In this work we study a new version of the fuzzy bag model (FBM). The main point of this work is the inclusion of energy-momentum-conservation in the model. This feature is lacking in the original formulation, but it is of paramount importance to turn the model into a real bag model. In our version of the FBM, the size of the bag will be determined by the equilibrium of the outward pressure of the quarks with the inward pressure of the vacuum, just like in the MIT bag model. As a side remark, we note that a first consequence of our model is that the bag 'constant' B will not be a constant even for the ground state - it will be a function of the radial variable r. (author)
A gravitating electroweak bag model
Burinskii, Alexander
2016-02-01
Gravitational and electromagnetic (EM) field of electron is described by the Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole solution with a topological defect. Regularization of this defect by the Higgs field leads to the smooth source which shares much in common with the known MIT- and SLAC- bag models, but has the advantage, of matching gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the electron. This model is flexible, and the rotating KN bag takes the shape of a thin disk with a circular string positioned on the sharp border of the disk. We consider the lowest excitations of the KN solution and the corresponding deformations of the bag surface, setting a preliminary correspondence with electroweak sector of the SM.
Bag model of quark confinement
The flavor and color models along with the bag confinement model for quarks are described together with a brief history of quark theory and experiment. The implications of these theories for the structure of the present elementary particles and hence that of all matter are given as well
Soliton models are well-suited for dynamical calculations, such as hadron-hadron interactions and collisions, since for each variable in the Lagrangian the time derivative of that variable also appears. For such models, constrained (deformed) mean field solutions provide a basis for generator coordinate dynamical calculations. This requires the solution of a large number of coupled, nonlinear, differential equations involving the quark and scalar fields. The Henyey-Wilets method reduces the problem to the solution of a set of coupled, linear, inhomogeneous, differential equations to be iterated. In the chromodielectric model, color confinement is effected by the self and mutual interactios of the quarks through the chromelectric field. This requires the self-consistent calculation of the gluon propagator in a spatially varying dielectric function. This now involves the solution of a set of coupled, nonlinear integro-differential equations, which can be linearized and solved by iterations. The problem is computation intensive. 20 refs
Nuclear Bag Model and Nuclear Magnetic Moments
Liu, Liang-Gang
1999-01-01
In 1991, we proposed a model in which nucleus is treated as a spherical symmetric MIT bag and nucleon satisfies the MIT bag model boundary condition. The model was employed to calculate nuclear magnetic moments. The results are in good agreement with experiment data. Now, we found this model is still interesting and illuminating.
Multiquark states in the bag model
The MIT bag model and the underlying concepts are extensively discussed. The phenomenological mass operator for multiquark states is dealt with. The trajectories for orbitally excited Qanti Q mesons are treated as an example. (Auth.)
Bag constant and deconfinement phase transition in the nontopological soliton bag model
The effective potential in finite temperature and density nontopological soliton bag model is investigated. Based on this, the authors calculate the bag constant which depends on temperature and chemical potential. The property of deconfinement phase transition is analysed
Zero-point energy in bag models
The zero-point (Casimir) energy of free vector (gluon) fields confined to a spherical cavity (bag) is computed. With a suitable renormalization the result for eight gluons is E = + 0.51/a. This result is substantially larger than that for a spherical shell (where both interior and exterior modes are present), and so affects Johnson's model of the QCD vacuum. It is also smaller than, and of opposite sign to, the value used in bag model phenomenology, so it will have important implications there. 1 figure
Cranking the chiral soliton bag model
Stern, J.; Bourenane, M.; Clement, G.
1988-10-01
The nucleon-delta mass difference is computed in the chiral soliton bag model with soft confinement of gluons by the cranking method. The resulting value of the effective strong fine structure constant is ..cap alpha../sub s/ approx. 0.7.
The Cheshire Cat principle for hybrid bag models
The Cheshire Cat point of view where the bag in the chiral bag model has no physical significance, but only a notational one is argued for. It is explained how a fermion - in, say, a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model - escapes the bag by means of an anomaly. The possibility to construct sophisticated hybrid bag models is suggested which use the lack of physical significance of the bag to fix the many parameters so as to anyway give hope of a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)
Structure functions in the chiral bag model
We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.)
Structure functions in the chiral bag model
Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.
1989-07-13
We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).
Chiral hybrid bag model with the boson field inside the bag
The three-phase version of the hybrid chiral bag model, containing the phase of asymptotic freedom, the hadronization phase as well as the intermediate phase of constituent quarks, is proposed. For this model the self-consistent solution, which takes into account the fermion vacuum polarization effects, is found in (1+1) D. Within this solution the total energy of the bag, including the one-loop contribution from the Dirac's sea, is studied as the function of the bag geometry under condition of nonvanishing boson condensate density in the interior region. The existence and uniqueness of the ground state bag configuration, which minimizes the total energy and contains all the three phases, are shown. (author)
Non-topological soliton bag model
The Friedberg-Lee soliton model, which effects confinement by a quantal scalar field, is discussed. The Lagrangian for the non-topological soliton model is the usual QCD Lagrangian supplemented by a non-linear scalar sigma field term. Static solutions to the field equations are considered in the mean field approximation. Small amplitude oscillations are discussed. Quantum alternatives to the mean field approximation are also considered. Methods of momentum projection and Lorentz boost are described, and the generator coordinate method is discussed. Calculations of the N-N interaction are reviewed briefly. Also discussed is one-gluon exchange, as well as the pion and dressing of the baryons. The hadron states are summarized. One loop quantum corrections are discussed briefly. Work in progress is mentioned in the areas of N-anti N annihilation, the many bag problem, and a Pauli equation for the nucleon. 31 refs
Non-topological soliton bag model
Wilets, L.
1986-01-01
The Friedberg-Lee soliton model, which effects confinement by a quantal scalar field, is discussed. The Lagrangian for the non-topological soliton model is the usual QCD Lagrangian supplemented by a non-linear scalar sigma field term. Static solutions to the field equations are considered in the mean field approximation. Small amplitude oscillations are discussed. Quantum alternatives to the mean field approximation are also considered. Methods of momentum projection and Lorentz boost are described, and the generator coordinate method is discussed. Calculations of the N-N interaction are reviewed briefly. Also discussed is one-gluon exchange, as well as the pion and dressing of the baryons. The hadron states are summarized. One loop quantum corrections are discussed briefly. Work in progress is mentioned in the areas of N-anti N annihilation, the many bag problem, and a Pauli equation for the nucleon. 31 refs. (LEW)
Structure functions in the bag model
In this paper we present calculations of nucleon structure functions in the three-dimensional MIT bag model. The nucleon wave functions are modified by the Peierls Yoccoz projection in order to give eigenstates of the total momentum operator. Pair creation by the probe is taken into account. Without this the quark distributions would not obey normalization requirements. The quark distributions have vanishing support for x>1. The effect of one-gluon exchange, yielding the N-Δ mass splitting, is incorporated. This has significant effects on the d/u ratio as well as the spin-dependent g1(x) of the neutron. Finally, the results are compared to data after allowing for perturbative QCD evolution
Partial bosonization: The formalism of Cheshire Cat bag models
By bosonizing fermionic theories on only a part of space-time, one obtains idealized bag models where the physics is independent of the bag radius. Such ''Cheshire Cat Models (CCM's)'' were introduced in an earlier paper, where it was suggested that realistic bag models are in fact approximate CCM's. The present paper further explores Abelian CCM's in 1+1 dimensions. First, the boundary action for CCM's is derived in the Lagrangian formalism by demanding invariance under parity and chiral rotations. Next, a quantum reinterpretation of the classical Lagrangian bag boundary conditions is used to obtain the bosonic representation of fermions as soliton operators. Last, these soliton operators are used to construct CCM's in the Hamiltonian framework. The Cheshire Cat criterion - independence of the energy spectrum on the bag radius - is presented as the commuting of the energy and momentum operators for the model. (orig.)
The Cheshire Cat principle applied to hybrid bag models
Here is argued for the Cheshire Cat point of view according to which the bag (itself) has only notational, but no physical significance. It is explained in a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model how a fermion can escape from the bag by means of an anomaly. We also suggest that suitably constructed hybrid bag models may be used to fix such parameters of effective Lagrangians that can otherwise be obtained from experiments only. This idea is illustrated in a calculation of the mass of the pseudoscalar η' meson in 1+1 dimension. Thus there is hope to find a construction principle for a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)
Fermion Bag Approach for Massive Thirring Model at Finite Density
Li, Daming
2016-01-01
We consider the 2+1 dimensional massive Thirring model with one flavor at finite density. Two numerical methods, fermion bag approach and complex Langevin dynamics, are used to calculate the chiral condensate and fermion density of this model. The numerical results obtained by fermion bag approach are compared with those obtained by complex Langevin dynamics. They are also compared with those obtained under phase quenched approximation. We show that in some range of fermion coupling strength and chemical potential the sign problem in fermion bag approach is mild, while it becomes severe for the complex Langevin dynamics.
Three-phase model of a chiral quark bag
Three-phase modification of the model of hybrid chiral quark bag is suggested. Along with the phase of asymptotically free current quarks and completely achromatic meson phase the model contains an intermediate phase including massive quark components. Self-consistent solution of model equations with account of contribution from the Dirac sea is found for (1+1)-dimensional case. The dependence of bag characteristics on theory parameters is investigated in analytical and numerical forms
Bag-model quantum chromodynamics for hyperons at low energy
In a non-perturbative bag model framework, gluon exchange which mediates quark exchange scattering in conjunction with quark interchange is shown to be the basis of the OBE interactions of hyperons at low energy. (orig.)
Bag-model quantum chromodynamics for hyperons at low energy
Weber, H. J.; Maslow, J. N.
1980-09-01
In a non-perturbative bag model framework, gluon exchange which mediates quark exchange scattering in conjunction with quark interchange is shown to be the basis of the OBE interactions of hyperons at low energy.
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum in the MIT Bag Model
Burkardt, Matthias; Jarrah, Abdullah
2010-01-01
Using the MIT bag model, we study the contribution from the gluon vector potential due to the spectators to the orbital angular momentum of a quark in the bag model. For $\\alpha_s = {\\cal O}(1)$, this spectator contribution to the quark orbital angular momentum in the gauge-covariant Ji decomposition is of the same order as the non gauge-covariant quark orbital angular momentum and its magnitude is larger for $d$ than for $u$ quarks and negative for both.
Properties of hybrid stars in an extended MIT bag model
BAO Tmurbagan; LIU Guang-Zhou; ZHU Ming-Feng
2009-01-01
The properties of hybrid stars are investigated in the framework of the relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) and an MIT bag model with density-dependent bag constant to describe the hadron phase (HP) and quark phase (QP), respectively. We find that the density-dependent B(p) decreases with baryon density p; this decrement makes the strange quark matter become more energetically favorable than ever, which makes the threshold densities of the hadron-quark phase transition lower than those of the original bag constant case. In this case, the hyperon degrees of freedom can not be considered. As a result, the equations of state of a star in the mixed phase (MP) become softer whereas those in the QP become stiffer, and the radii of the star obviously decrease. This indicates that the extended MIT bag model is more suitable to describe hybrid stars with small radii.
Transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model
Avakian, Harut A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Efremov, A. V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Schweitzer, P. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Yuan, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). RIKEN Research Center; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2010-04-01
Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.
The transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model
Avakian, Harut; Efremov, Anatoly; Schweitzer, Peter; Yuan, Feng
2010-01-29
Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.
NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange
Bakker, B. L. G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J. N.; Weber, H. J.
1982-03-01
A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nuclon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of ~350 MeV. NUCLEAR REACTIONS NN elastic scattering, Elab<=350 MeV. Coupling constants, form factors of renormalized OBE calculated from bag-model quark interchange. Phase shifts, deuteron parameters calculated from covariant partial-wave analysis.
OBE approximation of NN scattering in bag-model QCD
Bakker, B. L. G.; Maslow, J. N.; Weber, H. J.
1981-09-01
A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one-boson and two-pion exchange amplitude from bag-model quantum chromodynamics. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with data up to laboratory energies of ≈350 MeV.
The nucleon axial form factor in some bag models
We compute gsub(A)(qsup(2)) for various bag models, including effects of an additional central force and recoil. For a confinement radius R approximately 0.85 fm predictions reproduce the data up to q < 0.5 fm, but fall faster than the observed dipole behaviour beyond
Exclusive semileptonic B decays in the bag model
Using a recoil corrected version of the MIT bag model, the author has computed the relevant form factors and decay rates for the exclusive semileptonic decays B→De anti ν e and B→D*e anti ν e. The results are similar to other quark model calculations, but it is shown that the D* mode is suppressed due to the influence of the spectator quark. The D*'s produced are almost unpolarized in this model
Search for Flavoured Multiquarks in a Simple Bag Model
Zouzou, S
1993-01-01
We use a bag model to study flavoured mesonic $(Qq\\bar q\\bar q)$ and baryonic $({\\overline Q}qqqq)$ states, where one heavy quark $Q$ is associated with light quarks or antiquarks, and search for possible stable multiquarks. No bound state is found. However some states lie not too high above their dissociation threshold, suggesting the possibility of resonances, or perhaps bound states in improved models.
Qanti-QG hermaphrodite mesons in the MIT bag model
It is suggested that hermaphrodite (qanti-qg) mesons could exist with rather light masses. The spectrum of the ground state nonets, Jsup(PC) = (0, 1, 2)-+; 1-- is calculated in the MIT bag model including 0(αsub(s)) energy shifts. Hadronic transitions among these states are discussed, considering their possible production at LEAR and SPEAR and indicating some interesting decay signatures. (author)
Obe approximation of NN scattering in bag-model QCD
A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one-boson and two-pion exchange amplitude from bag-model quantum chromodynamics. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with data up to laboratory energies of approx. equal to 350 MeV. (orig.)
NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange
Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.
1982-03-01
A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.
NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange
A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV
P-matrix residues in the bag model
The Jaffe-Low prescription for extracting P-matrix residues from the bag model is discussed and an attempt is made to derive a better result. It is found that the Jaffe-Low result can be justifiably increased by a factor of 4/3, bringing it into better agreement with experiment. There remain large uncertainties surrounding the nature of corrections for quark and channel masses
Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model
We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.)
Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model
Sanjose, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Didactica de las Ciencias Experimentales); Vento, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular)
1989-10-02
We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.).
The cloudy bag model CBM in the nucleon matter at a finite temperature
For the description of the nucleon in nuclear matter at a nonzero temperature T≠ 0, the cloudy bag model is developed which includes the thermodynamical fluctuations of pion field interacting with quarks on the bag surface. The nucleon-bag modifications with increasing the nuclear matter temperature are investigated. It turned out that the nucleon-bag existence in the nuclear matter at temperature T>Tc becomes impossible because of the pion field thermodynamical fluctuation, growth due to the increasing temperature. At such conditions the nuclear matter cannot consist of the nucleaons only, and the appearance of other, nonnucleon phase, should be expected. 13 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab
Vertex decoupling and quark deconfinement in soliton bag model at finite temperature
By means of the Matsubara Green's function method, the temperature dependence of coupling constant gqqδ in soliton bag mode is investigated. It is found gqqδ will decrease as temperature increases in high temperature region and will approach zero at critical temperature Tc. The quark deconfinement phase transition in soliton bag model is discussed
Stability of the lepton bag model based on the Kerr–Newman solution
Burinskii, A., E-mail: bur@ibrae.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nuclear Safety Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-11-15
We show that the lepton bag model considered in our previous paper [10], generating the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the Kerr–Newman (KN) solution, is supersymmetric and represents a BPS-saturated soliton interpolating between the internal vacuum state and the external KN solution. We obtain Bogomolnyi equations for this phase transition and show that the Bogomolnyi bound determines all important features of this bag model, including its stable shape. In particular, for the stationary KN solution, the BPS bound provides stability of the ellipsoidal form of the bag and the formation of the ring–string structure at its border, while for the periodic electromagnetic excitations of the KN solution, the BPS bound controls the deformation of the surface of the bag, reproducing the known flexibility of bag models.
Topological and non-topological solutions in the 3-phase model of hybrid chiral bag
Sveshnikov, K; Khalili, M; Fedorov, S M; Malakhov, Il.
2002-01-01
The 3-phase version of the hybrid chiral bag model, containing the phase of asymptotic freedom, the hadronization phase as well as the intermediate phase of constituent quarks, is proposed. For this model the self-consistent solutions, which take into account the fermion vacuum polarization effects, are found in 1+1 D. The renormalized total energy of the bag is studied as a function of its geometry and topological (baryon) number. It is shown that in the case of non-zero topological charge there exists a set of configurations being the local minima of the total energy of the bag and containing all the three phases, while in the non-topological case the minimum of the total energy of the bag corresponds to vanishing size of the phase of asymptotic freedom.
Topological and nontopological solutions for the chiral bag model with constituent quarks
The three-phase version of the hybrid chiral bag model, containing the phase of asymptotic freedom, the hadronization phase as well as the intermediate phase of constituent quarks is proposed. For this model the self-consistent solutions of different topology are found in (1 + 1)D with due regard for fermion vacuum polarization effects. The renormalized total energy of the bag is studied as a function of its geometry and topological charge. It is shown that in the case of nonzero topological charge there exists a set of configurations being the local minima of the total energy of the bag and containing all the three phases, while in the nontopological case the minimum of the total energy of the bag corresponds to vanishing size of the phase of asymptotic freedom
The MIT bag model Hamiltonian as an effective Hamiltonian of quantum chromodynamics
A possibility of derivation of the MIT bag model Hamiltonian from QCD is discussed. The bags are interpreted as wave packets of hadrons localized in the region x ≤ R where R is the bag radius. In the Fock space of gluodynamics a subspace P of the localized states is constructed and it is shown that projection of the Yang-Mills Hamiltonian into P has a representation in the Fock space PV of a Hamiltonian HV that depends on gluon fields defined inside a spherical cavity of radius R. The gluon fields obey boundary conditions. The one-to-one correspondence of vectors P and PV conserves Hermitian product, matrix elements of the Yang-Mills Hamiltonian between the states P are equal to the matrix elements of HV between the corresponding states of PV. Explicit form of the Hamiltonian HV is found. The MIT bag model Hamiltonian approximates in rough features the Hamiltonian HV
Hybrid Modeling of Flotation Height in Air Flotation Oven Based on Selective Bagging Ensemble Method
Shuai Hou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The accurate prediction of the flotation height is very necessary for the precise control of the air flotation oven process, therefore, avoiding the scratch and improving production quality. In this paper, a hybrid flotation height prediction model is developed. Firstly, a simplified mechanism model is introduced for capturing the main dynamic behavior of the process. Thereafter, for compensation of the modeling errors existing between actual system and mechanism model, an error compensation model which is established based on the proposed selective bagging ensemble method is proposed for boosting prediction accuracy. In the framework of the selective bagging ensemble method, negative correlation learning and genetic algorithm are imposed on bagging ensemble method for promoting cooperation property between based learners. As a result, a subset of base learners can be selected from the original bagging ensemble for composing a selective bagging ensemble which can outperform the original one in prediction accuracy with a compact ensemble size. Simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid model has a better prediction performance in flotation height than other algorithms’ performance.
Multi-water-bag models of ion temperature gradient instability in cylindrical geometry
Ion temperature gradient instabilities play a major role in the understanding of anomalous transport in core fusion plasmas. In the considered cylindrical geometry, ion dynamics is described using a drift-kinetic multi-water-bag model for the parallel velocity dependency of the ion distribution function. In a first stage, global linear stability analysis is performed. From the obtained normal modes, parametric dependencies of the main spectral characteristics of the instability are then examined. Comparison of the multi-water-bag results with a reference continuous Maxwellian case allows us to evaluate the effects of discrete parallel velocity sampling induced by the Multi-Water-Bag model. Differences between the global model and local models considered in previous works are discussed. Using results from linear, quasilinear, and nonlinear numerical simulations, an analysis of the first stage saturation dynamics of the instability is proposed, where the divergence between the three models is examined
Bayer, Natascha; Rank, Elisabet; Traxler, Lukas; Beckert, Erik; Drauschke, Andreas
2015-03-01
Cataract still remains the leading cause of blindness affecting 20 million people worldwide. To restore the patients vision the natural lens is removed and replaced by an intraocular lens (IOL). In modern cataract surgery the posterior capsular bag is maintained to prevent inflammation and to enable stabilization of the implant. Refractive changes following cataract surgery are attributable to lens misalignments occurring due to postoperative shifts and tilts of the artificial lens. Mechanical eye models allow a preoperative investigation of the impact of such misalignments and are crucial to improve the quality of the patients' sense of sight. Furthermore, the success of sophisticated IOLs that correct high order aberrations is depending on a critical evaluation of the lens position. A new type of an IOL holder is designed and implemented into a preexisting mechanical eye model. A physiological representation of the capsular bag is realized with an integrated film element to guarantee lens stabilization and centering. The positioning sensitivity of the IOL is evaluated by performing shifts and tilts in reference to the optical axis. The modulation transfer function is used to measure the optical quality at each position. Lens stability tests within the holder itself are performed by determining the modulation transfer function before and after measurement sequence. Mechanical stability and reproducible measurement results are guaranteed with the novel capsular bag model that allows a precise interpretation of postoperative lens misalignments. The integrated film element offers additional stabilization during measurement routine without damaging the haptics or deteriorating the optical performance.
Parity violating NN forcES in the quark compound bag model
Parity violation (PV) in the interaction is considered as due to the Weinberg-Salam quark-quark interaction inside the six-quark bag. The initial and final strong interaction is described within the same quark compound bag (QCB) model, where the NN coupling to the six quark QCB is defined from the NN experimental data. The resulting PV amplitude contains no free parameters and allows therefore an unambiguous test of the QCB model. An estimate of the 1S0 → 3P0 contribution to the proton-proton asymmetry is in a rough agreement with experimental data
Contribution of Instanton Induced Interaction for Penta-quarks in MIT Bag Model
Shinozaki, T; Takeuchi, S; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Oka, Makoto; Takeuchi, Sachiko
2004-01-01
Roles of instanton induced interactions (III) in the masses of pentaquark baryons, Theta^+ (J=1/2 and 3/2) and Xi^{--}, and a dibaryon, H, are discussed using the MIT bag model. It is shown that the two-body terms in III give a strong attraction mainly due to the increase of the number of pairs in multi-quark systems. In contrast, the three-body $u$-$d$-$s$ interaction is repulsive. It is found that III lowers the mass of negative-parity Theta^+ as much as 100 MeV from the mass predicted by the bag model without III.
The periodic table of static fermion bags in the Gross-Neveu Model
Feinberg, Joshua
2002-01-01
We study the spectrum of stable static fermion bags in the 1+1 dimensional Gross-Neveu model with $N$ flavors of Dirac fermions, in the large $N$ limit. In the process, we discover a new kink, heavier than the Callan-Coleman-Gross-Zee (CCGZ) kink, which is marginally stable (at least in the large $N$ limit). The connection of this new kink and the conjectured $S$ matrix of the Gross-Neveu model is obscured at this point. After identifying all stable static fermion bags, we arrange them into a...
Modeling multiple visual words assignment for bag-of-features based medical image retrieval
Wang, Jingyan
2012-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval methods, which represent an image as a collection of local features, such as image patch and key points with SIFT descriptor. To improve the bag-of-features method, we first model the assignment of local descriptor as contribution functions, and then propose a new multiple assignment strategy. By assuming the local feature can be reconstructed by its neighboring visual words in vocabulary, we solve the reconstruction weights as a QP problem and then use the solved weights as contribution functions, which results in a new assignment method called the QP assignment. We carry our experiments on ImageCLEFmed datasets. Experiments\\' results show that our proposed method exceeds the performances of traditional solutions and works well for the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval tasks.
Non-Abelian Cheshire Cat bag models in 1+1 dimensions
Non-Abelian Cheshire Cat models are investigated in their Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations. The Lagrangian bag boundary conditions are used to derive the form of non-Abelian soliton operators, through which fermions are represented in bosonic language. These soliton operators are then used to construct the boundary interaction in the Hamiltonian picture, wherein the bosonic sector is formulated by means of a current algebra involving anomalous commutators. The Hamiltonian and the momentum operator are shown to commute, thus implying that the Cheshire Cat criterion - the independence of the energy spectrum on the bag wall position - is fulfilled by the system. (orig.)
Bag-model matrix elements of the parity-violating weak hamiltonian for charmed baryons
Baryon matrix elements of the parity-violating part of the charmchanging weak Hamiltonian might be significant and comparable with those of the parity-conserving one due to large symmetry breaking. Expression for these new matrix elements by using the MIT-bag model are derived and their implications on earlier calculations of nonleptonic charmed-baryon decays are estimated
Hadron-quark phase coexistence in a hybrid MIT-Bag model
The phase transition of hadronic to quark matter and the boundaries of the hadron-quark coexistence phase are studied within the two Equation of State (EoS) models. The relativistic effective mean-field approach with constant and density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings is used to describe hadronic matter, and the MIT-Bag model is adopted to describe quark matter. The boundaries of the mixed phase for different Bag constants are obtained solving the Gibbs equations. We notice that the dependence on the Bag parameter of the critical temperatures (at zero chemical potential) can be well reproduced by a fermion ultrarelativistic quark gas model, without contribution from the hadron part. At variance, the critical chemical potentials (at zero temperature) are very sensitive to the EoS of the hadron sector. Hence, the contribution of the hadronic interaction is much more relevant for the determination of the transition to the quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density and low T. Moreover, in the low-temperature and finite chemical potential region no solutions of the Gibbs conditions are existing for small Bag-constant values, B 4. Isospin effects in asymmetric matter appear important in the high chemical-potential regions at lower temperatures, of interest for the inner-core properties of neutron stars and for heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. (orig.)
Deconfinement transition in protoneutron star cores: Analysis within the MIT Bag model
Carmo, Taiza A S do
2013-01-01
We analyze the effect of color superconductivity in the transition from hot hadron matter to quark matter in the presence of a gas of trapped electron neutrinos. We adopt a two-phase picture in which the hadronic phase is described trough a nonlinear Walecka model and just deconfined matter through the MIT bag model including color superconductivity. We compare the present results with those obtained within the NJL model.
Quark compound bag (QCB) model and nucleon-nucleon interaction
Quark degrees of freedom are treated in the NN system in the framework of the QCB model. The resulting QCB potential is in agreement with experimental data. P-matrix analysis inherent to the QCB model is discussed in detail. Applications of the QCB model are given including the weak NN interaction
Singular solutions of Yang-Mills equations and bag model
Lunev, F. A.; Pavlovsky, O. V.
1996-01-01
A model of quark confinement based on a singular solution of classical YM equation is proposed. Within the framework of this model we have calculated hadron masses that correspond to ground state configurations of quarks. Our results are in agreement with the experiment data with accuracy 3-7 percents for all hadronic masses except those of light pseudoscalar mesons.
Singular solutions of Yang-Mills equations and bag model
Lunev, F A
1996-01-01
A model of quark confinement based on a singular solution of classical YM equation is proposed. Within the framework of this model we have calculated hadron masses that correspond to ground state configurations of a quark. Our results are in agreement with the experiment data with accuracy 3-7 percents for all hadronic masses except those of light pseudoscalar mesons.
On the bag models based on the singular solution of Yang-Mills equations
The report is devoted to the problem of constructing the model of quark bag on the basis of singular solutions of the classical Yang-Mills (YM) equations. The basic assumption is that quarks in the zero approximation move in a certain effective YM potential that is a solution to classical YM equations with singularity on the sphere. The obtained result is in agreement with experimental data with accuracy 3-7% for all hadron masses except those of light pseudoscalar mesons
Li, Daming
2016-01-01
We consider the massive Thirring model at finite density in 0+1 dimension. The fermion bag approach, Langevin dynamics and complex Langevin dynamics are adopted to attack the sign problem for this model. Compared with the complex Langevin dynamics, both fermion bag approach and Langvin dynamics avoid the sign problem. The fermion density and chiral condensate, which are obtained by these numerical methods, are compared with the exact results. The advantages of the fermion bag approach over the other numerical methods are also discussed.
In the Cloudy Bag Model hadrons are treated as quarks confined in an M.I.T. bag that is surrounded by a cloud of pions. Computations of the charge and magnetism distributions of nucleons and baryons, pion-nucleon scattering, and the strong and electromagnetic decays of mesons are discussed. Agreement with experimental results is excellent if the nucleon bag radius is in the range between 0.8 and 1.1 fm. Underlying qualitative reasons which cause the pionic corrections to be of the obtained sizes are analyzed. If bags are of such reasonably large sizes, nucleon bags in nuclei will often come into contact. As a result one needs to consider whether explicit quark degrees of freedom are relevant for Nuclear Physics. To study such possibilities a model which treats a nucleus as a collection of baryons, pions and six-quark bags is discussed. In particular, the short distance part of a nucleon-nucleon wave function is treated as six quarks confined in a bag. This approach is used to study the proton-proton weak interaction, the asymptotic D to S state ratio of the deuteron, the pp → dπ reaction, the charge density of /sup 3/He, magnetic moments of /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H and, the /sup 3/He-/sup 3/H binding energy difference. It is found that quark effects are very relevant for understanding nuclear properties
Recoil corrected bag model calculations for semileptonic weak decays
Recoil corrections to various model results for strangeness changing weak decay amplitudes have been developed. It is shown that the spurious reference frame dependence of earlier calculations is reduced. The second class currents are generally less important than obtained by calculations in the static approximation. Theoretical results are compared to observations. The agreement is quite good, although the values for the Cabibbo angle obtained by fits to the decay rates are somewhat to large
Hamiltonian fluid closures of the Vlasov-Amp{\\`e}re equations: from water-bags to N moment models
Perin, M; Morrison, P J; Tassi, E
2015-01-01
Moment closures of the Vlasov-Amp{\\`e}re system, whereby higher moments are represented as functions of lower moments with the constraint that the resulting fluid system remains Hamiltonian, are investigated by using water-bag theory. The link between the water-bag formalism and fluid models that involve density, fluid velocity, pressure and higher moments is established by introducing suitable thermodynamic variables. The cases of one, two and three water-bags are treated and their Hamiltonian structures are provided. In each case, we give the associated fluid closures and we discuss their Casimir invariants. We show how the method can be extended to an arbitrary number of fields, i.e., an arbitrary number of water-bags and associated moments. The thermodynamic interpretation of the resulting models is discussed. Finally, a general procedure to derive Hamiltonian N-field fluid models is proposed.
Hamiltonian fluid closures of the Vlasov-Ampère equations: From water-bags to N moment models
Moment closures of the Vlasov-Ampère system, whereby higher moments are represented as functions of lower moments with the constraint that the resulting fluid system remains Hamiltonian, are investigated by using water-bag theory. The link between the water-bag formalism and fluid models that involve density, fluid velocity, pressure and higher moments is established by introducing suitable thermodynamic variables. The cases of one, two, and three water-bags are treated and their Hamiltonian structures are provided. In each case, we give the associated fluid closures and we discuss their Casimir invariants. We show how the method can be extended to an arbitrary number of fields, i.e., an arbitrary number of water-bags and associated moments. The thermodynamic interpretation of the resulting models is discussed. Finally, a general procedure to derive Hamiltonian N-field fluid models is proposed
Bag model of hadrons, dual QCD thermodynamics and Quark-Gluon Plasma
Chandola, H C; Dehnen, H
2015-01-01
Using the grand canonical ensemble formulation of a multi-particle statistical system, the thermodynamical description of the dual QCD has been presented in terms of the bag model of hadrons and analyzed for the quark-gluon plasma phase of hadronic matter. The dual QCD bag construction has been shown to lead to the radial pressure on the bag surface in terms of the vector glueball masses of the magnetically condensed QCD vacuum. Constructing the grand canonical partition function to deal with the quark-gluon plasma phase of the non-strange hadrons, the energy density and the plasma pressure have been derived and used to understand the dynamics of the associated phase transition. The critical temperature for QGP-hadron phase transition has been derived and numerically estimated by using various thermodynamic considerations. A comparison of the values of the critical temperatures for QGP-hadron phase transition with those obtained for the deconfinement-phase transition, has been shown to lead to the relaxation ...
Ožbolt, Damjana
2013-01-01
A school bag is one piece of necessary supplies for a pupil in these days. However, back in the days, all they needed in a class was a piece of chalk and a small board. A school bag is becoming a fashion accessory. Pupils' wishes are bigger every year: they want a new bag, with a different pattern, different colour or even a different shape. But not all the parents can afford buying a new school bag every year. In this case, charity is a good option. According to advanced technology, we can...
Phase transition and density of states in the quantum-chromodynamic bag model
In the context of a two-phase model of hadronic matter suggested by Hagedorn and Rafelski, an analysis of a quark-gluon plasma described by perturbative quantum chromodynamics supplemented by a bag constant to account for nonperturbative effects is presented. A running coupling constant is explicitly implemented. The critical temperature and energy density are determined and the conditions under which T/sub c/< B/sup 1/4/ are discussed. Next, the asymptotic density of hadronic states is derived by Laplace-inverting the partition function and the same form as in the statistical bootstrap model is obtained
Nucleon-nucleon interaction in the quark-compound-bag model
The NN potential is investigated in the framework of the quark-compound-bag model. The cluster decomposition of the total six-quark wave function are obtained. The resulting potential is nonlocal and energy dependent with coefficients which can be derived both phenomenologically and theoretically. Stringent conditions exist for those coefficients. As an example the NN potentials for the 3S1 and 1S0 states are presented. The properties of the wave functions are studied both in the configurational and momentum space
The trajectories of eigenvalues of the energy dependent potentials are discussed for the case of NN interaction in the quark compound bag (QCB) model. It is shown that the asymptotic behaviour of eigenvalues for the linearly energy dependent potentials is defined by the coefficient at the linear energy term in the potential. In the QCB model this coefficient depends on the nucleon component admixture in the bag wave function. The results of eigenvalue analysis are illUstrated with the simple example of the QCB potential describing phase shifts up to T<=0.8 GeV
Evaluation of the spectra of baryons containing two heavy quarks in a bag model
In this work, we evaluate the mass spectra of baryons which consist of two heavy quarks and one light quark in the MIT bag model. The two heavy quarks constitute a heavy scalar or axial-vector diquark. Concretely, we calculate the spectra of vertical bar q(QQ')>1/2 and vertical bar q(QQ')>3/2 where Q and Q' stand for b and/or c quarks. Especially, for vertical bar q(bc)>1/2 there can be a mixing between vertical bar q(bc)0>1/2 and vertical bar q(bc)1>1/2 where the subscripts 0 and 1 refer to the spin state of the diquark (bc), the mixing is not calculable in the framework of quantum mechanics as the potential model is employed, but can be evaluated by the quantum field theory. Our numerical results indicate that the mixing is sizable
The MIT bag was one of the earliest and most successful models of QCD, imposing confinement and including perturbative gluon interactions. An evolution of the MIT bag came with the introduction of the chiral and cloudy bags, which treat pions as elementary particles. As a model of QCD, the soliton model proposed by Friedberg and Lee is particularly attractive. It is based on a covariant field theory and is sufficiently general so that, for certain limiting cases of the adjustable parameters, it can describe either the MIT or SLAC (string) bags. The confinement mechanism appears as a dynamic field. This allows non-static processes, such as bag oscillations and bag collisions, to be calculated utilizing the well-developed techniques of nuclear many-body theory. The utilization of the model for calculating dynamical processes is discussed. 14 references
The bag-of-frames approach: A not so sufficient model for urban soundscapes.
Lagrange, Mathieu; Lafay, Grégoire; Défréville, Boris; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien
2015-11-01
The "bag-of-frames" (BOF) approach, which encodes audio signals as the long-term statistical distribution of short-term spectral features, is commonly regarded as an effective and sufficient way to represent environmental sound recordings (soundscapes). The present paper describes a conceptual replication of a use of the BOF approach in a seminal article using several other soundscape datasets, with results strongly questioning the adequacy of the BOF approach for the task. As demonstrated in this paper, the good accuracy originally reported with BOF likely resulted from a particularly permissive dataset with low within-class variability. Soundscape modeling, therefore, may not be the closed case it was once thought to be. PMID:26627819
Diakonos, F K; Maintas, X N; 10.1103/PhysRevD.78.054023
2010-01-01
We consider the prompt photon production in pp collisions using, within the framework of perturbative QCD, a non-Gaussian distribution for the transverse momentum distribution of the partons inside the proton. Our description adopts the widely used in the literature factorization of the partonic momentum distribution into longitudinal and transverse components. It is argued that the non-Gaussian distribution of the intrinsic transverse momenta of the partons is dictated by the asymptotic freedom as well as the 3D confinement of the partons in the proton. To make this association more transparent we use the MIT bag model, which plainly incorporates both properties (asymptotic freedom, confinement), in order to determine in a simplified way the partonic transverse momentum distribution. A large set of data from six different experiments have been fitted with this simple description using as a single free parameter the mean partonic transverse momentum . Surprisingly enough, a perfect fit of the experimental dat...
Bagging Constrained Equity Premium Predictors
Tae-Hwy Lee; Eric Hillebrand; Marcelo Medeiros
2013-01-01
The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity of the regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimators can have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. ...
Bagging constrained equity premium predictors
Hillebrand, Eric; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo
2014-01-01
regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimators can have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. Monte Carlo simulations show that forecast gains can be achieved in realistic sample sizes for the stock...
We consider the prompt photon production in pp collisions using, within the framework of perturbative QCD, a non-Gaussian distribution for the transverse momentum distribution of the partons inside the proton. Our description adopts the widely used in the literature factorization of the partonic momentum distribution into longitudinal and transverse components. It is argued that the non-Gaussian distribution of the intrinsic transverse momenta of the partons is dictated by the asymptotic freedom as well as the 3D confinement of the partons in the proton. To make this association more transparent we use the MIT bag model, which plainly incorporates both properties (asymptotic freedom, confinement), in order to determine in a simplified way the partonic transverse momentum distribution. A large set of data from six different experiments have been fitted with this simple description using as a single free parameter the mean partonic transverse momentum T>. Surprisingly enough, a perfect fit of the experimental data turns out to require T> values which are compatible with Heisenberg's uncertainty relation for the proton and decrease almost smoothly as a function of the scaled variable z=(pT/√(s)), where pT is the transverse momentum of the final photon and √(s) is the beam energy in the center of mass frame. Our analysis indicates that asymptotic freedom and 3D confinement may influence significantly the form of the partonic transverse momentum distribution leaving an imprint on the pp→γ+X cross section.
Forgács, Péter
2016-01-01
A detailed study of vortices is presented in Ginzburg-Landau (or Abelian Higgs) models with two complex scalars (order parameters) assuming a general U(1)$\\times$U(1) symmetric potential. Particular emphasis is given to the case, when only one of the scalars obtains a vacuum expectation value (VEV). It is found that for a significantly large domain in parameter space vortices with a scalar field condensate in their core (condensate core, CC) coexist with Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) vortices. Importantly CC vortices are stable and have lower energy than the ANO ones. Magnetic bags or giant vortices of the order of 1000 flux quanta are favoured to form for the range of parameters ("strong couplings") appearing for the superconducting state of liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH). Furthermore, it is argued that finite energy/unit length 1VEV vortices are smoothly connected to fractional flux 2VEV ones. Stable, finite energy CC-type vortices are also exhibited in the case when one of the scalar fields is neutral.
Research on three-dimensional positioning method of big data image under bag of words model guidance
Zhang, Chunsen; Wang, Xiqi; Qiu, Zhenguo; Zhu, Shihuan; Xu, Xiaolei; Zhong, Sidong
2015-12-01
In order to retrieve the positioning image efficiently and quickly from a large number of different images to realize the three-dimensional spatial positioning, in this article, based on photogrammetry and computer vision theory, a new method of three-dimensional positioning of big data image under the bag of words model guidance is proposed. The method consists of two parts: image retrieving and spatial positioning. First, complete image retrieval by feature extraction, K-means clustering, bag of words model building and other processes, thus improve the efficiency of image matching. Second, achieve interior and exterior orientation element through image matching, building projection relationship and calculating the projection matrix, and then the spatial orientation is realized. The experimental result showed that the proposed method can retrieve the target image efficiently and achieve spatial orientation accurately, which made a beneficial exploration for achieving space positioning based on big data images.
The bag-of-frames approach: a not so sufficient model for urban soundscapes
LAGRANGE, Mathieu; Lafay, Grégoire; Defreville, Boris; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien
2015-01-01
The "bag-of-frames" approach (BOF), which encodes audio signals as the long-term statistical distribution of short-term spectral features, is commonly regarded as an effective and sufficient way to represent environmental sound recordings (soundscapes) since its introduction in an influential 2007 article. The present paper describes a concep-tual replication of this seminal article using several new soundscape datasets, with results strongly questioning the adequacy of the BOF approach for t...
Merging linear discriminant analysis with Bag of Words model for human action recognition
Iosifidis, Alexandros; Tefas, Anastasios; Pitas, Ioannis
2016-01-01
In this paper we propose a novel method for human action recognition, that unifies discriminative Bag of Words (BoW)-based video representation and discriminant subspace learning. An iterative optimization scheme is proposed for sequential discriminant BoWs-based action representation and codebook adaptation based on action discrimination in a reduced dimensionality feature space where action classes are better discriminated. Experiments on four publicly available action recognition data sets...
The Dirac equation in Kerr spacetime, spheroidal coordinates and the M.I.T. bag model of hadrons
The Dirac equation in Kerr spacetime is separated using the rotating tetrad formalism. This allows solutions of the Dirac equation, in flat spacetime, written in oblate and prolate spheroidal coordinates to be extracted. The usual M.I.T. bag boundary condition, is then found to be incompatible with a nonvanishing separated wave function except in the spherical limit. However, it is shown that an alternative boundary condition can arise naturally in scalar-pseudoscalar potential models, that is physically motivated and allows for a non-trivial solution. 16 refs
Bag-of-visual-words model for artificial pornographic images recognition
李芳芳; 罗四伟; 刘熙尧; 邹北骥
2016-01-01
It is illegal to spread and transmit pornographic images over internet, either in real or in artificial format. The traditional methods are designed to identify real pornographic images and they are less efficient in dealing with artificial images. Therefore, criminals turn to release artificial pornographic images in some specific scenes, e.g., in social networks. To efficiently identify artificial pornographic images, a novel bag-of-visual-words based approach is proposed in the work. In the bag-of-words (BoW) framework, speeded-up robust feature (SURF) is adopted for feature extraction at first, then a visual vocabulary is constructed through K-means clustering and images are represented by an improved BoW encoding method, and finally the visual words are fed into a learning machine for training and classification. Different from the traditional BoW method, the proposed method sets a weight on each visual word according to the number of features that each cluster contains. Moreover, a non-binary encoding method and cross-matching strategy are utilized to improve the discriminative power of the visual words. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the traditional method.
Bans versus Fees: Disposable Carryout Bag Policies and Bag Usage
Taylor, Rebecca; Villas-Boas, Sofia B
2015-01-01
Using observational data on consumer carryout bag usage, we measure the effects of Disposable Bag Policies on bag demand. Our results show that plastic bag bans with paper bag fees eliminate use of disposable plastic bags and increase use of reusable bags. However, we find significant and undesired increases in paper bag demand. We compare our results to a study on bag fees and conclude the types of bags stores choose to sell in lieu of disposable plastic bags, as well as the price of alterna...
2008-01-01
Restricting the use of plastic shopping bags is China’s latest step to curb pollution While environment-conscious people identify themselves as non-users of plastic bags, Guo Geng,working at a nature reserve of deers in Beijing’s suburbs,stands out as a fighter against plastic bags. Since he started to work in 1998,Guo has seen David’s deer in his care dying from devouring waste plastic bags blown over
Multiquark colour-hyperfine spectra in the bag model: a survey with the P-matrix formalism
The masses of S-wave q2q-bar2, q4q-bar and q6 multiquark states have been calculated in the M.I.T. bag model after taking proper account of flavour symmetry violations in the single-gluon-exchange magnetic contribution. Mixing induced by the flavour dependence of the colour-magnetic interaction strengths raises some degeneracies and inverts a few levels but does not otherwise greatly effect the masses. However, the mixing does in a few cases result in very substantial changes in the eigenfunctions. These effects are surveyed and the masses and dissociation couplings for the most important states are examined using the P-matrix formalism. (author)
Multiquark colour-hyperfine spectra in the bag model: a survey using the P-matrix formalism
The masses of S-wave q2(anti q)2, q4(anti q) and q6 multiquark states have been calculated in the M.I.T. bag model after taking proper account of flavour symmetry violations in the single-gluon-exchange magnetic contribution. Mixing induced by the flavour dependence of the colour-magnetic interaction strengths raises some degeneracies and inverts a few levels but does not otherwise greatly affect the masses. However, the mixing does in a few cases result in very substantial changes in the eigenfunctions. These effects are surveyed and the masses and dissociation couplings for the most important states are examined using the P-matrix formalism
Collisional drift waves and ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities are studied using a linear water-bag kinetic model [P. Morel et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)]. An efficient spectral method, already validated in the case of drift waves instabilities [E. Gravier et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 7 (2013)], allows a fast solving of the global linear problem in cylindrical geometry. The comparison between the linear ITG instability properties thus computed and the ones given by the COLUMBIA experiment [R. G. Greaves et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 34, 1253 (1992)] shows a qualitative agreement. Moreover, the transition between collisional drift waves and ITG instabilities is studied theoretically as a function of the ion temperature profile.
Prabhu, Subbaiah Muthu; Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Lee, Giehyeon; Meenakshi, Sankaran
2016-10-01
The aim of this work is to gain a better understanding of the formation of lanthanum complex onto iminodiacetic acid and chitosan (CS@La-IDAMP) composite for effective removal of fluoride from aqueous solution using a tea-bag model for the first time. The surface textural and chemical properties of the synthesized composites were characterized by FTIR, SEM with EDAX and mapping images. The experimental data revealed that the fluoride adsorption was rapid, maximum fluoride removal could be removed within 12min contact time at neutral pH in room temperature under batch equilibrium model. The equilibrium data for adsorption of fluoride on the synthesized blends were well represented by the Freundlich isotherm, giving a maximum adsorption capacity of 17.50mg/g. The adsorption kinetic models were also examined and it was found that all the sorption processes were better described by the pseudo-second-order model. This results suggested that the efficiency of the fluoride removal process was mainly controlled by electrostatic attraction and ion-exchange mechanism. Furthermore, the CS@La-IDAMP material was tested for the regeneration ability with the suitable regenerant to make this process as cost-effective. Finally, it can be concluded that the composite material is the potential adsorbent for the treatment of fluoride from water. PMID:27259649
Hybrid Modeling of Flotation Height in Air Flotation Oven Based on Selective Bagging Ensemble Method
Shuai Hou; Fuan Hua; Wu Lv; Zhaodong Wang; Yujia Liu; Guodong Wang
2013-01-01
The accurate prediction of the flotation height is very necessary for the precise control of the air flotation oven process, therefore, avoiding the scratch and improving production quality. In this paper, a hybrid flotation height prediction model is developed. Firstly, a simplified mechanism model is introduced for capturing the main dynamic behavior of the process. Thereafter, for compensation of the modeling errors existing between actual system and mechanism model, an error compensation ...
Range bagging: a new method for ecological niche modelling from presence-only data
Drake, John M
2015-01-01
The ecological niche is the set of environments in which a population of a species can persist without introduction of individuals from other locations. A good mathematical or computational representation of the niche is a prerequisite to addressing many questions in ecology, biogeography, evolutionary biology and conservation. A particularly challenging question for ecological niche modelling is the problem of presence-only modelling. That is, can an ecological niche be identified from recor...
Gluonic contribution to the nucleon-delta mass difference in a chiral soliton bag model
Bourenane, M.; Stern, J.; Clement, G.
1988-05-01
A generalization of the Friedberg-Lee model, which minimally incorporates soft confinement of quarks and gluons and approximate chiral symmetry, is presented and applied to the computation of the gluonic contribution to the nucleon-delta mass difference. The value of the effective strong fine structure constant is estimated to be ..cap alpha../sub s/=0.65.
达工
2005-01-01
Shopping-bag ladies don't beg publicly, but they do not refuse what is offered. Once a shopping-bag lady appears where you live, it is as hard to pass her by without giving her some money as it is to pay no attention to the collection box(功德箱) in church. And although you may not like it, if she chooses your doorway as her place to sleep,
Inclusive nonleptonic decays of Λ/sub c/ and Λ/sub b/ in the bag model: W-exchange contributions
The inclusive nonleptonic decays of Λ/sub c/ and Λ/sub b/ are studied using the bag model under the assumption that the final hadron state is realized through the intermediary of an ensemble of free quarks, which hadronizes with the probability 1. For the W-exchange process, we get GAMMAc-italic/sup NL/ = 0.43 x 10-12 GeV and GAMMAb-italic/sup NL/ = 0.87 x 10-12 Vertical BarU/sub c/bVertical Bar2 GeV
BAG-1 haplo-insufficiency impairs lung tumorigenesis
Camarero Guadalupe
2004-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background BAG-1 is a multifunctional co-chaperone of heat shock proteins (Hsc70/Hsp70 that is expressed in most cells. It interacts with Bcl-2 and Raf indicating that it might connect protein folding with other signaling pathways. Evidence that BAG-1 expression is frequently altered in human cancers, in particular in breast cancer, relative to normal cells has been put forward but the notion that overexpression of BAG-1 contributes to poor prognosis in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Methods We have evaluated the effect of BAG-1 heterozygosity in mice in a model of non-small-cell lung tumorigenesis with histological and molecular methods. We have generated mice heterozygous for BAG-1, carrying a BAG-1 null allele, that in addition express oncogenic, constitutively active C-Raf kinase (SP-C C-Raf BxB in type II pneumocytes. SP-C C-Raf BxB mice develop multifocal adenomas early in adulthood. Results We show that BAG-1 heterozygosity in mice impairs C-Raf oncogene-induced lung adenoma growth. Lung tumor initiation was reduced by half in BAG-1 heterozygous SP-C C-Raf BxB mice compared to their littermates. Tumor area was reduced by 75% in 4 month lungs of BAG-1 haploinsufficient mice compared to mice with two BAG-1 copies. Whereas BAG-1 heterozygosity did not affect the rate of cell proliferation or signaling through the mitogenic cascade in adenoma cells, it increased the rate of apoptosis. Conclusion Reduced BAG-1 expression specifically targets tumor cells to apoptosis and impairs tumorigenesis. Our data implicate BAG-1 as a key player in oncogenic transformation by Raf and identify it as a potential molecular target for cancer treatment.
Let's Do It Again: Bagging Equity Premium Predictors
Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo C.
2012-01-01
The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity of the regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimatorscan have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. M...
Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric
Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor variab...
Ciompi, Francesco; Jacobs, Colin; Scholten, Ernst Th;
2015-01-01
, obtaining a Bag-of-Frequencies, which is used to assign each spectra a label. The descriptor is obtained as the histogram of labels along all the spheres. Additional contributions are a technique to estimate the nodule size, based on the sampling strategy, as well as a technique to choose the most...
The generalized fermion-bag approach
Chandrasekharan, Shailesh
2011-01-01
We present a new approach to some four-fermion lattice field theories which we call the generalized fermion bag approach. The basic idea is to identify unpaired fermionic degrees of freedom that cause sign problems and collect them in a bag. Paired fermions usually act like bosons and do not lead to sign problems. A resummation of all unpaired fermion degrees of freedom inside the bag is sufficient to solve the fermion sign problem in a variety of interesting cases. Using a concept of duality we then argue that the size of the fermion bags is small both at strong and weak couplings. This allows us to construct efficient algorithms in both these limits. Using the fermion bag approach, we study the quantum phase transition of the 3D massless lattice Thirrring model which is of interest in the context of Graphene. Using our method we are able to solve the model on lattices as large as $40^3$ with moderate computational resources. We obtain the precise location of the quantum critical point and the values of the ...
McSherry, J. A.
1980-01-01
This is an account of an unusual case of purple discoloration of plastic disposable urethral catheters and urine collecting bags. The likely causes are discussed with reference to the analogous situation of purple diapers in children. In this instance it appears that the phenomenon may have been due to the presence of indigo in the urine as a degradation product of tryptophan in the bowel lumen.
McSherry, J A
1980-10-01
This is an account of an unusual case of purple discoloration of plastic disposable urethral catheters and urine collecting bags. The likely causes are discussed with reference to the analogous situation of purple diapers in children. In this instance it appears that the phenomenon may have been due to the presence of indigo in the urine as a degradation product of tryptophan in the bowel lumen. PMID:21293710
Montiel, Ariadna, E-mail: amontiel@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 México DF (Mexico); Salzano, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.salzano@ehu.es [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Lazkoz, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.lazkoz@ehu.es [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)
2014-06-02
In this work we investigate if a small fraction of quarks and gluons, which escaped hadronization and survived as a uniformly spread perfect fluid, can play the role of both dark matter and dark energy. This fluid, as developed in [1], is characterized by two main parameters: β, related to the amount of quarks and gluons which act as dark matter; and γ, acting as the cosmological constant. We explore the feasibility of this model at cosmological scales using data from type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa), Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (LGRB) and direct observational Hubble data. We find that: (i) in general, β cannot be constrained by SNeIa data nor by LGRB or H(z) data; (ii) γ can be constrained quite well by all three data sets, contributing with ≈78% to the energy–matter content; (iii) when a strong prior on (only) baryonic matter is assumed, the two parameters of the model are constrained successfully.
In this work we investigate if a small fraction of quarks and gluons, which escaped hadronization and survived as a uniformly spread perfect fluid, can play the role of both dark matter and dark energy. This fluid, as developed in [1], is characterized by two main parameters: β, related to the amount of quarks and gluons which act as dark matter; and γ, acting as the cosmological constant. We explore the feasibility of this model at cosmological scales using data from type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa), Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (LGRB) and direct observational Hubble data. We find that: (i) in general, β cannot be constrained by SNeIa data nor by LGRB or H(z) data; (ii) γ can be constrained quite well by all three data sets, contributing with ≈78% to the energy–matter content; (iii) when a strong prior on (only) baryonic matter is assumed, the two parameters of the model are constrained successfully.
Unified theory of γd→np, π0d, πNN, and pp→ppγ and the chiral bag model
A unified theory of photopion reactions in two-nucleon systems (γd→pn, π0d, and πNN) and NN bremsstrahlung (NN→NNγ) is presented. By exposing the two-body [BB, where B = N or Δ(1232)] and three-body (πBB and γBB) unitarity, we derive a set of coupled integral equations to determine the amplitudes for these reactions. These equations have the same kernel as the equations one gets for the BB-πBB system. The two-body input amplitudes are the result of a coupled channel unitary theory for πN→πN and pion photoproduction on a single baryon, within the framework of a gauge and chirally invariant Lagrangian, which is obtained from the chiral bag model Lagrangian. The renormalization due to the πB interaction is incorporated in a consistent manner
Bag Model Prediction for the Nucleon's Chiral-odd Twist-3 Distribution $h_L(x,Q^2)$ at High $Q^2$
Kanazawa, Y; Koike, Yuji
1997-01-01
We study the Q^2 evolution of the nucleon's chiral-odd twist-3 distribution h_L(x,Q^2) starting from the MIT bag model calculation. A simple GLAP equation for h_L(x,Q^2) obtained at large N_c is used for the Q^2 evolution. The correction due to the finite value of N_c is O(1/N_c^2)\\sim 10% level. It turns out that the twist-3 contribution to h_L(x,Q^2) is significantly reduced at Q^2=10 GeV^2 in contrast to the g_2(x,Q^2) case. This is due to the fact that the corresponding anomalous dimension for h_L is larger than that for g_2 at small n (spin).
Yu, Yongtao; Li, Jonathan; Wen, Chenglu; Guan, Haiyan; Luo, Huan; Wang, Cheng
2016-03-01
This paper presents a novel algorithm for detection and recognition of traffic signs in mobile laser scanning (MLS) data for intelligent transportation-related applications. The traffic sign detection task is accomplished based on 3-D point clouds by using bag-of-visual-phrases representations; whereas the recognition task is achieved based on 2-D images by using a Gaussian-Bernoulli deep Boltzmann machine-based hierarchical classifier. To exploit high-order feature encodings of feature regions, a deep Boltzmann machine-based feature encoder is constructed. For detecting traffic signs in 3-D point clouds, the proposed algorithm achieves an average recall, precision, quality, and F-score of 0.956, 0.946, 0.907, and 0.951, respectively, on the four selected MLS datasets. For on-image traffic sign recognition, a recognition accuracy of 97.54% is achieved by using the proposed hierarchical classifier. Comparative studies with the existing traffic sign detection and recognition methods demonstrate that our algorithm obtains promising, reliable, and high performance in both detecting traffic signs in 3-D point clouds and recognizing traffic signs on 2-D images.
Li, Li; Feng, Lin; Yu, Laihang; Wu, Jun; Liu, Shenglan
2016-03-01
Recently, global and local features have demonstrated excellent performance in image retrieval. However, there are some problems in both of them: (1) Local features particularly describe the local textures or patterns. However, similar textures may confuse these local feature extraction methods and get irrelevant retrieval results. (2) Global features delineate overall feature distributions in images, and the retrieved results often appear alike but may be irrelevant. To address problems above, we propose a fusion framework through the combination of local and global features, and thus obtain higher retrieval precision for color image retrieval. Color local Haar binary patterns (CLHBP) and the bag-of-words (BoW) of local features are exploited to capture global and local information of images. The proposed fusion framework combines the ranking results of BoW and CLHBP through a graph-based fusion method. The average retrieval precision of the proposed fusion framework is 83.6% on the Corel-1000 database, and its average precision is 9.9% and 6.4% higher than BoW and CLHBP, respectively. Extensive experiments on different databases validate the feasibility of the proposed framework.
Recent developments in the theory of solitons and related objects in the fields of high energy physics and nuclear physics are reviewed. The aim is to concentrate on the physical aspects and explain why these objects have awakened the interest of physicists. The physics of solitons is discussed with the help of a simple one-dimensional soliton. Then the physically more interesting monopole-soliton is considered and its connection with the original Dirac monopole is pointed out. The ''revolutionary'' possibility of making fermions as composites of bosons is indicated. Both the one-dimensional solitons and the monopole-soliton are examples of ''topological solitons'' and the role of topology in the physics of solitons is explained. The possible importance of topological quantum numbers in providing a fundamental understanding of the basic conservation laws of physics is pointed out. Two examples of non-topological solitons namely, the nucleon as a bag of almost-massless quarks and the abnormal nucleons as a bag of almost massless nucleons is discussed. (auth.)
Fun and Functional Shopping Bags
Owen, Barbara Downing
2009-01-01
In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)
2010-04-01
... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An organ bag is a device that is a flexible plastic bag intended to be used as a temporary receptacle for...
Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Defreville, Boris; Pachet, François
2007-08-01
The "bag-of-frames" approach (BOF) to audio pattern recognition represents signals as the long-term statistical distribution of their local spectral features. This approach has proved nearly optimal for simulating the auditory perception of natural and human environments (or soundscapes), and is also the most predominent paradigm to extract high-level descriptions from music signals. However, recent studies show that, contrary to its application to soundscape signals, BOF only provides limited performance when applied to polyphonic music signals. This paper proposes to explicitly examine the difference between urban soundscapes and polyphonic music with respect to their modeling with the BOF approach. First, the application of the same measure of acoustic similarity on both soundscape and music data sets confirms that the BOF approach can model soundscapes to near-perfect precision, and exhibits none of the limitations observed in the music data set. Second, the modification of this measure by two custom homogeneity transforms reveals critical differences in the temporal and statistical structure of the typical frame distribution of each type of signal. Such differences may explain the uneven performance of BOF algorithms on soundscapes and music signals, and suggest that their human perception rely on cognitive processes of a different nature. PMID:17672638
The Role of Bag Surface Tension in Color Confinement
Bugaev, K A
2011-01-01
We discuss here the novel view at the color confinement which, on the one hand, allows us to find out the surface tension coefficient of quark gluon bags and, under a plausible assumption, to determine the endpoint temperature of the QCD phase diagram, on the other hand. The present model considers the confining color tube as the cylindrical quark gluon bag with non-zero surface tension. A close inspection of the free energies of elongated cylindrical bag and the confining color tube that connects the static quark-antiquark pair allows us to find out the string tension in terms of the surface tension, thermal pressure and the bag radius. Using the derived relation it is possible to estimate the bag surface tension at zero temperature directly from the lattice QCD data and to estimate the (tri)critical endpoint temperature. In the present analysis the topological free energy of the cylindrical bag is accounted for the first time. The requirement of positive entropy density of such bags leads to negative values...
ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?
Mangal Gogte
2009-01-01
This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.
Chiral bags, skyrmions and quarks in nuclei
Recent developments on an intriguing connection between the quark-bag description of the baryons (nucleons in particular) and the Skyrmion model are discussed in terms of the constraints coming from chiral anomalies. Topics treated are the leaking baryon charge, axial charge and energy density; the role of chiral anomalies; the role of Skyrme's quartic term and the connection to the meson degrees of freedom; and finally some qualitative implications in nuclei. The presentation is purposely descriptive and intuitive instead of mathematically precise
Effect of vacuum polarization in system of two three-phase chiral bags
Malakhov, I Y
2002-01-01
The self-consistent solutions describing the system of two interacting bags are obtained for the model of the three-phase chiral quark bags in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case. Special attention thereby is paid to studying the role of the fermions vacuum polarization inside the bags in the system dynamics and the boson field connecting (interpolating) the bags is accounted for only at the single-boson exchange level. The renormalized complete energy of the system is studied as the function of the parameters characterizing the geometry of the problem and the bags additional characteristics originating in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case. It is shown that the vacuum polarization in the system of two three-phase bags leads to origination of strong nonlinear interaction at small distances whereby in dependence on the bags characteristics this may be both repulsion and attraction
Effect of vacuum polarization in system of two three-phase chiral bags
The self-consistent solutions describing the system of two interacting bags are obtained for the model of the three-phase chiral quark bags in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case. Special attention thereby is paid to studying the role of the fermions vacuum polarization inside the bags in the system dynamics and the boson field connecting (interpolating) the bags is accounted for only at the single-boson exchange level. The renormalized complete energy of the system is studied as the function of the parameters characterizing the geometry of the problem and the bags additional characteristics originating in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case. It is shown that the vacuum polarization in the system of two three-phase bags leads to origination of strong nonlinear interaction at small distances whereby in dependence on the bags characteristics this may be both repulsion and attraction
Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction
Selena Sironi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003 indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z, it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion.
Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction
Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato
2014-01-01
The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion. PMID:25506608
Application of Geotextile Bag Dehydrated Soil to Dike Construction
朱平; 闫澍旺; 刘润
2004-01-01
Using geotextile bag dehydrated soil to construct dikes for land reclamation to substitute conventional straw bags is an urgent need in Tianjin New Harbor, China. This paper introduces the method to build a dike for hydraulic filling. The soil for filling the geotextile bags was tested in wave trench; the stress developed during construction was calculated by establishing a numerical model and compared with the tensile strength of the geotextile; the stability and settlement of the dike were estimated by performing centrifuge tests. Through this study, the following information was obtained: 1) The cohesionless silt with plasticity index less than 10 is suitable for filling the geotextile bags. The geotextile bag dehydrated soil consolidated very quickly even under the action of wave force. 2) A numerical model was devised to find the limit injection height and to calculate the tensile stress developed in the geotextile bags when they were piled up to form the dike. The calculated stress was compared with the strength of the geotextile, showing that the design is reasonably safe. 3) Centrifuge test results show that the designed dike will be stable and the settlement of dike will be less than the design requirement.
Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion.
BAG3: a new player in the heart failure paradigm.
Knezevic, Tijana; Myers, Valerie D; Gordon, Jennifer; Tilley, Douglas G; Sharp, Thomas E; Wang, JuFang; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y; Feldman, Arthur M
2015-07-01
BAG3 is a cellular protein that is expressed predominantly in skeletal and cardiac muscle but can also be found in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system. BAG3 functions in the cell include: serving as a co-chaperone with members of the heat-shock protein family of proteins to facilitate the removal of misfolded and degraded proteins, inhibiting apoptosis by interacting with Bcl2 and maintaining the structural integrity of the Z-disk in muscle by binding with CapZ. The importance of BAG3 in the homeostasis of myocytes and its role in the development of heart failure was evidenced by the finding that single allelic mutations in BAG3 were associated with familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, significant decreases in the level of BAG3 have been found in end-stage failing human heart and in animal models of heart failure including mice with heart failure secondary to trans-aortic banding and in pigs after myocardial infarction. Thus, it becomes relevant to understand the cellular biology and molecular regulation of BAG3 expression in order to design new therapies for the treatment of patients with both hereditary and non-hereditary forms of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:25925243
Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney
Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui
2015-01-01
BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and t...
Ohtomo, Shoji; Ohnuma, Susumu
2014-01-01
A field study was conducted to investigate the reduction of plastic bag usage at supermarkets. Many behaviors leading to potential damage to the environment may be unintentional. This study applied a dual motivation model to plastic bag usage and examined the effects of an intervention aimed at promoting pro-environmental behavior. A voice prompt intervention was implemented in Japanese supermarkets. In the first (control) week, shoppers were given free plastic bags by the cashier. In the sec...
Alternative Hospital Gift Bags and Breastfeeding Exclusivity
Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M.; Kashdan, Rickie
2013-01-01
The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-201...
Will Banning Free Plastic Bags Reduce Pollution?
2008-01-01
No more free plastic bags from June 1,2008.That’s the message to Chinese shoppers after a government ban on all production,sales or use of plastic bags less than 0.025 mm thick comes into force from this date.Nowadays,supermarkets give out 1 billion plastic bags every day while other shops collectively use double that amount. Consumers will have to pay for plastic bags exceeding this thickness,if they want this option.
ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?
Mangal Gogte
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.
Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.
Groot, M.D. de; Bosch, T.; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.
2005-01-01
A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can enda
Six-quark bag, exchange currents and trinucleon magnetic moments
The magnetic moments of 3H and 3He are reexamined in the Karl-Miller-Rafelski model of six-quark bag formation. Realistic three-nucleon wavefunctions are taken, and long-range one-pion exchange current corrections are included. It is concluded that the model is compatible with the data. (orig.)
The data of a recent phase-shift analysis VPI-SU are used to calculate the P-matrix for the coupled 3S1-3D1 proton-neUtron channels for the laboratory energy TsUb(L) approximately eqUal to 1 GeV. The two-channel P-matrix calculated for the radius of the eqUivalent hadronic bag b=6.7 GeV-1 is shown to have one pole at √s = 2.16-2.17 GeV in agreement with the MIT bag model prediction. It is shown that for Tsub(L) 1. It is shown also that the P-matrix calculated from both the energy-dependent and single-energy (with the statistical errors neglected) VPI-SU solutions strongly disagrees to that for several realistic potential models in the energy region Tsub(L) 1 would be changed by one or two standard deviations
Casimir bag energy in the stochastic approximation to the pure QCD vacuum
Fosco, C D
2007-01-01
We study the Casimir contribution to the bag energy coming from gluon field fluctuations, within the context of the stochastic vacuum model (SVM) of pure QCD. After formulating the problem in terms of the generating functional of field strength cumulants, we argue that the resulting predictions about the Casimir energy are compatible with the phenomenologically required bag energy term.
Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.
de Groot, Marinka D; Bosch, Tim; Eikhout, Sandra M; Vink, Peter
2005-01-01
A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can endanger safety, i.e., knives being used in opening, children swallowing the systems of sealing. To prevent these problems a new sealing system was developed. In this paper the opinion of shop assistants, consumers and experts on several bag sealing systems was studied. It appeared that for sealing plastic bags, adhesive tape with paper is the best out of 4 systems, closely followed by adhesive tape. It is discussed that for the elderly, there is still room for improvement in opening bag seals. PMID:16219161
Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.
Groot, M.D. de; T. Bosch; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.
2005-01-01
A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can endanger safety, i.e., knives being used in opening, children swallowing the systems of sealing. To prevent these problems a new sealing system was developed. In this paper the opinion of shop assistan...
An Economic Evaluation of Plastic Bag Regulation
2010-01-01
In recent years, several jurisdictions worldwide have implemented plastic bag regulations to curb environmentally deleterious effects of plastic bag production and consumption. The problems that each jurisdiction experience vary from place-to-place; as do the policy mechanisms set forth to combat these problems. Documentation of explicit economic rationality regarding these plastic bag regulations is scarce. This thesis sets out to fill some of that void. The thesis is organized as fol...
Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis
Dempah, Maxime Joseph
Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.
SUBSTITUTION OF PLASTIC BAG BY JUTE BAG- CASE COMPANY REDQ : Support on Sustainable Environment
Afrin, Tania
2011-01-01
Sustainable development is one of the most important issues in the world today. People can play an important role in the sustainable development in different ways regardless of their own position. This study focuses on finding out how plastic bags could be substituted by jute bags and how it would contribute to the sustainable development. In addition, the study focuses on answering the question if the idea of substituting plastic bags by jute bags would be a profitable business innovation. F...
Change of MIT bag constant in nuclear medium and implication for the EMC effect
The modified quark-meson coupling model, which features a density-dependent bag constant and bag radius in nuclear matter, is checked against the EMC effect within the framework of dynamical rescaling. Our emphasis is on the change in the average bag radius in nuclei, as evaluated in a local density approximation, and its implication for the rescaling parameter. We find that when the bag constant in nuclear matter is significantly reduced from its free-space value, the resulting rescaling parameter is in good agreement with that required to explain the observed depletion of the structure functions in the medium Bjorken x region. Such a large reduction of the bag constant also implies large and canceling Lorentz scalar and vector potentials for the nucleon in nuclear matter which are comparable to those suggested by the relativistic nuclear phenomenology and finite-density QCD sum rules. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney.
Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui
2015-01-01
BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis. PMID:26175854
Gravitating bag as a coherent system of the point-like and dressed electron
Burinskii, Alexander
2015-01-01
Gravitational and electromagnetic fields of an electron correspond to over-rotating Kerr-Newman (KN) solution, which has a naked singular ring and two-sheeted topology. This solution is regularized by a solitonic source, in which singular interior is replaced by a vacuum bubble filled by the Higgs field in a false-vacuum state. Field model of this KN bubble has much in common with the famous MIT and SLAC bag models, but the geometry is "dual" (turned inside out), leading to consistency of the KN bag model with gravity. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is compliant to deformations, and under rotations it takes an oblate ellipsoidal form, creating a circular string along the border. Electromagnetic excitations of the KN bag generate stringy traveling waves which deform the bag, creating a traveling singular pole, included in a general bag-string-quark complex. The dressed electron may be considered in this model as a coherent excitation of this system, confining the point-like electron (as a quark) in st...
PURPLE URINE BAG SYNDROME: AN ALARMING HUE?
Kumbha Thulasi Ram
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare phenomenon reported mostly in females on an indwelling catheter in chronically constipated with alkaline urine. It is secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubicin producing bacteria. Here we present this interesting case of an elderly woman who had purple colored urine bag
Care of Down and Synthetic Sleeping Bags
Hawks, Leona K.
1990-01-01
If your down or synthetic sleeping bag is treated properly, it will give you years of reliable service. If treated improperly, it can easily be ruined by just one small mistake. The following are some general tips concerning the proper use and care of your sleeping bag.
The earliest mention of a black bag
Tsoucalas, Gregory; Antonis A. Kousoulis; Tsoucalas, Ioannis; Androutsos, George
2011-01-01
A black bag, needed especially for home visits, has been used since the time of Hippocrates who, in his treatise “On good manners”, gave the first detailed description of a medical bag with guidelines for the required equipment and structure. Ancient Egyptian and Palestinian references also date back at least two millenniums.
PVC posting bags for glove boxes
This specification covers the materials, measurements and manufacture of unpigmented PVC posting bags for use on glove boxes, together with methods of testing the materials. These bags are used in the handling of radioactive and toxic materials of a hazardous nature and therefore must be of the highest standard of mechanical strength, leak tightness and general finish. (author)
Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes
Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil
2016-04-01
consequent breaking of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film - "bags". On the base of general principles of statistical physics (model of a canonical ensemble) we developed statistics of the "bag-breakup" events: their number and statistical distribution of geometrical parameters depending on wind speed. Basing on the developed statistics, we estimated the surface stress caused by bags as the average sum of stresses caused by individual bags depending on their eometrical parameters. The resulting stress is subjected to counteracting impacts of the increasing wind speed: the increasing number of bags, and their decreasing sizes and life times and the balance yields a peaking dependence of the bag resistance on the wind speed: the share of bag-stress peaks at U10 35 m/s and then reduces. Peaking of surface stress associated with the "bag-breakup" explains seemingly paradoxical non-monotonous wind-dependence of surface drag coefficient peaking at winds about 35 m/s. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (14-05-91767, 13-05-12093, 16-05-00839, 14-05-91767, 16-55-52025, 15-35-20953) and experiment and equipment was supported by Russian Science Foundation (Agreements 14-17-00667 and 15-17-20009 respectively), Yu.Troitskaya, A.Kandaurov and D.Sergeev were partially supported by FP7 Collaborative Project No. 612610.
Multiple, but Concerted Cellular Activities of the Human Protein Hap46/BAG-1M and Isoforms
Ulrich Gehring
2009-03-01
Full Text Available The closely related human and murine proteins Hap46/BAG-1M and BAG-1, respectively, were discovered more than a decade ago by molecular cloning techniques. These and the larger isoform Hap50/BAG-1L, as well as shorter isoforms, have the ability to interact with a seemingly unlimited array of proteins of completely unrelated structures. This problem was partially resolved when it was realized that molecular chaperones of the hsp70 heat shock protein family are major primary association partners, binding being mediated by the carboxy terminal BAG-domain and the ATP-binding domain of hsp70 chaperones. The latter, in turn, can associate with an almost unlimited variety of proteins through their substrate-binding domains, so that ternary complexes may result. The protein folding activity of hsp70 chaperones is affected by interactions with Hap46/BAG-1M or isoforms. However, there also exist several proteins which bind to Hap46/BAG-1M and isoforms independent of hsp70 mediation. Moreover, Hap46/BAG-1M and Hap50/BAG-1L, but not the shorter isoforms, can bind to DNA in a sequence-independent manner by making use of positively charged regions close to their amino terminal ends. This is the molecular basis for their effects on transcription which are of major physiological relevance, as discussed here in terms of a model. The related proteins Hap50/BAG-1L and Hap46/BAG-1M may thus serve as molecular links between such diverse bioactivities as regulation of gene expression and protein quality control. These activities are coordinated and synergize in helping cells to cope with conditions of external stress. Moreover, they recently became markers for the aggressiveness of several cancer types.
Cheshire Cat scenario in A 3+1 dimensional hybrid chiral bag
The total energy in the two-phase chiral bag model is studied, including the contribution due to the bag (Casimir energy plus energy of the valence quarks), as well as the one coming from the Skyrmion in the external sector. A consistent determination of the parameters of the model and the renormalization constants in the energy is performed. The total energy shows an approximate independence with the bag radius (separation limit between the phases), in agreement with the Cheshire Cat Principle. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs
Insulin binding to plastic bags: a methodologic study.
Twardowski, Z J; Nolph, K D; McGary, T J; Moore, H L; Collin, P; Ausman, R K; Slimack, W S
1983-04-01
A radiotracer method to assess insulin binding to commercially available plastic peritoneal dialysis solution containers was developed. A peritoneal dialysis bag (bag 2) was emptied and attached to another full bag (bag 1) of the same kind. In the syringe-to-bag method, bag 1 was symmetrically injected through the bag wall with four syringes containing dialysis solution and radioactive insulin, with or without regular insulin. The radioactivity in each syringe was measured with a gamma counter before injection, and all of the samples were counted afterwards directly in the syringes. Using a bag-to-bag transfer method, bag 1 was agitated, eight samples were taken from different parts through the wall, and then the contents were transferred to bag 2. Bag 2 was then agitated and eight samples were taken and counted. In the bag-pieces method, pieces of bag wall were cut and the radioactivity on the walls was measured to determine the amount of binding. The syringe-to-bag method gave negative results, severely underestimating the amount of insulin binding. The bag-to-bag transfer method yielded positive results in all instances. Increasing the amounts of regular insulin had no demonstrable impact on percent of binding. When the bag-to-bag method was compared with the bag-pieces method, it gave only slightly higher values; however, the bag-to-bag method was considered more reliable because the counting can be controlled more effectively. A 15-minute delay in sampling was not found to influence insulin binding. A reliable method of assessing insulin binding must be based on the following two principles: (1) The transfer of samples to intermediate containers should be avoided, and (2) radiotracer concentrations in the samples should be similar. PMID:6342377
An Empirical Comparison of Boosting and Bagging Algorithms
R. Kalaichelvi Chandrahasan
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Classification is one of the data mining techniques that analyses a given data set and induces a model for each class based on their features present in the data. Bagging and boosting are heuristic approaches to develop classification models. These techniques generate a diverse ensemble of classifiers by manipulating the training data given to a base learning algorithm. They are very successful in improving the accuracy of some algorithms in artificial and real world datasets. We review the algorithms such as AdaBoost, Bagging, ADTree, and Random Forest in conjunction with the Meta classifier and the Decision Tree classifier. Also we describe a large empirical study by comparing several variants. The algorithms are analyzed on Accuracy, Precision, Error Rate and Execution Time.
Adapt Bagging to Nearest Neighbor Classifiers
Zhi-Hua Zhou; Yang Yu
2005-01-01
It is well-known that in order to build a strong ensemble, the component learners should be with high diversity as well as high accuracy. If perturbing the training set can cause significant changes in the component learners constructed, then Bagging can effectively improve accuracy. However, for stable learners such as nearest neighbor classifiers, perturbing the training set can hardly produce diverse component learners, therefore Bagging does not work well. This paper adapts Bagging to nearest neighbor classifiers through injecting randomness to distance metrics. In constructing the component learners, both the training set and the distance metric employed for identifying the neighbors are perturbed. A large scale empirical study reported in this paper shows that the proposed BagInRand algorithm can effectively improve the accuracy of nearest neighbor classifiers.
2012-01-01
Eesti Kunstiakadeemia nahakunsti osakonna tudengid Kadri Paloveer, Inga Radikainen ja Mari Maripuu pälvisid Hong-Kongis korraldataval "DESIGN-A-BAG 2012" konkursil tihedas rahvusvahelises konkurentsis mitmeid preemiaid
49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.520 Standards for textile bags. (a) The following are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag;...
42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...
Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation
Faridi, M S; Rahman, MD Jawaid; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum
2016-01-01
Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recur...
Storage of canola in hermetic plastic bags
Bartosik, R. E.; De la Torre, D. A.; Ochandio, D. C.; Cardoso, L. M.; Rodríguez, J.C.; Massigoge, J.
2010-01-01
Due to the small size of the seed, canola (Brassica napus or Brassica campestris) offers different challenges in the harvest and the subsequent post-harvest operations. Often, in Argentina, farmers do not have enough permanent storage capacity so they overcome this deficit with the use of hermetic plastic bags (silobags). The objectives of this work were: 1) Determine the feasibility of the bagging and extraction processes of canola. 2) Monitoring the condition of canola by periodic measureme...
Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic Bag Production
Ruban, Anna
2012-01-01
The main focus of this report is to establish a comparative study of traditional and biodegradable vest-plastic bag production through the utilization of a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The measurements were made for the Ukrainian limited liability company “Polymer”, as a representative manufacturer, in order to calculate the environmental impact of plastic bag manufacturing, and identify the more environmental friendly item. This research is based on a literature review of the specia...
Quark bags, P-matrix and nucleon-nucleon scattering
This paper is an extended version of the talk given at IX European Conference on Few Body Problems in Physics, Tbilisi, 1984. It reviews recent developments of the quark compound bag (QCB) model including explicit examples of the QCB nucleon-nucleon potentials, description of the deuteron properties, calculation of the six quark admixture in the deuteron and applications to the three-nucleon system
Behavioral Response to Plastic Bag Legislation in Botswana
Dikgang, Johane; Visser, Martine
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices. We assessed the environmental effectiveness and efficiency of the plastic bag legislation by analyzing consumers’ sensitivity to the impro...
SOFT CLUSTERING BASED EXPOSITION TO MULTIPLE DICTIONARY BAG OF WORDS
K. S. Sujatha
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Object classification is a highly important area of computer vision and has many applications including robotics, searching images, face recognition, aiding visually impaired people, censoring images and many more. A new common method of classification that uses features is the Bag of Words approach. In this method a codebook of visual words is created using various clustering methods. For increasing the performance Multiple Dictionaries BoW (MDBoW method that uses more visual words from different independent dictionaries instead of adding more words to the same dictionary was implemented using hard clustering method. Nearest-neighbor assignments are used in hard clustering of features. A given feature may be nearly the same distance from two cluster centers. For a typical hard clustering method, only the slightly nearer neighbor is selected to represent that feature. Thus, the ambiguous features are not well-represented by the visual vocabulary. To address this problem, soft clustering model based Multiple Dictionary Bag of Visual words for image classification is implemented with dictionary generated using modified Fuzzy C-means algorithm using R1 norm. A performance evaluation on images has been done by varying the dictionary size. The proposed method works better when the number of topics and the number of images per topics are more. The results obtained indicate that multiple dictionary bag of words model using fuzzy clustering increases the recognition performance than the baseline method.
The amino-terminal domain of the Hsp70 co-chaperone Bag2 from M. musculus has been crystallized in native and selenomethionyl forms diffracting to 2.27 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively. Bag2, an atypical member of the Bag family of Hsp70 co-chaperones, acts as both an Hsp70 nucleotide-exchange factor and an inhibitor of the Hsp70-binding E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (carboxyl-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein). The amino-terminal domain of Bag2 (Bag2-NTD), which is required for inhibition of CHIP, has no sequence homologs in the PDB. Native and selenomethionyl (SeMet) forms of Bag2-NTD were crystallized by hanging-drop vapor diffusion. Native Bag2-NTD crystals diffracted to 2.27 Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 75.5, b = 84.7, c = 114.1 Å. SeMet Bag2-NTD crystals diffracted to 3.10 Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 53.3, c = 86.7 Å. Phases for the SeMet Bag2-NTD crystal were solved by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. Initial phasing and model building using the 3.10 Å resolution SeMet Bag2-NTD data set suggested that Bag2-NTD forms a dimer and adopts a fold distinct from those of any domains annotated in the Pfam or SMART domain databases
Contained Morcellation for Laparoscopic Myomectomy Within a Specially Designed Bag.
Paul, P G; Thomas, Manju; Das, Tanuka; Patil, Saurabh; Garg, Reena
2016-02-01
A technique of contained morcellation of uterine myomas within a bag specially designed for 2-port morcellation during laparoscopic myomectomy is described. Ten patients underwent in-bag morcellation of myomas with a tissue isolation bag (MorSafe) between November 2014 and January 2015. The MorSafe tissue isolation bag is a retort-shaped bag made of medical-grade flexible plastic material with the wider opening of 134 mm in diameter and the tail end measuring 4 mm in diameter, allowing easy accomodation of specimens up to 12 cm in diameter. This technique involves placing the myomas into the isolation bag within the abdomen, exteriorizing the tail end of the bag, insufflating the bag within the peritoneal cavity, and morcellating the myomas under vision. Demographic and perioperative characteristics were studied. The mean operative time was 117 minutes (range, 75-195 minutes), the mean time for specimen introduction into the bag was 12.5 minutes (range, 7-22 minutes), and the mean time for morcellation and bag removal was 24.8 minutes (range, 10-50 minutes). There were no complications related to the in-bag morcellation technique, and there was no visual evidence of damage to the isolation bag. In-bag morcellation using this new bag is a feasible technique for morcellating uterine myomas in a contained manner and may provide an option to minimize the risks of open power morcellation while preserving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. PMID:26260302
Boyle Malcolm J
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal bag ventilation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR has demonstrated detrimental physiological outcomes for cardiac arrest patients. In light of recent guideline changes for resuscitation, there is a need to identify the efficacy of bag ventilation by prehospital care providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate bag ventilation in relation to operator ability to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rate, tidal volume and minute volume when using two different capacity self-inflating bags in an undergraduate paramedic cohort. Methods An experimental study using a mechanical lung model and a simulated adult cardiac arrest to assess the ventilation ability of third year Monash University undergraduate paramedic students. Participants were instructed to ventilate using 1600 ml and 1000 ml bags for a length of two minutes at the correct rate and tidal volume for a patient undergoing CPR with an advanced airway. Ventilation rate and tidal volume were recorded using an analogue scale with mean values calculated. Ethics approval was granted. Results Suboptimal ventilation with the use of conventional 1600 ml bag was common, with 77% and 97% of participants unable to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rates and tidal volumes respectively. Reduced levels of suboptimal ventilation arouse from the use of the smaller bag with a 27% reduction in suboptimal tidal volumes (p = 0.015 and 23% reduction in suboptimal minute volumes (p = 0.045. Conclusion Smaller self-inflating bags reduce the incidence of suboptimal tidal volumes and minute volumes and produce greater guideline consistent results for cardiac arrest patients.
Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation.
Faridi, M S; Rahman, Md Jawaid; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum
2016-02-01
Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522
A Control System Retrofit for a Plastic Bag Making Machine
DR S S ADAMU
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This work presents the development of a microcontroller system to replace a problematic mechanical system of a plastic bag making machine. After detailed study of the existing system the theory of finite state machines is used to model the proposed retrofit, using simulink and stateflow toolboxes of MATLAB. Using the model, theretrofit system is partitioned into hardware and software components. The retrofit is implemented using Microchip’s PIC16F84A 8-bit microcontroller. The developed retrofit performance is the same as the original machine. Due to the flexibility of microcontrollers, other operation and diagnostic features can easily be added.
Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag
1965-01-01
Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.
Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.
Beck, Mike
2000-01-01
Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)
An update on purple urine bag syndrome
Hadano Y
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection
The Kindness in a Bag of Chips
韩小庆
2011-01-01
难度:★★★☆☆词数:406建议阅读时间:10分钟Last Sunday, my son and I were in line at the Dollar store buying an assortment of products. In a line next to ours, a woman was waiting to make her 1 . She had a few necessities and one bag of chips.
The Kindness in a Bag of Chips
韩小庆
2011-01-01
Last Sunday, my son and I were in line at the Dollar store buying an assortment of products. In a line next to ours, a woman was waiting to make her 1 . She had a few necessities and one bag of chips.
Blue collection bag after ileal diversion.
Hildreth, T A; Cass, A S
1978-02-01
Five children with ileal diversions have shown asymptomatic blue staining of the urine collection bags. A tryptophan derivative (indican) in the urine that oxidizes to indigo blue on exposure to air is thought to be the cause of this benign transient phenomenon. PMID:628994
49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall...
Sports Video Classification Based on Marked Genre Shots and Bag of Words Model%基于类型标志镜头与词袋模型的体育视频分类
朱映映; 朱艳艳; 文振焜
2013-01-01
基于内容的体育视频分类是高效管理大量体育视频数据的关键步骤之一,为提高体育视频分类方法的正确率及泛化能力,提出一种基于类型标志镜头与视觉词袋模型相结合的体育视频分类方法.首先给出类型标志镜头的定义,并通过类型标志镜头构建该镜头视频帧训练库；然后构建基于视频帧训练库的金字塔视觉词袋模型,将视频帧标志为归一化的词频向量,使用SVM对视频帧进行分类；再通过分析视频帧分类错误的原因及表现形式提出基于时序连续性孤立帧去除算法,以消除视频帧的错误归类.由于体育视频按组合类型可分为单一体育视频与混合体育视频,因此分别提出了单一体育视频及混合体育视频2种分类算法.实验结果表明,文中算法具有实现简单、处理速度快和准确度高的优点.%Content-based classification of sports video is one of the critical steps in the efficient management of a large number of sports video data.To improve the accuracy and generalization ability of sports video classification,a new sports video classification method based on the combination of marked genre shots and bag of visual words model is proposed.Firstly,the definition of the marked genre shots is given,and the video frame training database of marked genre shots is constructed with the marked genre shots.Secondly,the pyramid visual word bag model is constructed based on the video frame training database,each video frame is represented with a visual words frequency vector,and then the SVM is used to classify the video frame.Subsequently,by analyzing the misclassification causes,the isolated frame removal algorithm is proposed to eliminate the representative frame misclassification.Finally,as the sports video,according to its combination type,can be divided into single sports video and mixed sports video,two different classification algorithms for single sports video and mixed sports
Lehmer, Larisa M; Ragsdale, Bruce D; Daniel, John; Hayashi, Edwin; Kvalstad, Robert
2011-01-01
A plastic bag clip was incidentally found anchored in the mucosa of a partial colectomy specimen 2.6 cm proximal to a ruptured diverticulum for which the patient, a mentally retarded, diabetic, 58-year-old man, underwent surgery. Over 20 cases of accidental ingestion of plastic bag clips have been published. Known complications include small bowel perforation, obstruction, dysphagia, gastrointestinal bleeding and colonic impaction. Preoperative diagnosis of plastic clips lodged in the gastrointestinal tract is frustrated due to radiographic translucency. This occult threat could likely be prevented by the design of gastrointestinally safe, plastic-bag-sealing devices. Presented here is a morphologically based classification of bag clips as a possible guide for determining the most hazardous varieties and to aid further discussions of their impact on health. PMID:22679182
Lehmer, Larisa M; Ragsdale, Bruce D.; Daniel, John; Hayashi, Edwin; Kvalstad, Robert
2011-01-01
A plastic bag clip was incidentally found anchored in the mucosa of a partial colectomy specimen 2.6 cm proximal to a ruptured diverticulum for which the patient, a mentally retarded, diabetic, 58-year-old man, underwent surgery. Over 20 cases of accidental ingestion of plastic bag clips have been published. Known complications include small bowel perforation, obstruction, dysphagia, gastrointestinal bleeding and colonic impaction. Preoperative diagnosis of plastic clips lodged in the gastroi...
49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or...
49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic...
42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...
Chiral symmetry breaking and vacuum polarization in a bag
Yasui, S
2006-01-01
We study the effects of a finite quark mass in the hedgehog configuration in the two phase chiral bag model. We discuss the chiral properties, such as the fractional baryon number and the chiral Casimir energy, by using the Debye expansion for the analytical calculation and the Strutinsky's smearing method for the numerical computation. It is shown that the fractional baryon number carried by massive quarks in the vacuum is canceled by that in the meson sector. A finite term of the chiral Casimir energy is obtained with subtraction of the logarithmic divergence term.
Cranking the chiral soliton bag model
Clement, G.; Stern, J.
1988-10-01
The generation of physical states from mean field hedgehogs by cranking is extended to coherent hedgehogs, thus improving the agreement between the cranking and coherent state projection methods, and enabling us to correct simultaneously for translational and rotational fluctuations. These corrections lead to a drastic reduction in the mean nucleon-delta mass which, for the physical values of m/sub ..pi../ and F/sub ..pi../, is lower than, or approximately equal to, the experimental value.
Inflatable bag with sealing and protection layer
The inflatable bag consists of a textile casing in which a cylindrical pvc tyre with concave bottoms is inserted and glued to the casing. A sealing protective layer is provided on the outer periphery of the cylindrical part of the tyre. A tyre valve with flange and fixing ears and also a relief valve are provided in the concave bottom. The casing material, such as a layer of 0.5 to 5 mm silicone rubber bands is suitable for use in contact with austenitic materials. The bag completely seals spaces such as the mouths of steam generator tubes or collector branches in a nuclear power plant. Decontamination can easily be achieved by rinsing the surface with common means. (J.B.). 2 figs
Chases and Bag-Set Certain Answers
Thorne, Camilo
2014-01-01
In this paper we show that the chase technique is powerful enough to capture the bag-set semantics of conjunctive queries over IDBs and IDs and TGDs. In addition, we argue that in such cases it provides efficient (LogSpace) query evaluation algorithms and that, moreover, it can serve as a basis for evaluating some restricted classes of aggregate queries under incomplete information.
Covariant momentum projection of the soliton bag: recoil corrections to the hadronic masses
A central problem in calculations based on relativistic bags is that of projection onto an eigenstate of zero momentum and the subsequent covariant boosting of that state to a non-zero momentum eigenstate. We are here particularly concerned with relativistic bag models. The prototype of such models is the MIT bag model. Along with a number of derivative models, it shares the common feature of a surface boundary condition to confine the quarks. The Lagrangian contains coordinates which describe the surface, but the time derivatives of these coordinates do not appear. This complicates quantization which can, however, be accomplished through the techniques of Dirac constraints. It is important to work in a fully quantum mechanical framework. A model which fulfills that requirement, is covariant, and is tractable is the soliton bag model of Freidberg and Lee. This is a model for the low energy properties of QCD in which hadrons appear as solitons in a scalar field with quarks trapped inside the structures. The soliton model, for the present discussion, contains (massless) quarks interacting with a nonlinear scalar field sigma; the momentum operator conjugate to sigma is π = sigma, and the two satisfy the usual canonical equal-time commutation reltions. 12 references
Nonlinear Dynamic Behaviors of a Marine Rotor-Bearing System Coupled with Air Bag and Floating-Raft
Zhao, W.; Li, M; Xiao, L.
2015-01-01
To understand the nonlinear dynamic mechanism of a rotor-bearing system coupled with air bag and floating-raft, the dynamic characteristics of the system are investigated. This work has two key objectives. First, the vibration mechanism of rotor-bearing system coupled with air bag and floating-raft is investigated by developing a numerical model. Then, the nonlinear dynamics of the system and the effect of several parameters are studied, which includes the steady-state response and its spectr...
Possible Role of the WZ-Top-Quark Bags in Baryogenesis
Flambaum, Victor V
2010-01-01
The heaviest members of the SM -- the gauge bosons $W,Z$ and the top quarks and antiquarks -- may form collective bag-like excitations of the Higgs vacuum provided their number is large enough, both at zero and finite temperatures. Since Higgs vacuum expectation value (VEV) is significantly modified inside them, they are called "bags". In this work we argue that creation of such objects can explain certain numerical studies of cosmological baryogenesis. Using as an example a hybrid model, combining inflationary preheating with cold electroweak transition, we identify "spots of unbroken phase" found in numerical studies of this scenario with such $W-Z$ bags. We argue that the baryon number violation should happen predominantly inside these objects, and show that the rates calculated in numerical simulations can be analytically explained using finite-size pure gauge sphaleron solutions, developed previously in the QCD context by Carter, Ostrovsky and Shuryak (COS). Furthermore, we point out significant presence...
The effects of coloured quark entropy on the bag pressure
We study the effects of the ground state entropy of coloured quarks upon the bag pressure at low temperatures. The vacuum expectation values of the quark and gluon fields are used to express the interactions in the QCD ground state in the limit of low temperatures and chemical potentials. Apparently, the inclusion of this entropy in the equation of state provides the hadron constituents with an additional heat which causes a decrease in the effective latent heat inside the hadronic bag and consequently decreases the non-perturbative bag pressure. We have considered two types of baryonic bags, Δ and Ω-. In both cases we have found that the bag pressure decreases with the temperature. On the other hand, when the coloured quark ground state entropy is not considered, the bag pressure as conventionally believed remains constant for finite temperature
Toxigenic fungi in corn (maize) stored in hermetic plastic bags
Castellari, C.; Marcos Valle, F.; Mutti, J.; Cardoso, L; Bartosik, R.
2010-01-01
In Argentina, 35 million tonnes are stored in hermetic plastic bags. Inside the bags, the modified atmosphere has an effect on stored grains, insects and fungi. Fungi taxa and species typically isolated from stored grains consist of species of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and xerophilic fungi, some of which are potential producers of mycotoxins. The province of Entre Rios, Argentina, is an important area of study because much of the production of maize stored in bags is suppl...
Consumption of Plastic bags and its Impact on Environment
Sarwat Afzal; Irfan Ali; Imdad Ali; M Adil; Suman Gangwani; Faryal Shaikh
2012-01-01
The research was done on the consumption of plastic bags and its possible impact on environment. We considered the consumption of plastic bags as recycling, alternatives and disposal, and to be specific we defined environment impact on drainage and street waste. The respondents’ were the 20 years of age and older without any gender discrimination, and assumed to be users of plastic bags. The data was collected from the crowded shopping centers of city. Correlation and regression techniques we...
Purple urine bag syndrome- changing hue!
Sadhna Sharma
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Purple Urine Bag Syndrome (PUBS is a unique disease entity characterised by purple discoloration of urine secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubin producing bacteria and is predominantly seen in constipated, chronically debilitated and catheterised women with alkaline urine. This syndrome indicates underlying recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs associated with higher incidence of mortality and morbidity than urinary tract infection alone without this occurrence. This article is about an elderly hypothyroid woman with PUBS and reviews the need to be aware of this entity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(1.000: 31-32
The Kaon Bag Parameter at Physical Mass
Frison, Julien; Christ, Norman H; Garron, Nicolas; Mawhinney, Robert; Sachrajda, Chris T; Yin, Hantao
2013-01-01
We present preliminary results for the calculation of the Kaon Bag parameter $B_K$ in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD, using M\\"obius Domain Wall Fermion ensembles generated by the RBC-UKQCD collaboration. This computation is done directly at physical meson masses, so that we do not have to rely on chiral perturbation theory or any other mass extrapolation. In parallel, the four-quark operator is renormalised through the Rome-Southampton technique. Finally, we compare our value with previous results and draw some conclusions about the remaining dominant contributions in our error budget.
Computer Forensic Using Lazy Local Bagging Predictors
QIU Wei-dong; BAO Cheng-yi; ZHU Xing-quan
2009-01-01
In this paper, we study the problem of employ ensemble learning for computer forensic. We propose a Lazy Local Learning based bagging (L3B) approach, where base learners are trained from a small instance subset surrounding each test instance. More specifically, given a test instance x, L3B first discovers x's k nearest neighbours, and then applies progressive sampling to the selected neighbours to train a set of base classifiers, by using a given very weak (VW) learner. At the last stage, x is labeled as the most frequently voted class of all base classifiers. Finally, we apply the proposed L3B to computer forensic.
The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper
A.Q. Liu
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.
An integrated texton and bag of words classifier for identifying anaplastic medulloblastomas.
Galaro, Joseph; Judkins, Alexander R; Ellison, David; Baccon, Jennifer; Madabhushi, Anant
2011-01-01
In this paper we present a combined Bag of Words and texton based classifier for differentiating anaplastic and non-anaplastic medulloblastoma on digitized histopathology. The hypothesis behind this work is that histological image signatures may reflect different levels of aggressiveness of the disease and that texture based approaches can help discriminate between more aggressive and less aggressive phenotypes of medulloblastoma. The bag of words approach attempts to model the occurrence of differently expressed image features. In this work we choose to model the image features via textons which can quantitatively capture and model texture appearance in the images. The texton-based features, obtained via two methods, the Haar Wavelet responses and MR8 filter bank, provide spatial orientation and rotation invariant attributes. Applying these features to the bag of words framework yields textural representations that can be used in conjunction with a classifier (κ-nearest neighbor) or a content based image retrieval system. Over multiple runs of randomized cross validation, a κ-NN classifier in conjunction with Haar wavelets and the texton, bag of words approach yielded a mean classification accuracy of 80, an area under the precision recall curve of 87 and an area under the ROC curve of 83 in distinguishing between anaplastic and non-anaplastic medulloblastomas on a cohort of 36 patient studies. PMID:22255080
Behaviour and Environment - A Behavioral Study of no Use of Plastic Bags' Intention
Eliane Bragança de Matos
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The perception of the environmental impact of current consumption patterns and the increasing centrality of this discourse in international environmentalism’s mainstream bring new perspectives and arguments concerning the consumerism of contemporary Western societies. From this perspective, the central question of this project was: “What is the intention of not using plastic bags?” Using as a theoretical reference the Planned Behavior Theory, which seeks to understand and predict human behavior in a general way from a reduced set of antecedent variables, we developed an intersectional survey consisting of 226 interviews. Data were processed by equations modeling and treated in Amos 16.0 software. The measurement model considered the mental constructions forming TCP. It was possible to identify as a major contribution of this study that the perceived behavioral control is the most influential factor on the intended not use of plastic bags, hindering the adoption of the behavior of not using plastic bags. Perhaps the fact that it is a settled habit, which involves several routine actions, such as the habit of going to the grocery store and have to plan in advance to take the alternative shopping bag or cart for packaging purchased products, or to count on ecological alternatives offered by commercial establishments, is a major and determining impediment for behavioral change.
Heat and mass transfer from a baby manikin: impact of a chemical warfare protective bag.
Danielsson, Ulf
2004-09-01
A chemical warfare (CW) protective bag for babies, younger than 1 year, has been evaluated in respect of thermal load. Heat and water vapour dissipating from the baby make the climate in the protective bag more demanding than outside. The thermal strain on a baby was estimated from heat and mass transfer data using an electrically heated baby manikin and a water-filled tray. Furthermore, a theoretical baby model was developed based on relations valid for heat and mass transfer rates from a cylinder and flat surface. Convective and radiative (dry) and evaporative heat transfer coefficients calculated from this model agreed well with the measured values. The maximum heat dissipation from a baby was calculated for combinations of air temperatures (22-30 degrees C) and relative humidities (70-90% rh). The results indicate that a naked baby can dissipate about 100% more heat than is produced during basal conditions when the bag is ventilated (70 1 min(-1)) and the ambient climate is 30 degrees C and 90% rh. If the ventilation rate is 40 1 min(-1), the margin is reduced to 50%. Clothing reduces the margin further. Ventilating the bag with 70 1 min(-1), a dressed baby can dissipate only 10-20% more heat than is produced during basal conditions in a climate (27 degrees C and 80% rh) that is obtained in a crowded shelter after about 24 h of occupation. PMID:15150661
MICROWAVE POPCORN EMISSIONS RELEASED DURING COOKING AND BAG OPENING
Data are not currently available on the contaminants released when microwave popcorn, flavorings and bags are heated to microwave temperatures. Thus, the primary goal of this work is to identify and quantify contaminants emitted while popping and opening a bag of microwave popcor...
Commander Brand stows trash in jettison bag on middeck
1982-01-01
Commander Brand disposes of empty food containers and dry trash in jettison bag and stows bag in middeck volume under MA73C control panel. Side hatch is visible behind Brand. Brand is wearing constant wear garment with communications kit assembly headset interface unit (HIU) and note pad strapped to his thighs.
Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant
ZONGHong-Shi; FENGHong-Tao; SUNWei-Min; DINGXiao-Ping; PINGJia-Lun
2004-01-01
A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.
Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant
ZONG Hong-Shi; FENG Hong-Tao; SUN Wei-Min; DING Xiao-Ping; PING Jia-Lun
2004-01-01
A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson-Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.
Efficacy of electron beams in radiation disinfestation of jute bags
An irradiator generating electron radiation may be employed for radiation disinfestation of jute bags infested with larvae and adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum DuV., if they are created as separate units or small batches, containing up to 40 bags, and are irradiated with a 2 kGy dose. (author)
Charges for plastic bags : Motivational and behavioral effects
Jakovcevic, Adriana; Steg, Linda; Mazzeo, Nadia; Caballero, Romina; Franco, Paul; Putrino, Natalia; Favara, Jesica
2014-01-01
Two field studies tested the effects of a charge for single-use plastic bags recently implemented in Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Study 1 showed a greater increase in consumers' own bag use after the charge was introduced in supermarkets where the policy was introduced, in comparison to control sup
Bagging Support Vector Machines for Leukemia Classification
Gokmen Zararsiz
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Leukemia is one of the most common cancer type, and its diagnosis and classification is becoming increasingly complex and important. Here, we used a gene expression dataset and adapted bagging support vector machines (bSVM for leukemia classification. bSVM trains each SVM seperately using bootstrap technique, then aggregates the performances of each SVM by majority voting. bSVM showed accuracy between 87.5% - 92.5%, area under ROC curve between 98.0% - 99.2%, F-measure between 90.5% - 92.7% and outperformed single SVM and other classification methods. We also compared our results with other study results which used the same dataset for leukemia classification. Experimental results revealed that bSVM showed the best performance and can be used as a biomarker for the diagnose of leukemia disease.
Braver, Elisa R; Kufera, Joseph A; Alexander, Melvin T; Scerbo, Marge; Volpini, Karen; Lloyd, Joseph P
2008-03-01
US air bag regulations were changed in 1997 to allow tests of unbelted male dummies in vehicles mounted and accelerated on sleds, resulting in longer crash pulses than rigid-barrier crashes. This change facilitated depowering of frontal air bags and was intended to reduce air bag-induced deaths. Controversy ensued as to whether sled-certified air bags could increase adult fatality risk. A matched-pair cohort study of two-vehicle, head-on, fatal collisions between drivers involving first-generation versus sled-certified air bags during 1998-2005 was conducted by using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data. Sled certification was ascertained from public information and a survey of automakers. Conditional Poisson regression for matched-pair cohorts was used to estimate risk ratios adjusted for age, seat belt status, vehicle type, passenger car size, and model year for driver deaths in vehicles with sled-certified air bags versus first-generation air bags. For all passenger-vehicle pairs, the adjusted risk ratio was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.98). In head-on collisions involving only passenger cars, the adjusted risk ratio was 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 1.29). Increased fatality risk for drivers with sled-certified air bags was not observed. A borderline significant interaction between vehicle type and air bag generation suggested that sled-certified air bags may have reduced the risk of dying in head-on collisions among drivers of pickup trucks. PMID:18079131
This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit Ca concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). No difference was noted in fruit Ca concentration among bagging materials during the growing season. And also, there was no difference in fruit Ca concentration between bagged and non-bagged fruits. The fruit flesh Ca concentration of bagged fruits was significantly lower than that of non-bagged fruits in the same tree, which 0.5 % CaCl2 was sprayed 5 times in the late growing season. The radioactivity of 45Ca was highest in the sprayed shoot leaves and bark, while only a trace amount was detected in the fruit and shoot proximate to the treated shoot 3 weeks after 3 times application of 45CaCl2 (5 micro Ci/ml). As a result, it is confirmed that the Ca once accumulated in a specific part is hardly retranslocated. Therefore, it is concluded that Ca foliar spray to the fruit-bagged tree has no influence on Ca concentration in the fruit
Regulation of BAG-1-IRES-mediated translation following chemotoxic stress
Dobbyn, Helen C.; Hill, Kirsti; Hamilton, Tiffany L.; Spriggs, Keith A.; Pickering, Becky M.; Coldwell, Mark J; de Moor, Cornelia H.; Bushell, Martin; Willis, Anne E.
2007-01-01
There are three major isoforms of BAG-1 in mammalian cells, termed BAG-1L (p50), BAG-1M (p46) and BAG-1S (p36) that function as pro-survival proteins and are associated with tumourigenesis and chemo-resistance. Initiation of BAG-1 protein synthesis can occur by both cap-dependent and cap-independent mechanisms and it has been shown that synthesis of BAG-1S is dependent upon the presence of an internal ribosome entry segment (IRES) in the 5′ UTR of BAG-1 mRNA. We have shown previously that BAG...
DESIGNING A PRODUCT CATALOGUE FOR CAT BAGS FALL WINTER 2016
Vorobyeva, Lidia
2015-01-01
The objective of this thesis project was to create a product catalogue for the brand Cat Bags. The project was conducted in co-operation with the bag manufacturer GROWN UP Group and its part called GROWN UP Licenses. The GROWN UP Licenses owns a license to produce and sell bags and related products under the brand Cat. Designing a product catalogue is a complex project including co-operation and collaboration with the GROWN UP Licenses marketing team and a senior graphic designer. The proc...
Dust filtration by means of compact filter bags
Filter materials used for separating particulate matter have been improved during the last few years and their scope of application has become much larger. One important innovation in this field are compact filter bags with a pleated surface; these bags have a porous self-supporting core covered by a microporous layer made of acrylic foam. A laboratory comparison between current tissue filters and the new compact bag filters revealed the latter to have a longer service life, a better compatibility with adhesive and wet dusts as well as an improved separation performance. (orig.)
Anti-Theft Bag for Elena Kihlman Design
Blom, Johanna
2015-01-01
The subject of this work was to design an anti-theft bag in collaboration with Elena Kihlman Design. The goal with this thesis was to collect information about new materials and facts to support the design process. The target market was a 25-55 year old urban working women with the economical capability to afford a handmade bag with a minimum 150€. Therefore the purpose was to find out how to design a functional anti-theft bag using Kihlman’s designing style and at the same time, potentially ...
Vacuum-bag-only processing of composites
Thomas, Shad
Ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode in conjunction with the amplitude of the reflected signal was used to measure flow rates of an epoxy resin film penetrating through the thickness of single layers of woven carbon fabric. Assemblies, comprised of a single layer of fabric and film, were vacuum-bagged and ultrasonically scanned in a water tank during impregnation at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. Measured flow rates were plotted versus inverse viscosity to determine the permeability in the thin film, non-saturated system. The results demonstrated that ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode is an effective method of measuring z-direction resin flow through a single layer of fabric. The permeability values determined in this work were consistent with permeability values reported in the literature. Capillary flow was not observed at the temperatures and times required for pressurized flow to occur. The flow rate at 65°C was predicted from the linear plot of flow rate versus inverse viscosity. The effects of fabric architecture on through-thickness flow rates during impregnation of an epoxy resin film were measured by ultrasonic imaging. Multilayered laminates comprised of woven carbon fabrics and epoxy films (prepregs) were fabricated by vacuum-bagging. Ultrasonic imaging was performed in a heated water tank (65°C) during impregnation. Impregnation rates showed a strong dependence on fabric architecture, despite similar areal densities. Impregnation rates are directly affected by inter-tow spacing and tow nesting, which depend on fabric architecture, and are indirectly affected by areal densities. A new method of predicting resin infusion rates in prepreg and resin film infusion processes was proposed. The Stokes equation was used to derive an equation to predict the impregnation rate of laminates as a function of fabric architecture. Flow rate data previously measured by ultrasound was analyzed with the new equation and the Kozeny-Carman equation. A fiber
Puyuelo, Belén; Colón, Joan; Martín, Patrícia; Sánchez, Antoni
2013-06-01
The separation of biowaste at home is key to improving, facilitating and reducing the operational costs of the treatment of organic municipal waste. The conventional method of collecting such waste and separating it at home is usually done by using a sealed bin with a plastic bag. The use of modern compostable bags is starting to be implemented in some European countries. These compostable bags are made of biodegradable polymers, often from renewable sources. In addition to compostable bags, a new model of bin is also promoted that has a perforated surface that, together with the compostable bag, makes the so-called "aerated system". In this study, different combinations of home collection systems have been systematically studied in the laboratory and at home. The results obtained quantitatively demonstrate that the aerated bin and compostable bag system combination is effective at improving the collection of biowaste without significant gaseous emissions and preparing the organic waste for further composting as concluded from the respiration indices. In terms of weight loss, temperature, gas emissions, respiration index and organic matter reduction, the best results were achieved with the aerated system. At the same time, a qualitative study of bin and bag combinations was carried in 100 homes in which more than 80% of the families participating preferred the aerated system. PMID:23490360
Solli, Martin; Lenz, Reiner
In this paper we describe how to include high level semantic information, such as aesthetics and emotions, into Content Based Image Retrieval. We present a color-based emotion-related image descriptor that can be used for describing the emotional content of images. The color emotion metric used is derived from psychophysical experiments and based on three variables: activity, weight and heat. It was originally designed for single-colors, but recent research has shown that the same emotion estimates can be applied in the retrieval of multi-colored images. Here we describe a new approach, based on the assumption that perceived color emotions in images are mainly affected by homogenous regions, defined by the emotion metric, and transitions between regions. RGB coordinates are converted to emotion coordinates, and for each emotion channel, statistical measurements of gradient magnitudes within a stack of low-pass filtered images are used for finding interest points corresponding to homogeneous regions and transitions between regions. Emotion characteristics are derived for patches surrounding each interest point, and saved in a bag-of-emotions, that, for instance, can be used for retrieving images based on emotional content.
Bag-like contaminant control work module
A bag-like contaminant control work module is formed from a flexible impervious membrane which is inflated inside of an enclosed workspace to protect workers in the module from contaminants. The workspace, such as in a nuclear power steam generator, has a portal or manway opening into the workspace into which the module is secured by a module passageway. The module includes one or more glove boxes, in which the workers perform their assigned tasks after passing through the passageway and portal. The module includes one or more absolute filters allowing passage of air flow through the module passageway and into the workspace only through the filters. The module may include an auxiliary passageway secured to the outside of the module passageway and also secured in the portal opening and through which items can be passed back and forth to the worker in the glove box from outside the portal. The module is invertible so that it can be pulled out of the workspace trapping all the contaminants therein and disposed of without handling the contaminants
Measurement of VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC solubility in polyethylene drum liner
A test program conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated the use of a transport model to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume of a waste drum. Unsteady-state VOC transport model equations account for VOC permeation of polymer bags, VOC diffusion across openings in layers of confinement, and VOC solubility in a polyethylene drum liner. In support of this program, the VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC equilibrium concentration in a polyethylene drum liner were measured for nine VOCs. The VOCs used in experiments were dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), trichloroethylene, and p-xylene. The experimental results of these measurements as well as a method of estimating both parameters in the absence of experimental data are described in this report
Face-Saving Devices: Seat Belts and Air Bags
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160032.html Face-Saving Devices: Seat Belts and Air Bags Using ... 11 percent) suffered facial fractures -- nasal and mid-face fractures most often. Those most likely to suffer ...
Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag
Kurniawan, A; Greaves, D M; Hann, M; Farley, F J M
2016-01-01
A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape.
Bag nyhederne - værdier, idealer og praksis
Schultz, Ida
Hvorfor bliver nogle begivenheder til nyheder? Hvilke nyhedsværdier hersker på danske redaktioner? Bag nyhederne er en sociologisk undersøgelse af dansk nyhedskultur, der giver et indblik i hverdagens journalistiske praksis....
Comparison of three methods in improving bag mask ventilation
Samad EJ Golzari
2014-01-01
Conclusions: Leaving dentures in place in edentulous patients after inducing anesthesia improves bag-mask ventilation. However, placing folded compressed gauze in buccal space leads to more significant improvement in BMV compared to leaving dentures in place.
FDA OKs 'Containment' Bag for Certain Uterine Surgeries
... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158195.html FDA OKs 'Containment' Bag for Certain Uterine Surgeries But most women ... it would permit limited use of a "tissue containment system" in conjunction with laparoscopic power morcellators -- devices ...
Double Bag VARTM for High Temperature Composites Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The process known as double bag vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (DBVARTM) was developed by NASA to help deplete by products. To date, the NASA DBVARTM...
Weight-Selected Attribute Bagging for Credit Scoring
Jianwu Li; Haizhou Wei; Wangli Hao
2013-01-01
Assessment of credit risk is of great importance in financial risk management. In this paper, we propose an improved attribute bagging method, weight-selected attribute bagging (WSAB), to evaluate credit risk. Weights of attributes are first computed using attribute evaluation method such as linear support vector machine (LSVM) and principal component analysis (PCA). Subsets of attributes are then constructed according to weights of attributes. For each of attribute subsets, the larger the we...
The spin bag mechanism of high temperature superconductivity
Schrieffer, J. R.; Wen, X.-G.; Zhang, S.-C.
1989-01-01
In oxide superconductors the local suppression of antiferromagnetic correlations in the vicinity of a hole lowers the energy of the system. This quasi two-dimensional bag of weakened spin order follows the hole in its motion. In addition, holes prefer to share a bag, leading to a strong pairing attraction and a high Tc superconductivity. There are many experimental consequences of this mechanism for both the superconducting and normal phases.
Tunnuksen uudistus ja tuoteilmeen suunnittelu Maru's Bags -laukkumallistolle
Lindell, Päivi
2010-01-01
Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tuotetunnuksen uudistus ja tuoteilmeen suunnittelu laukkuja suunnittelevalle ja valmistavalle Maru's Bags -yritykselle. Tuoteilmeen suunnittelu piti sisällään Internet-sivujen, käyntikortin ja riippulappujen suunnittelun. Maru's Bags on tamperelaisen suunnittelijan itse valmistama laukkumallisto. Tuote-merkin tunnus oli vuodelta 2004 ja malliston suunnittelija kaipasi tunnukselle uudistusta tuotteiden esittelysivuston suunnittelun yhteydessä. Yrityksellä ei ollut enn...
The use of filtered bags to increase waste payload capacity
For the past few years, the Department of Energy has favored the direct disposal of low plutonium content residue materials from Rocky Flats rather than engage in expensive and time consuming plutonium recovery operations. One impediment to direct disposal has been the wattage limit imposed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on hydrogenous materials such as combustibles and sludges. The issue of concern is the radiolytic generation and accumulation of hydrogen and other explosive gases in waste containers. The wattage limits that existed through 1996 restricted the amount of plutonium bearing hydrogenous materials that could be packaged in a WIPP bound waste drum to only a fraction of the capacity of a drum. Typically, only about one kilogram of combustible residue could be packaged in a waste drum before the wattage limit was exceeded resulting in an excessively large number of drums to be procured, stored, shipped, and interred. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated the use of filtered plastic bags (called bag-out bags) used to remove transuranic waste materials from glove box lines. The bags contain small, disk like HEPA filters which are effective in containing radioactively contaminated particulate material but allow for the diffusion of hydrogen gas. Used in conjunction with filtered 55 gallon drums, filtered bag-out bags were pursued as a means to increase the allowable wattage limits for selected residue materials. In February 1997, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the use of filtered bag-out bags for transuranic waste materials destined for WIPP. The concomitant increase in wattage limits now allows for approximately four times the payload per waste drum for wattage limited materials
Learning Multilingual Word Representations using a Bag-of-Words Autoencoder
Lauly, Stanislas; Boulanger, Alex; Larochelle, Hugo
2014-01-01
Recent work on learning multilingual word representations usually relies on the use of word-level alignements (e.g. infered with the help of GIZA++) between translated sentences, in order to align the word embeddings in different languages. In this workshop paper, we investigate an autoencoder model for learning multilingual word representations that does without such word-level alignements. The autoencoder is trained to reconstruct the bag-of-word representation of given sentence from an enc...
The Microenvironment within and Pollen Transmission through Polyethylene Sorghum Pollination Bags
Dennis C. Gitz; Jeffrey T. Baker; Zhanguo Xin; Burke, John J.; Robert J. Lascano
2015-01-01
Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. Earlier we reported upon bird resistance of spun polyethylene pollination bags. Herein, we report the potential for pollen transmission through, and the microenvironment within, hard form (HfT) and soft form (SfT) spun polyethylene pollination bags as compared to traditional Paper pollination bags. Within Paper pollination bags m...
Determination of H{sub 2} Diffusion Rates through Various Closures on TRU Waste Bag-Out Bags
Phillip D. Noll, Jr.; E. Larry Callis; Kirsten M. Norman
1999-06-01
The amount of H{sub 2} diffusion through twist and tape (horse-tail), wire tie, plastic tie, and heat sealed closures on transuranic (TRU) waste bag-out bags has been determined. H{sub 2} diffusion through wire and plastic tie closures on TRU waste bag-out bags has not been previously characterized and, as such, TRU waste drums containing bags with these closures cannot be certified and/or shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Since wire ties have been used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1980 to 1991 and the plastic ties from 1991 to the present, there are currently thousands of waste drums that cannot be shipped to the WIPP site. Repackaging the waste would be prohibitively expensive. Diffusion experiments performed on the above mentioned closures show that the diffusion rates of plastic tie and horse-tail closures are greater than the accepted value presented in the TRU-PACT 11 Safety Analysis Report (SAR). Diffusion rates for wire tie closures are not statistically different from the SAR value. Thus, drums containing bags with these closures can now potentially be certified which would allow for their consequent shipment to WIPP.
Bag-of-visual-ngrams for histopathology image classification
López-Monroy, A. Pastor; Montes-y-Gómez, Manuel; Escalante, Hugo Jair; Cruz-Roa, Angel; González, Fabio A.
2013-11-01
This paper describes an extension of the Bag-of-Visual-Words (BoVW) representation for image categorization (IC) of histophatology images. This representation is one of the most used approaches in several high-level computer vision tasks. However, the BoVW representation has an important limitation: the disregarding of spatial information among visual words. This information may be useful to capture discriminative visual-patterns in specific computer vision tasks. In order to overcome this problem we propose the use of visual n-grams. N-grams based-representations are very popular in the field of natural language processing (NLP), in particular within text mining and information retrieval. We propose building a codebook of n-grams and then representing images by histograms of visual n-grams. We evaluate our proposal in the challenging task of classifying histopathology images. The novelty of our proposal lies in the fact that we use n-grams as attributes for a classification model (together with visual-words, i.e., 1-grams). This is common practice within NLP, although, to the best of our knowledge, this idea has not been explored yet within computer vision. We report experimental results in a database of histopathology images where our proposed method outperforms the traditional BoVWs formulation.
Transient response of the 'multiple water-bag' plasma
A charge activates impulsively and then decays temporally within a MWB (multiple water-bag)-modelled warm plasma. The transient problem is formulated and asymptotically resolved for large time. The response potential comprises two characteristically distinct quantities W and WN: W is a superposition of spherically expanding, moderately attenuated Kelvin waves contributed by certain points on a subset of dispersion curves; WN is a superposition, associated with two other dispersion curves, of three spherical wavefunctions, one of which incorporates the Fresnel integrals. A transient state feature of the MWB discretization is the partitioning of the response field by growing (fast) fronts, (trailing) slow caustics and aj-surfaces, the fastest among these being an aN- surface (thermal front) which pushes back a quasi-static exterior. Contrary to expectations, there is no response jump across any of those growing partitions. Wavefunctions near the slow caustics possess Airy factors. A rest state ultimately develops behind the slowest slow caustic. An application is made to the fluid plasma. (author)
Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags
One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO2 was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO2 and showed higher spatial variation than NO2. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO2 variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO2 given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: → Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. → Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO2 concentrations. → Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO2. → Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. → Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.
Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags
Rivera, Marcela, E-mail: arivera@creal.ca [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Zechmeister, Harald [University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Foraster, Maria [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Bouso, Laura [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Moreno, Teresa [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael [Research Unit, Family Medicine, Girona, Jordi Gol Institute for Primary Care Research (IDIAP Jordi Gol), Catalan Institute of Health, Catalunya (Spain); Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Girona (Spain); Koellensperger, Gunda [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Deltell, Alexandre [Polytechnic School, GREFEMA, University of Girona (Spain); Vizcaya, David [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)
2011-04-15
One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO{sub 2} was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO{sub 2} and showed higher spatial variation than NO{sub 2}. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO{sub 2} variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO{sub 2} given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: > Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. > Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations. > Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO{sub 2}. > Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. > Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.
Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger
Baoua, Ibrahim B.
2012-10-01
Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics
Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa
2016-01-01
The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.
Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags
Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa
2016-01-01
The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.
Linearized theory of inhomogeneous multiple 'water-bag' plasmas
Bloomberg, H. W.; Berk, H. L.
1973-01-01
Equations are derived for describing the inhomogeneous equilibrium and small deviations from the equilibrium, giving particular attention to systems with trapped particles. An investigation is conducted of periodic systems with a single trapped-particle water bag, taking into account the behavior of the perturbation equations at the turning points. An outline is provided concerning a procedure for obtaining the eigenvalues. The results of stability calculations connected with the sideband effects are considered along with questions regarding the general applicability of the multiple water-bag approach in stability calculations.
Spin-bag mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity
Schrieffer, J. R.; Wen, X.-G.; Zhang, S.-C.
1988-01-01
A new approach to the theory of high-temperature superconductivity is proposed, based on the two-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin correlations observed in these materials over distances large compared to the lattice spacing. The spin ordering produces an electronic pseudogap which is locally suppressed by the addition of a hole. This suppression forms a bag inside which the hole is self-consistently trapped. Two holes are attracted by sharing a common bag. The resulting pairing interaction leads to a superconducting energy gap which is nodeless over the Femri surface.
Investigation into effects of environmental radiation on polypropylene bags
Polypropylene woven bags were exposed to environmental conditions over a period of time. Samples were removed from woven bags and the tensile properties examined using an extensometer. Molar mass changes were monitored by dilute viscosity measurements. The concentration of the stabilisers was determined using UV spectroscopy. This study established the behaviour of polypropylene tapes under environmental conditions. The mechanical properties of the samples were found to deteriorate with exposure time. Also, the amount of stabiliser reduced with aging time whilst the molar mass increased suggesting crosslinking of the material occurring. The results of the study suggest that there was no difference in the performance between the stabilised and the unstabilised samples. (author)
BAG3: a new player in the heart failure paradigm
Knezevic, Tijana; Myers, Valerie D.; Gordon, Jennifer; Tilley, Douglas G.; Sharp, Thomas E.; Wang, JuFang; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y.; Feldman, Arthur M.
2015-01-01
BAG3 is a cellular protein that is expressed predominantly in skeletal and cardiac muscle but can also be found in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system. BAG3 functions in the cell include: serving as a co-chaperone with members of the heat-shock protein family of proteins to facilitate the removal of misfolded and degraded proteins, inhibiting apoptosis by interacting with Bcl2 and maintaining the structural integrity of the Z-disk in muscle by binding with CapZ. The importance of B...
Spontaneous low-pressure headache complicating bag-piping.
Patrick, Alasdair; McAuley, David; Roxburgh, Richard
2007-04-01
We describe an interesting case of a 40-year-old lady who developed a spontaneous low-pressure headache whilst playing the bag-pipes. Playing wind instruments requires the generation of significant intra-thoracic pressure, which may have contributed to this musician's condition. PMID:17445112
Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting
Siriwardane, Harshini P.
2014-01-01
Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…
Circular filter bag change ladderack system video presentation
A great deal of research and development at Harwell over the last few years has centered around the design of circular radial flow HEPA filters as alternatives to the traditional rectangular HEPA filter. With a circular insert there are inherent features which give this geometry certain advantages over its counterpart, such as ease of sealing, compatibility with remote handling and disposal routes; these have been well publicized in previous works. A mock-up is shown of a bag change ladderack system of 3400m3/h circular filter. It highlights the space requirements for bag changing and demonstrates the ease with which a filter may be replaced. The filter throat incorporates a silicone rubber lip seal which forms a flap seal against a tapered spigot feature built into the wall. The novelty of this filter design is that the bag is an integral part of the filter and is attached onto the filter flange. This enables the inside of the filter, where the contamination particulate has collected, to be sealed/bagged off and hence the dust burden retained
Karaşahin, Muhammet
2015-01-01
In this study, effects of two different fermentation times (35 and 70 days), two different packaging colors (black and white) and two different sealing (thermal sealing without vacuum in single bag and vacuum binding with clip in first bag + thermal sealing in second bag) were investigated on packaged corn silage quality. According to research results, pH values increased and flieg scores decreased as fermentation time gets longer. The crude protein values obtained from white colored bags wer...
BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress
Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1−/−) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling
BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress
Jin, Young-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, Chosun University College of Dentistry, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-A., E-mail: ksooa@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-08-21
Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.
Damping performance of bean bag dampers in zero gravity environments
Zhang, Chao; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng
2016-06-01
Bean bag dampers (BBDs), developed from impact damping technology, have been widely applied in engineering field to attenuate the vibration of a structural system. The damping effect of a BBD on vibration control in ground gravity environments is good, but its performance in zero gravity environments is not clear, and there are few studies on it. Therefore, the damping effect of BBDs in zero gravity environments was investigated based on the discrete element method (DEM) in this paper. Firstly, a three-dimensional DEM model of a BBD was established, and the damping effects of the single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems with BBDs and non-obstructive particle dampers (NOPDs) in zero gravity environments were compared. Moreover, the influences of the diameter of the inner ball, the tightness of BBD, the vibration frequency of SDOF system and the gap between BBD and cavity on the vibration reduction effect of BBD in zero gravity environments were also studied, and the results were compared with the system with BBD in ground gravity environments. There are optimum ranges of the diameter of the inner ball, tightness and gap for BBD, and the effects of these parameters on the damping performances of BBD in gravity and zero gravity environments are similar in evolving trends, and the values are without big differences in the optimum ranges. Thereby the parameter selection in BBD design in zero gravity environments is similar to that in gravity environments. However, the diameter of BBD should be a slightly larger than the size of the cavity when the structures with BBD work in zero gravity environments. The BBD is supposed to be picked tightly when the vibration frequency is high, and the BBD has better to be picked more tightly in zero gravity environments. These results can be used as a guide in the design of BBDs in zero gravity environments.
2013-08-19
... at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122- 34124 (June 18... Review, 72 FR 1982, 1983 (January 17, 2007), Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Final... Administrative Review, 72 FR 64580 (November 16, 2007), Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand:...
2010-09-02
... Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9, 2004). On... Review, 75 FR 23673 (May 4, 2010), and Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time...: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122, 34123 (June 18, 2004). The POR is August 1,...
2011-11-16
... Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR... Bags From Thailand, 75 FR 48940 (August 12, 2010). These deposit requirements, when imposed, shall... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Correction to the...
Perin, Maxime; Tassi, Emanuele
2015-01-01
Hamiltonian models for the first three moments of the drift-kinetic distribution function, namely the density, the fluid velocity and the parallel pressure, are derived from the Hamiltonian structure of the drift-kinetic equations. The link with the water-bag closure is established, showing that, unlike the one-dimensional Vlasov equations, these solutions are the only Hamiltonian fluid reductions for the drift-kinetic equation. These models are discussed through their equations of motion and their Casimir invariants.
Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC
Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang
Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.
The development of a high temperature catalytically active pleated filter bag with hybrid filter equipment for the combined removal of particles and nitrogen oxides from flue gas streams is presented. A special catalyst load in stainless steel mesh cartridge with a high temperature pleated filter bag followed by optimized catalytic activation was developed to reach the required nitrogen oxides levels and to maintain the higher collection efficiencies. The catalytic properties of the developed high temperature filter bags with hybrid filter equipment were studied and demonstrated in a pilot scale test rig and a demonstration plant using commercial scale of high temperature catalytic pleated filter bags. The performance of the catalytic pleated filter bags were tested under different operating conditions, such as filtration velocity and operating temperature. Moreover, the cleaning efficiency and residual pressure drop of the catalyst loaded cartridges in pleated filter bags were tested. As result of theses studies, the optimum operating conditions for the catalytic pleated filter bags are determined. (author)
Evaluation of microwave steam bags for the decontamination of filtering facepiece respirators.
Fisher, Edward M; Williams, Jessica L; Shaffer, Ronald E
2011-01-01
Reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) has been suggested as a strategy to conserve available supplies for home and healthcare environments during an influenza pandemic. For reuse to be possible, used FFRs must be decontaminated before redonning to reduce the risk of virus transmission; however, there are no approved methods for FFR decontamination. An effective method must reduce the microbial threat, maintain the function of the FFR, and present no residual chemical hazard. The method should be readily available, inexpensive and easily implemented by healthcare workers and the general public. Many of the general decontamination protocols used in healthcare and home settings are unable to address all of the desired qualities of an efficient FFR decontamination protocol. The goal of this study is to evaluate the use of two commercially available steam bags, marketed to the public for disinfecting infant feeding equipment, for FFR decontamination. The FFRs were decontaminated with microwave generated steam following the manufacturers' instructions then evaluated for water absorption and filtration efficiency for up to three steam exposures. Water absorption of the FFR was found to be model specific as FFRs constructed with hydrophilic materials absorbed more water. The steam had little effect on FFR performance as filtration efficiency of the treated FFRs remained above 95%. The decontamination efficacy of the steam bag was assessed using bacteriophage MS2 as a surrogate for a pathogenic virus. The tested steam bags were found to be 99.9% effective for inactivating MS2 on FFRs; however, more research is required to determine the effectiveness against respiratory pathogens. PMID:21525995
Rationalerne bag de geografiske placeringer af vidensbaserede virksomheder i Danmark
Smith, Miriam Lerkenfeld; Jensen, Jon Gudmann; Jensen, Maria Nymann; Nielsen, Ann Cecilie; Fabech, Maja Yoon
2006-01-01
Projektet handler om danske vidensvirksomheders rationaler bag den geografiske placering af disses afdelinger i Danmark. Dette belyses af to teorier, omhandlende den kreative klasse og kompetenceklynger, udarbejdet af henholdsvis Richard Florida og Michael Porter begge amerikanske teoretikere. Med et udgangspunkt i den kritiske realisme foretages selvstændigt bearbejdelse af allerede eksisterende empirisk materiale, i form af to rapporter der behandler den kreative klasses geografiske placeri...
Bagged Boosted Trees for Classification of Ecological Momentary Assessment Data
Spanakis, Gerasimos; Weiss, Gerhard; Roefs, Anne
2016-01-01
Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data is organized in multiple levels (per-subject, per-day, etc.) and this particular structure should be taken into account in machine learning algorithms used in EMA like decision trees and its variants. We propose a new algorithm called BBT (standing for Bagged Boosted Trees) that is enhanced by a over/under sampling method and can provide better estimates for the conditional class probability function. Experimental results on a real-world dataset show...
Electro membrane extraction using sorbent filled porous membrane bag.
Naing, Nyi Nyi; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Lee, Hian Kee
2015-12-01
Electro membrane extraction-solid-liquid phase microextraction (EME-SLPME) was developed for the first time to determine phenolic contaminants in water. The extraction system consisted of a solid/liquid interface that permitted a three-phase microextraction approach involving an aqueous sample (donor phase): an organic solvent-sorbent within a membrane bag, and an organic solvent (extractant phase), operated in a direct immersion sampling system. The sorbent, reduced graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol, synthesized using graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol by dispersing the graphene oxide in polyvinyl alcohol and chemically reducing it in aqueous solution. The prepared sorbent was dispersed in 1-octanol and the solution was immobilized by sonication in the membrane bag wall pores which was in contact with the aqueous donor solution and organic extractant solvent (1-octanol) in the main bag itself. The analytes were transported by application of an electrical potential difference of 100V across the sorbent/solvent phase from the aqueous sample into the organic extractant phase in the membrane bag. After extraction and derivatization, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the derivatized analytes. This proposed EME-LSPME procedure provided high extraction efficiency with relative recoveries up to 99.6%. A linearity range of between 0.05 and 100μgL(-1) with corresponding coefficients of determination (r(2)) of between 0.987 and 0.996 were obtained. The limits of detection were in the range of between 0.003 and 0.053μgL(-1). This proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolic contaminants from water sample. PMID:26530143