in its configuration. The EBG structure is first analyzed using a full wave electromagnetic solver and then optimized to work at WLAN band (5.15-5.825 GHz). Two UWB passband filters are used to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the novel EBG notch band feature. Simulation results are provided for two cases studied. PMID:22163430
Determination of conduction and valence band electronic structure of anatase and rutile TiO2
Jakub Szlachetko; Katarzyna Michalow-Mauke; Maarten Nachtegaal; Jacinto Sá
2014-03-01
Electronic structures of rutile and anatase polymorph of TiO2 were determined by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering measurements and FEFF9.0 calculations. Difference between crystalline structures led to shifts in the rutile Ti -band to lower energy with respect to anatase, i.e., decrease in band gap. Anatase possesses localized states located in the band gap where electrons can be trapped, which are almost absent in the rutile structure. This could well explain the reported longer lifetimes in anatase. It was revealed that HR-XAS is insufficient to study in-depth unoccupied states of investigated materials because it overlooks the shallow traps.
Model comparison for the density structure along solar prominence threads
Arregui, I
2015-01-01
Quiescent solar prominence fine structures are typically modelled as density enhancements, called threads, which occupy a fraction of a longer magnetic flux tube. The profile of the mass density along the magnetic field is however unknown and several arbitrary alternatives are employed in prominence wave studies. We present a comparison of theoretical models for the field-aligned density along prominence fine structures. We consider Lorentzian, Gaussian, and parabolic profiles. We compare their theoretical predictions for the period ratio between the fundamental transverse kink mode and the first overtone to obtain estimates for the ratio of densities between the central part of the tube and its foot-points and to assess which one would better explain observed period ratio data. Bayesian parameter inference and model comparison techniques are developed and applied. Parameter inference requires the computation of the posterior distribution for the density gradient parameter conditional on the observable period...
Band structure and optical properties of hexagonal In-rich InxAl1-xN alloys
Full potential linear augmented plane wave calculations have been performed to study the electronic and optical properties of In-rich InxAl1-xN alloys in the hexagonal wurtzite structure. Compositions of x = 0.9375, 0.8125 and 0.6875 are considered which follow from replacing one, three and five In atoms by Al in the 32-atom supercell. The new form of exchange correlation, i.e. Engel-Voskos generalized gradient approximation within density functional theory, is employed. The calculations yield the band structure and total density of states as well as the imaginary part ?2(?) of the ordinary and extraordinary dielectric function. The calculated dependence of the bandgap on the composition is in good agreement with recent experimental studies. A reversal of the valence band ordering is found between x = 0.8125 and 0.6875. The absorption features in the high-energy range of ?2(?) are related to critical points of the band structure. The transition energies for these van Hove singularities are determined and their bowing parameters are discussed. (paper)
Calculation of the band structure of GdCo2, GdRh2 e GdIr2 by the APW method
The band structure of GdCo2, GdRh2, GdIr2 has been calculated by the APW method. A histogram of the density of states is presented for each compound. The bands are transition-metal-like, with s-d hybridization near the Fermi level. The 5d character near the Fermi level increases as one goes from Co to Ir
The crystal and electronic band structure of the diamond-like semiconductor Ag{sub 2}ZnSiS{sub 4}
Brunetta, Carl D.; Karuppannan, Balamurugan; Rosmus, Kimberly A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, 600 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Aitken, Jennifer A., E-mail: aitkenj@duq.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, 600 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)
2012-03-05
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of Ag{sub 2}ZnSiS{sub 4} is solved and refined in the space group Pn using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic band structure calculations show that Ag{sub 2}ZnSiS{sub 4} is a direct band gap semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 1.88 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optical band gap of Ag{sub 2}ZnSiS{sub 4} was experimentally determined as 3.28 eV. - Abstract: Single crystals of the new diamond-like semiconductor Ag{sub 2}ZnSiS{sub 4} have been synthesized using high-temperature, solid state synthesis at 800 Degree-Sign C. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic, noncentrosymmetric space group Pn with a = 6.4052(1) Angstrom-Sign , b = 6.5484(1) Angstrom-Sign , c = 7.9340(1) Angstrom-Sign , {beta} = 90.455(1) Degree-Sign and R1 (for all data) = 2.42%. The electronic band structure and density of states were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) and the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method within the Wien2k program suite. The calculated band structure suggests that Ag{sub 2}ZnSiS{sub 4} is a direct band gap semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 1.88 eV at the {Gamma}-point. The calculated density of states of Ag{sub 2}ZnSiS{sub 4} is compared with that of AgGaS{sub 2}. The band gap of Ag{sub 2}ZnSiS{sub 4} was also determined experimentally as 3.28 eV via optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.
Model comparison for the density structure across solar coronal waveguides
Arregui, I; Ramos, A Asensio
2015-01-01
The spatial variation of physical quantities, such as the mass density, across solar atmospheric waveguides governs the timescales and spatial scales for wave damping and energy dissipation. The direct measurement of the spatial distribution of density, however, is difficult and indirect seismology inversion methods have been suggested as an alternative. We applied Bayesian inference, model comparison, and model-averaging techniques to the inference of the cross-field density structuring in solar magnetic waveguides using information on periods and damping times for resonantly damped magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) transverse kink oscillations. Three commonly employed alternative profiles were used to model the variation of the mass density across the waveguide boundary. Parameter inference enabled us to obtain information on physical quantities such as the Alfv\\'en travel time, the density contrast, and the transverse inhomogeneity length scale. The inference results from alternative density models were compared a...
Constraints on lunar structure. [propagation velocity and density distribution
Dainty, A. M.; Toksoz, M. N.; Solomon, S. C.; Anderson, K. R.; Goins, N. R.
1974-01-01
A brief review is given of the constraints placed on lunar structure and composition by seismic data and density models. Bounds on the crustal velocity structure in Mare Cognitum are derived using travel-time data from artificial impacts, and a velocity model is determined on the basis of synthetic seismograms. It is shown that the velocities of P- and S-waves in the mantle can be fixed by a least-squares analysis of arrival times from meteor impacts and moonquakes, and that lunar density can be determined from the seismic structure, mean density, and moment of inertia. Olivine-pyroxene mixtures and certain olivine-rich compositions are found to be consistent with the seismic-velocity and density limits. Maximum radii are calculated for pure Fe and pure FeS cores, and it is concluded that the possibility of an ancient lunar magnetic dynamo may have to be reevaluated in the light of these figures.
Darchia, Nato; Tan, Xin; Feinberg, Irwin
2008-01-01
Study Objectives (1) To determine whether children and elderly exhibit the atypical kinetics of very low frequency (VLF) power found in young adults, (2) to test the hypothesis that variations in delta bandwidth designations can explain discrepancies in whether normalized delta power density declines across non-rapid eye movement periods (NREMPs) linearly or shows the curvature expected of exponential change, and (3) to test our hypothesis that the decline in normailized delta power density in children across NREMPs would have a slope similar to that which we had previously found in young adults and elderly. Methods In 3 age groups (mean ages 11, 22, and 71 years) NREM electroencephalograms were analyzed with fast Fourier transform for frequencies between 0.3 and 4 Hz in bands. Across-NREMP trends of normalized power density for various delta bands were analyzed by analyses of variance for linearity, curvature, and age interactions. Results We replicated the atypical kinetics of VLF power (~0.3-0.9 Hz) in young adults reported by others and showed that this pattern exists in children and normal elderly. As frequencies increased above 0.7 Hz, power showed first a linear and then a concave-upward curvilinear decline across NREMPs in children and young adults; the decline across NREMPS in the elderly became linear but never developed curvilinearity. For all designations of delta, the across-NREMP decline in children was significantly steeper than in young adults. Conclusions The findings that all normalized delta electroencephalogram bands in children showed a curvilinear decline across NREMPs that was steeper than that in young adults confirms observations of others and refutes our hypothesis that the decline would be linear with the same slope we found in young adults and elderly. Whether the decline in normalized power in young adults appears linear or curvilinear depends on whether the convex trend of VLF power is included. PMID:17310867
Energetic band structure of Zn3P2 crystals
Optical functions n, k, ε1, ε2 and d2ε2/dE2 have been determined from experimental reflection spectra in the region of 1-10 eV. The revealed electronic transitions are localized in the Brillouin zone. The magnitude of valence band splitting caused by the spin-orbital interaction ΔSO is lower than the splitting caused by the crystal field ΔCR in the center of Brillouin zone and L and X points. The switching effects are investigated in Zn3P2 crystals. The characteristics of experimental samples with electric switching, adjustable resistors, and time relays based on Zn3P2 are presented.
Electronic band structure of scroll-like divanadium pentoxide nanotubes
The atomic models of infinite-long divanadium pentoxide nanotubes with scroll-like morphology are presented and their electronic properties are studied using the tight-binding method. As compared to cylindrical zigzag (n,0) and armchair (n,n)-like V2O5 nanotubes, which are uniformly semi-conducting and have the band gap of about 2.5-2.9 eV, the gap of the scroll-like tubes trends to vanish (up to ∼0.1 eV) depending on the atomic configurations of the tubes and the inter-wall spacing. Relative stability of cylindrical and scroll-like V2O5 nanotubes is discussed
Khyzhun, O.Y., E-mail: khyzhun@ipms.kiev.ua [Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, Kyiv 03142 (Ukraine); Bekenev, V.L.; Denysyuk, N.M. [Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, Kyiv 03142 (Ukraine); Parasyuk, O.V. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Avenue, Lutsk 43025 (Ukraine); Fedorchuk, A.O. [Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Pekarska St., 50, 79010 Lviv (Ukraine)
2014-01-05
Highlights: • Electronic structure of TlPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5} is calculated by the FP-LAPW method. • The valence band is dominated by contributions of Cl 3p states. • Contributions of Pb 6p{sup *} states dominate at the bottom of the conduction band. • The FP-LAPW data allow concluding that TlPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5} is an indirect-gap material. • XPS core-level and valence-band spectra of polycrystalline TlPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5} are measured. -- Abstract: We report on first-principles calculations of total and partial densities of states of atoms constituting TlPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5} using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The calculations reveal that the valence band of TlPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5} is dominated by contributions of the Cl 3p-like states, which contribute mainly at the top of the valence band with also significant contributions throughout the whole valence-band region. In addition, the bottom of the conduction band of TlPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5} is composed mainly of contributions of the unoccupied Pb 6p-like states. Our FP-LAPW data indicate that the TlPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5} compound is an indirect-gap material with band gap of 3.42 eV. The X-ray photoelectron core-level and valence-band spectra for pristine and Ar{sup +} ion-irradiated surfaces of a TlPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5} polycrystalline sample were measured. The measurements reveal high chemical stability and confirm experimentally the low hygroscopicity of TlPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5} surface.
Multi-large low-frequency band gaps in a periodic hybrid structure
Wang, T.; Sheng, M. P.; Guo, H. B.
2016-03-01
A hybrid structure composed of a local resonance mass and an external oscillator is proposed in this paper for restraining the elastic longitudinal wave propagation. Theoretical model has been established to investigate the dispersion relation and band gaps of the structure. The results show that the hybrid structure can produce multi-band gaps wider than the multi-resonator acoustic metamaterials. It is much easier for the hybrid structure to yield wide and low band gaps by adjusting the mass and stiffness of the external oscillator. Small series spring constant ratio results in low-frequency band gaps, in which the external oscillator acts as a resonator and replaces the original local resonator to hold the band gaps in low frequency range. Compared with the one-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) lattice, a new band gap emerges in lower frequency range in the hybrid structure because of the added local resonance, which will be a significant assistance in low-frequency vibration and noise reduction. Further, harmonic response analysis using finite element method (FEM) has been performed, and results show that elastic longitudinal waves are efficiently forbidden within the band gaps.
Banded structure and its distribution in friction stir processing of 316L austenitic stainless steel
Highlights: ► Friction stir processing (FSP) as a repair method. ► Sigma phase formed in the FSP zone. ► Low heat input contributes to restrain sigma phase precipitation. - Abstract: Banded structures, which vary with welding parameters, were observed in friction stir processing of 316L austenite stainless steel. Sigma phase precipitation was detected in banded structures by transmission electron microscopy. The amount of banded structure had direct ratio relations with heat input. The higher the heat input, the larger the area of banded structures. This is attributable to slower cooling rate at high heat input, which results in longer exposure to the temperature range for precipitation. The formation of sigma phase produced Cr depletion, which resulted in largely degraded corrosion resistance. The present study suggests that low heat input (i.e. low rotation speeds, low working loads and high welding speed) contributes to restrain sigma phase precipitation.
Band structure engineering through orbital interaction for enhanced thermoelectric power factor
Band structure engineering for specific electronic or optical properties is essential for the further development of many important technologies including thermoelectrics, optoelectronics, and microelectronics. In this work, we report orbital interaction as a powerful tool to finetune the band structure and the transport properties of charge carriers in bulk crystalline semiconductors. The proposed mechanism of orbital interaction on band structure is demonstrated for IV-VI thermoelectric semiconductors. For IV-VI materials, we find that the convergence of multiple carrier pockets not only displays a strong correlation with the s-p and spin-orbit coupling but also coincides with the enhancement of power factor. Our results suggest a useful path to engineer the band structure and an enticing solid-solution design principle to enhance thermoelectric performance
Band structure of Heusler compounds studied by photoemission and tunneling spectroscopy
Arbelo Jorge, Elena
2011-07-01
Heusler compounds are key materials for spintronic applications. They have attracted a lot of interest due to their half-metallic properties predicted by band structure calculations. The aim of this work is to evaluate experimentally the validity of the predictions of half metallicity by band structure calculations for two specific Heusler compounds, Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7} and Co{sub 2}MnGa. Two different spectroscopy methods for the analysis of the electronic properties were used: Angular Resolved Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARUPS) and Tunneling Spectroscopy. Heusler compounds are prepared as thin films by RF-sputtering in an ultra high vacuum system. For the characterization of the samples, bulk and surface crystallographic and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7} and Co{sub 2}MnGa are studied. X-ray and electron diffraction reveal a bulk and surface crossover between two different types of sublattice order (from B2 to L2{sub 1}) with increasing annealing temperature. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism results show that the magnetic properties in the surface and bulk are identical, although the magnetic moments obtained are 5 % below from the theoretically predicted. By ARUPS evidence for the validity of the predicted total bulk density of states (DOS) was demonstrated for both Heusler compounds. Additional ARUPS intensity contributions close to the Fermi energy indicates the presence of a specific surface DOS. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the crystallographic order, controlled by annealing, plays an important role on broadening effects of DOS features. Improving order resulted in better defined ARUPS features. Tunneling magnetoresistance measurements of Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7} and Co{sub 2}MnGa based MTJ's result in a Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7} spin polarization of 44 %, which is the highest experimentally obtained value for this compound, although it is lower than the 100 % predicted. For Co{sub 2}MnGa no high TMR was achieved. Unpolarized tunneling spectroscopy reveals contribution of interface states close to the Fermi energy. Additionally magnon excitations due to magnetic impurities at the interface are observed. Such contributions can be the reason of a reduced TMR compared to the theoretical predictions. Nevertheless, for energies close to the Fermi energy and for Co{sub 2}MnGa, the validity of the band structure calculations is demonstrated with this technique as well.
Simple inverted band structure model for cadmium arsenide (Cd3As2)
The development of a simple Hamiltonian yielding the inverted band structure of Cd3As2 in the 4 mm (C4v12) low-temperature phase is proposed. The presented theory takes into account the spin orbit interaction and tetragonal distortion of lattice in the low symmetry. The authors obtain k-linear terms in the band structure and therefore a splitting in k-space of spin degenerate energy bands. The reported band model contains only one new crystal field parameter d = cr|Z> in addition to well known Kildal's set. The first evaluation of this shows that (0.028 < d < 0.072) eV using optical absorption edge data. The finite width of the anisotropic heavy and light hole bands is pointed out. (authors)
Probing the graphite band structure with resonant soft-x-ray fluorescence
Carlisle, J.A.; Shirley, E.L.; Hudson, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others
1997-04-01
Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation offers several advantages over surface sensitive spectroscopies for probing the electronic structure of complex multi-elemental materials. Due to the long mean free path of photons in solids ({approximately}1000 {angstrom}), SXF is a bulk-sensitive probe. Also, since core levels are involved in absorption and emission, SXF is both element- and angular-momentum-selective. SXF measures the local partial density of states (DOS) projected onto each constituent element of the material. The chief limitation of SXF has been the low fluorescence yield for photon emission, particularly for light elements. However, third generation light sources, such as the Advanced Light Source (ALS), offer the high brightness that makes high-resolution SXF experiments practical. In the following the authors utilize this high brightness to demonstrate the capability of SXF to probe the band structure of a polycrystalline sample. In SXF, a valence emission spectrum results from transitions from valence band states to the core hole produced by the incident photons. In the non-resonant energy regime, the excitation energy is far above the core binding energy, and the absorption and emission events are uncoupled. The fluorescence spectrum resembles emission spectra acquired using energetic electrons, and is insensitive to the incident photon`s energy. In the resonant excitation energy regime, core electrons are excited by photons to unoccupied states just above the Fermi level (EF). The absorption and emission events are coupled, and this coupling manifests itself in several ways, depending in part on the localization of the empty electronic states in the material. Here the authors report spectral measurements from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.
Highlights: ► We performed high resolution ARPES on 1T–ZrSxSe2−x. ► A characteristic splitting of the chalcogen p-derived VB along high symmetry directions was observed. ► The splitting size at the A point of the BZ is found to increase from 0.06 to 0.31 eV from ZrS2 towards ZrSe2. ► Electronic structure calculations based on the DFT were performed using the model of TB–MBJ. ► The calculations show that the splitting is due to SO coupling of the valence bands. -- Abstract: Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation has been performed on 1T–ZrSxSe2−x, where x varies from 0 to 2, in order to study the influence of the spin-orbit interaction in the valence bands. The crystals were grown by chemical vapour transport technique using Iodine as transport agent. A characteristic splitting of the chalcogen p-derived valence bands along high symmetry directions has been observed experimentally. The size of the splitting increases with the increase of the atomic number of the chalcogenide, e.g. at the A point of the Brillouin zone from 0.06 eV to 0.31 eV with an almost linear dependence with x, as progressing from ZrS2 towards ZrSe2, respectively. Electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory have been performed using the model of Tran–Blaha [1] and the modified version of the exchange potential proposed by Becke and Johnson [2] (TB–MBJ) both with and without spin-orbit (SO) coupling. The calculations show that the splitting is mainly due to spin-orbit coupling and the degeneracy of the valance bands is lifted
Full Band Structure Calculation of Two-photon Indirect Absorption in Bulk Silicon
Cheng, J. L.; Rioux, J.; Sipe, J. E.
2010-01-01
Degenerate two-photon indirect absorption in silicon is an important limiting effect on the use of silicon structures for all-optical information processing at telecommunication wavelengths. We perform a full band structure calculation to investigate two-photon indirect absorption in bulk silicon, using a pseudopotential description of the energy bands and an adiabatic bond charge model to describe phonon dispersion and polarization. Our results agree well with some recent experimental result...
Theory of the electronic structure of dilute nitride alloys: beyond the band-anti-crossing model
We use an sp3s* tight-binding Hamiltonian to investigate the band-anti-crossing (BAC) model for dilute GaNxAs1-x alloys. The BAC model describes the strong band-gap bowing at low N composition x in terms of an interaction between the conduction band edge (E-) and a higher-lying band of localized nitrogen resonant states (E+). We demonstrate that the E- level can be described very accurately by the BAC model, in which we treat the nitrogen levels explicitly using a linear combination of isolated nitrogen resonant states (LCINS). We also use the LCINS results to identify E+ in the full tight-binding calculations, showing that at low N composition E+ forms a sharp resonance in the conduction band Γ-related density of states, which broadens rapidly at higher N composition when the E+ level rises in energy to become degenerate with the larger L-related density of states. We then turn to the conduction band dispersion, showing that the two-level BAC model must be modified to give a quantitative understanding of the dispersion. We demonstrate that the unexpectedly large electron effective mass values observed in some GaNAs samples are due to hybridization between the conduction band edge and nitrogen states close to the band edge. Finally we show that there is a fundamental connection between the strong composition-dependence of the conduction-band-edge energy and the n-type carrier scattering cross-section in Ga(In)NxAs1-x alloys, imposing general limits on the carrier mobility, comparable to the highest measured mobility in such alloys
Low-lying levels and high-spin band structures in 102Rh
Levels in 102Rh have been populated in the reaction 70Zn+36S at 130 MeV. The level structure of 102Rh has been investigated using the EUROGAM II array. Low-lying states and four high-spin bands have been identified. The configurations of low-lying levels and two-quasiparticle bands are interpreted in the frame of the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model. The four observed band structures are also compared with cranked shell model calculations using a modified oscillator potential
Low-lying levels and high-spin band structures in {sup 102}Rh
Gizon, J. E-mail: gizon@isn.in2p3.fr; Gizon, A.; Timar, J.; Cata-Danil, Gh.; Nyako, B.M.; Zolnai, L.; Boston, A.J.; Joss, D.T.; Paul, E.S.; Semple, A.T.; O' Brien, N.J.; Parry, C.M.; Bucurescu, D.; Brant, S.; Paar, V
1999-10-18
Levels in {sup 102}Rh have been populated in the reaction {sup 70}Zn+{sup 36}S at 130 MeV. The level structure of {sup 102}Rh has been investigated using the EUROGAM II array. Low-lying states and four high-spin bands have been identified. The configurations of low-lying levels and two-quasiparticle bands are interpreted in the frame of the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model. The four observed band structures are also compared with cranked shell model calculations using a modified oscillator potential.
Dual-Band Terahertz Left-Handed Metamaterial with Fishnet Structure
We present the design of a dual-band left-handed metamaterial with fishnet structure in the terahertz regime. Its left-handed properties are described by the retrieved effective electromagnetic parameters. We introduce an equivalent circuit which offers a theoretical explanation for the left-handed behavior of the dual-band fishnet metamaterial, and investigate its losses receiving higher figure of merit. The design is beneficial to the development of frequency agile and broadband THz materials and devices. The dual-band fishnet metamaterial can be extended to infrared and optical frequency ranges by regulating the structural parameters. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Band structure and reflectance for a nonlinear one-dimensional photonic crystal
Gutirrez-Lpez, Sergio; Corella-Madueo, Adalberto; Rosas-Burgos, Rodrigo; Reyes, Juan Adrian
2011-01-01
We consider a model for a one-dimensional photonic crystal formed by a succession of Kerr-type equidistant spaceless interfaces immersed in a linear medium. We calculate the band structure and reflectance of this structure as a function of the incident wave intensity, and find two main behaviors: the appearance of prohibited bands, and the separation and narrowing of these bands. A system with these features is obtained by alternating very thin slabs of a soft matter material with thicker solid films, which can be used to design a device to control light propagation for specific wavelength intervals and light intensities.
Band structure of hydrogenated silicene on Ag(111): Evidence for half-silicane
Wang, W.; Olovsson, W.; Uhrberg, R. I. G.
2016-02-01
In the case of graphene, hydrogenation removes the conductivity due to the bands forming the Dirac cone by opening up a band gap. This type of chemical functionalization is of the utmost importance for electronic applications. As predicted by theoretical studies, a similar change in the band structure is expected for silicene, the closest analog to graphene. We here report a study of the atomic and electronic structures of hydrogenated silicene with hydrogen on one side, the so-called half-silicane. The ("2 √{3 }×2 √{3 } ") phase of silicene on Ag(111) was used in this Rapid Communication since it can be formed homogeneously across the entire surface of the Ag substrate. Low-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy data clearly show that hydrogenation changes the structure of silicene on Ag(111) resulting in a (1 × 1) periodicity with respect to the silicene lattice. The hydrogenated silicene also exhibits a quasiregular (2 √{3 }×2 √{3 } )-like arrangement of vacancies. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy revealed two dispersive bands which can be unambiguously assigned to half-silicane. The common top of these bands is located at ˜0.9 eV below the Fermi level. We find that the experimental bands are closely reproduced by the theoretical band structure of free-standing silicene with H adsorbed on the upper hexagonal sublattice.
Realization of Band-Notch UWB Monopole Antenna Using AMC Structure
Pradeep Kumar
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This article presents the design, simulation and testing of an Ultra Wide Band (UWB planar monopole antenna with WLAN band-notch characteristic. The proposed antenna consists, the combination of planar monopole antenna with partial ground and a pair of AMC structures. The AMC structure used for the design is mushroom-like. Design equation of EBG parameters is also proposed for FR4 substrate using transmission line model. Using proposed equations, Mushroom-like EBG structure is integrated along the feed line of a monopole antenna for WLAN (5 GHz – 6 GHz band rejection. TheCurrent distribution and equivalent circuit model of antenna is used to explain band-notch characteristic of EBG resonator. The proposed antenna is fabricated on an FR4 substrate with a thickness of 1.6 mmand εr = 4.4. The measured VSWR characteristic is less than 2 for complete UWB band except for WLAN band i.e. 5 GHz – 6 GHz. The gain of the proposed structure is around 2 dBi – 6.7 dBi for complete UWBband except for WLAN band where it is reduced to -4 dBi. The measured radiation pattern of proposed antenna is omnidirectional along H plane and bidirectional in E plane. A nearly constant group delaywith variations < 2ns, except for the notched bandwidth makes proposed antenna suitable for UWB application.
Khadraoui, Z.; Horchani-Naifer, K.; Ferhi, M.; Ferid, M.
2015-09-01
Single crystals of TbPO4 were grown by high temperature solid-state reaction and identified by means of X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies analysis. The electronic properties of TbPO4 such as the energy band structures, density of states were carried out using density functional theory (DFT). We have employed the LDA+U functional to treat the exchange correlation potential by solving Kohn-Sham equation. The calculated total and partial density of states indicate that the top of valance band is mainly built upon O-2p states and the bottom of the conduction band mostly originates from Tb-5d states. The population analysis indicates that the P-O bond was mainly covalent and Tb-O bond was mainly ionic. The emission spectrum, color coordinates and decay curve were employed to reveal the luminescence properties of TbPO4. Moreover, the optical properties including the dielectric function, absorption spectrum, refractive index, extinction coefficient, reflectivity and energy-loss spectrum are investigated and analyzed. The results are discussed and compared with the available experimental data.
Yan, Zhi-zhong; Wei, Chun-qiu; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2016-05-01
In this paper, a meshless radial basis function (RBF) collocation method is developed to calculate the phononic band structures taking account of different interface models. The present method is validated by using the analytical results in the case of perfect interfaces. The stability is fully discussed based on the types of RBFs, the shape parameters and the node numbers. And the advantages of the proposed RBF method compared to the finite element method (FEM) are also illustrated. In addition, the influences of the spring-interface model and the three-phase model on the wave band gaps are investigated by comparing with the perfect interfaces. For different interface models, the effects of various interface conditions, length ratios and density ratios on the band gap width are analyzed. The comparison results of the two models show that the weakly bonded interface has a significant effect on the properties of phononic crystals. Besides, the band structures of the spring-interface model have certain similarities and differences with those of the three-phase model.
On the band structure of YBa2 Cu3 O7
One compares the general features of the band structure of YBa2 Cu3 O7, as obtained from a rough tight analysis, in the two structures which have been proposed so far. The structure most recently put forward seems a priori more favourable to high threedimensional Tc superconductivity in a weak coupling limit
The charge density wave structure near a side metal contact
Brazovskii, S.; Mateveenko, S.
1992-01-01
We consider the structure of a distorted Charge Density Wave (CDW) near a side contact to a metal. We show that the electric field screening and the charge penetration proceed via inhomogeneous distribution of solitons and/or dislocations. In the presence of these topological defects we study selfconsistent equations for elastic and Coulomb fields. For high temperatures we find the soliton density distribution through the sample depth and calculate the capacitance. For low temperatures and co...
Band 3 is the major anion transport polypeptide of erythrocytes. It appears to be the binding site of several glycolytic enzymes. Structurally, band 3 is the major protein spanning the erythrocyte membrane and connects the plasma membrane to band 2.1, which binds to the cytoskeleton. In the present study, the authors report an alteration of band 3 molecule that is associated with the following changes: erythrocyte shape change from discoid to thorny cells (acanthocytes), restriction of rotational diffusion of band 3 in the membrane, increase in anion transport, and decrease in the number of high-affinity ankyrin-binding sites. Changes in erythrocyte IgG binding, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fluorescence polarization (indicative of membrane fluidity), and other membrane proteins as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were not detected. Cells containing the altered band 3 polypeptide were obtained from individuals with abnormal erythrocyte morphology. Two-dimensional peptide maps revealed differences in the M/sub r/ 17,000 anion transport segment of band 3 consistent with additions of tyrosines or tyrosine-containing peptides. The data suggest that (i) this alteration of band 3 does not result in accelerated aging as does cleavage and (ii) structural changes in the anion transport region result in alterations in anion transport
Electronic band structure and properties of the solid solution Eu1- x Fe x O
Anoshina, O. V.; Zhukov, V. P.; Borukhovich, A. S.
2015-11-01
The electronic band structure of the solid solution Eu1- x Fe x O ( x = 0.0625, 0.125) involved in the composition of the spintronic composite EuO: Fe has been calculated using the full-potential linearized augmented- plane-wave (FLAPW) method. The calculations have been performed with the correction of the exchange-correlation potential in the framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA + U). It has been shown that iron and europium cations have the oxidation state close to 2+. In this case, the iron cations are in the high-spin state with the magnetic moment close to 4 ?B, which explains the significant increase in the Curie temperature of the composite upon doping of EuO with iron. It has been demonstrated that there is a small transfer of the electron density from Eu2+ cations to Fe2+ cations. It has been argued that the main factor providing a high concentration of Eu3+ cations in the composite is, probably, the presence of Eu2O3 nanoclusters in the structure.
Photonic band structure of ZnO photonic crystal slab laser
Yamilov, A; Cao, H
2005-01-01
We recently reported on the first realization of ultraviolet photonic crystal laser based on zinc oxide [Appl. Phys. Lett. {\\bf 85}, 3657 (2004)]. Here we present the details of structural design and its optimization. We develop a computational super-cell technique, that allows a straightforward calculation of the photonic band structure of ZnO photonic crystal slab on sapphire substrate. We find that despite of small index contrast between the substrate and the photonic layer, the low order eigenmodes have predominantly transverse-electric (TE) or transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization. Because emission from ZnO thin film shows strong TE preference, we are able to limit our consideration to TE bands, spectrum of which can possess a complete photonic band gap with an appropriate choice of structure parameters. We demonstrate that the geometry of the system may be optimized so that a sizable band gap is achieved.
Band Structures of the group I and II oxides: using EMS measurements as a test of theoretical models
Full text: The electronic band structure dictates the physical and chemical properties of solids. Quantum chemical models have now been developed to provide predictions of the electronic band structure of solids, however it is their ability to reproduce many body (correlation) interactions between electrons that determines their success. Comparisons of these models with experimental data has unfortunately been limited as their success has mainly been judged using metallic and semiconducting materials. Experimental data on ionic solids is scarcer and as such it is somewhat unclear as to whether or not these quantum mechanical models have universal application. We present here experimental data for the electronic band structure of simple Group I and II oxides, measured using electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS). Using electron impact ionisation this technique maps the absolute square of the wavefunction in momentum space. This is a fundamental observable of the electronic structure and provides a comprehensive test for theoretical models. We compare our experimental results with predictions made through both Hartree Fock and Density Functional methods. The successes and failures of each of these models is highlighted and in an effort to explain some of the differences, the validity of slab calculations to better represent the thin (<200nm) samples is also investigated
Structural, electronic and phonon properties of MoTa and MoNb: a density functional investigation
First-principles calculations were performed to investigate the structural, electronic and phonon properties of MoTa and MoNb in the CsCl (B2) phase. The calculated lattice constants, static bulk modulus and first-order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus are in good agreement with available experimental data and previous theoretical predictions. Electronic band structures and partial and total densities of states have been derived for MoTa and MoNb. The band structures show metallic character; the conductivity is mostly governed by Mo-4d and Ta-5d (Nb-4d) states. A linear-response approach to the density functional theory is used to derive phonon dispersion curves and the density of states for MoTa and MoNb. Zone centre optical phonon modes of MoTa and MoNb are found to be at 6.46 and 7.24 THz, respectively.
Valent band structure in CdGa2Se4
Photoconductivity spectra (77 and 300 K) and those of lambda reflection (300 K) of CdGa2Se4 monocrystals were studied in a polarized radiation. Three polarized structures were detected in the range of fundamental absorption edge. It is stated on the basis of experimental polarization dependences and theoretical group analysis that the above structures are conditioned by optic transitions from three upper valency zones of G6(G7), G5(G8), G6(G7) into the lower zone of conductivity of G5(G8)
Precise fabrication of X-band accelerating structure
An accelerating structure with a/?=0.16 is being fabricated to study a precise fabrication method. A frequency control of each cell better than 10-4 level is required to realize a detuned structure. The present machining level is nearly 1 MHz/11.4 GHz in relative frequency error, which just satisfies the above requirement. To keep this machining precision, the diffusion bonding technique is found preferable to join the cells. Various diffusion conditions were tried. The frequency change can be less than 1 MHz/11.4 GHz and it can be controlled well better than that. (author)
Extension of Modularity Density for Overlapping Community Structure
Chen, Mingming; Szymanski, Boleslaw K
2015-01-01
Modularity is widely used to effectively measure the strength of the disjoint community structure found by community detection algorithms. Although several overlapping extensions of modularity were proposed to measure the quality of overlapping community structure, there is lack of systematic comparison of different extensions. To fill this gap, we overview overlapping extensions of modularity to select the best. In addition, we extend the Modularity Density metric to enable its usage for overlapping communities. The experimental results on four real networks using overlapping extensions of modularity, overlapping modularity density, and six other community quality metrics show that the best results are obtained when the product of the belonging coefficients of two nodes is used as the belonging function. Moreover, our experiments indicate that overlapping modularity density is a better measure of the quality of overlapping community structure than other metrics considered.
Predicting band structure of 3D mechanical metamaterials with complex geometry via XFEM
Zhao, Jifeng; Li, Ying; Liu, Wing Kam
2015-04-01
Band structure characterizes the most important property of mechanical metamaterials. However, predicting the band structure of 3D metamaterials with complex microstructures through direct numerical simulation (DNS) is computationally inefficient due to the complexity of meshing. To overcome this issue, an extended finite element method (XFEM)-based method is developed to predict 3D metamaterial band structures. Since the microstructure and material interface are implicitly resolved by the level-set function embedded in the XFEM formulation, a non-conforming (such as uniform) mesh is used in the proposed method to avoid the difficulties in meshing complex geometries. The accuracy and mesh convergence of the proposed method have been validated and verified by studying the band structure of a spherical particle embedded in a cube and comparing the results with DNS. The band structures of 3D metamaterials with different microstructures have been studied using the proposed method with the same finite element mesh, indicating the flexibility of this method. This XFEM-based method opens new opportunities in design and optimization of mechanical metamaterials with target functions, e.g. location and width of the band gap, by eliminating the iterative procedure of re-building and re-meshing microstructures that is required by classical DNS type of methods.
Shank, Joshua C.; Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Doolittle, W. Alan, E-mail: alan.doolittle@ece.gatech.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
2015-01-21
The theoretically suggested band structure of the novel p-type semiconductor lithium niobite (LiNbO{sub 2}), the direct coupling of photons to ion motion, and optically induced band structure modifications are investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence. LiNbO{sub 2} has previously been used as a memristor material but is shown here to be useful as a sensor owing to the electrical, optical, and chemical ease of lithium removal and insertion. Despite the high concentration of vacancies present in lithium niobite due to the intentional removal of lithium atoms, strong photoluminescence spectra are observed even at room temperature that experimentally confirm the suggested band structure implying transitions from a flat conduction band to a degenerate valence band. Removal of small amounts of lithium significantly modifies the photoluminescence spectra including additional larger than stoichiometric-band gap features. Sufficient removal of lithium results in the elimination of the photoluminescence response supporting the predicted transition from a direct to indirect band gap semiconductor. In addition, non-thermal coupling between the incident laser and lithium ions is observed and results in modulation of the electrical impedance.
The theoretically suggested band structure of the novel p-type semiconductor lithium niobite (LiNbO2), the direct coupling of photons to ion motion, and optically induced band structure modifications are investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence. LiNbO2 has previously been used as a memristor material but is shown here to be useful as a sensor owing to the electrical, optical, and chemical ease of lithium removal and insertion. Despite the high concentration of vacancies present in lithium niobite due to the intentional removal of lithium atoms, strong photoluminescence spectra are observed even at room temperature that experimentally confirm the suggested band structure implying transitions from a flat conduction band to a degenerate valence band. Removal of small amounts of lithium significantly modifies the photoluminescence spectra including additional larger than stoichiometric-band gap features. Sufficient removal of lithium results in the elimination of the photoluminescence response supporting the predicted transition from a direct to indirect band gap semiconductor. In addition, non-thermal coupling between the incident laser and lithium ions is observed and results in modulation of the electrical impedance
Local density functional is investigated by using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method for ScN in the hexagonal structure and the rocksalt structure and for hexagonal structures linking a layered hexagonal phase with wurtzite structure along a homogeneous strain transition path. It is found that the wurtzite ScN is unstable and the layered hexagonal phase, labelled as ho, in which atoms are approximately fivefold coordinated, is metastable, and the rocksalt ScN is stable. The electronic structure, the physical properties of the intermediate structures and the energy band structure along the transition are presented. It is found that the band gaps change from 4.0 to 1.0 eV continuously when c/a value varies from 1.68 to 1.26. It is noticeable that the study of ScN provides an opportunity to apply this kind of material (in wurtzite[h]-derived phase). (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Mialitsin, Aleksej
Subject of this dissertation is the investigation with experimental means of how the Raman response of three structurally similar materials -- MgB2, NbSe2, and CaC6 -- is affected by superconductivity (all three), charge ordering (NbSe2), or crystalline order-to-disorder phase transitions (CaC6). Universal characteristics of spectral renormalization pertaining to the superconducting phase transition are observed in all three compounds. Yet, the crystalline and electronic structures are sufficiently distinct, such that specific for each compound characteristics are imposed on this superconductivity-induced renormalization. Consequently, the method of polarized Raman scattering has been used to establish a variety of physical concepts: (1) Multi-band superconductivity in the layered superconductor MgB2 and its primary mediation by the strongly coupled 640 cm--1 E2g phonon. Additionally, it is shown how a Josephson-like coupling of two SC condensates in the reciprocal space is responsible for an exotic collective mode, the Leggett's resonance. (2) Interplay between the superconducting and the incommensurate charge-density-wave order parameters in NbSe2, which has been found to be consistent with an isotropic multi-band superconductivity scenario. This scenario is proposed in the frame of a picture that involves a combined 'superconductivity plus charge-density-wave' order parameter. (3) The Fano-Breit-Wigner line-shape formalism to account for an anti-resonance interference in the low temperature Raman response from NbSe2, in the polarization geometry corresponding to the non-symmetric E 2g symmetry channel. (4) Validity of the double resonant Raman scattering picture in the presence of disorder in the graphite intercalation compound CaC6. Simultaneously, it is explored how disorder suppresses superconductivity. To that end, the CaC6 superconducting coherence peak, too, is presented. All these phenomena are manifestations of electron-phonon coupling in solids. It is probed by inelastic light scattering under the specific constraints of respective crystalline symmetries. Each case, therefore, remains intriguingly unique. The experiments have been performed in a state of the art optical laboratory with low temperatures and high magnetic fields infrastructure, of which a detailed account is given.
Superlattice band structure: New and simple energy quantification condition
Maiz, F., E-mail: fethimaiz@gmail.com [University of Cartage, Nabeul Engineering Preparatory Institute, Merazka, 8000 Nabeul (Tunisia); King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413 (Saudi Arabia)
2014-10-01
Assuming an approximated effective mass and using Bastard's boundary conditions, a simple method is used to calculate the subband structure for periodic semiconducting heterostructures. Our method consists to derive and solve the energy quantification condition (EQC), this is a simple real equation, composed of trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, and does not need any programming effort or sophistic machine to solve it. For less than ten wells heterostructures, we have derived and simplified the energy quantification conditions. The subband is build point by point; each point presents an energy level. Our simple energy quantification condition is used to calculate the subband structure of the GaAs/Ga{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5}As heterostructures, and build its subband point by point for 4 and 20 wells. Our finding shows a good agreement with previously published results.
Superlattice band structure: New and simple energy quantification condition
Maiz, F.
2014-10-01
Assuming an approximated effective mass and using Bastard's boundary conditions, a simple method is used to calculate the subband structure for periodic semiconducting heterostructures. Our method consists to derive and solve the energy quantification condition (EQC), this is a simple real equation, composed of trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, and does not need any programming effort or sophistic machine to solve it. For less than ten wells heterostructures, we have derived and simplified the energy quantification conditions. The subband is build point by point; each point presents an energy level. Our simple energy quantification condition is used to calculate the subband structure of the GaAs/Ga0.5Al0.5As heterostructures, and build its subband point by point for 4 and 20 wells. Our finding shows a good agreement with previously published results.
Reducing support loss in micromechanical ring resonators using phononic band-gap structures
Hsu, Feng-Chia; Huang, Tsun-Che; Wang, Chin-Hung; Chang, Pin [Industrial Technology Research Institute-South, Tainan 709, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jin-Chen, E-mail: fengchiahsu@itri.org.t, E-mail: hsujc@yuntech.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China)
2011-09-21
In micromechanical resonators, energy loss via supports into the substrates may lead to a low quality factor. To eliminate the support loss, in this paper a phononic band-gap structure is employed. We demonstrate a design of phononic-crystal (PC) strips used to support extensional wine-glass mode ring resonators to increase the quality factor. The PC strips are introduced to stop elastic-wave propagation by the band-gap and deaf-band effects. Analyses of resonant characteristics of the ring resonators and the dispersion relations, eigenmodes, and transmission properties of the PC strips are presented. With the proposed resonator architecture, the finite-element simulations show that the leaky power is effectively reduced and the stored energy inside the resonators is enhanced simultaneously as the operating frequencies of the resonators are within the band gap or deaf bands. Realization of a high quality factor micromechanical ring resonator with minimized support loss is expected.
Effect of Crustal Density Structures on GOCE Gravity Gradient Observables
Robert Tenzer and Pavel Novák
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the gravity gradient components corrected for major known anomalous density structures within the _ crust. Heterogeneous mantle density structures are disregarded. The gravimetric forward modeling technique is utilized to compute the gravity gradients based on methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of a gravity field. The _ gravity gradient components are generated using the global geopotential model GOCO-03s. The topographic and stripping gravity corrections due to the density contrasts of the ocean and ice are computed from the global topographic/bathymetric model DTM2006.0 (which also includes the ice-thickness dataset. The discrete data of sediments and crust layers taken from the CRUST2.0 global crustal model are then used to apply the additional stripping corrections for sediments and remaining anomalous crustal density structures. All computations are realized globally on a one arc-deg geographical grid at a mean satellite elevation of 255 km. The global map of the consolidated crust-stripped gravity gradients reveals distinctive features which are attributed to global tectonics, lithospheric plate configuration, lithosphere structure and mantle dynamics (e.g., glacial isostatic adjustment, mantle convection. The Moho signature, which is the most pronounced signal in these refined gravity gradients, is superimposed over a weaker gravity signal of the lithospheric mantle. An interpretational quality of the computed (refined gravity gradient components is mainly limited by a low accuracy and resolution of the CRUST2.0 sediment and crustal layer data and unmodeled mantle structures.
Electronic band structures and x-ray photoelectron spectra of ZrC, HfC, and TaC
The band structures and densities of states (DOSs) of ZrC, HfC, and TaC were calculated by the augmented-plane-wave method, and the x-ray photoelectron spectra of valence bands of these compounds were observed. The theoretical energy distribution curves (EDCs) were in good agreement with the experimental EDCs. These band structures resemble each other and also those of TiC obtained by our previous work. This fact suggests that the rigid-band model is applicable to the transition-metal carbides with the rock-salt structure. Their DOSs are divided into three parts. Peak I derived from the C 2s state is isolated from the higher valence-band peak II arising from the C 2p and the valence electrons of the metal atom. Peak III derived from the d and s states of the metal atom is separated by the Fermi level from peak II. The Fermi level lies at the minimum point of the DOS for the group IV carbides, but for TaC it lies at a relatively large DOS point. The DOS at the Fermi level of ZrC, HfC, and TaC are 0.18, 0.16, and 0.65 electrons/(eV primitive cell), respectively. The characteristic mutual differences among these compounds are a stronger localization of d electrons in ZrC and HfC compared with TiC and an enhancement of the photoelectron spectrum intensity of TaC around the Fermi level
Photonic band gap characteristics of one-dimensional graphene-dielectric periodic structures
Al-sheqefi, F. U. Y.; Belhadj, W.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we study theoretically, the transmission properties of a one-dimensional graphene-dielectric periodic structure by using the transfer matrix method. Within the framework of this method, we confirm earlier finding that a periodic structure composed of a stack of monolayer graphene sheets separated by dielectric slabs, possesses photonic band-gap (PBG) properties and supports a series of bandpass and band-stop regions at low-terahertz frequencies. Our calculations showed that the suggested structure possesses in addition to the structural Bragg gaps, a new type of band gap that exhibits a rather versatile behavior with varying angle of incidence. We find this type of band gap is omnidirectional (omni-gap) for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations. Our results show that 1D graphene-dielectric periodic structures are very good candidates for band gap engineering. Specifically, we demonstrate the existence of a band gap region for both polarizations which survives for incident angles as high as 80. Moreover, we show how our proposed structure can also function as a highly efficient polarization splitter. It is also found that the band gaps can be tuned by tuning the properties of the graphene via a gate voltage. In order to investigate difference between the omni-gap and Bragg PBG, we plot the electromagnetic field profiles for some critical frequencies. The proposed structure is promising and can work as a gate tunable perfect stop filter which completely blocks both polarizations, and may have many other potential applications.
VEH electronic band structure of poly(phenylsilane)
Crespo, R. (Dept. de Quimica Fisica, Univ. de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)); Piqueras, M.C. (Dept. de Quimica Fisica, Univ. de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)); Orti, E. (Dept. de Quimica Fisica, Univ. de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)); Tomas, F. (Dept. de Quimica Fisica, Univ. de Valencia, Valencia (Spain))
1993-11-23
The electronic structure of all-trans syndiotactic and isotactic poly(phenylsilane) has been calculated using the valence effective Hamiltonian (VEH) method. The effects of attachment of the phenyl group on the electronic properties of polysilane are analysed in detail. The VEH results show a decrease of ionization potential and an increase of electron affinity which determine an important reduction of the bandgap. These features are correlated with [sigma]-[pi] and [sigma][sup *]-[pi][sup *] interactions between the silicon backbone and the phenyl group. (orig.)
Duan, Yuhua; Stinespring, Charter D; Chorpening, Benjamin
2015-01-01
To better understand the effects of low-level fluorine in graphene-based sensors, first-principles density functional theory (DFT) with van der Waals dispersion interactions has been employed to investigate the structure and impact of fluorine defects on the electrical properties of single-layer graphene films. The results show that both graphite-2 H and graphene have zero band gaps. When fluorine bonds to a carbon atom, the carbon atom is pulled slightly above the graphene plane, creating wh...
A theoretical investigation of ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1-x} alloy band structure
Rozale, H.; Beldi, L.; Bouhafs, B. [Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Sidi Bel-Abbes, 22000 Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Ruterana, P. [SIFCOM UMR 6176, CNRS-ENSICAEN, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France)
2007-05-15
We report the properties of ordered ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1-x} alloys calculated in various structures (CuAu-I, Cu {sub 3}Au, Luzonite and Famatinite) using a first-principles total-energy formalism based on the hybrid full-potential augmented plane-wave plus local orbitals (APW+lo) method, within the local-density approximation (LDA). The calculated band gaps of the alloys are direct and range from 0.49 for O-rich to 1.55 eV for S-rich ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1-x}. The non linear variation of the band gap energy is related to the large electronegativity difference between O and S. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Liu, Hao; Xu, Ziqiang
2013-01-01
A modified electromagnetic-bandgap (M-EBG) structure and its application to planar monopole ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna are presented. The proposed M-EBG which comprises two strip patch and an edge-located via can perform dual notched bands. By properly designing and placing strip patch near the feedline, the proposed M-EBG not only possesses a simple structure and compact size but also exhibits good band rejection. Moreover, it is easy to tune the dual notched bands by altering the dimensions of the M-EBG. A demonstration antenna with dual band-notched characteristics is designed and fabricated to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed antenna can satisfy the requirements of VSWR WLAN) at 3.5 GHz and 5.5 GHz, respectively. PMID:24170984
Band structure properties of (BGa)P semiconductors for lattice matched integration on (001) silicon
We report the band structure properties of (BGa)P layers grown on silicon substrate using metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy. Using surface photo-voltage spectroscopy we find that both the direct and indirect band gaps of (BGa)P alloys (strained and unstrained) decrease with Boron content. Our experimental results suggest that the band gap of (BGa)P layers up to 6% Boron is large and suitable to be used as cladding and contact layers in GaP-based quantum well heterostructures on silicon substrates
Band structure and energy levels in GaInAs/AlInAs MQW system
Band structure calculations for electron, heavy-hole and light-hole in the GaInAs/AlInAs MQW and SL system has been carried out using modified envelope function approximation model. Discrete levels (i.e. bound states) within the wells and discrete transmission resonances (i.e. virtual states) have been observed in each case. Calculated sub-band transition energies have been found to be in very good agreement with experimental measurements
Berne, A.D.; G. Delrieu; Andrieu, H.
2005-01-01
The present study aims at a preliminary approach of multiradar compositing applied to the estimation of the vertical structure of precipitation¿an important issue for radar rainfall measurement and prediction. During the HYDROMET Integrated Radar Experiment (HIRE¿98), the vertical profile of reflectivity was measured, on the one hand, with an X-band vertically pointing radar system, and, on the other hand, with an X-band RHI scanning protocol radar. The analysis of the raw data highlights the...
Inertial amplification of continuous structures: Large band gaps from small masses
Frandsen, Niels M M; Jensen, Jakob S; Hussein, Mahmoud I
2016-01-01
Wave motion in a continuous elastic rod with a periodically attached inertial-amplification mechanism is investigated. The mechanism has properties similar to an "inerter" typically used in vehicle suspensions, however here it is constructed and utilized in a manner that alters the intrinsic properties of a continuous structure. The elastodynamic band structure of the hybrid rod-mechanism structure yields band gaps that are exceedingly wide and deep when compared to what can be obtained using standard local resonators, while still being low in frequency. With this concept, a large band gap may be realized with as much as twenty times less added mass compared to what is needed in a standard local resonator configuration. The emerging inertially enhanced continuous structure also exhibits unique qualitative features in its dispersion curves. These include the existence of a characteristic double-peak in the attenuation constant profile within gaps and the possibility of coalescence of two neighbouring gaps crea...
Inertial amplification of continuous structures: Large band gaps from small masses
Frandsen, Niels M. M.; Bilal, Osama R.; Jensen, Jakob S.; Hussein, Mahmoud I.
2016-03-01
We investigate wave motion in a continuous elastic rod with a periodically attached inertial-amplification mechanism. The mechanism has properties similar to an "inerter" typically used in vehicle suspensions, however here it is constructed and utilized in a manner that alters the intrinsic properties of a continuous structure. The elastodynamic band structure of the hybrid rod-mechanism structure yields band gaps that are exceedingly wide and deep when compared to what can be obtained using standard local resonators, while still being low in frequency. With this concept, a large band gap may be realized with as much as twenty times less added mass compared to what is needed in a standard local resonator configuration. The emerging inertially enhanced continuous structure also exhibits unique qualitative features in its dispersion curves. These include the existence of a characteristic double-peak in the attenuation constant profile within gaps and the possibility of coalescence of two neighbouring gaps creating a large contiguous gap.
Electronic band structure matching for half- and full-Heusler alloys
We explore the lattice and the electronic band structures matching between the half-metallic Heusler alloys (half-Heusler NiMnSb and full-Heusler Co2MnSi) and several hypothetical non-magnetic Heusler alloys by using first principle calculations. The lattice and band structure matching are almost perfectly satisfied between the two materials of similar crystal structures: (i) NiMnSb and XYSb and (ii) Co2MnSi and X2YSi, where X, Y=Ni or Cu. Owing to the high interface spin scattering asymmetry, these materials are promising to realize a high giant magnetoresistance at room temperature.
Photonic stop bands in quasi-random nanoporous anodic alumina structures
Maksymov, Ivan; Pallares, Josep; Marsal, Lluis F
2011-01-01
The existence of photonic stop bands in the self-assembled arrangement of pores in porous anodic alumina structures is investigated by means of rigorous 2D finite- difference time-domain calculations. Self-assembled porous anodic alumina shows a random distribution of domains, each of them with a very definite triangular pattern, constituting a quasi-random structure. The observed stop bands are similar to those of photonic quasicrystals or random structures. As the pores of nanoporous anodic alumina can be infiltrated with noble metals, nonlinear or active media, it makes this material very attractive and cost-effective for applications including inhibition of spontaneous emission, random lasing, LEDs and biosensors.
Analysis of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures using the FDTD method
Tong, M.S.; Cheng, M.; Lu, Y.L.; Chen, Y.C.; Krozer, Viktor; Vahldieck, R.
2004-01-01
In this paper, a number of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures, which are formed by periodic circuit elements printed oil transmission-line circuits, are studied by using a well-known numerical method, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results validate the band-stop filter...... behavior of these structures, and the computed results generally match well with ones published in the literature. It is also found that the FDTD method is a robust, versatile, and powerful numerical technique to perform such numerical studies. The proposed PBG filter structures may be applied in microwave...
Phononic band gaps and vibrations in one- and two-dimensional mass-spring structures
Jensen, Jakob Sndergaard
2003-01-01
The vibrational response of finite periodic lattice structures subjected to periodic loading is investigated. Special attention is devoted to the response in frequency ranges with gaps in the band structure for the corresponding infinite periodic lattice. The effects of boundaries, viscous damping...
An Optimized, Grid Independent, Narrow Band Data Structure for High Resolution Level Sets
Nielsen, Michael Bang; Museth, Ken
enforced by the convex boundaries of an underlying cartesian computational grid. Here we present a novel very memory efficient narrow band data structure, dubbed the Sparse Grid, that enables the representation of grid independent high resolution level sets. The key features our new data structure are...
By using ab initio density functional theory the structural and electronic properties of isolated and bundled (8,0) and (6,6) silicon carbide nanotubes (SiCNTs) are investigated. Our results show that for such small diameter nanotubes the inter-tube interaction causes a very small radial deformation, while band splitting and reduction of the semiconducting energy band gap are significant. We compared the equilibrium interaction energy and inter-tube separation distance of (8,0) SiCNT bundle with (10,0) carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle where they have the same radius. We found that there is a larger inter-tube separation and weaker inter-tube interaction in the (8,0) SiCNT bundle with respect to (10,0) CNT bundle, although they have the same radius
Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Jiawei; Gao, Weiwei; Abtew, Tesfaye A.; Wang, Youwei; Zhang, Peihong; Zhang, Wenqing
2013-11-01
Diamond-like Cu-based multinary semiconductors are a rich family of materials that hold promise in a wide range of applications. Unfortunately, accurate theoretical understanding of the electronic properties of these materials is hindered by the involvement of Cu d electrons. Density functional theory (DFT) based calculations using the local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation often give qualitative wrong electronic properties of these materials, especially for narrow-gap systems. The modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) method has been shown to be a promising alternative to more elaborate theory such as the GW approximation for fast materials screening and predictions. However, straightforward applications of the mBJ method to these materials still encounter significant difficulties because of the insufficient treatment of the localized d electrons. We show that combining the promise of mBJ potential and the spirit of the well-established DFT + U method leads to a much improved description of the electronic structures, including the most challenging narrow-gap systems. A survey of the band gaps of about 20 Cu-based semiconductors calculated using the mBJ + U method shows that the results agree with reliable values to within ±0.2 eV.
Diamond-like Cu-based multinary semiconductors are a rich family of materials that hold promise in a wide range of applications. Unfortunately, accurate theoretical understanding of the electronic properties of these materials is hindered by the involvement of Cu d electrons. Density functional theory (DFT) based calculations using the local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation often give qualitative wrong electronic properties of these materials, especially for narrow-gap systems. The modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) method has been shown to be a promising alternative to more elaborate theory such as the GW approximation for fast materials screening and predictions. However, straightforward applications of the mBJ method to these materials still encounter significant difficulties because of the insufficient treatment of the localized d electrons. We show that combining the promise of mBJ potential and the spirit of the well-established DFT + U method leads to a much improved description of the electronic structures, including the most challenging narrow-gap systems. A survey of the band gaps of about 20 Cu-based semiconductors calculated using the mBJ + U method shows that the results agree with reliable values to within ±0.2 eV
3D Coronal Density Reconstruction and Retrieving the Magnetic Field Structure during Solar Minimum
Kramar, M; Mikić, Z; Davila, J
2014-01-01
Measurement of the coronal magnetic field is a crucial ingredient in understanding the nature of solar coronal phenomena at all scales. We employed STEREO/COR1 data obtained during a deep minimum of solar activity in February 2008 (Carrington rotation CR 2066) to retrieve and analyze the three-dimensional (3D) coronal electron density in the range of heights from 1.5 to 4 Rsun using a tomography method. With this, we qualitatively deduced structures of the coronal magnetic field. The 3D electron density analysis is complemented by the 3D STEREO/EUVI emissivity in the 195 A band obtained by tomography for the same CR. A global 3D MHD model of the solar corona was used to relate the reconstructed 3D density and emissivity to open/closed magnetic field structures. We show that the density maximum locations can serve as an indicator of current sheet position, while the locations of the density gradient maximum can be a reliable indicator of coronal hole boundaries. We find that the magnetic field configuration du...
Tensor classification of structure in smoothed particle hydrodynamics density fields
Forgan, Duncan; Bonnell, Ian; Lucas, William; Rice, Ken
2016-04-01
As hydrodynamic simulations increase in scale and resolution, identifying structures with non-trivial geometries or regions of general interest becomes increasingly challenging. There is a growing need for algorithms that identify a variety of different features in a simulation without requiring a `by eye' search. We present tensor classification as such a technique for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). These methods have already been used to great effect in N-Body cosmological simulations, which require smoothing defined as an input free parameter. We show that tensor classification successfully identifies a wide range of structures in SPH density fields using its native smoothing, removing a free parameter from the analysis and preventing the need for tessellation of the density field, as required by some classification algorithms. As examples, we show that tensor classification using the tidal tensor and the velocity shear tensor successfully identifies filaments, shells and sheet structures in giant molecular cloud simulations, as well as spiral arms in discs. The relationship between structures identified using different tensors illustrates how different forces compete and co-operate to produce the observed density field. We therefore advocate the use of multiple tensors to classify structure in SPH simulations, to shed light on the interplay of multiple physical processes.
A real-space stochastic density matrix approach for density functional electronic structure.
Beck, Thomas L
2015-12-21
The recent development of real-space grid methods has led to more efficient, accurate, and adaptable approaches for large-scale electrostatics and density functional electronic structure modeling. With the incorporation of multiscale techniques, linear-scaling real-space solvers are possible for density functional problems if localized orbitals are used to represent the Kohn-Sham energy functional. These methods still suffer from high computational and storage overheads, however, due to extensive matrix operations related to the underlying wave function grid representation. In this paper, an alternative stochastic method is outlined that aims to solve directly for the one-electron density matrix in real space. In order to illustrate aspects of the method, model calculations are performed for simple one-dimensional problems that display some features of the more general problem, such as spatial nodes in the density matrix. This orbital-free approach may prove helpful considering a future involving increasingly parallel computing architectures. Its primary advantage is the near-locality of the random walks, allowing for simultaneous updates of the density matrix in different regions of space partitioned across the processors. In addition, it allows for testing and enforcement of the particle number and idempotency constraints through stabilization of a Feynman-Kac functional integral as opposed to the extensive matrix operations in traditional approaches. PMID:25969148
Kinetic-energy density functional: Atoms and shell structure
We present a nonlocal kinetic-energy functional which includes an anisotropic average of the density through a symmetrization procedure. This functional allows a better description of the nonlocal effects of the electron system. The main consequence of the symmetrization is the appearance of a clear shell structure in the atomic density profiles, obtained after the minimization of the total energy. Although previous results with some of the nonlocal kinetic functionals have given incipient structures for heavy atoms, only our functional shows a clear shell structure for most of the atoms. The atomic total energies have a good agreement with the exact calculations. Discussion of the chemical potential and the first ionization potential in atoms is included. The functional is also extended to spin-polarized systems. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Tensor classification of structure in smoothed particle hydrodynamics density fields
Forgan, Duncan; Lucas, William; Rice, Ken
2016-01-01
As hydrodynamic simulations increase in scale and resolution, identifying structures with non-trivial geometries or regions of general interest becomes increasingly challenging. There is a growing need for algorithms that identify a variety of different features in a simulation without requiring a "by-eye" search. We present tensor classification as such a technique for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). These methods have already been used to great effect in N-Body cosmological simulations, which require smoothing defined as an input free parameter. We show that tensor classification successfully identifies a wide range of structures in SPH density fields using its native smoothing, removing a free parameter from the analysis and preventing the need for tesselation of the density field, as required by some classification algorithms. As examples, we show that tensor classification using the tidal tensor and the velocity shear tensor successfully identifies filaments, shells and sheet structures in giant m...
A Universal Density Structure for Circum-Galactic Gas
Stern, Jonathan; Prochaska, J Xavier; Werk, Jessica K
2016-01-01
We develop a new method to constrain the physical conditions in the cool (~10^4 K) circumgalactic medium (CGM) from measurements of ionic columns densities, under two main assumptions: that the cool CGM spans a large range of gas densities, and that small high-density clouds are hierarchically embedded in large low-density clouds. The new method combines (or `stacks') the information available from different sightlines during the photoionization modeling, thus yielding significantly tighter constraints on the CGM properties compared to traditional methods which model each sightline individually. Applying this new technique to the COS-Halos survey of low-redshift ~L* galaxies, we find that we can reproduce all observed ion columns in all 44 galaxies in the sample, from the low-ions to OVI, with a single universal density structure for the cool CGM. The gas densities span the range 50 < \\rho/\\rho_mean < 5x10^5 (\\rho_mean is the cosmic mean), while the physical size of individual clouds scales as ~\\rho^-1,...
Moustafa, Mohamed Orabi
2012-11-01
Single crystals of layered transition metal dichalcogenide compounds of ZrS{sub x}Se{sub 2-x} were grown by the chemical vapour transport technique. The S-concentration parameter x was varied over the entire compositional range (0{<=}x{<=}2). As a result, we were able to obtain compositions that are S-rich (x>1) or Se-rich (x<1). The crystals were characterized with the help of different methods e.g. EDX, LEED, and Laue diffraction. The band gaps were determined by means of optical measurements. The values of the band gaps were determined from the analysis of the energy dependence of the measured optical absorption. The obtained band gaps, varying from 1.18 eV for ZrSe{sub 2} to 1.7 eV for ZrS{sub 2}, showed an almost linear dependence on the composition parameter x. This reveals an interesting band gap engineering character of this series of material. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the band gaps has been studied and discussed taking into consideration both the implicit and explicit contributions. The exponential increasing adsorption edge was observed which is known as the Urbach tail is discussed in detail. The electronic band structure of the whole series of ZrS{sub x}Se{sub 2-x} was studied by means of high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) used in conjunction with synchrotron radiation facilities. The experimental valence band structure of the complete series is reported along the normal direction and along the major symmetry directions of the Brillouin zone parallel to the layers. The obtained experimental band structure compares well with recent band structure calculations based on the density functional theory (DET). The results show that the binding energies of the topmost valence band shift almost linearly with the composition parameter x. Further, a characteristic splitting of the chalcogen p-derived valence bands along high symmetry directions is observed. Our band structure calculations based on the DFT prove that the splitting is ascribed to the spin-orbit (SO) coupling. Moreover, the energy gap values are determined from the observed emission near to the conduction band minimum. The band gap values deduced by ARPES are discussed and compared to that from the optical measurements. (orig.)
Atomic structures of 13-atom clusters by density functional theory
Chen, Hsin-Yi; Wei, Ching-Ming
2007-03-01
The 13-atom cluster structures of the alkaline metals, alkaline earth metals, boron group, 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals in the periodic table, and Pb are investigated by density functional theory with three kinds of exchange correlation approximation: i) LDA (Local Density Approximation), ii) GGA (Generalized Gradient Approximation) [1], and iii) PBE (Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof) [2]. The results mainly focus on five 3-D structures: icosahedral, cuboctahedral, hexagonal-closed packed, body-center cubic, decahedral, and the other two layer structures: buckled biplanar (bbp) and garrison-cap biplanar (gbp) structures. Limited by accuracy of exchange correlation approximation, two interesting results are found. The ground states of Ca13, Sr13, Ba13, Sc13, Y13, La13, Ti13, Zr13, and Hf13 are icosahedral structures. The clusters of Ir13, Pt13, Cu13, Ag13, and Au13 are more favorable for layer structures (i.e. bbp and gbp) than the other five 3-D structures. [1] J. P. Perdew et al., Phys. Rev. B 46, 6671 (1992). [2] J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996).
Valence band structure and optical properties of ZnO1?xSx ternary alloys
The k.p method and the effective mass theory are applied to compute valence-band electronic structure and optical properties of ZnO1?xSx ternary alloys under biaxial strain. A significant modification of the band structure with increasing sulfur content is revealed. Features of wave-functions and matrix elements in the transverse electrical (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) regimes for three valence subbands are studied and discussed. The results of calculations of interband transition energy and spontaneous emission spectra are in agreement with experimental data for ZnO1?xSx films grown by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique. - Highlights: The band structure and matrix elements of ZnO1?xSx alloys are calculated. Sulfur content effect on matrix elements and emission spectra is studied. Physical nature of the interband transitions in ZnO1?xSx alloys is explained. A good qualitative agreement between theory and experiment is observed
Direct probing of band-structure Berry phase in diluted magnetic semiconductors
Granada, M.; Lucot, D.; Giraud, R.; Lemaître, A.; Ulysse, C.; Waintal, X.; Faini, G.
2015-06-01
We report on experimental evidence of the Berry phase accumulated by the charge-carrier wave function in single-domain nanowires made from a (Ga, Mn)(As, P) diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor layer. Its signature on the mesoscopic transport measurements is revealed as unusual patterns in the magnetoconductance that are clearly distinguished from the universal conductance fluctuations. We show that these patterns appear in a magnetic field region where the magnetization rotates coherently and are related to a change in the band-structure Berry phase as the magnetization direction changes. They should thus be considered a band-structure Berry phase fingerprint of the effective magnetic monopoles in the momentum space. We argue that this is an efficient method to vary the band structure in a controlled way and to probe it directly. Hence, (Ga, Mn)As appears to be a very interesting test bench for new concepts based on this geometrical phase.
Pan, Xiaoyang; Yi, Zhiguo
2015-12-16
A facile, one-step hydrothermal method has been developed to fabricate tin oxide-reduced graphene oxide (Sn-RGO) nanocomposites with tunable composition, morphology, and energy band structure by utilizing graphene oxide (GO) as a multifunctional two-dimensional scaffold. By adjusting the GO concentration during synthesis, a variety of tin oxide nanomaterials with diverse composition and morphology are obtained. Simultaneously, the varying of GO concentration can also narrow the bandgap and tune the band edge positions of the Sn-RGO nanocomposites. As a result, the Sn-RGO nanocomposites with controllable composition, morphology, and energy band structure are obtained, which exhibit efficient photoactivities toward methyl orange (MO) degradation under visible-light irradiation. It is expected that our work would point to the new possibility of using GO for directing synthesis of semiconductor nanomaterials with tailored structure and physicochemical properties. PMID:26581093
The band structures and partial density of states of MM′X half-Heusler compounds as topological insulators have been simulated by using local density approximate + U. Results show that both the covalent M′–X bonds and the ionic M–M′ bands contribute the band structures, and the covalent bonds between M′ and X atoms decide the number of (EΓ6 − EΓ8) (Γ6 and Γ8 denote the twofold s-type orbitals and fourfold p-type orbitals and M, M′, and X show atoms located at different positions in the lattice); big size of |χM′ − χX| and small value of V are propitious to form topological insulators. - Highlights: • Both of covalent M′–X bonds and ionic M–M′ bands contribute band structures. • The covalent M′–X bonds decide the number of (EΓ6 − EΓ8). • Big value of |χM′ − χX| and small value of V are propitious to form topological insulators
Reshak, A.H. [New Technologies-Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Khan, Wilayat, E-mail: walayat76@gmail.com [New Technologies-Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic)
2014-04-01
Highlights: FP-LAPW technique is used for calculating the electronic structure. The band structure shows that the calculated compound is semiconductor. The complex dielectric function has been calculated. Nonlinear optical properties has also been calculated. This compound can be used for molecular engineering of the crystals. - Abstract: Self-consistent calculations is performed using the full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) technique based on density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the electronic band structure, density of states, electronic charge density, linear and non-linear optical properties of ?-LiAlTe{sub 2} compound having tetragonal symmetry with space group I4{sup }2d. The electronic structure are calculated using the Ceperley Alder local density approach (CA-LDA), Perdew Burke and Ernzerhof generalize gradient approach (PBE-GGA), EngelVosko generalize gradient approach (EVGGA) and modified Becke Johnson approach (mBJ). Band structure calculations of (?-LiAlTe{sub 2}) depict semiconducting nature with direct band gap of 2.35 eV (LDA), 2.48 eV (GGA), 3.05 eV (EVGGA) and 3.13 eV (mBJ), which is comparable to experimental value. The calculated electronic charge density show ionic interaction between Te and Li atoms and polar covalent interaction between Al and Te atoms. Some optical susceptibilities like dielectric constants, refractive index, extension co-efficient, reflectivity and energy loss function have been calculated and analyzed on the basis of electronic structure. The compound ?-LiAlTe{sub 2} provides a considerable negative value of birefringence of ?0.01. Any anisotropy observed in the linear optical properties which are in favor to enhance the nonlinear optical properties. The symbol ?{sub abc}{sup (2)}(?) represents the second order nonlinear optical susceptibilities, possess six non-zero components in this symmetry (tetragonal), called: 1 2 3, 2 1 3, 2 3 1, 1 3 2, 3 1 2 and 3 2 1 components, in which 1 2 3 is the dominant one having value 26.49 pm/V.
Band structures in two-dimensional phononic crystals with periodic Jerusalem cross slot
Li, Yinggang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Tianning, E-mail: tnchen@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Kunpeng; Song, Ruifang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)
2015-01-01
In this paper, a novel two-dimensional phononic crystal composed of periodic Jerusalem cross slot in air matrix with a square lattice is presented. The dispersion relations and the transmission coefficient spectra are calculated by using the finite element method based on the Bloch theorem. The formation mechanisms of the band gaps are analyzed based on the acoustic mode analysis. Numerical results show that the proposed phononic crystal structure can yield large band gaps in the low-frequency range. The formation mechanism of opening the acoustic band gaps is mainly attributed to the resonance modes of the cavities inside the Jerusalem cross slot structure. Furthermore, the effects of the geometrical parameters on the band gaps are further explored numerically. Results show that the band gaps can be modulated in an extremely large frequency range by the geometry parameters such as the slot length and width. These properties of acoustic waves in the proposed phononic crystals can potentially be applied to optimize band gaps and generate low-frequency filters and waveguides.
Studies of Breakdown in High Gradient X-Band Accelerator Structures Using Acoustic Emission
X-band accelerator structures meeting the Next Linear Collider (NLC) design requirements have been found to suffer damage due to RF breakdown when processed to high gradients. Improved understanding of these breakdown events is desirable for the development of structure designs, fabrication procedures, and processing techniques that minimize structure damage [1]. Acoustic emission sensors attached to an accelerator structure can detect both nominal and breakdown RF pulses [2]. Using an array of acoustic sensors, we have been able to pinpoint both the cell and azimuth location of individual breakdown events. This allows studies of breakdown time and position sequences so that underlying causes can be determined. The technique provided a significant advance in studies of breakdown in the structure input coupler. In this paper we present acoustic emission sensor data and analysis from the breakdown studies in several x-band accelerator structures
Wickles, Christian; Belzig, Wolfgang
2013-07-01
Starting from a general N-band Hamiltonian with weak spatial and temporal variations, we derive a low-energy effective theory for transport within one or several overlapping bands. To this end, we use the Wigner representation that allows us to systematically construct the unitary transformation that brings the Hamiltonian into band-diagonal form. We address the issue of gauge invariance and discuss the necessity of using kinetic variables in order to obtain a low-energy effective description that is consistent with the original theory. Essentially, our analysis is a semiclassical one and quantum corrections appear as Berry curvatures in addition to quantities that are related to the appearance of persistent currents. We develop a transport framework, which is manifestly gauge invariant, and it is based on a quantum Boltzmann formulation along with suitable definitions of current density operators such that Liouville's theorem is satisfied. Finally, we incorporate the effects of an external electromagnetic field into our theory.
Band structure engineering and vacancy induced metallicity at the GaAs-AlAs interface
Upadhyay Kahaly, M.
2011-09-20
We study the epitaxial GaAs-AlAs interface of wide gap materials by full-potential density functional theory. AlAsthin films on a GaAs substrate and GaAsthin films on an AlAs substrate show different trends for the electronic band gap with increasing film thickness. In both cases, we find an insulating state at the interface and a negligible charge transfer even after relaxation. Differences in the valence and conduction band edges suggest that the energy band discontinuities depend on the growth sequence. Introduction of As vacancies near the interface induces metallicity, which opens great potential for GaAs-AlAs heterostructures in modern electronics.
The three-dimensional structure of the nemaline rod Z-band
1990-01-01
In nemaline myopathy and some cardiac muscles, the Z-band becomes greatly enlarged and contains multiple layers of a zigzag structure similar to that seen in normal muscle. Because of the additional periodicity in the direction of the filament axis, these structures are particularly favorable for three-dimensional analysis since it becomes possible to average the data in all three dimensions and thus improve the reliability of the reconstruction. Individual views of the structure correspondin...
Processing Studies of X-Band Accelerator Structures at the NLCTA
Adolphsen, C.; Baumgartner, W; Jobe, K.; Pimpec, F. Le; R. Loewen; McCormick, D.; ROSS, M.; Smith, T.; Wang, J W; Higo, T.
2001-01-01
RF processing studies of 1.8-m X-band (11.4 GHz) traveling wave structures at the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) have revealed breakdown-related damage at gradients lower than expected from earlier tests with standing wave and shorter, lower group velocity traveling wave structures. To understand this difference, a series of structures with different group velocities and lengths are being processed. In parallel, efforts are being made to improve processing procedures and to red...
Production of C-band disk-loaded type CG accelerating structure
In April 2013, MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD. contracted with RIKEN to manufacture six C-band disk-loaded type and constant gradient (CG) accelerating structures for XFEL facility SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser). These structures were newly designed for operation with an acceleration gradient of over 45 MeV/m and a repletion rate of 120 pps by RIKEN. We report the production and low-power RF properties of these accelerating structures. (author)
Numerical study of the effect of permeability on square and triangular microwave band gap structures
We report the theoretical work on the photonic band gap structures suitable for microwave frequency region formed by magnetic materials (ε=9.87 and μ=2.17) using plane wave expansion method. The structures under analysis are two-dimensional square and triangular lattices. The calculated band gap between 10 and 20GHz region is anlaysed for the effect due to lattice spacing and the property of the material. The results are also compared with that of pure dielectric case. Obtained results indicate that both impedance and effective refractive index are responsible for the gap width and mid-gap frequency
Band structure of Heusler compounds studied by photoemission and tunneling spectroscopy
Arbelo Jorge, Elena
2011-01-01
Heusler compounds are key materials for spintronic applications. They have attracted a lot of interest due to their half-metallic properties predicted by band structure calculations.rnThe aim of this work is to evaluate experimentally the validity of the predictions of half metallicity by band structure calculations for two specific Heusler compounds, Co2FeAl0.3Si0.7 and Co2MnGa. Two different spectroscopy methods for the analysis of the electronic properties were used: Angular Resolved Ultra...
Structural studies and band gap tuning of Cr doped ZnO nanoparticles
Srinet, Gunjan, E-mail: gunjansrinet@gmail.com; Kumar, Ravindra, E-mail: gunjansrinet@gmail.com; Sajal, Vivek, E-mail: gunjansrinet@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida-201307, Uttar Pradesh (India)
2014-04-24
Structural and optical properties of Cr doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by the thermal decomposition method are presented. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the substitution of Cr on Zn sites without changing the wurtzite structure of ZnO. Modified form of W-H equations was used to calculate various physical parameters and their variation with Cr doping is discussed. Significant red shift was observed in band gap, i.e., a band gap tuning is achieved by Cr doping which could eventually be useful for optoelectronic applications.
New Analytical Approach for Computation of Band Structure in One-dimensional Periodic Media
Khorasani, S; Khorasani, Sina; Adibi, Ali
2003-01-01
In this paper, we present a new approach for the exact calculation of band structure in one-dimensional periodic media, such as photonic crystals and superlattices, based on the recently reported differential transfer matrix method (DTMM). The media analyzed in this paper can have arbitrary profile of refractive index. We derive a closed form dispersion equation using differential transfer matrix formalism, and simplify it under the assumptions of even symmetry and real-valued wavenumber. We also show that under normal incidence both TE and TM modes must have the same band structure. Several numerical test cases are also studied and discussed.
Energy band structure of Cr by the Slater-Koster interpolation scheme
The matrix elements of the Hamiltonian between nine localized wave-functions in tight-binding formalism are derived. The symmetry adapted wave-functions and the secular equations are formed by the group theory method for high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. A set of interaction integrals is chosen on physical ground and fitted via the Slater-Koster interpolation scheme to the abinito band structure of chromium calculated by the Green function method. Then the energy band structure of chromium is interpolated and extrapolated in the Brillouin zone. (author)
Full band structure calculation of two-photon indirect absorption in bulk silicon
Degenerate two-photon indirect absorption in silicon is an important limiting effect on the use of silicon structures for all-optical information processing at telecommunication wavelengths. We perform a full band structure calculation to investigate two-photon indirect absorption in bulk silicon, using a pseudopotential description of the energy bands and an adiabatic bond charge model to describe phonon dispersion and polarization. Our results agree well with some recent experimental results. The transverse acoustic/optical phonon-assisted processes dominate.
Band structure and optical response of 2H-Mo X2 compounds ( X=S , Se, and Te)
Reshak, Ali Hussain; Auluck, Sushil
2005-04-01
We report calculations of the electronic and optical properties for the 2H-MoX2 (X=S,Se,Te) compounds using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method within the local density approximation. When S is replaced by Se and Te, the energy gap changes and the bandwidth of the Mo-d bands reduces. From the partial density of states we find a strong hybridization between Mo-d and X-p states below the Fermi energy EF . On going from S to Se to Te the structures in the frequency-dependent imaginary part of the dielectric function ɛ2(ω) shifts towards lower energies. The frequency-dependent reflectivity and absorption show that the plasma minimum also shifts towards lower energies. We compare our calculations with the experimental optical data and find a good agreement.
The electronic structures of Cd0.88Fe0.12Se and CdSe have been investigated by photoemission yield spectroscopy (PYS) in the photon energy range from 5 to 12 eV. The (112-bar0) surfaces were obtained by cleavage under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. An Fe-related emission appeared at 0.58 eV above the valence band edge. The freshly cleaved surface of Cd0.88Fe0.12Se interacted with ambient atmosphere more strongly than CdSe crystal. Leaving the sample in an UHV chamber at room temperature enabled us to identify surface related features and to observe decrease of the ionization energy Ei, energy threshold Ed and the crystal affinity ? due to change of the surface conditions. Effective density of states, derived from the experimental spectra of Cd0.88Fe0.12Se exhibits, in contrast with CdSe, a surface-related feature degenerated with the bulk valence band
Covariant density functional theory: Reexamining the structure of superheavy nuclei
Agbemava, S E; Nakatsukasa, T; Ring, P
2015-01-01
A systematic investigation of even-even superheavy elements in the region of proton numbers $100 \\leq Z \\leq 130$ and in the region of neutron numbers from the proton-drip line up to neutron number $N=196$ is presented. For this study we use five most up-to-date covariant energy density functionals of different types, with a non-linear meson coupling, with density dependent meson couplings, and with density-dependent zero-range interactions. Pairing correlations are treated within relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) theory based on an effective separable particle-particle interaction of finite range and deformation effects are taken into account. This allows us to assess the spread of theoretical predictions within the present covariant models for the binding energies, deformation parameters, shell structures and $\\alpha$-decay half-lives. Contrary to the previous studies in covariant density functional theory, it was found that the impact of $N=172$ spherical shell gap on the structure of superheavy elemen...
Three-dimensional density structure of the lunar upper lithosphere
Liang, Q.; Du, J.; Chen, C.; Li, Y.
2011-12-01
The lithosphere of the Moon has a thickness over 1200 km according to the seismology studies. It records the giant impact events during the processes of solidification. The upper lithosphere including the crust and the upper mantle was thought to be a nonuniform layer in thickness and seismic velocity, yet the lateral density structure remains poorly understood. The global gravity data thus provides a significant constraint on the three-dimensional (3-D) density structure of the Moon. Previous studies assumed that the crust and the mantle have constant density the gravity anomalies are only produced by the variations of interface between the crust and the mantle. Therefore, the constant density may give overestimation or underestimation of the Moho depth. In contrast, we apply a 3-D inverse method in spherical coordinate to the lunar gravity anomaly. It is a direct way in recovering the density structures beneath mascon basins or the lateral density heterogeneities in the upper lithosphere. The gravity anomaly we use in this study is the Bouguer gravity anomaly calculated at 1750 km radius relative to the reference radius, 1737.153 km[1], from the newly gravity field model SGM100i[2] and the topography model LRO_LTM02[1]. In order to understand the global feature of density variation, we truncate the long wavelength anomaly up to the order of 30 to reconstruct the density distribution above the depth of 100 km in the Moon. With the inverse technique, we obtain a global 3-D density structure of the lunar lithosphere down to 100 km depth. The major features are dominated by the mascons with dense materials and the broad region of the farside highland with relative low density mass. From this structure, the huge mass concentrations are found beneath the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, meaning that the oblique impact not only excavated the SPA basin into deep but also made the mantle uplifted close to a depth of 30 km (relative to a 1738 km radius). We suggest here that the lunar Moho interface approaches to the surface, and the mantle materials may be exposed in some areas. In other words, the crustal thickness may be overestimated in the previous studies. This research is supported by the Special Fund for Basic Scientific Research of Central Colleges, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) (No. CUG100701 and CUG090106), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 40774060). [1] Smith D E, Zuber M T, Neumann G A, et al. Initial observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). Geophysical Research Letters, 2010, 37: L18204. [2] Goossens S.; Matsumoto K.; Liu Q.; et al. Lunar gravity field determination using SELENE same-beam differential VLBI tracking data. Journal of Geodesy, 2010, 85(4): 205-228.
Effect of electron correlations on the Fe3Si and α -FeSi2 band structure and optical properties
Sandalov, Igor; Zamkova, Natalia; Zhandun, Vyacheslav; Tarasov, Ivan; Varnakov, Sergey; Yakovlev, Ivan; Solovyov, Leonid; Ovchinnikov, Sergey
2015-11-01
We use the Vienna ab initio simulation package (vasp) for evaluation of the quasiparticle spectra and their spectral weights within Hedin's GW approximation (GWA) for Fe3Si and α -FeSi2 within the non-self-consistent one-shot approximation G0W0 and self-consistent scGWA with the vertex corrections in the particle-hole channel, taken in the form of two-point kernel. As input for G0W0 , the band structure and wave functions evaluated within the generalized gradient corrected local-density approximation to density functional theory (GGA) have been used. The spectral weights of quasiparticles in these compounds deviate from unity everywhere and show nonmonotonic behavior in those parts of bands where the delocalized states contribute to their formation. The G0W0 and scGWA spectral weights are the same within 2%-5%. The scGWA shows a general tendency to return G0W0 bands to their GGA positions for the delocalized states, while in the flat bands it flattens even more. Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements at T =296 K on grown single-crystalline ˜50 -nm-thick films of Fe3Si on n -Si(111) wafer have been performed in the interval of energies ω ˜(1.3 -5 ) eV. The comparison of G0W0 and scGW theory with experimental real and imaginary parts of permittivity, refractive index, extinction and absorption coefficients, reflectivity, and electron energy loss function shows that both G0W0 and scGW qualitatively describe experiment correctly, the position of the low-energy peaks is described better by the scGW theory, however, its detailed structure is not observed in the experimental curves. We suggest that the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments, which can reveal the fine details of the quasiparticle band structure and spectral weights, could help to understand (i) if the scGWA with this type of vertex correction is sufficiently good for description of these iron silicides and, possibly, (ii) why some features of calculated permittivity are not seen in optical experiments.
Electronic band structure and specific features of Sm{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} compound: DFT calculation
Reshak, A.H. [Institute of complex systems, FFPW, CENAKVA, University of South Bohemia in CB, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Azam, Sikander, E-mail: sikander.physicst@gmail.com [Institute of complex systems, FFPW, CENAKVA, University of South Bohemia in CB, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic)
2013-09-15
The band structure, density of states, electronic charge density, Fermi surface and optical properties of Sm{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} compound have been investigated with the support of density functional theory (DFT). The atomic positions of Sm{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} compound were optimized by minimizing the forces acting on the atoms, using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method. We employed the local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and EngelVosko GGA (EVGGA) to treat the exchange correlation potential by solving KohnSham equations. The calculation shows that the compound is metallic with strong hybridization near the Fermi energy level (E{sub F}). The calculated density of states at the E{sub F} is about 21.60, 24.52 and 26.21 states/eV, and the bare linear low-temperature electronic specific heat coefficient (?) is found to be 3.74, 4.25 and 4.54 mJ/mol K{sup 2} for EVGGA, GGA and LDA, respectively. The Fermi surface is composed of two sheets. The bonding features of the compounds are analyzed using the electronic charge density in the (011) crystallographic plane. The dispersion of the optical constants was calculated and discussed. - Highlights: The compound is metallic with strong hybridization near the Fermi energy. The density of states at the Fermi energy is calculated. The bare linear low-temperature electronic specific heat coefficient is obtained. Fermi surface is composed of two sheets. The bonding features are analyzed using the electronic charge density.
Band stop vibration suppression using a passive X-shape structured lever-type isolation system
Liu, Chunchuan; Jing, Xingjian; Chen, Zhaobo
2016-02-01
In the paper, band-stop vibration suppression property using a novel X-shape structured lever-type isolation system is studied. The geometrical nonlinear property of an X-shape supporting structure is used to improve the band-stop characteristics in the low frequency range of the lever-type vibration isolator. With the dynamics modeling of this hybrid structural system, it is shown that the proposed hybrid vibration system has very beneficial nonlinear stiffness and damping properties which are helpful to achieve much wider stop bandwidth. Theoretical results demonstrate that the anti-resonant frequencies, width and magnitude of the stop band can all be flexibly designed with structural parameters, and the parameters of the X-shape supporting structure are very critical for designing the band-stop frequency to achieve excellent low-frequency isolation performance. The results in the study provide a new approach to the design of the passive vibration suppression system in the low frequency region.
Observation of valence-band structure in the LVV Auger spectra of thin epitaxial sodium layers
Schief, H.; Toennies, J. P.
1994-09-01
Electron-impact-induced Auger spectra at energies below 30 eV were measured from epitaxial sodium films on Cu(001) from a submonolayer up to several layers and assigned to sodium LVV transitions. According to well established deconvolution and background-correction techniques, the line shape of the Na L2/3VV transition could be used to determine the sodium valence-band density of states. In agreement with photoemission investigations of the Na density of states, our results also suggest a strong narrowing of the valence band with respect to the calculated density of states for a nearly-free-electron metal. Since CVV Auger transitions cannot occur in isolated alkali-metal atoms due to the lack of a second valence s-shell electron, the onset of the Na LVV signal during the growth of the first monolayer unambiguously marks the first stage of an alkali s-level-derived valence-band-like state. Thus, the present model study of Na/Cu(001) demonstrates that CVV Auger spectroscopy can be used as a powerful method to investigate the intriguing electronic behavior during alkali-metal adsorption.
Band gap structures in two-dimensional super porous phononic crystals.
Liu, Ying; Sun, Xiu-zhan; Chen, Shao-ting
2013-02-01
As one kind of new linear cellular alloys (LCAs), Kagome honeycombs, which are constituted by triangular and hexagonal cells, attract great attention due to the excellent performance compared to the ordinary ones. Instead of mechanical investigation, the in-plane elastic wave dispersion in Kagome structures are analyzed in this paper aiming to the multi-functional application of the materials. Firstly, the band structures in the common two-dimensional (2D) porous phononic structures (triangular or hexagonal honeycombs) are discussed. Then, based on these results, the wave dispersion in Kagome honeycombs is given. Through the component cell porosity controlling, the effects of component cells on the whole responses of the structures are investigated. The intrinsic relation between the component cell porosity and the critical porosity of Kagome honeycombs is established. These results will provide an important guidance in the band structure design of super porous phononic crystals. PMID:23089223
The Development of Layered Photonic Band Gap Structures Using a Micro-Transfer Molding Technique
Kevin Jerome Sutherland
2001-05-01
Photonic band gap (PBG) crystals are periodic dielectric structures that manipulate electromagnetic radiation in a manner similar to semiconductor devices manipulating electrons. Whereas a semiconductor material exhibits an electronic band gap in which electrons cannot exist, similarly, a photonic crystal containing a photonic band gap does not allow the propagation of specific frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon results from the destructive Bragg diffraction interference that a wave propagating at a specific frequency will experience because of the periodic change in dielectric permitivity. This gives rise to a variety of optical applications for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of opto-electronic devices. These applications are reviewed later. Several methods are currently used to fabricate photonic crystals, which are also discussed in detail. This research involves a layer-by-layer micro-transfer molding ({mu}TM) and stacking method to create three-dimensional FCC structures of epoxy or titania. The structures, once reduced significantly in size can be infiltrated with an organic gain media and stacked on a semiconductor to improve the efficiency of an electronically pumped light-emitting diode. Photonic band gap structures have been proven to effectively create a band gap for certain frequencies of electro-magnetic radiation in the microwave and near-infrared ranges. The objective of this research project was originally two-fold: to fabricate a three dimensional (3-D) structure of a size scaled to prohibit electromagnetic propagation within the visible wavelength range, and then to characterize that structure using laser dye emission spectra. As a master mold has not yet been developed for the micro transfer molding technique in the visible range, the research was limited to scaling down the length scale as much as possible with the current available technology and characterizing these structures with other methods.
Parity Violating Measurements of Neutron Densities and Nuclear Structure
Horowitz, C J
2000-01-01
Parity violating electron nucleus scattering is a clean and powerful tool for measuring the spatial distributions of neutrons in nuclei with unprecedented accuracy. Parity violation arises from the interference of electromagnetic and weak neutral amplitudes, and the $Z^0$ of the Standard Model couples primarily to neutrons at low $Q^2$. Experiments are now feasible at existing facilities. We show that theoretical corrections are either small or well understood, which makes the interpretation clean. A neutron density measurement may have many implications for nuclear structure, atomic parity nonconservation experiments, and the structure of neutron stars.
Moustafa, Mohamed, E-mail: moustafa@physik.hu-berlin.de [Institut für Physik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Faculty of Engineering, Pharos University in Alexandria, Canal El Mahmoudia Str., Alexandria (Egypt); Ghafari, Aliakbar; Paulheim, Alexander; Janowitz, Christoph; Manzke, Recardo [Institut für Physik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)
2013-08-15
Highlights: ► We performed high resolution ARPES on 1T–ZrS{sub x}Se{sub 2−x}. ► A characteristic splitting of the chalcogen p-derived VB along high symmetry directions was observed. ► The splitting size at the A point of the BZ is found to increase from 0.06 to 0.31 eV from ZrS{sub 2} towards ZrSe{sub 2}. ► Electronic structure calculations based on the DFT were performed using the model of TB–MBJ. ► The calculations show that the splitting is due to SO coupling of the valence bands. -- Abstract: Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation has been performed on 1T–ZrS{sub x}Se{sub 2−x}, where x varies from 0 to 2, in order to study the influence of the spin-orbit interaction in the valence bands. The crystals were grown by chemical vapour transport technique using Iodine as transport agent. A characteristic splitting of the chalcogen p-derived valence bands along high symmetry directions has been observed experimentally. The size of the splitting increases with the increase of the atomic number of the chalcogenide, e.g. at the A point of the Brillouin zone from 0.06 eV to 0.31 eV with an almost linear dependence with x, as progressing from ZrS{sub 2} towards ZrSe{sub 2}, respectively. Electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory have been performed using the model of Tran–Blaha [1] and the modified version of the exchange potential proposed by Becke and Johnson [2] (TB–MBJ) both with and without spin-orbit (SO) coupling. The calculations show that the splitting is mainly due to spin-orbit coupling and the degeneracy of the valance bands is lifted.
We have studied the electronic structure of C and N co-doped TiO2 using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles density functional theory calculations. Our results reveal overlap of the 2p states of O, N, and C in the system which shifts the valence band maximum towards the Fermi level. Combined with optical data we show that co-doping is an effective route for band gap reduction in TiO2. Comparison of the measured valence band with theoretical photoemission density of states reveals the possibility of C on Ti and N on O site
Ruzybayev, Inci [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Baik, Seung Su; Choi, Hyoung Joon [Center for Computational Studies of Advanced Electronic Material Properties, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Rumaiz, Abdul K., E-mail: rumaiz@bnl.gov; Sterbinsky, G. E. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Woicik, J. C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Ismat Shah, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)
2014-12-01
We have studied the electronic structure of C and N co-doped TiO{sub 2} using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles density functional theory calculations. Our results reveal overlap of the 2p states of O, N, and C in the system which shifts the valence band maximum towards the Fermi level. Combined with optical data we show that co-doping is an effective route for band gap reduction in TiO{sub 2}. Comparison of the measured valence band with theoretical photoemission density of states reveals the possibility of C on Ti and N on O site.
Vidal, Julien; Trani, Fabio; Bruneval, Fabien; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Botti, Silvana
2010-04-01
We use hybrid functionals and restricted self-consistent GW, state-of-the-art theoretical approaches for quasiparticle band structures, to study the electronic states of delafossite Cu(Al,In)O2, the first p-type and bipolar transparent conductive oxides. We show that a self-consistent GW approximation gives remarkably wider band gaps than all the other approaches used so far. Accounting for polaronic effects in the GW scheme we recover a very nice agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the modifications with respect to the Kohn-Sham bands are strongly k dependent, which makes questionable the common practice of using a scissor operator. Finally, our results support the view that the low energy structures found in optical experiments, and initially attributed to an indirect transition, are due to intrinsic defects in the samples.
P. Kovacs
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The paper is focused on the automated design and optimization of electromagnetic band gap structures suppressing the propagation of surface waves. For the optimization, we use different global evolutionary algorithms like the genetic algorithm with the single-point crossover (GAs and the multi-point (GAm one, the differential evolution (DE and particle swarm optimization (PSO. The algorithms are mutually compared in terms of convergence velocity and accuracy. The developed technique is universal (applicable for any unit cell geometry. The method is based on the dispersion diagram calculation in CST Microwave Studio (CST MWS and optimization in Matlab. A design example of a mushroom structure with simultaneous electromagnetic band gap properties (EBG and the artificial magnetic conductor ones (AMC in the required frequency band is presented.
Photo field-emission spectroscopy of optical transitions in the band structure of tungsten
Photo field-emission currents of clean and barium-covered tungsten tips in a slightly modified FEM-configuration have been measured under UHV-conditions by modulating monochromatic mercury arc radiation and phase-sensitive detection. From Fowler-Nordheim plots of the field-emission currents field strength and work function were determined as usual. The photo field-emission current-voltage characteristics show various slopes and shoulders which are dependent on excitation energy, work function, and applied field. The shoulders are interpreted to indicate optical transitions, whose final and initial energies are evaluated from the excitation energy and the Schottky lowering of the barrier maximum. A comparison with the band structure of tungsten as calculated by Mattheiss or Christensen and Feuerbacher demonstrates that apart from single nondirect transitions from or to band extrema direct (k-conserving) transitions are prevailing. Some properties of this new method for the investigation of band structure details are given. (Auth.)
Electron-Phonon Renormalization of Electronic Band Structures of C Allotropes and BN Polymorphs
Tutchton, Roxanne M.; Marchbanks, Christopher; Wu, Zhigang
The effect of lattice vibration on electronic band structures has been mostly neglected in first-principles calculations because the electron-phonon (e-ph) renormalization of quasi-particle energies is often small (zero-point renormalizations of band gaps in these materials, except for graphene, are larger than 100 meV, and (2) there are large variations in e-ph renormalization of band gaps due to differences in crystal structure. This work was supported by a U.S. DOE Early Career Award (Grant No. DE-SC0006433). Computations were carried out at the Golden Energy Computing Organization at CSM and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).
Dielectric band structure of crystals: General properties, and calculations for silicon
We shift the dielectric band structure method, orginially proposed by Baldereschi and Tosatti for the description of microscopic electronic screening in crystals. Some general properties are examined first, including the requirements of causality and stability. The specific test case of silicon is then considered. Dielectric bands are calculated, according to several different prescriptions for the construction of the dielectric matrix. It is shown that the results allow a very direct appraisal of the screening properties of the system, as well as of the quality of the dielectric model adopted. The electronic charge displacement induced by ?sub(25') and X3 phonon-like displacements of the atoms is also calculated and compared with the results of existent full self-consistent calculations. Conclusions are drawn on the relative accuracies of the dielectric band structures. (author)
Spin wave excitations and the stability of the (0, ?) ordered spin density wave (SDW) state are investigated within the minimal two-band model for iron pnictides including a Hund's coupling term. The SDW state is shown to be stable in two distinct doping regimes-for finite hole doping in the lower SDW band for small second-neighbour hoppings, and for low electron doping in the upper SDW band for comparable first-neighbour and second-neighbour hoppings. In both cases, Hund's coupling strongly stabilizes the SDW state due to the generation of additional ferromagnetic spin couplings involving the inter-orbital part of the particle-hole propagator. The spin wave energies for the two-band model are very similar to the one-band t-t' Hubbard model results obtained earlier, and are in agreement with the findings from inelastic neutron scattering studies of iron pnictides. (fast track communication)
Yano Akira
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth and development depend on the availability of light. Lighting systems therefore play crucial roles in plant studies. Recent advancements of light-emitting diode (LED technologies provide abundant opportunities to study various plant light responses. The LED merits include solidity, longevity, small element volume, radiant flux controllability, and monochromaticity. To apply these merits in plant light response studies, a lighting system must provide precisely controlled light spectra that are useful for inducing various plant responses. Results We have developed a plant lighting system that irradiated a 0.18 m2 area with a highly uniform distribution of photon flux density (PFD. The average photosynthetic PFD (PPFD in the irradiated area was 438 micro-mol m–2 s–1 (coefficient of variation 9.6%, which is appropriate for growing leafy vegetables. The irradiated light includes violet, blue, orange-red, red, and far-red wavelength bands created by LEDs of five types. The PFD and mixing ratio of the five wavelength-band lights are controllable using a computer and drive circuits. The phototropic response of oat coleoptiles was investigated to evaluate plant sensitivity to the light control quality of the lighting system. Oat coleoptiles irradiated for 23 h with a uniformly distributed spectral PFD (SPFD of 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 at every peak wavelength (405, 460, 630, 660, and 735 nm grew almost straight upwards. When they were irradiated with an SPFD gradient of blue light (460 nm peak wavelength, the coleoptiles showed a phototropic curvature in the direction of the greater SPFD of blue light. The greater SPFD gradient induced the greater curvature of coleoptiles. The relation between the phototropic curvature (deg and the blue-light SPFD gradient (micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1 was 2 deg per 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1. Conclusions The plant lighting system, with a computer with a graphical user interface program, can control the PFD and mixing ratios of five wavelength-band lights. A highly uniform PFD distribution was achieved, although an intentionally distorted PFD gradient was also created. Phototropic responses of oat coleoptiles to the blue light gradient demonstrated the merit of fine controllability of this plant lighting system.
Pan, Jing; Wang, Shudong; Chen, Qian; Hu, Jingguo; Wang, Jinlan
2014-06-01
To look for efficient visible light-driven catalysts for photo-electrochemical (PEC) water-splitting, the band structure and optical absorption of monodoped, compensated, and noncompensated n-p pairs of co-doped bulk ZnO are systemically studied by using both general gradient approximation and hybrid density functional theory approaches (PBE and HSE). Calculations show that n-p co-doping cannot only enhance the stability that stems from the strong electrostatic attraction between the n- and p-type dopants, but also effectively reduce the band-gap of ZnO. More importantly, compensated (Ti+C) and noncompensated (Sc+C) and (Cr+C) co-doped ZnO may be compelling candidates for PEC water-splitting because of their narrowed band-gaps, potentially reduced electron-hole recombination centers, appropriate band-edge positions, enhanced optical absorption, and good stability. PMID:24604895
Band structures of 182Os studied by GCM based on 3D-CHFB
Horibata, Takatoshi; Oi, Makito; Onishi, Naoki; Ansari, Ahmad
1999-02-01
Band structure properties of 182Os are investigated through a particle number and angular momentum constrained generator coordinate (GCM) calculation based on self-consistent threedimensional cranking solutions. From the analysis of the wave function of the lowest GCM solution, we confirm that this nucleus shows a tilted rotational motion in its yrast states, at least with the present set of force parameters of the pairing-plus-quadrupole interaction Hamiltonian. A close examination of the behaviour of the other GCM solutions reveals a sign of a possible occurrence of multi-band crossing in the nucleus. We have also found a new potential curve along the prime meridian on the globe of the J = 18 h? sphere. Along this new solution the characters of proton and neutron gap parameters get interchanged. Namely, ? p almost vanishes while ? n grows to a finite value close to the one corresponding to the principal axis rotation (PAR). A state in the new solution curve at the PAR point turns out to have almost the same characteristic features of an yrare s-band state which is located just above the g-band in our calculation. This fact suggests a new type of seesaw vibrational mode of the proton and the neutron pairing, occurring through a wobbling motion. This mode is considered to bridge the g-band states and the s-band states in the backbending region.
New insights into the collective band structures of nuclei with A=100-112
With our high statistics ?-?-? data set taken with Gammasphere, we have identified a variety of new phenomena in A = 100-112 nuclei. The one- and two- phonon ? bands in 104,106Mo have been extended and similar bands identified in 108Mo and for the first time in both an odd N nucleus, 105Mo and an odd Z nucleus, 103Nb. The one- and two- phonon ? band energy levels in 104,105,106,108Mo are remarkably similar with a trend toward lower energy as N increases. In 108,110,112Ru the one phonon ? bands show a completely different behavior from 104-108Mo with very large odd-even spin level energy staggering in 112Ru. Our data indicate a maximum triaxiality around 112Ru. In 100Nb which lies between N = 58 and 60 where a sudden shift from spherical to superdeformed structures occurs in Sr and Zr nuclei, we have discovered a K?=1+ deformed ground state band. In 108Tc, we found the first pseudo-spin partner bands with nearly degenerate energies in this mass region. (authors)
Low interface trapped charge density in MBE in situ grown Si3N4 cubic GaN MIS structures
In this work we report on the electrical characterization of nonpolar cubic GaN metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) structures. Si3N4 layers were deposited in situ on top of cubic GaN grown on 3C–SiC (0 0 1) substrates. The electric characteristics of the MIS structures are determined by current–voltage measurements and by capacitance and admittance spectroscopy techniques. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) was used to investigate the composition of our samples. From the flat band voltage in the MIS capacitors and a detailed band diagram analysis, the conduction band discontinuity of Si3N4 and cubic GaN was evaluated 1.17 eV, which is slightly lower than reported for hexagonal GaN. By admittance spectroscopy interface state densities are calculated. Current–voltage characteristics were used to evaluate the influence of the substrate temperature on the insulating properties of the MIS structures. The energetic position of the interface traps was found to be about 0.3 eV below the conduction band of cubic GaN. The density of these traps is 2.5 × 1011 cm−2 eV−1. We find a conductivity minimum in the MIS structure grown at 600 °C. (paper)
Highlights: • Perfect composite coatings were fabricated using wide-band laser cladding. • Special cored-eutectic structure was synthesized in Ni60/WC composite coatings. • Cored-eutectic consists of hard carbide compounds and fine lamellar eutectic of M23C6 carbides and γ-Ni(Fe). • Wear resistance of coating layer was significantly improved due to precipitation of M23C6 carbides. - Abstract: Ni60 composite coatings reinforced with WC particles were fabricated on the surface of Q550 steel using LDF4000-100 fiber laser device. The wide-band laser and circular beam laser used in laser cladding were obtained by optical lens. Microstructure, elemental distribution, phase constitution and wear properties of different composite coatings were investigated. The results showed that WC particles were partly dissolved under the effect of wide-band fiber laser irradiation. A special cored-eutectic structure was synthesized due to dissolution of WC particles. According to EDS and XRD results, the inside cores were confirmed as carbides of M23C6 enriched in Cr, W and Fe. These complex carbides were primarily separated out in the molten metal when solidification started. Eutectic structure composed of M23C6 carbides and γ-Ni(Fe) grew around carbides when cooling. Element content of Cr and W is lower at the bottom of cladding layer. In consequence, the eutectic structure formed in this region did not have inside carbides. The coatings made by circular laser beam were composed of dendritic matrix and interdendritic eutectic carbides, lacking of block carbides. Compared to coatings made by circular laser spot, the cored-eutectic structure formed in wide-band coatings had advantages of well-distribution and tight binding with matrix. The uniform power density and energy distribution and the weak liquid convection in molten pool lead to the unique microstructure evolution in composite coatings made by wide-band laser. Experiment results indicated the wear resistance and microhardness of composite coatings were both significantly improved
Ma, Qunshuang, E-mail: maqunshuang@126.com; Li, Yajiang, E-mail: yajli@sdu.edu.cn; Wang, Juan, E-mail: jwang@sdu.edu.cn; Liu, Kun, E-mail: liu_kun@163.com
2015-10-05
Highlights: • Perfect composite coatings were fabricated using wide-band laser cladding. • Special cored-eutectic structure was synthesized in Ni60/WC composite coatings. • Cored-eutectic consists of hard carbide compounds and fine lamellar eutectic of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides and γ-Ni(Fe). • Wear resistance of coating layer was significantly improved due to precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides. - Abstract: Ni60 composite coatings reinforced with WC particles were fabricated on the surface of Q550 steel using LDF4000-100 fiber laser device. The wide-band laser and circular beam laser used in laser cladding were obtained by optical lens. Microstructure, elemental distribution, phase constitution and wear properties of different composite coatings were investigated. The results showed that WC particles were partly dissolved under the effect of wide-band fiber laser irradiation. A special cored-eutectic structure was synthesized due to dissolution of WC particles. According to EDS and XRD results, the inside cores were confirmed as carbides of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} enriched in Cr, W and Fe. These complex carbides were primarily separated out in the molten metal when solidification started. Eutectic structure composed of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides and γ-Ni(Fe) grew around carbides when cooling. Element content of Cr and W is lower at the bottom of cladding layer. In consequence, the eutectic structure formed in this region did not have inside carbides. The coatings made by circular laser beam were composed of dendritic matrix and interdendritic eutectic carbides, lacking of block carbides. Compared to coatings made by circular laser spot, the cored-eutectic structure formed in wide-band coatings had advantages of well-distribution and tight binding with matrix. The uniform power density and energy distribution and the weak liquid convection in molten pool lead to the unique microstructure evolution in composite coatings made by wide-band laser. Experiment results indicated the wear resistance and microhardness of composite coatings were both significantly improved.
Photonic Band Structure of Dispersive Metamaterials Formulated as a Hermitian Eigenvalue Problem
Raman, Aaswath
2010-02-26
We formulate the photonic band structure calculation of any lossless dispersive photonic crystal and optical metamaterial as a Hermitian eigenvalue problem. We further show that the eigenmodes of such lossless systems provide an orthonormal basis, which can be used to rigorously describe the behavior of lossy dispersive systems in general. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
Electronic band-structure of GaAs sawtooth doping superlattices
Simple calculations (Kronig-Penney type) concerning the band structure and charge distribution of GaAs sawtooth doping superlattices as a function of period and doping concentration are reported. Analytic expressions for the subband energy levels and envelope wave functions of the system within the effective mass approximation have been obtained. (Author)
NiO: correlated band structure of a charge-transfer insulator
Kuneš, Jan; Anisimov, V.I.; Skornyakov, S.L.; Lukoyanov, A.V.; Vollhardt, D.
2007-01-01
Roč. 99, č. 15 (2007), 156404/1-156404/4. ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : band structure * dynamical mean field * charge transfer insulators Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.944, year: 2007
Electronic structure of ZrS{sub x}Se{sub 2-x} by density functional theory
Ghafari, Ailakbar; Moustafa, Mohamed; Janowitz, Christoph; Dwelk, Helmut; Manzke, Recardo [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Bouchani, Arash [Physics Department, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-07-01
The electronic properties of the ZrS{sub x}Se{sub 2-x} (x varies between zero and two) semiconductors have been calculated by density functional theory (using the Wien2K code) employing the full potential Hamiltonian within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) method. The results obtained for the end members of the series, i.e. ZrS{sub 2} and ZrSe{sub 2} reveal that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum are located at {gamma} and between {gamma} and K respectively which is in agreement with our photoemission experimental data. Trends in the electronic structure for the whole substitution series are discussed.
Band structure of ZrS{sub x}Se{sub 2-x} by ARPES
Moustafa, Mohamed; Paulheim, Alexander; Janowitz, Christoph; Manzke, Recardo [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany)
2011-07-01
The valence band structure of mixed samples of ZrS{sub x} Se{sub 2-x} single crystals, where x varies from 0 to 2, has been studied by means of high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) using synchrotron radiation. The crystals were found to be extrinsic n-type semiconductors with indirect bandgap. The composition dependence of the band structure is presented and discussed. A characteristic splitting of the chalcogen p-derived valence bands at the symmetric point A is observed. The size of the splitting shows to increases almost linearly as progressing from ZrS{sub 2} to ZrSe{sub 2} reaching 320 meV. Further, the energy gap values are estimated from the valence band maximum to the observed emission close to the conduction band minimum. The gaps are found to vary from 1.78 eV to 1.16 eV for ZrS{sub 2} to ZrSe{sub 2}, respectively, and are compared to our previously reported optical values.
Tamura, R; Tamura, Ryo; Tsukada, Masaru
1998-01-01
The band structures of the periodic nanotube junctions are investigated by the effective mass theory and the tight binding model. The periodic junctions are constructed by introducing pairs of a pentagonal defect and a heptagonal defect periodically in the carbon nanotube. We treat the periodic junctions whose unit cell is composed by two kinds of metallic nanotubes with almost same radii, the ratio of which is between 0.7 and 1 . The discussed energy region is near the undoped Fermi level where the channel number is kept to two, so there are two bands. The energy bands are expressed with closed analytical forms by the effective mass theory with some assumptions, and they coincide well with the numerical results by the tight binding model. Differences between the two methods are also discussed. Origin of correspondence between the band structures and the phason pattern discussed in Phys. Rev. B {\\bf 53}, 2114, is clarified. The width of the gap and the band are in inverse proportion to the length of the unit ...
Kozub, V I; Khondaker, S I; Shlimak, I S
1999-01-01
A simple two-band model is suggested explaining recently reported unusual features for hopping magnetoresistance and the metal-insulator transition in 2D structures. The model implies that the conductivity is dominated by the upper Hubbard band (D^- band). Experimental studies of hopping magnetoresistance for Si delta doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure give additional evidences for the model.
Nonlinear optical response of semiconductor-nanocrystals-embedded photonic band gap structure
Liao, Chen; Zhang, Huichao; Tang, Luping; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Lv, Changgui; Cui, Yiping; Zhang, Jiayu
2014-04-01
Colloidal CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals (NCs), which were dispersed in SiO2 sol, were utilized to fabricate a SiO2:NCs/TiO2 all-dielectric photonic band gap (PBG) structure. The third-order nonlinear refractive index (n2) of the PBG structure was nearly triple of that of the SiO2:NCs film due to the local field enhancement in the PBG structure. The photoinduced change in refractive index (Δn) could shift the PBG band edge, so the PBG structure would show significant transmission modification, whose transmission change was ˜17 folds of that of the SiO2:NCs film. Under excitation of a 30 GW/cm2 femtosecond laser beam, a transmission decrease of 80% was realized.
Observation of dark-current signals from the S-band structures of the SLAC linac
It is well known that the electro-magnetic fields in high-gradient RF structures can cause electron emission from the metallic structure walls. If the emitted electrons are captured and accelerated by the accelerating fields so-called dark-current is induced. Dark-currents have been measured and studied for various RF-structures. In this paper the authors present measurements of RF induced signals for the SLC S-band structures. For nominal gradients of 17 MV/m it is shown that the dark-current can be strong enough to significantly reduce the signal-to-noise ratio of the SLC beam wire scanners. They also show results from RF measurements in the dipole band. The measurements are compared to more direct observations of dark-current and it is tried to connect the results to possible effects on the accelerated particle beam
Ferromagnetism and the electronic band structure in (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As) epitaxial layers
Impact of Bi incorporation into (Ga,Mn)As layers on their electronic- and band-structures as well as their magnetic and structural properties has been studied. Homogenous (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As) layers of high structural perfection have been grown by the low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy technique. Post-growth annealing treatment of the layers results in an improvement of their structural and magnetic properties and an increase in the hole concentration in the layers. The modulation photoreflectance spectroscopy results are consistent with the valence-band model of hole-mediated ferromagnetism in the layers. This material combines the properties of (Ga,Mn)As and Ga(Bi,As) ternary compounds and offers the possibility of tuning its electrical and magnetic properties by controlling the alloy composition.
Nonlinear optical response of semiconductor-nanocrystals-embedded photonic band gap structure
Colloidal CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals (NCs), which were dispersed in SiO2 sol, were utilized to fabricate a SiO2:NCs/TiO2 all-dielectric photonic band gap (PBG) structure. The third-order nonlinear refractive index (n2) of the PBG structure was nearly triple of that of the SiO2:NCs film due to the local field enhancement in the PBG structure. The photoinduced change in refractive index (?n) could shift the PBG band edge, so the PBG structure would show significant transmission modification, whose transmission change was ?17 folds of that of the SiO2:NCs film. Under excitation of a 30?GW/cm2 femtosecond laser beam, a transmission decrease of 80% was realized
Errandonea, Daniel; Muoz, Alfonso; Rodrguez-Hernndez, Placida; Proctor, John E; Sapia, Fernando; Bettinelli, Marco
2015-08-01
The crystal structures, lattice vibrations, and electronic band structures of PbCrO4, PbSeO4, SrCrO4, and SrSeO4 were studied by ab initio calculations, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical-absorption measurements. Calculations properly describe the crystal structures of the four compounds, which are isomorphic to the monazite structure and were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Information is also obtained on the Raman- and IR-active phonons, with all of the vibrational modes assigned. In addition, the band structures and electronic densities of states of the four compounds were determined. All are indirect-gap semiconductors. In particular, chromates are found to have band gaps smaller than 2.5 eV and selenates higher than 4.3 eV. In the chromates (selenates), the upper part of the valence band is dominated by O 2p states and the lower part of the conduction band is composed primarily of electronic states associated with the Cr 3d and O 2p (Se 4s and O 2p) states. Calculations also show that the band gap of PbCrO4 (PbSeO4) is smaller than the band gap of SrCrO4 (SrSeO4). This phenomenon is caused by Pb states, which, to some extent, also contribute to the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band. The agreement between experiments and calculations is quite good; however, the band gaps are underestimated by calculations, with the exception of the bang gap of SrCrO4, for which theory and calculations agree. Calculations also provide predictions of the bulk modulus of the studied compounds. PMID:26161677
Absorption spectra of Ag20 and Ag55q (q = +1, ?3) nanoclusters are investigated in the framework of the time-dependent density functional theory in order to analyse the role of the d electrons in plasmon-like band of silver clusters. The description of the plasmon-like band from calculations using density functionals containing an amount of Hartree-Fock exchange at long range, namely, hybrid and range-separated hybrid (RSH) density functionals, is in good agreement with the classical interpretation of the plasmon-like structure as a collective excitation of valence s-electrons. In contrast, using local or semi-local exchange functionals (generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) or meta-GGAs) leads to a strong overestimation of the role of d electrons in the plasmon-like band. The semi-local asymptotically corrected model potentials also describe the plasmon as mainly associated to d electrons, though calculated spectra are in fairly good agreement with those calculated using the RSH scheme. Our analysis shows that a portion of non-local exchange modifies the description of the plasmon-like band
Band structure effects in nitrogen K-edge resonant inelastic X ray scattering from GaN
Strocov, V. N.; Schmitt, T.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Blaha, P; Paskova, T.; Nilsson, P. O.
2004-01-01
Systematic experimental data on resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) in GaN near the N K-edge are presented for the first time. Excitation energy dependence of the spectral structures manifests the band structure effects originating from momentum selectivity of the RIXS process. This finding allows obtaining k-resolved band structure information for GaN crystals and nanostructures.
Naddafi, Rahmat; Pettersson, Kurt; Eklöv, Peter
2010-01-01
The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) provides one example of successful invaders in novel environments. However, little attention has been devoted to exploring the factors regulating zebra mussel density and population size structure at the local scale. We tested effects of physicochemical factors and fish predation on the density of zebra mussels at several sites and between years in a natural lake. Water depth and roach (Rutilus rutilus) density were the most important variables affectin...
RF breakdown studies on an S-band disk-loaded structure
RF breakdown test in an S-band traveling wave accelerating structure were studied by use of a resonant ring. The accelerating structure with a surface roughness of 300 nm was used without any special treatment after the fabrication. The maximum field gradient on the beam axis was 104.5 MV/m with a peak field-emission current of 24 mA. This current level, however, was decreasing by the RF processing. (author)
Crystal Structure and Band Gap Engineering in Polyoxometalate-Based Inorganic-Organic Hybrids.
Roy, Soumyabrata; Sarkar, Sumanta; Pan, Jaysree; Waghmare, Umesh V; Dhanya, R; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Peter, Sebastian C
2016-04-01
We have demonstrated engineering of the electronic band gap of the hybrid materials based on POMs (polyoxometalates), by controlling its structural complexity through variation in the conditions of synthesis. The pH- and temperature-dependent studies give a clear insight into how these experimental factors affect the overall hybrid structure and its properties. Our structural manipulations have been successful in effectively tuning the optical band gap and electronic band structure of this kind of hybrids, which can find many applications in the field of photovoltaic and semiconducting devices. We have also addressed a common crystallographic disorder observed in Keggin-ion (one type of heteropolyoxometalate [POMs])-based hybrid materials. Through a combination of crystallographic, spectroscopic, and theoretical analysis of four new POM-based hybrids synthesized with tactically varied reaction conditions, we trace the origin and nature of the disorder associated with it and the subtle local structural coordination involved in its core picture. While the crystallography yields a centrosymmetric structure with planar coordination of Si, our analysis with XPS, IR, and Raman spectroscopy reveals a tetrahedral coordination with broken inversion symmetry, corroborated by first-principles calculations. PMID:26986739
In technical plants disturbances are possible which generate small narrow-band components in the measured signals. For the detection of these oscillatory signals the observation of the frequency spectra of the measured signals' noise components is particularly advantageous because they produce additional characteristic peaks. In this paper detection systems for the fast detection of suddenly appearing peaks in the power spectral density of noise signals are presented based on auto- and cross correlation techniques. General criteria were developed to enable the determination of the optimal detection system and its sensitivity for the different problems. Specially auto- and cross correlation measurements were compared in dependence of the signal coherence. Theoretical results were confirmed in a number of experiments. Special experimental and theoretical parameter studies were done for the optimal detection of sodium boiling in LMFBR's. Computations showed that local sodium boiling can be detected in nearly the whole core range of SNR-300 by detection systems based on the observation of the neutron flux fluctuations. (orig.)
Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) as Flexible Substrate for Wrist and Arm Antennas in C-Band
Gogoi, Pragyan Jyoti; Bhattacharyya, Satyajib; Bhattacharyya, Nidhi S.
2015-04-01
This paper focuses on the development and study of linear low density polyethylene as a flexible substrate for conformal antennas for body-worn applications. Thermal stability, tensile strength and elongation at break of the substrate were studied. The permittivity of the substrate was 2.2 and tan ? was found to be 0.0003 at 6 GHz. Since the antenna is being developed for wrist and arm wearing in C-band, the performance of the antenna, such as the S 11 parameter and radiation pattern, were studied with different bending axes and with bending curvature approximating that of the arm and wrist. The performance of a 6 GHz rectangular patch antenna with bending was found to be consistent with the flat profile antenna at the same frequency. A maximum shift in the resonant frequency of 20 MHz was observed. The -10 dB bandwidth and directivity of the antenna did not change much with bending. The maximum bending radius in the present study is 10 mm, and S 11 was found to be -17.53 dB at 5.94 GHz and -14.02 dB at 6.06 GHz for a bending axis parallel to the radiating and non-radiating edge, respectively.
Dual Band and Beam-Steering Antennas Using Reconfigurable Feed on Sierpinski Structure
Seonghun Kang; Chang Won Jung
2015-01-01
Fractal patch antennas based on the Sierpinski structure are studied in this paper. The antennas operate at dual bands (around 2 and 5 GHz) and are designed to steer the beam directions at around 5 GHz band (the first harmonic). The antennas use reconfigurable triple feeds on the same antenna plane to have three beam directions. The same scale factor defines the geometrical self-similarity of the Sierpinski fractal. The proposed antennas are fabricated through three iterations from 1st order ...
Sharp, P. M.; D'Amico, I.
2016-02-01
We consider a model system of two electrons confined in a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential, with the electrons interacting via an α / r2 potential, and subject to a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane of confinement. Our results show that variations in the strength of the electron-electron interaction generate a "band structure" in ground state metric spaces, which shares many characteristics with those generated as a result of varying the confinement potential. In particular, the metric spaces for wavefunctions, particle densities, and paramagnetic current densities all exhibit distinct "bands" and "gaps". The behavior of the polar angle of the bands also shares traits with that obtained by varying the confinement potential, but the behavior of the arc lengths of the bands on the metric space spheres can be seen to be different for the two cases and opposite for a large range of angular momentum values. The findings here and in Refs. [1,2] demonstrate that the "band structure" that arises in ground state metric spaces when a magnetic field is applied is a robust feature.
Towards Tidal Tomography: Using Earth's Body-Tide Signal to Constrain Deep-Mantle Density Structure
Lau, Harriet; Yang, Hsin-Ying; Davis, James; Mitrovica, Jerry; Tromp, Jeroen; Latychev, Konstantin
2015-04-01
Luni-solar forcings drive long wavelength deformation at timescales ranging from 8 hours to 18.6 years. We propose that globally distributed GPS estimates of this deformation within the semi-diurnal band provide a new and independent constraint on long-wavelength deep mantle structure. A particular target of "tidal tomography" is the buoyancy structure of LLSVPs, which constitute a large volumetric fraction of the mantle. Constraining this structure is the key to understanding the longevity of the LLSVPs, and indeed the evolution of the entire mantle and Earth system. To this end, we begin by reporting on the development of a new normal-mode theory, based on relatively recent advances in free oscillation seismology, which is capable of predicting semi-diurnal body tides on a laterally heterogeneous, rotating and anelastic Earth. We next present the results of a suite of benchmark tests involving comparisons with predictions based on both classical tidal Love number theory for 1-D Earth models and finite-volume simulations that incorporate 3-D elastic and density structure. We find that body tide deformation is most sensitive to long wavelength, deep mantle structure, and, in particularly, to shear wave velocity and density structure. When combined with results from seismological datasets, this sensitivity provides a powerful tool to investigate the buoyancy structure of the LLSVPs. For example, adopting a variety of seismic tomography models a priori, we perform an extensive parameter search to determine misfits between model predictions based on the new theory and GPS-derived estimates of the semi-diurnal body tide displacements. Preliminary results, focusing only on density structure, have indicated that the observations are best fit when the LLSVPs have a bulk density greater than average mantle, in broad agreement with previous inferences based upon seismic normal mode inversions. In follow-up work, we have mapped out trade-offs related to the adopted seismic tomography model, deep mantle buoyancy structure, and topography of both the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and 670 km seismic discontinuity. The goal of this analysis is to address the following question: given all available models of shear-wave velocity structure and topography at internal discontinuities, what are the bounds on the buoyancy structure of the LLSVPs lie that satisfy space-geodetic measurements of body tide deformation -- a dataset currently unexploited in investigations of deep mantle structure.
Molecular structure and vibrational spectra of Irinotecan: A density functional theoretical study
Chinna Babu, P.; Sundaraganesan, N.; Sudha, S.; Aroulmoji, V.; Murano, E.
2012-12-01
The solid phase FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of Irinotecan have been recorded in the regions 400-4000 and 50-4000 cm-1, respectively. The spectra were interpreted in terms of fundamentals modes, combination and overtone bands. The structure of the molecule was optimized and the structural characteristics were determined by density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP method with 6-31G(d) as basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated for Irinotecan by DFT method and were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. The infrared spectrum was also simulated from the calculated intensities. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) analysis were investigated using theoretical calculations.
Band parameters of phosphorene
Voon, L. C. Lew Yan; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Willatzen, M.
2015-09-01
Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene.
Weakly nonlinear dispersion and stop-band effects for periodic structures
Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel
’s method of infinite determinants [1,2], and to the method of space-harmonics [3]. As a result, a shift of band-gaps to a higher frequency range is revealed,while the width of the band-gaps appears relatively insensitive to (weak) nonlinearity. The results are validated by numerical simulation, and......Continua and structures composed of periodically repeated elements (cells) are used in many fields of science and technology. Examples of continua are composite materials, consisting of alternating volumes of substances with different properties, mechanical filters and wave guides. Examples of...... frequency band-gaps, i.e. frequency ranges in which elastic waves cannot propagate. Most existing analytical methods in the field are based on Floquet theory [1]; e.g. this holds for the classical Hill’s method of infinite determinants [1,2], and themethod of space-harmonics [3]. However, application of...
Effect of Symmetry Breaking on Electronic Band Structure: Gap Opening at the High Symmetry Points
Guillaume Vasseur
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Some characteristic features of band structures, like the band degeneracy at high symmetry points or the existence of energy gaps, usually reflect the symmetry of the crystal or, more precisely, the symmetry of the wave vector group at the relevant points of the Brillouin zone. In this paper, we will illustrate this property by considering two-dimensional (2D-hexagonal lattices characterized by a possible two-fold degenerate band at the K points with a linear dispersion (Dirac points. By combining scanning tunneling spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission, we study the electronic properties of a similar system: the Ag/Cu(111 interface reconstruction characterized by a hexagonal superlattice, and we show that the gap opening at the K points of the Brillouin zone of the reconstructed cell is due to the symmetry breaking of the wave vector group.
High power test of L-band accelerator structure of superKEKB injector linac
Although the actual installation of L-band (1298MHz) accelerator units is suspended from Day One of the superKEKB operation, limited numbers of R and D programs are ongoing for the future use. An L-band 40MW klystron was produced in FY2010 and its performance (30MW output) was confirmed in its high power test done. A travelling wave accelerator structure was produced in FY2010 and was long waiting for the test. The waveguide components were prepared and the 'L-band accelerator test unit' was built by putting all these devices together and is now set in the sector no.1 region of KEKB injector linac. Two weeks pilot run of the unit was done just before the linac summer shutdown. (author)
Band gap structure modification of amorphous anodic Al oxide film by Ti-alloying
Canulescu, Stela; Rechendorff, K.; Borca, C. N.; Jones, N. C.; Bordo, Kirill; Schou, Jørgen; Nielsen, Lars Pleth; Hoffmann, S. V.; Ambat, Rajan
2014-01-01
The band structure of pure and Ti-alloyed anodic aluminum oxide has been examined as a function of Ti concentration varying from 2 to 20 at. %. The band gap energy of Ti-alloyed anodic Al oxide decreases with increasing Ti concentration. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that Ti atoms are not...... located in a TiO2 unit in the oxide layer, but rather in a mixed Ti-Al oxide layer. The optical band gap energy of the anodic oxide layers was determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in the energy range from 4.1 to 9.2 eV (300–135 nm). The results indicate that amorphous anodic Al2O3 has a direct...
Evidence is now quite strong that the elementary hybridization model is the correct way to understand the lattice-coherent Fermi liquid regime at very low temperatures. Many-body theory leads to significant renormalizations of the input parameters, and many of the band-theoretic channels for hybridization are suppressed by the combined effects of Hund's-rule coupling, crystal-field splitting, and the f-f Coulomb repulsion U. Some exploratory calculations based on this picture are described, and some inferences are drawn about the band structures of several heavy-fermion materials. These inferences can and should be tested by suitably modified band-theoretic calculations. We find evidence for a significant Baber-scattering contribution in the very-low-temperature resistivity. A new mechanism is proposed for crossover from the coherent Fermi-liquid regime to the incoherent dense-Kondo regime. 28 refs
On the Tripropellant Rod-shaped Structure ofthe Band Gap of One-dimensional Phononic Crystals
QIU Xue-yun
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the lumped mass method is employed to computerize the band gap property and comparison with the one-dimensional and two-component structure is made. It is showed in the research that the one-dimensional and three-component phononic crystal is efficient in broadening the frequency range of band gaps and reducing the start stopping frequency. Before and after inserting NBR into two-component crystal (Aluminum/plastics, guaranteeing lattice constant SymbolaA@ of two models is 0.3 m and free degree is 300. The band 1 gap starting frequency 463.7 Hz and stopping frequency 2 108.1Hz can be reduced by three-component (Aluminum / NBR / plastic material phononic crystal when composition ratio is one. When three-component phononic crystal lattice constant SymbolaA@ increases from 0.03 m to 0.42 m, the band 1 starting frequency reduces from 18 943 Hz to 1 353.1 Hz and stopping frequency reduces from 37 799 Hz to 2 699.9 Hz. When lattice constant is 0.3 m, the length of Aluminum is fixed value 0.15 m, the total length of NBR and plastics is fixed value 0.15 m and increasing NBR length from 0 m to 0.15 m, the band 1 starting frequency reduces from 2 359.8 Hz to 1 664.7 Hz and stopping frequency reduces from 5 888.0 Hz to 4 065.3 Hz. Meanwhile, there is a peak of 3 043.6 Hz in low frequency zone of the variation of the band 1 gaps, and this is of positive significance for broadening the band property of one-dimensional phononic crystal.
Band structure, phase transitions, and semiconductor analogs in one-dimensional solid light systems
The conjunction of atom-cavity physics and photonic structures ('solid light' systems) offers new opportunities in terms of more device functionality and the probing of designed emulators of condensed-matter systems. By analogy to the canonical one-electron approximation of solid-state physics, we propose a one-polariton approximation to study these systems. Using this approximation, we apply Bloch states to the uniformly tuned Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model to analytically determine the energy-band structure. By analyzing the response of the band structure to local atom-cavity control, we explore its application as a quantum simulator and show phase-transition features absent in mean-field theory. Using this approach for solid light systems, we extend the analysis to include detuning impurities to show the solid light analogy of the semiconductor. This investigation also shows features with no semiconductor analog.
Giant magnetoresistance and band structure of topological semimetal RhSb3
Wang, Kefeng; Wang, Limin; Nakajima, Y.; Wang, Renxiong; Yong, Jie; Paglione, J.
2015-03-01
Recently materials with skutterudite structure such as CoSb3 were predicted to provide a promising platform for the realization of new topological materials such as topological insulators and Dirac-Weyl semimetals. Here we report a detailed study of the electronic structure and magnetotransport properties of high quality RhSb3 single crystals. First-principles electronic structure calculations reveal a highly dispersive band with Sb-p and Rh-3d weight that shows apparent band inversion. Inclusion of spin-orbit coupling leaves the Fermi level pinned to a doublet, indicating a topological semimetal. Our synthesized high-quality single crystals show typical metallic behavior but with very small residual resistivity ratio, a sign of semimetal behavior, in zero field. We will present magnetotrasport data that exhibits a very large magnetoresistance that hints of a very sensitive evolution of electronic properties and Dirac-like spectrum.
Dong, Q.-L.; Yang, J.; Jiang, Z.-T.; Sheng, Z.-M.; Zhang, J.
2013-11-01
The energy band structures of the warm dense plasmas with micro-structures inherited from single-walled carbon nanotubes are studied in detail by using the symmetry-adapted tight-binding model with the electron-ion core Coulomb interactions as the plasma effects. It is found that both the symmetry and the degeneracy of the calculated bands normal for the solid micro-structured targets may be destroyed by the electron-ion core Coulomb interactions. Moreover, the calculated Fermi levels of the micro-structured warm dense plasmas are about 1 eV higher than those of the original carbon nanotubes, while the transition energies of the warm dense plasmas are almost always smaller than those for the original carbon nanotubes.
Anisotropic mass density by radially periodic fluid structures.
Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José
2010-10-22
This Letter reports physical realization of acoustic metamaterials with anisotropic mass density. These metamaterials consist of a superlattice of two fluidlike components radially periodic. Several structures are spectroscopically characterized at large wavelengths (homogenization limit) by studying the acoustic resonances existing in the circular cavity where they are embedded. This characterization method allows us to extract the diagonal components of the sound speed tensor. Analytical expressions describing the anisotropic behavior as a function of the corrugation parameter are also developed and their predictions are in agreement with measurements. PMID:21231048
Band gap structures in underwater screens of periodically spaced porous plates.
Trabelsi, W; Franklin, H; Tinel, A; Derible, S
2014-04-01
Acoustic properties of different periodic structures composed of alternating fluid and fluid-saturated porous layers obeying Biot's theory are investigated. At first, the network of modes and the transmission coefficients of finite structures of six plates are studied in the frequency-angle of incidence plane. It is shown that the network of modes concentrates in localized domains of the plane where the transmission coefficients will take the greatest values. With this minimum of six plates, the structures exhibit the main features as for structures containing more plates, especially those with an infinite number of plates. Then, considering infinite structures the band gap calculations are led using the Bloch-Floquet theorem. The evanescent and propagative zones in the frequency-angle of incidence plane are determined. What is proposed here is a class of underwater porous screens that exhibits band gaps extending over great angular domains and enlarging in the frequency domain when the pores at the interfaces of the porous plates are sealed. The effect of porosity on the band gaps is also investigated. PMID:24485746
Structure and Mixing Characterization of Variable Density Transverse Jet Flows
Gevorkyan, Levon
This dissertation describes an experimental study of the structural and mixing characteristics of transverse jets, or jets in crossfiow (JICF). Hot-wire anemometry, stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV), and acetone planar laser-induced fiuorescence (PLIF) measurements were utilized to illuminate and quantify the wind-ward (upstream) jet shear layer instability characteristics and their relationship to the velocity field evolution, as well as the effect of the overall velocity field on the scalar field distribution and resulting mixing characteristics. Transverse jets of various jet-to-crossfiow momentum flux ratios in the range 41 ? J ? 2, and jet-to-crossfiow density ratios in the range 1.00 ? S ? 0.35, were generated using mixtures of helium and nitrogen in the jet fluid. Jets were injected from one of three different injectors explored: a convergent nozzle with circular geometry which was mounted flush with the wind tunnel floor, another convergent nozzle with circular geometry whose exit plane lies above the crossfiow boundary layer, and a flush-mounted straight pipe injector with a circular orifice. Jet Reynolds number was kept constant for the majority of the mixing and structural exploration experiments at Rej = 1900, except when the effect of Reynolds number on cross-sectional jet structure was explored. Previous hot-wire based measurements at UCLA suggest that the upstream jet shear layer transitions from convective instability to absolute instability, giving rise to self-excited nonlinear states, as either the momentum flux ratio is lowered below J ?10, or the density ratio is lowered below S ? 0.45 for the JICF injected from the flush nozzle injector. A similar transition to absolute instability when lowering momentum flux ratio was found in this work for the flush-mounted pipe injector. Cross-sectional PLIF measurements in the present studies suggested clear correspondence between the formation of a symmetric counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) and the generation of strong upstream shear layer instability. In contrast, weak, convectively unstable upstream shear layers corresponded with asymmetries in the jet cross-sectional shape and/or lack of a CVP structure. While momentum flux ratio J and density ratio S most significantly determined the strength of the instabilities and CVP structures, an additional dependence on jet Reynolds number for CVP formation was found, with significant increases in jet Reynolds number resulting in enhanced symmetry and CVP generation. The mixing characteristics of Rej = 1900 jets of various J, S, and injector type were explored in detail in the present studies using jet centerplane and cross-sectional PLIF measurements. Various mixing metrics such as the jet fluid centerline concentration decay, Unmixedness, and Probability Density Function (PDF) were applied systematically using a novel method for comparing jets with different mass flux characteristics. It was found that when comparing mixing metrics along the jet trajectory, strengthening the upstream shear layer instability by reducing J, and achieving absolutely unstable conditions, enhanced overall mixing. Reducing density ratio S for larger J values, which under equidensity (S = 1.00) conditions would create a convectively unstable shear layer, was also observed to enhance mixing. On the other hand, reducing S for low J conditions, which are known to produce absolutely unstable upstream shear layers even for equidensity cases, was actually observed to reduce mixing, a result attributed to a reduction in crossfiow fluid entrainment into shear layer vortex cores as jet density was reduced. Comparing injectors, the flush-mounted pipe was generally the best mixer, whereas the worst mixer was the nozzle that was elevated above the crossfiow boundary layer due to upstream shear layer co-flow generated by the elevated nozzle contour; this co-flow was observed here and in prior studies to stabilize the shear layer. The effect of the evolution of the velocity and vorticity fields on the scalar concentration field was
In this paper, an omnidirectional photonic band gap realized by one-dimensional ternary unmagnetized plasma photonic crystals based on a new Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure, which is composed of homogeneous unmagnetized plasma and two kinds of isotropic dielectric, is theoretically studied by the transfer matrix method. It has been shown that such an omnidirectional photonic band gap originates from Bragg gap in contrast to zero-n gap or single negative (negative permittivity or negative permeability) gap, and it is insensitive to the incidence angle and the polarization of electromagnetic wave. From the numerical results, the frequency range and central frequency of omnidirectional photonic band gap can be tuned by the thickness and density of the plasma but cease to change with increasing Fibonacci order. The bandwidth of omnidirectional photonic band gap can be notably enlarged. Moreover, the plasma collision frequency has no effect on the bandwidth of omnidirectional photonic band gap. It is shown that such new structure Fibonacci quasiperiodic one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals have a superior feature in the enhancement of frequency range of omnidirectional photonic band gap compared with the conventional ternary and conventional Fibonacci quasiperiodic ternary plasma photonic crystals.
The structure of an active acoustic metamaterial with tunable effective density
Baz, A [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)], E-mail: baz@umd.edu
2009-12-15
A new class of one-dimensional active acoustic metamaterials (AAMMs) with programmable effective densities is presented. The proposed AAMM is capable of producing densities that are orders of magnitudes lower or higher than the ambient fluid. Such characteristics are achieved by using an array of fluid cavities separated by piezoelectric diaphragms that are controlled to generate constant densities over wide frequency bands. The piezodiaphragms are augmented with passive electrical components to broaden the operating frequency bandwidth and enable densities higher than the fluid medium to be generated. The use of these components is shown to be essential to maintain the closed-loop compliance of the piezodiaphragm away from the zone of elastic instabilities. The values of the passive components are selected on a rational basis in order to ensure a balance between the frequency bandwidth and control voltage. With this unique structure of the AAMM, physically realizable acoustic cloaks can be implemented and objects treated with these active metamaterials can become acoustically invisible.
The structure of an active acoustic metamaterial with tunable effective density
A new class of one-dimensional active acoustic metamaterials (AAMMs) with programmable effective densities is presented. The proposed AAMM is capable of producing densities that are orders of magnitudes lower or higher than the ambient fluid. Such characteristics are achieved by using an array of fluid cavities separated by piezoelectric diaphragms that are controlled to generate constant densities over wide frequency bands. The piezodiaphragms are augmented with passive electrical components to broaden the operating frequency bandwidth and enable densities higher than the fluid medium to be generated. The use of these components is shown to be essential to maintain the closed-loop compliance of the piezodiaphragm away from the zone of elastic instabilities. The values of the passive components are selected on a rational basis in order to ensure a balance between the frequency bandwidth and control voltage. With this unique structure of the AAMM, physically realizable acoustic cloaks can be implemented and objects treated with these active metamaterials can become acoustically invisible.
With the appearance of angle-resolved photoemission data allowing the identification and measurement of the Fermi surface of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors, it is important to have precise local-density calculations with which to compare. We present well-converged local-density predictions of the band structure and Fermi surface of YBa2Cu3O7, giving special attention to the position of the flat Cu-O chain-derived bands and the effect of the buckling of the Cu-O chain that is predicted by total-energy calculations and that has been inferred by an x-ray-scattering study. We emphasize the c-axis dispersion that will lead to apparent broadening of the Fermi surface in experiments interpreted in terms of a two-dimensional electronic structure
Structures and Stability of Metal Amidoboranes (MAB): Density Functional Calculations
Molecule geometry structures, frequencies, and energetic stabilities of ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) and metal amidoboranes (MAB, MNH2BH3), formed by substituting H atom in AB with one of main group metal atoms, have been investigated by density-functional theory and optimized at the B3LYP levels with 6-311G++ (3df, 3pd) basic set. Their structural parameters and infrared spectrum characteristic peaks have been predicted, which should be the criterion of a successfully synthesized material. Several parameters such as binding energies, vibrational frequencies, and the energy gaps between the HOMO and the LUMO have been adopted to characterize and evaluate their structure stabilities. It is also found that the binding energies and HOMO-LUMO energy gaps of the MAB obviously change with the substitution of the atoms. MgAB has the lowest binding energy and is easier to decompose than any other substitutional structures under same conditions, while CaAB has the highest chemical activity. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Theoretical study of the structural stability for fcc-CHx phases using density functional theory
M Dadsetani
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Recently, a new carbon modification, namly n-diamond, have been reported, whose structure is still a matter of debate. It is important to note that the synthesis of n-diamond was carried out in the presence of hydrogen or methan. In this work we evaluate the structural stability of five fcc-CHx phases by means of first-principle calculation. The total energy is obtained as a function of the isotropic, tetragonal and rhombohedral deformations for the bulk structures. First, we analyze the C2H (cuprite, CH (zincblende, CH (rocksalt and CH2 (fluorite structures.It is found that the four systems show a minimum in the total energy for the isotropic and rhombohedral deformations, but are unstable against tetragonal deformation. In the second part, we explore the structural stability of CH2 in the pyrite structure. We find that CH2 (pyrite with the hydrogen atoms defined by the internal parameter u=0.35 and a lattice parameter of 3.766 Å is elastically stable, providing a possible explanation for the experimental observation of fcc-carbon in materials prepared in the presence of hydrogen or methan. In final, we calculate density of states, band structure and EELS spectrum of CH2 (pyrite and compare them with n-diamond.
Finding and characterising WHIM structures using the luminosity density method
Nevalainen, J; Tempel, E; Branchini, E; Roncarelli, M; Giocoli, C; Heinamaki, P; Saar, E; Bonamente, M; Einasto, M; Finoguenov, A; Kaastra, J; Lindfors, E; Nurmi, P; Ueda, Y
2014-01-01
We have developed a new method to approach the missing baryons problem. We assume that the missing baryons reside in a form of Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium, i.e. the WHIM. Our method consists of (a) detecting the coherent large scale structure in the spatial distribution of galaxies that traces the Cosmic Web and that in hydrodynamical simulations is associated to the WHIM, (b) map its luminosity into a galaxy luminosity density field, (c) use numerical simulations to relate the luminosity density to the density of the WHIM, (d) apply this relation to real data to trace the WHIM using the observed galaxy luminosities in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 2dF redshift surveys. In our application we find evidence for the WHIM along the line of sight to the Sculptor Wall, at redshifts consistent with the recently reported X-ray absorption line detections. Our indirect WHIM detection technique complements the standard method based on the detection of characteristic X-ray absorption lines, showing that the galaxy l...
3D Global Coronal Density Structure and Associated Magnetic Field near Solar Maximum
Kramar, Maxim; Lin, Haosheng
2016-01-01
Measurement of the coronal magnetic field is a crucial ingredient in understanding the nature of solar coronal dynamic phenomena at all scales. We employ STEREO/COR1 data obtained near maximum of solar activity in December 2012 (Carrington rotation, CR 2131) to retrieve and analyze the three-dimensional (3D) coronal electron density in the range of heights from $1.5$ to $4\\ \\mathrm{R}_\\odot$ using a tomography method and qualitatively deduce structures of the coronal magnetic field. The 3D electron density analysis is complemented by the 3D STEREO/EUVI emissivity in 195 \\AA \\ band obtained by tomography for the same CR period. We find that the magnetic field configuration during CR 2131 has a tendency to become radially open at heliocentric distances below $\\sim 2.5 \\ \\mathrm{R}_\\odot$. We compared the reconstructed 3D coronal structures over the CR near the solar maximum to the one at deep solar minimum. Results of our 3D density reconstruction will help to constrain solar coronal field models and test the a...
Calculations relative to the band-gap energy shift and carrier spatial density in cadmium oxide are performed in terms of the oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperature relative to the deposition process in the crystal growth of the above material, starting from the consideration of the Fermi energy of an exciton gas. In particular, the band-gap shift experienced by cadmium oxide in terms of the corresponding partial pressure of oxygen is considered as well as the electron spatial density as a function of the pressure in question. Influence of temperature is discussed by estimating the average rate of variation of the band-gap shift versus temperature. In addition, the sensitivity of the above-mentioned shift to temperature is studied by means of a suitable parameter
Fulvio, D.; Sivaraman, B.; Baratta, G. A.; Palumbo, M. E.; Mason, N. J.
2009-06-01
We present novel measurements of the refractive index, density and integrated band strengths of mid-infrared features of solid N2O at 16 K and of NO2 and N2O4 in two frozen NO2:N2O4 mixtures deposited at 16 and 60 K. The refractive index and density measurements were performed also for frozen O2 deposited at 16 K. In this case, the integrated band strength values could not be determined since O2 is a homonuclear molecule and therefore its fundamental mode is not infrared active. The solid samples were analysed by infrared spectroscopy in the 8000.800 cm -1 range. The sample thickness was measured by the interference curve obtained using a He-Ne laser operating at 543 nm. The refractive index at this laser wavelength was obtained, by numerical methods, from the measured amplitude of the interference curve. The density values were obtained using the Lorentz-Lorenz relation. Integrated band strength values were then obtained by a linear fit of the integrated band intensities plotted versus column density values. The astrophysical relevance of these novel measurements is briefly discussed.
Density of mixed alkali borate glasses: A structural analysis
Density of mixed alkali borate glasses has been correlated with the glass structure. It is assumed that in such glasses each alkali oxide associates with a proportional quantity of B2O3. The number of BO3 and BO4 units related to each type of alkali oxide depends on the total concentration of alkali oxide. It is concluded that in mixed alkali borate glasses the volumes of structural units related to an alkali ion are the same as in the corresponding binary alkali borate glass. This reveals that each type of alkali oxide forms its own borate matrix and behaves as if not affected with the presence of the other alkali oxide. Similar conclusions are valid for borate glasses with three types of alkali oxide
Density of mixed alkali borate glasses: A structural analysis
Doweidar, H. [Glass Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, P.O. Box 83, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)]. E-mail: hdoweidar@mans.edu.eg; El-Damrawi, G.M. [Glass Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, P.O. Box 83, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt); Moustafa, Y.M. [Glass Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, P.O. Box 83, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt); Ramadan, R.M. [Glass Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, P.O. Box 83, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)
2005-05-15
Density of mixed alkali borate glasses has been correlated with the glass structure. It is assumed that in such glasses each alkali oxide associates with a proportional quantity of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The number of BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} units related to each type of alkali oxide depends on the total concentration of alkali oxide. It is concluded that in mixed alkali borate glasses the volumes of structural units related to an alkali ion are the same as in the corresponding binary alkali borate glass. This reveals that each type of alkali oxide forms its own borate matrix and behaves as if not affected with the presence of the other alkali oxide. Similar conclusions are valid for borate glasses with three types of alkali oxide.
Determination of the band structure of LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C
Bergk, B. [Hochfeld-Magnetlabor, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Bartkowiak, M.; Ignatchik, O. [Hochfeld-Magnetlabor, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Jaeckel, M. [Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Wosnitza, J.; Rosner, H.; Petzold, V. [MPI fuer chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Canfield, P. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames (United States). Ames Lab., Condensed Matter Physics
2007-07-01
We present de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) investigations on the nonmagnetic borocarbide superconductor LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C which have been performed by use of the torque method in high magnetic fields up to 32 T and at low temperatures down to 50 mK. The complex band structure is extracted from the quantum oscillations in the normal state. In comparison with full-potential-local-orbital calculations of the band structure we are able to assign the observed dHvA frequencies to the different bands. Temperature dependent dHvA investigations allowed the extraction of the effective band masses for the several Fermi-surface sheets. We observe an enhancement of the effective masses compared to the theoretical calculations which is due to electron-phonon interaction. Finally, we are able to examine the angular dependence of the electron-phonon coupling for the different Fermi-surface sheets. (orig.)
Medium- and high-spin band structure of the chiral-candidate nucleus 134Pr
Medium- and high-spin states of 134Pr were populated using the 116Cd(23Na,5n) reaction and studied with the GAMMASPHERE spectrometer. Several new bands have been found in this nucleus, one of them being linked to the previously observed chiral-candidate twin-band structure. The ground state of 134Pr could be determined through establishing a level structure that connects the two previously known long-lived isomeric states. Unambiguous spin-parity assignments for the excited states could be performed based on the known 2- spin-parity of the ground state combined with the present experimental data. Intrinsic single-particle configurations have been assigned to the newly observed bands on the basis of the measured B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, alignments, band-crossing frequencies, bandhead spins, the observed single-particle configurations in the neighboring nuclei, and taking into account the predictions of total Routhian surface and tilted-axis cranking calculations.
Santos-Ortiz, Reinaldo; Volkov, Vyacheslav; Schmid, Stefan; Kuo, Fang-Ling; Kisslinger, Kim; Nag, Soumya; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Zhu, Yimei; Shepherd, Nigel D
2013-04-10
Battery electrodes in thin-film form are free of the binders used with traditional powder electrodes and present an ideal platform to obtain basic insight to the evolution of the electrode-electrolyte interface passivation layer, the formation of secondary phases, and the structural underpinnings of reversibility. This is particularly relevant to the not yet fully understood conversion electrode materials, which possess enormous potential for providing transformative capacity improvements in next-generation lithium-ion batteries. However, this necessitates an understanding of the electronic charge transport properties and band structure of the thin films. This work presents an investigation of the electron transport properties of iron fluoride (FeF2) thin-film electrodes for Li-ion batteries. FeF2 thin films were prepared by pulsed-laser deposition, and their phase purity was characterized by electron microscopy and diffraction. The grown materials are polycrystalline FeF2 with a P42/mnm crystallographic symmetry. Room-temperature Hall measurements reveal that as-deposited FeF2 is n-type: the Hall coefficients were negative, electron mobility was 0.33 cm2/(V s) and resistivity was 0.255 Ω cm. The electronic band diagram of FeF2 was obtained using a combination of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation and optical absorption, which revealed that FeF2 is a direct bandgap, n-type semiconductor whose band structure is characterized by a 3.4 eV bandgap, a workfunction of ∼4.51 eV, and an effective Fermi level that resides approximately 0.22 eV below the conduction band edge. We propose that the shallow donor levels at 0.22 eV are responsible for the measured n-type conductivity. The band diagram was used to understand electron transport in FeF2 thin film and FeF2-C composite electrodes. PMID:23402585
Design of C-band 50 MW klystron with traveling wave output structure
This paper presents the simulation study of a C-band 50 MW klystron with disc-loaded waveguide traveling wave output structure. The electron gun with a perveance of 1.53 μP is designed. The gun has a voltage gradient lower than 22.1 kV/mm and a cathode load current lower than 6.3 A/cm2. The beam focusing system is a space-charge balanced flow type with solenoid magnet structure and the focusing beam trajectories have a good laminar condition. A single gap cavity is adopted instead of the traveling wave output structure in the initial beam-wave interaction simulation to decide the parameters of the cavities except the output structure. A C-band disc-loaded waveguide output structure working at π/2 mode is designed and the dispersion and interaction impedance of the structure are determined by the CST code. The beam-wave interaction system with disc-loaded waveguide output structure is simulated by a three-dimensional PIC code. More than 50 MW output power is obtained. The efficiency is more than 45% and the saturate gain is more than 50 dB. The voltage gradient of the disc-loaded waveguide output structure is 30 percent less than that of the single gap cavity and there is an increase of 4% in efficiency above that of the single gap cavity. (authors)
Two-dimensional microwave band-gap structures of different dielectric materials
E D V Nagesh; G Santosh Babu; V Subramanian; V Sivasubramanian; V R K Murthy
2005-12-01
We report the use of low dielectric constant materials to form two-dimensional microwave band-gap structures for achieving high gap-to-midgap ratio. The variable parameters chosen are the lattice spacing and the geometric structure. The selected geometries are square and triangular and the materials chosen are PTFE ( = 2.1), PVC ( = 2.38) and glass ( = 5.5). Using the plane-wave expansion method, proper lattice spacing is selected for each structure and material. The observed experimental results are analyzed with the help of the theoretical prediction.
Demonstration of molecular beam epitaxy and a semiconducting band structure for I-Mn-V compounds
Our ab initio theory calculations predict a semiconducting band structure of I-Mn-V compounds. We demonstrate on LiMnAs that high-quality materials with group-I alkali metals in the crystal structure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Optical measurements on the LiMnAs epilayers are consistent with the theoretical electronic structure. Our calculations also reproduce earlier reports of high antiferromagnetic ordering temperature and predict large, spin-orbit-coupling-induced magnetic anisotropy effects. We propose a strategy for employing antiferromagnetic semiconductors in high-temperature semiconductor spintronics.
SLAC High Gradient Testing of a KEK X-Band Accelerator Structure
The high accelerating gradients required for future linear colliders demands a better study of field emission and RF breakdown in accelerator structures. Changes in structure geometry, vacuum pumping, fabrication methods, and surface finish can all potentially impact the conditioning process, dark current emission, and peak RF power handling capability. Recent tests at SLAC of KEK's ''M2'' travelling wave x-band accelerator section provides an opportunity to investigate some of these effects by comparing its performance to previously high power tested structures at SLAC. In addition to studying ultimate power limitations, this test also demonstrates the use of computer automated conditioning to reach practical, achievable gradients
Triaxial projected shell model description of high-spin band-structures in 103,105Rh isotopes
High-spin band structures in odd-proton 103,105Rh are investigated using the microscopic triaxial projected shell model approach. It is demonstrated that the observed band structures built on one- and three-quasiparticle states are reproduced reasonably well in the present work. Further, it is evident from the analysis of the projected wavefunctions that side-band in the low-spin regime is the normal γ-band built on the ground-state configuration. However, in the high-spin regime, the side band is shown to be highly mixed and ceases to be a γ-band. We provide a complete set of electromagnetic transition probabilities for the two bands and the experimental measurements are desirable to test the predictions of the present work.
Insight into Structural Phase Transitions from Density Functional Theory
Ruzsinszky, Adrienn
2014-03-01
Structural phase transitions caused by high pressure or temperature are very relevant in materials science. The high pressure transitions are essential to understand the interior of planets. Pressure or temperature induced phase transitions can be relevant to understand other phase transitions in strongly correlated systems or molecular crystals.Phase transitions are important also from the aspect of method development. Lower level density functionals, LSDA and GGAs all fail to predict the lattice parameters of different polymorphs and the phase transition parameters at the same time. At this time only nonlocal density functionals like HSE and RPA have been proved to resolve the geometry-energy dilemma to some extent in structural phase transitions. In this talk I will report new results from the MGGA_MS family of meta-GGAs and give an insight why this type of meta-GGAs can give a systematic improvement of the geometry and phase transition parameters together. I will also present results from the RPA and show a possible way to improve beyond RPA.
Thermal condensate structure and cosmological energy density of the Universe
Capolupo, Antonio; Vitiello, Giuseppe
2016-01-01
The aim of this paper is the study of thermal vacuum condensate for scalar and fermion fields. We analyze the thermal states at the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and we show that the vacuum expectation value of the energy momentum tensor density of photon fields reproduces the energy density and pressure of the CMB. We perform the computations in the formal framework of the thermo field dynamics. We also consider the case of neutrinos and thermal states at the temperature of the neutrino cosmic background. Consistency with the estimated lower bound of the sum of the active neutrino masses is verified. In the boson sector, non trivial contribution to the energy of the universe is given by particles of masses of the order of $10^{-4}eV$ compatible with the ones of the axion-like particles. The fractal self-similar structure of the thermal radiation is also discussed and related to the coherent structure of the thermal vacuum.
Low-lying positive-parity band structure in 150Nd
The stable N = 90 isotones 150Nd, 152Sm, and 154Gd lie in a region of rapid shape change and can be expected for displaying complex collective structure. Although the level structure of 152Sm and 154Gd were studied quite extensively in the recent past, the knowledge of the low-lying level structure of 150Nd is found to be surprisingly poor. The results from our previous investigations for the negative-parity states in 150Nd are suggestive of the enhanced B(E1) strengths (of ms order) for the transitions decaying from the K? = 01- to the K? = 01+ band. Also, a complex coupling between the members of the K? = 21- and the K? = 21+ bands was observed. The present report highlights the new results related to the positive-parity band structure of 150Nd, obtained from a series of ?-ray spectroscopic experiments involving measurements of excitation functions, angular distributions, and ?-? coincidences using the (n,n? ?) reaction
Gladysiewicz, M.; Kudrawiec, R.; Wartak, M. S.
2015-08-01
The electronic band structure and material gain have been calculated for GaAsBi/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) with various bismuth concentrations (Bi ? 15%) within the 8-band and 14-band kp models. The 14-band kp model was obtained by extending the standard 8-band kp Hamiltonian by the valence band anticrossing (VBAC) Hamiltonian, which is widely used to describe Bi-related changes in the electronic band structure of dilute bismides. It has been shown that in the range of low carrier concentrations n kp Hamiltonians are similar. It means that the 8-band kp model can be used to calculate material gain in dilute bismides QWs. Therefore, it can be applied to analyze QWs containing new dilute bismides for which the VBAC parameters are unknown. Thus, the energy gap and electron effective mass for Bi-containing materials are used instead of VBAC parameters. The electronic band structure and material gain have been calculated for 8 nm wide GaInAsBi QWs on GaAs and InP substrates with various compositions. In these QWs, Bi concentration was varied from 0% to 5% and indium concentration was tuned in order to keep the same compressive strain (? = 2%) in QW region. For GaInAsBi/GaAs QW with 5% Bi, gain peak was determined to be at about 1.5 ?m. It means that it can be possible to achieve emission at telecommunication windows (i.e., 1.3 ?m and 1.55 ?m) for GaAs-based lasers containing GaInAsBi/GaAs QWs. For GaInAsBi/Ga0.47In0.53As/InP QWs with 5% Bi, gain peak is predicted to be at about 4.0 ?m, i.e., at the wavelengths that are not available in current InP-based lasers.
Study of low-lying band structure of transitional nuclei using Particle-rotor model - 109Sb
Calculation of the low-lying band structure of 109Sb using PRM show that there is an onset of collectivity in comparison to the primarily spherical Sn nuclei. The band structure under investigation are based on pure configuration with no admixture. The calculation was pursued with complete attenuation of Coriolis interaction. The nuclei is observed to behave like a soft rotor
Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates
Tulk, Christopher A [ORNL; dos Santos, Antonio M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Molaison, Jamie J [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Honkimaeki, Veijo [ESRF
2015-01-01
The pressure induced crystalline collapse at 14.7 GPa and polyamorphic structures of the semiconductor clathrate Sr8Ga16Ge30 are reported up to 35 GPa. In-situ total scattering measurements under pressure allow the direct microscopic inspection of the mechanisms associated with pressure induced amorphization in these systems, as well as the structure of the recovered phase. It is observed that, between 14.7 and 35 GPa the second peak in the structure factor function gradually disappears. Analysis of the radial distribution function extracted from those data indicate that this feature is associated with gradual cage collapse and breakdown of the tetrahedral structure with the consequent systematic lengthening of the nearest-neighbor framework bonds. This suggests an overall local coordination change to an even higher density amorphous form. Upon recovery from high pressure, the sample remains amorphous, and while there is some indication of the guest-host cage reforming, it doesn't seem that the tetrahedral coordination is recovered. As such, the compresion-decompression process in this systems gives rise to three distict amorphous forms.
Engineering design and development of 10 MeV, S-band accelerating structure
A 10 MeV, S-band electron linac has been indigenously developed at RRCAT, Indore for industrial applications. The accelerating structure is a 2π/3 mode constant impedance traveling wave structure, designed to accelerate the 50 keV electron beam injected from the electron gun to an energy of 10 MeV. It comprises traveling wave buncher followed by accelerating section. This paper describes engineering design of accelerating structure and its evolution from basic experimental assemblies designed to verify various functional and engineering aspects like energy gain vs. structure length, tuning of RF coupler and complete accelerating structure, assembly and cooling of structure. Being a recursive process, the design was revised several times based on test results and progressively increasing understanding of accelerator
Narrow-band spectral features of structured silver surface with rectangular resonant cavities
This paper is aimed to investigate spectral properties of structured silver surface with periodic rectangular hollow cavities. Numerical computation is conducted to obtain spectral distribution of surface absorptance with different structural parameters using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. By means of numerical examples, the effects of structural parameters, incident angle and azimuthal angle on the spectral features of the structured surface are discussed. It is found that the structured surface shows the characteristics of the peak absorption in the vicinity of resonant wavelength of rectangular cavity. For some special structure parameters, the peak absorptance of the incident plane wave can reach as high as above 80% due to the excitation of microcavity effect. The optimal narrow-band absorption can be achieved by the rational design of the structural parameters of rectangular cavity. The directional dependence of spectral absorptance is also analyzed and the results reveal that the absorption peak positions are incident-angle-independent. The results show that the microscaled rectangular cavities fabricated on the low-emissivity silver surface are very efficient for selective improvement of the radiative features, which provides guidance for the design of narrow-band infrared thermal emitters.
Energy-band structure of NbC studied with angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy
The (100) face of NbC/sub 0.83/ has been studied using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation as the excitation source. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical energy-band structure calculated for stoichiometric NbC using the linear augmented-plane-wave method. A good agreement between theory and experiment is found for the main structures in the experimental spectra. The origin of the experimental features that cannot be explained by the calculated energy bands is discussed in terms of surface and vacancy-induced effects. A resonant enhancement of the emission close to the Fermi energy at photon energies above the Nb 4p threshold is presented and discussed
Band structure of topological insulators from noise measurements in tunnel junctions
Cascales, Juan Pedro; Martínez, Isidoro; Katmis, Ferhat; Chang, Cui-Zu; Guerrero, Rubén; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Aliev, Farkhad G.
2015-12-01
The unique properties of spin-polarized surface or edge states in topological insulators (TIs) make these quantum coherent systems interesting from the point of view of both fundamental physics and their implementation in low power spintronic devices. Here we present such a study in TIs, through tunneling and noise spectroscopy utilizing TI/Al2O3/Co tunnel junctions with bottom TI electrodes of either Bi2Te3 or Bi2Se3. We demonstrate that features related to the band structure of the TI materials show up in the tunneling conductance and even more clearly through low frequency noise measurements. The bias dependence of 1/f noise reveals peaks at specific energies corresponding to band structure features of the TI. TI tunnel junctions could thus simplify the study of the properties of such quantum coherent systems that can further lead to the manipulation of their spin-polarized properties for technological purposes.
Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic properties of = 50 Ge and Se nuclei
S K Ghorui; C R Praharaj
2014-04-01
The deformed configurations and rotational band structures in =50 Ge and Se nuclei are studied by deformed Hartree–Fock with quadrupole constraint and angular momentum projection. Apart from the `almost’ spherical HF solution, a well-deformed configuration occurs at low excitation. A deformed well-mixed = 1/2+ neutron orbit comes down in energy (from the shell above = 50) to break the = 50 spherical shell closure. A = 7− isomer is predicted in 84Se at fairly low excitation energy. At higher excitation energies (8 MeV), a deformed band with = 7/2+–1/2− (based on $h_{11/2}$) neutron 1p–1h excitation, for 82Ge and 84Se, is shown in our calculation. Our study gives insight into possible deformed structures at spherical shell closure.
Effective band structure of Ru-doped BaFe2As2
Reticcioli, M.; Profeta, G.; Franchini, C.; Continenza, A.
2016-02-01
The use of lattice cells in real space that are arbitrarily larger than the primitive one, is nowadays more and more often required by ab initio calculations to study disorder, vacancy or doping effects in real materials. This leads, however, to complex band structures which are hard to interpret. Therefore an unfolding procedure is sought for in order to obtain useful data, directly comparable with experimental results, such as angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements. Here, we present an extension of the unfolding procedure recently implemented in the VASP code, which includes a projection scheme that leads to a full reconstruction of the primitive space. As a test case, we apply this newly implemented scheme to the Ru-doped BaFe2As2 superconducting compound. The results provide a clear description of the effective electronic band structure in the conventional Brillouin zone, highlighting the crucial role played by doping in this compound.
Band structure of topological insulators from noise measurements in tunnel junctions
The unique properties of spin-polarized surface or edge states in topological insulators (TIs) make these quantum coherent systems interesting from the point of view of both fundamental physics and their implementation in low power spintronic devices. Here we present such a study in TIs, through tunneling and noise spectroscopy utilizing TI/Al2O3/Co tunnel junctions with bottom TI electrodes of either Bi2Te3 or Bi2Se3. We demonstrate that features related to the band structure of the TI materials show up in the tunneling conductance and even more clearly through low frequency noise measurements. The bias dependence of 1/f noise reveals peaks at specific energies corresponding to band structure features of the TI. TI tunnel junctions could thus simplify the study of the properties of such quantum coherent systems that can further lead to the manipulation of their spin-polarized properties for technological purposes
Review and prospects of magnonic crystals and devices with reprogrammable band structure.
Krawczyk, M; Grundler, D
2014-03-26
Research efforts addressing spin waves (magnons) in microand nanostructured ferromagnetic materials have increased tremendously in recent years. Corresponding experimental and theoretical work in magnonics faces significant challenges in that spinwave dispersion relations are highly anisotropic and different magnetic states might be realized via, for example, the magnetic field history. At the same time, these features offer novel opportunities for wave control in solids going beyond photonics and plasmonics. In this topical review we address materials with a periodic modulation of magnetic parameters that give rise to artificially tailored band structures and allow unprecedented control of spin waves. In particular, we discuss recent achievements and perspectives of reconfigurable magnonic devices for which band structures can be reprogrammed during operation. Such characteristics might be useful for multifunctional microwave and logic devices operating over a broad frequency regime on either the macroor nanoscale. PMID:24599025
A new quaternary supramolecular complex (Hg2As)2 (CdI4) (1) has been prepared by the solid-state reaction and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 crystallizes in the space group P21 of the monoclinic system with two formula units in a cell: a=7.945(4), b=12.934(6), c=8.094(4) A, ?=116.898o(1), V=741.7(6) A3. The structure of 1 is characterized by a tridymite-like three-dimensional cationic framework, which is composed of mercury and arsenic atoms, with the channels being occupied by discrete CdI42- tetrahedral guest-anions. The optical properties were investigated in terms of the diffuse reflectance and Fourier transform infrared spectra. The electronic band structure along with density of states (DOS) calculated by DFT method indicates that the present compound is a semiconductor with a direct band gap, and that the optical absorption is mainly originated from the charge transitions from I-5p and As-4p to Cd-5s and Hg-6s states. - Graphical abstract: A new quaternary supramolecular complex (Hg2As)2(CdI4) (1) has been prepared by the solid-state reaction, and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure of 1 is characterized by a 3-D tridymite-like cationic framework with the channels being occupied by discrete CdI42- tetrahedral guest-anions
Band offsets and electronic structures of interface between In0.5Ga0.5As and InP
III–V semiconductor interfacing with high-κ gate oxide is crucial for the high mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field transistor device. With density functional theory calculations, we explored the band offsets and electronic structures of the In0.5Ga0.5As/InP interfaces with various interfacial bondings. Among six different bonding interfaces, we found that P-In(Ga) bonding interface showed the highest stability. Local density of states calculations was adopted to calculate the band offsets. Except for the metallic interface, we noticed that neither valence band offset nor conduction band offset depended on the interfacial bondings. For the most stable P-In(Ga) interface, we did not observe any gap states. Furthermore, we explored the P-In(Ga) interfaces with interfacial P-As exchange defects, which slightly modified the interface stability and the band offsets but did not produce any gap states. These findings provide solid evidence that InP could serve as a promising interfacial passivation layer between III–V material and high-κ oxide in the application of high mobility devices
A density functional theory investigation of the electronic structure and spin moments of magnetite
Noh, Junghyun
2014-08-01
We present the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations on magnetite, Fe3O4, which has been recently considered as electrode in the emerging field of organic spintronics. Given the nature of the potential applications, we evaluated the magnetite room-temperature cubic phase in terms of structural, electronic, and magnetic properties. We considered GGA (PBE), GGA + U (PBE + U), and range-separated hybrid (HSE06 and HSE(15%)) functionals. Calculations using HSE06 and HSE(15%) functionals underline the impact that inclusion of exact exchange has on the electronic structure. While the modulation of the band gap with exact exchange has been seen in numerous situations, the dramatic change in the valence band nature and states near the Fermi level has major implications for even a qualitative interpretation of the DFT results. We find that HSE06 leads to highly localized states below the Fermi level while HSE(15%) and PBE + U result in delocalized states around the Fermi level. The significant differences in local magnetic moments and atomic charges indicate that describing room-temperature bulk materials, surfaces and interfaces may require different functionals than their low-temperature counterparts.
A density functional theory investigation of the electronic structure and spin moments of magnetite
Noh, Junghyun; Osman, Osman I.; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Winget, Paul; Brédas, Jean-Luc
2014-08-01
We present the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations on magnetite, Fe3O4, which has been recently considered as electrode in the emerging field of organic spintronics. Given the nature of the potential applications, we evaluated the magnetite room-temperature cubic Fd\\bar{3}m phase in terms of structural, electronic, and magnetic properties. We considered GGA (PBE), GGA + U (PBE + U), and range-separated hybrid (HSE06 and HSE(15%)) functionals. Calculations using HSE06 and HSE(15%) functionals underline the impact that inclusion of exact exchange has on the electronic structure. While the modulation of the band gap with exact exchange has been seen in numerous situations, the dramatic change in the valence band nature and states near the Fermi level has major implications for even a qualitative interpretation of the DFT results. We find that HSE06 leads to highly localized states below the Fermi level while HSE(15%) and PBE + U result in delocalized states around the Fermi level. The significant differences in local magnetic moments and atomic charges indicate that describing room-temperature bulk materials, surfaces and interfaces may require different functionals than their low-temperature counterparts.
A density functional theory investigation of the electronic structure and spin moments of magnetite
We present the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations on magnetite, Fe3O4, which has been recently considered as electrode in the emerging field of organic spintronics. Given the nature of the potential applications, we evaluated the magnetite room-temperature cubic Fd 3-bar m phase in terms of structural, electronic, and magnetic properties. We considered GGA (PBE), GGA + U (PBE + U), and range-separated hybrid (HSE06 and HSE(15%)) functionals. Calculations using HSE06 and HSE(15%) functionals underline the impact that inclusion of exact exchange has on the electronic structure. While the modulation of the band gap with exact exchange has been seen in numerous situations, the dramatic change in the valence band nature and states near the Fermi level has major implications for even a qualitative interpretation of the DFT results. We find that HSE06 leads to highly localized states below the Fermi level while HSE(15%) and PBE + U result in delocalized states around the Fermi level. The significant differences in local magnetic moments and atomic charges indicate that describing room-temperature bulk materials, surfaces and interfaces may require different functionals than their low-temperature counterparts. (paper)
Theoretical analysis of electronic band structure of 2- to 3-nm Si nanocrystals
Hapala, Prokop; Kůsová, Kateřina; Pelant, Ivan; Jelínek, Pavel
2013-01-01
Roč. 87, č. 19 (2013), "195420-1"-"195420-13". ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Grant ostatní: AVČR(CZ) M100101207 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Si nanoparticles * electronic band structure * nanoparticles * luminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013
Band structures tunability of bulk 2D phononic crystals made of magneto-elastic materials
J. O. Vasseur
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The feasibility of contactless tunability of the band structure of two-dimensional phononic crystals is demonstrated by employing magnetostrictive materials and applying an external magnetic field. The influence of the amplitude and of the orientation with respect to the inclusion axis of the applied magnetic field are studied in details. Applications to tunable selective frequency filters with switching functionnality and to reconfigurable wave-guides and demultiplexing devices are then discussed.
Band Structures of $^{182}$ Os Studied by GCM based on 3D-CHFB
Horibata, Takatoshi; Oi, Makito; Onishi, Naoki; Ansari, Ahmad
1998-01-01
Band structure properties of $^{182}$Os are investigated through a particle number and angular momentum constrained generator coordinate(GCM) calculation based on self-consistent three-dimensional cranking solutions. From the analysis of the wave function of the lowest GCM solution, we confirm that this nucleus shows a tilted rotational motion in its yrast states, at least with the present set of force parameters of the pairing-plus-quadrupole interaction Hamiltonian. A close examination of b...
Crystal structure and band gap determination of HfO2 thin films :
Cheynet, M. C.; Pokrant, S.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Rouvire, J.L.
2007-01-01
Valence electron energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) are performed on three different HfO2 thin films grown on Si (001) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or atomic layer deposition (ALD). For each sample the band gap (Eg) is determined by low-loss EELS analysis. The Eg values are then correlated with the crystal structure and the chemical properties of the films obtained by HRTEM images and VEELS line scans, respectively. They are dis...
Band structure of thin films by the linear augmented-plane-wave method
Jepsen, O.; Madsen, J.; Andersen, Ole Krogh
1978-01-01
We present a linear augmented-plane-wave method for solving the band-structure problem in thin crystalline films. The potential is separated into a muffin-tin potential inside the film, a potential depending exclusively on the normal coordinate outside the film, and corrections in both regions. The...... method is tested on (100) and (111) monolayers of Cu using a standard muffin-tin potential....
Peřina ml., Jan; Centini, M.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Scalora, M.
Washington : Optical Society of America, 2008 - (Bigelow, E.; Stroud, Jr., J.), s. 312-313 ISBN 978-1-55752-851-3. [Rochester Conference on Coherence on Quantum Optics /9./ (CQO9). Rochester (US), 10.06.2007-13.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : two-photon states * nonlinear photonic-band-gap structures Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers
Reuter, K.; de andres, P. L.; Garcia-Vidal, F. J.; Flores, F.; Hohenester, U.; Kocevar, P.
1998-01-01
Using a Green's function approach, we investigate band structure effects in the BEEM current distribution in reciprocal space. In the elastic limit, this formalism provides a 'parameter free' solution to the BEEM problem. At low temperatures, and for thin metallic layers, the elastic approximation is enough to explain the experimental I(V) curves at low voltages. At higher voltages inelastic effects are approximately taken into account by introducing an effective RPA-electron lifetime, much i...
Structure of superdeformed bands in the A ≅ 150 mass region
The structure of superdeformed rotational bands recently discovered around 152Dy is discussed within the deformed shell model based on an average Woods-Saxon potential with a monopole pairing force. A comparison with available experimental data is provided and detailed predictions for yet unobserved cases are given. Pronounced variations in the observed rotational pattern are attributed to the angular momentum alignment of the high-N intruder (quasi)particles. (orig.)
Kral, Zdenek
2009-01-01
The characterization of photonic band gap materials (Photonic Crystals) is a fundamental issue in the development of the technologies for their fabrication and future application. This Doctoral Thesis has dealt with the development of optical characterization methods and their implementation to planar photonic structures. According to the objectives established in the present work we have obtained several results that are concluded in the following paragraphs: We have developed an exp...
Energy landscape and band-structure tuning in realistic MoS2/MoSe2 heterostructures
Constantinescu, Gabriel C.; Hine, Nicholas D. M.
2015-05-01
While monolayer forms of two-dimensional materials are well characterized both experimentally and theoretically, properties of bilayer heterostructures are not nearly so well known. We employ high-accuracy linear-scaling density functional theory calculations utilizing nonlocal van der Waals functionals to explore the possible constructions of the MoS2/MoSe2 interface. Utilizing large supercells, we vary rotation, translation, and separation of the layers without introducing unrealistic strain. The energy landscape shows very low variations under rotation, with no strongly preferred alignments. By unfolding the spectral function into the primitive cells, we show that the monolayers are more independent than in homo-bilayers and that the electronic band structure of each layer is tunable through rotation, thus influencing hole effective masses.
The energy band structures of bct In, hcp Ti and Zn have been calculated at various lattice parameters using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method. It has been shown for several hcp metals that the EFG at the atomic sites can be obtained from the total self-consistent charge densities without further approximations. The calculated EFGs for the systems studied here are in good agreement with experiment and originate mainly from the anisotropy of the valence states, while contributions from the core states and the lattice are small. From calculations for different c/a ratios and volumes we can deduce the derivatives d(ln EFG)/dp, but also d(ln EFG)/d(ln V) and d(ln EFG)/d(ln c/a), quantities, which are not easily accessible by experiment. (orig.)
In this paper, an omnidirectional photonic band gap (OBG) which originates from Bragg gap compared to zero-n-tilde gap or single negative (negative permittivity or negative permeability) gap, realized by one-dimensional (1D) plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) with ternary Thue-Morse aperiodic structure, which is composed of plasma and two kinds of homogeneous, isotropic dielectric is theoretically studied by the transfer matrix method (TMM) in detail. Such OBG is insensitive to the incident angle and the polarization of electromagnetic wave (EM wave). From the numerical results, the bandwidth and central frequency of OBG can be notably broadened by changing the thickness of plasma and dielectric layers but cease to change with increasing Thue-Morse order. The OBG also can be manipulated by plasma density. However, the plasma collision frequency has no effect on the bandwidth of OBG. These results may provide theoretical instructions to design the future optoelectronic devices based on plasma photonic crystals.
Zhong, Hong-Xia; Shi, Jun-Jie; Yang, Li
2015-01-01
We report many-body perturbation theory calculations of excited-state properties of distorted 1-T diamond-chain monolayer rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2). Electronic self-energy substantially enhances their quasiparticle band gaps and, surprisingly, converts monolayer ReSe2 to a direct-gap semiconductor, which was, however, regarded to be an indirect one by density-functional-theory calculations. Their optical absorption spectra are dictated by strongly bound excitons. Unlike hexagonal structures, the lowest-energy bright exciton of distorted 1-T ReS2 exhibits a perfect figure-8 shape polarization dependence but those of ReSe2 only exhibit a partial polarization dependence, which results from two nearly-degenerated bright excitons whose polarization preferences are not aligned. Our first-principles calculations are in agreement with experiments and pave the way for optoelectronic applications.
Highlights: ► The band structure of anatase containing oxygen vacancy or doped with bismuth or carbon have been calculated. ► The absorption spectra and energy formation of the Bi-defect also have been evaluated. ► The conclusion is that in anatase the Bi atoms cannot replace Ti atoms. ► So the visible part of the experimental absorption spectra has no relation to the Bi-bands in anatase. ► And this is probably associated with carbon impurities or with the accompanying Bi-containing phases. - Abstract: The electronic band structure, frequency-dependent dielectric function and absorption spectra of the anatase containing oxygen vacancy or doped with bismuth or carbon have been calculated with the aid of the pseudopotential plane-wave method. Basing on the calculated data, the available experimental data on the visible light absorption are discussed. The main conclusion is that the Bi3+ ions cannot replace the Ti4+ ions in the structure of anatase. The conclusion is confirmed by the calculations of the energy of the defect formation. The visible light absorption can be explained by the presence of the carbon impurities or additional phases, probably Bi2O3 or Bi4Ti3O12.
Zhukov, V.P., E-mail: zhukov@ihim.uran.ru [Institute of Solid-State Chemistry, Ural Branch of RAS, GSP-145, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Shein, I.R., E-mail: shein@ihim.uran.ru [Institute of Solid-State Chemistry, Ural Branch of RAS, GSP-145, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zainullina, V.M., E-mail: veronika@ihim.uran.ru [Institute of Solid-State Chemistry, Ural Branch of RAS, GSP-145, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)
2013-01-25
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band structure of anatase containing oxygen vacancy or doped with bismuth or carbon have been calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The absorption spectra and energy formation of the Bi-defect also have been evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conclusion is that in anatase the Bi atoms cannot replace Ti atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer So the visible part of the experimental absorption spectra has no relation to the Bi-bands in anatase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer And this is probably associated with carbon impurities or with the accompanying Bi-containing phases. - Abstract: The electronic band structure, frequency-dependent dielectric function and absorption spectra of the anatase containing oxygen vacancy or doped with bismuth or carbon have been calculated with the aid of the pseudopotential plane-wave method. Basing on the calculated data, the available experimental data on the visible light absorption are discussed. The main conclusion is that the Bi{sup 3+} ions cannot replace the Ti{sup 4+} ions in the structure of anatase. The conclusion is confirmed by the calculations of the energy of the defect formation. The visible light absorption can be explained by the presence of the carbon impurities or additional phases, probably Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}.
Srivastava, Ankit
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a Graphical Processing Unit accelerated mixed variational formulation for fast phononic band-structure calculation of arbitrarily complex unit cells and report speed gains of a hundred fold over unoptimized serial cpu computations. To the author's knowledge this is the first application of gpu computing to a non-FE/FDTD bandstructure algorithm. The formulation is presented in a form which is applicable to 1-, 2-, and 3-D cases. However, in this paper we concentrate on optimizing the formulation within the paradigm of gpu computing, presenting results for 2-D unit cells. We describe the application of the formulation with a long term view towards highly efficient and massively distributed band-structure algorithms suitable for tackling optimization and inverse problems. We report that the accurate band-structure evaluation over the boundary of the Irreducible Brillouin Zone (IBZ) for the first 18 phononic branches of a complex 2-D unit cell (with 1132 different phases) can be achieved ...
Shape optimization of phononic band gap structures incorporating inertial amplification mechanisms
Yuksel, Osman; Yilmaz, Cetin
2015-10-01
The aim of this study is to obtain a wide and deep phononic gap at low frequencies in a two-dimensional periodic solid structure with embedded inertial amplification mechanisms. Size and shape optimizations are performed on the building block mechanism of the periodic structure to maximize phononic gap (stop band) width and depth. It is shown that shape optimization offers a wider and deeper gap, when both size and shape optimized mechanisms have the same mass and stiffness values. Analysis of the shape optimized mechanism is carried out using two different finite element models, one using beam elements and the other using shell elements. Both models produced similar results for the stop band width and depth. A two-dimensional periodic structure is constructed with the shape optimized building block mechanisms. Moreover, experimental and numerical frequency response results of this periodic structure are obtained. The matching frequency response results indicate that the two-dimensional periodic structure has a wide and deep phononic gap for in-plane excitations. Furthermore, due to proper selection of the out-of-plane thickness of the periodic structure, out-of-plane vibration modes do not occur within the phononic gap.
Kulathuraan, K; Mohanraj, K; Natarajan, B
2016-01-01
In this work, an attempt has been made to fabricate porous silicon (PS) from p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers by using the electrochemical etching process at six different current densities (40, 60, 75, 100, 125 and 150mA/cm(2)) with constant time (30min). The influence of varying current density on morphological, structural, optical and electrical properties of PS samples were analyzed by using SEM, AFM, XRD, FT-IR, PL and electrical (I-V) techniques, respectively. Microstructural images clearly showed that the average pore diameter and thickness increase with increase current densities up to 100mA/cm(2) and decrease for 125mA/cm(2). It could be related to breaking of pore walls and exposing to the next layer of c-Si. Further increase the current density about 150mA/cm(2), the average pore diameter increase as in the case of first layer (40-100mA/cm(2)) of c-Si wafer. The result is reflected in PL emission band (at 708nm) and the intensity of the emission band shifted towards red region. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the formation of porous silicon as appeared as a broad peak at 2θ=69.3° belongs to (400) reflection. The FTIR study supports the X-ray diffraction analysis that shows the vibrational bands of S-H2 and Si-O-Si at 2109cm(-1), 915cm(-1) and 615cm(-1) and 1107cm(-1), respectively. The I-V characteristic of PS exhibited rectifying behavior with different values of ideality factor (η) and barrier height (ϕb). It is concluded from the experimental results that the formed pores developed up to 100mA/cm(2) in the top layer of c-Si and the formed pores exposed to the next layer of c-Si when increase the high electrochemical etching process (above 100mA/cm(2)). PMID:26186397
Kulathuraan, K.; Mohanraj, K.; Natarajan, B.
2016-01-01
In this work, an attempt has been made to fabricate porous silicon (PS) from p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers by using the electrochemical etching process at six different current densities (40, 60, 75, 100, 125 and 150 mA/cm2) with constant time (30 min). The influence of varying current density on morphological, structural, optical and electrical properties of PS samples were analyzed by using SEM, AFM, XRD, FT-IR, PL and electrical (I-V) techniques, respectively. Microstructural images clearly showed that the average pore diameter and thickness increase with increase current densities up to 100 mA/cm2 and decrease for 125 mA/cm2. It could be related to breaking of pore walls and exposing to the next layer of c-Si. Further increase the current density about 150 mA/cm2, the average pore diameter increase as in the case of first layer (40-100 mA/cm2) of c-Si wafer. The result is reflected in PL emission band (at 708 nm) and the intensity of the emission band shifted towards red region. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the formation of porous silicon as appeared as a broad peak at 2? = 69.3 belongs to (4 0 0) reflection. The FTIR study supports the X-ray diffraction analysis that shows the vibrational bands of S-H2 and Si-O-Si at 2109 cm-1, 915 cm-1 and 615 cm-1 and 1107 cm-1, respectively. The I-V characteristic of PS exhibited rectifying behavior with different values of ideality factor (?) and barrier height (?b). It is concluded from the experimental results that the formed pores developed up to 100 mA/cm2 in the top layer of c-Si and the formed pores exposed to the next layer of c-Si when increase the high electrochemical etching process (above 100 mA/cm2).
Fabrication of the CERN/PSI/ST X-Band accelerating structures
Dehler, Micha; Gudkov, Dmitry; Lebet, Serge; Riddone, Germana; Shi, Jiaru; Citterio, Alessandro; Zennaro, Riccardo; D'Auria, Gerardo; Serpico, Claudio
2011-01-01
In a collaboration between CERN, PSI and Sincrotrone Trieste (ST), a multi- purpose X-band accelerating structure has been designed and fabricated, used for high gradients tests in the CLIC structure testing program and in the FEL projects of PSI and ST. The structure has 72 cells with a phase advance of 5 pi/6 and includes upstream and down-stream wakefield monitors to measure the beam alignment. The SLAC mode launcher design is used to feed it with RF power. Following the CERN fabrication procedures for high-gradient structure, diffusion bonding and brazing in hydrogen atmosphere is used to assemble the cells. After tuning, a vacuum bakeout is required before the feedthroughs for the wake field monitors are welded in as a last step. We describe the experiences gained in finishing the first two structures out of a series of four and present the results from the RF tuning and low level RF tests.
Formation and Structure of Low Density Exo-Neptunes
Rogers, Leslie A; Lissauer, Jack J; Seager, Sara
2011-01-01
Kepler has found hundreds of Neptune-size (2-6 R_Earth) planet candidates within 0.5 AU of their stars. The nature of the vast majority of these planets is not known because their masses have not been measured. Using theoretical models of planet formation, evolution and structure, we explore the range of minimum plausible masses for low-density exo-Neptunes. We focus on highly irradiated planets with T_eq>=500K. We consider two separate formation pathways for low-mass planets with voluminous atmospheres of light gases: core nucleated accretion and outgassing of hydrogen from dissociated ices. We show that Neptune-size planets at T_eq=500K with masses as small as a few times that of Earth can plausibly be formed core nucleated accretion coupled with subsequent inward migration. We also derive a limiting low-density mass-radius relation for rocky planets with outgassed hydrogen envelopes but no surface water. Rocky planets with outgassed hydrogen envelopes typically have computed radii well below 3 R_Earth. For...
The structure of plasma density irregularities in the interplanetary medium
Observations of the scintillation of sources 3C273 and 3C279 at 2292 MHz are described. The interpretation of the scintillation in terms of the structure of the plasma-density irregularities in the interplanetary medium is discussed. Scintillation index measurements obtained during these observations are combined with similar measurements at other frequencies reported in the literature. The resulting variation of the scintillation-index and observing-frequency product with source elongation is interpreted in terms of irregularities with a spatial spectrum of electron density which is of power law form. This result is reinforced by an analysis of the spectra of the observed scintillations. Several tests are applied to both the Fourier and Bessel spectra which illustrate conclusively that the irregularity spatial spectrum is of power law form, rather than the Gaussian form suggested by some workers. The spectra also show that the irregularities are isotopic within 0.2 AU of the sun, while there is some evidence that a degree of elongation normal to the direction of the motion of the irregularities may develop at slightly greater solar distances. The irregularity velocities determined are consistent with solar wind velocities. (author)
An investigation of the structure of the F-band and envelope in LiF
A detailed study has been made of the growth of the F-centre envelope during proton irradiation of lithium fluoride. Data were taken using a unique in-situ measurement apparatus installed on the ion accelerator at Sussex University. This has revealed the F centre to be an envelope containing a complicated amalgam of defects which are sensitive to the presence of impurities in the crystal. Pure LiF and doped LiF(Mg:Ti) have been used. In nominally pure LiF bands have been seen at ≅228-234, 241-245, 260 and 267 nm. In doped samples absorption peaks are seen at <225, 228-234, 241-245, 254, 260, 273 and 267 nm. The 273 nm band is seen only in the highly doped (Mg) samples. The envelope itself peaks at ≅254-259 nm. The exact position of the envelope peak is variable with dose, and is thought due to absorption by at least three centres. The richness of the defect variety of this envelope has not previously been appreciated, to the authors knowledge. It has been observed in this ion irradiated material because ion beams produce a high defect density in a very thin layer (microns) of crystal. Colouration effects can therefore be studied to unusually high optical densities. (orig.)
Optical dielectric functions ε(E) of the (IPA)4Cd3Cl10 crystal were measured in the spectral range of fundamental electronic excitations 3.5–10 eV and in the temperature range of 310–400 K containing the phase transition point between the orthorhombic phases Cmce and Pbca. Measurements were performed by spectroscopic ellipsometry with using of synchrotron radiation. Electronic band structure, density of states and dielectric functions ε(E) of (IPA)4Cd3Cl10 were calculated and analyzed on the basis of the density functional theory. Top valence and bottom conduction bands were found to be formed mainly by the cadmium–chlorine complexes of the crystals. - Highlights: ► Spectral ellipsometry in the VUV range is used for study of (IPA)4Cd3Cl10 crystals. ► Band structure of (IPA)4Cd3Cl10 crystal has been calculated for the first time. ► Origin of the lowest energy spectral band of dielectric function is determined. ► Width of temperature dependency of dielectric permittivity is large (near 50 K). ► Maximum of temperature dependency of dielectric permittivity is small (near 2%)
Yan, Xingxiu; Qiu, Xiandeng; Yan, Zhishuo; Li, Hongjiang; Gong, Yun; Lin, Jianhua
2016-05-01
4-(4-oxopyridin-1(4 H)-yl)phthalic acid (H2L) and three H2L-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) formulated as ZnL(DPE)(H2O)·H2O (DPE=(E)-1, 2-di(pyridine -4-yl)ethene) (1), CdL(H2O)2 (2) and CdL (3) were synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The free H2L ligand shows an enol-form and the L2- ligand in the three MOFs exists as the keto-form. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate H2L and the three MOFs possess different band structures. Due to the existence of the N-donor, DPE in MOF 1, the conduction band (CB) minimum and band gap of MOF 1 are much lower than those of H2L. And MOF 1 yielded much larger photocurrent density than H2L upon visible light illumination. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) shows the interfacial charge transfer impedance in the presence of MOF 1 is lower than that in the presence of H2L. The hydrous MOF 2 and the anhydrous MOF 3 are both constructed by Cd(II) and L2-, and they can be reversibly transformed to each other. However, MOFs 2 and 3 possess different CB minimums and VB maximums, and their band gaps are much larger than that of MOF 1.
Advanced density matrix renormalization group method for nuclear structure calculations
Legeza, Ö; Poves, A; Dukelsky, J
2015-01-01
We present an efficient implementation of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm that includes an optimal ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals and an efficient expansion of the active space utilizing various concepts of quantum information theory. We first show how this new DMRG methodology could solve a previous $400$ KeV discrepancy in the ground state energy of $^{56}$Ni. We then report the first DMRG results in the $pf+g9/2$ shell model space for the ground $0^+$ and first $2^+$ states of $^{64}$Ge which are benchmarked with reference data obtained from Monte Carlo shell model. The corresponding correlation structure among the proton and neutron orbitals is determined in terms of the two-orbital mutual information. Based on such correlation graphs we propose several further algorithmic improvement possibilities that can be utilized in a new generation of tensor network based algorithms.
Advanced density matrix renormalization group method for nuclear structure calculations
Legeza, Ã.-.; Veis, L.; Poves, A.; Dukelsky, J.
2015-11-01
We present an efficient implementation of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm that includes an optimal ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals and an efficient expansion of the active space utilizing various concepts of quantum information theory. We first show how this new DMRG methodology could solve a previous 400 keV discrepancy in the ground state energy of 56Ni. We then report the first DMRG results in the p f +g 9 /2 shell model space for the ground 0+ and first 2+ states of 64Ge which are benchmarked with reference data obtained from a Monte Carlo shell model. The corresponding correlation structure among the proton and neutron orbitals is determined in terms of two-orbital mutual information. Based on such correlation graphs we propose several further algorithmic improvement possibilities that can be utilized in a new generation of tensor network based algorithms.
Quasiparticle band structure for the Hubbard systems: Application to. alpha. -CeAl sub 2
Costa-Quintana, J.; Lopez-Aguilar, F. (Departamento de Fisica, Grupo de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain (ES)); Balle, S. (Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07071 Palma de Mallorca, Spain (ES)); Salvador, R. (Control Data Corporation, TALLAHASSEE, FL (USA) Supercomputer Computations Research Institute, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4052 (USA))
1990-04-01
A self-energy formalism for determining the quasiparticle band structure of the Hubbard systems is deduced. The self-energy is obtained from the dynamically screened Coulomb interaction whose bare value is the correlation energy {ital U}. A method for integrating the Schroedingerlike equation with the self-energy operator is given. The method is applied to the cubic Laves phase of {alpha}-CeAl{sub 2} because it is a clear Hubbard system with a very complex electronic structure and, moreover, this system provides us with sufficient experimental data for testing our method.
Influence of the sequence on the ab initio band structures of single and double stranded DNA models
Bogár, Ferenc, E-mail: bogar@sol.cc.u-szeged.hu [MTA-SZTE, Supramolecular and Nanostructured Materials Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Dóm tér 8, 6720 Szeged (Hungary); Chair for Theoretical Chemistry and Laboratory of the National Foundation for Cancer Research, Friedrich–Alexander-University Erlangen–Nürnberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Bende, Attila, E-mail: bende@itim-cj.ro [Molecular and Biomolecular Physics Department, National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Str. Donath 65-103, C.P. 700, Cluj Napoca RO-400293 (Romania); Chair for Theoretical Chemistry and Laboratory of the National Foundation for Cancer Research, Friedrich–Alexander-University Erlangen–Nürnberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Ladik, János, E-mail: Janos.Ladik@chemie.uni-erlangen.de [Chair for Theoretical Chemistry and Laboratory of the National Foundation for Cancer Research, Friedrich–Alexander-University Erlangen–Nürnberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)
2014-06-13
The solid state physical approach is widely used for the characterization of electronic properties of DNA. In the simplest case the helical symmetry is explicitly utilized with a repeat unit containing only a single nucleotide or nucleotide pair. This model provides a band structure that is easily interpretable and reflects the main characteristic features of the single nucleotide or a nucleotide pair chain, respectively. The chemical variability of the different DNA chains is, however, almost completely neglected in this way. In the present work we have investigated the effect of the different sequences on the band structure of periodic DNA models. For this purpose we have applied the Hartree–Fock crystal orbital method for single and double stranded DNA chains with two different subsequent nucleotides in the repeat unit of former and two different nucleotide pairs in the latter case, respectively. These results are compared to simple helical models with uniform sequences. The valence and conduction bands related to the stacked nucleotide bases of single stranded DNA built up only from guanidine as well as of double stranded DNA built up only from guanidine–cytidine pairs showed special properties different from the other cases. Namely, they had higher conduction and lower valence band positions and this way larger band gaps and smaller widths of these bands. With the introduction of non-uniform guanidine containing sequences band structures became more similar to each other and to the band structures of other sequences without guanidine. The maximal bandwidths of the non-uniform sequences are considerably smaller than in the case of uniform sequences implying smaller charge carrier mobilities both in the conduction and valence bands. - Highlights: • HF Energy bands in DNA. • The role of aperiodicity in the DNA band structure. • Hole mobilities in quasi-periodic DNA with broader valence bands.
Influence of the sequence on the ab initio band structures of single and double stranded DNA models
The solid state physical approach is widely used for the characterization of electronic properties of DNA. In the simplest case the helical symmetry is explicitly utilized with a repeat unit containing only a single nucleotide or nucleotide pair. This model provides a band structure that is easily interpretable and reflects the main characteristic features of the single nucleotide or a nucleotide pair chain, respectively. The chemical variability of the different DNA chains is, however, almost completely neglected in this way. In the present work we have investigated the effect of the different sequences on the band structure of periodic DNA models. For this purpose we have applied the Hartree–Fock crystal orbital method for single and double stranded DNA chains with two different subsequent nucleotides in the repeat unit of former and two different nucleotide pairs in the latter case, respectively. These results are compared to simple helical models with uniform sequences. The valence and conduction bands related to the stacked nucleotide bases of single stranded DNA built up only from guanidine as well as of double stranded DNA built up only from guanidine–cytidine pairs showed special properties different from the other cases. Namely, they had higher conduction and lower valence band positions and this way larger band gaps and smaller widths of these bands. With the introduction of non-uniform guanidine containing sequences band structures became more similar to each other and to the band structures of other sequences without guanidine. The maximal bandwidths of the non-uniform sequences are considerably smaller than in the case of uniform sequences implying smaller charge carrier mobilities both in the conduction and valence bands. - Highlights: • HF Energy bands in DNA. • The role of aperiodicity in the DNA band structure. • Hole mobilities in quasi-periodic DNA with broader valence bands
Stubrov, Yurii; Nikolenko, Andrii; Gubanov, Viktor; Strelchuk, Viktor
2016-01-01
Micro-Raman spectra of single-walled carbon nanotubes in the range of two-phonon 2D bands are investigated in detail. The fine structure of two-phonon 2D bands in the low-temperature Raman spectra of the mixture and individual single-walled carbon nanotubes is considered as the reflection of structure of their π-electron zones. The dispersion behavior of 2D band fine structure components in the resonant Raman spectra of single-walled carbon nanotube mixture is studied depending on the energy of excitating photons. The role of incoming and outgoing electron-phonon resonances in the formation of 2D band fine structure in Raman spectra of single-walled carbon nanotubes is analyzed. The similarity of dispersion behavior of 2D phonon bands in single-walled carbon nanotubes, one-layer graphene, and bulk graphite is discussed.
Stubrov, Yurii; Nikolenko, Andrii; Gubanov, Viktor; Strelchuk, Viktor
2016-12-01
Micro-Raman spectra of single-walled carbon nanotubes in the range of two-phonon 2D bands are investigated in detail. The fine structure of two-phonon 2D bands in the low-temperature Raman spectra of the mixture and individual single-walled carbon nanotubes is considered as the reflection of structure of their π-electron zones. The dispersion behavior of 2D band fine structure components in the resonant Raman spectra of single-walled carbon nanotube mixture is studied depending on the energy of excitating photons. The role of incoming and outgoing electron-phonon resonances in the formation of 2D band fine structure in Raman spectra of single-walled carbon nanotubes is analyzed. The similarity of dispersion behavior of 2D phonon bands in single-walled carbon nanotubes, one-layer graphene, and bulk graphite is discussed. PMID:26729220
Smith, Matthew W.; Dallmeyer, Ian; Johnson, Timothy J.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Espinal, Juan F.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel
2016-04-01
Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the characterization of many carbon 27 species. The complex heterogeneous nature of chars and activated carbons has confounded 28 complete analysis due to the additional shoulders observed on the D-band and high intensity 29 valley between the D and G-bands. In this paper the effects of various vacancy and substitution 30 defects have been systematically analyzed via molecular modeling using density functional 31 theory (DFT) and how this is manifested in the calculated gas-phase Raman spectra. The 32 accuracy of these calculations was validated by comparison with (solid-phase) experimental 33 spectra, with a small correction factor being applied to improve the accuracy of frequency 34 predictions. The spectroscopic effects on the char species are best understood in terms of a 35 reduced symmetry as compared to a “parent” coronene molecule. Based upon the simulation 36 results, the shoulder observed in chars near 1200 cm-1 has been assigned to the totally symmetric 37 A1g vibrations of various small polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as well as those containing 38 rings of seven or more carbons. Intensity between 1400 cm-1 and 1450 cm-1 is assigned to A1g 39 type vibrations present in small PAHs and especially those containing cyclopentane rings. 40 Finally, band intensity between 1500 cm-1 and 1550 cm-1 is ascribed to predominately E2g 41 vibrational modes in strained PAH systems. A total of ten potential bands have been assigned 42 between 1000 cm-1 and 1800 cm-1. These fitting parameters have been used to deconvolute a 43 thermoseries of cellulose chars produced by pyrolysis at 300-700 °C. The results of the 44 deconvolution show consistent growth of PAH clusters with temperature, development of non-45 benzyl rings as temperature increases and loss of oxygenated features between 400 °C and 46 600 °C
Electronic structures and band gaps of hydrogenated fullerenes have been investigated by means of density functional theory method. The mechanism of hydrogen addition reaction to the fullerene (C60) surface was also investigated. Addition of one and two hydrogen atoms was examined in the calculations. The binding energies of the second hydrogen atom to C60H were widely distributed in the range 1.5–3.6 eV. It was found that the bonding energy is strongly dependent on the spin density of carbon atom of C60H. The second hydrogen atom preferentially binds to the neighbor site of the first addition site. The electronic states and excitation energies of C60-H were discussed on the basis of theoretical results. - Highlights: • Hydrogen atom addition to C60 was investigated. • First hydrogen atom addition proceeded with very low activation barrier. • Second hydrogen addition was dependent on the binding site. • Addition site of second atom was correlated with spin density
Ueno, Nobuo; Fukushima, Toshiki; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Kiyono, Setsuo; Seki, Kazuhiko; Inokuchi, Hiroo
1980-04-01
Secondary electron emission (SEE) measurernent was used to investigate the conduction band structures of n-C28H58, n-C36H74, n-C44H90 and polyethylene, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectra of n-C28H58 and n-C36H74 were measured. Several structures, whose kinetic energy positions were independent of the energies of incident sources, were observed in the both spectra. It was found that SEE spectra of all compounds were almost similar with each other, and corresponded well with the photoelectron spectra. These structures are ascribed to the high density-of-states parts of the conduction band which do not depend on the chain length. The spectra were compared with the energy distribution curve of secondary electrons estimated by the use of XPS result for the valence band and theoretical result for the conduction band of isolated chain. The energy positions of the structures of the estimated curve agree fairly well with those of observed spectrum.
Franklin, S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Nehru, K.; Kim, Youngmee
2009-06-01
The crystal structure of the title rac-propranolol salt, CHNO2+·NO3-, consists of two protonated propranolol residues and nitrate anions. Three virtually flat fragments, characteristics of most of the β-adrenolytics with oxy-methylene bridge are present in both the cations (A and B). The plane of the propranolol chain is twisted with respect to the plane of the aromatic ring in both the cations. Present study investigates the conformation and hydrogen bonding interactions, which play an important role in biological functions. A gauche conformation is observed for the oxo-methylene bridge of cation A, while a trans conformation prevails in cation B. These conformations are found in majority of β-blockers. Presence of twenty intermolecular hydrogen bonds mediating through the anions stabilizes the crystal packing. Vibration analysis and earlier theoretical predictions complement the structure analysed. From the UV-Vis spectral analysis for the crystal, the optical band gap is found to be Eg = 5.12 eV, where as the chloride salt has Eg = 3.81 eV. The increase in the band gap may be attributed by the increase in the number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Good optical transmittance in the entire visible region and the direct band gap property suggest that it is a suitable candidate for optical applications in UV region.
BoltzTraP. A code for calculating band-structure dependent quantities
Madsen, Georg K. H.; Singh, David J.
2006-07-01
A program for calculating the semi-classic transport coefficients is described. It is based on a smoothed Fourier interpolation of the bands. From this analytical representation we calculate the derivatives necessary for the transport distributions. The method is compared to earlier calculations, which in principle should be exact within Boltzmann theory, and a very convincing agreement is found. Program summaryTitle of program:BoltzTraP Catalogue identifier:ADXU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXU_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:none Programming language used:Fortran 90 Computer:The program should work on any system with a F90 compiler. The code has been tested with the Intel Fortran compiler Operating system:Unix/Linux RAM:bytes up to 2 GB for low symmetry, small unit cell structures No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:1 534 213 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:27 473 227 Distribution format:tar.gz External routines:The LaPack and Blas libraries are needed Nature of problem:Analytic expansion of energy-bands. Calculation of semi-classic integrals. Solution method:Smoothed Fourier expansion of bands. Running time:Up to 3 hours for low symmetry, small unit cell structures.
Structural Reliability Using Probability Density Estimation Methods Within NESSUS
Chamis, Chrisos C. (Technical Monitor); Godines, Cody Ric
2003-01-01
A reliability analysis studies a mathematical model of a physical system taking into account uncertainties of design variables and common results are estimations of a response density, which also implies estimations of its parameters. Some common density parameters include the mean value, the standard deviation, and specific percentile(s) of the response, which are measures of central tendency, variation, and probability regions, respectively. Reliability analyses are important since the results can lead to different designs by calculating the probability of observing safe responses in each of the proposed designs. All of this is done at the expense of added computational time as compared to a single deterministic analysis which will result in one value of the response out of many that make up the density of the response. Sampling methods, such as monte carlo (MC) and latin hypercube sampling (LHS), can be used to perform reliability analyses and can compute nonlinear response density parameters even if the response is dependent on many random variables. Hence, both methods are very robust; however, they are computationally expensive to use in the estimation of the response density parameters. Both methods are 2 of 13 stochastic methods that are contained within the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress (NESSUS) program. NESSUS is a probabilistic finite element analysis (FEA) program that was developed through funding from NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). It has the additional capability of being linked to other analysis programs; therefore, probabilistic fluid dynamics, fracture mechanics, and heat transfer are only a few of what is possible with this software. The LHS method is the newest addition to the stochastic methods within NESSUS. Part of this work was to enhance NESSUS with the LHS method. The new LHS module is complete, has been successfully integrated with NESSUS, and been used to study four different test cases that have been proposed by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). The test cases compare different probabilistic methods within NESSUS because it is important that a user can have confidence that estimates of stochastic parameters of a response will be within an acceptable error limit. For each response, the mean, standard deviation, and 0.99 percentile, are repeatedly estimated which allows confidence statements to be made for each parameter estimated, and for each method. Thus, the ability of several stochastic methods to efficiently and accurately estimate density parameters is compared using four valid test cases. While all of the reliability methods used performed quite well, for the new LHS module within NESSUS it was found that it had a lower estimation error than MC when they were used to estimate the mean, standard deviation, and 0.99 percentile of the four different stochastic responses. Also, LHS required a smaller amount of calculations to obtain low error answers with a high amount of confidence than MC. It can therefore be stated that NESSUS is an important reliability tool that has a variety of sound probabilistic methods a user can employ and the newest LHS module is a valuable new enhancement of the program.
Pham, Anh-Tuan; Jin, Seonghoon; Choi, Woosung; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Cho, Seong-Ho; Kim, Young-Tae; Lee, Keun-Ho; Park, Youngkwan
2015-11-01
8 band k → · p → method is used to calculate subband structures of InGaAs inversion layers accounting for strong coupling between conduction and valence bands around Γ point as well as quantum confinement. Inversion layer mobility is computed employing Kubo-Greenwood formalism. Scatterings due to acoustic phonons, polar optical phonons, ionized impurities, interface fixed charges, surface roughness, and alloy disorder are included. The simulated low-field electron mobility results are in good agreement with experimental data with and without an InP capping layer.