This 60 second PSA describes babesiosis, a preventable and treatable tickborne disease, including the signs and symptoms of infection and ways to prevent it. Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria. Date Released: 4/26/2012.
Vial, Henri J; Gorenflot, A
Babesiosis is caused by a haemotropic protozoal parasite of the genus Babesia, member of the phylum Apicomplexa and transmitted by the bite of an infected tick. There are many Babesia species affecting livestock, dogs, horses and rodents which are of economic significance. Infections can occur without producing symptoms, but babesiosis may also be severe and sometimes fatal caused by the intraerythrocytic parasite development. The disease can cause fever, fatigue and haemolytic anemia lasting from several days to several months. There are a number of effective babesiacides, but imidocarb dipropionate (which consistently clears the parasitaemia; often the only available drug on the market) and diminazene aceturate are the most widely used. Some Babesia spp. can infect humans, particularly Babesia microti and Babesia divergens, and human babesiosis is a significant emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease. Clinical manifestations differ markedly between European and North American diseases. In clinical cases, a combination of clindamycin and quinine is administered as the standard treatment, but also administration of atovaquone-azithromycin is successful. Supportive therapy such as intravenous fluids and blood transfusions are employed when necessary. More specific fast-acting new treatments for babesiosis have now to be developed. This should be facilitated by the knowledge of the Babesia spp. genome and increased interest for this malaria-like parasite. PMID:16504402
Full Text Available Human babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan species of the genus Babesia with many clinical features similar to those of malaria. Over the last 50 years, the epidemiology of human babesiosis has changed from a few isolated cases to the establishment of endemic areas in the northeastern and midwestern United States. Episodic cases are reported in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America. The severity of infection ranges from asymptomatic infection to fulminant disease resulting in death, although the majority of healthy adults experience a mild-to-moderate illness. People over the age of 50 years and immunocompromised individuals are at the highest risk of severe disease, including those with malignancy, HIV, lacking a spleen, or receiving immunosuppressive drugs. Asymptomatic carriers present a blood safety risk when they donate blood. Definitive diagnosis of babesial infection generally is made by microscopic identification of the organism on thin blood smear, amplification of Babesia DNA using PCR, and detection of Babesia antibody in acute and convalescent sera. Specific antimicrobial therapy consists of atovaquone and azithromycin or clindamycin and quinine. Exchange transfusion is used in severe cases. The use of multiple prevention strategies is recommended and consists of personal, residential, and community approaches.
This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing babesiosis and providing patients at risk with tick bite prevention messages. Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria. Date Released: 4/25/2012.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Coccidioidomycosis - 2014.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (â¥1,000 cases reported during the...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Campylobacteriosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selectedâ notifiable diseases (â¥1,000 cases reported during the...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Babesiosis to Campylobacteriosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (â¥1,000 cases reported during the...
... months. Although many people who are infected with Babesia do not have symptoms, for those who do ... steps are taken to reduce exposure to ticks. Babesia microti is transmitted by the bite of infected ...
Irwin Peter J
Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.
Full Text Available A questionnaire, designed to obtain qualitative information on a number of variables concerning canine babesiosis (biliary fever in South Africa, was sent to 510 veterinary practices in late 1993. Of the 157 practices that responded, all were presented with cases of babesiosis and most were situated in Gauteng, the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Apart from the Western Cape, a winter-rainfall region, the prevalence of babesiosis cases in dogs was highest in summer. Most of the respondent practices treated between 1000 and 5000 sick dogs that included 100 to 500 babesiosis cases each year. Respondents identified cerebral babesiosis, enterorrhagia, 'red' or haemoconcentrated babesiosis, acute renal failure and pulmonary babesiosis or 'shock lung', amongst others, as the most prevalent forms of complicated ('atypical' babesiosis. Diminazene, imidocarb and trypan blue were the most popular antibabesials. Trypan blue was most often used in shocked patients, whereas diminazene and imidocarb were preferred when there was a high parasitaemia in the absence of shock. At least 19 antibabesial treatment regimens were used in practices. These comprised the use of single doses of antibabesial drugs; split doses with repeat injections, and combined drug variations, some of which are undesirable due to possible sterilisation of Babesia infection or potential toxicity. Side-effects were most commonly associated with imidocarb use. Ninety-six percent of respondents used supportive treatment (e.g. corticosteroids, vitamins and 'liver support' in all cases of babesiosis. The use of blood transfusion as supportive treatment varied according to practice and severity of the case. Most practices never cross-matched blood to be transfused, and transfusion reactions were rare. Diminazene was most frequently incriminated in cases where drug 'resistance' or relapses occurred. Cerebral and 'red' cases resulted in high mortality. Treatment of babesiosis costs the dog
Van de Maele, Isabel; Savary-Bataille, Karine; Gielen, Ingrid; Daminet, Sylvie
An Akita Inu, living in Belgium, was presented with unusual clinical manifestations of acute babesiosis that included neurological signs and pancytopenia. Diagnosis was made by identifying Babesia canis in the blood smear. Neurological signs resolved after treatment with imidocarb diproprionate. Normalization of hematological abnormalities was gradual over 5 months.
This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study. Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 5/23/2011.
Full Text Available Proteinuria, and renal tubular casts and epithelial cells in urine sediment, are commonly observed in both complicated and uncomplicated babesiosis, but do not necessarily reflect or predict renal failure. This study investigated the presence and degree of renal damage in canine babesiosis. Renal function and integrity were evaluated using serum urea and creatinine, serum electrolytes (sodium and potassium, fractional clearance of sodium (FcNa and potassium (FcK, urine enzyme activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase, urine protein:creatinine ratio, and urinalysis. One control group (n =10 and 3 groups of babesiosis cases were studied: mild uncomplicated (n =10, severe uncomplicated (n = 11, and complicated (n = 9. All babesiosis groups showed well-concentrated urine. Mean serum urea was elevated in the severe and complicated groups, and was significantly different from the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for creatinine, although the complicated group had a mean value above the normal reference range. Hypokalaemia was uncommon in all the groups. Hyperkalaemia was present in only 2 dogs in the complicated group. Marginal hyponatraemia was present in a minority of dogs in all groups. The serumelectrolytes were not significantly different between groups. There was no overall elevation, nor any statistically significant difference in both the FcNa and FcK between the groups. Only 1 dog, in the complicated group, showed marked enzymuria. Proteinuria was a common finding and was significantly different between the severe and complicated groups and the control group. Some dogs in all groups had renal tubular epithelial cells in the urinary sediment, which increased in severity from the mild to the complicated groups and was significantly different from the control group. This study demonstrated that minimal renal damage occurs more often in canine babesiosis than significant
Full Text Available Canine babesiosis is a relatively frequent disease in Croatia. Elevated body temperature, anemia and haemoglobinuria are the most common signs. Diagnosis is rapidly obtained by employing blood smears, as B. canis is present in the red blood cells of affected dogs. Treatment is favourable and without consequences. Blood work was performed initialy, prior to treatment, and on the 1st and the 7th day following treatment. Following history and examination of the dogs blood and urine samples were taken. After confirmation of B. canis in the red blood cells, alltogether 226 dogs were tretated. Out of them 80 were tretaed with Berenil® (diminazen aceturate, Hoechst, 72 were tretated with Imizol® (imidocarb dipropionate, Schering-Plough-Animal-Health and 74 with Oxopirvedin® (fenamidine dizetionate, Merial. Clinical findings, haematological analysis and urine analysis are given and statistically assesed. After tretment with Berenil®, symptoms of babesiosis regressed within 24 hours. Health improved more slowly in the group treated with Oxopirvedin® in comparioson with the group treated with Berenil®. Contrary to the above, Imizol® displayed the slowest regression of the disease and reinfestation with B. canis within 30 days was not noted. That is not the case if treatment was provided by Berenil® and Oxopirvedin®. In all 226 cases of canine babesiosis side effects were not noted, except topically inflammed tissue at the site of subcutaneous application.
Kuleš, J; de Torre-Minguela, C; Barić Rafaj, R; Gotić, J; Nižić, P; Ceron, J J; Mrljak, V
Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy. Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B. canis canis, five dogs with babesiosis and SIRS, five dogs with babesiosis and MODS, and five healthy dogs. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance P<0.05 were detected between groups. SIRS in babesiosis was characterised by increases in paraoxonase 1 and apoA-I, whereas MODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade. PMID:27033937
Joseph, Julie T.; Roy, Sumith S.; Shams, Navid; Visintainer, Paul; Nadelman, Robert B.; Hosur, Srilatha; Nelson, John,; Wormser, Gary P.
Although Lyme disease has been endemic to parts of the Lower Hudson Valley of New York, United States, for >2 decades, babesiosis has emerged there only since 2001. The number of Lower Hudson Valley residents in whom babesiosis was diagnosed increased 20-fold, from 6 to 119 cases per year during 2001–2008, compared with an ≈1.6-fold increase for the rest of New York. During 2002–2009, a total of 19 patients with babesiosis were hospitalized on 22 occasions at the regional tertiary care center...
The rodent babesias, Babesia rodhaini and the less virulent B. microti, are useful models with which to study immunity to and immunization against babesiosis. In contrast with the difficulty in inducing specific immunity to these parasites it is comparatively easy to induce non-specific immunity by prior exposure to related and unrelated intra-erythrocytic protozoa, micro-organisms such as Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and Corynebacterium parvum, microbial extracts and muramyl dipeptide. This non-specific immunity is long lasting and extremely effective. It is characterized by the facts that (a) it occurs early in the infection at the height of the first peak of parasitaemia, and (b) it involves the intra-erythrocytic death of the parasites. After the primary parasitaemia has resolved, some parasites continue to persist at a low level and when introduced into clean mice produce only low-level 'attenuated' infections in these. Non-specific immunity is not equally effective in all strains of mice. It is suggested that immunity to babesiosis, and infections caused by other intra-erythrocytic protozoa, involves two mechanisms, the first non-specific and the second specific. The actual balance between these two mechanisms varies from parasite to parasite and from host to host. An effective vaccine would have to be based on an understanding of the roles of non-specific immunity in the actual disease under consideration, and would ideally combine an adjuvant that would also stimulate non-specific immunity and an attenuated strain of parasite that would induce a specific response. (author)
Full Text Available Systemic arterial blood pressures were measured in 30 dogs with acute babesiosis, 10 each with mild uncomplicated, severe uncomplicated and complicated disease. Ten healthy dogs were used as controls. Hypotension was defined as more than 3 standard deviations below the control mean. Normal mean pressures (Â±SD were: systolic arterial pressure 151 (Â±11 mm Hg, diastolic arterial pressure 89 (Â±8 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure 107 (Â±10 mmHg. Hypotension was the most frequent abnormality, and increased strikingly in incidence as disease severity increased, with 5/10 dogs in the complicated group being hypotensive for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, compared with 2/10 in the severe uncomplicated group and 0/10 in the mild uncomplicated group. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures in the complicated group and severe uncomplicated group, and systolic pressure in the mild uncomplicated group, were significantly lower than in the controls. There were no significant relationships between arterial pressures and age, pulse rate, respiratory rate, temperature, mucous membrane colour or haematocrit. There was a significant negative correlation between arterial pressures and white cell and immature neutrophil counts. Arterial pressures differed significantly between dogs that were clinically collapsed and those that were not, but not between survivors and non-survivors. Pulse pressure (systolic - diastolic was low in 7/10 complicated, 1/10 mild uncomplicated, and 1/10 severe uncomplicated cases, and differed significantly between the complicated and control groups. The high incidence of hypotension in clinically severe babesiosis has important implications for therapy.
A.J. Möhr; Lobetti, R. G.; J.J. Van der Lugt
This retrospective study describes 4 cases of canine babesiosis with histologically confirmed acute pancreatitis. In addition, 16 dogs with babesiosis are reported with serum amylase (>3500 U/l ) and/or lipase (>650 U/l ) activity elevations of a magnitude that would support a diagnosis of probable acute pancreatitis, although extra-pancreatic sources of the enzymes could not be excluded in these cases. Median time of pancreatitis diagnosis was 2.5 days post-admission, with primarily yo...
Full Text Available This retrospective study describes 4 cases of canine babesiosis with histologically confirmed acute pancreatitis. In addition, 16 dogs with babesiosis are reported with serum amylase (>3500 U/l and/or lipase (>650 U/l activity elevations of a magnitude that would support a diagnosis of probable acute pancreatitis, although extra-pancreatic sources of the enzymes could not be excluded in these cases. Median time of pancreatitis diagnosis was 2.5 days post-admission, with primarily young (median age 3 years, sexually intact dogs affected. The development of pancreatitis was unrelated to the degree of anaemia at time of admission. In addition to pancreatitis, 80 % of cases suffered from other babesial complications, namely icterus (13, acute respiratory distress syndrome (6, immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (6, renal failure (3, haemoconcentration (2 and cerebral syndrome (2. Acute respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure and cerebral syndrome were associated with a poor prognosis, with 4 of the 5 dogs included in the overall 26 % mortality rate having at least 1 of these complications. Haemolytic anaemia with ischaemia-reperfusion injury to the pancreas is proposed as a possible primary pathophysiological mechanism in babesial pancreatitis. Hypotensive shock, immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia, haemoconcentration and possibly altered lipid metabolism in babesiosis may also be involved. The previously postulated pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu of complicated babesiosis may underlie the progression, if not the primary initiation, of pancreatic pathology. Acute pancreatitis may represent the previously reported 'gut' form of babesiosis.
Zhou, Xia; Xia, Shang; Yin, Shou-Qin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
E. Vannier and P. J. Krause presented an excellent article on "Babesiosis in China, an emerging threat" in the Lancet Infectious Diseases in December 2014, which updated research on human babesiosis in China. However, a neglected and emerging issue has not been mentioned in EV & PJK's article, that is the co-infections with B. microti and P. falciparum parasites that exist in syndemic areas, spatially in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan province, China. Therefore, two important issues are addressed in here, including (i) the new emerging infections with Babesia spp. which are normally ignored in malaria endemic areas due to similarities in pathogenic morphology and clinical symptoms, (ii) additional consideration on babesiosis rather than drug-resistant malaria when anti-malaria treatment for the febrile cases in clinics fails. PMID:26204984
Full Text Available Equine babesiosis is a tick-borne haematological disease of equidae that can affect acutely, subacutely and chronically. The disease is manifested by intermittent fever, anaemia, icterus and haemoglobinuria. The authors describe the clinical, haematological and therapeutic aspects of babesiosis in equines at two units in Kotley and at two units in Jehlum of the Remount Veterinary and Farms Corps (RVFC. Animals on these units showed the signs of illness. On clinical examination, intermittent temperature, increased respiratory rate, anaemia, lacrimation, conjunctivitis and pale mucous membranes were observed. Haematological examination revealed a decrease in red blood cell count and haemoglobin concentration, accompanied by an increase in total white blood cell count. Cases of babesiosis in horses were successfully treated with imidocarb dipropionate at a dose rate of 4 mg/kg body weight, administered intramuscularly four times at 72 h intervals, together with supportive therapy.
Full Text Available Formerly known as Nantucket fever, babesiosis is increasing in incidence across the Northeastern United States. Because of its emerging health risk globally, it is important to be aware of its various presenting manifestations. We present the case of a middle-aged man with haemolytic anaemia from Babesia microti infection.
I. N. Bashir, Z. I. Chaudhry, S. Ahmed and M. A. Saeed
Full Text Available Canine babesiosis is increasing in incidence and prevalence and is now a major problem in dogs. During this study, a total of 6204 dogs were examined for babesiosis over a 12 month period from January to December, 2006 in Lahore and 2.62% were found positive. The dogs were grouped on the basis of their age, sex and breed and season of the year. The male dogs were more prone to disease than female dogs (3.39 vs. 1.32%, whereas the incidence of disease was higher in younger dogs (6.9% than older age groups. Crossbreds were more prone to the infection (10.9% than purebreds. However, none of them were completely resistant. Warm and humid season played a key role in the spread of disease. Predominant vector of the disease was found to be Rhipicephalus species.
El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A
Human babesiosis has been documented in many countries. It is a zoonotic protozoan disease of medical, veterinary and economic importance. In this study, a twelve years old boy was referred to the hospital with intermittent fever of unknown origin. On clinical, parasitological and serological bases the case proved to be babesiosis. The boy acquired the infection from his pet dog which was heavily infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and suffered a mild feature of animal babesiosis. The patient was successfully treated with Atovaquone plus Azithromycin without relapse for one month follow up. The pet dog was sent to Governmental Veterinary Hospital at Abbassia for treatment from babesiosis and tick infestation. PMID:21634246
Francisco de A.L. Souza
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiological situation and the factors involved in the prevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in the dairy basin of Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil. The study was conducted in 22 farms, and collected blood samples from 202 cattle to study serological, molecular and determination of the packed cell volume (PCV. On the farms were applied surveys involving epidemiological aspects. Seroprevalence rates were: Babesia bigemina 52.5%, B. bovis 68.8%, and Anaplasma marginale 89.1%. Of the samples analyzed, 73.3% were reactive for Babesia spp. and A. marginale, showing co-infection. In PCR, B. bigemina and B. bovis were positive in 52.0% and 33.2% respectively, and A. marginale in 76.2%. Of these, 51.5% amplified DNA of Babesia spp. and A. marginale. The semi-intensive management predominated in 68.0% of the farms studied. The clinical history of babesiosis and anaplasmosis, was reported from 73% of the farms. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between age groups and for the PCV of positive compared with negative animals. The study indicates that in this region is enzootic instability for babesiosis and enzootic stability for anaplasmosis, reinforcing the fact that in Brazil there are areas of enzootic instability, even in tropical regions of the country. The PCR technique was a valuable tool for the diagnosis of these diseases and may be used to characterize a geographic region.
Paulo de Tarso Landgraf Botteon
Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência clínica da babesiose em equinos atletas e sua importância no desenvolvimento de doenças intercorrentes. No período de 12 meses, foram avaliados 38 cavalos, identificados como portadores de Babesia equi através do teste de imunofluorescência indireta, participantes de uma das modalidades esportivas: adestramento (n=7; salto (n=8; Concurso Completo de Equitação (n=11 e Pólo (n=12. No período estudado, foram diagnosticados 11 casos clínicos devido a B. equi, o que corresponde a uma incidência de 28,9%. Avaliação clínica e exames hematológicos permitiram identificar queda de desempenho em 5 de 11 animais estudados e ocorrência de anemia em 8 animais avaliados, com diminuição nos valores de eritrócitos, volume globular e concentração da hemoglobina. No período de convalescença, seis dos eqüinos que apresentaram babesiose clínica acidentaram-se, passando a apresentar problemas como claudicação, mialgias, lombalgias ou escoriações e um sofreu fratura de jarrete. Houve interação significativa entre babesiose clínica e a ocorrência de claudicação (P=0,0372 e queda de desempenho (P=0,0009.The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical occurrence of babesiosis in carrier athletic horses. During 12 monts, 38 horses carriers of B. equi, identified for de imunofluorescent assay test, participants of one of the sporting modalities: Dressage (n=7; jumping (n=8; Eventing (n=11 and Pole (n=12, were evaluated. During this period, 11 clinical cases of babesiosis by B. equi were diagnosed. That corresponded an incidence of 28.9%. Clinical and hematological evaluation showed performance fall and anemia occurrence with decrease in the eritrocites values, globular volume, and hemoglobin concentration. In the convalescence period, six animal that presented clinical babesiosis got injured, with lameness, myalgias, lumbalgias or excoriation and one presented hock fracture. A
Full Text Available Background: Ovine babesiosis is the most important haemoparasitic tick-borne disease of small ruminants in Iran caused by Babesia ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa. The aim of this study was to characterize the species of ovine Babesia species isolated from different geographical region of Iran.Methods: One hundred fifty four blood samples collected from animals, which demonstrated the pale mucous membranes or hyperthermia. The specimens were transferred to the laboratory and the blood smears stained with Geimsa, the morphological and biometrical data of parasite in any infected erythrocyte have been considered. Extracted DNA from each blood samples were used in PCR and semi nested- PCR in order to confirm the presence of the species.Results: The results of the PCR assays showed nine (5.85%, 81 (53% and 18 (11.7% were distinguished as Babesia, Theileria and mixed infection, respectively. Semi nested- PCR did not confirm the presence of B. motasi.Conclusion: The causative organism of many cases of haemoprotozoal diseases, which recorded in previous studies, could be B. ovis or Theileria lestoquardi. The result confirmed that B. ovis was only species which causes babesiosis in the study areas. It seems that the biometrical polymorphisms could exist in B. ovis in Iran. This polymorphism could be a main problem in differentiation between B. ovis and B. motasi and it could be dissolved by specific PCR analysis.
Full Text Available To provide a point of reference to study the epidemiology and clinical expression of canine babesiosis in China.A total of 30 dogs infected with canine babesiosis were evaluated by mean of clinical history, physical examination, hematological, restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR products (PCR-RFLP and sequencing analysis.The most prevalent clinical abnormalities were lethargy (100%, anorexia (100%, pale or icteric mucous membranes (80%, fever (70% and dark urine (70%. Hematology parameters revealed that anemia and thrombocytopenia were the major abnormalities in blood of dogs infected with canine babesia. The results of PCR-RFLP and sequencing analysis indicated that B. gibsoni was the main species responsible for canine babesiosis cases at the time of the study in Nanjing, China.The results provide valuable information for better understanding of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis in China.
Duh, Darja; Tozon, Nataša; Petrovec, Miroslav; StraŠek, Katja; AvŠic-Županc, Tatjana
Canine babesiosis, caused by intraerythrocytic Babesia spp., is a tick-borne disease of worldwide importance. No information on canine babesiosis has been documented in Slovenia. Therefore, 238 dogs admitted to the Small animal clinic in Ljubljana from the years 2000 to 2002 were tested for the presence of babesial parasites in the blood. Based on clinical, microscopic and molecular investigations, 14 dogs (5.9%) were determined as being infected with babesiae. Clinical signs relating to acut...
Full Text Available The diagnosis of tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis still depends on observing the parasite in the infected erythrocyte. Microscopic observation is tedious and often problematic in both early and carrier infections. Better diagnostic methods are needed to prevent clinical disease, especially when susceptible cattle are being moved into disease enzootic areas. This study evaluates two techniques for early diagnosis of Babesia bovis infections in cattle, DNA probes specific for the organism and fluorescent probes specific nucleic acid. The radioisotopically labeled DNA probes are used in slot blot hybridizations whith lysed blood samples, not purified DNA. Thusfar, the probe is specific for B. bovis and can detect as few as 1000 B. bovis parasites in 10µl of blood. The specificity of the fluorescent probe depends on the characteristic morphology of the babesia in whole blood samples, as determined microscopically. The fluorescent probe detects as afew as 10,000 B. bovis parasites in 10*l as blood. The application of each method for alboratory and field use is discussed.
For many decades there was a consensus of opinion that an induction of effective protective immunity against bovine anaplasmosis and babesiosis requires prior exposure of the host to live, preferably replicating, causative agents of these diseases. A procedure for inducing protective immunity by infection and treatment, known as premunization, is the oldest one. Since then, safer immunization procedures have been developed by altering the virulence of the immunizing organism by fast serial passages in splenectomized calves (B. bovis), exposure of the infective blood to irradiation (B. bigemina), and selection of a mutant (A. marginale) by adapting the organism to growth in an atypical host (sheep). The immune response to live immunogens includes both humoral and cell-mediated components (CMI). Some antibodies appear to be protective; however, the exact mechanism of humoral protection and that of parasite killing by the CMI system are not known. Use of live immunogens under field conditions (whole blood) has met with serious obstacles. Apart from difficulties of maintenance and field dispensation of blood-derived vaccines, there were reports of reversion to virulence of the immunizing agent, and actual broadening of the source of infectious agent for the disease vector. In addition, immunization by infection frequently sets forth a series of host-parasite interacting processes that exert an excessive demand on the host's immune system, leading to immunosuppression and interference with selective anti-parasitic action. (author)
... condemned: (1) Anthrax. (2) Blackleg. (3) Unhealed vaccine lesions (vaccinia). (4) Strangles. (5) Purpura... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis... inflammatory lameness, extensive fistula, and unhealed vaccine lesions. 311.10 Section 311.10 Animals...
Goddard, Amelia; Wiinberg, Bo; Schoeman, Johan P.;
coagulopathy in dogs with Babesia rossi infection is related to mortality. Seventy-two client-owned dogs diagnosed with canine babesiosis were included. Diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot and dogs co-infected with Babesia vogeli or Ehrlichia canis were excluded. Blood...
Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the apicomplexan protozoans Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which can have devastating economic effects on the livestock industry. Estimates indicate the domestic livestock industry realizes annual savings of at least 3 billion dollars at today’s c...
Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Lawrence, J. A.; Kafuwa, P. T.;
were then issued to smallholder farmers, together with unvaccinated controls, where many of them were exposed to heavy tick infestation. Vaccination was shown to provide a significant degree of protection against babesiosis on the smallholder farms; 15/32 unvaccinated controls developed clinical...
Bovine babesiosis caused by the tick transmitted hemoprotozoan parasites Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens commonly results in considerable cattle morbidity and mortality in vast areas of the world. From a global perspective, Babesia parasites are of arthropod-transmitted parasitic diseas...
巴贝虫病是巴贝虫在红细胞内寄生导致的一种人畜共患寄生虫病.人巴贝虫病主要由田鼠巴贝虫(Babesia microti)、B.duncani、分歧巴贝虫(B.divergens)、B.venatorum等引起,病例呈世界性分布.其传播方式有蜱虫叮咬、输血及母婴传播等.患病症状与疟疾相似,典型的临床症状表现为发热、肌痛、贫血、血红蛋白尿、黄疸等,其严重程度主要取决于自身免疫状况和感染巴贝虫的种类.巴贝虫病常见的诊断方法为涂片染色法、动物接种法、血清学检测法以及分子生物学检测法.%Babesiosis,caused by infection with intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus Babesia,is an emerging zoonosis in human.The major species involved in human cases are Babesiamicroti 、B.duncani、B.divergens 、B.venatorum.The three infection routes in human are tick biting,blood transfusion and vertical transmission.Clinical manifestations of babesiosis are similar to acute malaria,including fever,malaise,anemia,hemoglobinuria and jaundice.The severity of babesiosis depends primarily on the immune status of the patient and Babesia species.The major diagnostic techniques of babesiosis include Giemsa-stained examination of thin blood smears,inoculation of susceptible animals with whole blood,serodiagnostic test and DNA amplification by PCR.
Montes-Farah Juan; De la Vega-del Risco Fernando; Bello-Espinosa Ariel; Fortich-Salvador Adriana Sofía
Introduction: there are multiple entities that are transmitted by ticks; one of them isthe babesiosis, an entity that is produced by species of hemoparasites that produce,in the human host, hemolysis due to the parasitic invasion. Other of the entities is taquicártheehrlichiosis, which is characterized by the infection of intracellular microorganismswhose symptoms are part of the spectrum of a fever pattern.Clinical case: patient from rural area, with history of exposure to ixodoidea (ticks)i...
Penzhorn Barend L
Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a common, highly virulent disease in Southern Africa with even pups and juveniles being severely affected. This contrasts with bovine babesiosis, for example, where host, parasite and vector co-evolved and young animals develop immunity after infection without showing clinical signs. Babesia rossi, the main causative organism of canine babesiosis in sub-Saharan Africa, was first described from a side-striped jackal (Canis adustus in Kenya. Although data are meagre, there is evidence that indigenous African canids, such as jackals and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus, can harbour the parasite without showing untoward effects. Dogs are not indigenous to Africa. The vast majority of dogs presented at veterinary facilities in South Africa represent recently introduced European, Asian or American breeds. The contention is that B. rossi is a new challenge to which these dogs have not adapted. With intensive treatment of clinical cases, natural selection is effectively negated and the status quo will probably be maintained indefinitely. It is postulated that Babesia vogeli, which frequently results in unapparent infections or mild manifestations in dogs, represents or is closely related to the ancestral form of the canine parasite, possibly originating from wolves (Canis lupus.
Meetei, Potshangbam Angamba; Rathore, R S; Prabhu, N Prakash; Vindal, Vaibhav
Babesiosis is a tick-borne, zoonotic disease caused by species of the intraerythrocytic protozoan Babesia. It is distributed all around the world and affects various domestic and wild animals, mainly cattle. Recently, the cysteine protease enzyme, babesipain-1 from Babesia bigemina has been identified as a potential target for designing new anti-babesiosis drugs. In the present study, a three-dimensional structural model of babesipain-1 was developed. An active site with three pockets (S1, S2, and S3), which is congruent with its homolog, falcipain-3, was also identified. Moreover, the conservation of active site residues was consistent with the cysteine protease family. In order to identify potential inhibitors, a virtual screening workflow was employed with a chemical library containing natural and synthetic compounds. Potential inhibitors interacting with all the three subsites were identified. Further, molecular dynamic simulations were carried out to assess the interactions and stability of the inhibitors. The informatics approach, and the findings presented in this study will assist researchers in further development of potential anti-babesiosis molecules. PMID:26969677
Lawres, Lauren A; Garg, Aprajita; Kumar, Vidya; Bruzual, Igor; Forquer, Isaac P; Renard, Isaline; Virji, Azan Z; Boulard, Pierre; Rodriguez, Eduardo X; Allen, Alexander J; Pou, Sovitj; Wegmann, Keith W; Winter, Rolf W; Nilsen, Aaron; Mao, Jialing; Preston, Douglas A; Belperron, Alexia A; Bockenstedt, Linda K; Hinrichs, David J; Riscoe, Michael K; Doggett, J Stone; Ben Mamoun, Choukri
Human babesiosis is a tick-borne multisystem disease caused by Babesia species of the apicomplexan phylum. Most clinical cases and fatalities of babesiosis are caused by Babesia microti Current treatment for human babesiosis consists of two drug combinations, atovaquone + azithromycin or quinine + clindamycin. These treatments are associated with adverse side effects and a significant rate of drug failure. Here, we provide evidence for radical cure of experimental babesiosis in immunodeficient mice using a combination of an endochin-like quinolone (ELQ) prodrug and atovaquone. In vivo efficacy studies in mice using ELQ-271, ELQ-316, and the ELQ-316 prodrug, ELQ-334, demonstrated excellent growth inhibitory activity against the parasite, with potency equal to that of orally administered atovaquone at 10 mg/kg. Analysis of recrudescent parasites after ELQ or atovaquone monotherapy identified genetic substitutions in the Qi or Qo sites, respectively, of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Impressively, a combination of ELQ-334 and atovaquone, at doses as low as 5.0 mg/kg each, resulted in complete clearance of the parasite with no recrudescence up to 122 d after discontinuation of therapy. These results will set the stage for future clinical evaluation of ELQ and atovaquone combination therapy for treatment of human babesiosis. PMID:27270894
Goddard, Amelia; Leisewitz, Andrew L.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Kristensen, Annemarie T.; Schoeman, Johan P.
Babesia rossi infection causes a severe inflammatory response in the dog, which is the result of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in cytokine concentrations were present in dogs with babesiosis and whether it was associated with disease outcome. Ninety-seven dogs naturally infected with B. rossi were studied and fifteen healthy dogs were included as controls. Diagnosis of babesiosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at admission, prior to any treatment. Cytokine concentrations were assessed using a canine-specific multiplex assay on an automated analyser. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured. Twelve of the Babesia-infected dogs died (12%) and 85 survived (88%). Babesia-infected dogs were also divided into those that presented within 48 hours from displaying clinical signs, and those that presented more than 48 hours after displaying clinical signs. Cytokine concentrations were compared between the different groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. IL-10 and MCP-1 concentrations were significantly elevated for the Babesia-infected dogs compared to the healthy controls. In contrast, the IL-8 concentration was significantly decreased in the Babesia-infected dogs compared to the controls. Concentrations of IL-6 and MCP-1 were significantly increased in the non-survivors compared to the survivors. Concentrations for IL-2, IL-6, IL-18 and GM-CSF were significantly higher in those cases that presented during the more acute stage of the disease. These findings suggest that a mixed cytokine response is present in dogs with babesiosis caused by B. rossi, and that an excessive pro-inflammatory response may result in a poor outcome. PMID:26953797
巴贝斯虫病是一种由寄生于红细胞内的巴贝斯虫引起的人兽共患病，主要通过硬蜱进行传播。致病机理主要是染虫红细胞裂解导致溶血性贫血，在特殊情况下会进一步导致器官衰竭甚至死亡。对该病的诊断方法主要有血涂片观察、动物接种、ELISA 检测及核酸诊断等。该病的主要治疗方法为克林霉素和奎宁联用，另外，阿托伐醌与阿奇霉素联用在一些病例中展现了良好的治疗效果。现阶段对该病的预防措施主要为消灭硬蜱，加强公众对蜱的防范意识，同时由于该病能通过输血途径在人群中传播，因此有必要对输血人群进行血液检测，以减少人群感染的概率。%Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted erythrocytic parasitosis which caused by Babesia.The major pathogenesis is hemolytic anemia caused by lysised erythrocytes,which could result in organ failure, even death in the severe cases.The diagnosis of babesiosis blood smear,animal inoculation,ELISA,PCR and real-time PCR.At present,drug treatments using combination of quinine and clindamycin,and atova-quone coalesces with azithromycin have showed good therapeutic effect in some reported cases.The main preventive measures of babesiosis are removing related ticks and increasing public awareness of ticks.Fur-thermore,because of babesiosis can spread through blood transfusion,it is necessary for blood donors to have a blood test,in order to reduce the probability of people infection with Babesia.
Full Text Available A total of 310 blood smears were collected from sheep of the Livestock Experiment Station, Qadirabad, Sahiwal district, Pakistan, and surrounding areas. The samples were examined microscopically and 30 (9.67% were positive for babesiosis. The animals were divided into two groups (A and B for chemotherapy. Group A sheep were treated with diminazene diaceturate while group B animals received imidocarb dipropionate. Drug efficacy was determined by negative blood smear examination. Diminazene diaceturate effectiveness against babesiosis was 80% while that of imidocarb dipropionate was 100%. Hematological studies revealed a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit values for Babesia-positive animals compared to healthy controls.
Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo
Human babesiosis is the most important zoonotic protozoan infection in the world. This is the first report of the cloning, expression, purification, and immunobiochemical characterization of a methionine aminopeptidase 1 (MetAP1) protein from Babesia microti (B. microti). The gene encodes a MetAP1 protein of B. microti (BmMetAP1) of approximately 66.8 kDa that includes glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag and shows MetAP activity. BmMetAP1 was detected in a lysate of B. microti and further localized in cytoplasm of the B. microti merozoite. rBmMetAP1 was found to be immunogenic, eliciting a high antibody titer in mice. Moreover, rBmMetAP1 stimulated the production of IFN-γ and IL-12 but not IL-4. Finally, rBmMetAP1 was able to provide considerable protection to mice against a B. microti challenge infection based on a reduction in peak parasitemia levels and earlier clearance of the parasite as compared with control mice. Taken together, these results suggest that rBmMetAP1 confers significant protection against experimental B. microti infection and might be considered a potential vaccine target against human babesiosis. PMID:27306898
Fritzen, Charissa; Mosites, Emily; Applegate, Roger D; Telford, Sam R; Huang, Junjun; Yabsley, Michael J; Carpenter, L Rand; Dunn, John R; Moncayo, Abelardo C
Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease in the United States caused by Babesia parasites. In 2009, the first case of babesiosis was documented in Tennessee. Environmental investigation at the reported site of tick exposure included collection of ticks and specimens from eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) that were tested for piroplasms by molecular and serologic methods. One hundred and sixty-six Ixodes scapularis ticks and biological samples from 8 rabbits and 5 deer were collected. Ixodes scapularis were PCR positive for Babesia odocoilei (n = 7, 4%) and Theileria cervi (n = 24, 14%). Deer were seropositive for B. odocoilei and PCR positive for T. cervi. Rabbits were seropositive for B. odocoilei and Babesia sp. MO1, and 1 rabbit was PCR positive for Babesia sp. MO1. In summary, zoonotic Babesia sp. MO1 infection in rabbits is reported here for the first time in Tennessee as well as infection of deer and I. scapularis ticks with 2 other piroplasms of veterinary importance. PMID:23971411
The potential of a vaccine against babesiosis using antigens produced through recombinant DNA technology has been experimentally demonstrated in the control of Babesia bovis infections in beef cattle. To develop the vaccine, the antigens had to be identified by fractionation. In the penultimate step of purification, a series of monoclonal antibodies were generated and used as affinity ligands to obtain homogeneous antigen. In this manner, several protective antigens have been identified and characterized. These monoclonal antibodies, and/or synthetic oligonucleotides based on amino acid sequence information, were used to isolate the appropriate genes from cDNA libraries prepared from B. bovis mRNA. Fusion proteins were effective in reducing the development of babesiosis in cattle. Notably, vaccination with each of the antigens led to at least a 10-fold decrease in the maximal parasitaemia developed. When these antigens were used together in a small field trial, only 10% of the animals required treatment to prevent severe illness, compared with 40% of control animals. Using DNA hybridization techniques, one of these antigens (the 12D3 antigen) has been found in other species of Babesia, including B. bigemina. Thus a candidate protective antigen for use in controlling B. bigemina infections has been identified without the large scale and costly purification procedures used to identify the B. bovis antigen. The ability to produce the protective antigens in quantity in bacteria provides the prospect for overcoming the limitations of the existing live vaccine. 19 refs, 3 figs
In a combined effort of FONAIAP, through the Technological Development Program (PRODETEC I), the University of Illinois (Agreement FONAIAP - ILLINOIS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the part of the Nuclear Investigations Applied to Agriculture Center (CINAGRI), in the Department of Parasitology II V, during the lapse 1982-1990 it was carried out a project whose main objective was the development and evaluation of immuno prophylactics for the control of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle. The results were: (1) In babesiosis, a bivalent vaccine B.Bigemina / B.Bovis, in vitro culture origin ed, which was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions, showing an efficient protection in bovine vaccinated and exposed to the Babesia infection, either experimental or natural. 2) In anaplasmosis, a vaccine inactivated of initial bodies of Ana plasma marginal e, was developed. It was obtained in infected erythrocytes and purified by ultrasonics and differential centrifugation, which showed protective capacity in bovine susceptible of exposure, or parasitic challenge under controlled or field conditions. The obtained vaccines constitute an efficient method, practical and simple, with smaller risk and inferior cost, for protection of bovine against these hemo parasitic diseases illnesses that cause considerable economic lost in the national cattle
Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is an important worldwide, tick-borne disease caused by hemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Babesia gibsoni is the predominant species that causes canine babesiosis in Taipei, Taiwan. It is a small pleomorphic intraerythrocytic parasite that can cause erythrocyte destruction and hemolytic anemia. Efficacy of oral administration of a doxycycline-enrofloxacin-metronidazole combination with and without injections of diminazene diaceturate in the management of naturally occurring canine babesiosis caused by B. gibsoni was evaluated retrospectively. The overall efficacy of this combination of doxycycline-enrofloxacin-metronidazole in conjunction with and without administration of diminazene diaceturate was 85.7% and 83.3%, respectively; with a mean recovery time of 24.2 and 23.5 days, respectively. Concomitant use of intramuscular diminazene diaceturate may not improve the efficacy of a doxycycline-enrofloxacin-metronidazole combination in management of canine babesiosis caused by B. gibsoni.
A series of experiments leading towards the field trial of an irradiated blood-derived vaccine agianst Babesia divergens, common cause of redwater in cattle in Europe, is described. Initially a number of isolates of B. divergens were made from the blood of sick animals in a variety of localities in the British Isles. These isolates were cryopreserved and then characterised by inoculation into groups of spenectomised Friesian calves, whose reactions were statistically analysed. Attempst were made to prepare a vaccine agianst B. divergens infection using diluted infected blood, but when these failed it was found that irradiation of infected blood within the range of 24 to 32 kilorads and its intravenous inoculation into calves produced the required immune response without pathogenic effects. An irradiated blood-derived vaccine produced by the irradiation of infected blood at 25 or 30 kilorads was used in a field trial in Ireland, and vaccinated calves were protected against a field challenge which caused redwater in 10 control cattle, six of which had severe reactions
Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Ueno, Akio; Aboulaila, Mahmoud; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo
We have characterized a member of the profilin (PROF) family protein as a common antigen in three pathogens-Babesia bovis (B. bovis), Babesia bigemina (B. bigemina), and Babesia microti (B. microti)-and evaluated its immunogenic and cross-protective properties against a challenge infection with B. microti in BALB/c mice. The recombinant PROF proteins of B. bovis, B. bigemina, and B. microti were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) as soluble GST fusion proteins (rBboPROF, rBbigPROF, and rBmPROF, respectively), and they were found to be antigenic. On probing with mouse anti-rPROF serum, green fluorescence was observed on the parasites' cytosols by confocal laser microscopy. Immunization regimes in BALB/c mice using rPROFs induced cross-protective immunity against B. microti infection based on high levels of cytokines and immunoglobulin (IgG) titers, a reduction in peak parasitemia levels, and earlier clearance of the parasite as compared with control mice. The findings of the present study indicate that PROF is a common antigen among bovine and murine Babesia parasites, and it might be used as a common vaccine candidate against babesiosis. PMID:27003460
Alberto A. Guglielmone
Full Text Available Studies were carried out to determine the differential aptitude to sustain the only vector of cattle babesiosis in Argentina, the tick Boophilus microplus, throughout the infested region of this country. Tick counts on Bos taurus cattle were used as the main criterion to classify favourable (F, intermediate (I and unfavourable (U areas for its development. The geographical limits of each area set up using data of non-parasitic tick stages, temperature, water balance and map recognition of flooded and unflooded zones. The F area contained 16.5 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência ha with a cattle population of 6 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência; the I and U areas had 25 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência ha with 2.7 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência cattle and 198 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência with population of 2.4 x 10(elevado a sexta potência cattle, respectively. Research on the relationship amongst Babesia-Boophilus-cattle is needed in the F area for tick development which coincides with the best region for cattle breeding.
Full Text Available An opportunity to study progression toward endemic stability to Babesia bigemina arose when cattle were reintroduced onto a game ranch in 1999 after an absence of three years. The study was conducted between August 2000 and June 2001. The unvaccinated breeding cows were sampled only once. Calves born during October 1999 were initially vaccinated against B. bigemina and Babesia bovis at the age of 4 months and were then bled at 10, 17 and 20 months of age. Calves born during 2000 were bled at 7 and 8 months of age. Sera were collected from all the cattle sampled and later tested for antibodies against B. bigemina and B. bovis using the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA test. Although endemic stability to B. bigemina had not been achieved at Nooitgedacht 2 years after resumption of cattle ranching, the high seroprevalence in the unvaccinated 8- month-old calves suggested that the situation was approaching stability and that calf vaccination against bovine babesiosis was not required. Tick control should therefore be restricted to prevent excessive tick worry. Only vaccinated cattle were positive to B. bovis and it was concluded that the parasite was absent from the ranch.
E. G. Sulaiman
Full Text Available The study included examination of 175 native goats, 27 were infected with Babesia ovis, B. motasi, B. foliata and B. taylori, (recorded in Mosul for the first time and 25 were clinically normal and served as control. Results indicated that the percentage of the infection with Babesiosis was 15.42% and the percentage of parasitemia ranged between 3.5-10.4% with a mean 6.95%, infected goats showed signs of loss of appetite, weakness, pale mucous membranes, jaundice, fever, coughing, nasal discharge, recumbency, diarrhea and haemoglobinuria. A statistically significant decrease were recorded in total red blood cells (RBC, haemoglobin concentration (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV and platelets counts. Anemia was of microcytic hypochromic type. A statistically significant increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and significant increase in total white blood cells was recorded due to significant increase in lymphocyte and neutrophile count. Results of the biochemical testes indicated an increase in activity of alanin amino transferase (AST, aspartate amino transferase (ALT, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen and icterus index, with a significant decrease in total serum protein, albumin and globulin levels. Results also indicated the presence of Rhipecephalus ticks which were: Rh. sanguineus and Rh. turanicus.
Full Text Available Cerebral complications are important, but poorly understood pathological features of infections caused by some species of Plasmodium and Babesia. Patients dying from P. falciparum were classified as cerebral or non-cerebral cases according to the cerebral malaria coma scale. Light microscopy revealed that cerebral microvessels of cerebral malaria patients were field with a mixture of parazited and unparazited erythrocytes, with 94% of the vessels showing parasitized red blood cell (PRBC sequestration. Some degree of PRBC sequestration was also found in non-cerebral malaria patients, but the percentage of microvessls with sequestered PRBC was only 13% Electron microscopy demonstrated knobs on the membrane of PRBC that formed focal junctions with the capillary endothelium. A number of host cell molecules such as CD36, thrombospondim (TSP and intracellular adhesion molecule I (ICAM-1 may function as endothelial cell surfacereports for P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Affinity labeling of CD36 and TSP to the PRBC surface showed these molecules specifically bind to the knobs. Babesia bovis infected erythrocytes procedure projections of the erythrocyte membrane that are similar to knobs. When brain tissue from B. bovis-infected cattle was examined, cerebral capillaries were packed with PRBC. Infected erythrocytes formed focal attachments with cerebral endothelial cells at the site of these knob-like projections. These findings indicate that cerebral pathology caused by B. bovis is similar to human cerebral malaria. A search for cytoadherence proteins in the endothelial cells may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenisis of cerebral babesiosis.
Full Text Available Introduction: there are multiple entities that are transmitted by ticks; one of them isthe babesiosis, an entity that is produced by species of hemoparasites that produce,in the human host, hemolysis due to the parasitic invasion. Other of the entities is taquicártheehrlichiosis, which is characterized by the infection of intracellular microorganismswhose symptoms are part of the spectrum of a fever pattern.Clinical case: patient from rural area, with history of exposure to ixodoidea (ticksin a permanent way. Who is admitted with signs of systemic inflammatory response,constitutional symptoms and fever of evening predominance. Hepatomegaly andadenomegalies in supraclavicular area were found. With clinical impression of prolongedfever pattern and hemolytic anemia; it was asked for spread of peripheral blood forhemoparasites. Positive report for two species: Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp whichwere visualized by Wright-Giemsa stain. It is carried out treatment with doxycycline,clindamycin and quinine, with good clinical aspects. Without any complications.Conclusions: this is the first case of co-infection that is known in the ColombianCaribbean region, the diagnosis was suspected due to the importance that was givento the epidemiological antecedents, to the history of exposure to ixodoidea and to theclinical symptoms of persistent fever syndrome. It was done under microscopy techniqueby Wright-Giemsa stain and the result after the conjugated antibiotic treatment wassuccessful. Rev.Cienc.Biomed. 2012;3(2:339-345.RESUMEN:Introducción: múltiples son las entidades transmitidas por garrapatas, una de ellases la babesiosis, entidad producida por especies de hemoparásitos que producen en elhuésped humano hemolisis secundaria a la invasión parasitaria. Otra de las entidadeses la ehrlichiosis, caracterizada por la infección de microorganismos intracelulares cuyossíntomas hacen parte del espectro de un cuadro febril.Caso clínico: paciente
Richard Zapata Salas; Natasha Lara Ramírez; Armando Baena Zapata; Julián Reyes Vélez; Leonardo Alberto Ríos Osorio
La babesiosis es una enfermedad del ganado bovino transmitida por la garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus y causada por los parásitos protozoarios Babesia bovis y B. bigemina. Una zona se considera epizootiológicamente estable frente a Babesia spp, cuando el 75% de los bovinos entre las edades de 3 a 9 meses son serorreactivos (IgG) frente a Babesia bovis y Babesia bigemina y no hay evidencia de signos clínicos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la seroprevalencia de B...
Torina, Alessandra; Cordaro, Antonio; Blanda, Valeria; D'Agostino, Rosalia; Scimeca, Salvatore; Scariano, Maria E; Sireci, Guido; Lelli, Rossella
Babesiosis due to Babesia bigemina is a relevant tick-borne disease, a ecting cattle worldwide. Many surface proteins of the pathogen including the Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA-1) - have been analysed for vaccine and diagnostic purposes. This study focused on B. bigemina AMA-1 and on its use for the assessment of diagnostic tests. After bioinformatic analyses, AMA-1 codifying region was ampli ed and cloned into an expression vector used to induce protein synthesis in Escherichia coli cells. AMA-1 was puri ed by a nity chromatography and used to set up the best condition for an ELISA protocol. Bovine eld sera positive to B. bigemina were used to evaluate the presence of anti-AMA-1 antibodies. In order to verify the assay speci city, sera positive to Babesia bovis or to the piroplasm Theileria annulata were also included. Signi cant di erences were obtained between sera negative to both B. bigemina and B. bovis and samples positive to B. bigemina, to B. bovis or to both pathogens. No signi cant reaction was observed with T. annulata positive sera. The results showed that AMA-1 protein is suitable to be used as antigen in diagnostic assays for babesiosis diagnosis in cattle, as it does not show any cross reaction with anti-T. annulata antibodies. PMID:27033532
Raquel Soares Juliano
Full Text Available A babesiose bovina é uma hemoparasitose causada, no Brasil, pelos protozoários B. bovis e B. bigemina, as quais apresentam como único vetor biológico o carrapato Boophilus microplus. Foram avaliadas amostras dos animais da Estação Experimental de Estudos de Bovinos Curraleiros (EEEC colhidas nos anos de 2001 (n=117 e 2003 (n=113. A detecção de anticorpos anti-B. bovis e anti-B. bigemina foi realizada pelo ELISA-indireto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a soroepidemiologia da babesiose bovina em rebanho Curraleiro, obter informações sobre a situação da doença na população e relacionar os resultados obtidos com informações edafoclimáticas e de manejo disponíveis. A taxa de ocorrência em 2001 foi de 92,3% para B. bovis e de 83,8% para B. bigemina e, em 2003, foi de 92,9 e 66,4%, respectivamente. Houve diferença significativa na freqüência de soropositivos em relação à faixa etária no ano de 2003, ocorrendo uma diminuição com o avançar da idade. Sendo assim, foi possível concluir que, apesar das condições edafoclimáticas e do controle químico realizado no combate a ectoparasitas, os animais foram expostos à Babesia spp e encontravam-se em situação de estabilidade enzoótica para babesiose.Bovine babesiosis is a blood parasitic disease. In Brazil it is caused by B. bovis and B. bigemina protozoa, both of which reveal the Boophilus microplus tick as the only biological vector. Animal samples were collected at Experimental Study Farm of Curraleiro Cattle (ESFC in 2001 (n=117 and 2003 (n=113. The detection of antibodies against B. bovis and B. bigemina was carried out by ELISA-indirect method. This research was aimed at studing seroepidemiological aspects of bovine babesiosis in a Curraleiro herd, as well as obtain information about babesiosis stability in this population and relate the results with available climactic and management information. The occurrence rate of positive animals was 92.3% for B. bovis
Full Text Available A reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediate produced during an inflammatory response is the important part of host-defense strategies of organisms to kill the parasite. However, it is not well known whether these intermediates cause DNA damage and oxidative stress in goats infected with Babesia ovis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of babesiosis on basal levels of DNA damage and oxidative status of goats naturally infected with B.ovis.DNA damage and antioxidant parameters were determined in B. ovis infected goats. Ten infected Anatolian Black Goats with B. ovis diagnosed via clinical signs and microscopic findings and ten healthy were used in the study.The Babesia infection increased the levels of DNA damage, malondialdehyde (MDA, protein carbonyl content (PCO and plasma concentration of nitric oxide metabolites (NOx, and decreased total antioxidant activities (AOA and reduced glutathione (GSH. A significant positive correlation between DNA damage, MDA, PCO, and NOx concentrations was found in the infected goats. DNA damage showed a negative association with AOA and GSH concentrations in the infected goats.The Babesia infection increases oxidative stress markers and DNA damage and decreases AOA in goats. These results suggest that the increases in the production of free radicals due to Babesia infection not only contribute to host-defense strategies of organisms to kill the parasite but also induce oxidative damage in other cells.
Richard Zapata Salas
Full Text Available La babesiosis es una enfermedad del ganado bovino transmitida por la garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y causada por los parásitos protozoarios Babesia bovis y B. bigemina. Una zona se considera epizootiológicamente estable frente a Babesia spp, cuando el 75% de los bovinos entre las edades de 3 a 9 meses son serorreactivos (IgG frente a Babesia bovis y Babesia bigemina y no hay evidencia de signos clínicos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la seroprevalencia de Babesia bovis y Babesia bigemina en el ganado bovino de la hacienda Vegas de la Clara (Universidad de Antioquia, Gómez Plata, Antioquia, por medio de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Se diseñó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo con análisis de corte transversal. Fue evaluada toda la población bovina de la hacienda Vegas de la Clara (n = 118. Las muestras fueron evaluadas por inmunofluorescencia indirecta para la detección de anticuerpos tipo IgG específicos contra Babesia bovis y B. bigemina. La serorreactividad obtenida en los bovinos evaluados, para al menos una especie de Babesia fue del 89,8%, para Babesia bovis del 83,8%, mientras que para B. bigemina del 61%. Se obtuvo una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la serorreactividad para B. bigemina y la frecuencia del tratamiento garrapaticida. La serorreactividad indica estabilidad enzoótica en el hato para B. bovis, mientras que para B. bigemina se encontró que la frecuencia del tratamiento garrapaticida interrumpe su ciclo de transmisión.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis is endemic in northern Portugal, but molecularly confirmed cases of infection with small piroplasms have not been reported in the country. Three German shepherd dogs - a bitch and its 2-month old pup and an unrelated male - clinically suspected of piroplasmosis were assessed for babesial infection. Results Parasitemia with small piroplasms was detected by microscopy in two dogs. All three dogs were positive by PCR and the Babesia microti-like small piroplasm (syn. Theileria annae was identified by DNA sequencing. These are the first confirmed cases of babesiosis caused by the B. microti-like piroplasm both in dogs from Portugal and in dogs suspected of clinical piroplasmosis outside of Spain. Conclusions Although the bitch and the male had visited neighboring Galicia (northwestern Spain, where the disease is endemic, incursion of this piroplasm into northern Portugal is evident and infection of the non-traveled pup was due to either vertical transmission or autochthonous tick infection.
该文报道了在昆明地区发现的一例人巴贝西原虫病例的诊断与治疗过程.依据光镜和透射电镜形态学观察,初步判断该病例系巴贝西虫感染,并使用抗原虫、抗感染联合治疗获得了良效.%A case of human babesiosis was reported in the present paper with clinical manifestations and treatment stratiges in Southwest region of China.The typical ring form and tetrad found in blood smear of the case indicating the infection of parasitism of genus Babesia,which were confirmed with transmitting electronic microscope.The combination of artemether and arzithomycin treatment was proved effective.
Full Text Available A serological survey of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis was conducted in the foot-and-mouth disease buffer zone surrounding the Kruger National Park in South Africa between 2001 and 2003 to determine whether the withdrawal of government-subsidized dipping in certain regions had affected the seroprevalence of these tick-borne diseases. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bovis increased during the study period. This increase was greater in Limpopo Province where farmers had to supply their own acaricide than in Mpumalanga Province where dipping materials were provided by the local Veterinary Services. The number of animals testing positive for B. bigemina decreased in both provinces during the study period, which was attributed to possible vector displacement rather than more effective tick control measures. Responses to a questionnaire on ticks and tick-borne diseases revealed local knowledge on the subject to be highly variable and sometimes incorrect.
Babesiosis'li Atlarda Levamisol ve Beta Gluka'nın Bazı Kan Parametreleri leIgG Üzerine Etkilerinin AraştırılmasıKlinik olarak babesiosis'e bağlı olarak immun sistemlerinin baskılandığı düşünülen atlara oralolarak verilen ve Saccharomyces Cerevisiae' den elde edilen Ã-glukanın immunstimulanetkisi, levamizol ve kontrol grubu ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Çalışma klinik olarak babesiosissemptomu gösteren ve Giemsa boyama tekniği ile ortaya konan ngiliz ve Arap atlarıüzerinde yür...
李孟英; 彭恒; 陈要朋; 刘铁牛; 甘琼萍; 乔岩; 潘卫; 朱淮民
目的：探讨巴贝虫感染的流行病学特点、临床表现、诊断和治疗方法，为巴贝虫病的诊治提供参考。方法回顾性分析1例确诊为田鼠巴贝虫病患者的流行病学资料、临床表现、实验室检查结果、诊断和治疗转归情况。结果田鼠巴贝虫患者主要症状是反复不规则的、可以自限的发热，镜下见骨髓和外周血片红细胞内外有点状、逗点状和环状以及类似疟原虫裂殖体的寄生物；间接免疫荧光检测试验（IFA）阳性，用田鼠巴贝虫特异性引物PCR扩增到阳性条带，序列比对提示为田鼠巴贝虫；磷酸氯喹片联合克林霉素对田鼠巴贝虫病的治疗有效。结论临床上人感染巴贝虫鲜有报道，症状不典型，对发热原因不明时应仔细检查患者骨髓和外周血涂片可以提高诊断率，免疫学（IFA）及 PCR方法检查有助于确诊，田鼠巴贝虫病的治疗有待于进一步探讨。%Objective To review the epidemiological features, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of human babesiosis, and to provide the reference for the clinicians.Methods The data of one case with babesia microti-infected were analyzed, retrospectively, including the epidemiological features, clinical ifndings, laboratory test results, treatment and outcomes.Results The main symptoms of human babesiosis was repeatedly irregular self-limited fever. Under microscopy, the parasites display a little bit uncertain forms, such as dots, comma-shaped, ring and parasites looked like plasmodium’ schizonts inside and outside red blood cells of bone marrow and peripheral blood smears. The indirect immunolfuorescent antibody test (IFA) was positive. Positive fragments were ampliifed by PCR using the speciifc primers for babesia microti, and sequence alignment shown the sequense had 99% identity with that of babesia microti. Chloroquine phosphate combined clindamycin were useful to the treatment ofbabesia
Full Text Available Babesia sp. is a protozoan hemoparasite that affects livestock worldwide. The Colombian Middle Magdalena is an enzootic region for babesiosis, but there is no previous research providing detail on its transmission cycle. This study aims to assess some Babesia sp. infection indicators in cattle and ticks from the area, by using direct microscopic and molecular techniques to detect the infection. In the cattle, 59.9% and 3.4 % positivity values for B. bigemina and mixed infection (B. bovis + B. bigemina were found respectively. In ticks, the positivity of B. bigemina reached 79.2% and 9.4% for the mixed infection. The degree of infestation in the region was 3.2 ticks per bovine. There was positive correlation between tick control acaricide frequencies and infestation in bovines. This leads us to infer that control periodicity greater than 90 days, in stable zones, is an abiotic factor that benefits the acquisition of protective immunity in calves, the natural control of the infection and eventual disease absence. It is necessary to monitor the disease by applying new entomological and parasitological indicators showing the complexity of this phenomenon.
Babesia bigemina es uno de los agentes etiológicos de la babesiosis de los bovinos y en Argentina es transmitida solamente por ninfas y adultos de la garrapata Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar el estatus epidemiológico y factores asociados para B. bigemina en rodeos del sudoeste de la provincia del Chaco y evaluar la incidencia de infección y la proporción de garrapatas infectadas en dos establecimientos ganaderos (AT y VA) de la región. Se determinó ...
Full Text Available A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey.
Experiments were conducted on non-splenectomized Bos taurus calves to determine the immunogenicity of blood vaccines containing either Babesia bigemina or Babesia bovis parasites irradiated in a 60Co source. Groups of calves between 6 and 10 months of age, found to be free of previous babesial infections by serodiagnosis, were inoculated with B. bigemina ('G' isolate) irradiated at rates ranging from 350 to 500 Gy. These vaccines caused low to moderate reactions on primary inoculation which subsided without treatment. Parasites irradiated at 350 Gy produced a strong immunity against virulent homologous challenge. Vaccinated calves also withstood virulent heterologous B. bigemina ('H' isolate) and B. bovis ('A' isolate) challenges made 85 and 129 days later. It also became evident that the use of babesicides to control reactions should be avoided since early treatment of 'reactor' animals caused breakdown of immunity among vaccinates. B. bovis ('A' isolate) parasites irradiated at dose rates of either 300 Gy or 350 Gy caused mild to moderate reactions in immunized calves, with the reactions in the 300 Gy group being slightly more severe. On challenge with homologous parasites, animals that had previously been inoculated with organisms irradiated at 300 Gy showed better protection than those that had received parasites irradiated at 350 Gy. (author). 28 refs, 5 tabs
Patrícia Macêdo Gonçalves
Full Text Available A babesiose bovina e a anaplasmose (Tristeza Parasitária Bovina são enfermidades transmitidas pelo carrapato Boophilus microplus e por moscas hematófagas, respectivamente, ocorrendo em caráter endêmico no Brasil, acarretando elevadas perdas econômicas na pecuária. Nesse país, observa-se uma grande variedade de fatores epidemiológicos influenciando sua ocorrência, tais como: variação climática, práticas de manejo, controle de carrapato e introdução de bovinos susceptíveis. Assim, esta revisão aborda aspectos epidemiológicos do controle da anaplasmose e da babesiose bovina do Brasil, com ênfase na região sudeste. Fatores que influenciam a instabilidade e a estabilidade enzoótica de ambas as espécies também são discutidos. As medidas de controle empregadas atualmente são: quimioprofilaxia, o uso de acaricidas para o controle do carrapato vetor B. microplus, a premunição e a vacinação.Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are diseases transmitted by Boophilus microplus and haematophagous diptera, respectively, occurring in endemic character in Brazil, resulting in high economic loss on livestock production. In this country a wide range of epidemiological factors influencing their occurrence, such as climate variations, husbandry practices, tick control and susceptible purebreed cattle that are regularly imported to upgrade local stocks have been described. This review focuses the epidemiological control and some aspects of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in Brazil, with emphasis in southeast region. Factors influencing enzootic stability and instability of both species are also discussed. The control measures employed at present are chemoprophylaxis, use of acaricides for B. microplus, premunition and vaccination.
陈要朋; 彭恒; 刘铁牛; 黄丽; 乔岩; 黄贵才; 高慧; 李孟英; 朱淮民
目的 回顾1例反复发热半年,最终确诊为田鼠巴贝虫感染的诊断过程,复习文献,为巴贝虫病的诊断提供参考. 方法 收集患者的临床资料和流行病学资料,采集患者骨髓和外周血涂片镜检,抽提血液基因组DNA,用田鼠巴贝虫特异引物进行巢式PCR扩增,取血清进行间接免疫荧光检测. 结果 骨髓和外周血涂片镜检可见少量红细胞内有环状体,未见其它疟原虫红细胞内期形态.巢式PCR获得阳性条带,经测序证实为田鼠巴贝虫18s rRNA基因;间接免疫荧光抗体试验阳性;经克林霉素、磷酸氯喹片抗巴贝虫治疗2个疗程,患者达到临床治愈. 结论 综合患者临床资料、实验室检查结果、以及抗巴贝虫药物疗效,确诊1例人田鼠巴贝虫感染病例.在病原学检查不典型时,分子生物学和免疫学检查结果是重要的巴贝虫病诊断依据.%Objective To present the diagnosis process of a human case with recurrent fever for six months,which eventually diagnosed as Babesia microti infection,combined with the literature review thus to provide reference for the diagnosis of human babesiosis.Methods Clinical and epidemiological information of the case was collected.Bone marrow and peripheral blood samples were collected and examined microscopically.Blood genomic DNA was extracted and then amplified using nest-PCR with Babesia microti specific primers.The amplified products were sequenced and then undergone BLAST analysis.Serum of the patient was collected and tested with indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA).Results Ring-formed parasites were observed within and outside of red blood cells of the bone marrow and peripheral blood.No other intraerythrocyte stage of Plasmodium parasites was found.Amplified products were obtained by nested PCR.The fragments sequences were shown of 99％ similarity to 18s rRNA of Babesia microti.The IFA results of patient sera were positive.The patients achieved clinical cure after
The use of γ-irradiation to produce stable avirulent strains of four Babesia species, B. bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens and B. major, is described. Field trials indicate that, for B. divergens, this procedure produces a highly protective live vaccine. 0.35 kGy (35 krad) is the optimum radiation dose to produce stable avirulent B. bovis organisms which induce protective immunity for a minimum period of 12 months. These organisms are non-transmissible by the tick vector and do not revert to virulence after 12 months in a carrier animal. The development of highly sensitive radioimmunoassays specific for B. bovis is described. These tests can detect as little as 2 ng anti-Babesia antibody per mL of sera, and are more accurate than existing serological assays. Less effort has been made to vaccinate animals against Anaplasma using irradiated organisms or to develop sensitive serological diagnostic tests. However, some studies indicate that exposure to doses of about 0.9 kGy results in organisms which are attenuated in terms of their pathogenic effect and which induce strong levels of resistance to challenge with virulent organisms. The present constraint in developing RIA techniques for detection of Anaplasma antibodies lies in the high degree of non-specific cross-reactivity between Babesia and Anaplasma antigens and antisera. (author)
Holler, Jon G; Röser, Dennis; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel;
We report the first human case of Babesia microti infection imported to Denmark from the United States by a 64 year old female traveller with fever of unknown origin. The case raises the possibility that Babesia-infections may be under-diagnosed, illustrates the importance of a thorough travel...
Al Zoubi, Moamen; Kwak, Tommy; Patel, Jeremy; Kulkarni, Mandavi; Kallal, Catherine A.
Babesia is known to be prevalent in the Eastern United States and other temperate countries but the prevalence of babesia is not well known in the tropical malaria-endemic countries because of the higher prevalence of malaria. A 72-year-old Hispanic male from Ecuador presenting with increasing left lower quadrant abdominal pain and distention for one year. He experienced nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, chill, and myalgias. He reported 9 kg weight loss over the last two months. Patient move...
The Babesia bovis and B. bigemina apicomplexan protozoa in conjunction with the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale are intraerythrocytic pathogens that are responsible for the most prevalent and costly tick borne diseases (TBD’s) of cattle worldwide. These organisms are historically associated as they c...
Konvalinová, J.; Rudolf, Ivo; Šikutová, Silvie; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Svobodová, V.; Svoboda, M.
Roč. 81, č. 2 (2012), s. 91-95. ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : dogs * Babesia canis * antibodies * Dermacentor reticulatus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.393, year: 2012
Patrick J Kelly
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although tick-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs in tropical areas, there is little information on the agents causing these infections in the Caribbean. METHODOLOGY: We used PCRs to test blood from a cross-section of dogs on St Kitts for Ehrlichia (E. canis, Babesia (B. spp., Anaplasma (A. spp. and Hepatozoon (H. spp. Antibodies against E. canis and A. phagocytophilum/platys were detected using commercial immunochromatography tests. Records of the dogs were examined retrospectively to obtain clinical and laboratory data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was serological and/or PCR evidence of infections of dogs with E. canis (27%; 46/170, Babesia spp. (24%; 90/372 including B. canis vogeli (12%; 43/372 and B. gibsoni (10%; 36/372, A. platys (11%; 17/157 and H. canis (6%; 15/266. We could not identify the Babesia sp. detected in nine dogs. There was evidence of multiple infections with dual infections with E. canis and B. canis vogeli (8%; 14/179 or B. gibsoni (7%; 11/170 being the most common. There was agreement between immunochromatography and PCR test results for E. canis for 87% of dogs. Only 13% of exposed dogs had signs of a tick-borne disease and 38% had laboratory abnormalities. All 10 dogs presenting for a recheck after treatment of E. canis with doxycycline were apparently healthy although all remained seropositive and six still had laboratory abnormalities despite an average of two treatments with the most recent being around 12 months previously. Infections with Babesia spp. were also mainly subclinical with only 6% (4/67 showing clinical signs and 13% (9/67 having laboratory abnormalities. Similarly, animals with evidence of infections with A. platys and H. canis were largely apparently healthy with only occasional laboratory abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Dogs are commonly infected with tick-borne pathogens in the Caribbean with most having no clinical signs or laboratory abnormalities.
Olufunke Omowunmi Adebayo,1 Rasheed Adetola Ajadi,2 Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale,3 Samuel Olatunbosun Omotainse,4 Morenike Atinuke Dipeolu,5 Helen Oyebukola Nottidge,3 Ebenezer Babatunde Otesile2 1Veterinary Teaching Hospital, 2Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 4Department of Veterinary Pathology, 5Department of Veterinary Public Health and Rep...
Hasan H. Oruc*, Sezgin Senturk1, Mufit Kahraman2, Veli Y. Cirak3 and Ezgi Akdesir2
Full Text Available Nine Holstein cows were died between 3 October and 13 December of 2009 in Turkey. On this farm, all the dairy cattle (350 were being fed in two groups by the owner. The only difference between the rations was that the ration of group 2 was containing hairy vetch hay. It was noticed that all (except one dead animal were in the Group 2. Clinical signs in affected animals prior to death were generally dramatic drop in milk yield, inconsistent fever, diarrhea, cutaneous lesions, listless, ruminal stasis, conjunctivitis, icterus, red urine and abortion in the pregnant animal. Anemia and Babesia bigemina were detected in hematologic analysis. There was disseminated vacuolar degeneration around vena centralis in liver, and the epithelium of the proximal tubules had severe swelling and had deeply eosinophilic epithelial cells and the lumens of tubules were disappeared in kidneys. It is considered that the cases presented here are mainly caused by hairy vetch as no more clinical signs and deaths were seen after 10 days of removal of hairy vetch from the animals’ ration.
Hasan H. Oruc*, Sezgin Senturk1, Mufit Kahraman2, Veli Y. Cirak3 and Ezgi Akdesir2
Nine Holstein cows were died between 3 October and 13 December of 2009 in Turkey. On this farm, all the dairy cattle (350) were being fed in two groups by the owner. The only difference between the rations was that the ration of group 2 was containing hairy vetch hay. It was noticed that all (except one dead) animal were in the Group 2. Clinical signs in affected animals prior to death were generally dramatic drop in milk yield, inconsistent fever, diarrhea, cutaneous lesions, listless, rumin...
Raffalli, John; Wormser, Gary P
We report a patient who was being treated with rituximab for rheumatoid arthritis who developed Babesia microti infection that persisted for 26 months despite prolonged anti-babesia drug therapy. The explanation for the persistence was likely to have been the long-term immunocompromising effects of rituximab, as evidenced by seronegativity for B. microti antibodies that lasted for more than 1 year after onset of infection. PMID:27036977
A series of experiments is described in which the effects of irradiation on the infectivity of intra-erythrocytic piroplasms of Babesia divergens and B. major for cattle were investigated. Initially blood was taken from infected animals and stabilates of strains of the parasites were made and cryopreserved in an ultra-low deep-freeze. For each experiment, an aliquot of stabilate was inoculated into a splenectomized pre-donor calf and when this animal has a patent parasitaemia, a donor calf was infected by subinoculation. Blood was taken from the donor calf when 5 to 10% of its erythrocytes contained parasites. In the first two experiments, the parasites were titrated in groups of three splenectomized calves and it was seen that the strains maintained their pathogenic identities. Increasing dilution of the infective blood simply resulted in linear extension of the prepatent period. In the next pair of experiments, infected blood from the donor calves was irradiated at doses of 24 to 40 kilorads before inoculation into splenectomized calves. In these experiments irradiation has a marked effect on the pathogenic identity of the parasites. Not only were the prepatent periods extended, but animals receiving piroplasms irradiated at 24 and 28 kilorads had mild reactions whereas those receiving piroplasms irradiated at 36 and 40 kilorads had no overt reactions. Some animals receiving blood irradiated at 32 kilorads had mild reactions, others had none. On challenge the animals which had mild reactions were solidly immune and those having no reactions had limited protection. In the final pair of experiments intact calves received parasites irradiated at these same dose levels and the results were virtually identical. It was difficult to provoke severe reactions in intact animals to inoculation of infected blood, but the protection engendered by inoculation of irradiated piroplasms was clearly demonstrable. (author)
Full Text Available A study on the presence of Babesia in humans was performed in Puerto Berrío (Latitude 6.50deg. Longitude: -74.38deg. River: Magdalena. Area: 74.410km², Colombia-South America. Indirect immunofluorescence, thin and thick blood smears were used to study 194 individuals. Patients were grouped according to their risk-factors for Babesia infection: (group 1 individuals with fever, chills, sweating and other malaria-type symptoms; (group 2 symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals from local cattle ranches, which were enrolled in an active form, and (group 3 workers from the local slaughterhouse. Seven individuals were serologically positive for Babesia: Three individuals presented IgM antibodies against B. bovis, while one had IgG against this species; one individual had IgM against B. bigemina, another had IgG and a third both IgM and IgG against this species. Only one individual was parasitologically positive for Babesiaand serologically positive for Babesia bovis (IgM 1:64
Goddard, Amelia; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads;
admission, prior to any treatment. Cytokine concentrations were assessed using a canine-specific multiplex assay on an automated analyser. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1...
Teresa C Assumpção
Full Text Available Hematophagous mosquitos and ticks avoid host hemostatic system through expression of enzyme inhibitors targeting proteolytic reactions of the coagulation and complement cascades. While most inhibitors characterized to date were found in the salivary glands, relatively few others have been identified in the midgut. Among those, Boophilin is a 2-Kunitz multifunctional inhibitor targeting thrombin, elastase, and kallikrein. However, the kinetics of Boophilin interaction with these enzymes, how it modulates platelet function, and whether it inhibits thrombosis in vivo have not been determined.Boophilin was expressed in HEK293 cells and purified to homogeneity. Using amidolytic assays and surface plasmon resonance experiments, we have demonstrated that Boophilin behaves as a classical, non-competitive inhibitor of thrombin with respect to small chromogenic substrates by a mechanism dependent on both exosite-1 and catalytic site. Inhibition is accompanied by blockade of platelet aggregation, fibrin formation, and clot-bound thrombin in vitro. Notably, we also identified Boophilin as a non-competitive inhibitor of FXIa, preventing FIX activation. In addition, Boophilin inhibits kallikrein activity and the reciprocal activation, indicating that it targets the contact pathway. Furthermore, Boophilin abrogates cathepsin G- and plasmin-induced platelet aggregation and partially affects elastase-mediated cleavage of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI. Finally, Boophilin inhibits carotid artery occlusion in vivo triggered by FeCl3, and promotes bleeding according to the mice tail transection method.Through inhibition of several enzymes involved in proteolytic cascades and cell activation, Boophilin plays a major role in keeping the midgut microenvironment at low hemostatic and inflammatory tonus. This response allows ticks to successfully digest a blood meal which is critical for metabolism and egg development. Boophilin is the first tick midgut FXIa anticoagulant also found to inhibit thrombosis.
Nadia Aline Bobbi Antoniassi
Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de mortalidade em bovinos por Babesia bovis em abril de 2007, no Município de Picada Café, Rio Grande do Sul. Em um rebanho com 55 novilhas, 28 (50,9% morreram em cinco dias. A doença iniciou vinte dias após o ingresso dos bovinos na propriedade. Os sinais clínicos incluíam febre, incoordenação, agressividade, anemia, petéquias nas mucosas e morte 1 á 2 dias após. Em 4 animais necropsiados, observaram-se palidez de mucosas, hemorragias múltiplas, esplenomegalia, fígado aumentado e alaranjado, vesícula biliar com parede edemaciada e contendo bile grumosa. Os rins estavam vermelho-escuros e a bexiga continha urina cor de vinho tinto. O encéfalo apresentou cor róseo-cereja externamente e ao corte, mais marcado no córtex telencefálico, cerebelo e corpo estriado, contrastando com a cor branca da substância branca. Na histologia havia nefrose hemoglobinúrica, necrose hepática paracentral, bilestase canalicular, congestão esplênica, além de congestão com grande quantidade de eritrócitos parasitados por estruturas compatíveis com Babesia bovis na região cortical do encéfalo, também observadas em esfregaços teciduais dessas regiões. A morte de 28 bovinos em 5 dias deveu-se, provavelmente, à falta de imunidade contra o parasito. O tratamento foi realizado com dipropionato de imidocarb nos demais animais, havendo recuperação dos bovinos que apresentavam sinais iniciais leves e não ocorrência de novos casos durante um período de dois meses, quando foram enviados para abate.An outbreak of cattle mortality due to Babesia bovis infection in the county of Picada Café, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in April 2007 is described. Twenty eight heifers (50.9% died, out of a herd of 55 animals, in five days. The disease occurred approximately 20 days after heifers were transferred to this farm. The clinical signs included fever, anemia, aggressiveness, incoordination, petechiae in the mucous membranes and death after 1 to 2 days. The necropsy revealed pale mucous membranes, splenomegaly, enlarged and yellowish liver, congested and edematous gall bladder containing viscous granular bile. The kidneys and urine were dark red. The gray matter of cerebrum and cerebellum had a characteristic cherry-pink color. Hemorrhage was seen in the epicardium and endocardium. The histological findings consisted of hemoglobinuric nephrosis, paracentral hepatic necrosis, bile stasis, spleen congestion. The gray matter of the brain exhibited congestion with erythrocytes parasitized by Babesia bovis, which were also seen in the brain impression smear. The death of 28 heifers in 5 days was attributed to inadequate immunity against the parasite. The application of imidocarb dipropionate in animals presenting the initial stage of the disease and in all other animals of the herd was adopted as preventive treatment and no new cases of the disease happened in the next two months, when they were sent to slaughter.
Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Jia, Honglin; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Goo, Younkyoung; Kuriki, Ken; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan
We isolated a novel single copy gene encoding a 57-kDa merozoite protein of Babesia gibsoni (BgP57). The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was 2387 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1644 bp encoding a 57-kDa predicted polypeptide having 547 amino acid residues. The recombinant BgP57 (rBgP57) without a predicted signal peptide was expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. Western blotting showed that the corresponding native protein was 57-kDa, consistent with molecular weight of predicted mature polypeptide. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the rBgP57 detected specific antibodies in the sequential sera from a dog experimentally infected with B. gibsoni. Moreover, the antigen did not cross-react with antibodies to B. canis sub-species and closely related apicomplexan parasites indicating that the rBgP57 was a specific antigen for B. gibsoni antibodies. The diagnostic performance of ELISA based on rBgP57 using 107 sera from B. gibsoni-naturally infected dogs was the same as the previously identified rBgP32 but performed better than the previously studied rBgP50. Although, seminested PCR detected higher proportions (82%) of positive samples than the ELISAs, the Mcnemar's chi-square test showed that there was no significant difference in relative effectiveness of rBgP57-ELISA and seminested PCR (chi(2)=2.70; P=0.1003) in identifying positive samples. The rBgP57-ELISA when used in combination with rBgP32-ELISA and rBgP50-ELISA appeared to improve sensitivity of the rBgP57-ELISA for detection of B. gibsoni antibodies. Overall, the rBgP57-ELISA and seminested PCR when used in combination, could improve epidemiological surveys and clinical diagnosis of B. gibsoni infection. PMID:17706873
Full Text Available A ação da diidroxitetraciclina de longa duração foi testada em bezerros experimentalmente inoculados com Babesia bigemina e em desafio natural em área endêmica. Em uma propriedade de gado de leite, 18 bezerros foram inoculados com 10(8 hemácias parasitadas por B. bigemina. Dez animais foram tratados com 20 mg/kg de diidroxitetraciclina de longa ação, sete dias após o inóculo, e oito foram deixados como controle. Todos os animais do grupo controle e apenas três dos tratados apresentaram parasitemia, sendo que dois já estavam infestados no dia do tratamento. Em um segundo experimento, dez bezerros receberam dois tratamentos de 20 mg/kg de diidroxitetraciclina de longa ação aos 15 e 36 dias após serem liberados em piquetes e oito bezerros foram deixados como testemunhas. Os animais do grupo tratado apresentaram aumento significativo do período pré-patente e menor redução do volume globular, em relação aos do grupo controle.The action of the long-acting diidroxytetracycline was tested in calves experimentally inoculated with Babesia bigemina and naturally challenged in an endemic area. In a dairy herd, 18 calves were inoculated with a dose of 10(8 infected erythrocytes. Ten animals were treated with long-acting diidroxytetracycline (20 mg/kg, seven days after the inoculum, and eight animals were kept as control. All control and only three treated animals presented parasitemia, from which two animals were already positive when the treatment started. In a second experiment, ten calves received two treatments of diidroxytetracycline (20mg/kg on days 15 and 36 after being transferred to a small paddock, and eight calves were kept as control. The animals from the treated group presented a significant increase of the pre-patent period and a smaller reduction on packed cell volume in relation to those of the control group.
Sarah E. Rodgers; Mather, Thomas N.
Distribution of nymphal Ixodes scapularis in Rhode Island was used as a logistical regressor for predicting presence of human babesiosis. Although the incidence of babesiosis is increasing in southern Rhode Island, large areas of the state are free of babesiosis risk.
Poisnel, Elodie; Ebbo, Mikael; Berda-Haddad, Yael; Faucher, Benoit; Bernit, Emmanuelle; Carcy, Bernard; Piarroux, Renaud; Harlé, Jean-Robert; Schleinitz, Nicolas
Background Human babesiosis is a rare tick-borne infectious disease. The clinical presentation ranges from an asymptomatic form to a life threatening infection with severe hemolysis. Human babesiosis due to Babesia microti is the most common and is endemic in North America. Case presentation We report a European patient with severe pancytopenia and reactive hemophagocytosis related to a Babesia microti infection. Babesia infection was acquired during a travel in the USA. Conclusion Babesiosis...
Joseph, Julie T.; Purtill, Kerry; Wong, Susan J.; Munoz, Jose; Teal, Allen; Madison-Antenucci, Susan; Horowitz, Harold W.; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E.; Moore, Julie M.; Abramowsky, Carlos; Wormser, Gary P.
Babesiosis is usually acquired from a tick bite or through a blood transfusion. We report a case of babesiosis in an infant for whom vertical transmission was suggested by evidence of Babesia spp. antibodies in the heel-stick blood sample and confirmed by detection of Babesia spp. DNA in placenta tissue.
In Sri Lanka both Babesiosis bigemina and Babesiosis bovis are present. These parasites cause considerable economic losses among susceptible Bos. Taurus (European) cattle. Control of Babesiosis is by four main methods-management, tick control, chemotherapy and immunization. A vaccine containing Co-60 irradiated B. bigemina to immunize calves in state forms was used. The aims of the study was to produce a vaccine that would be both protective and safe so that vaccination could be extended to small former units as well. Experimental data and results are given
... Physician’s Resources Contact About The Foundation Select Page Tick Paralysis Menu What is Tick Paralysis? Where is ... How to Remove a Tick Deer Tick Ecology Tick-Borne Diseases Anaplasmosis Babesiosis Borrelia myamotoi Infections Colorado ...
Germinal Jorge Cantó Alarcón; Edmundo Enrique Rojas Ramírez; Jesús Antonio Álvarez Martínez; Juan Alberto Ramos Aragón; Juan Joel Mosqueda Gualito; Carlos Agustín Vega y Murguía; Julio Vicente Figueroa Millán
Se evaluó la protección de un inmunógeno bivalente de B. bovis y B. bigemina derivado de cultivo in vitro. Se utilizaron 20 toretes Bos taurus mayores de 18 meses provenientes de una área libre de garrapatas Boophilus, y se trasladaron a una zona endémica, formándose en forma aleatoria dos grupos de 10 animales. Una semana posterior a su llegada, 10 de los animales se vacunaron por vía intramuscular a una dosis de 1 x 107 eritrocitos infectados de cada especie del parásito, los 10 restantes (...
Seroprevalence and risk factors for cattle anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and trypanosomiasis in a Brazilian semiarid region Soroprevalência e fatores de risco para anaplasmose, babesiose e tripanosomíase bovina em uma região semiárida do Brasil
Valéria Medeiros de Mendonça Costa
Full Text Available The seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Trypanosoma vivax and the risk factors for these infections were investigated in 509 cows on 37 farms in the semiarid region of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Cow serum samples were tested by means of immunofluorescence assay (IFA against each specific antigen. The mean seroprevalence values per farm were 15.0% (range: 0-75% for A. marginale, 9.5% (range: 0-40% for B. bigemina and 26.9% (range: 0-73.7% for B. bovis. All cows tested negative for T. vivax. Higher prevalence for A. marginale was significantly associated with less frequent acaricide spraying per year and with higher use of injectable antihelminthics. Presence of cows positive for B. bigemina was significantly associated with acaricide use and with presence of horse flies on the farm. Both occurrence and higher prevalence of B. bovis were significantly associated with recent observations of ticks on cattle. Overall, the present results indicate that the region investigated is an enzootically unstable area for A. marginale, B. bigemina and B. bovis, since most animals were seronegative to at least one agent.A soroprevalência de Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis e Trypanosoma vivax, assim como os fatores de risco para estas infecções, foram investigadas em 37 fazendas (total de 509 vacas da região semiárida da Paraíba, nordeste do Brasil. A presença de anticorpos nos soros dos animais foi detectada pela técnica de imunofluorescência indireta, utilizando antígenos específicos. Os valores médios de soroprevalência por fazenda foram 15,0% (0-75% para A. marginale, 9,5% (0-40% para B. bigemina, e 26,9% (0-73,7% para B. bovis. Todas as vacas foram soronegativas para T. vivax. As maiores prevalências de A. marginale foram significativamente associadas com menor uso de carrapaticidas por ano e com uso mais frequente de antihelmínticos injetáveis. A soroprevalência de B. bigemina foi significativamente associada com o uso de carrapaticidas, e com a presença de mutucas na fazenda. Tanto a ocorrência como a maior soroprevalência para B. bovis nas fazendas foram significativamente associadas com a presença recente de carrapatos nos bovinos. No geral, os resultados indicam que as fazendas amostradas estão situadas em área de instabilidade enzoótica para A. marginale, B. bigemina, e B. bovis, uma vez que a maioria dos animais foi soronegativa para pelo menos um dos agentes.
Røed Knut H; Leinaas Hans P; Hasle Gunnar; Øines Øivind
Background Bovine babesiosis is regarded as a limited health problem for Norwegian cows, and the incidence has decreased markedly since the 1930s. Rare cases of babesiosis in splenectomised humans from infection with Babesia divergens and B.venatorum have been described. The objective of this study was to determine whether birds can introduce Babesia-infected ticks. There are between 30 and 85 million passerine birds that migrate to Norway every spring. ...
Mousa Tavassoli; Mohammad Tabatabaei; Mosleh Mohammadi; Bijan Esmaeilnejad; Hemn Mohamadpour
Background Babesiosis is a haemoparasitic disease of domestic and wild animals caused by species of the genus Babesia. Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and B. divergens are known to be pathogenic in cattle. The disease is transmitted during blood feeding by infected ticks and is the most economically important tick-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. Ixodid ticks are vectors in the transmission of babesiosis. The classic presentation is a febrile syndrome with apparent anemia and hemog...
Blaschitz, Marion; Narodoslavsky-Gföller, Melanie; Kanzler, Michaela; Stanek, Gerold; Walochnik, Julia
Babesiosis is a tick-transmitted disease of veterinary and medical importance. The first Austrian case of human babesiosis was recently recorded. In the current study, ticks at all life cycle stages (instars), including 853 Ixodes ricinus and 11 Haemaphysalis concinna ticks, from sampling sites throughout Austria were examined for the presence of Babesia spp. by using 18S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing, and the overall mean infection rate was 51.04%. The infection rates for sampling sites were ...
Full Text Available Vector-borne infection constitutes a significant health issue in dogs worldwide. Recent reports point to an increasing number of canine vector-borne disease cases in European countries, including Poland. Canine babesiosis caused by various Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and significant veterinary importance. The development and application of molecular methods have increased our knowledge about canine babesiosis, its prevalence, and clinical and pathological aspects of the infection. Parasitologists and veterinary surgeons need an accurate description of the species responsible for canine babesiosis to improve diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as predictions for the course of the disease. Therefore, we decided to summarise recent knowledge concerning Babesia species and B. canis.
Between 1994 and 1996 a kit ELISA, developed by the FAO - IAEA for the diagnose of bovine babesiosis produced by Babesia bovis, was validated. There were processed a total of 547 blood serums from bovine between 9 and 18 months old, coming from high and low risk to illness areas. The point obtained for the test was 0.178 (DO) and the resulting percentages inside the population studied was 48% animal positive and 52% bovine negative. These results confirm that bovine population in Venezuela is in enzootic uncertainty areas for bovine babesiosis
Full Text Available asite Babesia species. It is a well-recognized veterinary disease in cattle, horses and ...H01060 Babesiosis Babesiosis is a malaria-like infection of red blood cells caused by the protozoan par... canis Babesia bigemina Babesia duncani Giemsa-stained thin blood smear IgG antibody testing IgM antibody testin...dogs but recently has gained attention as an emerging zoonotic disease problem. Babesia are transmitted by ixodid ticks and in...fection of the host leads to anemia, hyperbilirubinuria, hemoglobinuria
Conclusions: The results of this study stated that clinical and haematological changes occurred in canine ehrlichiosis with babesiosis and hepatozoonosis due to parasitemia. In mixed infection, the disease more severe, and also it depended on immunity of animals. Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis with Ehrlichia sp. were first reported from West Bengal state of India by this study.
... eye rash similar to that found in Lyme disease, which is caused by bacteria transmitted by the deer tick. Although researchers know that the lone star tick transmits the infectious agent that causes STARI, they ... both bacterial diseases. Babesiosis is caused by parasites carried by deer ...
The symposium concentrated on reviewing the present situation in Africa on babesiosis, anaplasmosis, trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Some of the papers state the problem and do not enter into the way in which isotopes are to be applied to them. Isotopes are discussed in studies of pesticides, physiology, ecology and behaviour of the tsetse fly, and the sterile male technique and sterility induction
Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, vector bovine and equine babesiosis, and have significantly expanded beyond the permanent quarantine zone established in South Texas. Currently, there are no vaccines approved for use within the United States for controll...
Full Text Available Changes in legislation that facilitate movement of companion animals within the European Union will expose those animals to microbial and parasitic organisms currently exotic to Ireland. This paper reviewed information on the exotic diseases most likely to be introduced to Ireland by travelling dogs and cats: rabies, leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis and dirofilariosis.
Goodfellow Mark; Shaw Susan
Changes in legislation that facilitate movement of companion animals within the European Union will expose those animals to microbial and parasitic organisms currently exotic to Ireland. This paper reviewed information on the exotic diseases most likely to be introduced to Ireland by travelling dogs and cats: rabies, leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis and dirofilariosis.
Hasle, Gunnar; Bjune, Gunnar A; Christensson, Dan; Knut H. Røed; Whist, Anne C; Leinaas, Hans P
Background The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices. This is a potentially serious disease, with both economical and animal welfare consequences. Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens. Methods ...
Sprong, H.; Trentelman, J.; Seemann, I.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr; Šíma, Radek; Nijhof, A.M.; Anguita, J.; Winter, P.; Rotter, B.; Havlíková, S.; Klempa, B.; Schetters, T.P.; Hovius, J.W.R.
Roč. 7, FEB 2014 (2014), s. 77. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * vaccine * Lyme borreliosis * tick-borne encephalitis * babesiosis * public health Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is a major pest of cattle in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In addition to direct effects associated with its obligate parasitic way of life, R. microplus also transmits the pathogens that cause bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Commercially ...
Dantrakool, Anchalee; Somboon, Pradya; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Saito-Ito, Atsuko
A new type of rodent babesia, which resembled Babesia microti but was phylogenetically placed closest, with the highest level of statistical support, to Babesia canis, a canine babesia, was identified in Thai Bandicota indica in Thai provinces to which malaria is endemic. Close watch should be kept on human babesiosis in Thailand.
Yang, Yimin; Li, Qun; Wang, Suhua; Chen, Xueqiu; Du, Aifang
Babesia spp. are apicomplexan protozoan parasites of the red blood cells of mammals and are transmitted by ticks. Bovine babesiosis mainly caused by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina occurs worldwide, which is a great threat to animal health. Microscopy examination is a gold standard for the diagnosis of babesiosis. However, its sensitivity is too low. This study was conducted to establish a simple, efficient and fast LAMP-LFP method used for early diagnosis of animal babesiosis. LAMP was developed with a set of four primers targeting and amplifying six distinct regions of cytochrome b gene of Babesia spp. under isothermal conditions. Afterwards, a chromatographic lateral-flow dipstick (LFD) was used to detect LAMP products that were labeled with FITC at the 5' end, avoiding gel electrophoresis. The LAMP-LFD method was very specific, yielding no positive results with DNA templates of Theileria sergenti, Thenileria ovis, Theileria equi and Toxoplasma gondii. The LAMP-LFP was highly sensitive and could detect 0.85fg B. bigemina DNA and 0.14fg B. bovis DNA, 100-fold higher than a conventional PCR assay. This method could be adapted for quick and accurate diagnosis of bovine babesiosis in the fields in case the whole blood could be directly used, especially for identifying carrier animals with very low parasitaemia. PMID:26921043
Background: Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle that has severe economic impact on cattle producers throughout the world's tropical and subtropical countries. The most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite ...
The spleen is a critical effector organ functioning in hemoparasitic diseases like babesiosis, to destroy the pathogen and clear the host of infected erythrocytes. It has an important role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Young calves demonstrate a strong spleen-dependent innate respons...
Babesia bovis is a deadly disease of cattle resulting in severe economic losses in the vast regions of the world where it is endemic. If re-introduced into the United States, babesiosis would cause significant mortality in the naïve cattle population. In order to address the risk to U.S. cattle, i...
The spleen is the critical organ in defense against hemoparasitic diseases like babesiosis, responding to the pathogen in blood as it passes through the organ. As a lymphoid organ, the spleen is composed of cells whose role it is to orchestrate the engagement of infected erythrocytes and free parasi...
Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick ...
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is involved in the transmission of the protozoan Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Interactions between ticks and protozoa are poorly understood and the investigation of tick genes that affect tick fitness and protozoan inf...
Acosta, Marcela E. Perez; Ender, Peter T.; Smith, Erin M; Jeffrey A Jahre
Infection with Babesia microti has not been well-described in eastern Pennsylvania, USA, despite the vector of this organism being prevalent. We report 3 cases of babesiosis in eastern Pennsylvania in persons without recent travel outside the region or history of blood transfusions, suggesting emergence of this infection.
tBabesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are causative agents of bovine babesiosis, a tick-borne disease of cattlein tropical and subtropical regions. Babesia spp. infection adversely affects cattle health and can be fatalresulting in considerable economic loss worldwide. Under endemic stability conditio...
Goddard, Amelia; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri;
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia without clinical bleeding is a consistent finding in virulent canine babesiosis. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate the platelet index phenotype in Babesia rossi-infected dogs and the association with disease outcome. We hypothesized that an incre...
The tropical horse tick, Dermacentor nitens, is the natural vector of Babesia caballi in the Americas; the distribution of this tick in the United States is limited to the southernmost parts of Florida and Texas. Babesia caballi, one of the etiologic agents of equine babesiosis, occurs widely throug...
Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Nuss, Andrew B; Meyer, Jason M;
Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects acc...
Holman, Patricia J; Spencer, Angela M; Telford, Sam R; Goethert, Heidi K; Allen, Andrew J; Knowles, Donald P; Goff, Will L
Babesia divergens-like parasites identified in human babesiosis cases in Missouri and Kentucky and in eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, share identical small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. This sequence is 99.8% identical to that of Babesia divergens, suggesting that the U.S. parasite may be B. divergens, a causative agent of human and bovine babesiosis in Europe. Holstein-Friesian calves were inoculated with cultured Nantucket Island Babesia sp. (NR831) and B. divergens parasites and monitored by clinical signs, Giemsa-stained blood films, PCR, and culture. The NR831 recipients did not exhibit clinical signs of infection and remained negative for all assays. The B. divergens recipients developed clinical infections and became positive by all assays. NR831 recipients were fully susceptible upon challenge inoculation with B. divergens. This study confirms that the Nantucket Island Babesia sp. is not conspecific with B. divergens based on host specificity for cattle. PMID:16282295
Two genera of intra-erythraric protozoa cause diseases of major importance, Babesia causing babesiosis in cattle, sheep, horses and dogs; and Theileria, causing theileriosis in cattle and sheep. Babesiosis is one of the most common infection of free living animals world wide and is gaining increasing interest as an emerging zoonosis in humans. These diseases cause high morbidity and mortality rates in livestock production mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. All babesial parasites described to date are transmitted by ixodid ticks to their vertebrate hosts. They are piriform, round, amoeboid, or rod-shaped, depending in part on the genus. The severity of the disease is attributed to erythrocyte destruction and plugging of capillaries with parasitized erythrocytes leading to impaired organ function. They occur in the erytrocytes; some genera occur in the leukocytes or other blood system cells as well. In Turkey, babesiosis is seldom lethal, at least if diagnosed early and cured, but it is always associated with a reduction of the profit from both cattle and sheep breeding.. Babesia bovis, B.divergens, and B.bigemina are the most important Babesia species of bovine babesiosis. Also, B.ovis, in sheep, has been found in all climatic regions of Turkey and causes a great economic losses in sheep breeding. Theileriosis is the one of the serious tick-borne diseases in cattle production in the Mediterranean littoral and the Middle East, extending eastward to India. The most important Theileria species is T.annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis in cattle in Turkey. Theileria species occurs commonly in the lymphocytes and erythrocytes of the affected animals. The forms in the erythrocytes are round, oval, rod shaped or comma shaped. Some Theileria parasites enter lymphocytes and develop into forms called schizonts. All are transmitted by ticks. The mortality rate of babesiosis and theileriosis is as high as 30-90 % in untreated cases
Hersh, Michelle H; Tibbetts, Michael; Strauss, Mia; Ostfeld, Richard S; Keesing, Felicia
Human babesiosis is an increasing health concern in the northeastern United States, where the causal agent, Babesia microti, is spread through the bite of infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. We sampled 10 mammal and 4 bird species within a vertebrate host community in southeastern New York to quantify reservoir competence (mean percentage of ticks infected by an individual host) using real-time PCR. We found reservoir competence levels >17% in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda), and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and 0% in all other species, including all 4 bird species. Data on the relative contributions of multiple host species to tick infection with B. microti and level of genetic differentiation between B. microti strains transmitted by different hosts will help advance understanding of the spread of human babesiosis. PMID:23171673
Study of cross-reactivity in serum samples from dogs positive for Leishmania sp., Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test Estudo da reatividade cruzada em amostras de soro de cães positivos para Leishmania sp., Babesia canis e Ehrlichia canis, pelo ensaio imunoenzimático indireto e pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta
Trícia Maria F. de Sousa Oliveira; Patrícia I. Furuta; Débora Carvalho; Rosangela Z. Machado
To verify the presence of cross-reaction among leishmaniosis, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis in serological diagnostics used in human visceral leishmaniasis control programs, serum samples from leishmaniasis endemic and non-endemic areas were collected and tested by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFAT) and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All serum samples from endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by ELISA and IFAT, 51% positive for Babesia canis and 43% for Ehrlichia canis ...
Oral DİNLER; Oğuzhan YAVUZ
Ticks are vectors of very harmful diseases in humans and animals. Nine arbovirus, two rickettsia, two protozoa and one helminthic diseases are transmitted by ticks in different climatic and geographical zones. Twenty six tick species have been determined in Turkey until now. These tick species transmit tropical theileriosis and babesiosis, which are cause of important economical loses especially in farm animals, and lyme disease and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in humans. The control of ti...
Full Text Available An account on important protozoan diseases mostiy with obvious clinical symptoms are emphasized and their current status reviewed. Those diseases are surra, trichomonosis in catde, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, theileriosis, leucocyto-zoonosis in chicken, and coccidiosis. Toxoplasmosis, histomonosis, chicken malaria, balantidiosis and diseases caused by Giardia, Haemoproteus and Sarcocystis are not reviewed because significant problems caused by these parasites considered important economically do not appear in Indonesia.
Ilić Tamara; Stojanov Igor; Dimitrijević Sanda
Wild ruminants and wild boar belong to the order Artiodactyla, the suborders Ruminantia and Nonruminantia and are classified as wild animals for big game hunting, whose breeding presents a very important branch of the hunting economy. Diseases caused by protozoa are rarely found in wild ruminants in nature. Causes of coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystiosis, giardiasis, babesiosis, and theileriosis have been diagnosed in deer. The most ...
Brumlik, Michael J.; Srilakshmi Pandeswara; Sara M. Ludwig; Kruthi Murthy; Curiel, Tyler J.
Protozoan pathogens are a highly diverse group of unicellular organisms, several of which are significant human pathogens. One group of protozoan pathogens includes obligate intracellular parasites such as agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis. The other group includes extracellular pathogens such as agents of giardiasis and amebiasis. An unfortunate unifying theme for most human protozoan pathogens is that highly effective treatments for them are generally lackin...
Adalberto A. Pérez de León
Full Text Available The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus and R. (B. microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT. Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S. through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.
Detection of antibodies to Babesia bovis in cattle is essential for the understanding of the epidemiology of babesiosis and this study was concerned with comparing the indirect fluorescent antibody with the ELISA. Both assays gave rise to 100% sensitivity whilst the ELISA was shown to be marginally more specific at 98%. The ease of use and low cost of the ELISA would make it the more obvious choice in conducting future serological surveys for this parasite. (author)
Krause, P J; Telford, S; Spielman, A.; Ryan, R; Magera, J; Rajan, T V; Christianson, D; Alberghini, T V; Bow, L; Persing, D
The specific diagnosis of babesiosis, which is caused by the piroplasm Babesia microti, is made by microscopic identification of the organism in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears, detection of babesial antibody in acute-and convalescent-phase sera, or identification of the organism following the injection of patient blood into laboratory animals. Although rapid diagnosis can be made with thin blood smears, parasites are often not visualized early in the course of infection. PCR is a new, rapid...
Holman, Patricia J.; Spencer, Angela M.; Droleskey, Robert E.; Goethert, Heidi K; Telford, Samuel R.
A Babesia sp. found in eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, is the same organism that caused human babesiosis in Missouri and Kentucky, on the basis of morphology and identical small-subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences. Continuous cultures of the rabbit parasite were established from infected blood samples collected from two cottontail rabbits livetrapped on Nantucket Island. HL-1 medium or minimal essential medium alpha medium supplemented...
Naidoo, V.; M.S.G. Mulders; Swan, G E
Diminazene remains one of South Africa's most commonly used antiprotozoal agents for the management of babesiosis in dogs . Although the drug has been on the market for over 40 years, its intravenous pharmacokinetics are poorly known. To better understand the pharmacokinetics of the drug Berenil®, it was reconstituted in sterile water and administered intravenously to 6 adult German shepherd dogs. All 6 dogs demonstrated the previously described secondary peak in the plasma concentration vers...
Bilgiç, Huseyin B.; KARAGENÇ, Tülin; Simuunza, Martin; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Eren, Hasan; Weir, William
Tropical theileriosis, bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are tick-borne protozoan diseases that impose serious constraints on the health and productivity of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. A common feature of these diseases is that, following recovery from primary infection, animals become persistent carriers of the pathogen and continue to play a critical role in disease epidemiology, acting as reservoirs of infection. This study describes development and ...
Nuss, Andrew B.; Meyer, Jason M.; Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael; Waterhouse, Robert M; Sattelle, David B; de la Fuente, Jose; Ribeiro, Jose M; Megy, Karine; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Miller, Jason R; Walenz, Brian P.; Koren, Sergey; Hostetler, Jessica B; Thiagarajan, Mathangi
Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects accumulation of repetitive DNA, new lineages of retro-transposons, and gene architecture patterns resembling ancient metazoans rather than pancrustaceans. Annotation of scaffolds representing similar to ...
Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Teel, Pete D; Auclair, Allan N; Messenger, Matthew T; Guerrero, Felix D; Schuster, Greta; Miller, Robert J
The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT). Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S.) through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change. PMID:22712018
AdalbertoA.Pérez de León; PeteD.Teel; AllanN.Auclair; MatthewT.Messenger; RobertJ.Miller; GretaSchuster
The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain a...
Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Teel, Pete D.; Auclair, Allan N.; Messenger, Matthew T; Guerrero, Felix D; Schuster, Greta; Miller, Robert J.
The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain a...
Mehrzad, Raman; Bravoco, Joseph
We present a 49-year-old man with subacute onset of fever, weakness, shortness of breath, unilateral lower extremity oedema and pancytopenia who was found to have positive serology for Lyme disease. The patient presented with an intravascular haemolytic pattern on laboratory findings where an extensive infectious disease and haematological workup ruled out ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, HIV, hepatitis B and other parasitic infections. This left a very at...
Qablan, M.; Kubelová, M.; Široký, P.; Modrý, David; Amr, Z. S.
Roč. 111, č. 1 (2012), s. 301-307. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Grant ostatní: GA CR(CZ) GA524/09/0715 Keywords : ANAPLASMA-PHAGOCYTOPHILUM * GRANULOCYTIC EHRLICHIOSIS * MOLECULAR EVIDENCE * CANINE BABESIOSIS * HEPATOZOON-CANIS * ISRAEL * IXODIDAE * ACARI * COINFECTION * INFECTION Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012
Jongejan, Frans; Ringenier, Moniek; Putting, Michael; Berger, Laura; Burgers, Stefan; Kortekaas, Reinier; Lenssen, Jesse; van Roessel, Marleen; Wijnveld, Michiel; Madder, Maxime
Background Autochthonous populations of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in the Netherlands were discovered after fatal cases of babesiosis occurred in resident dogs in 2004. The presence of D. reticulatus in the Netherlands has also linked with the emergence of piroplasmosis in the resident horse population. The aim of this study was to put together results of continued surveillance of field sites and hosts for this tick in the Netherlands and also in Belgium and determine their infection statu...
桃井, 康行; モモイ, ヤスユキ; MOMOI, Yasuyuki
Babesiosis and hepatozoonosis are tick-borne diseases and are recognized as an important infectious disease in canine peractice. Molecular epidemiological survey for these pathogens was conducted. Babesia gibsoni-infected dogs were mainly found in dogs from western area of Japan. However, one dog from Akita prefecture was also positive for Babesia infection. Molecular analysis revealed that Babesia in this dog is closely related to a ruminant Babesia, B.odocoilei. This will be an important fi...
Knowles Donald P; Ueti Massaro W; Bastos Reginaldo G; Scoles Glen A
Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick infestation; however their efficacy as a stand-alone solution for tick control has been questioned. Understanding the role of the Bm86 gene product in tick biology is critical to identifyin...
Kammlah Diane M; Kappmeyer Lowell S; Davey Ronald B; Freeman Jeanne M; Olafson Pia U
Abstract Background Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, vector bovine and equine babesiosis, and have significantly expanded beyond the permanent quarantine zone established in South Texas. Currently, there are no vaccines approved for use within the United States for controlling these vectors. Vaccines developed in Australia and Cuba based on the midgut antigen Bm86 have variable efficacy against cattle fever ticks. A possible explanation for this v...
Oosthuizen, Marinda C.; Zweygarth, Erich; Collins, Nicola E.; Troskie, Milana; Banie L. Penzhorn
Babesiosis in a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger Harris, 1838) was first reported in 1930; the parasite was named Babesia irvinesmithi. Recently, specimens from an adult sable that presented with a sudden onset of disease and that subsequently died during immobilization were submitted for molecular characterization. Microscopic examination of thin blood smears revealed the presence of small piroplasms. DNA was extracted from blood samples; the V4 variable region of the 18S rRNA gene was ampl...
Salem, N. Y.; H. S. Farag
Background. Canine babesiosis is a clinically important hemoprotozoan parasite affecting dogs. The goal of this present study was to determine the clinical symptoms and to establish its hematological and microscopic detection and compare it with the PCR findings attained from dogs infected with Babesia canis vogeli. Methodology/Principal Findings. 13-PCR confirmed Babesia-infected dogs were examined; seminested PCR was used to discover the precise type of Babesia and Babesia canis vogeli was ...
Yabsley, Michael J.; Shock, Barbara C.
Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease on all inhabited continents and various wildlife species are the principal reservoir hosts for zoonotic Babesia species. The primary vectors of Babesia are Ixodid ticks, with the majority of zoonotic species being transmitted by species in the genus Ixodes. Species of Babesia vary in their infectivity, virulence and pathogenicity for people. Various factors (e.g., increased interactions between people and the environment, increased immunosuppression,...
Sabrina Castilho Duarte; Juliana Alves Parente; Maristela Pereira; Célia Maria de Almeida Soares; Guido Fontgalland Coelho Linhares
The genus Babesia comprises protozoa that cause diseases known as babesiosis. Dogs are commonly affected by Babesia canis or Babesia gibsoni. Babesia canis is divided into the subspecies Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia canis rossi. Among these, Babesia canis vogeli predominates in Brazil. The objective of this study was to conduct a phylogenetic analysis on Babesia isolates from dogs in Goiânia, Goiás. Blood samples were obtained from 890 dogs presenting clinical signs s...
Chauvin, Alain; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Sarah; Plantard, Olivier; Malandrin, Laurence
Babesia, the causal agent of babesiosis, are tick-borne apicomplexan protozoa. True babesiae (Babesia genus sensu stricto) are biologically characterized by direct development in erythrocytes and by transovarial transmission in the tick. A large number of true Babesia species have been described in various vertebrate and tick hosts. This review presents the genus then discusses specific adaptations of Babesia spp. to their hosts to achieve efficient transmission. The main adaptations lead to ...
Khamesipour Faham; Doosti Abbas; Koohi Arman; Chehelgerdi Mohammad; Mokhtari-Farsani Abbas; Chengula Augustino Alfred
Babesia species are protozoan parasites that parasitize the erythrocytes of domestic animals and humans, causing anemia in the host. The parasites cause a zoonotic disease known as babesiosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proven to be very sensitive for detecting Babesia in blood samples of affected animals, particular in ruminants. The purpose of the current study was to determine the presence of Babesia spp. in blood samples obtained from 2 cattle,...
Wang, Huixuan; Huang, Fen
Introduction: Babesiosis is caused by apicomplexa parasites of the genus Babesia. Humans are commonly infected by Babesia through tick bites. There is limited information available about Babesia infection of humans in China. The aim of this study was to isolate the pathogen from a patient with severe parasitemia. Case Presentation: Blood samples were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), and red blood cells of bone marrow and blood smears ...
Teal, Allen E.; Habura, Andrea; Ennis, Jill; Keithly, Janet S.; Madison-Antenucci, Susan
Babesiosis is an emerging zoonosis with important public health implications, as the incidence of the disease has risen dramatically over the past decade. Because the current gold standard for detection of Babesia is microscopic examination of blood smears, accurate identification requires trained personnel. Species in the genus cannot be distinguished microscopically, and Babesia can also be confused with the early trophozoite stage (ring forms) of Plasmodium parasites. To allow more accurat...
Hamšíková, Zuzana; Kazimírová, Mária; Haruštiaková, Danka; Mahríková, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Berthová, Lenka; Kocianová, Elena; Schnittger, Leonhard
Background Babesiosis is an emerging and potentially zoonotic disease caused by tick-borne piroplasmids of the Babesia genus. New genetic variants of piroplasmids with unknown associations to vectors and hosts are recognized. Data on the occurrence of Babesia spp. in ticks and wildlife widen the knowledge on the geographical distribution and circulation of piroplasmids in natural foci. Questing and rodent-attached ticks, rodents, and birds were screened for the presence of Babesia-specific DN...
Bonnet, Sarah; Brisseau, Nadine; Hermouet, Axelle; Jouglin, Maggy; Chauvin, Alain
Babesia sp. (EU1), first characterized in 2003, has been implicated in human cases of babesiosis in Italy, Austria and Germany. It has been identified in roe deer and in its suspected tick vector, Ixodes ricinus, in several European countries. The aim of the present study was to validate the competence of I. ricinus as a vector of Babesia sp. (EU1) via experimental infections. For this purpose, a parasite strain isolated from roe deer was cloned in sheep erythrocytes. After experimental infec...
Laha, Ramgopal; Das, M; Sen, A
Babesiosis is a tick-borne hemoprotozoan disease of domestic and wild animals. The disease is caused by various species of Babesia and some species of Babesia have also zoonotic significance. The parasite in vertebrate hosts’ remains in erythrocytes and the morphology of Babesia spp. is not uniform in all vertebrate hosts. With the advancement of science, particularly the use of molecular techniques made it easy to study the evolution of parasites and thereby reclassifying Babesia spp. as per...
Vanessa Carla Lima da Silva; Evilda Rodrigues de Lima; Mirella Bezerra de Melo Colaço Dias; Fernanda Lúcia Passos Fukahori; Michelle Suassuna de Azevedo Rego; José Wilton Pinheiro Júnior; Pomy de Cássia Peixoto Kim; Renata Serpa Cordeiro Sá Leitão; Rinaldo Aparecido Mota; Elisa Paula de Oliveira Carieli
This work aims to detect the presence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs from Recife, Pernambuco via molecular and parasitological detection methods, and to assess the risk factors associated with this parasite. A total of 146 dogs (male and female) of varying breeds and ages that presented clinical symptoms of babesiosis were assessed at a clinical care center in the Veterinary School Hospital. Blood was obtained via venopuncture for hemoparasite detection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). U...
Zhou, Mo; Cao, Shinuo; Luo, Yuzi; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; IGUCHI, Aiko; Vudriko, Patrick; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Löwenstein, Mario; Kern, Angela; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Ikuo
Background Babesia canis is an apicomplexan tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan responsible for causing canine babesiosis in Europe and west Asia. Despite its importance, there is no known rapid diagnostic kit detection of B. canis infection in dogs. The present study identified two novel antigens of B. canis and used the recombinant antigens to establish a rapid, specific and sensitive serodiagnostic technique for detection of B. canis infection. Methods A complementary DNA (cDNA) expression libr...
Michelle H Hersh; Tibbetts, Michael; Strauss, Mia; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Keesing, Felicia
Human babesiosis is an increasing health concern in the northeastern United States, where the causal agent, Babesia microti, is spread through the bite of infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. We sampled 10 mammal and 4 bird species within a vertebrate host community in southeastern New York to quantify reservoir competence (mean percentage of ticks infected by an individual host) using real-time PCR. We found reservoir competence levels >17% in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), raccoons (...
Babesia bovis (B. bovis) is a major causative agent of bovine babesiosis, with a considerable worldwideimpact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of PCR assay and microscopicalexamination (ME) for detection of B. bovis in naturally infected and apparently healthy water buffaloes andcrossbred cattle under field circumstances from Sharkia province of Egypt. A total 34 animals (20 crossbredcattle and 14 buffaloes) were clinically and laboratory investigated during the per...
Eygelaar, Dewald; Jori, Ferran; Mokopasetso, Mokganedi; Sibeko, Kgomotso P.; Collins, Nicola E.; Vorster, Ilse; Troskie, Milana; Oosthuizen, Marinda C
Background The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a host for many pathogens known to cause economically important diseases and is often considered an important reservoir for livestock diseases. Theileriosis, heartwater, babesiosis and anaplasmosis are considered the most important tick-borne diseases of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in extensive economic losses to livestock farmers in endemic areas. Information on the distribution of tick-borne diseases and ticks is scarce in N...
Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva
Full Text Available Bovine babesiosis is an important disease of cattle where Rhipicephalus microplus acts as a vector for the two causal organisms Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. A total of 22 calves were randomly monitored during three years by semi-nested PCR assay and ELISA test to determine prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina. The overall prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina was 30% and 35% by nested PCR (nPCR, and 70% and 75% by ELISA, respectively. Statistical analysis of the characteristics of animals showed that age and tick infestations (p<0.05 might play an important role in the spread of babesiosis as animal less than 6 months old. A high correlation (Kappa index of 0.70 for B. bovis and 0.65 for B. bigemina, respectively between serological and molecular tests suggests that the combination of the utilized techniques in the present study is suitable for babesiosis diagnosis in an endemic unstable area.
Luis M. González
Full Text Available Human babesiosis is a zoonosis primarily transmitted through Ixodes ticks and alternatively by routes such as blood transfusions from asymptomatic donors. We report the first case of human babesiosis caused by Babesia divergens in a patient with HIV. This study also focuses on elucidating the possible transmission route of infection in this patient, who received numerous blood transfusions but showed patent symptoms only after splenectomy. A battery of detection tools along with a novel Western-Blot Assay and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay using the major surface protein of B. divergens (Bd37 as a target were used to evaluate the presence of B. divergens or antibodies against the parasite in samples from the patient and the blood donors involved in this case. A retrospective study of the humoral status against the parasite revealed B. divergens IgG antibodies in one of the implicated donors, but also showed that the patient had been already exposed to the parasite before any transfusion. Thus, this analysis of natural and transfusion transmission routes suggests a pre-existing subclinical babesiosis in the patient.
Corales, Joyce Marielle I; Viloria, Victoria V; Venturina, Virginia M; Mingala, Claro N
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia spp. in dogs. It describes the practice of veterinarians in detecting tick-borne diseases in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Seventy blood samples were collected and were subjected to multiplex PCR for the detection of E. canis, Babesia spp. and A. platys. The prevalence of babesiosis is the highest in Cabanatuan City (2/10), while a 10% prevalence (1/10) was observed in Science City of Muñoz, Talavera and Sta. Rosa. E. canis were only detected in Cabanatuan City. However, no anaplasmosis was detected in any area. The prevalence of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis in Nueva Ecija is 7.14% (5/70) and 2.85% (2/70) respectively. In addition, 70% (7/10) of the Nueva Ecija veterinary practitioners encountered cases of suspected ehrlichiosis in their practice. The diagnosis of ehrlichiosis is based primarily on presented clinical signs and complete blood counts, which include a platelet count. Of the 10 respondents, half utilized test kits while 90% interpreted blood samples. Meanwhile, only 60% of the respondents used an ELISA test kit for ehrlichiosis. For some practitioners, the main reason for not utilizing a kit is the high cost. None of the respondents had previously attended cases of suspected anaplasmosis. Only one respondent diagnosed a case of babesiosis by blood smear microscopy. PMID:25706424
Ana Paula Silva
Full Text Available Bovine babesiosis is an important disease of cattle where Rhipicephalus microplus acts as a vector for the two causal organisms Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. A total of 22 calves were randomly monitored during three years by semi-nested PCR assay and ELISA test to determine prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina. The overall prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina was 30% and 35% by nested PCR (nPCR, and 70% and 75% by ELISA, respectively. Statistical analysis of the characteristics of animals showed that age and tick infestations (p<0.05 might play an important role in the spread of babesiosis as animal less than 6 months old. A high correlation (Kappa index of 0.70 for B. bovis and 0.65 for B. bigemina, respectively between serological and molecular tests suggests that the combination of the utilized techniques in the present study is suitable for babesiosis diagnosis in an endemic unstable area.
Full text: Haemoparasitic diseases of animals have tremendous economic importance in the world. The main tick-borne infections affecting cattle and sheep in Turkey are babesiosis and theileriosis. Babesiosis caused by Babesia bovis and B.ovis has a considerable negative impact on animal industry. Also, theileriosis is one of the limiting factors in cattle production. The importance of haemoprotozoan diseases has been emphasized for many years in Turkey. But, no serious attempt has been made to solve this problem. First, it has been considered that it is important to determine the distribution of babesiosis and theileriosis using sero-diagnostic tests. Since the 1980's, special attention has been given to develop of serologic tests for the diagnosis of haemoparasitic diseases. Mainly ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), IFAT (indirect fluorescent antibody test) and RIA (radio immunoassay) test have been used in the serological studies. Sero-epidemiological investigations have shown that both babesiosis and theileriosis are prevalent in most regions of Turkey. Greatest progress has been made with vaccines for the control of Haemoprotozoan infections. The use of living parasites to immunize the ruminants against the spread of babesiosis and theileriosis has been employed for a log time in livestock management with varying success. Although attenuated vaccines have been effective, they have several problems associated with them, among the most important is the cotransmission of the other enzootic agents and a short shelf life. Therefore, there are studies targeted at developing other preventive techniques. Irradiate Babesia spp-infected erythrocytes have been used to prevent parasitaemia. It was observed that irradiated organism are non-transmissible by the tick vector and do not revert to virulence after 12 months in a carrier animal. Culture-derived vaccine against theileriosis has been used widely and successfully is safe in all breeds of cattle and provides
Haemoparasitic diseases of animals have tremendous economic importance in the world. The main tick-borne infections affecting cattle and sheep in Turkey are babesiosis and theileriosis. Babesiosis caused by Babesia bovis and B.ovis has a considerable negative impact on animal industry. Also, theileriosis is one of the limiting factors in cattle production. The importance of haemoprotozoan diseases has been emphasized for many years in Turkey. But, no serious attempt has been made to solve this problem. First, it has been considered that it is important to determine the distribution of babesiosis and theileriosis using sero-diagnostic tests. Since the 1980's, special attention has been given to develop of serologic tests for the diagnosis of haemoparasitic diseases. Mainly ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), IFAT (indirect fluorescent antibody test) and RIA (radio immunoassay) test have been used in the serological studies. Sero-epidemiological investigations have shown that both babesiosis and theileriosis are prevalent in most regions of Turkey. Greatest progress has been made with vaccines for the control of Haemoprotozoan infections. The use of living parasites to immunize the ruminants against the spread of babesiosis and theileriosis has been employed for a log time in livestock management with varying success. Although attenuated vaccines have been effective, they have several problems associated with them, among the most important is the cotransmission of the other enzootic agents and a short shelf life. Therefore, there are studies targeted at developing other preventive techniques. Irradiate Babesia spp-infected erythrocytes have been used to prevent parasitaemia. It was observed that irradiated organism are non-transmissible by the tick vector and do not revert to virulence after 12 months in a carrier animal. Culture-derived vaccine against theileriosis has been used widely and successfully is safe in all breeds of cattle and provides at least
Full Text Available The babesias are one of the most ubiquitous and widespread blood parasites in the worldbased on numbers and distribution of species in animals, second only to the trypanosomes . They generally have two classes of hosts, an invertebrate and a vertebrate host. The maintenance of Babesia spp. Is dependent on both hosts; the specific tick vector must feed on a vertebrate reservoir that is competante in maintaining the Babesia organisms in an infectious state. Therefore, B. microti presents itself as an emerging zoonosis only in areas where there is a primary competent reservoir. The first documented case of babesiosis in humans was in 1957 . A splenectomized farmer in Yugoslavia was diagnosed with a B. bovis infection. But now most cases of babesial infections in humans have been asquired in temperate regions of the USA and Europe. That a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite, one of the causative agents of piroplasmosis (babesiosis. The disease is characterized by sings of malaise, inappetence, fever, hemolytic anemia and hemoglobinuria. The parasite has a wide distribution and occurs on all continents, except Australia. The life cycle of the parasite in animals organism (equine hosts, traveling dogs, cats comprises two intracellular stages: sporozoites innoculated by infected ticks develop into schizonts within lymphocytes where they maltiply and subsequently transform into microzoites, which then invide erythrocytes. Purpose of the experiment’s to study the influence of the babesious infection to nonliner female mice stomach structure. Materials and methods. The examinational material of this investigations are the female nonliner controle intact miсe of the 4-6-week-old (n=15 and such paterns, which were with the babesious infection (n=45. For all of examinational animals groups were used macroscopic and hystological methods. Macroscopic analysis was included organoleptic, biomechanical, microtopographical methods of investigations (external
Fang, Deanna C; McCullough, Jeffrey
Because testing of donors for Babesia microti has become available, it is important to determine the kinds of patients who should receive B microti-tested blood. We searched PubMed, AABB abstracts, and FDA Web site to identify all cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB). Cases were analyzed for underlying medical condition, age, presence of spleen, and reason for transfusion in relation to 5 classes of recipient outcome severity. Sixty-seven reports included 256 transfusion cases where donor tested positive for B microti, 165 of which resulted in TTB. Sixty recipients did not develop disease or become test positive, and test results were not known for 31 more. The 165 cases of TTB involved hematologic (19%), neonate (10%), cardiovascular (8%), and gastrointestinal (6%) patients. Thirty-two (19%) of the 165 infected patients died with death attributed to babesiosis in 25 of the cases. Nine (5%) were asymptomatic, 27 (16%) were symptomatic but had uncomplicated disease, and 16 (10%) had complicated disease. The severity of disease was mixed among many disease categories. Patients >65 years of age included the largest number of recipients (59/165, 36%) and deaths (11/32, 34%), although deaths occurred in other age groups as well. TTB cases were predominantly due to red cells (133 of 140 specified units), with red blood cell units processed in a variety of ways and at all storage duration. TTB with complicated babesiosis and/or death occurred in patients of all age groups and with a variety of underlying medical conditions. PMID:27260107
Ewa J Mierzejewska
Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Tick-borne infections constitute an increasing health problem in dogs and may lead to death, especially in young or elderly individuals. Canine babesiosis constitutes a serious health problem in dogs worldwide. The aim of the study was to verify the probability of vertical transmission of [i]Babesia canis[/i] between the bitch and the pups. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. In Autumn 2011, cases of babesiosis were diagnosed in a litter of 6-week-old puppies of a Central Asian Shepherd dog. Immediately following the first case of infection, blood samples were collected from all the pups in the litter (n=10 and from the female. Detection of Babesia infection was performed by molecular and microscopical techniques. [b]Results.[/b] The presence of[i] B. canis [/i]DNA was detected using PCR in three pups, presenting at the time or 24–48 hours later with babesiosis symptoms, and in their asymptomatic mother. The isolates derived from the pups and the female – 520 bp 18S rRNA gene fragment – were compared and analyzed. All isolates from the pups and their mother were identical and showed 100% homology with [i]B. canis[/i] group B (EU622793, supporting the same source of infection. Additionally, the USG of the peritoneal cavity was performed in the female, presenting evidence for splenomegaly. [b]Conclusions.[/b] On the basis of (1 the same timing of three pup cases; (2 the identical [i]B. canis[/i] sequences derived from all positive dogs; (3 evident splenomegaly in the asymptomatic female, this provides the first evidence of the vertical transmission of this piroplasm in dogs.
Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples
Park, HyunJoo; Kim, Kyoohyun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Youngchan; Lee, SangEun; Park, YongKeun
Babesia microti causes emergency human babesiosis. However, little is known about the alterations in B. microti invaded red blood cells (Bm-RBCs) at the individual cell level. Through quantitative phase imaging techniques based on laser interferometry, we present the simultaneous measurements of structural, chemical, and mechanical modifications in individual mouse Bm-RBCs. 3-D refractive index maps of individual RBCs and in situ parasite vacuoles are imaged, from which total contents and concentration of dry mass are also precisely quantified. In addition, we examine the dynamic membrane fluctuation of Bm-RBCs, which provide information on cell membrane deformability.
Michael J. Brumlik
Full Text Available Protozoan pathogens are a highly diverse group of unicellular organisms, several of which are significant human pathogens. One group of protozoan pathogens includes obligate intracellular parasites such as agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis. The other group includes extracellular pathogens such as agents of giardiasis and amebiasis. An unfortunate unifying theme for most human protozoan pathogens is that highly effective treatments for them are generally lacking. We will review targeting protozoan mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs as a novel drug discovery approach towards developing better therapies, focusing on Plasmodia, Leishmania, and Toxoplasma, about which the most is known.
Babesia bovis, the most important etiological agent causing bovine babesiosis, is widely distributed in Cuba and affects mainly adult cattle. A survey of the prevalence of the disease in cattle using an ELISA kit (FAO/IAEA) revealed that 34.2% of the animals between 6 and 18 months of age were positive to Babesia bovis, whereas 69.9% on the cattle older than 18 months were positive. Antibodies to Babesia bovis were detected in 96.9% of calves vaccinated with an attenuated Babesia bovis vaccine. A good correlation was found between the results of ELISA kit with those from indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests developed in Cuba. (author)
牛巴贝斯虫病(Babesiosis)是由巴贝斯虫(Babesia,app.)寄生于牛的红细胞内而引起的一种世界性动物原虫病。目前，已经报道的牛巴贝斯虫有8种，但被公认的只有4种，即Babesia divergens、Babesia maior、Babesia boris和Babesia bigeraina，其中以B．boris和B．bigemina分布广泛而且危害严重。
Valerie Byrnes; Sanjiv Chopra; Margaret J Koziel
An inefficient cellular immune response likely leads to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Resolution of chronic HCV infection in the absence of treatment is a rare occurrence. We report the case of a 39-year old white male with a 17-year history of chronic HCV infection, who eradicated HCV following a serious illness due to co-infection with Babesia (babesiosis), Borriela Borgdorferi (Lyme disease) and Ehrlichia (human granulocytic ehrlichiosis). We hypothesize that the cellular immune response mounted by this patient in response to his infection with all three agents but in particular Babesia was sufficient to eradicate HCV.
Man, Su-Qin; Qiao, Ke; Cui, Jie; Feng, Meng; Fu, Yong-Feng; Cheng, Xun-Jia
Background Babesiosis is an uncommon but emerging tick-borne disease caused by the genus Babesia. In this case study, we report a case of human infection with a novel Babesia sp. in China. Findings The patient in question had been suffering from repetitive occurrences of mild fever of unknown origin and fatigue for 10 years. Ring forms, tetrads, and one or two dots of chromatin or trophozoite-like organisms were observed in the patient’s thin blood smears and bone marrow smears. Using a confo...
Oluwatoyin Catherine Agbonifo
Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI is the core of computing research that makes machine to mimic the intelligence of a man. Intelligent means less of user interaction and automated adaptation to changing environment. When compared to other primitive techniques used in the past, AI has been highly efficient in knowledge acquisition in diverse areas of application. In the light of this, the paper focuses on intelligent technique of determining the possible diseases that affect the life of cattle. Hence, fuzzy expert technique is proposed for the diagnosis of the Antrax, Babesiosis, Blackleg and Epizootic Hemorrrhapic diseases. The result generated by the system was sufficient to demonstrate its performance.
As part of a tick-borne disease control programme in the Lesser Antilles, studies were undertaken to determine the prevalence of cowdriosis, babesiosis and anaplasmosis in an effort to determine what the impact of tick eradication would be. The epidemiological situation for bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis is unstable in all the islands of the Lesser Antilles, but the clinical cases are only recorded in imported breeds, which represent less than 5% of the cattle population. The native cattle population react as if naturally resistant. When the A. variegatum tick eradication campaign begins, it will be necessary, by the end of the acaricide treatment regime, to immunize all the imported cattle born during that period, and possibly all of the seronegative imported cattle already on the islands. Both Antigua and Guadeloupe have a long history of infestation with the tick and both have experienced clinical cases of cowdriosis. On the other islands, less than 6% of the sera were positive and this correlates well also with an apparent absence of clinical cases of cowdriosis. (author)
Mousam Das; Sabyasachi Konar
Objective: To observe other hemoprotozoan diseases with canine ehrlichiosis and to evaluate the clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with ehrlichiosis with other hemoprotozoan diseases.Methods:Blood was collected for hematological value and Giemsa stained blood smear was made for diagnosis of Ehrlichia sp. and other hemoprotozoan parasites from naturally infected dogs. Case history was taken from the owner and clinical signs and symptoms were noted.Results:A total of 47 cases of ehrlichiosis in dogs were reported with babesiosis (8.51%) and hepatozoonosis (6.38%) hemoprotozoan diseases. Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, Brucella canis,Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis were observed under oil immersion lense of microscope in Giemsa stained peripheral blood smears. Marked anaemia and neutrophilic leukocytosis were observed.Conclusions:The results of this study stated that clinical and haematological changes occurred in canine ehrlichiosis with babesiosis and hepatozoonosis due to parasitemia. In mixed infection, the disease more severe, and also it depended on immunity of animals. Babesia gibsoni andHepatozoon canis with Ehrlichia sp. were first reported from West Bengal state of India by this study.
Samreen Zulfiqar; Ali Saeed; Furhan Iqbal; Sadia Shahnawaz; Muhammad Ali; Arif Mahmood Bhutta; Shahid Iqbal; Sikandar Hayat; Shazia Qadir; Muhammad Latif; Nazia Kiran
Objective:To determine the presence of Babesia bovis (B. bovis) in large ruminants in southern Punjab and its effect on hematological and serum biochemical profile of host animals. Methods:Blood samples were collected from 144 large ruminants, including 105 cattle and 39 buffaloes, from six districts in southern Punjab including Multan, Layyah, Muzaffar Garh, Bhakar, Bahawalnagar and Vehari. Data on the characteristics of animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. Different blood (hemoglobin, glucose) and serum (ALT, AST, LDH, cholesterol) parameters of calves and cattle were measured and compared between parasite positive and negative samples to demonstrate the effect of B. bovis on the blood and serological profile of infected animals. Results:27 out of 144 animals, from 5 out of 6 sampling districts, produced the 541-bp fragment specific for B. bovis. Age of animals (P=0.02), presence of ticks on animals (P=0.04) and presence of ticks on dogs associated with herds (P=0.5) were among the major risk factors involved in the spread of bovine babesiosis in the study area. ALT concentrations were the only serum biochemical values that significantly varied between parasite positive and negative cattle. Conclusions:This study has reported for the first time the presence of B. bovis in large ruminant and the results can lead to the prevention of babesiosis in the region to increase the livestock output.
An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for detect antibodies to Babesia bovis, an intraerytrocitic bovine parasite was evaluated using known negative and positive samples and the results were compared with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Results obtained with field samples were used to estimate seroprevalence of B. bovis in an endemic area to the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) vector of bovine babesiosis. Percentage of positivity (PP) values (optical density of tested serum/mean optical density of positive control) on 274 negative samples, had major values ranged in the frequency of 4.0 to 7.0 PP. Comparison between ELISA and IFAT showed an agreement of 93.3% on field sera samples, collected in areas of low, good and high soil fertility in the region of Bage (31 degree 20 min 13 sec S, 54 degree 06 min 21 sec W), RS, Brazil. From 5,082 tested sera, 3,751 (73%) were positive for B. bovis antibodies. No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed between results from calves living in areas of low and good soil fertility (80 and 82% of seroprevalence, respectively). However, calves living in soil of high fertility showed a minor inoculation rate for B. bovis (63% of seroprevalence), indicating needs of measures to prevent losses due to babesiosis. (author)
Arthur M. Spickett
Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.
Røed Knut H
Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices. This is a potentially serious disease, with both economical and animal welfare consequences. Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens. Methods We tested sera from 306 healthy pastured cows from 24 farms along the southern Norwegian coast by using an indirect immunofluorescence IgG antibody test (IFAT. Fractions of seropositive cows were compared by calculating 95% CI. Results The results of this test showed that 27% of the sera were positive for B. divergens antibodies. The fraction of antibody-positive sera that we detected showed a two-humped distribution, with a high fraction of positives being found in municipalities in the western and eastern parts of the study area, while the municipalities between these areas had few or no positive serum samples. Conclusions Neither the farmers' observations nor the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System give an adequate picture of the distribution of bovine babesiosis. Serological testing of cows by using IFAT is a convenient way of screening for the presence of B. divergens in an area.
Valle, Manuel Rodriguez; Mèndez, Luis; Valdez, Mario; Redondo, Miguel; Espinosa, Carlos Montero; Vargas, Milagro; Cruz, Ricardo Lleonart; Barrios, Humberto Perez; Seoane, Guillermo; Ramirez, Emerio Serrano; Boue, Oscar; Vigil, Jorge Lodos; Machado, Héctor; Nordelo, Carlos Borroto; Piñeiro, Marisdania Joglar
Boophilus microplus has developed resistance against a range of chemical acaricides which has stimulated the development of alternative methods such as vaccination against ticks. In Cuba, the Bm86-based recombinant vaccine Gavac has been successfully used in a number of controlled laboratory and field trials in cattle against B. microplus. In this paper, we have evaluated Gavac in a large scale field trial wherein 588,573 dairy cattle were vaccinated with the aim to reduce the number of acaricidal treatments. It was found that the number of acaricidal treatments could be reduced by 87% over a period of 8 years (1995--2003). Prior to the introduction of the vaccine, 54 clinical cases of babesiosis and six fatal cases were reported per 1000 animals. Six years later, the incidence of babesiosis was reduced to 1.9 cases per 1000 cattle and mortality reduced to 0.18 per 1000. The national consumption of acaricides in Cuba could be reduced by 82% after the implementation of the integrated anti-B. microplus control program. PMID:15651533
Full Text Available Babesia ovis and Theileria ovis are among the important and main etiological agents causing ovine babesiosis and ovine theileriosis, causing severe economic losses among sheep and goats. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and molecular diagnosis of B. ovis and T. ovis in Lohi sheep at Livestock Experiment Station Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.The prevalence of B. ovis and T. ovis was investigated in 200 Lohi sheep of mixed age and sex by PCR during 2011. The assay was employed using primers Bbo-F & Bbo-R, specific for a 549-bp fragment in B. ovis genomic DNA and primers TSsr 170F & TSsr 670R, specific for a 520-bp fragment in T. ovis genomic DNA. The animals were also screened for both haemoparasites through stained thin blood smears.Thirty two (16%, 48 (24% and 26 (13% were the number of animals found positive for B. ovis, T. ovis and for mixed infection with both parasites, respectively, through microscopy. Sixty eight (34%, 73 (37% and 42 (21% were the number of animals found positive for B. ovis, T. ovis and for mixed infection with both parasites, respectively, through PCR test.The results indicate the high sensitivity of PCR for surveying babesiosis and theileriosis and there is noteworthy prevalence of these diseases in sheep at an experimental station where environmental conditions are relatively controlled as compared to field conditions.
Marlene I. Vargas
Full Text Available Ten male, 12-month-old Jersey with intact spleens, serologically and parasitologically free from Babesia were housed individually in an arthropod-free isolation system from birth and throughout entire experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups. Five animals (group A were intravenously inoculated with 6.6 X10(7 red blood cells parasitized with pathogenic sample of Babesia bovis (passage 7 BboUFV-1, for the subsequent "ex vivo" determination of the expression of adhesion molecules. Five non-inoculated animals (group B were used as the negative control. The expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM, PECAM-1 E-selectin and thrombospondin (TSP was measured in bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVECs. The endothelial cells stimulated with a pool of plasma from animals infected with the BboUFV-1 7th passage sample had a much more intense immunostaining of ICAM-1, VCAM, PECAM-1 E-selectin and TSP, compared to the cells which did not received the stimulus. The results suggest that proinflammatory cytokines released in the acute phase of babesiosis may be involved in the expression of adhesion molecules thereby implicating them in the pathophysiology of babesiosis caused by B. bovis.
Full Text Available Bovine babesiosis is endemic in Venezuela, causing significant losses in highly susceptible imported cattle. Current immunoprphylatic methods include the less desirable use of live parasites. Inactivated vaccines derived from exoantigen-containing supernatant fluids of in vitro Babesia bovis and B. bigemina cultures have been developed and constitute a major improvement in vaccine safety, stability and ease of handling. Vaccination trials conducted under field conditions provide the final evaluation of a culture-derived B. bovis-B. bigemina vaccine. During a 5-year period, approximately 8,000 cattle were vaccinated and 16 clinical trials carried out in. 7 states of Venezuela Clinical, serologic and parasitologic data were collected monthly from 10% of the animals over a 2-year period. Data were also collected from a similar number of nonvaccinated control cattle. Analysis of results from these trials demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of clinical disease among vaccinated animals and complete protection against mortality among vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle. Use of this inactivated vaccine offers the best combination od safety, potency and efficacy for thew immunoprophylatic control of bovine babesiosis.
Full Text Available Babesia ovis plays an important role in causing anemia and kidney dysfunction in affected animals. There are few extensive studies about hematological and biochemical findings of small ruminants' babesiosis caused by B. ovis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on some hematological and biochemical parameters in infected small ruminants with B. ovis. A total of 280 sheep and 122 goats from 40 herds were randomly examined for the presence of B. ovis in blood samples. Of 402 samples, 67 animals (16.7% were positive for B. ovis of which 52 (18.5% were sheep and 15 (12.2% goats, respectively. The infected animals were divided into four subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1%, 2%, and 3%. As a control group, 67 uninfected animals were also selected from the same farms. With increase in parasitemia rates, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBCs, mean corpuscular volume (MCV and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC significantly decreased (P < 0.05, while, total leukocyte count, number of lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil showed a significant increase (P < 0.05. Infected animals presented a significant elevation (P < 0.05 of total proteins and significantly lower level (P < 0.05 of albumin compared to non-infected animals. Significant elevation (P < 0.05 of BUN, creatinine, cholestrol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL level were found with parasitemia progression.
Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.
Full Text Available A case-control study was carried out to investigate a syndrome in smallholder dairy cattle in East Usambara Mountains characterised by urination of clotted blood. Smallholder dairy farms with the problem (cases were matched with nearest farms without the problem (controls. In total, 30 farmers from Mbomole (19, Shebomeza (9 and Mlesa (2 villages in Amani division participated in the study. Using a structured questionnaire, information on risk factors associated with conditions characterised by passage of red urine in cattle was collected. In addition, serum samples from 80 smallholder dairy animals were collected and submitted for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis and babesiosis by microscopic agglutination test (MAT and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, respectively. Laboratory analysis showed that the seroprevalence of leptospirosis and babesiosis was 21.3 % and 46.3 %, respectively and there was no significant difference between 'case' and 'control' farms (P > 0.05, hence the occurrence of urination of clotted blood syndrome in Amani was not explained. However, bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum was found to be ubiquitous in the area, and also found to be widespread in all areas used as sources of animal fodder. Given the presence and distribution of bracken ferns and clinical signs and post-mortem lesions described by informants, chronic bracken-fern poisoning is more likely to be associated with the syndrome affecting animals in the study area. However, further investigation is required to confirm this observation so that appropriate control strategies can be devised.
Full Text Available Human babesiosis is caused by one of several babesial species transmitted by ixodid ticks that have distinct geographical distributions based on the presence of competent animal hosts. The pathology of babesiosis, like malaria, is a consequence of the parasitaemia which develops through the cyclical replication of Babesia parasites in a patient's red blood cells, though symptoms typically are nonspecific. We have identified the gene encoding Rhoptry-Associated Protein -1 (RAP-1 from a human isolate of B. divergens, Rouen1987 and characterized its protein product at the molecular and cellular level. Consistent with other Babesia RAP-1 homologues, BdRAP-1 is expressed as a 46 kDa protein in the parasite rhoptries, suggesting a possible role in red cell invasion. Native BdRAP-1 binds to an unidentified red cell receptor(s that appears to be non-sialylated and non-proteinacious in nature, but we do not find significant reduction in growth with anti-rRAP1 antibodies in vitro, highlighting the possibility the B. divergens is able to use alternative pathways for invasion, or there is an alternative, complementary, role for BdRAP-1 during the invasion process. As it is the parasite's ability to recognize and then invade host cells which is central to clinical disease, characterising and understanding the role of Babesia-derived proteins involved in these steps are of great interest for the development of an effective prophylaxis.
Rhee, Hanna; Cameron, Daniel J
Lyme disease (LD) is a complex, multisystemic illness. As the most common vector- borne disease in the United States, LD is caused by bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, with potential coinfections from agents of anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis. Persistent symptoms and clinical signs reflect multiorgan involvement with episodes of active disease and periods of remission, not sparing the coveted central nervous system. The capability of microorganisms to cause and exacerbate various neuropsychiatric pathology is also seen in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), a recently described disorder attributed to bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in which neurologic tics and obsessive-compulsive disorders are sequelae of the infection. In the current overview, LD and PANDAS are juxtaposed through a review of their respective infectious etiologies, clinical presentations, mechanisms of disease development, courses of illness, and treatment options. Future directions related to immunoneuropsychiatry are also discussed. PMID:22393303
Full Text Available A total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. By doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14 724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. Haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14 226 of the ticks. Pure infestations of H. leachi were present on 14 dogs and of R. sanguineus on 172 dogs. Small numbers of Amblyomma hebraeum, R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. simus were also collected. The predominance of R. sanguineus accounts for the high prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis within the survey region, compared to canine babesiosis (Babesia canis, which is transmitted by H. leachi, and is a much rarer disease.
Full Text Available The aim of this communication is to provide preliminary information on the tick-borne pathogens of potential zoonotic importance present in southern Africa, mainly focusing on their geographical distribution and host range, and to identify research gaps. The following tick-borne zoonoses have been reported to occur in southern Africa based mainly on case reports: Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever caused by Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever virus; ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia ruminantium, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum; babesiosis caused by Babesia microti; relapsing fever caused by Borrelia duttonii and rickettsioses caused by Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia aeschlimannii and Rickettsia conorii. The epidemiological factors influencing their occurrence are briefly reviewed.
apparently healthy, 5 animals (26.3%) were identified as infected by ME meanwhile 15 animals (78.9%) were identified by PCR. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that water buffalos are likely to have a natural tolerance to B. bovis pathogen and/or more likely to be persistent carriers which were not...... picked up by microscopy. The severity of clinical symptoms of B. bovis infection on water buffaloes was less than the severity of clinical symptoms appeared on cattle. PCR assay is more sensitive technique than microscopical examination for detection of B. bovis in both clinically infected and apparently.......Babesia bovis (B. bovis) is a major causative agent of bovine babesiosis, with a considerable worldwide impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of PCR assay and microscopical examination (ME) for detection of B. bovis in naturally infected and apparently healthy water...
Background: There is a little or no data available on the natural Babesia bovis (B. bovis) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) comparing to the available one for cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes in comparison to crossbred....... Conclusion: This paper documents the first description of natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes which were found to be more likely to be tolerant than cattle to the natural clinical infection with B. bovis and its subsequent haematological changes. Our finding may lead to a better understanding of...... cattle under field conditions in Egypt. Methods: A total of 35 buffaloes and cattle were clinically and laboratory investigated from March to June 2008. Twenty-nine buffaloes and cattle out of 35 were naturally infected with B. bovis and showed signs of bovine babesiosis. Three cows and three buffaloes...
Full Text Available Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia gibsoni was diagnosed in a 3-month-old Pit-bull pup during a routine clinical examination. Diagnosis was confirmed by way of smear examination, PCR, Reverse Line Blot (RLB and sequence analysis which showed 100% homology with B. gibsoni (Japan AB118032 and Babesia sp. (Oklahoma (AF205636. Haematology showed moderate anaemia and severe thrombocytopenia. Treatment was initiated with diminazene aceturate (Berenil RTU(R followed by 2 doses of imidocarb diproprionate (Forray-65(R 3 days and 14 days later, respectively. Babesia gibsoni DNA was still detectable 2 weeks post-treatment on the PCR/RLB test. A 10-day course of combination drug therapy using atovaquone and azithromycin was initiated. Blood samples taken on Day 1 and Day 40 after completion of treatment were negative for B. gibsoni DNA on PCR/RLB test. The implications of a possible introduction of B. gibsoni into South Africa are discussed.
Full Text Available Canine babesiosis caused by tick-borne organisms of the genus Babesia, is one of the most significant disease worldwide. The aims of this study were to determine the hematological changes in six dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis. The hematological evaluation included Hemoglobin (Hb, Red Blood Cell (RBC, Platelet, Packet Cell Volume (PCV, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC and Reticulocyte counts. They were estimated using an autonomic hematologic analyzer. The animal had hypocytic hypochromic anemia and 20% of the cases had a packed cell volume (PCV less of 24%. All the animal had thrombocytopenia and platelets counts was lower than 50x103 cell/ µl The results of this study show that Babesia infection in dogs caused anemia and thrombocytopenia.
Full Text Available Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophils microplus and the agent of bovine babesiosis, Babesia bovis are unsatisfactory. Effective immunological control of both parasites would have great advantages. However, naturally acquired immunity to the tick is generally unable to prevent serious production losses. A vaccine against the tick, based on a novel form of immunization, is being developed. A protective antigen has been isolated from the tick, characterized and produced as an effective, recombinant protein. A vaccine incorporating this antigen is currently undergoing field trials. In the Australian situation, improved tick control will probably increase endemic instability with respect to B. bovis. Fortunately, a trivalent, recombinant B. bovis vaccine has also been developed. This too is now undergoing pre-registration field trials.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate parasitemia and packed cell volume patterns of dogs experimentally inoculated with two isolates of Babesia canis: one from Belo Horizonte (BH and the other from Lavras (Lv, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Both isolates showed similar patterns, with the peak of parasitemia occurring three days post-infection. From the fourth day, parasitemia was detected in low levels (0.01% with small periodical increases. The packed cell volume decreased after the parasitemia beginning, with oscillations during the experimental period. All dogs remained apparently normal, except one, which had been inoculated with the BH isolate and presented classical clinical signs of babesiosis (weakness, anemia, hemoglobinuria and depression. The results suggest that the studied isolates have low pathogenicity, and point to the need for further studies aiming to characterize the subspecies of Brazilian isolates.
De Waal, D T; Van Heerden, J; Van den Berg, S S; Stegmann, G F; Potgieter, F T
Both Babesia equi and Babesia caballi are endemic in large parts of South Africa. Attempts were made to obtain pure local isolates of both B. equi and B. caballi for the purpose of developing serological tests to study the epidemiology of equine babesiosis in this country. The indirect fluorescent antibody test was used to screen horses for B. equi and B. caballi in an endemic area. Seven horses and 3 donkeys between 3 and 36 months of age that tested negative were subsequently splenectomized. The splenectomy operation was performed through the abdominal approach. A 100% survival rate was achieved through this method, probably because it reduced the risk involved in the operation. Blood collected from naturally infected horses and passaged in fully susceptible splenectomized horses and a donkey, under laboratory conditions, produced 2 isolates of Babesia caballi and 1 of B. equi. Microscopical and serological examinations confirmed that these were pure isolates. PMID:3353098
Singh, Gagandeep; Sehgal, Rakesh
The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas' disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply. PMID:20859503
Full Text Available The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas′ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.
Gray, Jeremy S; Kahl, Olaf; Lane, Robert S; Levin, Michael L; Tsao, Jean I
Four members of the Ixodes ricinus species complex, Ixodes pacificus, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis, have, between them, a worldwide distribution within the northern hemisphere. They are responsible for the transmission of several animal and human pathogens, including the causal agents of Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human babesiosis. Despite the importance of these ticks as vectors, the knowledge and understanding of the role that diapause plays in their complex life cycles are confused and incomplete. In view of the continuing geographic spread of these tick species, as well as the effects of climate change on vector-borne diseases, it is timely to encourage research on diapause phenomena to improve understanding of their biology and of pathogen transmission dynamics. In our review we seek to clarify thinking on the topic and to address gaps in our knowledge that require the attention of researchers. PMID:27263092
A. William, S.U.R. Chaudhari1 and N.N. Atsandac2
Full Text Available A 3-year (retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of diseases; clinical conditions of dogs and cats presented at the Government Veterinary Clinic, Maiduguri from January 1995 to December 1997. The prevalent diseases; conditions of dogs included helminthosis (19.19%, accidental injury (18.18%, tick infestation ( 15.15% , canine distemper (8.42% , diarrhoea ( 6.73%, mange ( 7.41%, rabies (5.05% and babesiosis (4.71%, Prevalent diseases/conditions of cats included helminthosis (26.67%. tick infestation ( 8.89%. diarrhea ( 16.67%, nutritional deficiencies ( 15.56% and respiratory infections ( 12.22%. Of highest prevalence in both dogs and cats was helminthosis (20.93%, followed by tick infestation (13. 70% and diarrhea (9.04% suggesting a poor husbandy of these pets in Maiduguri area. Cases of automobile accidental injury of dogs were also high, probably due to the same factors of poor husbandry.
Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.
Full Text Available Background: Small ruminants’ babesiosis caused by Babesia ovis, is transmitted during blood feeding by infected ticks and is the most economically important tick-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out to to estimate the infection rate of B. ovis in sheep and goats by PCR. We have analysed risk factors that might influence infection of sheep and goats with B. ovis.Methods: A total 402 blood samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Babesia infection. All samples were tested by PCR. During sampling, whole body of each animal and farm dogs was examined for the presence of ticks.Results: Forty-two animals (10.4% were positive for Babesia spp. upon microscopic examination, whereas 67 animals (16.7% yielded the specific DNA for B. ovis of which 52 animals were sheep and 15 animals were goats.Twenty-nine farms (72.5% were found positive for B. ovis. The percentage of positive animals in each location varied from 13 % to 20 %. The relative risk of the presence of ticks in sheep and goats (P< 0.01 and farm dogs (P< 0.01 for PCRpositive results forB. ovis in sheep and goats was found 3.8 and 2.9, respectively. A total of 747 ticks identified as Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sanguineus and R. turanicus on the basis of morphological features.Conclusion: Other animal species besides dogs may also be risk factors for babesiosis in sheep and goats. Also, R. bursa may play an important role as a vector of the parasite in Iran.
Su-Qin Man; Ke Qiao; Jie Cui; Meng Feng; Yong-Feng Fu; Xun-Jia Cheng
Background:Babesiosis is an uncommon but emerging tick-borne disease caused by the genus Babesia.In this case study,we report a case of human infection with a novel Babesia sp.in China.Findings:The patient in question had been suffering from repetitive occurrences of mild fever of unknown origin and fatigue for 10 years.Ring forms,tetrads,and one or two dots of chromatin or trophozoite-like organisms were observed in the patient's thin blood smears and bone marrow smears.Using a confocal laser-scanning microscope,it was observed that the patient's serum had reactivity with the surface proteins of the B.microti strain.Electron microscopy revealed oval red blood cells with 1 ～ 2 μm of knob protrusions in the cellular membrane.The results of the Babesia-specific nested PCR assay for 18S rRNA confirmed the presence of Babesia infection.The construction of a phylogenetic relationship showed clustering with B.microti and B.duncani,which was identified as a novel Babesia species and named as Babesia sp.XXB/HangZhou.Azithromycin,doxycycline,and moxifloxacin hydrochloride were shown to relieve symptoms but were not as effective after continuous usage.After atovaquone (Mepron(R)) administration,the patient recovered from fever and tested negative for detection of Babesia-specific genes.Conclusion:Babesia sp.XXB/HangZhou is a novel Babesia species,which causes mild babesiosis in an immunocompetent patient.
Sevinc, Ferda; Cao, Shinuo; Xuan, Xuenan; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ceylan, Onur
In order to identify immunoreactive proteins that are usable for the immunological diagnosis of Babesia ovis infections, a phage lambda cDNA expression library was constructed and screened using parasite-specific immune serum. Immunoscreening resulted in the identification of a full-length cDNA clone encoding a secreted protein designated Babesia ovis secreted antigen 1 (BoSA1). The full-length BoSA1 cDNA contained a 1,137-bp open reading frame that encoded a protein of 378 amino acids, with a signal peptide and 2 internal repeat domains. The theoretical molecular mass of the mature protein was 42.5 kDa. Recombinant BoSA1 (rBoSA1) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli strain DH5α cells as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein and was purified by affinity chromatography. Purified rBoSA1 was tested for reactivity with sera from animals experimentally or naturally infected with B. ovis, in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that specific antibodies against rBoSA1 were detectable on days 7 and 8 of the experimental infection and were maintained during the sampling period. Additionally, 38 field sera taken from sheep naturally infected with B. ovis gave strong positive reactions in the ELISA between day 20 and day 30 of treatment. As a result, the identified recombinant BoSA1 protein seems to be a promising diagnostic antigen that is usable for the development of serological assays for the diagnosis of ovine babesiosis. This is the first report on the molecular cloning, expression, and potential use of a recombinant antigen for the diagnosis of ovine babesiosis. PMID:25694531
Full Text Available Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi, as well as the effects of these infections on hematological variables. We tested 45 blood samples from 36 individuals and identified two species of Plasmodium, one species of Babesia and two species of filarial nematodes. Plasmodium spp. and Babesia sp. infections showed opposite patterns of age-dependency, with babesiosis being prevalent among young animals, while older animals were infected with Plasmodium sp. In addition, Babesia sp. infection was a statistically significant negative predictor of Plasmodium sp. infection. These results suggest that Plasmodium and Babesia parasites may interact within the host, either through cross-immunity or via resource competition, so that Plasmodium infections can only establish after babesiosis has resolved. We found no effects of host sex, host group size and season on hemoparasite infections. Infections showed high prevalences and did not influence hematological variables. This preliminary evidence supports the impression that the hosts and parasites considered in this study appear to be well-adapted to each other, resulting in persistent infections with low pathogenic and probably low zoonotic potential. Our results illustrate the crucial role of biodiversity in host-parasite relationships, specifically how within-host pathogen diversity may regulate the abundance of parasites.
Ord, Rosalynn L; Rodriguez, Marilis; Cursino-Santos, Jeny R; Hong, Hyunryung; Singh, Manpreet; Gray, Jeremy; Lobo, Cheryl A
Apicomplexan parasites include those of the genera Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma and those of the relatively understudied zoonotic genus Babesia In humans, babesiosis, particularly transfusion-transmitted babesiosis, has been emerging as a major threat to public health. Like malaria, the disease pathology is a consequence of the parasitemia which develops through cyclical replication of Babesia parasites in host erythrocytes. However, there are no exoerythrocytic stages in Babesia, so targeting of the blood stage and associated proteins to directly prevent parasite invasion is the most desirable option for effective disease control. Especially promising among such molecules are the rhoptry neck proteins (RONs), whose homologs have been identified in many apicomplexan parasites. RONs are involved in the formation of the moving junction, along with AMA1, but no RON has been identified and characterized in any Babesia spp. Here we identify the RON2 proteins of Babesia divergens (BdRON2) and B. microti (BmRON2) and show that they are localized apically and that anti-BdRON2 antibodies are significant inhibitors of parasite invasion in vitro Neither protein is immunodominant, as both proteins react only marginally with sera from infected animals. Further characterization of the direct role of both BdRON2 and BmRON2 in parasite invasion is required, but knowledge of the level of conformity of RON2 proteins within the apicomplexan phylum, particularly that of the AMA1-RON2 complex at the moving junction, along with the availability of an animal model for B. microti studies, provides a key to target this complex with a goal of preventing the erythrocytic invasion of these parasites and to further our understanding of the role of these conserved ligands in invasion. PMID:26953328
Vanessa Carla Lima da Silva
Full Text Available This work aims to detect the presence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs from Recife, Pernambuco via molecular and parasitological detection methods, and to assess the risk factors associated with this parasite. A total of 146 dogs (male and female of varying breeds and ages that presented clinical symptoms of babesiosis were assessed at a clinical care center in the Veterinary School Hospital. Blood was obtained via venopuncture for hemoparasite detection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Using a commercial kit, DNA was extracted from blood samples. For the PCR reaction, an approximately 590 base pair long genetic sequence was used to detect the presence of B. canis vogeli. The forward primer, denoted as BAB1 (5’-GTG AAC CTT ATC ACT TAA AGG-3’, was specific for a conserved region on the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp., and the antisense primer was denoted as BAB4 (5’-CAA CTC CTC CAC GCA ATC G-3’. PCR results suggested that the percentage of Babesia canis vogeli infection was 4.8%. Through descriptive statistical analysis of the data, we observed that there was higher frequency of parasite infection associated with male dogs above two years of age, with a defined breed, from the countryside, are domiciled, and also suffer from tick infestation. We conclude that regardless of the type of risk factor, babesiosis can be found throughout Recife, Pernambuco, and its prevalence does not vary in most regions of Brazil. Our results indicate that PCR is a sensitive test for the detection of blood parasites, and should be performed as a clinical routine.
Zhao, Shaoruo; Gong, Haiyan; Zhou, Yongzhi; Zhang, Houshuang; Cao, Jie; Zhou, Jinlin
Babesia microti is the primary causative agent of human babesiosis worldwide and associated with increased human health risks and the safety of blood supply. The parasite replicates in the host's red blood cells, thus, in order to counteract the oxidative stress and toxic effects, parasites employ a thioredoxin (Trx) system to maintain a redox balance. Since thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) plays a critical role in the system, in this study, we report the cloning, expression, and functional characterization of a novel TrxR from B. microti (BmiTrxR). The complete gene BmiTrxR was obtained by amplifying the 5' and 3' regions of messenger RNA (mRNA) by RACE. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of BmiTrxR was 1766 bp and contained an intact open reading frame with 1662 bp that encoded a polypeptide with 553 amino acids. Molecular weight of the predicted protein was 58.4 kDa with an isoelectric point of 6.95, similar to high molecular weight TrxR. The recombinant protein of BmiTrxR was expressed in a His-fused soluble form in Escherichia coli. The native protein BmiTrxR was identified with the mouse anti-BmiTrxR polyclonal serum by western blotting and IFAT. Moreover, the enzyme showed a disulfide reductase activity using DTNB as substrate and catalyzed the NADPH-dependent reduction of Trx. Auranofin, a known inhibitor of TrxR, completely abrogated the activity of the recombinant enzyme in vitro. These results not only contribute to the understanding of redox pathway in this parasite but also suggest that BmiTrxR could be a potential target for the development of novel strategies to control B. microti thus reducing the incidence of babesiosis. PMID:27164832
Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Okello-Onen, J; Nasinyama, G W; Vaarst, M; Kabagambe, E K; Mwayi, W; Musunga, D; Wandukwa, W
Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60%) was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50%) were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified. PMID:15861224
Milton Begeres de Almeida
estimadas em 6.220 cabeças por ano representando um prejuízo econômico anual aproximado de R$3.732.000,00 evidenciando a necessidade de medidas preventivas que evitem a exposição de animais desprote-gidos aos agentes da TPB.A retrospective study of tick fever was made, which occurred from 1978-2005 in southern Rio Grande do Sul in the influence area of the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory of the Federal University of Pelotas. From 4,884 cattle specimens, sent by practitioners or which were from necropsies performed at the Diagnostic Laboratory, 231 (4.7% were diagnosed as tick fever. Data from 221 of those outbreaks were analyzed. Ninety one (41.1% outbreaks were caused by Babesia bovis, 11 (4.9% by Babesia bigemina, and 65 (29.41% by Anaplasma marginale. In other 33 (14.93% outbreaks of babesiosis there is no information if the disease was caused by B. bovis or B. bigemina, and 21 (9.5% outbreaks were caused by mixed infection of A. marginale and B. bovis or B. bigemina. Mean morbidity, mortality, and letality rates in 149 outbreaks were 11.17%, 6.81%, and 70.04%, respectively. Most outbreaks occurred during summer (January-March and autumn (April-June, mainly in 1 to 3-year-old cattle. Clinical signs were depression, weakness, fallen ears, fever, and weight loss. Low packed cell volume values were always found. Hemoglobinury was observed in babesiosis. Neurological signs characterized by gait alterations, muscular tremors, aggressiveness and falling down with tonic and clonic convulsions were observed in babesiosis by B. bovis. The main gross lesions were anemia, jaundice, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, yellow liver and cardiac hemorrhages. Hemoglobinury was observed in babesiosis, and congestion of the cerebral cortex in babesiosis by B. bovis. It is concluded that B. bovis is the main agent causing thick fever in southern Rio Grande do Sul. In that region with a cattle population of 2,630,000 heads the annual losses due to tick fever can be estimated in 6,220 cattle or
In 1986 the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture embarked on a programme of support to scientists in developing countries focused on improving animal disease diagnosis through the use of nuclear and related technologies. As part of this programme the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) agreed to provide support for a FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) concerned with the introduction and use of such technologies in Latin America. Through this programme, which was entitled Regional Network for Latin America on Animal Disease Diagnosis Using Immunoassays and Labeled DNA Probe Techniques, studies were supported on a number of diseases considered to be of substantial economic and social importance to the region, including brucellosis, tuberculosis, babesiosis, leukosis, bluetongue and chlamydia infection in cattle and psedorabies in pigs. One significant conclusion was that large number of diseases studied limited research findings owing to the lack of a critical mass of scientists studying any one specific disease problem. Thus when in 1991, SIDA agreed to follow-up CRP on Immunoassay Methods for the Diagnosis and Epidemiology of Animal Diseases in Latin America, the work was restricted to three diseases, i.e. foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), bovine brucellosis and bovine babesiosis. In 1994 results were presented in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, France. The outcome of this meeting was the validation of ELISAs for the above mentioned diseases and a recommendation that future research should focus on diagnosis and epidemiology to support existing control and eradication campaigns against the two diseases of major importance in the region (FMD and Brucellosis). A follow-up CRP (1994-1997) entitled the Use of ELISA for Epidemiology and Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Bovine Brucellosis in Latin America focused on the further validation and subsequent use of a
Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav
Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes. PMID:17627439
Kallio, Eva R; Begon, Michael; Birtles, Richard J; Bown, Kevin J; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Watts, Phillip C
Tick-borne diseases pose an increasingly important public health problem in Europe. Rodents are the reservoir host for many tick-transmitted pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti, which can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis and babesiosis, respectively. To estimate the presence of these pathogens in rodents in Finland, we examined blood samples from 151 bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and demonstrate, for the first time, that A. phagocytophilum and B. microti commonly infect bank voles (in 22% and 40% of animals, respectively) in Finland. Sequence analysis of a fragment of 18S rRNA showed that the B. microti strain isolated was identical to the Munich strain, which is considered to be nonzoonotic. The A. phagocytophilum strain (based on a fragment of the msp4 gene) was identical to one found earlier in rodents in the United Kingdom that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes trianguliceps, all the life stages of which feed on small mammals. The infection probability of B. microti in the bank voles was the greater the older the individual was, and males were more often infected than females. A. phagocytophilum infection probability first increased and then decreased with the age of individual without any difference between sexes. While these pathogens presumably pose a limited zoonotic risk to humans in Finland, they might have important interactions with other rodent pathogens and therefore affect infection dynamics of, for example, zoonotic pathogens. PMID:24848684
Oliveira, Trícia Maria F de Sousa; Furuta, Patrícia I; de Carvalho, Débora; Machado, Rosangela Z
To verify the presence of cross-reaction among leishmaniosis, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis in serological diagnostics used in human visceral leishmaniasis control programs, serum samples from leishmaniasis endemic and non-endemic areas were collected and tested by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFAT) and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All serum samples from endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by ELISA and IFAT, 51% positive for Babesia canis and 43% for Ehrlichia canis by IFAT. None of the serum samples from non-endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by IFAT, but 67% were positive for B. canis and 78% for E. canis using the same test. When tested by ELISA for Leishmania sp., four samples from non-endemic area were positive. These dogs were then located and no clinical signs, parasites or antibody was detected in new tests for a six month period. Only one of these 4 samples was positive for B. canis by IFAT and ELISA and three for E. canis by IFAT. The results of the work suggest a co-infection in the endemic area and no serological cross-reaction among these parasites by IFAT and ELISA. PMID:18554433
Full Text Available A participatory surveillance of livestock and poultry diseases was carried out in Agidi Development Area of Nasarawa State among 123 farmers, 29 of the respondent were female, while 94 were male. Open-ended interviews were utilized where necessary to clarify information that needed clarifications by the respondents; physical examination of the some affected animals and it surroundings were carried out during the surveillance. The following diseases were established in the study area: Peste des peptits ruminants, Foot rot, helminthosis, mite/lice/flea infestation, tick infestation, bloat, Orf (Contagious ecthyma, poison, mange, Newcastle disease, fowl pox, coccidiosis, infectious bursal disease (Gumboro, chronic respiratory disease, African Swine Fever (ASF, abortion, Dystocia, sudden death, foot and mouth disease, Fascioliasis, trypanosomosis, black quarter disease, babesiosis, and wounds. Some of these diseases have specific period (season of outbreak, while some occurs at all season. Analysis of data indicated that Newcastle disease was the most important disease of poultry, Peste des peptits ruminants was the disease that lead to high mortality in small ruminants, while African Swine Fever (ASF is the most devastating disease of pigs, and Lice/flea infestation is the most common disease to poultry, small ruminants and pigs, in the study area.
Holman, Patricia J; Spencer, Angela M; Droleskey, Robert E; Goethert, Heidi K; Telford, Samuel R
A Babesia sp. found in eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, is the same organism that caused human babesiosis in Missouri and Kentucky, on the basis of morphology and identical small-subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences. Continuous cultures of the rabbit parasite were established from infected blood samples collected from two cottontail rabbits livetrapped on Nantucket Island. HL-1 medium or minimal essential medium alpha medium supplemented with 20% human serum best supported in vitro propagation of the parasite in human or cottontail erythrocytes, respectively. Parasite growth was not sustained in domestic-rabbit erythrocytes or in medium supplemented with domestic-rabbit serum. The cultured parasites were morphologically indistinguishable from the Kentucky human isolate. Transmission electron microscopy revealed similar fine structures of the parasite regardless of the host erythrocyte utilized in the cultures. Two continuous lines of the zoonotic Babesia sp. were established and confirmed to share identical SSU rRNA gene sequences with each other and with the Missouri and Kentucky human Babesia isolates. PMID:16081941
Spencer, Angela M; Goethert, Heidi K; Telford, Samuel R; Holman, Patricia J
A Babesia sp. isolated from eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) is morphologically similar and genetically identical, based on SSU rRNA gene comparisons, to 2 agents responsible for human babesiosis in the United States. This zoonotic agent is closely related to the European parasite, Babesia divergens. The 2 organisms were characterized by in vitro comparisons. In vitro growth of the rabbit Babesia sp. was supported in human and cottontail rabbit erythrocytes, but not in bovine cells. Babesia divergens was supported in vitro in bovine and human erythrocytes, but not in cottontail rabbit cells. Morphometric analysis classifies B. divergens as a small babesia in bovine erythrocytes, but the parasite exceeds this size in human erythrocytes. The rabbit Babesia sp. is large, the same size in both human or rabbit erythrocytes, and is significantly larger than B. divergens. Eight or more rabbit Babesia sp. parasites may occur within a single erythrocyte, sometimes in a floret array, unlike B. divergens. The erythrocyte specificity and morphological differences reported in this study agree with previous in vivo results and validate the use of in vitro methods for characterization of Babesia species. PMID:16729690
Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Nuss, Andrew B.; Meyer, Jason M.; Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Sattelle, David B.; de la Fuente, José; Ribeiro, Jose M.; Megy, Karine; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Miller, Jason R.; Walenz, Brian P.; Koren, Sergey; Hostetler, Jessica B.; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Joardar, Vinita S.; Hannick, Linda I.; Bidwell, Shelby; Hammond, Martin P.; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Abrudan, Jenica L.; Almeida, Francisca C.; Ayllón, Nieves; Bhide, Ketaki; Bissinger, Brooke W.; Bonzon-Kulichenko, Elena; Buckingham, Steven D.; Caffrey, Daniel R.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Croset, Vincent; Driscoll, Timothy; Gilbert, Don; Gillespie, Joseph J.; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I.; Grabowski, Jeffrey M.; Jiang, David; Khalil, Sayed M. S.; Kim, Donghun; Kocan, Katherine M.; Koči, Juraj; Kuhn, Richard J.; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Lees, Kristin; Lang, Emma G.; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Kwon, Hyeogsun; Perera, Rushika; Qi, Yumin; Radolf, Justin D.; Sakamoto, Joyce M.; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Severo, Maiara S.; Silverman, Neal; Šimo, Ladislav; Tojo, Marta; Tornador, Cristian; Van Zee, Janice P.; Vázquez, Jesús; Vieira, Filipe G.; Villar, Margarita; Wespiser, Adam R.; Yang, Yunlong; Zhu, Jiwei; Arensburger, Peter; Pietrantonio, Patricia V.; Barker, Stephen C.; Shao, Renfu; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Hauser, Frank; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.; Park, Yoonseong; Rozas, Julio; Benton, Richard; Pedra, Joao H. F.; Nelson, David R.; Unger, Maria F.; Tubio, Jose M. C.; Tu, Zhijian; Robertson, Hugh M.; Shumway, Martin; Sutton, Granger; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Lawson, Daniel; Wikel, Stephen K.; Nene, Vishvanath M.; Fraser, Claire M.; Collins, Frank H.; Birren, Bruce; Nelson, Karen E.; Caler, Elisabet; Hill, Catherine A.
Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects accumulation of repetitive DNA, new lineages of retro-transposons, and gene architecture patterns resembling ancient metazoans rather than pancrustaceans. Annotation of scaffolds representing ∼57% of the genome, reveals 20,486 protein-coding genes and expansions of gene families associated with tick–host interactions. We report insights from genome analyses into parasitic processes unique to ticks, including host ‘questing', prolonged feeding, cuticle synthesis, blood meal concentration, novel methods of haemoglobin digestion, haem detoxification, vitellogenesis and prolonged off-host survival. We identify proteins associated with the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging disease, and the encephalitis-causing Langat virus, and a population structure correlated to life-history traits and transmission of the Lyme disease agent. PMID:26856261
Esch, Kevin J; Petersen, Christine A
Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States. PMID:23297259
Gross, Aaron D; Temeyer, Kevin B; Day, Tim A; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Kimber, Michael J; Coats, Joel R
The southern cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) is a hematophagous external parasite that vectors the causative agents of bovine babesiosis or cattle tick fever, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, and anaplasmosis, Anaplasma marginale. The southern cattle tick is a threat to the livestock industry in many locations throughout the world. Control methods include the use of chemical acaricides including amitraz, a formamidine insecticide, which is proposed to activate octopamine receptors. Previous studies have identified a putative octopamine receptor from the southern cattle tick in Australia and the Americas. Furthermore, this putative octopamine receptor could play a role in acaricide resistance to amitraz. Recently, sequence data indicated that this putative octopamine receptor is probably a type-1 tyramine receptor (TAR1). In this study, the putative TAR1 was heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells, and the expressed receptor resulted in a 39-fold higher potency for tyramine compared to octopamine. Furthermore, the expressed receptor was strongly antagonized by yohimbine and cyproheptadine, and mildly antagonized by mianserin and phentolamine. Tolazoline and naphazoline had agonistic or modulatory activity against the expressed receptor, as did the amitraz metabolite, BTS-27271; however, this was only observed in the presence of tyramine. The southern cattle tick's tyramine receptor may serve as a target for the development of anti-parasitic compounds, in addition to being a likely target of formamidine insecticides. PMID:25958152
The lectures included in this seminar are related to: development and evaluation of prophylactic methods to control the anaplasmosis and babesiosis (babesia bovis) in the livestock; the diagnosis of bovine basesiosis (babesia bovis) by means of the test of ELISA; validation of the kit ELISA (FAO, OIEA, PANAFTOSA) to determine antibodies against the virus of the foot and mouth disease; variability generation in sugar cane for resistance to mosaic viruses and rusts (puccinia melanocephala) by means of the cultivation of explants and irradiated callus; bioavailabilty of deposit phosphates in animal feeding; biological fixation of nitrogen in three tropical feed crops leguminous and its transfer to Brachiaria humidicola in association; unit of stable isotopic N15 analysis; effect of the efficiency of N by use of different forms of fertilizer application in ground, evaluated by means of the isotopic technique and the N absorbed by the cultivation; application of progesterone and testosterone in the diagnose and control of reproduction in crossbreeds animal husbandry; advances in the monitoring of production systems in double purpose cattle raising in the area of Guayabal, Guarico State; aquatic investigations with nuclear energy techniques; development of the Venezuelan Edaphological Bibliographic Database
Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Nuss, Andrew B; Meyer, Jason M; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Roe, R Michael; Waterhouse, Robert M; Sattelle, David B; de la Fuente, José; Ribeiro, Jose M; Megy, Karine; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Miller, Jason R; Walenz, Brian P; Koren, Sergey; Hostetler, Jessica B; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Joardar, Vinita S; Hannick, Linda I; Bidwell, Shelby; Hammond, Martin P; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Abrudan, Jenica L; Almeida, Francisca C; Ayllón, Nieves; Bhide, Ketaki; Bissinger, Brooke W; Bonzon-Kulichenko, Elena; Buckingham, Steven D; Caffrey, Daniel R; Caimano, Melissa J; Croset, Vincent; Driscoll, Timothy; Gilbert, Don; Gillespie, Joseph J; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I; Grabowski, Jeffrey M; Jiang, David; Khalil, Sayed M S; Kim, Donghun; Kocan, Katherine M; Koči, Juraj; Kuhn, Richard J; Kurtti, Timothy J; Lees, Kristin; Lang, Emma G; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kwon, Hyeogsun; Perera, Rushika; Qi, Yumin; Radolf, Justin D; Sakamoto, Joyce M; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Severo, Maiara S; Silverman, Neal; Šimo, Ladislav; Tojo, Marta; Tornador, Cristian; Van Zee, Janice P; Vázquez, Jesús; Vieira, Filipe G; Villar, Margarita; Wespiser, Adam R; Yang, Yunlong; Zhu, Jiwei; Arensburger, Peter; Pietrantonio, Patricia V; Barker, Stephen C; Shao, Renfu; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Hauser, Frank; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Park, Yoonseong; Rozas, Julio; Benton, Richard; Pedra, Joao H F; Nelson, David R; Unger, Maria F; Tubio, Jose M C; Tu, Zhijian; Robertson, Hugh M; Shumway, Martin; Sutton, Granger; Wortman, Jennifer R; Lawson, Daniel; Wikel, Stephen K; Nene, Vishvanath M; Fraser, Claire M; Collins, Frank H; Birren, Bruce; Nelson, Karen E; Caler, Elisabet; Hill, Catherine A
Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects accumulation of repetitive DNA, new lineages of retro-transposons, and gene architecture patterns resembling ancient metazoans rather than pancrustaceans. Annotation of scaffolds representing ∼57% of the genome, reveals 20,486 protein-coding genes and expansions of gene families associated with tick-host interactions. We report insights from genome analyses into parasitic processes unique to ticks, including host 'questing', prolonged feeding, cuticle synthesis, blood meal concentration, novel methods of haemoglobin digestion, haem detoxification, vitellogenesis and prolonged off-host survival. We identify proteins associated with the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging disease, and the encephalitis-causing Langat virus, and a population structure correlated to life-history traits and transmission of the Lyme disease agent. PMID:26856261
Clark, Kerry; Savick, Kyla; Butler, Joseph
Human babesiosis in the United States is caused most commonly by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite, Babesia microti . Although a few reports have described evidence of Babesia species in animals in Florida, to date Babesia microti specifically has not been reported from Florida or most other southern states. To determine if the organism is present in vertebrates in the region, small mammals were trapped and sampled at 2 sites in northeastern Florida, and DNA extracts from blood samples were screened for B. microti DNA via PCR assays targeting portions of the nuclear small subunit rRNA (18S rDNA) and beta-tubulin genes. Amplified fragments from representative samples of PCR-positive hosts were sequenced and compared phylogenetically to reference strains of Babesia species. The B. microti strains found in cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus ) most closely resembles B. microti sensu stricto strains that are pathogenic to humans, and strains found in raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) most closely resembles previously described raccoon-related strains of B. microti sensu lato. The results of this study suggest that B. microti is prevalent among cotton rats and raccoons at some sites in northeast Florida and may pose a risk to humans in the region. PMID:22646851
To solve the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be mobilized. N'gana (animal trypansomiasis) alone profoundly affects the socio-economic development of Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of this continent of 7 million square kilometres. To discuss these problems the symposium was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency from 7 to 11 May 1979. It was an integral part of the IAEA and FAO's effort to promote a greater awareness of the actual and potential application of nuclear techniques in the resolution of problems in the control of arthropod vectors of animal diseases and of animal pathogens, and in pesticide management. A total of 58 participants from 19 countries attended, and 37 papers were presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its various aspects such as mass rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behavior and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector-borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations of insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides.
Góralska, Katarzyna; Błaszkowska, Joanna
Recent literature data suggests that parasitic and fungal diseases, which pose a threat to both human and animal health, remain a clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Attention is increasingly paid to the role played by natural microbiota in maintaining homeostasis in humans. A particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of manipulating the human microbiota (permanent, transient, pathogenic) and macrobiota (e.g., Trichuris suis) to support the treatment of selected diseases such as Crohn's disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer. Emphasis is placed on important medical species whose infections not only impair health but can also be life threatening, such as Plasmodium falciparum, Echinococcus multilocularis and Baylisascaris procyonis, which expand into areas which have so far been uninhabited. This article also presents the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic parasitoses imported from the tropics, which spread across large groups of people through human-to-human transmission (Enterobius vermicularis, Sarcoptes scabiei). It also discusses the problem of environmentally-conditioned parasitoses, particularly their etiological factors associated with food contaminated with invasive forms (Trichinella sp., Toxoplasma gondii). The analysis also concerns the presence of developmental forms of geohelminths (Toxocara sp.) and ectoparasites (ticks), which are vectors of serious human diseases (Lyme borreliosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis), in the environment. Mycological topics contains rare cases of mycoses environmentally conditioned (CNS aspergillosis) and transmissions of these pathogens in a population of hospitalized individuals, as well as seeking new methods used to treat mycoses. PMID:26878617
Full Text Available During the period March to September 2000, a study was conducted in Oodi village, Kgatleng District, Botswana, to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of internal, external and blood parasites of donkeys. Twelve adult donkeys were randomly selected from a farmer with a herd of 15 donkeys. Monthly visits were made to the farmer when the donkeys were examined for parasites. The only ectoparasites recovered from the donkeys were instars of various tick species. The most prevalent tick was Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (98.4 %, followed by Amblyomma hebraeum and Hyalomma species. The only haemoparasite seen on microscopy was Babesia equi at low parasitaemia in 26.8% of the donkeys. However, no clinical babesiosis was evident. Coprological examination showed the presence of strongyle eggs in moderate numbers. Very low numbers of coccidia oocysts were found in the faecal samples. High tick numbers and worm egg counts coincided with the warm, wet months in contrast to the low numbers recovered during the cold, dry months. An interview conducted by the authors indicated that donkeys were nutritionally marginalised by owners. Supplementary feeding was therefore recommended, especially during the winter months when grazing is poor.
Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.). PMID:20111855
Irwin, Peter J
In recent years there have been many changes to the ways that clinical veterinary science is conducted and nowhere is this more evident than in companion animal practice. Veterinarians working with pet dogs and cats are facing new challenges associated with the emergence and re-emergence of parasitic diseases. Some, such as Neospora caninum, have been recently recognised; others like Giardia and Cryptosporidium have been reported with increasing frequency, in part as a result of laboratory tests with improved sensitivity and specificity. In many regions, the emergence of parasitic diseases has been a consequence of pet travel and exotic diseases pose a unique diagnostic challenge for the veterinarian, as the index of suspicion for these conditions may be absent. The ranges of certain vector-borne diseases such as babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniasis and dirofilariasis are extending due to ecological and climatic changes and enhanced by animals with subclinical infection returning home from endemic areas. In companion animal practice, veterinarians have the additional responsibility of providing accurate information about the zoonotic transmission of parasite infections from pets, especially to those most vulnerable such as children, the elderly and the immunocompromised. Effective education is vital to allay public concerns and promote responsible pet ownership. PMID:11943231
de la Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; Redondo, M; Montero, C; García-García, J C; Méndez, L; Serrano, E; Valdés, M; Enriquez, A; Canales, M; Ramos, E; Boué, O; Machado, H; Lleonart, R; de Armas, C A; Rey, S; Rodríguez, J L; Artiles, M; García, L
The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remains a challenge for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful and the parasites continue to result in significant losses for the cattle industry. Recently, vaccines containing the recombinant Boophilus microplus gut antigen Bm86 have been developed. These vaccines have been shown to control tick infestations in the field. However, extensive field studies investigating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of vaccination have not been reported and are needed to appraise the effect of this new approach for tick control. Here is reported the results of the application of Gavac in a field trial including more than 260,000 animals in Cuba. In this study the correlation between the antibody response to vaccination and the effect on ticks fertility is determined. Physiological status of the animals was found to affect the primary response to vaccination but not the antibody titers after revaccination. A cost-effectiveness analysis showed a 60% reduction in the number acaricide treatments, together with the control of tick infestations and transmission of babesiosis, which resulted in savings of $23.4 animal-1 year-1. These results clearly demonstrate the advantage of vaccination and support the application of Gavac for tick control. PMID:9607057
Boué, O; Redondo, M; Montero, C; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J
Recent developments in cattle tick control have incorporated the use of recombinant Bm86 vaccines against this ectoparasite. The vaccine developed by our group (Gavac) contains an antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris, and has been successfully employed for the control of tick infestations and transmission of tick-borne diseases. Here, we examined the safety and effect of the Gavac vaccine on reproductive parameters in cattle. Toxicity tests in mice and guinea pigs demonstrated the safety of Gavac. To study the adverse effects of vaccination on reproduction, a field trial involving 9,500 animals in Cuba was conducted. The cattle at 3 farms were vaccinated while those on a fourth farm were left unvaccinated and served as the control. Following vaccination, the control of tick infestation and the transmission of babesiosis were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the vaccine. No adverse effects were observed in any of the reproductive parameters studied when comparing the data before and after vaccination with Gavac and between the vaccinated farms and the control farm. These results demonstrate that under the conditions of our study vaccination with Gavac is safe for use on cattle. PMID:10729081
Miller, Robert; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Almazán, Consuelo; Allen, Andrew; Jory, Lauren; Yeater, Kathleen; Messenger, Matthew; Ellis, Dee; Pérez de León, Adalberto A
Bovine babesiosis, also known as cattle fever, is a tick-borne protozoal disease foreign to the United States. It was eradicated by eliminating the vector species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, through the efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP), with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone (PQZ) in south Texas along the border with Mexico. Keeping the U.S. free of cattle fever ticks in a sustainable manner is a critical national agricultural biosecurity issue. The efficacy of a Bm86-based anti-tick vaccine commercialized outside of the U.S. was evaluated against a strain of R. annulatus originated from an outbreak in Texas. Vaccination controlled 99.9 and 91.4% of the ticks 8 weeks and 5.5 months after the initial vaccination, respectively. Computer modeling of habitat suitability within the PQZ typically at risk of re-infestation with R. annulatus from Mexico predicted that at a level of control greater than 40%, eradication would be maintained indefinitely. Efficacy and computer modeling data indicate that the integration of vaccination using a Bm86-based anti-tick vaccine with standard eradication practices within the northwestern half of the PQZ could incentivize producers to maintain cattle on pasture thereby avoiding the need to vacate infested premises. Implementing this epidemiologically proactive strategy offers the opportunity to prevent R. annulatus outbreaks in the U.S., which would represent a significant shift in the way the CFTEP operates. PMID:22687762
De La Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; García-García, J C
The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remain a challenge for the scientific community. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful. Recently, vaccination with recombinant Boophilus microplus gut antigens has been shown to control tick infestations. Our Bm86-containing vaccine formulation (Gavac) has been effective for the control of artificial infestations of B. annulatus, B. decoloratus, and chemically sensitive and resistant B. microplus strains from Australia, Africa, America, and Iran. Preliminary results with Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. suggest partial cross protection. In field trials, vaccination with Gavac controlled B. microplus and B. annulatus infestations and reduced the transmission of babesiosis, resulting in important savings for the cattle industry. Different degrees of susceptibility to the vaccination with Bm86 and sequence variations in the Bm86 locus have been reported. The Bm95 antigen was isolated from the Argentinean Bm86-resistant B. microplus strain A. A Bm95-based vaccine was used to protect cattle against tick infestations under production conditions with similar results to that obtained with Gavac. The Bm95 antigen from strain A was able to protect against infestations with Bm86-sensitive and Bm86-resistant tick strains, thus suggesting that Bm95 could be a more universal antigen in protecting cattle against infestations by B. microplus strains from different geographical areas. These results clearly demonstrate the advantage and possibilities for the immunological control of ticks. PMID:11193686
Birkenheuer, Adam J; Whittington, Julia; Neel, Jennifer; Large, Edward; Barger, Anne; Levy, Michael G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B
Piroplasmosis was first described in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in 1926, and the official description of a small piroplasm as Babesia lotori was done in 1981. Babesia microti-like gene sequences have been characterized in raccoons in both North American and Japan. It is well documented that the microscopic appearance of piroplasms does not always accurately predict the genotype and phylogenetic classification. Discrepancies using phenotype to predict genotype have been reported most frequently when evaluating small piroplasms. We amplified and sequenced the full-length 18S rRNA gene from a small piroplasm identified in a raccoon and used this sequence for phylogenetic analyses. Based on these analyses, the organism was placed in the Babesia sensu stricto clade, confirming that it is a true Babesia sp. This documents that at least two Babesia spp. can infect raccoons. The data generated in this study can be used to design molecular diagnostic tests for detection of this Babesia sp., which will be useful for epidemiologic and comparative phylogenetic studies. As piroplasmosis has been documented with increased frequency in humans in recent years, the results of this study will aid in the recognition of zoonotic babesiosis. PMID:16870860
Jesús A. Esparza Rentería
Full Text Available This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement or a recommendation by the FAUANL for its use Animal husbandry and meat industry in Mexico are one of the principal activities of the agricultural sector of the country, which are threatened by factors that affect the production of meat, skin and milk; among these, the damages caused by Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, the common tick of cattle, and the diseases it transmits, such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis (Xianxun and Wenshun, 1997; Yeruhan et al., 1998, are of special interest. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the larvae of Boophilus microplus to seven tick-killing agents commonly used in the state of Nuevo Leon. The methodology used for the diagnosis of the susceptibility of B. microplus tick to Organochlorine, Organophosphorate and Pyrethroid compounds was the one applied by Rodriguez-Vivas et al., (2007; in which it was used a discriminant dose (table 1, using the larvae package test technique (Stone & Haydock, 1962. The results of the CL50 to the ticks of cattle in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico showed a greater susceptibility to Deltamethrine, followed by Chlorfenvinphos; in third place Diazinon, then Flumethrin; after that Cypermethrin, in sixth place Lindane and a less toxicological action for the Coumaphos (Asuntol. The result was already expected due to the fact that it is the most commonly used product in the control of ticks through the larval immersion technique.
Beck, Relja; Vojta, Lea; Curković, Snježana; Mrljak, Vladimir; Margaletić, Josip; Habrun, Boris
Babesia divergens and B. divergens-like organisms are the main causative agents of human babesiosis in Europe. Recently, the first case of human infection with Babesia microti was confirmed in Germany, implicating the presence of zoonotic isolates. To estimate the presence of zoonotic B. microti in Croatia we analyzed 120 small wild mammals that serve as its reservoir by polymerase chain reaction. Yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus) were both found to be infected with prevalence of 16.2%. Sequence analysis of the portion of 18S rDNA gene demonstrated that six polymerase chain reaction-positive samples, detected in both rodent species, were identical to that of the human Jena/Germany strain (EF413181). The other two isolates were identical to the nonzoonotic Munich strain (AB071177). The results of this study indicate the presence of zoonotic B. microti in A. flavicollis and M. glareolus in Croatia and a potential risk for human health. PMID:20553109
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus ticks transmit Babesia species to vertebrate hosts. Using molecular tools we were able to detect the presence of this piroplasmid in its vector. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and identity of Babesia species in questing ticks collected in various areas of Norway. Methods DNA from questing l. ricinus ticks were examined with a realtime PCR for the presence of Babesia. Positive samples of tick DNA were identified to species using PCR, and sequence analysis. Results From a total of 1908 questing l. ricinus ticks, 17 (0.9% indicated the presence of Babesia spp. after realtime-PCR screening. Ixodes ricinus harbouring Babesia spp. was detected in 9 out of 22 localities. Further molecular analyses of DNA from these positive ticks indicate the presence of Babesia venatorum, B. divergens, B. capreoli and a currently undescribed Babesia in Norwegian ticks. The most prevalent was B. venatorum found in 71% of the positive ticks. Conclusions A total of 17 out of 1908 (0.9% ticks were positive for Babesia. Our data confirm that there are several Babesia species in ticks in Norway. Babesia venatorum was the most prevalent. This species has a zoonotic potential and may cause human babesiosis following a tick bite.
Capligina, Valentina; Berzina, Inese; Bormane, Antra; Salmane, Ineta; Vilks, Karlis; Kazarina, Alisa; Bandere, Dace; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate
Babesia spp. are tick-borne protozoan parasites that have been reported in many European countries and are considered to be emerging pathogens. Several Babesia spp. have been identified in ticks in Latvia. Recently, canine babesiosis cases were diagnosed for the first time in Latvia; therefore, continued studies on the prevalence and occurrence of new species are warranted. In the present study, questing tick samples collected in 2005-2007 were screened for the presence of Babesia spp.; in total, 432 Ixodes ricinus and 693 Ixodes persulcatus ticks were analyzed. Babesia spp. were detected in 1.4% of the I. ricinus ticks and in 1.9% of I. persulcatus ticks. Sequencing revealed that ixodid ticks in Latvia contained Babesia microti, Babesia capreoli, and Babesia venatorum. Babesia microti was the most prevalent species, accounting for 58% of all positive samples; moreover, two distinct B. microti genotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length 18S rRNA gene of two B. capreoli/B. divergens isolates indicated a closer relationship to the B. capreoli clade than B. divergens. This is the first report of B. venatorum in I. persulcatus ticks in Latvia. Our results suggest that both I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks play important roles in the epidemiology of these zoonotic pathogens in Latvia. PMID:26481239
Puraite, Irma; Rosef, Olav; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas
Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease and various wildlife species are reservoir hosts for zoonotic species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and prevalence of Babesia spp. in moose Alces alces (Linnaeus) in two regions of Norway. A total of 99 spleen samples were collected from animals of various ages from an area with the occurrence of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758), and from an area where the ticks are known to be absent. Infection was detected by the amplification of different regions of the 18S rRNA gene by using two different PCR primer sets specific of Babesia. Babesia spp. were found in the spleen samples of four moose. All Babesia-infected animals were from an area where ticks occur, with an infection rate of 6% (4 of 70). Babesia-positive samples were obtained from a five-month old moose calf and three adults. Two Babesia species, Babesia capreoli (Enigk et Friedhoff, 1962) and a B. odocoilei-like, were identified. Co-infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum was obtained in two animals. This is the first report of the occurrence of B. capreoli and B. odocoilei-like species in moose. PMID:27188749
Full Text Available The use of new, highly sensitive diagnostic methods has revealed persistent infections to be a common feature of different tick-borne diseases, such as babesiosis, anaplasmosis and heartwater. Antigenic variation can contribute to disease persistence through the continual elaboration of new surface structures, and we know in several instances how this is achieved. Known or suspected mechanisms of persistence in babesial parasites include cytoadhesion and rapid variation of the adhesive ligand in Babesia bovis and genetic diversity in several merozoite stage proteins of different Babesia spp. In Anaplasma, extensive variation in the pfam01617 gene family accompanies cycling of organism levels in chronic infection. One result from the pioneering research at Onderstepoort is the definition of a related polymorphic gene family that is likely involved in immunity against heartwater disease. We are beginning to understand the sizes of the antigenic repertoires and full definition is close, with the possibility of applying simultaneous high-throughput sequencing to the order of 1 000 small genomes. We also, for the first time, can consider modifying these genomes and looking at effects on persistence and virulence. However, important biological questions remain unanswered; for example, why we are seeing a new emerging Anaplasma infection of humans and is infection of endothelial cells by Anaplasma significant to persistence in vivo.
Full Text Available Foi analisada a ocorrência de babesiose em pequenos roedores nos municípios de Silva Jardim e Nova lguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram capturados 44 roedores de seis espécies diferentes e entre eles a prevalência da infecção foi de 27,3%. Rattus norvegicus foi considerado o principal reservatório (50,0% e Oligoryzomys nigripes como novo hospedeiro para Babesia sp. Este foi o primeiro relato de Babesia sp. em roedores no Brasil. A freqüência de roedores positivos e o risco de infecção dos roedores não diferiram entre as áreas estudadas.The occurrence of babesiosis was studied in 44 small rodents of six species captured in Silva Jardim and Nova lguaçu counties, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The prevalence of injection was 27.3%. Rattus norvegicus was considered as the main reservoir and Oligoryzomys nigripes as a new host to Babesia sp. The frequency and the risk of rodent infection were considered equal among the studied areas. This is the first report of Babesia sp in small rodents in Brazil.