Sample records for bacterial inositol phosphatase

  1. Inositol monophosphate phosphatase genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Parish Tanya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacteria use inositol in phosphatidylinositol, for anchoring lipoarabinomannan (LAM, lipomannan (LM and phosphatidylinosotol mannosides (PIMs in the cell envelope, and for the production of mycothiol, which maintains the redox balance of the cell. Inositol is synthesized by conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to inositol-1-phosphate, followed by dephosphorylation by inositol monophosphate phosphatases (IMPases to form myo-inositol. To gain insight into how Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesises inositol we carried out genetic analysis of the four IMPase homologues that are present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. Results Mutants lacking either impA (Rv1604 or suhB (Rv2701c were isolated in the absence of exogenous inositol, and no differences in levels of PIMs, LM, LAM or mycothiol were observed. Mutagenesis of cysQ (Rv2131c was initially unsuccessful, but was possible when a porin-like gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis was expressed, and also by gene switching in the merodiploid strain. In contrast, we could only obtain mutations in impC (Rv3137 when a second functional copy was provided in trans, even when exogenous inositol was provided. Experiments to obtain a mutant in the presence of a second copy of impC containing an active-site mutation, in the presence of porin-like gene of M. smegmatis, or in the absence of inositol 1-phosphate synthase activity, were also unsuccessful. We showed that all four genes are expressed, although at different levels, and levels of inositol phosphatase activity did not fall significantly in any of the mutants obtained. Conclusions We have shown that neither impA, suhB nor cysQ is solely responsible for inositol synthesis. In contrast, we show that impC is essential for mycobacterial growth under the conditions we used, and suggest it may be required in the early stages of mycothiol synthesis.

  2. Ubiquitination of the bacterial inositol phosphatase, SopB, regulates its biological activity at the plasma membrane.

    Knodler, Leigh A


    The Salmonella type III effector, SopB, is an inositol polyphosphate phosphatase that modulates host cell phospholipids at the plasma membrane and the nascent Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). Translocated SopB persists for many hours after infection and is ubiquitinated but the significance of this covalent modification has not been investigated. Here we identify by mass spectrometry six lysine residues of SopB that are mono-ubiquitinated. Substitution of these six lysine residues with arginine, SopB-K(6)R, almost completely eliminated SopB ubiquitination. We found that ubiquitination does not affect SopB stability or membrane association, or SopB-dependent events in SCV biogenesis. However, two spatially and temporally distinct events are dependent on ubiquitination, downregulation of SopB activity at the plasma membrane and prolonged retention of SopB on the SCV. Activation of the mammalian pro-survival kinase Akt\\/PKB, a downstream target of SopB, was intensified and prolonged after infection with the SopB-K(6)R mutant. At later times, fewer SCV were decorated with SopB-K(6)R compared with SopB. Instead SopB-K(6)R was present as discrete vesicles spread diffusely throughout the cell. Altogether, our data show that ubiquitination of SopB is not related to its intracellular stability but rather regulates its enzymatic activity at the plasma membrane and intracellular localization.

  3. New Functions of the Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatases in Cancer.

    Erneux, Christophe; Ghosh, Somadri; Ramos, Ana Raquel; Edimo, William's Elong


    Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases act on inositol phosphates and phosphoinositides as substrates. They are 10 different isoenzymes and several splice variants in the human genome that are involved in a series of human pathologies such as the Lowe syndrome, the Joubert and MORM syndromes, breast cancer, glioblastoma, gastric cancer and several other type of cancers. Inositol 5-phosphatases can be amplified in human cancer cells, whereas the 3- and 4- phosphatase tumor suppressor PTEN and INPP4B, repectively are often repressed or deleted. The inositol 5-phosphatases are critically involved in a complex network of higly regulated phosphoinositides, affecting the lipid content of PI(3, 4, 5)P3, PI(4, 5)P2 and PI(3, 4)P2. This has an impact on the normal behavior of many intracellular target proteins e.g. protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) or actin binding proteins and final biological responses. The production of PI(3, 4P)2 by dephosphorylation of the substrate PI(3, 4, 5)P3 is particularly important as it produces a new signal messenger in the control of cell migration, invasion and endocytosis. New inhibitors/activators of inositol 5- phosphatases have recently been identified for the possible control of their activity in several human pathologies such as inflamation and cancer. PMID:26916021

  4. Leishmanial phosphatase hydrolyzes phosphoproteins and inositol phosphates

    An extensively purified preparation of the predominant, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACP) from the external surface of Leishmania donovani promastigotes form catalyzes the dephosphorylation of several phosphoproteins; these include: pyruvate kinase, phosphorylase kinase and histones. However, the protein phosphatase activity of ACP is very low compared with that of other protein phosphates known to be involved in regulating various metabolic pathways. 32P-labelled inositoltriphosphate (IP3), a well-established second messenger derived from phosphatidylinositol-4,5-diphosphate (PIP2), was a substrate for the leishmanial acid phosphatase; incubation of the IP3 preparation with 13.2 milliunits (1 unit equals 1 μmol 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (MUP) cleaved per min at pH 5.5) of ACP at pH 5.5 for 4 hr resulted in hydrolysis of 75% of the radiolabelled substrate resulting in a mixture of inositoldiphosphate and inositolmonophosphate. In addition PIP2 was hydrolyzed rapidly by ACP at pH 5.5 (V/sub max/, 71 units/mg protein; k/sub m/, 4.16 μM). In contrast, to MUP which is hydrolzyed most rapidly at pH 5.5, PIP2 hydrolysis was optimal at pH 6.8. These observations raise the possibility that ACP could play a role in the host-phagocyte interaction by degrading the precursor of the second messenger, PIP2 or the second messenger itself, IP3

  5. Crystal Structures of Type-II Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase INPP5B with Synthetic Inositol Polyphosphate Surrogates Reveal New Mechanistic Insights for the Inositol 5-Phosphatase Family.

    Mills, Stephen J; Silvander, Camilla; Cozier, Gyles; Trésaugues, Lionel; Nordlund, Pär; Potter, Barry V L


    The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase INPP5B hydrolyzes the 5-phosphate group from water- and lipid-soluble signaling messengers. Two synthetic benzene and biphenyl polyphosphates (BzP/BiPhPs), simplified surrogates of inositol phosphates and phospholipid headgroups, were identified by thermodynamic studies as potent INPP5B ligands. The X-ray structure of the complex between INPP5B and biphenyl 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate [BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6, IC50 5.5 μM] was determined at 2.89 Å resolution. One inhibitor pole locates in the phospholipid headgroup binding site and the second solvent-exposed ring binds to the His-Tag of another INPP5B molecule, while a molecule of inorganic phosphate is also present in the active site. Benzene 1,2,3-trisphosphate [Bz(1,2,3)P3] [one ring of BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6] inhibits INPP5B ca. 6-fold less potently. Co-crystallization with benzene 1,2,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Bz(1,2,4,5)P4, IC50 = 6.3 μM] yielded a structure refined at 2.9 Å resolution. Conserved residues among the 5-phosphatase family mediate interactions with Bz(1,2,4,5)P4 and BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 similar to those with the polar groups present in positions 1, 4, 5, and 6 on the inositol ring of the substrate. 5-Phosphatase specificity most likely resides in the variable zone located close to the 2- and 3-positions of the inositol ring, offering insights to inhibitor design. We propose that the inorganic phosphate present in the INPP5B-BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 complex mimics the postcleavage substrate 5-phosphate released by INPP5B in the catalytic site, allowing elucidation of two new key features in the catalytic mechanism proposed for the family of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases: first, the involvement of the conserved Arg-451 in the interaction with the 5-phosphate and second, identification of the water molecule that initiates 5-phosphate hydrolysis. Our model also has implications for the proposed "moving metal" mechanism. PMID:26854536

  6. Underexpression of the 43 kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase is associated with cellular transformation.

    C. J. Speed; Little, P J; Hayman, J. A.; Mitchell, C A


    The 43 kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (5-phosphatase) hydrolyses the second messenger molecules inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4]. We have underexpressed the 43 kDa 5-phosphatase by stably transfecting normal rat kidney cells with the cDNA encoding the enzyme, cloned in the antisense orientation into the tetracycline-inducible expression vector pUHD10-3. Antisense-transfected cells demonstrated a 45% reduction in Ins(...

  7. Compensatory Role of Inositol 5-Phosphatase INPP5B to OCRL in Primary Cilia Formation in Oculocerebrorenal Syndrome of Lowe.

    Na Luo

    Full Text Available Inositol phosphatases are important regulators of cell signaling, polarity, and vesicular trafficking. Mutations in OCRL, an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, result in Oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe, an X-linked recessive disorder that presents with congenital cataracts, glaucoma, renal dysfunction and mental retardation. INPP5B is a paralog of OCRL and shares similar structural domains. The roles of OCRL and INPP5B in the development of cataracts and glaucoma are not understood. Using ocular tissues, this study finds low levels of INPP5B present in human trabecular meshwork but high levels in murine trabecular meshwork. In contrast, OCRL is localized in the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal endothelial cells in both human and murine eyes. In cultured human retinal pigmented epithelial cells, INPP5B was observed in the primary cilia. A functional role for INPP5B is revealed by defects in cilia formation in cells with silenced expression of INPP5B. This is further supported by the defective cilia formation in zebrafish Kupffer's vesicles and in cilia-dependent melanosome transport assays in inpp5b morphants. Taken together, this study indicates that OCRL and INPP5B are differentially expressed in the human and murine eyes, and play compensatory roles in cilia development.

  8. Asp1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe binds a [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster which inhibits inositol pyrophosphate 1-phosphatase activity.

    Wang, Huanchen; Nair, Vasudha S; Holland, Ashley A; Capolicchio, Samanta; Jessen, Henning J; Johnson, Michael K; Shears, Stephen B


    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are widely distributed protein cofactors that are vital to cellular biochemistry and the maintenance of bioenergetic homeostasis, but to our knowledge, they have never been identified in any phosphatase. Here, we describe an iron-sulfur cluster in Asp1, a dual-function kinase/phosphatase that regulates cell morphogenesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Full-length Asp1, and its phosphatase domain (Asp1(371-920)), were each heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The phosphatase activity is exquisitely specific: it hydrolyzes the 1-diphosphate from just two members of the inositol pyrophosphate (PP-InsP) signaling family, namely, 1-InsP7 and 1,5-InsP8. We demonstrate that Asp1 does not hydrolyze either InsP6, 2-InsP7, 3-InsP7, 4-InsP7, 5-InsP7, 6-InsP7, or 3,5-InsP8. We also recorded 1-phosphatase activity in a human homologue of Asp1, hPPIP5K1, which was heterologously expressed in Drosophila S3 cells with a biotinylated N-terminal tag, and then isolated from cell lysates with avidin beads. Purified, recombinant Asp1(371-920) contained iron and acid-labile sulfide, but the stoichiometry (0.8 atoms of each per protein molecule) indicates incomplete iron-sulfur cluster assembly. We reconstituted the Fe-S cluster in vitro under anaerobic conditions, which increased the stoichiometry to approximately 2 atoms of iron and acid-labile sulfide per Asp1 molecule. The presence of a [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster in Asp1(371-920) was demonstrated by UV-visible absorption, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We determined that this [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster is unlikely to participate in redox chemistry, since it rapidly degraded upon reduction by dithionite. Biochemical and mutagenic studies demonstrated that the [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster substantially inhibits the phosphatase activity of Asp1, thereby increasing its net kinase activity. PMID:26422458

  9. Up-regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in tobacco cells constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase

    Perera, Imara Y.; Love, John; Heilmann, Ingo; Thompson, William F.; Boss, Wendy F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)


    To evaluate the impact of suppressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) in plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were transformed with the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes InsP(3). The transgenic cell lines showed a 12- to 25-fold increase in InsP 5-ptase activity in vitro and a 60% to 80% reduction in basal InsP(3) compared with wild-type cells. Stimulation with Mas-7, a synthetic analog of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in InsP(3) in both wild-type and transgenic cells. However, even with stimulation, InsP(3) levels in the transgenic cells did not reach wild-type basal values, suggesting that InsP(3) signaling is compromised. Analysis of whole-cell lipids indicated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP(2)), the lipid precursor of InsP(3), was greatly reduced in the transgenic cells. In vitro assays of enzymes involved in PtdInsP(2) metabolism showed that the activity of the PtdInsP(2)-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase C was not significantly altered in the transgenic cells. In contrast, the activity of the plasma membrane PtdInsP 5 kinase was increased by approximately 3-fold in the transgenic cells. In vivo labeling studies revealed a greater incorporation of (32)P into PtdInsP(2) in the transgenic cells compared with the wild type, indicating that the rate of PtdInsP(2) synthesis was increased. These studies show that the constitutive expression of the human type I InsP 5-ptase in tobacco cells leads to an up-regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway and highlight the importance of PtdInsP(2) synthesis as a regulatory step in this system.

  10. Production of D-myo-inositol(1,2,4,5,6pentakisphosphate using alginate-entrapped recombinant Pantoea agglomerans glucose-1-phosphatase

    Ralf Greiner


    Full Text Available The glucose-1-phosphatase encoding gene (agp of Pantoea agglomerans was sequenced and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme showed very high homology to periplasmatic glucose-1-phosphatases of other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. It was isolated from transformed Escherichia coli cells in a single step in high yields (32.3 ± 1.2 mg per litre of culture by Ni-NT agarose affinity chromatography to >95% purity as calculated from specific activity determinations. The purified glucose-1-phosphatase was entrapped in alginate beads with an entrapment efficiency of >80%. Temperature stability was enhanced as a consequence of entrapment, whereas pH dependence of enzyme activity was not affected. Maximum catalytic activity of entrapped glucose-1-phosphatase was found at 70°C, whereas the free enzyme exhibited maximal activity at 60°C. A single pH optimum at pH 4.5 was determined for the free and the entrapped enzyme. Kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of sodium phytate were found to be affected by entrapment. They were determined to be K M = 0.84 mmol l-1 and k cat = 8 s-1 at pH 4.5 and 37°C for the entrapped glucose-1-phosphatase and K M = 0.35 mmol l-1 and k cat = 20.5 s-1 for the free enzyme. Complete conversion of phytate into one single myo-inositol pentakisphosphate isomer, identified as D-myo-inositol(1,2,4,5,6pentakis-phosphate, was shown to be feasible by using the enzyme-loaded alginate beads in batch operations. The entrapped enzyme showed a high operational stability by retaining almost full activity even after ten uses.

  11. Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates human platelet inositol trisphosphate 5/sup +/-/-phosphomonoesterase (IP3 5'-p'tase) increasing phosphatase activity

    Phosphoinositide breakdown in response to thrombin stimulation of human platelets generates messenger molecules that activate PKC (diglyceride) and mobilize Ca++ (inositol tris-phosphates). The water soluble products of phospholipase C-mediated metabolism of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate are inositol 1,4,5 P3 (IP3) and inositol 1:2-cyclic 4,5 P3 (cIP3). A specific phosphatase, IP3 5'-p'tase, cleaves the 5 phosphate from IP3 or cIP3 to form IP2 or cIP2 and P/sub i/, none of which mobilizes Ca++. Thus, the IP3 5'-p'tase may regulate cellular responses to IP3 or cIP3. The authors find that IP3 5'-p'tase isolated from human platelets is phosphorylated by rat brain PKC, resulting in a 4-fold increase in IP3 5'-p'tase activity. The authors phosphorylated IP3 5'-p'tase using γ 32P-ATP and found that the labeled enzyme comigrated on SDS-PAGE with the previously described 40K protein phosphorylated in response to thrombin stimulation of platelets. The similarity of the PKC-phosphorylated IP3 5'-p'tase observed in vitro and the thrombin-stimulated phosphorylated 40K protein known to be phosphorylated by PKC in vivo, suggests that these proteins may be the same. These results suggest that platelet Ca++ mobilization maybe regulated by PKC phosphorylation of the IP3 5'-p'tase and can explain the observation that phorbol ester treatment of intact human platelets results in decreased production of IP3 and decreased Ca++ mobilization upon subsequent thrombin addition

  12. Structural Studies of Medicago truncatula Histidinol Phosphate Phosphatase from Inositol Monophosphatase Superfamily Reveal Details of Penultimate Step of Histidine Biosynthesis in Plants.

    Ruszkowski, Milosz; Dauter, Zbigniew


    The penultimate enzyme in the histidine biosynthetic pathway catalyzes dephosphorylation of l-histidinol 1-phosphate (HOLP) into l-histidinol. The recently discovered in Arabidopsis thaliana plant-type histidinol phosphate phosphatase (HPP) shares no homology with the two other HPP superfamilies known previously in prokaryotes and resembles myo-inositol monophosphatases (IMPases). In this work, identification of an HPP enzyme from a model legume, Medicago truncatula (MtHPP) was based on the highest sequence identity to A. thaliana enzyme. Biochemical assays confirmed that MtHPP was able to cleave inorganic phosphate from HOLP but not from d-myo-inositol-1-phosphate, the main substrate of IMPases. Dimers of MtHPP, determined by size exclusion chromatography, in the presence of CO2 or formaldehyde form mutual, methylene-bridged cross-links between Lys(158) and Cys(245) residues. Four high resolution crystal structures, namely complexes with HOLP (substrate), l-histidinol (product), and PO4 (3-) (by-product) as well as the structure showing the cross-linking between two MtHPP molecules, provide detailed structural information on the enzyme. Based on the crystal structures, the enzymatic reaction mechanism of IMPases is accustomed to fit the data for MtHPP. The enzymatic reaction, which requires Mg(2+) cations, is catalyzed mainly by amino acid residues from the N-terminal domain. The C-terminal domain, sharing little identity with IMPases, is responsible for the substrate specificity (i.e. allows the enzyme to distinguish between HOLP and d-myo-inositol-1-phosphate). Structural features, mainly the presence of a conserved Asp(246), allow MtHPP to bind HOLP specifically. PMID:26994138

  13. Bacterial and plant HAD enzymes catalyse a missing phosphatase step in thiamin diphosphate biosynthesis.

    Hasnain, Ghulam; Roje, Sanja; Sa, Na; Zallot, Rémi; Ziemak, Michael J; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Gregory, Jesse F; Hanson, Andrew D


    The penultimate step of thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) synthesis in plants and many bacteria is dephosphorylation of thiamin monophosphate (ThMP). Non-specific phosphatases have been thought to mediate this step and no genes encoding specific ThMP phosphatases (ThMPases) are known. Comparative genomic analysis uncovered bacterial haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) phosphatase family genes (from subfamilies IA and IB) that cluster on the chromosome with, or are fused to, thiamin synthesis genes and are thus candidates for the missing phosphatase (ThMPase). Three typical candidates (from Anaerotruncus colihominis, Dorea longicatena and Syntrophomonas wolfei) were shown to have efficient in vivo ThMPase activity by expressing them in an Escherichia coli strain engineered to require an active ThMPase for growth. In vitro assays confirmed that these candidates all preferred ThMP to any of 45 other phosphate ester substrates tested. An Arabidopsis thaliana ThMPase homologue (At4g29530) of unknown function whose expression pattern and compartmentation fit with a role in ThDP synthesis was shown to have in vivo ThMPase activity in E. coli and to prefer ThMP to any other substrate tested. However, insertional inactivation of the At4g29530 gene did not affect growth or the levels of thiamin or its phosphates, indicating that Arabidopsis has at least one other ThMPase gene. The Zea mays orthologue of At4g29530 (GRMZM2G035134) was also shown to have ThMPase activity. These data identify HAD genes specifying the elusive ThMPase activity, indicate that ThMPases are substrate-specific rather than general phosphatases and suggest that different evolutionary lineages have recruited ThMPases independently from different branches of the HAD family. PMID:26537753

  14. Dual 4- and 5-phosphatase activities regulate SopB-dependent phosphoinositide dynamics to promote bacterial entry.

    Piscatelli, Heather L; Li, Menghan; Zhou, Daoguo


    Salmonella are able to invade non-phagocytic cells such as intestinal epithelial cells by modulating the host actin cytoskeleton to produce membrane ruffles. Two type III effector proteins SopB and SopE play key roles to this modulation. SopE is a known guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) capable of activating Rac1 and CDC42. SopB is a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphatase and 5-phosphatase promoting membrane ruffles and invasion of Salmonella through undefined mechanisms. Previous studies have demonstrated that the 4-phosphatase activity of SopB is required for PtdIns-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) accumulation and SopB-mediated invasion. We show here that both the 4-phosphatase as well as the 5-phosphatase activities of SopB are essential in ruffle formation and subsequent invasion. We found that the 5-phosphatase activity of SopB is likely responsible for generating PtdIns-3,4-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2 ) and subsequent recruitment of sorting nexin 9 (SNX9), an actin modulating protein. Intriguingly, the 4-phosphatase activity is responsible for the dephosphorylation of PtdIns(3,4)P2 into PtdIns(3)P. Alone, neither activity is sufficient for ruffling but when acting in conjunction with one another, the 4-phosphatase and 5-phosphatase activities led to SNX9-mediated ruffling and Salmonella invasion. This work reveals the unique ability of bacterial effector protein SopB to utilize both its 4- and 5-phosphatase activities to regulate phosphoinositide dynamics to promote bacterial entry. PMID:26537021

  15. Production of D-myo-inositol(1,2,4,5,6)pentakisphosphate using alginate-entrapped recombinant Pantoea agglomerans glucose-1-phosphatase

    Ralf Greiner; Sajidan


    The glucose-1-phosphatase encoding gene (agp) of Pantoea agglomerans was sequenced and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme showed very high homology to periplasmatic glucose-1-phosphatases of other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. It was isolated from transformed Escherichia coli cells in a single step in high yields (32.3 ± 1.2 mg per litre of culture) by Ni-NT agarose affinity chromatography to >95% purity as calculated from specific activity determinations. Th...

  16. Uranium Biomineralization As a Result of Bacterial Phosphatase Activity: Insights From Bacterial Isolates From a Contaminated Subsurface

    Uranium contamination is an environmental concern at the Department of Energy's Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In this study, we investigated whether phosphate biomineralization, or the aerobic precipitation of U(VI)-phosphate phases facilitated by the enzymatic activities of microorganisms, offers an alternative to the more extensively studied anaerobic U(VI) bioreduction. Three heterotrophic bacteria isolated from FRC soils were studied for their ability to grow and liberate phosphate in the presence of U(VI) and an organophosphate between pH 4.5 and 7.0. The objectives were to determine whether the strains hydrolyzed sufficient phosphate to precipitate uranium, to determine whether low pH might have an effect on U(VI) precipitation, and to identify the uranium solid phase formed during biomineralization. Two bacterial strains hydrolyzed sufficient organophosphate to precipitate 73-95% total uranium after 120 h of incubation in simulated groundwater. The highest rates of uranium precipitation and phosphatase activity were observed between pH 5.0 and 7.0. EXAFS spectra identified the uranyl phosphate precipitate as an autunite/meta-autunite group mineral. The results of this study indicate that aerobic heterotrophic bacteria within a uranium-contaminated environment that can hydrolyze organophosphate, especially in low pH conditions, may play an important role in the bioremediation of uranium

  17. A Bacterial Homolog of a Eukaryotic Inositol Phosphate Signaling Enzyme Mediates Cross-kingdom Dialog in the Mammalian Gut

    Régis Stentz


    Full Text Available Dietary InsP6 can modulate eukaryotic cell proliferation and has complex nutritive consequences, but its metabolism in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract is poorly understood. Therefore, we performed phylogenetic analyses of the gastrointestinal microbiome in order to search for candidate InsP6 phosphatases. We determined that prominent gut bacteria express homologs of the mammalian InsP6 phosphatase (MINPP and characterized the enzyme from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (BtMinpp. We show that BtMinpp has exceptionally high catalytic activity, which we rationalize on the basis of mutagenesis studies and by determining its crystal structure at 1.9 Å resolution. We demonstrate that BtMinpp is packaged inside outer membrane vesicles (OMVs protecting the enzyme from degradation by gastrointestinal proteases. Moreover, we uncover an example of cross-kingdom cell-to-cell signaling, showing that the BtMinpp-OMVs interact with intestinal epithelial cells to promote intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Our characterization of BtMinpp offers several directions for understanding how the microbiome serves human gastrointestinal physiology.

  18. Inhibition of SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) ameliorates palmitate induced-apoptosis through regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adeli, Khosrow [Division of Clinical Biochemistry, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Meshkani, Reza, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The serine–threonine kinase Akt regulates proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a network of protein substrates; however, the role of a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in apoptosis of the hepatocytes, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to apoptosis using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitate (0.5 mM). Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) significantly reduced palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as these cells had increased cell viability, decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced the activity of caspase-3, cytochrome c and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene led to a massive apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by an increased Akt and FOXO-1 phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene had the opposite effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is an important determinant of hepatic lipoapotosis and its inhibition can potentially be a target in treatment of hepatic lipoapoptosis in diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Lipoapoptosis is the major contributor to the development of NAFLD. • The PI3-K/Akt pathway regulates apoptosis in different cells. • The role of negative regulator of this pathway, SHIP2 in lipoapoptosis is unknown. • SHIP2 inhibition significantly reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. • SHIP2 inhibition prevents palmitate induced-apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway.

  19. Vanadate inhibition of fungal phyA and bacterial appA2 histidine acid phosphatases

    The fungal PhyA protein, which was first identified as an acid optimum phosphomonoesterase (EC, could also serve as a vanadate haloperoxidase (EC provided the acid phosphatase activity is shutdown by vanadate. To understand how vanadate inhibits both phytate and pNPP degrading ac...

  20. Phosphate, inositol and polyphosphates.

    Livermore, Thomas M; Azevedo, Cristina; Kolozsvari, Bernadett; Wilson, Miranda S C; Saiardi, Adolfo


    Eukaryotic cells have ubiquitously utilized the myo-inositol backbone to generate a diverse array of signalling molecules. This is achieved by arranging phosphate groups around the six-carbon inositol ring. There is virtually no biological process that does not take advantage of the uniquely variable architecture of phosphorylated inositol. In inositol biology, phosphates are able to form three distinct covalent bonds: phosphoester, phosphodiester and phosphoanhydride bonds, with each providing different properties. The phosphoester bond links phosphate groups to the inositol ring, the variable arrangement of which forms the basis of the signalling capacity of the inositol phosphates. Phosphate groups can also form the structural bridge between myo-inositol and diacylglycerol through the phosphodiester bond. The resulting lipid-bound inositol phosphates, or phosphoinositides, further expand the signalling potential of this family of molecules. Finally, inositol is also notable for its ability to host more phosphates than it has carbons. These unusual organic molecules are commonly referred to as the inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs), due to the presence of high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds (pyro- or diphospho-). PP-IPs themselves constitute a varied family of molecules with one or more pyrophosphate moiety/ies located around the inositol. Considering the relationship between phosphate and inositol, it is no surprise that members of the inositol phosphate family also regulate cellular phosphate homoeostasis. Notably, the PP-IPs play a fundamental role in controlling the metabolism of the ancient polymeric form of phosphate, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP). Here we explore the intimate links between phosphate, inositol phosphates and polyP, speculating on the evolution of these relationships. PMID:26862212

  1. Release of bacterial alkaline phosphatase in the rumen of cattle fed a feedlot bloat-provoking diet or a hay diet.

    Cheng, K J; Hironaka, R; Costerton, J W


    Alkaline phosphatase (APase) was present in the bovine rumen in both cell-free and cell-associated states and levels of the enzyme varied with dietary regime. Reaction product deposition showed that the enzyme was associated with the mixed bacterial population. No enzyme was observed to be associated with protozoa. Trace activity of APase was also detected in the saliva. The presence of large amounts of APase in cell-free rumen fluid of cattle fed fine concentrate feed is believed to be due, in part, to the breakage of bacterial cells that occurs in the rumen. PMID:1277000

  2. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the bacterial capsule assembly-regulating tyrosine phosphatases Wzb of Escherichia coli and Cps4B of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    The crystallization is reported of two bacterial tyrosine phosphatases which belong to different enzyme families despite their ability to catalyse identical reactions. Bacterial tyrosine kinases and their cognate phosphatases are key players in the regulation of capsule assembly and thus are important virulence determinants of these bacteria. Examples of the kinase/phosphatase pairing are found in Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli (Wzc and Wzb) and in Gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (CpsCD and CpsB). Although Wzb and Cps4B are both predicted to dephosphorylate the C-terminal tyrosine cluster of their cognate tyrosine kinase, they appear on the basis of protein sequence to belong to quite different enzyme classes. Recombinant purified proteins Cps4B of S. pneumoniae TIGR4 and Wzb of E. coli K-30 have been crystallized. Wzb crystals belonged to space-group family P3x21 and diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution. Crystal form I of Cps4B belonged to space-group family P4x212 and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution; crystal form II belonged to space group P212121 and diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution

  3. Detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity identiifes neuronal integrity in damaged rat central nervous system after application of bacterial melanin

    Tigran R Petrosyan; Anna S Ter-Markosyan; Anna S Hovsepyan


    The study aims to confirm the neuroregenerative effects of bacterial melanin (BM) on central nervous system injury using a special staining method based on the detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to undergo either unilateral destruction of sensorimotor cortex (group I;n=12) or unilateral rubrospinal tract transection at the cervical level (C3–4) (group II;n=12). In each group, six rats were randomly selected after surgery to undergo intramuscular injection of BM solution (BM subgroup) and the remaining six rats were intramuscularly injected with saline (saline subgroup). Neurological testing confirmed that BM accelerated the recovery of motor function in rats from both BM and saline subgroups. Two months after surgery, Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity detection in combination with Chilingarian’s calcium adenoside triphosphate method revealed that BM stimulated the sprouting of ifbers and dilated the capillaries in the brain and spinal cord. These results sug-gest that BM can promote the recovery of motor function of rats with central nervous system injury;and detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity is a fast and easy method used to study the regenera-tion-promoting effects of BM on the injured central nervous system.

  4. Detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity identifies neuronal integrity in damaged rat central nervous system after application of bacterial melanin

    Tigran R Petrosyan


    Full Text Available The study aims to confirm the neuroregenerative effects of bacterial melanin (BM on central nervous system injury using a special staining method based on the detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to undergo either unilateral destruction of sensorimotor cortex (group I; n = 12 or unilateral rubrospinal tract transection at the cervical level (C3–4 (group II; n = 12. In each group, six rats were randomly selected after surgery to undergo intramuscular injection of BM solution (BM subgroup and the remaining six rats were intramuscularly injected with saline (saline subgroup. Neurological testing confirmed that BM accelerated the recovery of motor function in rats from both BM and saline subgroups. Two months after surgery, Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity detection in combination with Chilingarian's calcium adenoside triphosphate method revealed that BM stimulated the sprouting of fibers and dilated the capillaries in the brain and spinal cord. These results suggest that BM can promote the recovery of motor function of rats with central nervous system injury; and detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity is a fast and easy method used to study the regeneration-promoting effects of BM on the injured central nervous system.

  5. Inositol phosphates in the environment.

    Turner, Benjamin L.; Papházy, Michael J; Haygarth, Philip M.; McKelvie, Ian D


    The inositol phosphates are a group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the natural environment, but that represent the greatest gap in our understanding of the global phosphorus cycle. They exist as inositols in various states of phosphorylation (bound to between one and six phosphate groups) and isomeric forms (e.g. myo, D-chiro, scyllo, neo), although myo-inositol hexakisphosphate is by far the most prevalent form in nature. In terrestrial environments, inositol phosphates are ...

  6. A novel pathway for the synthesis of inositol phospholipids uses cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-inositol as donor of the polar head group.

    Jorge, Carla D; Borges, Nuno; Santos, Helena


    We describe a novel biosynthetic pathway for glycerophosphoinositides in Rhodothermus marinus in which inositol is activated by cytidine triphosphate (CTP); this is unlike all known pathways that involve activation of the lipid group instead. This work was motivated by the detection in the R. marinus genome of a gene with high similarity to CTP:L-myo-inositol-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, the enzyme that synthesizes cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-inositol, a metabolite only known in the synthesis of di-myo-inositol phosphate. However, this solute is absent in R. marinus. The fate of radiolabelled CDP-inositol was investigated in cell extracts to reveal that radioactive inositol was incorporated into the chloroform-soluble fraction. Mass spectrometry showed that the major lipid product has a molecular mass of 810 Da and contains inositol phosphate and alkyl chains attached to glycerol by ether bonds. The occurrence of ether-linked lipids is rare in bacteria and has not been described previously in R. marinus. The relevant synthase was identified by functional expression of the candidate gene in Escherichia coli. The enzyme catalyses the transfer of L-myo-inositol-1-phosphate from CDP-inositol to dialkylether glycerol yielding dialkylether glycerophosphoinositol. Database searching showed homologous proteins in two bacterial classes, Sphingobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. This is the first report of the involvement of CDP-inositol in phospholipid synthesis. PMID:25472423

  7. Preparation of quality inositol pyrophosphates.

    Loss, Omar; Azevedo, Cristina; Szijgyarto, Zsolt; Bosch, Daniel; Saiardi, Adolfo


    Myo-inositol is present in nature either unmodified or in more complex phosphorylated derivates. Of the latest, the two most abundant in eukaryotic cells are inositol pentakisphosphate (IP(5;)) and inositol hexakisphosphate (phytic acid or IP(6;)). IP(5;) and IP(6;) are the precursors of inositol pyrophosphate molecules that contain one or more pyrophosphate bonds(1). Phosphorylation of IP(6;) generates diphoshoinositolpentakisphosphate (IP(7;) or PP-IP(5;)) and bisdiphoshoinositoltetrakisphosphate (IP(8;) or (PP)(2;)-IP(4;)). Inositol pyrophosphates have been isolated from all eukaryotic organisms so far studied. In addition, the two distinct classes of enzymes responsible for inositol pyrophosphate synthesis are highly conserved throughout evolution(2-4). The IP(6;) kinases (IP(6;)Ks) posses an enormous catalytic flexibility, converting IP(5;) and IP(6;) to PP-IP(4;) and IP(7;) respectively and subsequently, by using these products as substrates, promote the generation of more complex molecules(5,6). Recently, a second class of pyrophosphate generating enzymes was identified in the form of the yeast protein VIP(1;) (also referred as PP-IP(5;)K), which is able to convert IP(6;) to IP(7;) and IP(8;)(7,8). Inositol pyrophosphates regulate many disparate cellular processes such as insulin secretion(9), telomere length(10,11), chemotaxis(12), vesicular trafficking(13), phosphate homeostasis(14) and HIV-1 gag release(15). Two mechanisms of actions have been proposed for this class of molecules. They can affect cellular function by allosterically interacting with specific proteins like AKT(16). Alternatively, the pyrophosphate group can donate a phosphate to pre-phosphorylated proteins(17). The enormous potential of this research field is hampered by the absence of a commercial source of inositol pyrophosphates, which is preventing many scientists from studying these molecules and this new post-translational modification. The methods currently available to isolate

  8. Discovery and development of small molecule SHIP phosphatase modulators.

    Viernes, Dennis R; Choi, Lydia B; Kerr, William G; Chisholm, John D


    Inositol phospholipids play an important role in the transfer of signaling information across the cell membrane in eukaryotes. These signals are often governed by the phosphorylation patterns on the inositols, which are mediated by a number of inositol kinases and phosphatases. The src homology 2 (SH2) containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP) plays a central role in these processes, influencing signals delivered through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. SHIP modulation by small molecules has been implicated as a treatment in a number of human disease states, including cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, alteration of SHIP phosphatase activity may provide a means to facilitate bone marrow transplantation and increase blood cell production. This review discusses the cellular signaling pathways and protein-protein interactions that provide the molecular basis for targeting the SHIP enzyme in these disease states. In addition, a comprehensive survey of small molecule modulators of SHIP1 and SHIP2 is provided, with a focus on the structure, potency, selectivity, and solubility properties of these compounds. PMID:24302498

  9. Bifunctional coating based on carboxymethyl chitosan with stable conjugated alkaline phosphatase for inhibiting bacterial adhesion and promoting osteogenic differentiation on titanium

    Zheng, Dong; Neoh, Koon Gee; Kang, En-Tang


    In this work, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was covalently immobilized on carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS)-coated polydopamine (PDA)-functionalized Ti to achieve a bifunctional surface. Our results showed ∼89% reduction in Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on this surface compared to that on pristine Ti. The ALP-modified Ti supported cell proliferation, and significantly enhanced cellular ALP activity and calcium deposition of osteoblasts, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). The extent of enhancement in the functions of these cells is dependent on the surface density of immobilized ALP. The substrate prepared using an ALP solution of 50 μg/cm2 resulted in 44%, 54% and 129% increase in calcium deposited by osteoblasts, hMSCs and hADSCs, respectively, compared to those cultured on pristine Ti. The ALP-modified substrates also promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and hADSCs by up-regulating gene expressions of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix (OSX), and osteocalcin (OC) in the two types of stem cells. The surface-immobilized ALP was stable after being subjected to 1 h immersion in 70% ethanol and autoclaving at 121 °C for 20 min. However, the enzymatic bioactivity of the surface-immobilized ALP was reduced by about 50% after these substrates were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or PBS containing lysozyme for 14 days.

  10. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    ... Also known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on ...

  11. Does ovary need D-chiro-inositol?

    Isabella Rosalbino


    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is a multifactorial pathology that affects 10% of the women in reproductive age being the main cause of infertility due to menstrual dysfunction. Since 1980, it is known that PCOS is associated with insulin resistance (IR. The recognition of this association has prompted extensive investigation on the relationship between insulin and gonadal function, and has turned insulin sensitizer agent as the main therapeutic choice. In particular two different polyalcohol myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been shown to improve insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism and to induce ovulation in PCOS women. In particular, while data on myo-inositol and restored ovulation were consistent, data on D-chiro-inositol were not . Recently, a comparative study, proposed a D-chiro-inositol paradox in the ovary of PCOS patients hypothesizing that only myo-inositol has a specific ovarian action. In the present study we aim to further study the role played by D-chiro-inositol at ovarian level. Methods A total of 54 women, aged Results Total r-FSH units increased significantly in the two groups that received the higher doses of DCI. The number of immature oocytes was significantly increased in the three groups that received the higher doses of DCI. Concurrently, the number of MII oocytes was significantly lower in the D group compared to placebo group. Noteworthy, the number of grade I embryos was significantly reduced by DCI supplementation. Conclusions Indeed, increasing DCI dosage progressively worsens oocyte quality and ovarian response.

  12. Phosphatases in plants.

    Schweighofer, Alois; Meskiene, Irute


    Reversible protein phosphorylation is an essential posttranslational modification mechanism executed by opposing actions of protein phosphatases and protein kinases. About 1,000 predicted kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana kinome predominate the number of protein phosphatases, of which there are only ~150 members in Arabidopsis. Protein phosphatases were often referred to as "housekeeping" enzymes, which act to keep eukaryotic systems in balance by counteracting the activity of protein kinases. However, recent investigations reveal the crucial and specific regulatory functions of phosphatases in cell signaling. Phosphatases operate in a coordinated manner with the protein kinases, to execute their important function in determining the cellular response to a physiological stimulus. Closer examination has established high specificity of phosphatases in substrate recognition and important roles in plant signaling pathways, such as pathogen defense and stress regulation, light and hormonal signaling, cell cycle and differentiation, metabolism, and plant growth. In this minireview we provide a compact overview about Arabidopsis protein phosphatase families, as well as members of phosphoglucan and lipid phosphatases, and highlight the recent discoveries in phosphatase research. PMID:25930691

  13. Formation and actions of calcium-mobilizing messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

    A variety of surface membrane receptors can activate a phospholipase C, which degrades phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate liberating a calcium mobilizing second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [(1,4,5)IP3]. The coupling of surface receptors to the phospholipase C involves one or more quanine nucleotide-dependent regulatory proteins that are similar but not identical to those that regulate adenylate cyclase. (1,4,5)IP3 has been shown to release Ca2+ from a portion of the endoplasmic reticulum and is believed responsible for the initial phase of Ca2+ mobilization ascribed to internal Ca2+ release. (1,4,5)IP3 acts by binding to a specific receptor that either is a component of, or regulates, a Ca2+ ion channel. The release of Ca2+ from the (1,4,5)IP3-sensitive component of the endoplasmic reticulum may secondarily activate the second phase of Ca2+ mobilization, which involves Ca2+ entry. (1,4,5)IP3 is metabolized by two pathways. One involves the action of a 5-phosphatase that degrades (1,4,5)IP3 to inositol 1,4-bisphosphate, whereas the other involves a 3-kinase that phosphorylates (1,4,5)IP3 to produce inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. The significance of this dual metabolism is not known, but it may be important in rapidly extinguishing the Ca2+-releasing activity (1,4,5)IP3

  14. 21 CFR 184.1370 - Inositol.


    ... ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 150, which is incorporated... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Inositol. 184.1370 Section 184.1370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  15. Myo-Inositol content determined by myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation in blueberry fruit.

    Song, Fangyuan; Su, Hongyan; Yang, Nan; Zhu, Luying; Cheng, Jieshan; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Xianhao


    Myo-inositol metabolism in plant edible organs has become the focus of many recent studies because of its benefits to human health and unique functions in plant development. In this study, myo-inositol contents were analyzed during the development of two blueberry cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop'. Furthermore, two VcMIPS 1/2 (Vaccinium corymbosum MIPS) genes, one VcIMP (Vaccinium corymbosum IMP) gene and one VcMIOX (Vaccinium corymbosum MIOX) gene were isolated for the first time from blueberry. The expression patterns of VcMIPS2, VcIMP and VcMIOX genes showed a relationship with the change profiles of myo-inositol content during fruit ripening. The results were further confirmed by the analyses of the enzyme activity. Results indicated that both myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation played important roles in determining of myo-inositol levels during the development of blueberry. To our knowledge, this report is the first to discuss myo-inositol levels in fruits in terms of biosynthesis and catabolism. PMID:27211661

  16. Characterization of the phosphatidylinositol-glycan membrane anchor of human placental alkaline phosphatase

    Placental alkaline phosphatase [orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum), EC] is a member of a diverse group of membrane proteins whose attachment to the lipid bilayer is mediated by a phosphatidylinositol-glycan. To investigate structural aspects of the glycolipid anchor, cultured WISH cells were used because, they produce the enzyme in abundant quantities. When cell suspensions were incubated with purified phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, most of the placental alkaline phosphatase was released from membranes in a hydrophilic form. On incubation of the cells with [14C]ethanolamine, [14C]myristic acid, or myo[3H]inositol, each was incorporated into the phosphatase near the carboxyl terminus, showing that these components, which are found in other phosphatidylinositol membrane-linked proteins, are also present in placental alkaline phosphatase

  17. Synthesis of an inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) affinity probe to study the interactome from a colon cancer cell line.

    Yin, Meng-Xin; Catimel, Bruno; Gregory, Mark; Condron, Melanie; Kapp, Eugene; Holmes, Andrew B; Burgess, Antony W


    Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6 or IP6) is an important signalling molecule in vesicular trafficking, neurotransmission, immune responses, regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases, activation of ion channels, antioxidant functions and anticancer activities. An IP6 probe was synthesised from myo-inositol via a derivatised analogue, which was immobilised through a terminal amino group onto Dynabeads. Systematic analysis of the IP6 interactome has been performed using the IP6 affinity probe using cytosolic extracts from the LIM1215 colonic carcinoma cell line. LC/MS/MS analysis identified 77 proteins or protein complexes that bind to IP6 specifically, including AP-2 complex proteins and β-arrestins as well as a number of novel potential IP6 interacting proteins. Bioinformatic enrichment analysis of the IP6 interactome reinforced the concept that IP6 regulates a number of biological processes including cell cycle and division, signal transduction, intracellular protein transport, vesicle-mediated transport and RNA splicing. PMID:26840369

  18. A cell factory of Bacillus subtilis engineered for the simple bioconversion of myo-inositol to scyllo-inositol, a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease

    Takenaka Shinji


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A stereoisomer of inositol, scyllo-inositol, is known as a promising therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease, since it prevents the accumulation of beta-amyloid deposits, a hallmark of the disease. However, this compound is relatively rare in nature, whereas another stereoisomer of inositol, myo-inositol, is abundantly available. Results Bacillus subtilis possesses a unique inositol metabolism involving both stereoisomers. We manipulated the inositol metabolism in B. subtilis to permit the possible bioconversion from myo-inositol to scyllo-inositol. Within 48 h of cultivation, the engineered strain was able to convert almost half of 10 g/L myo-inositol to scyllo-inositol that accumulated in the culture medium. Conclusions The engineered B. subtilis serves as a prototype of cell factory enabling a novel and inexpensive supply of scyllo-inositol.

  19. Extraction and analysis of soluble inositol polyphosphates from yeast.

    Azevedo, Cristina; Saiardi, Adolfo


    Soluble inositol polyphosphates are implicated in the regulation of many important cellular functions. This protocol to extract and separate inositol polyphosphates from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is divided into three steps: labeling of yeast, extraction of soluble inositol polyphosphates and chromatographic separation. Yeast cells are incubated with tritiated inositol, which is taken up and metabolized into different phosphorylated forms. Soluble inositol polyphosphates are then acid-extracted and fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The radioactivity of each fraction is determined by scintillation counting. This highly sensitive and reproducible method allows the accurate detection of subtle changes in the inositol polyphosphate profile and takes less than 48 h. It can easily be applied to other systems and we have included two adaptations of the protocol, one optimized for mammalian cells and the other for Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:17406485

  20. The "Other" Inositols and Their Phosphates: Synthesis, Biology, and Medicine (with Recent Advances in myo-Inositol Chemistry).

    Thomas, Mark P; Mills, Stephen J; Potter, Barry V L


    Cell signaling via inositol phosphates, in particular via the second messenger myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphoinositides comprises a huge field of biology. Of the nine 1,2,3,4,5,6-cyclohexanehexol isomers, myo-inositol is pre-eminent, with "other" inositols (cis-, epi-, allo-, muco-, neo-, l-chiro-, d-chiro-, and scyllo-) and derivatives rarer or thought not to exist in nature. However, neo- and d-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphates were recently revealed in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, thus highlighting the paucity of knowledge of the origins and potential biological functions of such stereoisomers, a prevalent group of environmental organic phosphates, and their parent inositols. Some "other" inositols are medically relevant, for example, scyllo-inositol (neurodegenerative diseases) and d-chiro-inositol (diabetes). It is timely to consider exploration of the roles and applications of the "other" isomers and their derivatives, likely by exploiting techniques now well developed for the myo series. PMID:26694856

  1. Rv2131c gene product: An unconventional enzyme that is both inositol monophosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase

    Inositol monophosphatase is an enzyme in the biosynthesis of myo-inostiol, a crucial substrate for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol, which has been demonstrated to be an essential component of mycobacteria. In this study, the Rv2131c gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was cloned into the pET28a vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain, allowing the expression of the enzyme in fusion with a histidine-rich peptide on the N-terminal. The fusion protein was purified from the soluble fraction of the lysed cells under native conditions by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The purified Rv2131c gene product showed inositol monophosphatase activity but with substrate specificity that was broader than those of several bacterial and eukaryotic inositol monophosphatases, and it also acted as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. The dimeric enzyme exhibited dual activities of IMPase and FBPase, with K m of 0.22 ± 0.03 mM for inositol-1-phosphate and K m of 0.45 ± 0.05 mM for fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. To better understand the relationship between the function and structure of the Rv2131c enzyme, we constructed D40N, L71A, and D94N mutants and purified these corresponding proteins. Mutations of D40N and D94N caused the proteins to almost completely lose both the inositol monophosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities. However, L71A mutant did not cause loss either of the activities, but the activity toward the inositol was 12-fold more resistant to inhibition by lithium (IC5 ∼ 60 mM). Based on the substrate specificity and presence of conserved sequence motifs of the M. tuberculosis Rv2131c, we proposed that the enzyme belonged to class IV fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase IV)

  2. Characterization of inositol phosphates in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells

    We have shown previously that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) stimulates an efflux of 45Ca2+ from fusogenic carrot protoplasts. In light of these results, we suggested that IP3 might serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not IP3 and other inositol phosphates were present in the carrot cells, the cells were labeled with myo-[2-3H]inositol for 18 hours and extracted with ice-cold 10% trichloroacetic acid. The inositol metabolites were separated by anion exchange chromatography and by paper electrophoresis. We found that [3H]inositol metabolites coeluted with inositol bisphosphate (IP2) and IP3 when separated by anion exchange chromatography. However, we could not detect IP2 or IP3 when the inositol metabolites were analyzed by paper electrophoresis even though the polyphosphoinositides, which are the source of IP2 and IP3, were present in these cells. Thus, [3H]inositol metabolites other than IP2 and IP3 had coeluted on the anion exchange columns. The data indicate that either IP3 is rapidly metabolized or that it is not present at a detectable level in the carrot cells

  3. Cdc14 phosphatase

    Machín, Félix; Quevedo Rodriguez, Oliver; Ramos-Pérez, Cristina;


    Cycling events in nature start and end to restart again and again. In the cell cycle, whose purpose is to become two where there was only one, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are the beginning and, therefore, phosphatases must play a role in the ending. Since CDKs are drivers of the cell cycle...

  4. Developmental regulation of the Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate phosphatases in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Bominaar, Anthony A.; Dijken, Peter van; Draijer, Richard; Haastert, Peter J.M. van


    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is a microorganism in which growth and development are strictly separated. Starvation initiates a developmental program in which extracellular cAMP plays a major role as a signal molecule. In response to cAMP several second messengers are produced, in

  5. Behavioral evidence for the existence of two pools of cellular inositol.

    Bersudsky, Y; Kaplan, Z; Shapiro, Y; Agam, G; Kofman, O; Belmaker, R H


    Lithium reduces brain inositol levels by inhibiting inositol monophosphatase. In a previous study it was found that administration of pilocarpine to Li-treated rats causes limbic seizure behavior which can be reversed by i.c.v. myo-inositol but not chiro-inositol, suggesting that this behavior is related to inositol depletion in the PI cycle. Hyponatremia can lower brain inositol and hypernatremia can raise brain inositol. We now report that induction of low brain inositol by hyponatremia followed by pilocarpine did not cause limbic seizures. Induction of high brain inositol using hypernatremia followed by Li-pilocarpine administration did not reverse limbic seizures. These data support the concept that inositol available for P1 synthesis and inositol for osmotic function are sequestered in different cellular pools. PMID:7894256

  6. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate and 1-oleyl-2-acetyldiacylglycerol stimulate inositol trisphosphate dephosphorylation in human platelets

    Molina y Vedia, L.M.; Lapetina, E.G.


    Inositol trisphosphate (IP3) is formed in response to specific agonists that cause activation of phospholipase C and degradation of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate. IP3 is a second messenger that releases Ca/sup 2 +/ from the dense tubular system to the cytosol in stimulated platelets. Our present information indicates that (/sup 3/H)IP3 is dephosphorylated to (/sup 3/H)inositol bisphosphate (IP2) and (/sup 3/H)inositol monophosphate (IP) by human platelets treated with 0.05-0.10% Triton X-100. This dephosphorylation of (/sup 3/H)IP3 to (/sup 3/H)IP2 and (/sup 3/H)IP is also observed when platelets are permeabilized by electrical stimulation or by 20 micrograms/ml saponin. These detergents or electropermeabilization allow IP3 to access cytosolic IP3 phosphatase. Pretreatment of intact platelets with phorbol dibutyrate and 1-oleyl-2-acetyldiacylglycerol for 30 s, at concentrations that maximally activate protein kinase C, stimulates the conversion of IP3 to IP2 and IP. This suggests a role for protein kinase C in the regulation of IP3 degradation.

  7. A limitation of the continuous spectrophotometric assay for the measurement of myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase activity.

    Huang, Xinyi; Hernick, Marcy


    Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS) catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to myo-inositol-1-phosphate. The reaction catalyzed by MIPS is the first step in the biosynthesis of inositol and inositol-containing molecules that serve important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Consequently, MIPS is a target for the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of infectious diseases and bipolar disorder. We recently reported a continuous spectrophotometric method for measuring MIPS activity using a coupled assay that allows the rapid characterization of MIPS in a multiwell plate format. Here we validate the continuous assay as a high-throughput alternative for measuring MIPS activity and report on one limitation of this assay-the inability to examine the effect of divalent metal ions (at high concentrations) on MIPS activity. In addition, we demonstrate that the activity of MIPS from Arabidopsis thaliana is moderately enhanced by the addition Mg(2+) and is not enhanced by other divalent metal ions (Zn(2+) and Mn(2+)), consistent with what has been observed for other eukaryotic MIPS enzymes. Our findings suggest that the continuous assay is better suited for characterizing eukaryotic MIPS enzymes that require monovalent cations as cofactors than for characterizing bacterial or archeal MIPS enzymes that require divalent metal ions as cofactors. PMID:21729692

  8. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    Kateřina Štefková


    Full Text Available Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells.

  9. Role of inositol phospholipid signaling in natural killer cell biology

    Gumbleton, Matthew; Kerr, William G.


    Natural killer (NK) cells are important for host defense against malignancy and infection. At a cellular level NK cells are activated when signals from activating receptors exceed signaling from inhibitory receptors. At a molecular level NK cells undergo an education process to both prevent autoimmunity and acquire lytic capacity. Mouse models have shown important roles for inositol phospholipid signaling in lymphocytes. NK cells from mice with deletion in different members of the inositol ph...

  10. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    Srivastava Anurag; Shukla Nootan K; DattaGupta Siddartha; Sawhney Meenakshi; Kaur Jatinder; Ralhan Ranju


    Abstract Background We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase), (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI) synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth) in smokeless tobacco (ST) exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia), and identified the downstream signa...

  11. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A


    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  12. Formation and actions of inositol phosphates

    A wide variety of hormone and neurotransmitter receptors mediate control of cell function through activation of a phosphodiesteratic breakdown of polyphosphoinositides. In electrically permeabilized pancreatic acinar cells, non-hydrolyzable derivatives of GTP can activate this phosphodiesterase, and potentiate the action of hormones. This suggests receptor coupling to the enzyme probably involves a guanine nucleotide-dependent regulatory protein analogous to the ones involved in regulating adenylate cyclase. The water-soluble product of this reaction inositol-1,4,5-tris-phosphate [(1,4,5)IP3], signals Ca2+ release from a fraction of the endoplasmic reticulum which, in the liver, constitutes about 40% of the non-mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulating activity. By using a high specific activity 32P-labelled (1,4,5)IP3, a specific and saturable binding site for (1,4,5)IP3 can be demonstrated. Binding of (1,4,5)IP3 and (2,4,5)IP3 to this site is well correlated with the Ca2+-releasing actions of these molecules. This may indicate that the actions of (1,4,5)IP3 are mediated by a specific receptor on the endo- plasmic reticulum. The emptying of the sensitive Ca2+-pool in the endoplasmic reticulum by (1,4,5)IP3 may secondarily signal the influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular space

  13. The emerging roles of inositol pyrophosphates in eukaryotic cell physiology

    Swarna Gowri Thota; Rashna Bhandari


    Inositol pyrophosphates are water soluble derivatives of inositol that contain pyrophosphate or diphosphate moieties in addition to monophosphates. The best characterised inositol pyrophosphates, are IP7 (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate or PP-IP5), and IP8 (bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate or (PP)2-IP4). These energy-rich small molecules are present in all eukaryotic cells, from yeast to mammals, and are involved in a wide range of cellular functions including apoptosis, vesicle trafficking, DNA repair, osmoregulation, phosphate homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, immune signalling, cell cycle regulation, and ribosome synthesis. Identified more than 20 years ago, there is still only a rudimentary understanding of the mechanisms by which inositol pyrophosphates participate in these myriad pathways governing cell physiology and homeostasis. The unique stereochemical and bioenergetic properties these molecules possess as a consequence of the presence of one or two pyrophosphate moieties in the vicinity of densely packed monophosphates are likely to form the molecular basis for their participation in multiple signalling and metabolic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide first time researchers in this area with an introduction to inositol pyrophosphates and a comprehensive overview on their cellular functions.

  14. The catalytic properties of alkaline phosphatases under various conditions

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Chukhrai, E. S.; Poltorak, O. M.


    A comparative study was performed to examine the catalytic properties of alkaline phosphatases from bacteria Escherichia coli and bovine and chicken intestines. The activity of enzyme dimers and tetramers was determined. The activity of the dimer was three or four times higher than that of the tetramer. The maximum activity and affinity for 4-nitrophenylphosphate was observed for the bacterial alkaline phosphatase ( K M = 1.7 × 10-5 M, V max = 1800 μmol/(min mg of protein) for dimers and V max = 420 μmol/(min mg of protein) for tetramers). The Michaelis constants were equal for two animal phosphatases in various buffer media (pH 8.5) ((3.5 ± 0.2) × 10-4 M). Five buffer systems were investigated: tris, carbonate, hepes, borate, and glycine buffers, and the lowest catalytic activity of alkaline phosphatases at equal pH was observed in the borate buffer (for enzyme from bovine intestine, V max = 80 μmol/(min mg of protein)). Cu2+ cations formed a complex with tris-(oxymethyl)-aminomethane ( tris-HCl buffer) and inhibited the intestine alkaline phosphatases by a noncompetitive mechanism.

  15. Inositol Hexaphosphate and Inositol Inhibit Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Liver in BALB/c Mice

    Min Fu


    Full Text Available Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 and inositol (Ins, naturally occurring carbohydrates present in most mammals and plants, inhibit the growth of numerous cancers both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we first examined the anti-metastatic effects of IP6 and Ins using a liver metastasis model of colorectal cancer (CRC in BALB/c mice. CT-26 cells were injected into the splenic capsule of 48 BALB/c mice. The mice were then randomly divided into four groups: IP6, Ins, IP6 + Ins and normal saline control (n = 12 per group. IP6 and/or Ins (80 mg/kg each, 0.2 mL/day were injected into the gastrointestinal tracts of the mice on the second day after surgery. All mice were sacrificed after 20 days, and the tumor inhibition rates were determined. The results demonstrated that the tumor weights of liver metastases and the tumor inhibition rates were reduced in the experimental groups compared to the control group and that treatment with the combination of IP6 and Ins resulted in greater inhibition of tumor growth than treatment with either compound alone. These findings suggest that IP6 and Ins prevent the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in mice by altering expression of the extracellular matrix proteins collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin; the adhesion factor receptor integrin-β1; the proteolytic enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9; and the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta in the tumor metastasis microenvironment. In conclusion, IP6 and Ins inhibited the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in BALB/c mice, and the effect of their combined application was significantly greater than the effect of either compound alone. This evidence supports further testing of the combined application of IP6 and Ins for the prevention of colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver in clinical studies.

  16. Identification of mitogen-activated protein kinase docking sites in enzymes that metabolize phosphatidylinositols and inositol phosphates

    Buckley Colin T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reversible interactions between the components of cellular signaling pathways allow for the formation and dissociation of multimolecular complexes with spatial and temporal resolution and, thus, are an important means of integrating multiple signals into a coordinated cellular response. Several mechanisms that underlie these interactions have been identified, including the recognition of specific docking sites, termed a D-domain and FXFP motif, on proteins that bind mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. We recently found that phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1 directly binds to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2, a MAPK, via a D-domain-dependent mechanism. In addition, we identified D-domain sequences in several other PLC isozymes. In the present studies we sought to determine whether MAPK docking sequences could be recognized in other enzymes that metabolize phosphatidylinositols (PIs, as well as in enzymes that metabolize inositol phosphates (IPs. Results We found that several, but not all, of these enzymes contain identifiable D-domain sequences. Further, we found a high degree of conservation of these sequences and their location in human and mouse proteins; notable exceptions were PI 3-kinase C2-γ, PI 4-kinase type IIβ, and inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase. Conclusion The results indicate that there may be extensive crosstalk between MAPK signaling and signaling pathways that are regulated by cellular levels of PIs or IPs.

  17. Probing protein phosphatase substrate binding

    Højlys-Larsen, Kim B.; Sørensen, Kasper Kildegaard; Jensen, Knud Jørgen; Gammeltoft, Steen


    Proteomics and high throughput analysis for systems biology can benefit significantly from solid-phase chemical tools for affinity pull-down of proteins from complex mixtures. Here we report the application of solid-phase synthesis of phosphopeptides for pull-down and analysis of the affinity...... profile of the integrin-linked kinase associated phosphatase (ILKAP), a member of the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family. Phosphatases can potentially dephosphorylate these phosphopeptide substrates but, interestingly, performing the binding studies at 4 °C allowed efficient binding to phosphopeptides......, without the need for phosphopeptide mimics or phosphatase inhibitors. As no proven ILKAP substrates were available, we selected phosphopeptide substrates among known PP2Cδ substrates including the protein kinases: p38, ATM, Chk1, Chk2 and RSK2 and synthesized directly on PEGA solid supports through a BAL...

  18. Structural Genomics of Protein Phosphatases

    Almo,S.; Bonanno, J.; Sauder, J.; Emtage, S.; Dilorenzo, T.; Malashkevich, V.; Wasserman, S.; Swaminathan, S.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; et al


    The New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics (NYSGXRC) of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) has applied its high-throughput X-ray crystallographic structure determination platform to systematic studies of all human protein phosphatases and protein phosphatases from biomedically-relevant pathogens. To date, the NYSGXRC has determined structures of 21 distinct protein phosphatases: 14 from human, 2 from mouse, 2 from the pathogen Toxoplasma gondii, 1 from Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite responsible for African sleeping sickness, and 2 from the principal mosquito vector of malaria in Africa, Anopheles gambiae. These structures provide insights into both normal and pathophysiologic processes, including transcriptional regulation, regulation of major signaling pathways, neural development, and type 1 diabetes. In conjunction with the contributions of other international structural genomics consortia, these efforts promise to provide an unprecedented database and materials repository for structure-guided experimental and computational discovery of inhibitors for all classes of protein phosphatases.

  19. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Labrune Philippe


    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most

  20. Inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in cultured astrocytes and oligodendrocytes

    Cultures of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes were prelabeled with 3H-inositol and the accumulation of 3H-inositol phosphates was determined following stimulation with a number of neuroactive substances. In astrocytes, norepinephrine (NE) produced the greatest stimulation with significant increase also observed with bradykinin. In oligodendrocytes, the greatest stimulation was produced by carbachol with significant increase also produced by bradykinin, histamine and NE. Carbachol was found to be ineffective in producing stimulation in astrocytes. The accumulation of 3H-inositol phosphates in astrocytes in response to NE was found to be dependent on the presence of Li+. The NE stimulation in astrocytes was dose-dependent and had an EC50 of 1.2 μM. This stimulation was blocked by the low concentration of the α1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin but not by the α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine. The NE-stimulated accumulation of 3H-inositol phosphates in astrocytes was inhibited by the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine as well as by the cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP. 34 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  1. Anagrelide, a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation, inhibits inositol phosphate generation and elevates cAMP

    The effects of the potent platelet aggregation inhibitor, anagrelide (6,7-dichloro-1,5-dihydroimidazo[2,1-6]quinazolin-2(3H)-one monohydrochloride; BL-4162A), on polyphosphoinositide metabolism in human platelets was investigated. Anagrelide maximally inhibited the thrombin-stimulated increase in inositol phosphates (IPn) at approximately 3.3 x 10-6M. The time of incubation required for a maximal response was between 15 and 30 min. Since anagrelide has been reported to inhibit low-Km cAMP phosphodiesterase, the authors compared its ability to inhibit stimulated IPn to that of the well known cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX. Both compounds inhibited IPn similarly except in experiments in which the IP phosphatase inhibitor, lithium chloride, was omitted. In these experiments, anagrelide totally inhibited, while IBMX only partially inhibited, the thrombin-stimulated elevation of IPn. The effect of anagrelide on platelet cyclic nucleotide levels was also measured. After 30 min incubation, concentrations of anagrelide which maximally inhibit aggregation induced a 2-fold increase in cAMP without significantly altering cGMP. These results suggest the mechanism of platelet aggregation inhibition includes an anagrelide-induced elevation of cAMP

  2. Inositol phosphate pathway controls transcription of telomeric expression sites in trypanosomes.

    Cestari, Igor; Stuart, Ken


    African trypanosomes evade clearance by host antibodies by periodically changing their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. They transcribe only one VSG gene at a time from 1 of about 20 telomeric expression sites (ESs). They undergo antigenic variation by switching transcription between telomeric ESs or by recombination of the VSG gene expressed. We show that the inositol phosphate (IP) pathway controls transcription of telomeric ESs and VSG antigenic switching in Trypanosoma brucei. Conditional knockdown of phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase (TbPIP5K) or phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphatase (TbPIP5Pase) or overexpression of phospholipase C (TbPLC) derepresses numerous silent ESs in T. brucei bloodstream forms. The derepression is specific to telomeric ESs, and it coincides with an increase in the number of colocalizing telomeric and RNA polymerase I foci in the nucleus. Monoallelic VSG transcription resumes after reexpression of TbPIP5K; however, most of the resultant cells switched the VSG gene expressed. TbPIP5K, TbPLC, their substrates, and products localize to the plasma membrane, whereas TbPIP5Pase localizes to the nucleus proximal to telomeres. TbPIP5Pase associates with repressor/activator protein 1 (TbRAP1), and their telomeric silencing function is altered by TbPIP5K knockdown. These results show that specific steps in the IP pathway control ES transcription and antigenic switching in T. brucei by epigenetic regulation of telomere silencing. PMID:25964327

  3. Structural Basis of Response Regulator Dephosphorylation by Rap Phosphatases

    V Parashar; N Mirouze; D Dubnau; M Neiditch


    Bacterial Rap family proteins have been most extensively studied in Bacillus subtilis, where they regulate activities including sporulation, genetic competence, antibiotic expression, and the movement of the ICEBs1 transposon. One subset of Rap proteins consists of phosphatases that control B. subtilis and B. anthracis sporulation by dephosphorylating the response regulator Spo0F. The mechanistic basis of Rap phosphatase activity was unknown. Here we present the RapH-Spo0F X-ray crystal structure, which shows that Rap proteins consist of a 3-helix bundle and a tetratricopeptide repeat domain. Extensive biochemical and genetic functional studies reveal the importance of the observed RapH-Spo0F interactions, including the catalytic role of a glutamine in the RapH 3-helix bundle that inserts into the Spo0F active site. We show that in addition to dephosphorylating Spo0F, RapH can antagonize sporulation by sterically blocking phosphoryl transfer to and from Spo0F. Our structure-function analysis of the RapH-Spo0F interaction identified Rap protein residues critical for Spo0F phosphatase activity. This information enabled us to assign Spo0F phosphatase activity to a Rap protein based on sequence alone, which was not previously possible. Finally, as the ultimate test of our newfound understanding of the structural requirements for Rap phosphatase function, a non-phosphatase Rap protein that inhibits the binding of the response regulator ComA to DNA was rationally engineered to dephosphorylate Spo0F. In addition to revealing the mechanistic basis of response regulator dephosphorylation by Rap proteins, our studies support the previously proposed T-loop-Y allostery model of receiver domain regulation that restricts the aromatic 'switch' residue to an internal position when the {beta}4-{alpha}4 loop adopts an active-site proximal conformation.

  4. Evaluation of the Staphylococcus aureus Class C Nonspecific Acid Phosphatase (SapS) as a Reporter for Gene Expression and Protein Secretion in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria▿

    Du Plessis, Erika; Theron, Jacques; Berger, Eldie; Louw, Maureen


    A phosphatase secreted by Staphylococcus aureus strain 154 has previously been characterized and classified as a new member of the bacterial class C family of nonspecific acid phosphatases. As the acid phosphatase activity can be easily detected with a cost-effective plate screen assay, quantitatively measured by a simple enzyme assay, and detected by zymography, its potential use as a reporter system was investigated. The S. aureus acid phosphatase (sapS) gene has been cloned and expressed f...

  5. Inositol hexa-phosphate: a potential chelating agent for uranium

    Cebrian, D.; Tapia, A.; Real, A.; Morcillo, M.A. [Radiobiology Laboratory, Radiation Dosimetry Unit, Department of Environment, CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Chelation therapy is an optimal method to reduce the radionuclide-related risks. In the case of uranium incorporation, the treatment of choice is so far i.v infusion of a 1.4% sodium bicarbonate solution, but the efficacy has been proved to be not very high. In this study, we examine the efficacy of some substances: bicarbonate, citrate, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethidronate (EHBP) and inositol hexa-phosphate (phytic acid) to chelate uranium using a test developed by Braun et al. Different concentrations of phytic acid, an abundant component of plant seeds that is widely distributed in animal cells and tissues in substantial levels, were tested and compared to the same concentrations of sodium citrate, bicarbonate, EHBP and DTPA. The results showed a strong affinity of inositol hexa-phosphate for uranium, suggesting that it could be an effective chelating agent for uranium in vivo. (authors)

  6. Analysis of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate hydrolysis by Bacillus phytase

    Kerovuo, J.; Rouvinen, J.; Hatzack, Frank-Andreas


    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP(6)) hydrolysis by Bacillus phytase (PhyC) was studied. The enzyme hydrolyses only three phosphates from phytic acid. Moreover, the enzyme seems to prefer the hydrolysis of every second phosphate over that of adjacent ones. Furthermore, it is very...... likely that the enzyme has two alternative pathways for the hydrolysis of phytic acid, resulting in two different myo-inositol trisphosphate end products: Ins(2,4,6)P-8 and Ins(1,3,5)P-3. These results, together with inhibition studies with fluoride, vanadate, substrate and a substrate analogue, indicate......) computer-modelling analyses of enzyme-substrate complexes, a novel mode of phytic acid hydrolysis is proposed....

  7. Inositol hexa-phosphate: a potential chelating agent for uranium

    Chelation therapy is an optimal method to reduce the radionuclide-related risks. In the case of uranium incorporation, the treatment of choice is so far i.v infusion of a 1.4% sodium bicarbonate solution, but the efficacy has been proved to be not very high. In this study, we examine the efficacy of some substances: bicarbonate, citrate, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethidronate (EHBP) and inositol hexa-phosphate (phytic acid) to chelate uranium using a test developed by Braun et al. Different concentrations of phytic acid, an abundant component of plant seeds that is widely distributed in animal cells and tissues in substantial levels, were tested and compared to the same concentrations of sodium citrate, bicarbonate, EHBP and DTPA. The results showed a strong affinity of inositol hexa-phosphate for uranium, suggesting that it could be an effective chelating agent for uranium in vivo. (authors)

  8. A new family of phosphoinositide phosphatases in microorganisms: identification and biochemical analysis

    Bennett Hayley J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoinositide metabolism is essential to membrane dynamics and impinges on many cellular processes, including phagocytosis. Modulation of phosphoinositide metabolism is important for pathogenicity and virulence of many human pathogens, allowing them to survive and replicate in the host cells. Phosphoinositide phosphatases from bacterial pathogens are therefore key players in this modulation and constitute attractive targets for chemotherapy. MptpB, a virulence factor from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has phosphoinositide phosphatase activity and a distinct active site P-loop signature HCXXGKDR that shares characteristics with eukaryotic lipid phosphatases and protein tyrosine phosphatases. We used this P-loop signature as a "diagnostic motif" to identify related putative phosphatases with phosphoinositide activity in other organisms. Results We found more than 200 uncharacterised putative phosphatase sequences with the conserved signature in bacteria, with some related examples in fungi and protozoa. Many of the sequences identified belong to recognised human pathogens. Interestingly, no homologues were found in any other organisms including Archaea, plants, or animals. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these proteins are unrelated to classic eukaryotic lipid phosphatases. However, biochemical characterisation of those from Listeria monocytogenes and Leishmania major, demonstrated that, like MptpB, they have phosphatase activity towards phosphoinositides. Mutagenesis studies established that the conserved Asp and Lys in the P-loop signature (HCXXGKDR are important in catalysis and substrate binding respectively. Furthermore, we provide experimental evidence that the number of basic residues in the P-loop is critical in determining activity towards poly-phosphoinositides. Conclusion This new family of enzymes in microorganisms shows distinct sequence and biochemical characteristics to classic eukaryotic lipid phosphatases

  9. Applying a Targeted Label-free Approach using LC-MS AMT Tags to Evaluate Changes in Protein Phosphorylation Following Phosphatase Inhibition

    Yang, Feng; Jaitly, Navdeep; Jayachandran, Hemalatha; Lou, Quanzhou; Monroe, Matthew E.; Du, Xiuxia; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Zhang, Rui; Anderson, David J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Moore, Ronald J.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Ding, Shi-Jian; Lipton, Mary S.; Camp, David G.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.; Rossie, Sandra S.


    To identify phosphoproteins regulated by the phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPP) family of S/T phosphatases, we performed a large-scale characterization of changes in protein phosphorylation on extracts from HeLa cells treated with or without calyculin A, a potent PPP enzyme inhibitor. A label-free comparative Phosphoproteomics approach using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and targeted tandem mass spectrometry was employed to discover and identify signatures based upon distinctive changes in abundance. Overall, 232 proteins were identified as either direct or indirect targets for PPP enzyme regulation. Most of the present identifications represent novel PPP enzyme targets at the level of both phosphorylation site and protein. These include phosphorylation sites within signaling proteins such as p120 Catenin, A Kinase Anchoring Protein 8, JunB, and Type II Phosphatidyl Inositol 4 Kinase. These data can be used to define underlying signaling pathways and events regulated by the PPP family of S/T phosphatases.

  10. Synthesis of mixtures of [2H6]myo-inositol monophosphates suitable as internal standards for quantitative GC/MS and a simple synthesis of DL-myo-inositol-1-phosphate

    A mixture of DL-[2H6]myo-inositol-1- and -4-phosphate and (meso) myo-inositol-2-and -5-phosphate is readily prepared on a 100 milligram scale from the mixed isomers of di-O-cyclohexylidene-[2H6]myo-inositol by phosphorylation with tetrabenzylpyrophosphate. The deblocked [2H6]myl-inositol monophosphate isomers are obtained where the relative amounts of racemic myo-inositol-1-phosphate > -4-phosphate > -2-phosphate > -5-phosphate. In addition a simple synthesis of DL-myo-inositol-1-phosphate was developed which was found to be unsatisfactory for the preparation of deuterium-labeled product. (Author)

  11. Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-2 acts as an effector of the vertebrate Hedgehog pathway

    Sarmah, Bhaskarjyoti; Wente, Susan R.


    Inositol phosphate (IP) kinases constitute an emerging class of cellular kinases linked to multiple cellular activities. Here, we report a previously uncharacterized cellular function in Hedgehog (Hh) signaling for the IP kinase designated inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-2 (IP6K2) that produces diphosphoryl inositol phosphates (PP-IPs). In zebrafish embryos, IP6K2 activity was required for normal development of craniofacial structures, somites, and neural crest cells. ip6k2 depletion in both...

  12. Novel Phosphine Oxide Complexes and Inositol Derivatives as Amphitropic Liquid Crystals and Surfactants

    Catanoiu, Gabriela


    Carbohydrates are an attractive class of starting materials for organic syntheses since they are highly functionalized and environmentally sound, in this way promoting a sustainable chemistry. A somewhat exotic, but nevertheless readily available family of carbohydrates allowing a fascinating chemistry are inositols (cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexols). myo-Inositol which is the stereoisomer with one axial hydroxyl group, is commercially available at reasonable prices. Inositols have been used pr...

  13. Effects of tachykinins on inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in slices of hamster urinary bladder.

    Bristow, D. R.; Curtis, N. R.; Suman-Chauhan, N.; Watling, K. J.; B J Williams


    Tachykinin-stimulated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis was examined in slices of hamster urinary bladder. In the presence of lithium, to inhibit inositol monophosphatase activity, substance P, eledoisin and related tachykinins induced large, dose-dependent increases in [3H]-inositol monophosphate accumulation. The responses to substance P and eledoisin were not antagonized by the cholinoceptor antagonist, atropine. The rank order of potency for various tachykinins was kassinin greater than ne...

  14. Identification of Ononitol and O-methyl-scyllo-inositol in Pea Root Nodules

    Skøt, Leif; Egsgaard, Helge


    Ononitol (4-O-methyl-myo-inositol) and O-methyl-scyllo-inositol were identified in pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules formed by twoRhizobium leguminosarum strains. Ononitol was the major soluble carbohydrate in nodules formed by strain 1045 while O-methyl-scyllo-inositol and two unidentified...... components were dominant in the carbohydrate pattern of the nodules formed by strain 1 a. The cyclitols were also present in the denodulated roots, but to a much smaller extent; in the above-ground plant parts only traces were found. The identification of ononitol and O-methyl-scyllo-inositol was established...

  15. Catalytic DNA with phosphatase activity

    Chandrasekar, Jagadeeswaran; Silverman, Scott K.


    Catalytic DNA sequences (deoxyribozymes, DNA enzymes, or DNAzymes) have been identified by in vitro selection for various catalytic activities. Expanding the limits of DNA catalysis is an important fundamental objective and may facilitate practical utility of catalysts that can be obtained from entirely unbiased (random) sequence populations. In this study, we show that DNA can catalyze Zn2+-dependent phosphomonoester hydrolysis of tyrosine and serine side chains (i.e., exhibit phosphatase ac...

  16. Role of the inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase type II Inpp4b in the generation of ovarian teratomas

    Balakrishnan, Ashwini; Chaillet, J. Richard


    Teratomas are a unique class of tumors composed of ecto- meso- and endodermal tissues, all foreign to the site of origin. In humans, the most common teratoma is the ovarian teratoma. Not much is known about the molecular and genetic etiologies of these tumors. Female carriers of the Tgkd transgene are highly susceptible to developing teratomas. Ovaries of Tgkd/+ hemizygous female mice exhibit defects in luteinization, with numerous corpora lutea, some of which contain central trapped, fully-g...

  17. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... Bacterial gastroenteritis can affect 1 person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It is ...

  18. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. Most known plant PRRs are receptor kinases and initiation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) signalling requires phosphorylation of the PR...

  19. GIPC: Glycosyl Inositol Phospho Ceramides, the major sphingolipids on earth.

    Gronnier, Julien; Germain, Véronique; Gouguet, Paul; Cacas, Jean-Luc; Mongrand, Sébastien


    What are the most abundant sphingolipids on earth? The answer is Glycosyl Inositol Phosphoryl Ceramides (GIPCs) present in fungi and the green lineage. In this review, we discuss the putative role of plant GIPCs in the lipid bilayer asymmetry, in the lateral organization of membrane rafts and in the very long chain fatty acid inter-leaflet coupling of lipids in the plant plasma membrane (PM). A special focus on the structural similarities -and putative functions- of GIPCs is discussed by comparison with animal gangliosides, structural homologs of plant GIPCs. PMID:27074617

  20. Myo-Inositol Supplementation to Prevent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Celentano, Claudio; Matarrelli, Barbara; Mattei, Peter A; Pavone, Giulia; Vitacolonna, Ester; Liberati, Marco


    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication characterized by increased insulin resistance, and by increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes affecting both the mother and the fetus. International guidelines describe optimal ways to recognize it, and the recommended treatment of patients affected to reduce adverse outcomes. Improving insulin resistance could reduce incidence of GDM and its complications. Recently, a few trials have been published on the possible prevention of GDM. Inositol has been proposed as a food supplement that might reduce gestational diabetes incidence in high-risk pregnant women. PMID:26898405

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Fujikawa, Yukichi; Tanaka, Nobukazu; Esaka, Muneharu


    L-Galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPPase) is an enzyme involved in ascorbate biosynthesis in higher plants. We isolated a cDNA encoding GPPase from tobacco, and named it NtGPPase. The putative amino acid sequence of NtGPPase contained inositol monophosphatase motifs and metal binding sites. Recombinant NtGPPase hydrolyzed not only L-galactose-1-phosphate, but also myo-inositol-1-phosphate. The optimum pH for the GPPase activity of NtGPPase was 7.5. Its enzyme activity required Mg2+, and was inhibited by Li+ and Ca2+. Its fluorescence, fused with green fluorescence protein in onion cells and protoplasts of tobacco BY-2 cells, was observed in both the cytosol and nucleus. The expression of NtGPPase mRNA and protein was clearly correlated with L-ascorbic acid (AsA) contents of BY-2 cells during culture. The AsA contents of NtGPPase over expression lines were higher than those of empty lines at 13 d after subculture. This suggests that NtGPPase contributes slightly to AsA biosynthesis. PMID:22790939

  2. FIN13, a novel growth factor-inducible serine-threonine phosphatase which can inhibit cell cycle progression.

    Guthridge, M A; Bellosta, P; Tavoloni, N; Basilico, C.


    We have identified a novel type 2C serine-threonine phosphatase, FIN13, whose expression is induced by fibroblast growth factor 4 and serum in late G1 phase. The protein encoded by FIN13 cDNA includes N- and C-terminal domains with significant homologies to type 2C phosphatases, a domain homologous to collagen, and an acidic domain. FIN13 expression predominates in proliferating tissues. Bacterially expressed FIN13 and FIN13 expressed in mammalian cells exhibit serine-threonine phosphatase ac...

  3. A PTEN-like phosphatase with a novel substrate specificity.

    Pagliarini, David J; Worby, Carolyn A; Dixon, Jack E


    We show that a novel PTEN-like phosphatase (PLIP) exhibits a unique preference for phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PI(5)P) as a substrate in vitro. PI(5)P is the least characterized member of the phosphoinositide (PI) family of lipid signaling molecules. Recent studies suggest a role for PI(5)P in a variety of cellular events, such as tumor suppression, and in response to bacterial invasion. Determining the means by which PI(5)P levels are regulated is therefore key to understanding these cellular processes. PLIP is highly enriched in testis tissue and, similar to other PI phosphatases, exhibits poor activity against several proteinaceous substrates. Despite a recent report suggesting a role for PI(5)P in the regulation of Akt, the overexpression of wild-type or catalytically inactive PLIP in Chinese hamster ovary-insulin receptor cells or a dsRNA-mediated knockdown of PLIP mRNA levels in Drosophila S2 cells does not alter Akt activity or phosphorylation. The unique in vitro catalytic activity and detailed biochemical and kinetic analyses reported here will be of great value in our continued efforts to identify in vivo substrate(s) for this highly conserved phosphatase. PMID:15247229

  4. Chloride secretagogues stimulate inositol phosphate formation in shark rectal gland tubules cultured in suspension

    Ecay, T.W.; Valentich, J.D. (Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston (USA))


    Neuroendocrine activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland cells is associated with increases in cellular cAMP, cGMP, and free calcium concentrations. We report here on the effects of several chloride secretagogues on inositol phosphate formation in cultured rectal gland tubules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), atriopeptin (AP), and ionomycin increase the total inositol phosphate levels of cultured tubules, as measured by ion exchange chromatography. Forskolin, a potent chloride secretagogue, has no effect on inositol phosphate formation. The uptake of {sup 3}H-myo-inositol into phospholipids is very slow, preventing the detection of increased levels of inositol trisphosphate. However, significant increases in inositol monophosphate (IP1) and inositol biphosphate (IP2) were measured. The time course of VIP- and AP-stimulated IP1 and IP2 formation is similar to the effects of these agents on the short-circuit current responses of rectal gland monolayer cultures. In addition, aluminum fluoride, an artificial activator of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, stimulates IP1 and IP2 formation. We conclude that rectal gland cells contain VIP and AP receptors coupled to the activation of phospholipase C. Coupling may be mediated by G-proteins. Receptor-stimulated increases in inositol phospholipid metabolism is one mechanism leading to increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, an important regulatory event in the activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland epithelial cells.

  5. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase), (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI) synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth) in smokeless tobacco (ST) exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia), and identified the downstream signaling proteins in PI synthase pathway that are perturbed by smokeless tobacco (ST) exposure. Tissue microarray (TMA) Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, Confocal laser scan microscopy, RT-PCR were performed to define the expression of PI synthase in clinical samples and in oral cell culture systems. Significant increase in PI synthase immunoreactivity was observed in premalignant lesions and OSCCs as compared to oral normal tissues (p = 0.000). Further, PI synthase expression was significantly associated with de-differentiation of OSCCs, (p = 0.005) and tobacco consumption (p = 0.03, OR = 9.0). Exposure of oral cell systems to smokeless tobacco (ST) in vitro confirmed increase in PI synthase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and cyclin D1 levels. Collectively, increased PI synthase expression was found to be an early event in oral cancer and a target for smokeless tobacco

  6. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Kinase 3 Regulates Metabolism and Lifespan in Mice.

    Moritoh, Yusuke; Oka, Masahiro; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Hozumi, Hiroyuki; Iwachidow, Kimihiko; Fuse, Hiromitsu; Tozawa, Ryuichi


    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 3 (IP6K3) generates inositol pyrophosphates, which regulate diverse cellular functions. However, little is known about its own physiological role. Here, we show the roles of IP6K3 in metabolic regulation. We detected high levels of both mouse and human IP6K3 mRNA in myotubes and muscle tissues. In human myotubes, IP6K3 was upregulated by dexamethasone treatment, which is known to inhibit glucose metabolism. Furthermore, Ip6k3 expression was elevated under diabetic, fasting, and disuse conditions in mouse skeletal muscles. Ip6k3(-/-) mice demonstrated lower blood glucose, reduced circulating insulin, deceased fat mass, lower body weight, increased plasma lactate, enhanced glucose tolerance, lower glucose during an insulin tolerance test, and reduced muscle Pdk4 expression under normal diet conditions. Notably, Ip6k3 deletion extended animal lifespan with concomitant reduced phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein in the heart. In contrast, Ip6k3(-/-) mice showed unchanged skeletal muscle mass and no resistance to the effects of high fat diet. The current observations suggest novel roles of IP6K3 in cellular regulation, which impact metabolic control and lifespan. PMID:27577108

  7. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Kinase 3 Regulates Metabolism and Lifespan in Mice

    Moritoh, Yusuke; Oka, Masahiro; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Hozumi, Hiroyuki; Iwachidow, Kimihiko; Fuse, Hiromitsu; Tozawa, Ryuichi


    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 3 (IP6K3) generates inositol pyrophosphates, which regulate diverse cellular functions. However, little is known about its own physiological role. Here, we show the roles of IP6K3 in metabolic regulation. We detected high levels of both mouse and human IP6K3 mRNA in myotubes and muscle tissues. In human myotubes, IP6K3 was upregulated by dexamethasone treatment, which is known to inhibit glucose metabolism. Furthermore, Ip6k3 expression was elevated under diabetic, fasting, and disuse conditions in mouse skeletal muscles. Ip6k3−/− mice demonstrated lower blood glucose, reduced circulating insulin, deceased fat mass, lower body weight, increased plasma lactate, enhanced glucose tolerance, lower glucose during an insulin tolerance test, and reduced muscle Pdk4 expression under normal diet conditions. Notably, Ip6k3 deletion extended animal lifespan with concomitant reduced phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein in the heart. In contrast, Ip6k3−/− mice showed unchanged skeletal muscle mass and no resistance to the effects of high fat diet. The current observations suggest novel roles of IP6K3 in cellular regulation, which impact metabolic control and lifespan. PMID:27577108

  8. Phytate (Inositol Hexakisphosphate in Soil and Phosphate Acquisition from Inositol Phosphates by Higher Plants. A Review

    Jörg Gerke


    Full Text Available Phosphate (P fixation to the soil solid phase is considered to be important for P availability and is often attributed to the strong binding of orthophosphate anion species. However, the fixation and subsequent immobilization of inositolhexa and pentaphosphate isomers (phytate in soil is often much stronger than that of the orthosphate anion species. The result is that phytate is a main organic P form in soil and the dominating form of identifiable organic P. The reasons for the accumulation are not fully clear. Two hypothesis can be found in the literature in the last 20 years, the low activity of phytase (phosphatases in soil, which makes phytate P unavailable to the plant roots, and, on the other hand, the strong binding of phytate to the soil solid phase with its consequent stabilization and accumulation in soil. The hypothesis that low phytase activity is responsible for phytate accumulation led to the development of genetically modified plant genotypes with a higher expression of phytase activity at the root surface and research on the effect of a higher phytate activity on P acquisition. Obviously, this hypothesis has a basic assumption, that the phytate mobility in soil is not the limiting step for P acquisition of higher plants from soil phytate. This assumption is, however, not justified considering the results on the sorption, immobilization and fixation of phytate to the soil solid phase reported in the last two decades. Phytate is strongly bound, and the P sorption maximum and probably the sorption strength of phytate P to the soil solid phase is much higher, compared to that of orthophosphate P. Mobilization of phytate seems to be a promising step to make it available to the plant roots. The excretion of organic acid anions, citrate and to a lesser extend oxalate, seems to be an important way to make phytate P available to the plants. Phytase activity at the root surface seems not be the limiting step in P acquisition from phytate

  9. Acid phosphatase purified from Mycoplasma fermentans has protein tyrosine phosphatase-like activity.

    Shibata, K; Noda, M.; Sawa, Y; Watanabe, T.


    Acid phosphatase purified from Mycoplasma fermentans dephosphorylated phosphotyrosine-containing lysozyme and Raytide, a peptide substrate for protein tyrosine phosphatases. The optimum pH for Raytide was about 5.5. Raytide phosphatase activity was inhibited by potassium fluoride, sodium molybdate, and sodium orthovanadate and was found to exist in some mycoplasmas.

  10. Regulation of myo-inositol biosynthesis by p53-ISYNA1 pathway.

    Koguchi, Tomoyuki; Tanikawa, Chizu; Mori, Jinichi; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Matsuda, Koichi


    In response to various cellular stresses, p53 exerts its tumor suppressive effects such as apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and senescence through the induction of its target genes. Recently, p53 was shown to control cellular homeostasis by regulating energy metabolism, glycolysis, antioxidant effect, and autophagy. However, its function in inositol synthesis was not reported. Through a microarray screening, we found that five genes related with myo-inositol metabolism were induced by p53. DNA damage enhanced intracellular myo-inositol content in HCT116 p53+/+ cells, but not in HCT116 p53-/- cells. We also indicated that inositol 3-phosphate synthase (ISYNA1) which encodes an enzyme essential for myo-inositol biosynthesis as a direct target of p53. Activated p53 regulated ISYNA1 expression through p53 response element in the seventh exon. Ectopic ISYNA1 expression increased myo-inositol levels in the cells and suppressed tumor cell growth. Knockdown of ISYNA1 caused resistance to adriamycin treatment, demonstrating the role of ISYNA1 in p53-mediated growth suppression. Furthermore, ISYNA1 expression was significantly associated with p53 mutation in bladder, breast cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our findings revealed a novel role of p53 in myo-inositol biosynthesis which could be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27035231

  11. Changes in inositol phosphates in wild carrot cells upon initiation of cell wall digestion

    Previous studies have shown that inositol trisphosphate (IP3) stimulated 45Ca+2 efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts and it was suggested that IP3 may serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca+2 in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not inositol phosphate metabolism changes in response to external stimuli, the cells were labeled with myo-[2-3H] inositol for 18 h and exposed to cell wall digestion enzymes, Driselase. The inositol phosphates were extracted with ice cold 10% TCA and separated by anion exchange chromatography. The radioactivity of the fraction that contained IP3 increased 2-3.8 fold and that which contained inositol bisphosphate increased 1.9-2.6 fold within 1.5 min of exposure to Driselase. After 6 min, the radioactivity of both fractions increased 6-7.7 fold and an increase in inositol monophosphate was observed. These data indicate that inositol phosphate metabolism is stimulated by Driselase and suggest polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis occurs upon initiation of cell wall digestion

  12. Transport and metabolism of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-galactoside in seedlings of Zea mays

    Komoszynski, M.; Bandurski, R. S.


    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside labeled with 3H in the indole and 14C in the galactose moieties was applied to kernels of 5 day old germinating seedlings of Zea mays. Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside was not transported into either the shoot or root tissue as the intact molecule but was instead hydrolyzed to yield [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [3H]indole-3-acetic acid which were then transported to the shoot with little radioactivity going to the root. With certain assumption concerning the equilibration of applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[U-14C]galactose with the endogenous pool, it may be concluded that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside in the endosperm supplies about 2 picomoles per plant per hour of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and 1 picomole per plant per hour of indole-3-acetic acid to the shoot and thus is comparable to indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol as a source of indole-acetic acid for the shoot. Quantitative estimates of the amount of galactose in the kernels suggest that [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose is hydrolyzed after the compound leaves the endosperm but before it reaches the shoot. In addition, [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose supplies appreciable amounts of 14C to the shoot and both 14C and 3H to an uncharacterized insoluble fraction of the endosperm.

  13. Alterations in Lipid and Inositol Metabolisms in Two Dopaminergic Disorders.

    Eva C Schulte

    Full Text Available Serum metabolite profiling can be used to identify pathways involved in the pathogenesis of and potential biomarkers for a given disease. Both restless legs syndrome (RLS and Parkinson`s disease (PD represent movement disorders for which currently no blood-based biomarkers are available and whose pathogenesis has not been uncovered conclusively. We performed unbiased serum metabolite profiling in search of signature metabolic changes for both diseases.456 metabolites were quantified in serum samples of 1272 general population controls belonging to the KORA cohort, 82 PD cases and 95 RLS cases by liquid-phase chromatography and gas chromatography separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Genetically determined metabotypes were calculated using genome-wide genotyping data for the 1272 general population controls.After stringent quality control, we identified decreased levels of long-chain (polyunsaturated fatty acids of individuals with PD compared to both RLS (PD vs. RLS: p = 0.0001 to 5.80x10-9 and general population controls (PD vs. KORA: p = 6.09x10-5 to 3.45x10-32. In RLS, inositol metabolites were increased specifically (RLS vs. KORA: p = 1.35x10-6 to 3.96x10-7. The impact of dopaminergic drugs was reflected in changes in the phenylalanine/tyrosine/dopamine metabolism observed in both individuals with RLS and PD.A first discovery approach using serum metabolite profiling in two dopamine-related movement disorders compared to a large general population sample identified significant alterations in the polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in PD and implicated the inositol metabolism in RLS. These results provide a starting point for further studies investigating new perspectives on factors involved in the pathogenesis of the two diseases as well as possible points of therapeutic intervention.

  14. Dietary myo-inositol modulates immunity through antioxidant activity and the Nrf2 and E2F4/cyclin signalling factors in the head kidney and spleen following infection of juvenile fish with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Hu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin


    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary vitamin myo-inositol (MI), on the immunity and structural integrity of the head kidney and spleen following infection of fish with the major freshwater pathogen bacterial Aeromonas hydrophila. The results demonstrated for the first time that MI deficiency depressed the lysozyme and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and the complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents in the head kidney and spleen compared with the optimal MI levels, indicating that MI deficiency decreased the immunity of these important fish immune organs. The depression in immunity due to MI deficiency was partially related to oxidative damage [indicated by increases in the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) contents] that was in turn partially due to the decreased glutathione (GSH) content and the disturbances in antioxidant enzyme activities [total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, MnSOD, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)]. MI deficiency inhibited the antioxidant-related gene transcription [CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, GPx1a, GR and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)] in the head kidney and spleen following infection of the fish with A. hydrophila. The oxidative damage due to MI deficiency also resulted in the inhibition of proliferation-associated signalling (cyclin D1, cyclin A, cyclin E and E2F4). Thus, MI deficiency partially inhibited damage repair. Excessive MI exhibited negative effects that were similar to MI deficiency, whereas the optimal MI content reversed those indicators. These observations indicated that an MI deficiency or excess could cause depression of the immune system that might be partially related to oxidative damage, antioxidant disturbances, and the inhibition of the proliferation-associated signalling in the head kidney and spleen following infection of fish with A. hydrophila. Finally, the optimal MI levels were 660.7 (based on ACP) and 736.8 mg kg(-1) diet (based

  15. Biochemistry and structure of phosphoinositide phosphatases

    Young Yil Bahk


    Full Text Available Phosphoinositides are the phosphorylated derivatives ofphosphatidylinositol, and play a very significant role in adiverse range of signaling processes in eukaryotic cells. Anumber of phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzymes, includingphosphoinositide-kinases and phosphatases are involved in thesynthesis and degradation of these phospholipids. Recently,the function of various phosphatases in the phosphatidylinositolsignaling pathway has been of great interest. In thepresent review we summarize the structural insights andbiochemistry of various phosphatases in regulating phosphoinositidemetabolism. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1: 1-8

  16. Modulation of hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes in diabetic rats by dietary myo-inositol

    To assess the potential of myo-inositol-supplemented diets to prevent diabetes-induced vascular functional changes, we examined the effects of diets supplemented with 0.5, 1, or 2% myo-inositol on blood flow and vascular filtration function in nondiabetic control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes (STZ-D). After 1 mo of diabetes and dietary myo-inositol supplementation, (1) 131I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) permeation of vessels was assessed in multiple tissues, (2) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated as renal plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA, (3) regional blood flows were measured with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres, and (4) endogenous albumin and IgG urinary excretion rates were quantified by radial immunodiffusion assay. In STZ-D rats, 131I-BSA tissue clearance increased significantly (2- to 4-fold) in the anterior uvea, choroid-sclera, retina, sciatic nerve, aorta, new granulation tissue, diaphragm, and kidney but was unchanged in skin, forelimb muscle, and heart. myo-Inositol-supplemented diets reduced diabetes-induced increases in 131I-BSA clearance (in a dose-dependent manner) in all tissues; however, only in new granulation tissue and diaphragm did the 2% myo-inositol diet completely normalize vascular albumin permeation. Diabetes-induced increases in GFR and in urinary albumin and IgG excretion were also substantially reduced or normalized by dietary myo-inositol supplements. Increased blood flow in anterior uvea, choroid-sclera, kidney, new granulation tissue, and skeletal muscle in STZ-D rats also was substantially reduced or normalized by the 2% myo-inositol diet. myo-Inositol had minimal if any effects on the above parameters in control rats

  17. Enumeration of Klebsiella spp. in cold water by using MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite medium.

    Dutka, B J; Jones, K; Bailey, H.


    MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite agar was field tested for its ability to selectively enumerate Klebsiella species from the waters of the Saint John River Basin, which include fresh and marine waters. Water temperature varied from 1 to 6 degrees C during the survey period. Results of the study indicated that 77% of the typical colonies on MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite medium were Klebsiella species, but the total Klebsiella population enumerated was greatly underestimated.

  18. Phorbol esters promote alpha 1-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and receptor uncoupling from inositol phospholipid metabolism.

    Leeb-Lundberg, L M; Cotecchia, S; Lomasney, J W; DeBernardis, J F; Lefkowitz, R J; Caron, M G


    DDT1 MF-2 cells, which are derived from hamster vas deferens smooth muscle, contain alpha 1-adrenergic receptors (54,800 +/- 2700 sites per cell) that are coupled to stimulation of inositol phospholipid metabolism. Incubation of these cells with tumor-promoting phorbol esters, which stimulate calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, leads to a marked attenuation of the ability of alpha 1-receptor agonists such as norepinephrine to stimulate the turnover of inositol phospholipids. T...

  19. Phosphotransferase System-Independent Glucose Utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum by Inositol Permeases and Glucokinases▿

    Lindner, Steffen N.; Seibold, Gerd M.; Henrich, Alexander; Krämer, Reinhard; Wendisch, Volker F.


    Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent glucose phosphorylation via the phosphotransferase system (PTS) is the major path of glucose uptake in Corynebacterium glutamicum, but some growth from glucose is retained in the absence of the PTS. The growth defect of a deletion mutant lacking the general PTS component HPr in glucose medium could be overcome by suppressor mutations leading to the high expression of inositol utilization genes or by the addition of inositol to the growth medium if a glucokinase i...

  20. RNAi mediated down regulation of myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase to generate low phytate rice

    Ali, Nusrat; Paul, Soumitra; Gayen, Dipak; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K.; Datta, Karabi


    Background Phytic acid (InsP6) is considered as the major source of phosphorus and inositol phosphates in cereal grains. Reduction of phytic acid level in cereal grains is desirable in view of its antinutrient properties to maximize mineral bioavailability and minimize the load of phosphorus waste management. We report here RNAi mediated seed-specific silencing of myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase (MIPS) gene catalyzing the first step of phytic acid biosynthesis in rice. Moreover, we also stu...

  1. Autoproteolytic Activation of Bacterial Toxins

    Aimee Shen


    Full Text Available Protease domains within toxins typically act as the primary effector domain within target cells. By contrast, the primary function of the cysteine protease domain (CPD in Multifunctional Autoprocessing RTX-like (MARTX and Clostridium sp. glucosylating toxin families is to proteolytically cleave the toxin and release its cognate effector domains. The CPD becomes activated upon binding to the eukaryotic-specific small molecule, inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6, which is found abundantly in the eukaryotic cytosol. This property allows the CPD to spatially and temporally regulate toxin activation, making it a prime candidate for developing anti-toxin therapeutics. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to defining the regulation of toxin function by the CPD and the development of inhibitors to prevent CPD-mediated activation of bacterial toxins.

  2. Does myo-inositol effect on PCOS follicles involve cytoskeleton regulation?

    Bizzarri, Mariano; Cucina, Alessandra; Dinicola, Simona; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh H; Unfer, Vittorio; Bevilacqua, Arturo


    Inositol metabolism is severely impaired in follicles obtained from cystic ovaries, leading to deregulated insulin transduction and steroid synthesis. On the contrary, inositol administration to women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been proven to efficiently counteract most of the clinical hallmarks displayed by PCOS patients, including insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism and oligo-amenorrhea. We have recently observed that myo-inositol induces significant changes in cytoskeletal architecture of breast cancer cells, by modulating different biochemical pathways, eventually modulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We hypothesize that inositol and its monophosphate derivatives, besides their effects on insulin transduction, may efficiently revert histological and functional features of cystic ovary by inducing cytoskeleton rearrangements. We propose an experimental model that could address not only whether inositol modulates cytoskeleton dynamics in both normal and cystic ovary cells, but also whether this effect may interfere with ovarian steroidogenesis. A more compelling understanding of the mechanisms of action of inositol (and its derivatives) would greatly improve its therapeutic utilization, by conferring to current treatments a well-grounded scientific rationale. PMID:27142131

  3. Effects of inositol trisphosphate on calcium mobilization in high-voltage and saponin-permeabilized platelets

    Interest in phosphatidylinositol metabolism has been greatly stimulated by the findings that diglyceride and inositol phosphates may serve as second messengers in modulating cellular function. Formation of 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate (IP3), in particular, has been linked to mobilization of intracellular calcium in a number of cell types. The authors have examined the ability of IP3 to mobilize calcium in human platelets permeabilized by either saponin or high-voltage discharge. Saponin at 15 μg/ml effectively permeabilized platelets to exogenous inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate which released bound [45Ca] within 1 min and with a Ka of 7.4 +/- 4.1 μM. A small (25%) azide-sensitive pool was also responsive to inositol trisphosphate. The calcium pools were completely discharged by A-23187 and the ATP-dependent uptake was prevented by dinitrophenol. In contrast to the result with saponin, platelets accessed by high-voltage discharge were insensitive to challenge by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The data suggest that while inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate can rapidly mobilize platelet calcium, the ability to demonstrate this depends on the method of permeabilization

  4. Specific activity of cell-surface acid phosphatase in different bacterioplankton morphotypes in an acidified mountain lake

    Nedoma, Jiří; Vrba, Jaroslav


    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2006), s. 1271-1279. ISSN 1462-2912 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6017202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : alkaline phosphatase * bacterial morphorypes * acid ified lake Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.630, year: 2006

  5. Enzyme-assisted total synthesis of the optical antipodes D-myo-inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and D-myo-inositol 1,5, 6-trisphosphate: aspects of their structure-activity relationship to biologically active inositol phosphates.

    Adelt, S; Plettenburg, O; Stricker, R; Reiser, G; Altenbach, H J; Vogel, G


    Unambiguous total syntheses of both optical antipodes of the enantiomeric pair D-myo-inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(3,4,5)P3) and D-myo-inositol 1,5,6-trisphosphate (Ins(1,5,6)P3) are described. The ring system characteristic of myo-inositol was constructed de novo from p-benzoquinone. X-ray data for the enzymatically resolved (1S,2R,3R,4S)-1,4-diacetoxy-2,3-dibromocyclohex-5-ene enabled the unequivocal assignment of the absolute configuration. Subsequent transformations under stereocontrolled conditions led to enantiopure C2-symmetrical 1,4-(di-O-benzyldiphospho)conduritol B derivatives. Their synthetic potential was exploited to prepare Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 in three steps. With a recently identified and partially purified InsP5/InsP4 phosphohydrolase from Dictyostelium discoideum, these enantiomers could be converted to the target compounds, Ins(3,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,5,6)P3, on a preparative scale. An HPLC system employed for both purification of the inositol phosphates and analytical runs ensured that the products were isomerically homogeneous. The sensitivity of detection achieved by a complexometric postcolumn derivatization method indicates that the complexation properties of Ins(3,4,5)P3/Ins(1,5,6)P3 resemble those of Ins(1,2,3)P3, a compound with antioxidant potential. The set of inositol phosphates synthesized was used to clarify structural motifs important for molecular recognition by p42(IP4), a high-affinity Ins(1,3,4,5)P4/PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-specific binding protein from pig cerebellum. PMID:10197969

  6. Optimal level of purple acid phosphatase5 is required for maintaining complete resistance to Pseudomonas syringae

    Ravichandran, Sridhar; Stone, Sophia L.; Benkel, Bernhard; Zhang, Junzeng; Berrue, Fabrice; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan


    Plants possess an exceedingly complex innate immune system to defend against most pathogens. However, a relative proportion of the pathogens overcome host's innate immunity and impair plant growth and productivity. We previously showed that mutation in purple acid phosphatase (PAP5) lead to enhanced susceptibility of Arabidopsis to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Here, we report that an optimal level of PAP5 is crucial for mounting complete basal re...

  7. The role for protein tyrosine phosphatases in regulating the immune system: implications for chronic intestinal inflammation

    Spalinger, Marianne R.; MCCOLE, DECLAN F.; Rogler, Gerhard; Scharl, Michael


    Current hypothesis suggests that genetic, immunological and bacterial factors contribute essentially to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Variations within the gene loci encoding protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have been associated with the onset of IBD. PTPs modulate the activity of their substrates by dephosphorylation of tyrosine residues and are critical for the regulation of fundamental cellular signalling processes.Evidence emerges that expression levels of PTPN...

  8. Role of protein tyrosine phosphatases in regulating the immune system: implications for chronic intestinal inflammation

    Spalinger, Marianne R.; MCCOLE, DECLAN F.; Rogler, Gerhard; Scharl, Michael


    Current hypothesis suggests that genetic, immunological, and bacterial factors contribute essentially to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Variations within the gene loci encoding protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have been associated with the onset of inflammatory bowel disease. PTPs modulate the activity of their substrates by dephosphorylation of tyrosine residues and are critical for the regulation of fundamental cellular signaling processes. Evidence emerges that express...

  9. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a gut mucosal defense factor maintained by enteral nutrition

    Goldberg, Ross F; Austen, William G.; Zhang, Xiaobo; Munene, Gitonga; Mostafa, Golam; Biswas, Shaluk; McCormack, Michael; Eberlin, Kyle R.; Nguyen, John T.; Tatlidede, Hamit S.; Warren, H. Shaw; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, Jose L.; Hodin, Richard A.


    Under conditions of starvation and disease, the gut barrier becomes impaired, and trophic feeding to prevent gut mucosal atrophy has become a standard treatment of critically ill patients. However, the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of enteral nutrition have remained a mystery. Using in vitro and in vivo models, we demonstrate that the brush–border enzyme, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), has the ability to detoxify lipopolysaccharide and prevent bacterial invasion ac...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  11. Cellular Cations Control Conformational Switching of Inositol Pyrophosphate Analogues.

    Hager, Anastasia; Wu, Mingxuan; Wang, Huanchen; Brown, Nathaniel W; Shears, Stephen B; Veiga, Nicolás; Fiedler, Dorothea


    The inositol pyrophosphate messengers (PP-InsPs) are emerging as an important class of cellular regulators. These molecules have been linked to numerous biological processes, including insulin secretion and cancer cell migration, but how they trigger such a wide range of cellular responses has remained unanswered in many cases. Here, we show that the PP-InsPs exhibit complex speciation behaviour and propose that a unique conformational switching mechanism could contribute to their multifunctional effects. We synthesised non-hydrolysable bisphosphonate analogues and crystallised the analogues in complex with mammalian PPIP5K2 kinase. Subsequently, the bisphosphonate analogues were used to investigate the protonation sequence, metal-coordination properties, and conformation in solution. Remarkably, the presence of potassium and magnesium ions enabled the analogues to adopt two different conformations near physiological pH. Understanding how the intrinsic chemical properties of the PP-InsPs can contribute to their complex signalling outputs will be essential to elucidate their regulatory functions. PMID:27460418

  12. Inositol trisphosphate metabolism in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells

    The metabolism of exogenously added D-myo-[1-3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) has been examined in microsomal membrane and soluble fractions of carrot cells grown in suspension culture. When [3H]IP3 was added to a microsomal membrane fraction, [3H]IP2 was the primary metabolite consisting of approximately 83% of the total recovered [3H] by electrophoresis. [3H]IP was only 6% of the [3H] recovered, and 10% of the [3H]IP3 was not further metabolized. In contrast, when [3H]IP3 was added to the soluble fraction, approximately equal amounts of [3H]IP2 and [3H]IP were recovered. Ca2+ (100 micromolar) tended to enhance IP3 dephosphorylation but inhibited the IP2 dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction by about 20%. MoO42- (1 millimolar) inhibited the dephosphorylation of IP3 by the microsomal fraction and the dephosphorylation of IP2 by the soluble fraction. MoO42-, however, did not inhibit the dephosphorylation of IP3 by the soluble fraction. Li+ (10 and 50 millimolar) had no effect on IP3 metabolism in either the soluble or membrane fraction; however, Li+ (50 millimolar) inhibited IP2 dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction about 25%

  13. Preliminary Investigation of Myo-Inositol Phosphates Produced by ASUIA279 Phytase on MCF-7 Cancer Cells

    N. Mohd. Yusoff; T. Nuge; N.H. Zainan; Y.Z.H-Y. Hashim; P. JAMAL; Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin; Abd-Elaziem Farouk; and H.M. Salleh


    Phytate or myo-inositol hexakisphosphates (IP6) is widely distributed in plants like rice brans. The production of myo-inositol phosphate intermediates has received much attention due to the remarkable potential health benefits offered by the compounds. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the partially purified myo-inositol phosphate fractions and commercial IP1 and IP6 were investigated against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The study showed that the commercial standard IP1 and IP6 showed go...

  14. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray analysis of inositol monophosphatase from Mus musculus and Homo sapiens

    Lack, Nathan A.; Singh, Nisha; Halliday, Amy C.; Knight, Matthew; Lowe, Edward; Churchill, Grant C.


    Inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) catalyses the hydrolysis of inositol monophosphate to inositol and is crucial in the phosphatidylinositol (PI) signalling pathway. Lithium, which is the drug of choice for bipolar disorder, inhibits IMPase at therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations. Both mouse IMPase 1 (MmIMPase 1) and human IMPase 1 (HsIMPase 1) were cloned into pRSET5a, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop method. The structures were solved ...

  15. Assessing the Biological Activity of the Glucan Phosphatase Laforin.

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Raththagala, Madushi; Gentry, Mathew S; Sanz, Pascual


    Glucan phosphatases are a recently discovered family of enzymes that dephosphorylate either starch or glycogen and are essential for proper starch metabolism in plants and glycogen metabolism in humans. Mutations in the gene encoding the only human glucan phosphatase, laforin, result in the fatal, neurodegenerative, epilepsy known as Lafora disease. Here, we describe phosphatase assays to assess both generic laforin phosphatase activity and laforin's unique glycogen phosphatase activity. PMID:27514803

  16. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    The overall goal of this project is to examine the role of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO43-. During this phase of the project we have been conducting assays to determine the effects of pH, inorganic anions and organic ligands on U(VI) mineral formation and precipitation when FRC bacterial isolates were grown in simulated groundwater medium. The molecular characterization of FRC isolates has also been undertaken during this phase of the project. Analysis of a subset of gram-positive FRC isolates cultured from FRC soils (Areas 1, 2 and 3) and background sediments have indicated a higher percentage of isolates exhibiting phosphatase phenotypes (i.e., in particular those surmised to be PO43--irrepressible) relative to isolates from the reference site. A high percentage of strains that exhibited such putatively PO43--irrepressible phosphatase phenotypes were also resistant to the heavy metals lead and cadmium. Previous work on FRC strains, including Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella spp., has demonstrated differences in tolerance to U(VI) toxicity (200 (micro)M) in the absence of organophosphate substrates. For example, Arthrobacter spp. exhibited the greatest tolerance to U(VI) while the Rahnella spp. have been shown to facilitate the precipitation of U(VI) from solution and the Bacillus spp. demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to acidic conditions and high concentrations of U(VI). PCR-based detection of FRC strains are being conducted to determine if non-specific acid phosphatases of the known molecular classes [i.e., classes A, B and C] are present in these FRC isolates. Additionally, these amplified phosphatases are being

  17. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    Martinez, Robert J.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Wilson, Jarad J.; Taillefert, Martial; Sobecky, Patricia A.


    The overall goal of this project is to examine the role of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}. During this phase of the project we have been conducting assays to determine the effects of pH, inorganic anions and organic ligands on U(VI) mineral formation and precipitation when FRC bacterial isolates were grown in simulated groundwater medium. The molecular characterization of FRC isolates has also been undertaken during this phase of the project. Analysis of a subset of gram-positive FRC isolates cultured from FRC soils (Areas 1, 2 and 3) and background sediments have indicated a higher percentage of isolates exhibiting phosphatase phenotypes (i.e., in particular those surmised to be PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible) relative to isolates from the reference site. A high percentage of strains that exhibited such putatively PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible phosphatase phenotypes were also resistant to the heavy metals lead and cadmium. Previous work on FRC strains, including Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella spp., has demonstrated differences in tolerance to U(VI) toxicity (200 {micro}M) in the absence of organophosphate substrates. For example, Arthrobacter spp. exhibited the greatest tolerance to U(VI) while the Rahnella spp. have been shown to facilitate the precipitation of U(VI) from solution and the Bacillus spp. demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to acidic conditions and high concentrations of U(VI). PCR-based detection of FRC strains are being conducted to determine if non-specific acid phosphatases of the known molecular classes [i.e., classes A, B and C] are present in these FRC isolates. Additionally, these

  18. Early effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin infusion on vasopressin-stimulated breakdown and metabolism of inositol lipids in rat hepatocytes

    The turnover of vasopressin-stimulated 32P-phosphoinositides and 32P-phosphatidic acid and accumulation of [2-3H]-inositol phosphates were examined in hepatocytes from rats infused i.v. with saline and E. coli endotoxin for 3 hrs. Within 60s of VP stimulation the decrease in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate labeling as well as the increased uptake of 32P into phosphatidic acid were similar in both groups. However, at a later time (300s) the 32P-phosphatidylinositol turnover was greatly decreased concomitantly with a higher labeling of phosphatidic acid. The accumulation of [2-3H]-inositol phosphates in ET-cells was significantly decreased both at 30s and 600s after VP addition. The distribution of [2-3H]-inositol labeling accumulated in the different inositol phosphate fractions over the first 30s of VP stimulation showed a tendency to lower accumulation of inositol trisphosphate, and a significantly lower accumulation of inositol bisphosphate simultaneously with a higher labeling of the inositol tetrakisphosphate fraction. These observations reflect an early effect of ET-infusion on VP-stimulated inositol lipid turnover and on the subsequent metabolism of the released inositol phosphates

  19. Prophylactic treatment with alkaline phosphatase in cardiac surgery induces endogenous alkaline phosphatase release

    Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Seinen, Willem; Schamhorst, Volkher; Wulkan, Raymond W.; Schoenberger, Jacques P.; van Oeveren, Wim


    Introduction: Laboratory and clinical data have implicated endotoxin as an important factor in the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. We assessed the effects of the administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP), an endotoxin detoxifier, on alkaline phosphatase levels

  20. Effects of a new flavonoid and Myo-inositol supplement on some biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women: a randomized trial.

    D'Anna, Rosario; Santamaria, Angelo; Cannata, Maria Letizia; Interdonato, Maria Lieta; Giorgianni, Grazia Maria; Granese, Roberta; Corrado, Francesco; Bitto, Alessandra


    Background and Aim. Cardiovascular risk is increased in women with menopause and metabolic syndrome. Aim of this study was to test the effect of a new supplement formula, combining cocoa polyphenols, myo-inositol, and soy isoflavones, on some biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Methods and Results. A total of 60 women were enrolled and randomly assigned (n = 30 per group) to receive the supplement (NRT: 30 mg of cocoa polyphenols, 80 mg of soy isoflavones, and 2 gr of myo-inositol), or placebo for 6 months. The study protocol included three visits (baseline, 6, and 12 months) for the evaluation of glucose, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bone-ALP). At 6 months, a significant difference between NRT and placebo was found for glucose (96 ± 7 versus 108 ± 10 mg/dL), triglycerides (145 ± 14 versus 165 ± 18 mg/dL), visfatin (2.8 ± 0.8 versus 3.7 ± 1.1 ng/mL), resistin (27 ± 7 versus 32 ± 8 µg/L), and b-ALP (19 ± 7 versus 15 ± 5 µg/mL). No difference in HDL-C concentrations nor in adiponectin levels between groups was reported at 6 months. Conclusions. The supplement used in this study improves most of the biomarkers linked to metabolic syndrome. This Trial is registered with NCT01400724. PMID:25254044

  1. Effects of a New Flavonoid and Myo-Inositol Supplement on Some Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Trial

    Rosario D’Anna


    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Cardiovascular risk is increased in women with menopause and metabolic syndrome. Aim of this study was to test the effect of a new supplement formula, combining cocoa polyphenols, myo-inositol, and soy isoflavones, on some biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Methods and Results. A total of 60 women were enrolled and randomly assigned (n=30 per group to receive the supplement (NRT: 30 mg of cocoa polyphenols, 80 mg of soy isoflavones, and 2 gr of myo-inositol, or placebo for 6 months. The study protocol included three visits (baseline, 6, and 12 months for the evaluation of glucose, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bone-ALP. At 6 months, a significant difference between NRT and placebo was found for glucose (96±7 versus 108±10 mg/dL, triglycerides (145±14 versus 165±18 mg/dL, visfatin (2.8±0.8 versus 3.7±1.1 ng/mL, resistin (27±7 versus 32±8 µg/L, and b-ALP (19±7 versus 15±5 µg/mL. No difference in HDL-C concentrations nor in adiponectin levels between groups was reported at 6 months. Conclusions. The supplement used in this study improves most of the biomarkers linked to metabolic syndrome. This Trial is registered with NCT01400724.

  2. Potentiometric assay for acid and alkaline phosphatase

    Simple potentiometric kinetic assay for evaluation of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity has been developed. Enzymatically catalyzed hydrolysis of monofluorophosphate, the simplest inorganic compound containing P-F bond, has been investigated as the basis of the assays. Fluoride ions formed in the course of the hydrolysis of this specific substrate have been detected using conventional fluoride ion-selective electrode based on membrane made of lanthanum fluoride. The key analytical parameters necessary for sensitive and selective detection of both enzymes have been assessed. Maximal sensitivity of the assays was observed at monofluorophosphate concentration near 10-3 M. Maximal sensitivity of acid phosphatase assay was found at pH 6.0, but pH of 4.8 is recommended to eliminate effects from alkaline phosphatase. Optimal pH for alkaline phosphatase assay is 9.0. The utility of the developed substrate-sensor system for determination of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in human serum has been demonstrated

  3. Crystallization of a newly discovered histidine acid phosphatase from Francisella tularensis

    A histidine acid phosphatase from the CDC Category A pathogen F. tularensis has been crystallized in space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.96, c = 210.78 Å. A 1.75 Å resolution data set was collected at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious bacterial pathogen that is considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to be a potential bioterrorism weapon. Here, the crystallization of a 37.2 kDa phosphatase encoded by the genome of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica live vaccine strain is reported. This enzyme shares 41% amino-acid sequence identity with Legionella pneumophila major acid phosphatase and contains the RHGXRXP motif that is characteristic of the histidine acid phosphatase family. Large diffraction-quality crystals were grown in the presence of Tacsimate, HEPES and PEG 3350. The crystals belong to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.96, c = 210.78 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain one protein molecule, with a solvent content of 53%. A 1.75 Å resolution native data set was recorded at beamline 4.2.2 of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source. Molecular-replacement trials using the human prostatic acid phosphatase structure as the search model (28% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of F. tularensis histidine acid phosphatase will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative

  4. Metabolism and Ovarian Function in PCOS Women: A Therapeutic Approach with Inositols.

    Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rossetti, Paola; Buscema, Massimo; La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Gullo, Giuseppe; Granese, Roberta; Triolo, Onofrio


    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronical anovulation and hyperandrogenism which may be present in a different degree of severity. Insulin-resistance and hyperinsulinemia are the main physiopathological basis of this syndrome and the failure of inositol-mediated signaling may concur to them. Myo (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI), the most studied inositol isoforms, are classified as insulin sensitizers. In form of glycans, DCI-phosphoglycan and MI-phosphoglycan control key enzymes were involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. In form of phosphoinositides, they play an important role as second messengers in several cellular biological functions. Considering the key role played by insulin-resistance and androgen excess in PCOS patients, the insulin-sensitizing effects of both MI and DCI were tested in order to ameliorate symptoms and signs of this syndrome, including the possibility to restore patients' fertility. Accumulating evidence suggests that both isoforms of inositol are effective in improving ovarian function and metabolism in patients with PCOS, although MI showed the most marked effect on the metabolic profile, whereas DCI reduced hyperandrogenism better. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on inositol signaling and correlate data on biological functions of these multifaceted molecules, in view of a rational use for the therapy in women with PCOS. PMID:27579037

  5. Evaluation of expression and function of the H+/myo-inositol transporter HMIT

    Shah Ajit J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phosphoinositide (PIns signalling pathway regulates a series of neuronal processes, such as neurotransmitter release, that are thought to be altered in mood disorders. Furthermore, mood-stabilising drugs have been shown to inhibit key enzymes that regulate PIns production and alter neuronal growth cone morphology in an inositol-reversible manner. Here, we describe analyses of expression and function of the recently identified H+/myo-inositol transporter (HMIT investigated as a potential regulator of PIns signalling. Results We show that HMIT is primarily a neuronal transporter widely expressed in the rat and human brain, with particularly high levels in the hippocampus and cortex, as shown by immunohistochemistry. The transporter is localised at the Golgi apparatus in primary cultured neurones. No HMIT-mediated electrophysiological responses were detected in rat brain neurones or slices; in addition, inositol transport and homeostasis were unaffected in HMIT targeted null-mutant mice. Conclusion Together, these data do not support a role for HMIT as a neuronal plasma membrane inositol transporter, as previously proposed. However, we observed that HMIT can transport inositol triphosphate, indicating unanticipated intracellular functions for this transporter that may be relevant to mood control.

  6. Asymmetric distribution of glucose and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol in geostimulated Zea mays seedlings

    Momonoki, Y. S.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)


    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol occurs in both the kernel and vegetative shoot of germinating Zea mays seedlings. The effect of a gravitational stimulus on the transport of [3H]-5-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [U-14C]-D-glucose from the kernel to the seedling shoot was studied. Both labeled glucose and labeled indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol become asymmetrically distributed in the mesocotyl cortex of the shoot with more radioactivity occurring in the bottom half of a horizontally placed seedling. Asymmetric distribution of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid, derived from the applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, occurred more rapidly than distribution of total 3H-radioactivity. These findings demonstrate that the gravitational stimulus can induce an asymmetric distribution of substances being transported from kernel to shoot. They also indicate that, in addition to the transport asymmetry, gravity affects the steady state amount of indole-3-acetic acid derived from indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol.

  7. Origin and production of phosphatases in the acid Lake Gardsjoen

    Olsson, H.


    The activity of acid phosphatases was followed for one year in Lake Gardsjoen as well as in the inlet and the outlet of the lake. A budget of the phosphatases was calculated, including an estimation of the production of phosphatases. The phosphatase activity was also measured in two basins upstream of L. Gardsjoen: the north basin and the south basin of L. Stora Haestevatten. The acid phosphatase activity was very high compared with reported alkaline phosphatase activities in other lakes. About 95% of the phosphatases in L. Gardsjoen was produced in the lake, and the production was highest in early summer. Small Chrysophyceae (< 10 probably produced the majority of the acid phosphatases in the investigated lakes, and accordingly could be favoured in environments with low phosphorus supply due to their ability to produce large amounts of phosphatases. 10 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Soil metabolic transformations of carbon-14-myo-inositol, carbon-14-phytic acid and carbon-14-iron(III) phytate

    Uniformly labelled 14C-phytic acid and 14C-iron(III) phytate were synthesized from uniformly labelled 14C-myo-inositol. The three compounds were incubated in an Andosol sandy loam at 70% field capacity and 36.50C for a 12-day period. Myo-inositol, phytic acid and iron(III) phytate underwent a 61.0, 1.9 and 0% microbial oxidation respectively to CO2 during the incubation period. The rate of fixation of 14C-phytic acid was illustrated by its rapid decline in metabolism in the 12-day period. The metabolism rate of phytic was considerably reduced by the presumed formation of iron(III) and aluminium phytate. The metabolism rate of myo-inositol was reduced nine-fold after an initial rapid metabolism during the first day of incubation. The following mechanisms were observed in the soil metabolism of myo-inositol: (1) soil mineral-inositol carbon adsorption, (2) humic acid-inositol carbon adsorption, (3) the phosphorylation of myo-inositol, and (4) the epimerization of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol. The formation of (1) and (2) was found to be highly dependent upon microbial activity. Interactions (1), (2) and (3)are considered as possible mechanisms for the inhibition of the microbial oxidation of myo-inositol. The inhibition of myo-inositol oxidation via adsorption or phosphorylation is considered to be due to the chemical blockage of the stereo-specific microbial oxidative attack on the axial hydroxyl group. (author)

  9. Defining Starch Binding by Glucan Phosphatases

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper;


    Starch is a vital energy molecule in plants that has a wide variety of uses in industry, such as feedstock for biomaterial processing and biofuel production. Plants employ a three enzyme cyclic process utilizing kinases, amylases, and phosphatases to degrade starch in a diurnal manner. Starch is...... comprised of the branched glucan amylopectin and the more linear glucan amylose. Our lab has determined the first structures of these glucan phosphatases and we have defined their enzymatic action. Despite this progress, we lacked a means to quickly and efficiently quantify starch binding to glucan...

  10. Lithium modulation of the human inositol monophosphatase 2 (IMPA2) promoter

    The inositol-signaling pathway is a therapeutic target for lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Inositol monophosphatases (IMPases) play a key role in inositol signaling. Lithium's ability to inhibit IMPase 1 is well known, but its effect on IMPase 2 or on the transcriptional regulation of these genes has not been studied. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the minimal promoter of IMPA2 (encoding IMPase 2) in HeLa (epithelial) and SK-N-AS (neuronal) cells. IMPA2 promoter activity appears to be contributed by different elements in the 5' flanking region, suggesting that the gene is differentially regulated in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Furthermore, IMPA2 promoter activity in both cell lines is downregulated, in a dose-dependent manner, by lithium after treatment for only 24 h. This effect is also observed in vivo. Our results suggest a possible role for IMPA2 in bipolar disorder

  11. Characterization of a multifunctional inositol phosphate kinase from rice and barley belonging to the ATP-grasp superfamily

    Josefsen, L.; Bohn, L.; Sørensen, M.B.;


    OsIpk and HvIk, inositol phosphate kinases, were cloned from rice (Oryza sativa L. var. indica, IR64) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) respectively.. IP Sequence alignment showed that they belong to the ATP-grasp family, which includes inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase from humans and Arabidops...

  12. Inositol pentakisphosphate isomers bind PH domains with varying specificity and inhibit phosphoinositide interactions

    Schultz Carsten


    Full Text Available Abstract Background PH domains represent one of the most common domains in the human proteome. These domains are recognized as important mediators of protein-phosphoinositide and protein-protein interactions. Phosphoinositides are lipid components of the membrane that function as signaling molecules by targeting proteins to their sites of action. Phosphoinositide based signaling pathways govern a diverse range of important cellular processes including membrane remodeling, differentiation, proliferation and survival. Myo-Inositol phosphates are soluble signaling molecules that are structurally similar to the head groups of phosphoinositides. These molecules have been proposed to function, at least in part, by regulating PH domain-phosphoinositide interactions. Given the structural similarity of inositol phosphates we were interested in examining the specificity of PH domains towards the family of myo-inositol pentakisphosphate isomers. Results In work reported here we demonstrate that the C-terminal PH domain of pleckstrin possesses the specificity required to discriminate between different myo-inositol pentakisphosphate isomers. The structural basis for this specificity was determined using high-resolution crystal structures. Moreover, we show that while the PH domain of Grp1 does not possess this high degree of specificity, the PH domain of protein kinase B does. Conclusions These results demonstrate that some PH domains possess enough specificity to discriminate between myo-inositol pentakisphosphate isomers allowing for these molecules to differentially regulate interactions with phosphoinositides. Furthermore, this work contributes to the growing body of evidence supporting myo-inositol phosphates as regulators of important PH domain-phosphoinositide interactions. Finally, in addition to expanding our knowledge of cellular signaling, these results provide a basis for developing tools to probe biological pathways.

  13. Phospholipid biosynthesis in Candida albicans: Regulation by the precursors inositol and choline

    Phospholipid metabolism in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was examined. The phospholipid biosynthetic pathways of C. albicans were elucidated and were shown to be similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, marked differences were seen between these two fungi in the regulation of the pathways in response to exogenously provided precursors inositol and choline. In S. cerevisiae, the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine appears to be regulated in response to inositol and choline; provision of choline alone does not repress the activity of this pathway. The same pathway in C. albicans responds to the exogenous provision of choline. Possible explanations for the observed differences in regulation are discussed

  14. Cyclic nucleotide- and inositol phosphate-gated ion channels in lobster olfactory receptor neurons.

    Hatt, H; Ache, B.W.


    The idea of having two second messenger pathways in olfaction, one mediated by cAMP and the other by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, is supported by evidence that both second messengers directly activate distinct ion channels in the outer dendrite of lobster olfactory receptor neurons. Evidence that both types of second messenger-gated channels can occur in the same patch of membrane suggests that channels of both types can be expressed in one neuron. Evidence of more than one type of inositol ...


    H. Mohammadiha


    Full Text Available The levels of serum tota1 protein, albumin, transaminases and phosphatases were estimated in a group of children with severe Marasmus or mild malnutrition in order to identify some of the associated deficiencies in these syndromes. The biochemical pattern was similar in the normal and malnourished children.

  16. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H;


    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...

  17. Improving d-glucaric acid production from myo-inositol in E. coli by increasing MIOX stability and myo-inositol transport

    Shiue, Eric; Prather, Kristala L. Jones


    d-glucaric acid has been explored for a myriad of potential uses, including biopolymer production and cancer treatment. A biosynthetic route to produce d-glucaric acid from glucose has been constructed in Escherichia coli ( Moon et al., 2009b), and analysis of the pathway revealed myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) to be the least active enzyme. To increase pathway productivity, we explored protein fusion tags for increased MIOX solubility and directed evolution for increased MIOX activity. An N-t...

  18. Partial purification and characterization of phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase(s) from human erythrocyte cytosol

    Phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity of human erythrocyte cytosol can be resolved into two fractions by DEAE-cellulose chromatography followed by P-cellulose chromatography. Both 32P-Tyr-phosphatases are able to dephosphorylate 32P-Tyr of poly (Glu-Tyr) 4:1 but no angiotensin II and synthetic peptide Asp-Ala-Glu-Tyr-Ala-Ala-Arg-Arg-Gly, previously phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by rat spleen tyrosine-protein kinase. Both 32P-Tyr-phosphatase activities distinctly differ from either 32P-Ser-casein phosphatase activity or acid and alkaline p-nitrophenylphosphatase activities with regard to catalytic and physico-chemical properties such as substrate specificity, chromatographic behavior, response to various effectors

  19. Revisiting histidine-dependent acid phosphatases: a distinct group of tyrosine phosphatases

    Veeramani, Suresh; Lee, Ming-Shyue; Lin, Ming-Fong


    Although classical protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) superfamily members are cysteine-dependent, emerging evidence shows that many acid phosphatases (AcPs) function as histidine-dependent PTPs in vivo. These AcPs dephosphorylate phospho-tyrosine substrates intracellularly and could have roles in development and disease. In contrast to cysteine-dependent PTPs, they utilize histidine, rather than cysteine, for substrate dephosphorylation. Structural analyses reveal that active site histidine, ...

  20. Expression of a human placental alkaline phosphatase gene in transfected cells: Use as a reporter for studies of gene expression

    The human placental alkaline phosphatase gene has been cloned and reintroduced into mammalian cells. When a plasmid carrying the gene under control of the simian virus 40 early promoter (pSV2Apap) is transfected into a variety of different cell types, placental alkaline phosphatase activity can readily be detected by using whole cell suspensions or cell lysates. Alkaline phosphatase activity can also be visualized directly in individual transfected cells by histochemical staining. The gene is appropriate for use as a reporter in studies of gene regulation since its expression is dependent on the presence of exogenous transcription control elements. The overall assay to detect the expression of the gene is quantitative, very rapid, and inexpensive. Cotransfections of cells with pSV2Apap and a related plasmid carrying the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (pSV2Acat) indicate that transcription of these two genes is detected with roughly the same sensitivity

  1. Exploring the diversity of protein modifications: special bacterial phosphorylation systems

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Grangeasse, Christophe; Turgay, Kürşad


    physiology, and regulatory networks. Investigating these unusual bacterial kinase and phosphatases is not only important to understand their role in bacterial physiology but will help to generally understand the full potential and evolution of protein phosphorylation for signal transduction, protein...... has been most thoroughly investigated. Unlike in eukarya, a large diversity of enzyme families has been shown to phosphorylate and dephosphorylate proteins on various amino acids with different chemical properties in bacteria. In this review, after a brief overview of the known bacterial...... phosphorylation systems, we focus on more recently discovered and less widely known kinases and phosphatases. Namely, we describe in detail tyrosine- and arginine-phosphorylation together with some examples of unusual serine-phosphorylation systems and discuss their potential role and function in bacterial...

  2. Preliminary Investigation of Myo-Inositol Phosphates Produced by ASUIA279 Phytase on MCF-7 Cancer Cells

    N. Mohd. Yusoff


    Full Text Available Phytate or myo-inositol hexakisphosphates (IP6 is widely distributed in plants like rice brans. The production of myo-inositol phosphate intermediates has received much attention due to the remarkable potential health benefits offered by the compounds. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the partially purified myo-inositol phosphate fractions and commercial IP1 and IP6 were investigated against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The study showed that the commercial standard IP1 and IP6 showed good inhibition towards the MCF-7 cell line. The MCF-7 cells growth was inhibited in minimum concentration of myo-inositol phosphates (<1000 µg/ml. However, no inhibition observed on the MCF-7 cell line by the myo-inositol phosphates fractions partially purified from rice bran at concentration <1000 ?g/ml. The inhibition of MCF-7 was only observed at concentration more than 30 mg/ml with more than 40% cells were inhibited. This indicates that the partially purified rice bran myo-inositol phosphates degraded by ASUIA279 phytase on MCF-7 breast cancer cells exhibit positive results towards the inhibition of cancer cells growth at relatively high concentration..KEYWORDS: myo-inositol phosphates, phytase, MCF-7,  cancerABSTRAK: Fitat atau myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6 dikenali umum teragih di dalam tumbuhan seperti dedak padi. Penghasilan perantaraan fosfat myo-inositol mendapat perhatian memandangkan ia berpotensi tinggi dalam kesihatan. Dalam kajian ini, kesitotoksikan sebahagian daripada fosfat myo-inositol separa tulen, IP1 komersil dan IP6 komersil dikaji terhadap produk yang berupa sel kekal (cell lines kanser payu dara MCF-7. Tumbesaran sel MCF-7 direncatkan dalam pekatan minima fosfat myo-inositol (<1000 μg/ml. Tetapi, tidak ada perencatan dilihat terhadap sel kekal MCF-7 oleh sebahagian fosfat myo-inositol separa tulen daripada dedak padi pada kepekatan <1000 mg/ml. Perencatan MCF-7 hanya dilihat pada kepekatan lebih daripada 30 mg/ml dengan lebih

  3. Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase PIPKIγ and phosphatase INPP5E coordinate initiation of ciliogenesis.

    Xu, Qingwen; Zhang, Yuxia; Wei, Qing; Huang, Yan; Hu, Jinghua; Ling, Kun


    Defective primary cilia are causative to a wide spectrum of human genetic disorders, termed ciliopathies. Although the regulation of ciliogenesis is intensively studied, how it is initiated remains unclear. Here we show that type Iγ phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P) 5-kinase (PIPKIγ) and inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase E (INPP5E), a Joubert syndrome protein, localize to the centrosome and coordinate the initiation of ciliogenesis. PIPKIγ counteracts INPP5E in regulating tau-tubulin kinase-2 (TTBK2) recruitment to the basal body, which promotes the removal of microtubule capping protein CP110 and the subsequent axoneme elongation. Interestingly, INPP5E and its product-PtdIns(4)P-accumulate at the centrosome/basal body in non-ciliated, but not ciliated, cells. PtdIns(4)P binding to TTBK2 and the distal appendage protein CEP164 compromises the TTBK2-CEP164 interaction and inhibits the recruitment of TTBK2. Our results reveal that PtdIns(4)P homoeostasis, coordinated by PIPKIγ and INPP5E at the centrosome/ciliary base, is vital for ciliogenesis by regulating the CEP164-dependent recruitment of TTBK2. PMID:26916822

  4. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinases: functions and regulations

    Hui Jun XIA; Guang YANG


    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase (IP3 3-kinase/IP3K) plays an important role in signal transduction in animal cells by phosphorylating inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (IP4). Both IP3 and IP4 are critical second messengers which regulate calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. Mammalian IP3Ks are involved in many biological processes, including brain development, memory, learning and so on. It is widely reported that Ca2+ is a canonical second messenger in higher plants. Therefore, plant IP3K should also play a crucial role in plant development. Recently,we reported the identification of plant IP3K gene (AtIpk2β/AtIP3K) from Arabidopsis thaliana and its characterization.Here, we summarize the molecular cloning, biochemical properties and biological functions of IP3Ks from animal, yeast and plant. This review also discusses potential functions of IP3Ks in signaling crosstalk, inositol phosphate metabolism,gene transcriptional control and so on.

  5. Production of glucaric acid from myo-inositol in engineered Pichia pastoris.

    Liu, Ye; Gong, Xu; Wang, Cui; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Kang, Zhen


    A potential myo-inositol oxygenase (ppMIOX) was identified as a functional enzyme and a glucaric acid synthetic pathway was firstly constructed in Pichia pastoris. Coexpression of the native ppMIOX and the urinate dehydrogenase (Udh) from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 led to obvious accumulation of glucaric acid (90.46±0.04mg/L) from myo-inositol whereas no glucaric acid was detected from glucose. In comparison, coexpression of the heterologous mouse MIOX (mMIOX) and Udh resulted in higher titers of glucaric acid from glucose and myo-inositol, 107.19±11.91mg/L and 785.4±1.41mg/L, respectively. By applying a fusion expression strategy with flexible peptides, the mMIOX specific activity and the glucaric acid concentration were significantly increased. Using glucose and myo-inositol as carbon substrates, the production of glucaric acid was substantially enhanced to 6.61±0.30g/L in fed-batch cultures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest reported value to date. PMID:27444324




    Rat aortic smooth muscle rings without endothelial cells were subjected to alpha-1-adrenoceptor stimulation. We measured the contractile state of the smooth muscle cells and the formation of inositol phosphates (InsPs) on receptor stimulation. Using different extracellular calcium-containing solutio

  7. myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase is required for polar auxin transport and organ development

    Chen, Hao


    myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase is a conserved enzyme that catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in inositol biosynthesis. Despite its wide occurrence in all eukaryotes, the role of myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase and de novo inositol biosynthesis in cell signaling and organism development has been unclear. In this study, we isolated loss-of-function mutants in the Arabidopsis MIPS1 gene from different ecotypes. It was found that all mips1 mutants are defective in embryogenesis, cotyledon venation patterning, root growth, and root cap development. The mutant roots are also agravitropic and have reduced basipetal auxin transport. mips1 mutants have significantly reduced levels of major phosphatidylinositols and exhibit much slower rates of endocytosis. Treatment with brefeldin A induces slower PIN2 protein aggregation in mips1, indicating altered PIN2 trafficking. Our results demonstrate that MIPS1 is critical for maintaining phosphatidylinositol levels and affects pattern formation in plants likely through regulation of auxin distribution. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. On the correlation between hydrogen bonding and melting points in the inositols

    Sándor L. Bekö


    Full Text Available Inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydroxycyclohexane, exists in nine stereoisomers with different crystal structures and melting points. In a previous paper on the relationship between the melting points of the inositols and the hydrogen-bonding patterns in their crystal structures [Simperler et al. (2006. CrystEngComm 8, 589], it was noted that although all inositol crystal structures known at that time contained 12 hydrogen bonds per molecule, their melting points span a large range of about 170 °C. Our preliminary investigations suggested that the highest melting point must be corrected for the effect of molecular symmetry, and that the three lowest melting points may need to be revised. This prompted a full investigation, with additional experiments on six of the nine inositols. Thirteen new phases were discovered; for all of these their crystal structures were examined. The crystal structures of eight ordered phases could be determined, of which seven were obtained from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data. Five additional phases turned out to be rotator phases and only their unit cells could be determined. Two previously unknown melting points were measured, as well as most enthalpies of melting. Several previously reported melting points were shown to be solid-to-solid phase transitions or decomposition points. Our experiments have revealed a complex picture of phases, rotator phases and phase transitions, in which a simple correlation between melting points and hydrogen-bonding patterns is not feasible.

  9. Blast neurotrauma impairs working memory and disrupts prefrontal myo-inositol levels in rats.

    Sajja, Venkata Siva Sai Sujith; Perrine, Shane A; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Hall, Christina S; Galloway, Matthew P; VandeVord, Pamela J


    Working memory, which is dependent on higher-order executive function in the prefrontal cortex, is often disrupted in patients exposed to blast overpressure. In this study, we evaluated working memory and medial prefrontal neurochemical status in a rat model of blast neurotrauma. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with 3% isoflurane and exposed to calibrated blast overpressure (17 psi, 117 kPa) while sham animals received only anesthesia. Early neurochemical effects in the prefrontal cortex included a significant decrease in betaine (trimethylglycine) and an increase in GABA at 24 h, and significant increases in glycerophosphorylcholine, phosphorylethanolamine, as well as glutamate/creatine and lactate/creatine ratios at 48 h. Seven days after blast, only myo-inositol levels were altered showing a 15% increase. Compared to controls, short-term memory in the novel object recognition task was significantly impaired in animals exposed to blast overpressure. Working memory in control animals was negatively correlated with myo-inositol levels (r=-.759, p<0.05), an association that was absent in blast exposed animals. Increased myo-inositol may represent tardive glial scarring in the prefrontal cortex, a notion supported by GFAP changes in this region after blast overexposure as well as clinical reports of increased myo-inositol in disorders of memory. PMID:24534010

  10. Astrocyte glutamate receptor activation promotes inositol phospholipid turnover and calcium flux

    Astrocyte-enriched cultures prepared from the neonatal rat cortex were prelabelled with either (3H)myoinositol or 45Ca2+ and then exposed to various excitatory amino acids. This resulted in an increase in both the breakdown of membrane inositol phospholipids and Ca2+ flux with the following rank order of efficacy: quisqualate ≥ glutamate (Glu)>kainate>>N-methyl-D-aspartate. Experiments performed with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 and in the absence of medium Ca2+ suggested that Glu-evoked 45Ca2+ efflux was primarily the result of an increase influx of extracellular Ca2+. However, Glu-stimulated inositol lipid metabolism was found to be only partially dependent on extracellular Ca2+. The quisqualate-preferring receptor antagonist γ-glutamylaminomethylsulphonic acid was found to be effective in reversing both Glu-evoked inositol lipid breakdown and Ca2+ flux. The results presented are suggestive of some form of interaction between Glu receptors coupled to inositol lipid turnover and Ca2+ channel opening in astrocytes. (author)

  11. Expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with germline PIGA mutations : a child with developmental delay, accelerated linear growth, facial dysmorphisms, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and progressive CNS abnormalities

    van der Crabben, Saskia N; Harakalova, Magdalena; Brilstra, Eva H; van Berkestijn, Frédérique M C; Hofstede, Floris C; van Vught, Adrianus J; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; van Haaften, Gijs; van Haelst, Mieke M


    Phosphatidyl inositol glycan (PIG) enzyme subclasses are involved in distinct steps of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor protein biosynthesis. Glycolsyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins have heterogeneous functions; they can function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators a

  12. Formation and metabolism of inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate in human platelets

    [3H]Myo-inositol (1,4,5)trisphosphate ((1,4,5)IP3), when added to lysed platelets, was rapidly converted to [3H]inositol (1,3,4,5)tetrakisphosphate which was in turn converted to [3H]inositol (1,3,4)trisphosphate. This result demonstrates that platelets have the same metabolic pathways for interconversion of inositol polyphosphates that are found in other cells. Labelling of platelets with [32P]orthophosphate, followed by h.1.p.c. was used to measure thrombin-induced changes in the three inositol polyphosphates. Interfering compounds were removed by a combination of enzymatic and nonenzymatic techniques. [32P]-(1,4,5)IP3 was formed rapidly and reached its maximal level at about 4 sec. It was also rapidly degraded and was no longer detectable after 30-60 sec. Formation of (1,3,4,5)IP4 was almost as rapid as that of (1,4,5)IP3 and remained at detectable levels for a longer time. (1,3,4)IP3 was formed after an initial lag and this isomer reached its maximal level that was ten-fold higher than that of (1,4,5)IP3 at 30 sec. Comparison of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration as measured with fura-2 indicates that agents other than (1,4,5)IP3 are responsible for the sustained maintenance of a high level of intracellular Ca2+. It is proposed that either (1,3,4)IP3 or (1,3,4,5)IP4 may also be Ca2+-mobilizing agents

  13. PTH (parathyroid hormone) elevates inositol polyphosphates and diacylglycerol in a rat osteoblast-like cell line

    Civitelli, R.; Reid, I.R.; Westbrook, S.; Avioli, L.V.; Hruska, K.A. (Jewish Hospital of St. Louis, MO (USA))


    Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated signal transduction through mechanisms alternate to adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production were studied in UMR 106-01 cells, a cell line with an osteoblastic phenotype. PTH produced transient, dose-related increases in cytosolic calcium ((Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}), inositol trisphosphates, and diacylglycerol (DAG). Both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins-1,4,5P{sub 3}) and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate (Ins-1,3,4P{sub 3}) production were rapidly stimulated by PTH. Consistent with the production of Ins-1,3,4P{sub 3}, rapid stimulation of late eluting inositol tetrakisphosphate was observed. The effects on the inositol phosphates were induced rapidly, consistent with roles as signals for changes in (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}. In saponin-permeabilized UMR 106-01 cells, Ins-1,4,5P{sub 3} stimulated {sup 45}Ca release from a nonmitochondrial intracellular pool. Thus the hypothesis that PTH-stimulated Ins-1,4,5P{sub 3} production initiates Ca{sup 2+} release and contributes to transient elevations of (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} is supported. These data suggest that stimulation of cAMP production during PTH stimulation may negatively affect production of rises in (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} during PTH stimulation. The inactivation of the inhibitory G protein of adenylate cyclase by pertussis toxin could explain its action similar to cAMP analogues. Cyclci nucleotides diminish the effects of PTH on (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}, probably interacting on a biochemical step subsequent to or independent of Ins-1,4,5P{sub 3} release.

  14. Assessment and kinetics of soil phosphatase in Brazilian Savanna systems.

    Ferreira, Adão S; Espíndola, Suéllen P; Campos, Maria Rita C


    The activity and kinetics of soil phosphatases are important indicators to evaluate soil quality in specific sites such as the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna). This study aimed to determine the activity and kinetic parameters of soil phosphatase in Cerrado systems. Soil phosphatase activity was assessed in samples of native Cerrado (NC), no-tillage (NT), conventional tillage (CT) and pasture with Brachiaria brizantha (PBb) and evaluated with acetate buffer (AB), tris-HCl buffer (TB), modified universal buffer (MUB) and low MUB. The Michaelis-Menten equation and Eadie-Hofstee model were applied to obtain the kinetic parameters of soil phosphatase using different concentrations of p-nitrophenol phosphate (p-NPP). MUB showed the lowest soil phosphatase activity in all soils whereas AB in NC and NT presented the highest. Low MUB decreased interferences in the assessment of soil phosphatase activity when compared to MUB, suggesting that organic acids interfere on the soil phosphatase activity. In NC and NT, soil phosphatase activity performed with TB was similar to AB and low MUB. Km values from the Michaels-Menten equation were higher in NC than in NT, which indicate a lower affinity of phosphatase activity for the substrate in NC. Vmax values were also higher in NC than in NT. The Eadie-Hofstee model suggests that NC had more phosphatase isoforms than NT. The study showed that buffer type is of fundamental importance when assessing soil phosphatase activity in Cerrado soils. PMID:27254453

  15. Rhizobiales-like Phosphatase 2 from Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Novel Phospho-tyrosine-specific Phospho-protein Phosphatase (PPP) Family Protein Phosphatase.

    Uhrig, R Glen; Labandera, Anne-Marie; Muhammad, Jamshed; Samuel, Marcus; Moorhead, Greg B


    Cellular signaling through protein tyrosine phosphorylation is well established in mammalian cells. Although lacking the classic tyrosine kinases present in humans, plants have a tyrosine phospho-proteome that rivals human cells. Here we report a novel plant tyrosine phosphatase from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtRLPH2) that, surprisingly, has the sequence hallmarks of a phospho-serine/threonine phosphatase belonging to the PPP family. Rhizobiales/Rhodobacterales/Rhodospirillaceae-like phosphatases (RLPHs) are conserved in plants and several other eukaryotes, but not in animals. We demonstrate that AtRLPH2 is localized to the plant cell cytosol, is resistant to the classic serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and microcystin, but is inhibited by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor orthovanadate and is particularly sensitive to inhibition by the adenylates, ATP and ADP. AtRLPH2 displays remarkable selectivity toward tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides versus serine/threonine phospho-peptides and readily dephosphorylates a classic tyrosine phosphatase protein substrate, suggesting that in vivo it is a tyrosine phosphatase. To date, only one other tyrosine phosphatase is known in plants; thus AtRLPH2 represents one of the missing pieces in the plant tyrosine phosphatase repertoire and supports the concept of protein tyrosine phosphorylation as a key regulatory event in plants. PMID:26742850

  16. Endothelial cell growth factor and ionophore A23187 stimulation of production of inositol phosphates in porcine aorta endothelial cells.

    Moscat, J; Moreno, F.; Herrero, C.; C. López; García-Barreno, P.


    The existence of a bovine brain-derived endothelial cell growth factor has recently been reported, but its mode of action is unknown. We show that the endothelial cell growth factor is a potent stimulant of inositol monophosphate release in porcine aorta endothelial cells. Although the activation of phospholipase C by this factor does not appear to be dependent on Ca2+, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 stimulates release of inositol phosphates. It is suggested that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3...

  17. Agonist-induced desensitization of histamine H1 receptor-mediated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    McCreath, G; Hall, I P; Hill, S. J.


    1. The regulation of histamine-induced [3H]-inositol phosphate formation was studied in human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). 2. Histamine (EC50 4.8 microM) produced a 12.7 fold increase in [3H]-inositol phosphate formation over basal levels. Prior exposure to 0.1 mM histamine (2 h) produced a 78% reduction in the response to subsequent histamine (0.1 mM) challenge. The IC50 for this histamine-induced desensitization was 0.9 microM. 3. The inositol phosphate response to his...

  18. Energy-requiring translocation of the OmpA protein and alkaline phosphatase of Escherichia coli into inner membrane vesicles.

    Rhoads, D B; Tai, P C; Davis, B D


    In developing a reliable in vitro system for translocating bacterial proteins, we found that the least dense subfraction of the membrane of Escherichia coli was superior to the total inner membrane, both for a secreted protein (alkaline phosphatase) and for an outer membrane protein (OmpA). Compounds that eliminated the proton motive force inhibited translocation, as already observed in cells; since protein synthesis continued, the energy for translocation appears to be derived from the energ...

  19. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: a summary of its role in clinical disease.

    Fawley, Jason; Gourlay, David M


    Over the past few years, there is increasing evidence implicating a novel role for Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (IAP) in mitigating inflammatory mediated disorders. IAP is an endogenous protein expressed by the intestinal epithelium that is believed to play a vital role in maintaining gut homeostasis. Loss of IAP expression or function is associated with increased intestinal inflammation, dysbiosis, bacterial translocation and subsequently systemic inflammation. As these events are a cornerstone of the pathophysiology of many diseases relevant to surgeons, we sought to review recent research in both animal and humans on IAP's physiologic function, mechanisms of action and current research in specific surgical diseases. PMID:27083970

  20. Bacterial Vaginosis

    ... 586. Related Content STDs during Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ( ... Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ... STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive ...

  1. Bacterial Meningitis

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Bacterial Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... serious disease. Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Meningitis This manual summarizes laboratory methods used to isolate, ...

  2. Prostatitis - bacterial

    Any bacteria that can cause a urinary tract infection can cause acute bacterial prostatitis. Infections spread through sexual contact can cause prostatitis. These include chlamydia and gonorrhea . Sexually transmitted ...

  3. Phosphatase activity of Poa pratensis seeds. I. Preliminary studies on acid phosphatase II

    I. Lorenc-Kubis


    Full Text Available Acid phosphatase (EC was extracted with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer pH 5.1 from Poa pratensis seeds, and separated into three fractions by chromatography on DEAE cellulose. The highest activity was found in fraction Il-b (acid phosphatase II. The activity of the enzyme was optimal at pH 4.9. It hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl phosphate most readily among the various phosphomonoesters examined. Acid phosphatase II showed also a high activity toward β-naphtyl phosphate and phenyl phosphate, very low activity towards β-glycero phosphate, 5'-GMP and no activity with glucose-1 phosphate. The enzyme was inhibited by Ca2+ and fluoride, but activated by Mg2+. EDTA had no influence on the activity of the enzyme.

  4. Bacterial Conjunctivitis

    Köhle, Ülkü; Kükner, Şahap


    Conjunctivitis is an infection of the conjunctiva, generally characterized by irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, tearing and discharge. Bacterial conjunctivitis may be distinguished from other types of conjunctivitis by the presence of yellow–white mucopurulent discharge. It is the most common form of ocular infection all around the world. Staphylococcus species are the most common bacterial pathogenes, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus i...

  5. Primary structure of rat secretory acid phosphatase and comparison to other acid phosphatases.

    Roiko, K; Jänne, O A; Vihko, P


    Overlapping cDNA clones encoding rat prostatic acid phosphatase (rPAP) were isolated by using two human prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP)-encoding cDNAs to screen rat prostatic cDNA libraries. The isolated cDNAs encompassed a total of 1626 nucleotides (nt), of which 1143 nt corresponded to the protein coding sequence encoding a mature polypeptide of 350 amino acids (aa) and a 31-aa long signal peptide-like sequence. The deduced Mr of the mature rPAP was 40,599. RNA blot analysis indicated the presence of three mRNA species (4.9, 2.3 and 1.5 kb in size) in the rat prostate. The deduced aa sequences of rPAP and hPAP show 75% identity, whereas the similarity between rPAP and human lysosomal acid phosphatase (hLAP) is only 45%. Furthermore, the sequence similarity between rPAP and rat lysosomal acid phosphatase (rLAP) is 46% at the aa level. Similar to hPAP, but unlike hLAP and rLAP, the rPAP sequence lacks a membrane-anchoring domain indicating the secretory character of this phosphatase. All six cysteines present in the overlapping areas of the mature rPAP, hPAP, rLAP and hLAP proteins are positionally conserved, suggesting that these residues are important for the tertiary structure of acid phosphatases (APs). The previously reported active site residues, two arginines and one histidine, are also conserved in these APs. PMID:2373368

  6. Ca2+-mediated generation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in pancreatic islets. Studies with K+, glucose, and carbamylcholine

    The role of Ca2+ in the generation of inositol phosphates was investigated using rat pancreatic islets after steady state labeling with myo-[2-3H]inositol. Depolarizing K+ concentrations (24 mM) evoked early (2 s) increases in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins-1,4,5-P3) and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins-1,3,4,5-P4) as measured by high performance anion-exchange chromatography. The increase in Ins-1,4,5-P3 was transient and was followed by a more pronounced rise in Ins-1,3,4-P3. These effects were dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ but were not secondary to release of either neurotransmitters or metabolites of arachidonic acid. K+ also promoted the breakdown of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2) and of the other phosphoinositides. Glucose (16.7 mM) was less marked in its effects but still promoted rapid increases in Ins-1,3,4,5-P4 (2 s) and Ins-1,4,5-P3 (10 s) and a slower rise in Ins-1,3,4-P3 (30 s). The levels of all three metabolites rose steadily over 10 min stimulation. These responses to glucose could be largely, although not entirely, inhibited by depletion of extracellular Ca2+ or by Ca2+ channel blockade with verapamil (20 microM). Carbamylcholine (0.5 mM) was the most potent stimulus used evoking early rises in Ins-1,4,5-P3 and Ins-1,3,4,5-P4 (2 s) followed by Ins-1,3,4-P3 (10 s), effects which were only partially dependent on extracellular Ca2+. The results suggest that a Ca2+-mediated PtdIns-4,5-P2 hydrolysis accounts for most of the Ins-1,4,5-P3 generated in response to glucose but not carbamylcholine

  7. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray analysis of inositol monophosphatase from Mus musculus and Homo sapiens

    M. musculus and H. sapiens inositol monophosphatase 1 were cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected and analysed at resolutions of 2.4 and 1.7 Å, respectively, and the structures were compared in order to identify any structural differences. Inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) catalyses the hydrolysis of inositol monophosphate to inositol and is crucial in the phosphatidylinositol (PI) signalling pathway. Lithium, which is the drug of choice for bipolar disorder, inhibits IMPase at therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations. Both mouse IMPase 1 (MmIMPase 1) and human IMPase 1 (HsIMPase 1) were cloned into pRSET5a, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop method. The structures were solved at resolutions of 2.4 and 1.7 Å, respectively. Comparison of MmIMPase 1 and HsIMPase 1 revealed a core r.m.s. deviation of 0.516 Å


    Although autoradiography has demonstrated local incorporation of [3H]inositol into axonal phospholipids after intraneural injection (Gould, 1976; Gould et at., 1987b), retrograde axonal transport of phosphatidylinositol has only been demonstrated after injection of lipid precurso...

  9. Active-site remodelling in the bifunctional fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase.

    Du, Juan; Say, Rafael F; Lü, Wei; Fuchs, Georg; Einsle, Oliver


    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) aldolase/phosphatase is a bifunctional, thermostable enzyme that catalyses two subsequent steps in gluconeogenesis in most archaea and in deeply branching bacterial lineages. It mediates the aldol condensation of heat-labile dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) to FBP, as well as the subsequent, irreversible hydrolysis of the product to yield the stable fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) and inorganic phosphate; no reaction intermediates are released. Here we present a series of structural snapshots of the reaction that reveal a substantial remodelling of the active site through the movement of loop regions that create different catalytic functionalities at the same location. We have solved the three-dimensional structures of FBP aldolase/phosphatase from thermophilic Thermoproteus neutrophilus in a ligand-free state as well as in complex with the substrates DHAP and FBP and the product F6P to resolutions up to 1.3 Å. In conjunction with mutagenesis data, this pinpoints the residues required for the two reaction steps and shows that the sequential binding of additional Mg(2+) cations reversibly facilitates the reaction. FBP aldolase/phosphatase is an ancestral gluconeogenic enzyme optimized for high ambient temperatures, and our work resolves how consecutive structural rearrangements reorganize the catalytic centre of the protein to carry out two canonical reactions in a very non-canonical type of bifunctionality. PMID:21983965

  10. Expression, purification and crystallization of an atypical class C acid phosphatase from Mycoplasma bovis

    Methods for the expression, purification and crystallization of the class C acid phosphatase from M. bovis are reported. This enzyme is atypical in that it is nearly 20 kDa larger than other known class C acid phosphatases. Class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs) are 25–30 kDa bacterial surface proteins that are thought to function as broad-specificity 5′,3′-nucleotidases. Analysis of the newly published complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma bovis PG45 revealed a putative CCAP with a molecular weight of 49.9 kDa. The expression, purification and crystallization of this new family member are described here. Standard purification procedures involving immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography yielded highly pure and crystallizable protein. Crystals were grown in sitting drops at room temperature in the presence of PEG 3350 and HEPES buffer pH 7.5 and diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution. Analysis of diffraction data suggested a primitive monoclinic space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 78, b = 101, c = 180 Å, β = 92°. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain six molecules, which are likely to be arranged as three dimers

  11. Effect of the putative lithium mimetic ebselen on brain myo-inositol, sleep and emotional processing in humans

    Singh, N.; Sharpley, AL; Emir, UE; Masaki, C; Herzallah, MM; Gluck, MA; Sharp, T; Harmer, CJ; Vasudevan, SR; Cowen, PJ; Churchill, GC


    Lithium remains the gold standard in treating bipolar disorder but has unwanted toxicity and side effects. We previously reported that ebselen inhibits inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) and exhibits lithium-like effects in animal models through lowering of inositol. Ebselen has been tested in clinical trials for other disorders, enabling us to determine for the first time the effect of a blood-brain barrier penetrant IMPase inhibitor on human central nervous system (CNS) function. We now repo...

  12. Combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid in metabolic syndrome-affected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Capasso, Immacolata; Esposito, Emanuela; Maurea, Nicola; Montella, Maurizio; Crispo, Anna; De Laurentiis, Michelino; D’Aiuto, Massimiliano; Frasci, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Grimaldi, Maria; Cavalcanti, Ernesta; Esposito, Giuseppe; Fucito, Alfredo; Brillante, Giuseppe; D’Aiuto, Giuseppe


    Background Inositol has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity since it works as a second messenger achieving insulin-like effects on metabolic enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inositol and alpha lipoic acid combination effectiveness on metabolic syndrome features in postmenopausal women at risk of breast cancer. Methods A six-month prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on a total of 155 postmenopausal women affected by metabolic syndrome at ...

  13. Determination of Myo-Inositol in Infant, Pediatric, and Adult Formulas by Liquid Chromatography-Pulsed Amperometric Detection with Column Switching: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2011.18.

    Butler-Thompson, Linda D; Jacobs, Wesley A; Schimpf, Karen J


    AOAC First Action Method 2011.18, Myo-Inositol (Free and Bound as Phosphatidylinositol) in Infant and Pediatric Formulas and Adult Nutritionals, was collaboratively studied. With this method free myo-inositol and phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol are extracted using two different sample preparation procedures, separated by ion chromatography using a combination of Dionex Carbo Pac PA1 and MA1 columns with column switching, and detected with pulsed amperometry using a gold electrode. Free myo-inositol is extracted from samples with dilute hydrochloric acid and water. Phosphatidylinositol is extracted from samples with chloroform and separated from other fats with silica SPE cartridges. Myo-inositol is then released from the glycerol backbone with concentrated acetic and hydrochloric acids at 120°C. During this collaborative study, nine laboratories from five different countries analyzed blind duplicates of nine infant and pediatric nutritional formulas for both free and phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol, and one additional laboratory only completed the free myo-inositol analyses. The method demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and met the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for free myo-inositol plus phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol for all the matrixes analyzed. SMPRs for repeatability were ≤5% RSD at myo-inositol concentrations of 2-68 mg/100 g ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid. SMPRs for reproducibility were ≤8% RSD in products with myo-inositol concentrations ranging from 2 to 68 mg/100 g RTF liquid. During this collaborative study, repeatability RSDs ranged from 0.51 to 3.22%, and RSDs ranged from 2.66 to 7.55% for free myo-inositol plus phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol. PMID:26651580

  14. On the correlation between hydrogen bonding and melting points in the inositols

    Bekö, Sándor L; Alig, Edith; Schmidt, Martin U;


    eight ordered phases could be determined, of which seven were obtained from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data. Five additional phases turned out to be rotator phases and only their unit cells could be determined. Two previously unknown melting points were measured, as well as most enthalpies of......Inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydroxycyclohexane, exists in nine stereoisomers with different crystal structures and melting points. In a previous paper on the relationship between the melting points of the inositols and the hydrogen-bonding patterns in their crystal structures [Simperler et al. (2006...... melting. Several previously reported melting points were shown to be solid-to-solid phase transitions or decomposition points. Our experiments have revealed a complex picture of phases, rotator phases and phase transitions, in which a simple correlation between melting points and hydrogen-bonding patterns...

  15. Inositol and Phosphatidylinositol Mediated Glucose Derepression, Gene Expression and Invertase Secretion in Yeasts

    Zhen-Ming CHI; Jun-Feng LI; Xiang-Hong WANG; Shu-Min YAO


    Glucose repression occurs in many yeast species and some filamentous fungi, and it represses the expression and secretion of many intracellular and extracellular proteins. In recent years, it has been found that many biochemical reactions in yeast cells are mediated by phosphatidylinositol (PI)-type signaling pathway. However, little is known about the relationships between PI-type signaling and glucose repression,gene expression and invertase secretion in yeasts. Many evidences in our previous studies showed that glucose repression, invertase secretion, gene expression and cell growth were mediated by inositol and PI in Saccharomyces and Schizosaccharomyces. The elucidation of the new regulatory mechanisms of protein secretion, gene expression and glucose repression would be an entirely new aspect of inositol and PI-type signaling regulation in yeasts.

  16. Characterization of a ligand-gated cation channel based on an inositol receptor in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Kikuta, Shingo; Endo, Haruka; Tomita, Natsuo; Takada, Tomoyuki; Morita, Chiharu; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Sato, Ryoichi


    Insect herbivores recognize non-volatile compounds in plants to direct their feeding behavior. Gustatory receptors (Gr) appear to be required for nutrient recognition by gustatory organs in the mouthparts of insects. Gr10 is expressed in Bombyx mori (BmGr10) mouthparts such as maxillary galea, maxillary palp, and labrum. BmGr10 is predicted to function in sugar recognition; however, the precise biochemical function remains obscure. Larvae of B. mori are monophagous feeders able to find and feed on mulberry leaves. Soluble mulberry leaf extract contains sucrose, glucose, fructose, and myo-inositol. In this study, we identified BmGr10 as an inositol receptor using electrophysiological analysis with the Xenopus oocyte expression system and Ca(2+) imaging techniques using mammalian cells. These results demonstrated that Xenopus oocytes or HEK293T cells expressing BmGr10 specifically respond to myo-inositol and epi-inositol but do not respond to any mono-, di-, or tri-saccharides or to some sugar alcohols. These inositols caused Ca(2+) and Na(+) influxes into the cytoplasm independently of a G protein-mediated signaling cascade, indicating that BmGr10 is a ligand-gated cation channel. Overall, BmGr10 plays an important role in the myo-inositol recognition required for B. mori larval feeding behavior. PMID:27132146

  17. myo-Inositol synthesis from [1-3H]glucose in Phaseolus vulgaris L. during early stages of germination

    Radiolabeled D-[1-3H]glucose was fed by imbibition under sterile conditions to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds. After 72 and 96 hours of feeding, the 3H was located in uronic acid and pentose residues as well as hexose residues of cell wall polysaccharides in growing hypocotyl and root. Free myo-inositol present in cotyledons, hypocotyl, and root also contained 3H, showing that de novo synthesis of myo-inositol from [1-3H]glucose did occur during the first 72 hours of germination. More than 90% of the labeled, free myo-inositol was present in the cotyledons. The 3H percentage in trifluoroacetic acid-soluble arabinaose residues of cell wall polysaccharides from 72-hour-old bean hypocotyls was only half of their mole percentage. On the other hand, 3H percentages in hexose residues were higher than their mole percentages. The results suggest that myo-inositol is synthesized from reserve sugars during the very early stages of germination, and that the newly synthesized myo-inositol, as well as that stored in cotyledons, can be used for the construction of new hypocotyl and root cell wall polysaccharides after conversion into uronic acids and pentoses via the myo-inositol oxidation pathway

  18. Aberrant 3H in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor cell nucleotides after in vivo labeling with myo-[2-3H]- and L -myo-[1-3H]inositol: implications for measuring inositol phosphate signaling

    Christensen, Søren C.; Jensen, Annelie Kolbjørn; Simonsen, L.O.


    After in vivo radiolabeling of Ehrlich cells for 24 h with conventional myo-[2-3H]inositol we previously demonstrated an aberrant 3H-labeling of ATP that interfered in the HPLC analysis of inositol trisphosphates. This aberrant 3H-labeling was accounted for by the extensive kidney catabolism of m......]Inositol appears nevertheless to be a preferable alternative to myo-[2-3H]inositol for tracing the intact myo-inositol molecule after in vivo labeling, with minimized interference from aberrant 3H-labeling of nucleotides....

  19. Bacterial carbonatogenesis

    Several series of experiments in the laboratory as well as in natural conditions teach that the production of carbonate particles by heterotrophic bacteria follows different ways. The 'passive' carbonatogenesis is generated by modifications of the medium that lead to the accumulation of carbonate and bicarbonate ions and to the precipitation of solid particles. The 'active' carbonatogenesis is independent of the metabolic pathways. The carbonate particles are produced by ionic exchanges through the cell membrane following still poorly known mechanisms. Carbonatogenesis appears to be the response of heterotrophic bacterial communities to an enrichment of the milieu in organic matter. The active carbonatogenesis seems to start first. It is followed by the passive one which induces the growth of initially produced particles. The yield of heterotrophic bacterial carbonatogenesis and the amounts of solid carbonates production by bacteria are potentially very high as compared to autotrophic or chemical sedimentation from marine, paralic or continental waters. Furthermore, the bacterial processes are environmentally very ubiquitous; they just require organic matter enrichment. Thus, apart from purely evaporite and autotrophic ones, all Ca and/or Mg carbonates must be considered as from heterotrophic bacterial origin. By the way, the carbon of carbonates comes from primary organic matter. Such considerations ask questions about some interpretations from isotopic data on carbonates. Finally, bacterial heterotrophic carbonatogenesis appears as a fundamental phase in the relationships between atmosphere and lithosphere and in the geo-biological evolution of Earth. (author)

  20. An Uncharacterized Member of the Ribokinase Family in Thermococcus kodakarensis Exhibits myo-Inositol Kinase Activity*

    Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki


    Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate. PMID:23737529

  1. Single-Molecule Tracking of Inositol Trisphosphate Receptors Reveals Different Motilities and Distributions

    Smith, Ian F.; Swaminathan, Divya; Dickinson, George D.; Parker, Ian


    Puffs are local Ca2+ signals that arise by Ca2+ liberation from the endoplasmic reticulum through the concerted opening of tightly clustered inositol trisphosphate receptors/channels (IP3Rs). The locations of puff sites observed by Ca2+ imaging remain static over several minutes, whereas fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments employing overexpression of fluorescently tagged IP3Rs have shown that the majority of IP3Rs are freely motile. To address this discrepancy, we ap...

  2. A Combined Therapy with Myo-Inositol and D-Chiro-Inositol Improves Endocrine Parameters and Insulin Resistance in PCOS Young Overweight Women

    Elena Benelli


    Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated the effects of a therapy that combines myo-inositol (MI and D-chiro-inositol (DCI in young overweight women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, characterized by oligo- or anovulation and hyperandrogenism, correlated to insulin resistance. Methods. We enrolled 46 patients affected by PCOS and, randomly, we assigned them to two groups, A and B, treated, respectively, with the association of MI plus DCI, in a 40 : 1 ratio, or with placebo (folic acid for six months. Thus, we analyzed pretreatment and posttreatment FSH, LH, 17-beta-Estradiol, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenedione, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, HOMA index, and fasting glucose and insulin. Results. We recorded a statistically significant reduction of LH, free testosterone, fasting insulin, and HOMA index only in the group treated with the combined therapy of MI plus DCI; in the same patients, we observed a statistically significant increase of 17-beta-Estradiol levels. Conclusions. The combined therapy of MI plus DCI is effective in improving endocrine and metabolic parameters in young obese PCOS affected women.

  3. Serum proteins, trace metals and phosphatases in psoriasis

    Bhatnagar M


    Full Text Available Serum proteins, zinc, copper, acid phosphatase (AcPase and alkaline phosphatase (AlPase were studied in both active and remission phases of psoriasis. Data were compared with healthy controls, ?1, ? and ? globulins were high in active phase while ?1 and ? globulins were at par in remission phase. Serum copper was low but zinc and alkaline phosphatase were significantly high in both active and remission phases of the disease. Acid phosphatase level was at par in all the experimental groups. Study suggests a positive correlation of globulin, zinc and Alpase in active and remission phase of psoriasis.

  4. The extended human PTPome: a growing tyrosine phosphatase family.

    Alonso, Andrés; Pulido, Rafael


    Tyr phosphatases are, by definition, enzymes that dephosphorylate phospho-Tyr (pTyr) from proteins. This activity is found in several structurally diverse protein families, including the protein Tyr phosphatase (PTP), arsenate reductase, rhodanese, haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) and His phosphatase (HP) families. Most of these families include members with substrate specificity for non-pTyr substrates, such as phospho-Ser/phospho-Thr, phosphoinositides, phosphorylated carbohydrates, mRNAs, or inorganic moieties. A Cys is essential for catalysis in PTPs, rhodanese and arsenate reductase enzymes, whereas this work is performed by an Asp in HAD phosphatases and by a His in HPs, via a catalytic mechanism shared by all of the different families. The category that contains most Tyr phosphatases is the PTP family, which, although it received its name from this activity, includes Ser, Thr, inositide, carbohydrate and RNA phosphatases, as well as some inactive pseudophosphatase proteins. Here, we propose an extended collection of human Tyr phosphatases, which we call the extended human PTPome. The addition of new members (SACs, paladin, INPP4s, TMEM55s, SSU72, and acid phosphatases) to the currently categorized PTP group of enzymes means that the extended human PTPome contains up to 125 proteins, of which ~ 40 are selective for pTyr. We set criteria to ascribe proteins to the extended PTPome, and summarize the more important features of the new PTPome members in the context of their phosphatase activity and their relationship with human disease. PMID:26573778

  5. Anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column detection for the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates

    Rounds, M. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)


    The use of gradient anion-exchange HPLC, with a simple post-column detection system, is described for the separation of myo-inositol phosphates, including "phytic acid" (myo-inositol hexaphosphate). Hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri- and diphosphate members of this homologous series are clearly resolved within 30 min. This method should facilitate analysis and quantitation of "phytic acid" and other inositol phosphates in plant, food, and soil samples.

  6. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk


    parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is...... the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental...

  7. Bacterial lipases

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno


    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, mea

  8. Bacterial Ecology

    Fenchel, Tom


    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  9. Myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C metabolism through microbian action in an andosol soil

    The myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C compounds were incubated in an andosol soil at 70% of the field capacity and at 36.5 deg C during twelve days. These compounds suffered a microbian oxidation at 14CO2 of 61.0, 1.9 and 0% respectively. The fixation of the phytic acid-14C was observed through the fast decrease in the metabolism, due to the formation of complexes with the Fe and Al (phytates). The myo-inositol-14C metabolism was reduced by a factor of nine at the second incubation day. The following mechanisms were observed in the myo-inositol metabolism: (i) adsorption of the inositol by the soil minerals, (ii) adsorption by humic acids, (iii) myo-inositol phosphorylation and (iv) epimerization of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol. It was found that the (i) and (ii) formation depends on the soil microbian activity. The (i), (ii) and (iii) interactions were considered as possible mechanisms for the inhibition of the myo-inositol microbian oxidation. The inhibition of the myo-inositol oxidation through adsorption or phosphorylation is considered as a chemical blockade for the hydroaxial group, avoiding this way a microbian oxidation stereospecific of this hydroxil group. (author)

  10. Metabolism of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate by a soluble enzyme fraction from pea (Pisum sativum) roots

    Drobak, B.K.; Watkins, P.A.C.; Roberts, K. (John Innes Inst., Norwich (England)); Chattaway, J.A. (John Innes Inst., Norwich (England) Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (England)); Dawson, A.P. (Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (England))


    Metabolism of the putative messenger molecule D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3}) in plant cells has been studied using a soluble fraction from pea (pisum sativum) roots as enzyme source and (5-{sup 32}P)Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} and (2-{sup 3}H)Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} as tracers. Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} was rapidly converted into both lower and higher inositol phosphates. The major dephosphorylation product was inositol (4,5) bisphosphate (Ins(4,5)P{sub 2}) whereas inositol(1,4)bisphosphate (Ins(1,4)P{sub 2}) was only present in very small quantities throughout a 15 minute incubation period. In addition to these compounds, small amounts of nine other metabolites were produced including inositol and inositol(1,4,5,X)P{sub 4}. Dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} to Ins(4,5)P{sub 2} was dependent on Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} concentration and was partially inhibited by the phosphohydrolase inhibitors 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, glucose 6-phosphate, and p-nitrophenylphosphate. Conversion of Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} to Ins(4,5)P{sub 2} and Ins(1,4,5,X)P{sub 4} was inhibited by 55 micromolar Ca{sup 2+}. This study demonstrates that enzymes are present in plant tissues which are capable of rapidly converting Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} and that pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism exist which may prove to be unique to the plant kingdom.

  11. Variations in myo-inositol in fronto-limbic regions and clinical response to electroconvulsive therapy in major depression.

    Njau, Stephanie; Joshi, Shantanu H; Leaver, Amber M; Vasavada, Megha; Van Fleet, Jessica; Espinoza, Randall; Narr, Katherine L


    Though electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an established treatment for severe depression, the neurobiological factors accounting for the clinical effects of ECT are largely unknown. Myo-inositol, a neurometabolite linked with glial activity, is reported as reduced in fronto-limbic regions in patients with depression. Whether changes in myo-inositol relate to the antidepressant effects of ECT is unknown. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), we measured dorsomedial anterior cingulate cortex (dmACC) and left and right hippocampal myo-inositol in 50 ECT patients (mean age: 43.78, 14 SD) and 33 controls (mean age: 39.33, 12 SD) to determine cross sectional effects of diagnosis and longitudinal effects of ECT. Patients were scanned prior to treatment, after the second ECT and at completion of the ECT index series. Controls were scanned twice at intervals corresponding to patients' baseline and end of treatment scans. Myo-inositol increased over the course of ECT in the dmACC (p = 0.042). A significant hemisphere by clinical response effect was observed for the hippocampus (p = 0.003) where decreased myo-inositol related to symptom improvement in the left hippocampus. Cross-sectional differences between patients and controls at baseline were not detected. Changes in myo-inositol observed in the dmACC in association with ECT and in the hippocampus in association with ECT-related clinical response suggest the mechanisms of ECT could include gliogenesis or a reversal of gliosis that differentially affect dorsal and ventral limbic regions. Change in dmACC myo-inositol diverged from control values with ECT suggesting compensation, while hippocampal change suggested normalization. PMID:27285661

  12. Structural mechanisms of plant glucan phosphatases in starch metabolism.

    Meekins, David A; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Gentry, Matthew S


    Glucan phosphatases are a recently discovered class of enzymes that dephosphorylate starch and glycogen, thereby regulating energy metabolism. Plant genomes encode two glucan phosphatases, called Starch EXcess4 (SEX4) and Like Sex Four2 (LSF2), that regulate starch metabolism by selectively dephosphorylating glucose moieties within starch glucan chains. Recently, the structures of both SEX4 and LSF2 were determined, with and without phosphoglucan products bound, revealing the mechanism for their unique activities. This review explores the structural and enzymatic features of the plant glucan phosphatases, and outlines how they are uniquely adapted to perform their cellular functions. We outline the physical mechanisms used by SEX4 and LSF2 to interact with starch glucans: SEX4 binds glucan chains via a continuous glucan-binding platform comprising its dual-specificity phosphatase domain and carbohydrate-binding module, while LSF2 utilizes surface binding sites. SEX4 and LSF2 both contain a unique network of aromatic residues in their catalytic dual-specificity phosphatase domains that serve as glucan engagement platforms and are unique to the glucan phosphatases. We also discuss the phosphoglucan substrate specificities inherent to SEX4 and LSF2, and outline structural features within the active site that govern glucan orientation. This review defines the structural mechanism of the plant glucan phosphatases with respect to phosphatases, starch metabolism and protein-glucan interaction, thereby providing a framework for their application in both agricultural and industrial settings. PMID:26934589

  13. Human placental alkaline phosphatase in liver and intestine

    Three distinct forms of human alkaline phosphatase, presumably isozymes, are known, each apparently associated with a specific tissue. These are placental, intestinal, and liver (kidney and bone). The authors have used a specific immunoassay and HPLC to show that placental alkaline phosphatase is also present in extracts of liver and intestine in appreciable amounts

  14. Downscaling Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in a Subtropical Reservoir

    Tseng, Y.


    This research was conducted by downscaling study to understand phosphorus (P)-deficient status of different plankton and the role of alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in subtropical Feitsui Reservoir. Results from field survey showed that bulk APA (1.6~95.2 nM h-1) was widely observed in the epilimnion (0~20 m) with an apparent seasonal variations, suggesting that plankton in the system were subjected to P-deficient seasonally. Mixed layer depth (an index of phosphate availability) is the major factor influencing the variation of bulk APA and specific APA (124~1,253 nmol mg C-1 h-1), based on multiple linear regression analysis. Size-fractionated APA assays showed that picoplankton (size 0.2~3 um) contributed most of the bulk APA in the system. In addition, single-cell APA detected by enzyme-labeled fluorescence (ELF) assay indicated that heterotrophic bacteria are the major contributors of APA. Thus, we can infer that bacteria play an important role in accelerating P-cycle within P-deficient systems. Light/nutrient manipulation bioassays showed that bacterial growth was directly controlled by phosphate, while picocyanobacterial growth is controlled by light and can out-compete bacteria under P-limited condition with the aid of light. Further analysis revealed that the strength of summer typhoon is a factor responsible for the inter-annual variability of bulk and specific APA. APA study demonstrated the episodic events (e.g. strong typhoon and extreme precipitation) had significant influence on APA variability in sub-tropical to tropical aquatic ecosystems. Hence, the results herein will allow future studies on monitoring typhoon disturbance (intensity and frequency) as well as the APA of plankton during summer-to-autumn in subtropical systems.

  15. Direct determination of phosphatase activity from physiological substrates in cells.

    Zhongyuan Ren

    Full Text Available A direct and continuous approach to determine simultaneously protein and phosphate concentrations in cells and kinetics of phosphate release from physiological substrates by cells without any labeling has been developed. Among the enzymes having a phosphatase activity, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP performs indispensable, multiple functions in humans. It is expressed in numerous tissues with high levels detected in bones, liver and neurons. It is absolutely required for bone mineralization and also necessary for neurotransmitter synthesis. We provided the proof of concept that infrared spectroscopy is a reliable assay to determine a phosphatase activity in the osteoblasts. For the first time, an overall specific phosphatase activity in cells was determined in a single step by measuring simultaneously protein and substrate concentrations. We found specific activities in osteoblast like cells amounting to 116 ± 13 nmol min(-1 mg(-1 for PPi, to 56 ± 11 nmol min(-1 mg(-1 for AMP, to 79 ± 23 nmol min(-1 mg(-1 for beta-glycerophosphate and to 73 ± 15 nmol min(-1 mg(-1 for 1-alpha-D glucose phosphate. The assay was also effective to monitor phosphatase activity in primary osteoblasts and in matrix vesicles. The use of levamisole--a TNAP inhibitor--served to demonstrate that a part of the phosphatase activity originated from this enzyme. An IC50 value of 1.16 ± 0.03 mM was obtained for the inhibition of phosphatase activity of levamisole in osteoblast like cells. The infrared assay could be extended to determine any type of phosphatase activity in other cells. It may serve as a metabolomic tool to monitor an overall phosphatase activity including acid phosphatases or other related enzymes.

  16. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either 3H-fatty acids or [3H]ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the 3H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of [3H]ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from 3H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the 3H-fatty acid and the [3H]ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the [3H]ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The 3H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from [3H]ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic [3H]ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the 3H-fatty acid and [3H]ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase

  17. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.


    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  18. Voltage sensitive phosphatases: emerging kinship to protein tyrosine phosphatases from structure-function research

    Kirstin eHobiger


    Full Text Available The transmembrane protein Ci-VSP from the ascidian Ciona intestinalis was described as first member of a fascinating family of enzymes, the voltage sensitive phosphatases (VSPs. Ci-VSP and its voltage-activated homologs from other species are stimulated by positive membrane potentials and dephosphorylate the head groups of negatively charged phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs. In doing so, VSPs act as control centers at the cytosolic membrane surface, because they intervene in signaling cascades that are mediated by PIP lipids. The characteristic motif CX5RT/S in the active site classifies VSPs as members of the huge family of cysteine-based protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs. Although PTPs have already been well characterized regarding both, structure and function, their relationship to VSPs has drawn only limited attention so far. Therefore, the intention of this review is to give a short overview about the extensive knowledge about PTPs in relation to the facts known about VSPs. Here, we concentrate on the structural features of the catalytic domain which are similar between both classes of phosphatases and their consequences for the enzymatic function. By discussing results obtained from crystal structures, molecular dynamics simulations, and mutagenesis studies, a possible mechanism for the catalytic cycle of VSPs is presented based on that one proposed for PTPs. In this way, we want to link the knowledge about the catalytic activity of VSPs and PTPs.

  19. [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolysis by extracts of Zea mays L. vegetative tissue

    [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was hydrolyzed by buffered extracts of acetone powders prepared from 4 day shoots of dark grown Zea mays L. seedlings. The hydrolytic activity was proportional to the amount of extract added and was linear for up to 6 hours at 370C. Boiled or alcohol denatured extracts were inactive. Analysis of reaction mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that not all isomers of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol were hydrolyzed at the same rate. Buffered extracts of acetone powders were prepared from coleoptiles and mesocotyls. The rates of hydrolysis observed with coleoptile extracts were greater than those observed with mesocotyl extracts. Active extracts also catalyzed the hydrolysis of esterase substrates such as α-naphthyl acetate and the methyl esters of indoleacetic acid and naphthyleneacetic acid. Attempts to purify the indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolyzing activity by chromatographic procedures resulted in only slight purification with large losses of activity. Chromatography over hydroxylapatite allowed separation of two enzymically active fractions, one of which catalyzed the hydrolysis of both indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and esterase substrates. With the other fraction enzymic hydrolysis of esterase substrates was readily demonstrated, but no hydrolysis of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was ever detected

  20. [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolysis by extracts of Zea mays L. vegetative tissue

    Hall, P. J.; Bandurski, R. S.


    [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was hydrolyzed by buffered extracts of acetone powders prepared from 4 day shoots of dark grown Zea mays L. seedlings. The hydrolytic activity was proportional to the amount of extract added and was linear for up to 6 hours at 37 degrees C. Boiled or alcohol denatured extracts were inactive. Analysis of reaction mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that not all isomers of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol were hydrolyzed at the same rate. Buffered extracts of acetone powders were prepared from coleoptiles and mesocotyls. The rates of hydrolysis observed with coleoptile extracts were greater than those observed with mesocotyl extracts. Active extracts also catalyzed the hydrolysis of esterase substrates such as alpha-naphthyl acetate and the methyl esters of indoleacetic acid and naphthyleneacetic acid. Attempts to purify the indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolyzing activity by chromatographic procedures resulted in only slight purification with large losses of activity. Chromatography over hydroxylapatite allowed separation of two enzymically active fractions, one of which catalyzed the hydrolysis of both indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and esterase substrates. With the other enzymic hydrolysis of esterase substrates was readily demonstrated, but no hydrolysis of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was ever detected.

  1. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia


    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. PMID:27474242

  2. Inositol-trisphosphate reduces alveolar apoptosis and pulmonary edema in neonatal lung injury.

    Preuss, Stefanie; Stadelmann, Sabrina; Omam, Friede D; Scheiermann, Julia; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; von Bismarck, Philipp; Knerlich-Lukoschus, Friederike; Lex, Dennis; Adam-Klages, Sabine; Wesch, Daniela; Held-Feindt, Janka; Uhlig, Stefan; Schütze, Stefan; Krause, Martin F


    D-myo-inositol-1,2,6-trisphosphate (IP3) is an isomer of the naturally occurring second messenger D-myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate, and exerts anti-inflammatory and antiedematous effects in the lung. Myo-inositol (Inos) is a component of IP3, and is thought to play an important role in the prevention of neonatal pulmonary diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and neonatal acute lung injury (nALI). Inflammatory lung diseases are characterized by augmented acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) activity leading to ceramide production, a pathway that promotes increased vascular permeability, apoptosis, and surfactant alterations. A novel, clinically relevant triple-hit model of nALI was developed, consisting of repeated airway lavage, injurious ventilation, and lipopolysaccharide instillation into the airways, every 24 hours. Thirty-five piglets were randomized to one of four treatment protocols: control (no intervention), surfactant alone, surfactant + Inos, and surfactant + IP3. After 72 hours of mechanical ventilation, lungs were excised from the thorax for subsequent analyses. Clinically, oxygenation and ventilation improved, and extravascular lung water decreased significantly with the S + IP3 intervention. In pulmonary tissue, we observed decreased aSMase activity and ceramide concentrations, decreased caspase-8 concentrations, reduced alveolar epithelial apoptosis, the reduced expression of interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-β1, and amphiregulin (an epithelial growth factor), reduced migration of blood-borne cells and particularly of CD14(+)/18(+) cells (macrophages) into the airspaces, and lower surfactant surface tensions in S + IP3-treated but not in S + Inos-treated piglets. We conclude that the admixture of IP3 to surfactant, but not of Inos, improves gas exchange and edema in our nALI model by the suppression of the governing enzyme aSMase, and that this treatment deserves clinical evaluation. PMID:22403805

  3. Candida albicans OPI1 regulates filamentous growth and virulence in vaginal infections, but not inositol biosynthesis.

    Ying-Lien Chen

    Full Text Available ScOpi1p is a well-characterized transcriptional repressor and master regulator of inositol and phospholipid biosynthetic genes in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An ortholog has been shown to perform a similar function in the pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata, but with the distinction that CgOpi1p is essential for growth in this organism. However, in the more distantly related yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the OPI1 homolog was not found to regulate inositol biosynthesis, but alkane oxidation. In Candida albicans, the most common cause of human candidiasis, its Opi1p homolog, CaOpi1p, has been shown to complement a S. cerevisiae opi1∆ mutant for inositol biosynthesis regulation when heterologously expressed, suggesting it might serve a similar role in this pathogen. This was tested in the pathogen directly in this report by disrupting the OPI1 homolog and examining its phenotypes. It was discovered that the OPI1 homolog does not regulate INO1 expression in C. albicans, but it does control SAP2 expression in response to bovine serum albumin containing media. Meanwhile, we found that CaOpi1 represses filamentous growth at lower temperatures (30 °C on agar, but not in liquid media. Although, the mutant does not affect virulence in a mouse model of systemic infection, it does affect virulence in a rat model of vaginitis. This may be because Opi1p regulates expression of the SAP2 protease, which is required for rat vaginal infections.

  4. Prefrontal inositol levels and implicit decision-making in healthy individuals and depressed patients.

    Jollant, Fabrice; Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Ding, Yang; Turecki, Gustavo; Bechara, Antoine; Near, Jamie


    Risky decision-making is found in several mental disorders and is associated with deleterious consequences. Current research aims at understanding the biological underpinnings of this complex cognitive function and the basis of individual variability. We used 3T proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to measure in vivo glutamate, GABA, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), and myo-inositol levels at rest in the right dorsal prefrontal cortex of 54 participants, comprising 24 unmedicated depressed patients and 30 healthy individuals. Participants were also tested with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a classical measure of value-based decision-making. No group differences were found in terms of compound levels or decision-making performance. However, high inositol levels were associated with lower decision-making scores independently from group, notably during the initial stage of the task when explicit rules are still unknown and decisions are largely based on implicit processes (whole sample: F=4.0; p=0.02), with a large effect size (Cohen׳s d=0.8, 95% [0.2-1.5]). This effect was stronger when explicit knowledge was taken into account, with explicit knowledge showing an independent effect on performance. There was no association with other compounds. This study suggests, for the first time, a role for the inositol pathway on the implicit learning component of decision-making, without any direct effect on the explicit component. Hypothesized mechanisms implicate intracellular calcium modulation and subsequent synaptic plasticity. These findings represent a first step in the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying decision-making and the identification of therapeutic targets. They also emphasize a dimensional approach in the study of the neurobiological determinants of mental disorders. PMID:27342631

  5. Sustained diacylglycerol formation from inositol phospholipids in angiotensin II-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells

    Griendling, K.K.; Rittenhouse, S.E.; Brock, T.A.; Ekstein, L.S.; Gimbrone, M.A. Jr.; Alexander, R.W.


    Angiotensin II acts on cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells to stimulate phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of membrane phosphoinositides and subsequent formation of diacylglycerol and inositol phosphates. In intact cells, angiotensin II induces a dose-dependent increase in diglyceride which is detectable after 5 s and sustained for at least 20 min. Angiotensin II (100 nM)-stimulated diglyceride formation is biphasic, peaking at 15 s (227 +/- 19% control) and at 5 min (303 +/- 23% control). Simultaneous analysis of labeled inositol phospholipids shows that at 15 s phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) decline to 52 +/- 6% control and 63 +/- 5% control, respectively, while phosphatidylinositol (PI) remains unchanged. In contrast, at 5 min, PIP2 and PIP have returned toward control levels (92 +/- 2 and 82 +/- 4% control, respectively), while PI has decreased substantially (81 +/- 2% control). The calcium ionophore ionomycin (15 microM) stimulates diglyceride accumulation but does not cause PI hydrolysis. 4 beta-Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, an activator of protein kinase C, inhibits early PIP and PIP2 breakdown and diglyceride formation, without inhibiting late-phase diglyceride accumulation. Thus, angiotensin II induces rapid transient breakdown of PIP and PIP2 and delayed hydrolysis of PI. The rapid attenuation of polyphosphoinositide breakdown is likely caused by a protein kinase C-mediated inhibition of PIP and PIP2 hydrolysis. While in vascular smooth muscle stimulated with angiotensin II inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation is transient, diglyceride production is biphasic, suggesting that initial and sustained diglyceride formation from the phosphoinositides results from different biochemical and/or cellular processes.

  6. Calcium mobilization in permeabilized fibroblasts: effects of inositol trisphosphate, orthovanadate, mitogens phorbol ester, and guanosine triphosphate

    Muldoon, L.L.; Jamieson, G.A. Jr.; Villereal, M.L.


    Utilizing a digitonin-permeabilized cell system, the authors have studied the release of calcium from a non-mitochondrial intracellular compartment in cultured human fibroblasts (HSWP cells). Addition of 1 mM MgATP to a monolayer of permeabilized cells in a cytosolic media buffered to 150 nM Ca with EGTA rapidly stimulates /sup 45/Ca uptake, and the subsequent addition of the putative intracellular messenger inositol trisphosphate (InsP/sub 3/) induces rapid release of 85% of the /sup 45/Ca taken up in response to ATP. Mitogenic peptides (bradykinin, vasopressin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and insulin) and orthovanadate, which are effective in mobilizing intracellular Ca in intact cells, have little or no effect when added alone to permeabilized cells. However, in the presence of GTP these agents stimulate accumulation of inositol phosphates and release Ca from the InsP/sub 3/-sensitive pool. These data suggest that a GTP binding protein is involved in receptor mediated activation of phospholipase C, which leads to release of inositol phosphates. The GTP-dependent release of InsP/sub 3/ and the mobilization of /sup 45/Ca from the intracellular compartment are inhibited by pretreatment of cells, prior to permeabilization, with the protrein kinase C activator 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). These results suggest that protein kinase C is involved in down-regulation or inhibition of phospholipase C, or the GTP binding protein responsible for relaying the mitogenic signal from the cell surface receptor to the phospholipase C activity.

  7. Is inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate a new second messenger

    Hansen, C.A.; Williamson, J.R.


    Hormone-stimulated hydrolysis of inositol (Ins) lipids results in the rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, the second messenger for intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization. Recently, a more polar inositol phosphate, Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ as well as its probable hydrolysis product Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ have been reported to accumulate in carbachol-stimulated brain slices. Vasopressin addition to hepatocytes prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)-Ins also showed a rapid increase of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/, which was similar to that of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, while the accumulation of Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ was slower. In order to examine whether Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ has any functional effects on Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis, it was synthesized enzymatically from (/sup 3/H)-Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ using a partially purified phosphoinositol kinase activity from rat brain cortex. (/sup 3/H)-labeled inositol phosphates were separated by anion exchange chromatography and analyzed by HPLC using ammonium formate/phosphoric acid gradient elution. Preliminary experiments indicate that Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ up to 10 does not release Ca/sup 2 +/ from vesicular pools in saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes. It has a slight inhibitory effect on Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release. The effect of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ on plasma membrane Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes are presently being investigated.

  8. General amyloid inhibitors? A critical examination of the inhibition of IAPP amyloid formation by inositol stereoisomers.

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP or amylin forms amyloid deposits in the islets of Langerhans; a process that is believed to contribute to the progression of type 2 diabetes and to the failure of islet transplants. An emerging theme in amyloid research is the hypothesis that the toxic species produced during amyloid formation by different polypeptides share common features and exert their effects by common mechanisms. If correct, this suggests that inhibitors of amyloid formation by one polypeptide might be effective against other amyloidogenic sequences. IAPP and Aβ, the peptide responsible for amyloid formation in Alzheimer's disease, are particularly interesting in this regard as they are both natively unfolded in their monomeric states and share some common characteristics. Comparatively little effort has been expended on the design of IAPP amyloid inhibitors, thus it is natural to inquire if Aβ inhibitors are effective against IAPP, especially since no IAPP inhibitors have been clinically approved. A range of compounds inhibit Aβ amyloid formation, including various stereoisomers of inositol. Myo-, scyllo-, and epi-inositol have been shown to induce conformational changes in Aβ and prevent Aβ amyloid fibril formation by stabilizing non-fibrillar β-sheet structures. We investigate the ability of inositol stereoisomers to inhibit amyloid formation by IAPP. The compounds do not induce a conformational change in IAPP and are ineffective inhibitors of IAPP amyloid formation, although some do lead to modest apparent changes in IAPP amyloid fibril morphology. Thus not all classes of Aβ inhibitors are effective against IAPP. This work provides a basis of comparison to work on polyphenol based inhibitors of IAPP amyloid formation and helps provide clues as to the features which render them effective. The study also helps provide information for further efforts in rational inhibitor design.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of D-Myo-Inositol-3-Phosphate Synthase Gene Family Members in Soybean

    Good, Laura Lee


    The objective of this research was to isolate genes encoding isoforms of the enzyme D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (MIPS, E.C. from soybean and to characterize their expression, especially with respect to their involvement in phytic acid biosynthesis. A MIPS-homologous cDNA, designated GmMIPS1, was isolated via PCR using total RNA from developing seeds. Southern blot analysis and examination of MIPS-homologous soybean EST sequences suggested that GmMIPS1 is part of a multigene...

  10. Inositol trisphosphate and thapsigargin discriminate endoplasmic reticulum stores of calcium in rat brain

    Verma, A; Hirsch, D J; Hanley, M R;


    ATP dependent Ca2+ accumulation into oxalate-loaded rat brain microsomes is potently inhibited by thapsigargin with an IC50 of 2 nM and maximal inhibition at 10 nM. Approximately 15% of the total A23187-releasable microsomal calcium store is insensitive to thapsigargin concentrations up to 100...... microM. Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) maximally inhibits 40% of the net Ca2+ accumulation by whole brain microsomes. Its effects are non-additive with thapsigargin suggesting that the IP3-sensitive Ca2+ pool is a subset of the thapsigargin sensitive Ca2+ pool. Marked regional differences occur in...

  11. Purification and properties of alkaline phosphatase of silkworm Bombyx mori

    TANG Yunming; CEN Liang; CHU Bo; LI Changchun; XU Min; LUO Ying; LU Cheng


    Alkaline phosphatase(AKP),from the succus entericus of silkworm,was purified using 10%-50% ammonium sulfate fractions,ion exchange chromatography Of DEAE-Sepharose,and size exclusion chromatography of Sephacryl S-200.The purification fold was 464 times and specified activity was 3936 U/mg.Optimum pH value of the phosphatase was 10.5,and was stable between pH 7.5 and 11.The optimum temperature of the phosphatase was 40℃ and it was unstable over 50℃.Km value of the phosphatase was 1.25 mmol/L.In a given condition,the phosphatase was selectively modified by PCMB,NBS,PMSE TNBS,SUAN,DTT,BrAc,and IAc,the results indicate that PMSF,SUA,BrAc,IAc,and TNBS could Obviously inhibit the activity of the phosphatase,and the degree of inhibition depended on the concentration of these reagents.There was little effect on the activity of phosphatase after treatment by PMSF,DTT,and NBT.We primarily conclude that mercapto and imidazole are essential for AKP from silkworm.Also,Lys residue and disulfide bands are necessary to protect the catalysis of the AKP.

  12. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    Chisnell, J. R.


    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  13. Plasma acid and alkaline phosphatase in patients with breast cancer.

    Nguyen, M; Bonneterre, J; Hecquet, B; Desoize, B; Demaille, A


    Acid and alkaline phosphatase were determined in 107 breast cancer patients to study their potential value in case of bone metastases. The patients were divided into 4 groups: A, patients without metastases (n = 34); B, metastatic patients without bone lesions (n = 37); C, patients with metastases in and outside of bones (n = 24), D, patients with bone-only metastases (n = 12). Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TR-ACP), and bone alkaline phosphatase (bone-ALP) were significantly higher in patients with metastases than in patients without. However, no difference in TR-ACP was observed between subgroups of metastatic patients. PMID:2064338

  14. Radiation-induced alterations in splenic acid phosphatase of pigeons

    The effect of total body ν-irradiation with sub-lethal dose (400 rad) on acid phosphatase has been studied in spleen of pigeons. The specific activity of acid phosphatase increased significantly 48 hr and 72 hr after irradiation. This increase was accompanied by a substantial reduction in per cent 'bound' activity. The histochemical observation after irradiation confirmed the result obtained by quantitative biochemical study. This increase in acid phosphatase activity may be attributed to an increased permeability of lysosomal membrane caused by damaged lymphocytes (lymphocytolysis) after ν-irradiation. (author)

  15. Diastereoselective synthesis of new O-alkylated and C-branched inositols and their corresponding fluoro analogues

    Chrétien, Françoise; Chapleur, Yves


    Summary Efficient routes were developed for the diastereoselective synthesis of new O-alkylated and C-branched inositols and their corresponding fluoro analogues. The key steps of the synthesis were the easy accessibility of different types of arms in term of configuration (myo and scyllo), the linking method and length, which could modulate the biological properties. These inositol derivatives, bearing an arm terminated either with a hydroxy group or a fluorine atom, could be interesting candidates for diastereoisomeric intermediates and biological evaluations, especially for PET imaging experiments. PMID:26977196

  16. Effects of the hexahydroxyhexane myoinositol on bone uptake of radiocalcium in rats: Effect of inositol and vitamin D2 on bone uptake of 45Ca in rats

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of inositol and vitamin D2 on bone uptake of 45Ca in rats. The radioactive calcium was administered to young rats by orogastric intubation (2 μci/100 g body weight (b.wt.)) with inositol (20 mg/100 g b.wt) and/or vitamin D2 (500 IU/100g b.wt) to normal rats. Bone uptake of 45Ca was measured after 24 hours by standard technique. Inositol alone produced a 48% increase in calcium uptake. It is concluded that inositol significantly increases bone uptake to radioactive calcium (P>0.005). Simultaneous administration of vitamin D2 decreases the effect of inositol considerably, while vitamin D2 has no significant effect. (author)

  17. Radioimmunoassay of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase

    A new method of radioimmunoassay using the double antibody method for human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was first elaborated. The following results were obtained: 1) In this system, the optimal antibody concentration is 10,000 times the dilution of the original anti-serum, and the optimal assay range is 0.5 to 25 ng. Enzymatic activity of 1 ng intestinal ALP is 4.1 King-Armstrong units. 2) In this system, the sera including intestinal ALP are divided to two groups. One group shows a dose response curve similar to that of purified intestinal ALP, and the other shows a lesser one. This reason is not clear. Hepatic ALP, osseous ALP and placental ALP in the sera show no response in this system. 3) In this system, the B/T value of 50 μg of purified human placental ALP is almost equal to 1 ng of purified human intestinal ALP. Similarly, the B/T value of 50 μg of purified human intestinal ALP is equal to almost 5 ng of purified human placental ALP. This shows that cross-reaction exists between intestinal and placental ALPs at high concentrations. (J.P.N.)

  18. Special focus on cerebral myo-inositol in patients with hepatic encephalopathy : proton MR spectroscopic evaluation

    To determine whether or not cerebral myo-inositol/creatine-phos-phocreatine (MI/Cr) level can be used as a criterion of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Single voxel stimulated echo sequence with short echo time (30ms) was applied to parietal white matter of 14 healthy control subjects, 11 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, 29 cirrhotic patients without HE, and 33 cirrhotic patients with HE. The metabolite ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline containing compounds (Cho), and myo-Inositol (MI) were calculated using creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr) as an internal reference. Clinical data including modified Child-Pugh score, estimated serum osmolarity, and grade of HE, were obtained at the day of MR spectroscopy. MI/Cr was 34% lower in cirrhotic patients with HE than in control subjects. It was reduced below two standard deviation from normal in 17 of 33 cirrhotic patients with HE (52%). MI/Cr did not correlate with grade of HE (r=-0.55, p=0.00). In the analysis of Child class C patients, there was no significant difference of MI/Cr between cirrhotic patients with HE and those without HE (0.83 ± 0.11, n= 29 vs. 0.39 ± 0.11, n= 15, p= 0.59, respectively). A reduction of cerebral MI/Cr cannot be used as a diagnostic criterion of HE

  19. Chemogenetic Characterization of Inositol Phosphate Metabolic Pathway Reveals Druggable Enzymes for Targeting Kinetoplastid Parasites.

    Cestari, Igor; Haas, Paige; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio; Schenkman, Sergio; Stuart, Ken


    Kinetoplastids cause Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniases. Current treatments for these diseases are toxic and inefficient, and our limited knowledge of drug targets and inhibitors has dramatically hindered the development of new drugs. Here we used a chemogenetic approach to identify new kinetoplastid drug targets and inhibitors. We conditionally knocked down Trypanosoma brucei inositol phosphate (IP) pathway genes and showed that almost every pathway step is essential for parasite growth and infection. Using a genetic and chemical screen, we identified inhibitors that target IP pathway enzymes and are selective against T. brucei. Two series of these inhibitors acted on T. brucei inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) preventing Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 phosphorylation. We show that IPMK is functionally conserved among kinetoplastids and that its inhibition is also lethal for Trypanosoma cruzi. Hence, IP enzymes are viable drug targets in kinetoplastids, and IPMK inhibitors may aid the development of new drugs. PMID:27133314

  20. Potentiometric and spectroscopic study of the interaction of 3d transition metal ions with inositol hexakisphosphate

    Veiga, Nicolás; Macho, Israel; Gómez, Kerman; González, Gabriel; Kremer, Carlos; Torres, Julia


    Among myo-inositol phosphates, the most abundant in nature is the myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6. Although it is known to be vital to cell functioning, the biochemical research into its metabolism needs chemical and structural analysis of all the protonation, complexation and precipitation processes that it undergoes in the biological media. In view of its high negative charge at physiological level, our group has been leading a thorough research into the InsP6 chemical and structural behavior in the presence of the alkali and alkaline earth metal ions essential for life. The aim of this article is to extend these studies, dealing with the chemical and structural features of the InsP6 interaction with biologically relevant 3d transition metal ions (Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)), in a non-interacting medium and under simulated physiological conditions. The metal-complex stability constants were determined by potentiometry, showing under ligand-excess conditions the formation of mononuclear species in different protonation states. Under metal ion excess, polymetallic species were detected for Fe(II), Fe(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II). Additionally, the 31P NMR and UV-vis spectroscopic studies provided interesting structural aspects of the strong metal ion-InsP6 interaction.

  1. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Mediates Apoptosis in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cell Line via Intrinsic Pathway

    Agarwal, Rakhee; Ali, Nawab


    Inositol polyphosphates (InsPs) are naturally occurring compounds ubiquitously present in plants and animals. Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) is the most abundant among all InsPs and constitutes the major portion of dietary fiber in most cereals, legumes and nuts. Certain derivatives of InsPs also regulate cellular signaling mechanisms. InsPs have also been shown to reduce tumor formation and induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. Therefore, in this study, the effects of InsPs on apoptosis were studied in an attempt to investigate their potential anti-cancer therapeutic application and understand their mechanism of action. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining suggested that InsP6 dose dependently induced apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Among InsPs tested (InsP3, InsP4, InsP5, and InsP6), InsP6 was found to be the most effective in inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, effects of InsP6 were found most potent inducing apoptosis. Etoposide, the drug known to induce apoptosis in both in vivo and in vitro, was used as a positive control. Western blotting experiments using specific antibodies against known apoptotic markers suggested that InsP6 induced apoptotic changes were mediated via an intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  2. Determination of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) in urine by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Grases, F.; Perello, J.; Isern, B.; Prieto, R.M


    Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) is a substance present in urine with an important role in preventing calcium renal calculi development. In spite of this, the use of urinary phytate levels on stone-formers' evaluation and treatment is still notably restricted as a consequence of the enormous difficulty to analyze this substance in urine. In this paper, a simple procedure for routinary urinary phytate determination based on phosphorus determination through inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry is described. The method only requires a previous separation of phytate from other components by column anion exchange chromatography. The working linear range used was 0-2 mg l{sup -1} phosphorus (0-7 mg l{sup -1} phytate). The limit of detection was 64 {mu}g l{sup -1} of phytate and the limit of quantification was 213 {mu}g l{sup -1}. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for 1.35 mg l{sup -1} phytate was 2.4%. Different urine samples were analyzed using an alternative analytical methodology based on gas chromatography (GC)/mass detection used for inositol determination (phytate was previously hydrolyzed), resulting both methods comparable using as criterion to assess statistical significance P<0.05.

  3. Regulation of myotubularin-related (MTMR)2 phosphatidylinositol phosphatase by MTMR5, a catalytically inactive phosphatase

    Kim, Soo-A; Vacratsis, Panayiotis O.; Firestein, Ron; Cleary, Michael L.; Dixon, Jack E.


    The myotubularin (MTM) family constitutes one of the most highly conserved protein-tyrosine phosphatase subfamilies in eukaryotes. MTM1, the archetypal member of this family, is mutated in X-linked myotubular myopathy, whereas mutations in the MTM-related (MTMR)2 gene cause the type 4B1 Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease, a severe hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy. In this study, we identified a protein that specifically interacts with MTMR2 but not MTM1. The interacting protein was shown by m...

  4. Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver and Its Association with Tumors

    Yuqiong Liu; Huixiang Li


    @@ INTRODUCTION Protein kinases and protein phosphatases play key roles in regulating functions of diverse proteins which control numerous essential events in eukaryotes, such as transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, protein degradation and protein trafficking[1-3].

  5. Detection of phosphatase activity in aquatic and terrestrial cyanobacterial strains

    Babić Olivera B.


    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, as highly adaptable microorganisms, are characterized by an ability to survive in different environmental conditions, in which a significant role belongs to their enzymes. Phosphatases are enzymes produced by algae in relatively large quantities in response to a low orthophosphate concentration and their activity is significantly correlated with their primary production. The activity of these enzymes was investigated in 11 cyanobacterial strains in order to determine enzyme synthesis depending on taxonomic and ecological group of cyanobacteria. The study was conducted with 4 terrestrial cyanobacterial strains, which belong to Nostoc and Anabaena genera, and 7 filamentous water cyanobacteria of Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Microcystis genera. The obtained results showed that the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases strongly depended on cyanobacterial strain and the environment from which the strain originated. Higher activity of alkaline phosphatases, ranging from 3.64 to 85.14 μmolpNP/s/dm3, was recorded in terrestrial strains compared to the studied water strains (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. The activity of acid phosphatases was higher in most tested water strains (1.67-6.28 μmolpNP/s/dm3 compared to the activity of alkaline phosphatases (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. Comparing enzyme activity of nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, it was found that most nitrogen fixing strains had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatases. The data obtained in this work indicate that activity of phosphatases is a strain specific property. The results further suggest that synthesis and activity of phosphatases depended on eco-physiological characteristics of the examined cyanobacterial strains. This can be of great importance for the further study of enzymes and mechanisms of their activity as a part of cyanobacterial survival strategy in environments with extreme conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  6. Ligand Binding Reduces Conformational Flexibility in the Active Site of Tyrosine Phosphatase Related to Biofilm Formation A (TpbA) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Koveal, Dorothy; Clarkson, Michael W.; Wood, Thomas K.; Page, Rebecca; Peti, Wolfgang


    TpbA is a periplasmic dual specificity phosphatase (DUSP) that controls biofilm formation in the pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While DUSPs are known to regulate important cellular functions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, very few structures of bacterial DUSPs are available. Here, we present the solution structure of TpbA in the ligand-free open conformation, along with an analysis of the structural and dynamic changes that accompany ligand/phosphate binding. While TpbA ad...

  7. Noncovalent Immobilization of Streptavidin on In Vitro- and In Vivo-Biotinylated Bacterial Magnetic Particles▿

    Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshino, Tomoko; Takahashi, Masaaki; Ginya, Harumi; Asahina, Junko; Tajima, Hideji; Matsunaga, Tadashi


    Biotinylated magnetic nanoparticles were constructed by displaying biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) or biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) on the surface of bacterial magnetic particles (BacMPs) synthesized by Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. BAP-displaying BacMPs (BAP-BacMPs) were extracted from bacterial cells and incubated with biotin and Escherichia coli biotin ligase. Then the in vitro biotinylation of BAP-BacMPs was confirmed using alkaline phosphatase-labeled antibiotin antibody. In ...

  8. Low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase: Multifaceted functions of an evolutionarily conserved enzyme.

    Caselli, Anna; Paoli, Paolo; Santi, Alice; Mugnaioni, Camilla; Toti, Alessandra; Camici, Guido; Cirri, Paolo


    Originally identified as a low molecular weight acid phosphatase, LMW-PTP is actually a protein tyrosine phosphatase that acts on many phosphotyrosine-containing cellular proteins that are primarily involved in signal transduction. Differences in sequence, structure, and substrate recognition as well as in subcellular localization in different organisms enable LMW-PTP to exert many different functions. In fact, during evolution, the LMW-PTP structure adapted to perform different catalytic actions depending on the organism type. In bacteria, this enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of group 1 and 4 capsules, but it is also a virulence factor in pathogenic strains. In yeast, LMW-PTPs dephosphorylate immunophilin Fpr3, a peptidyl-prolyl-cis-trans isomerase member of the protein chaperone family. In humans, LMW-PTP is encoded by the ACP1 gene, which is composed of three different alleles, each encoding two active enzymes produced by alternative RNA splicing. In animals, LMW-PTP dephosphorylates a number of growth factor receptors and modulates their signalling processes. The involvement of LMW-PTP in cancer progression and in insulin receptor regulation as well as its actions as a virulence factor in a number of pathogenic bacterial strains may promote the search for potent, selective and bioavailable LMW-PTP inhibitors. PMID:27421795

  9. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    Lauga, Eric


    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  10. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system... Test Systems § 862.1050 Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. An alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure alkaline phosphatase or its...

  11. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)


    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a neutral phosphatase from wheat seedlings

    A neutral phosphatase was purified to homogeneity from wheat seedlings. The enzyme was a monomeric glycoprotein exhibiting a molecular weight of 35,000, frictional ratio of 1.22, Stokes' radius of 26 A, and sedimentation coefficient of 3.2 S. That the enzyme was a glycoprotein was surmised from its chromatographic property on Concanavalin A-Sepharose column. The phosphatase activity was assayed using either fructose-2,6-bisphosphate or p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. The phosphatase activity was not affected by high concentrations of chelating agents and did not require the addition of Mg+2 or Ca+2 for its activity. Molybdate, orthovanadate, Zn+2, and Hg+2 were all potent inhibitors of the phosphatase activity. The inhibition by Hg+2 was reversed by dithiothreitol. The enzyme activity was stimulated by Mn+2 about 2-fold. On the other hand, 3-phosphoglycerate, fructose-6-P and Pi as well as polyamines inhibited the enzyme activity. The ability of the neutral phosphatase to dephosphorylate protein phosphotyrosine was also investigated. The phosphotyrosyl-substrates, such as [32P] phosphotyrosyl-poly(Glu, Tyr)n, -alkylated bovine serum albumin, -angiotensin-1, and -band 3 of erythrocytes, were all substrates of the phosphatase. On the other hand, the enzyme had no activity toward protein phosphoserine and protein phosphothreonine

  13. Localization of acid phosphatase activity in the apoplast of root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum

    Marzena Sujkowska


    Full Text Available Changes in the activity of acid phosphatase (AcPase in the apoplast of pea root nodule were investigated. The activity was determined using lead and cerium methods. The results indicated a following sequence of AcPase activity appearance during the development of the infection thread: 1 low AcPase activity appears in the outer part of cells of symbiotic bacteria; 2 bacteria show increased AcPase activity, and the enzyme activity appears in the thread walls; 3 activity exhibits also matrix of the infection thread; 4 bacteria just before their release from the infection threads show high AcPase activity; 5 AcPase activity ceases after bacteria transformation into bacteroids. The increase in bacterial AcPase activity may reflect a higher demand for inorganic phosphorus necessary for propagation of the bacteria within the infection threads and/or involved in bacteria release from the infection threads.

  14. Determination of myo-inositol (free and bound as phosphatidylinositol) in infant formula and adult nutritionals by liquid chromatography/pulsed amperometry with column switching: first action 2011.18.

    Schimpf, Karen; Thompson, Linda; Baugh, Steve


    Myo-inositol is a 6-carbon cyclic polyalcohol also known as meso-inositol, meat sugar, inosite, and i-inositol. It occurs in nature in both free (myo-inositol) and bound (inositol phosphates and phosphatidylinositol) forms. For the determination of free myo-inositol, samples are mixed with dilute hydrochloric acid to extract myo-inositol and precipitate proteins, diluted with water, and filtered. For the determination of myo-inositol bound as phosphatidylinositol, samples are extracted with chloroform, isolated from other fats with silica SPE cartridges, and hydrolyzed with concentrated acid to free myo-inositol. Prepared samples are first injected onto a Dionex CarboPac PA1 column, which separates myo-inositol from other late-eluting carbohydrates. After column switching, myo-inositol is further separated on a CarboPac MA1 column using a 0.12% sodium hydroxide mobile phase; strongly retained carbohydrates are eluted from the PA1 column with a 3% sodium hydroxide mobile phase. Eluant from the CarboPac MA1 analytical column passes through an electrochemical detector cell where myo-inositol is detected by pulsed amperometry using a gold electrode. The method showed appropriate performance characteristics versus selected established standard method performance requirement parameters for the determination of myo-inositol: linear response; repeatability (RSDr) of 2%; and intermediate precision (RSDir) of 2.5%. Instrument LOD and LOQ were 0.0004 and 0.0013 mg/100 mL, respectively, and correspond to a free myo-inositol quantitation limit of 0.026 mg/100 g and a phosphatidylinositol quantitation limit of 0.016 mg/100 g. Correlation with the reference microbiological assay was good. The proposed method has been accepted by the Expert Review Panel as an AOAC First Action Method, suitable for the routine determination of myo-inositol in infant formula and adult nutritionals. PMID:22970560

  15. [Phosphatase activity in Amoeba proteus at pH 9.0].

    Sopina, V A


    In the free-living amoeba Amoeba proteus (strain B), after PAAG disk-electrophoresis of the homogenate supernatant, at using 1-naphthyl phosphate as a substrate and pH 9.0, three forms of phosphatase activity were revealed; they were arbitrarily called "fast", "intermediate", and "slow" phosphatases. The fast phosphatase has been established to be a fraction of lysosomal acid phosphatase that preserves some low activity at alkaline pH. The question as to which particular class the intermediate phosphatase belongs to has remained unanswered: it can be both acid phosphatase and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Based on data of inhibitor analysis, large substrate specificity, results of experiments with reactivation by Zn ions after inactivation with EDTA, other than in the fast and intermediate phosphatases localization in the amoeba cell, it is concluded that only slow phosphatase can be classified as alkaline phosphatase (EC PMID:17933343

  16. Quantification of myo-inositol, 1,5-anhydro- D-sorbitol, and D-chiro-inositol using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in very small volume clinical samples.

    Schimpf, Karen J; Meek, Claudia C; Leff, Richard D; Phelps, Dale L; Schmitz, Daniel J; Cordle, Christopher T


    Inositol is a six-carbon sugar alcohol and is one of nine biologically significant isomers of hexahydroxycyclohexane. Myo-inositol is the primary biologically active form and is present in higher concentrations in the fetus and newborn than in adults. It is currently being examined for the prevention of retinopathy of prematurity in newborn preterm infants. A robust method for quantifying myo-inositol (MI), D-chiro-inositol (DCI) and 1,5-anhydro- D-sorbitol (ADS) in very small-volume (25 μL) urine, blood serum and/or plasma samples was developed. Using a multiple-column, multiple mobile phase liquid chromatographic system with electrochemical detection, the method was validated with respect to (a) selectivity, (b) accuracy/recovery, (c) precision/reproducibility, (d) sensitivity, (e) stability and (f) ruggedness. The standard curve was linear and ranged from 0.5 to 30 mg/L for each of the three analytes. Above-mentioned performance measures were within acceptable limits described in the Food and Drug Administration's Guidance for Industry: Bioanalytical Method Validation. The method was validated using blood serum and plasma collected using four common anticoagulants, and also by quantifying the accuracy and sensitivity of MI measured in simulated urine samples recovered from preterm infant diaper systems. The method performs satisfactorily measuring the three most common inositol isomers on 25 μL clinical samples of serum, plasma, milk, and/or urine. Similar performance is seen testing larger volume samples of infant formulas and infant formula ingredients. MI, ADS and DCI may be accurately tested in urine samples collected from five different preterm infant diapers if the urine volume is greater than 2-5 mL. PMID:26010453

  17. Role of Inositol Phosphosphingolipid Phospholipase C1, the Yeast Homolog of Neutral Sphingomyelinases in DNA Damage Response and Diseases

    Kaushlendra Tripathi


    Full Text Available Sphingolipids play a very crucial role in many diseases and are well-known as signaling mediators in many pathways. Sphingolipids are produced during the de novo process in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum from the nonsphingolipid precursor and comprise both structural and bioactive lipids. Ceramide is the central core of the sphingolipid pathway, and its production has been observed following various treatments that can induce several different cellular effects including growth arrest, DNA damage, apoptosis, differentiation, and senescence. Ceramides are generally produced through the sphingomyelin hydrolysis and catalyzed by the enzyme sphingomyelinase (SMase in mammals. Presently, there are many known SMases and they are categorized into three groups acid SMases (aSMases, alkaline SMases (alk-SMASES, and neutral SMases (nSMases. The yeast homolog of mammalians neutral SMases is inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C. Yeasts generally have inositol phosphosphingolipids instead of sphingomyelin, which may act as a homolog of mammalian sphingomyelin. In this review, we shall explain the structure and function of inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1, its localization inside the cells, mechanisms, and its roles in various cell responses during replication stresses and diseases. This review will also give a new basis for our understanding for the mechanisms and nature of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1/nSMase.

  18. Metabolomics Reveals Relationship between Plasma Inositols and Birth Weight: Possible Markers for Fetal Programming of Type 2 Diabetes

    Pia Marlene Nissen


    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies in man and with experimental animal models have shown that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR resulting in low birth weight is associated with higher risk of programming welfare diseases in later life. In the pig, severe IUGR occurs naturally and contribute substantially to a large intralitter variation in birth weight and may therefore be a good model for man. In the present paper the natural form of IUGR in pigs was studied close to term by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomics. The NMR-based investigations revealed different metabolic profiles of plasma samples from low-birth weight (LW and high-birth weight (HW piglets, respectively, and differences were assigned to levels of glucose and myo-inositol. Further studies by GC-MS revealed that LW piglets had a significant higher concentration of myoinositol and D-chiro-inositol in plasma compared to larger littermates. Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been coupled with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in adults, and the present paper therefore suggests that IUGR is related to impaired glucose metabolism during fetal development, which may cause type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  19. Identification and Quantitation of Various Inositols and O-methylinositols Present in Plant Roots Using Gas Chromatograpghy/Mass Spectrometry

    Many inositols and O-methylinositols serve important roles in medicine and plant biology. A simple method was developed for the identification of these compounds in plant roots by extracting with 80% ethanol, derivatizing with trimethylsilyl imidazole, and analyzing by gas chromatography/mass spect...

  20. Arabidopsis inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6 kinase 2 is required for seed coat development

    Yong Tang; Shutang Tan; Hongwei Xue


    Inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6 kinase (ITPK) phosphorylates inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate to form inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate which can be finally transferred to inositoi hexaphosphate (IP6) and play important roles during plant growth and development.There are 4 putative ITPK members in Arabidopsis.Expression pattern analysis showed that ITPK2 is constitutively expressed in various tissues.A TDNA knockout mutant of ITPK2 was identified and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the epidermis structure of seed coat was irregularly formed in seeds of itpk2-1 mutant,resulting in the increased permeability of seed coat to tetrazolium salts.Further analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of lipid polyester monomers in cell wall confirmed a dramatic decrease in composition of suberin and cutin,which relate to the permeability of seed coat and the formation of which is accompanied with seed coat development.These results indicate that ITPK2 plays an essential role in seed coat development and lipid polyester barrier formation.

  1. High-performance ion chromatography method for separation and quantification of inositol phosphates in diets and digesta

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Hansen-Møller, Jens; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard


    A gradient high-performance ion chromatographic method for separation and quantification of inositol phosphates (InsP2-InsP6) in feedstuffs, diets, gastric and ileal digesta from pigs was developed and validated. The InsP2-InsP6 were separated on a Dionex CarboPacTM PA1 column using a gradient wi...

  2. Targeted metabolomic analyses of cellular models of pelizaeus-merzbacher disease reveal plasmalogen and myo-inositol solute carrier dysfunction

    Pelzer Lindsay


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukodystrophies are devastating diseases characterized by dys- and hypo-myelination. While there are a number of histological and imaging studies of these disorders, there are limited biochemical data available. We undertook targeted lipidomic analyses of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD fibroblasts, PMD lymphocytes, and 158JP oligodendrocytes, a murine model of PMD, to define the lipid changes in these cell models. Further targeted metabolomics analyses were conducted to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the metabolic consequences of lipid changes and gene mutations in these cell models. Results In both PMD fibroblasts and lymphocytes, and 158JP oligodendrocytes, ethanolamine plasmalogens were significantly decreased. Labeling studies with 158JP oligodendrocytes further demonstrated a decreased rate of lipid remodeling at sn-2. Targeted metabolomics analyses of these cells revealed dramatic increases in cellular levels of myo-inositol. Further uptake studies demonstrated increased rates of myo-inositol uptake by PMD lymphocytes. Conclusions Our data demonstrating PlsEtn decrements, support previous studies indicating leukodystrophy cells possess significant peroxisomal deficits. Our data for the first time also demonstrate that decrements in peroxisomal function coupled with the PLP1 gene defects of PMD, result in changes in the function of membrane myo-inositol solute carriers resulting in dramatic increases in cellular myo-inositol levels.

  3. Protein phosphatase 1α is a Ras-activated Bad phosphatase that regulates interleukin-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis

    Ayllón, Verónica; Martínez-A, Carlos; García, Alphonse; Cayla, Xavier; Rebollo, Angelita


    Growth factor deprivation is a physiological mechanism to regulate cell death. We utilize an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent murine T-cell line to identify proteins that interact with Bad upon IL-2 stimulation or deprivation. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and co-immunoprecipitation techniques, we found that Bad interacts with protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α). Serine phosphorylation of Bad is induced by IL-2 and its dephosphorylation correlates with appearance of apoptosis. IL-2 deprivation induces Bad dephosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of a serine phosphatase. A serine/threonine phosphatase activity, sensitive to the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, was detected in Bad immunoprecipitates from IL-2-stimulated cells, increasing after IL-2 deprivation. This enzymatic activity also dephosphorylates in vivo 32P-labeled Bad. Treatment of cells with okadaic acid blocks Bad dephosphorylation and prevents cell death. Finally, Ras activation controls the catalytic activity of PP1α. These results strongly suggest that Bad is an in vitro and in vivo substrate for PP1α phosphatase and that IL-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis may operate by regulating Bad phosphorylation through PP1α phosphatase, whose enzymatic activity is regulated by Ras. PMID:10811615

  4. Phosphotransferase system-independent glucose utilization in corynebacterium glutamicum by inositol permeases and glucokinases.

    Lindner, Steffen N; Seibold, Gerd M; Henrich, Alexander; Krämer, Reinhard; Wendisch, Volker F


    Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent glucose phosphorylation via the phosphotransferase system (PTS) is the major path of glucose uptake in Corynebacterium glutamicum, but some growth from glucose is retained in the absence of the PTS. The growth defect of a deletion mutant lacking the general PTS component HPr in glucose medium could be overcome by suppressor mutations leading to the high expression of inositol utilization genes or by the addition of inositol to the growth medium if a glucokinase is overproduced simultaneously. PTS-independent glucose uptake was shown to require at least one of the inositol transporters IolT1 and IolT2 as a mutant lacking IolT1, IolT2, and the PTS component HPr could not grow with glucose as the sole carbon source. Efficient glucose utilization in the absence of the PTS necessitated the overexpression of a glucokinase gene in addition to either iolT1 or iolT2. IolT1 and IolT2 are low-affinity glucose permeases with K(s) values of 2.8 and 1.9 mM, respectively. As glucose uptake and phosphorylation via the PTS differs from glucose uptake via IolT1 or IolT2 and phosphorylation via glucokinase by the requirement for phosphoenolpyruvate, the roles of the two pathways for l-lysine production were tested. The l-lysine yield by C. glutamicum DM1729, a rationally engineered l-lysine-producing strain, was lower than that by its PTS-deficient derivate DM1729Δhpr, which, however, showed low production rates. The combined overexpression of iolT1 or iolT2 with ppgK, the gene for PolyP/ATP-dependent glucokinase, in DM1729Δhpr enabled l-lysine production as fast as that by the parent strain DM1729 but with 10 to 20% higher l-lysine yield. PMID:21478323

  5. Overexpression, purification, characterization and preliminary crystallographic study of phosphoglycolate phosphatase from Shigella flexneri 2a strain 301

    Recombinant phosphoglycolate phosphatase from S. flexneri was overexpressed, purified, characterized and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. SeMet-labelled protein was also prepared and was crystallized for phase determination using the MAD technique. Phosphoglycolate phosphatase has a salvage function in the metabolism of the 2-phosphoglycolate formed during bacterial DNA repair. In order to better understand its dimerization behaviour, the influence of metal ions on its activity and its catalytic mechanism at the molecular level, recombinant phosphoglycolate phosphatase from Shigella flexneri was overexpressed, purified, characterized and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K using polyethylene glycol 3500 as a precipitant and zinc acetate as an additive. The crystals belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.1, b = 88.1, c = 259.2 Å, corresponding to the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit. SeMet-labelled protein was also prepared and crystallized for use in phase determination. Initial structure determination using the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method clearly revealed that SfPGPase bears an α-helical cap domain that differs from that of a previously reported orthologue

  6. Osmotic regulation and tissue localization of the myo-inositol biosynthesis pathway in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) larvae.

    Sacchi, Romina; Gardell, Alison M; Chang, Nicole; Kültz, Dietmar


    The myo-inositol biosynthesis (MIB) pathway converts glucose-6-phosphate to the compatible osmolyte myo-inositol, which protects cells from salinity stress. We exposed tilapia larvae just after yolk sac resorption to various hypersaline environments and recorded robust induction of the enzymes that constitute the MIB pathway, myo-inositol-phosphate synthase (MIPS), and inositol monophosphatase 1 (IMPA1). Strong up-regulation of these enzymes is evident at both mRNA (quantitative real-time PCR) and protein (densitometric analysis of Western blots) levels. The highest level of induction of these enzymes occurs at the highest salinity that larvae were exposed to (90 ppt). Less severe salinity stress causes a proportionately reduced induction of the MIB pathway. Two distinct MIPS mRNA variants are present in tilapia larvae and both are induced at comparable levels for all the salinity challenges tested (34, 70, and 90 ppt). Immunohistochemical localization of IMPA1 protein in sagittal sections of salinity stressed and control larvae identified tissues that are particularly potent in inducing the MIB pathway. These tissues include the skin (epidermis), gills, eye (ciliary epithelium) and heart. In particular, the epidermis directly facing the external milieu showed a very strong induction of IMPA1 immunoreactivity. IMPA1 induction in response to salinity stress was not observed in other tissues suggesting that tilapia larvae may also utilize compatible organic osmolytes other than solely myo-inositol for osmoprotection. We conclude that the MIB pathway plays an important role in protecting multiple (but not all) tissues of tilapia larvae from hyperosmotic salinity stress. PMID:25045088

  7. Serum alkaline phosphatase screening for vitamin D deficiency states

    Objective: To determine whether serum vitamin D levels are correlated with serum levels of alkaline phosphatase or not. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Multi-centre study, conducted at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, National Medical Centre and Medicare Hospital, Karachi, from January to October 2009. Methodology: Patients attending the Orthopaedic OPDs with complaints of pain in different body regions and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels of greater or equal to 30 ng/ml were included in the study. Patients with vitamin D deficiency were further categorized into mild deficiency or insufficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 20-29 ng/ml), moderate deficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 5 - 19 ng/ml) and severe deficiency forms (vit. D/sub 3/ < 5 ng/ml). Pearson correlation was applied to test the correlation of serum alkaline phosphatase levels with serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Out of 110 samples, 26 had mild (23%), 61 had moderate (55%) and 21 had severe (19.1%) vitamin D deficiencies. All of the patients in the three groups had alkaline phosphatase with in normal limits and the total mean value of the enzyme was 135.97 +- 68.14I U/L. The inter group comparison showed highest values of alkaline phosphatase in the moderate vitamin D deficiency group. The correlation coefficient of alkaline phosphatase and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels was r =0.05 (p =0.593). Conclusion: Serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels may not be correlated with increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Therefore, alkaline phosphatase may not be used as a screening test to rule out vitamin D deficiency. (author)

  8. Effect of myo-inositol and alpha-lipoic acid on oocyte quality in polycystic ovary syndrome non-obese women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a pilot study.

    Rago, R; Marcucci, I; Leto, G; Caponecchia, L; Salacone, P; Bonanni, P; Fiori, C; Sorrenti, G; Sebastianelli, A


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined administration of myo-inositol and α-lipoic acid in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with normal body mass index (BMI), who had previously undergone intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and received myo-inositol alone. Thirty-six of 65 normal-weight patients affected by PCOS who did not achieve pregnancy and one patient who had a spontaneous abortion were re-enrolled and given a cycle of treatment with myo-inositol and α-lipoic acid. For all female partners of the treated couples, the endocrine-metabolic and ultrasound parameters, ovarian volume, oocyte and embryo quality, and pregnancy rates were assessed before and after three months of treatment and compared with those of previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle(s). After supplementation of myo-inositol with α-lipoic acid, insulin levels, BMI and ovarian volume were significantly reduced compared with myo-inositol alone. No differences were found in the fertilization and cleavage rate or in the mean number of transferred embryos between the two different treatments, whereas the number of grade 1 embryos was significantly increased, with a significant reduction in the number of grade 2 embryos treated with myo-inositol plus α-lipoic acid. Clinical pregnancy was not significantly different with a trend for a higher percentage for of myo-inositol and α-lipoic acid compared to the myo-inositol alone group. Our preliminary data suggest that the supplementation of myo-inositol and α-lipoic acid in PCOS patients undergoing an IVF cycle can help to improve their reproductive outcome and also their metabolic profiles, opening potential for their use in long-term prevention of PCOS. PMID:26753656

  9. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced calcium release from platelet plasma membrane vesicles

    A platelet membrane preparation, enriched in plasma membrane markers, took up 45Ca2+ in exchange for intravesicular Na+ and released it after the addition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). The possibility that contaminating dense tubular membrane (DTS) vesicles contributed the Ca2+ released by IP3 was eliminated by the addition of vanadate to inhibit Ca+-ATPase-mediated DTS Ca2+ sequestration and by the finding that only plasma membrane vesicles exhibit Na+-dependent Ca2+ uptake. Ca2+ released by IP3 was dependent on low extravesicular Ca2+ concentrations. IP3-induced Ca2+ release was additive to that released by Na+ addition while GTP or polyethylene glycol (PEG) had no effect. These results strongly suggest that IP3 facilitates extracellular Ca2+ influx in addition to release from DTS membranes

  10. Effects of inositol hexaphosphate on proliferation of HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line

    Ying Tian; Yang Song


    AIM: To investigate the effects of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) on proliferation of HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line.METHODS: Cells were exposed to various concentrations (0, 1.8, 3.3, 5.0, 8.0, 13.0 mmol/L) of IP6 for a certain period of time. Its effect on growth of HT-29 cells was measured by MTT assay. The expressions of cell cycle regulators treated with IP6 for 2 d were detected by immunocytochemistry.RESULTS: IP6 inhibited the HT-29 cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Analysis of cell cycle regulator expression revealed that IP6 reduced the abnormal expression of P53 and PCNA and induced the expression of P21.CONCLUSION: IP6 has potent inhibitory effect on proliferation of HT-29 cells by modulating the expression of special cell cycle regulators.