Sample records for azores islands

  1. Mammals from the Azores islands (Portugal): an updated overview

    Mathias, Maria da Luz; Ramalhinho, Maria Graça; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Petrucci-Fonseca, F.; Libois, Roland; Fons, Roger; Ferraz De Carvalho, Gil; Oom, Maria do Mar; Collares-Pereira, Margarida


    Nine species of mammals are recorded for the Azores islands: one insectivore (Erinaceus europaeus), two bats (Myotis myotis, Nyctalus azoreum), one lagomorph (Oryctolagus cuniculus), three rodents (Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus, Mus musculus domesticus) and two carnivores (Mustela nivalis, M. furo). Here, notes on the origin and known distribution are given for each species, together with taxonomical and ecological cmments. Except for bats all the remaining species seem to have been introduced...

  2. Landslides density map of S. Miguel Island, Azores archipelago

    Valadão, P.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Ferreira, T


    The Azores archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean and is composed of nine volcanic islands. S. Miguel, the largest one, is formed by three active, E-W trending, trachytic central volcanoes with caldera (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas). Chains of basaltic cinder cones link those major volcanic structures. An inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoação) and an old basaltic volcanic complex (Nordeste) comprise the easternmost part of th...

  3. Viticultural zoning of Graciosa island of the Azores archipelago - Portugal

    Madruga, João; Reis, Francisco; Felipe, João; Azevedo, Eduardo; Pinheiro, Jorge


    The management and sustainability of the traditional vineyards of the Azores settled on lava field terrains is strongly affected by practical limitations of mechanization and high demand on man labor imposed by the typical micro parcel structure of the vineyards. In a recent macrozoning approach study Madruga et al (2015) showed that besides the traditional vineyards there are significant areas in some of the Azores islands whose soils, climate and physiographic characteristics indicate a potential for the development of new vineyard areas offering conditions for better management and sustainability. The objective of this study was to conduct a detailed viticultural zoning at the level of the small mapscale (smaller than 1:25,000), for the island of Graciosa where, besides the traditional lava field terroir, there are also some localized experiences of grapevine production over normal soils, offering thus some comparative information on this type of production conditions. The zoning approach for the present study was based in a geographic information system (GIS) analysis incorporating factors related to climate and topography which was then combined with the soil mapping units fulfilling the suitable criteria concerning the soil properties taken as the most relevant for viticulture, being the result a map of homogeneous environmental units. The climatic zoning examined the direct quantitative variables (precipitation, temperature, evaporation) in relation to climate index, bioclimatic and viticultural specific values. Topography (elevation, slope, aspect, orientation) was analyzed based on the tridimensional models of the islands in GIS to include the best slopes for the mechanization of the vineyard cultural operations (0-15%). Soils were analyzed based on data and soil map units as defined in the soil surveys of the Azores archipelago. The soil properties taken for the analysis and definition of the potential vineyard areas were drainage, water holding capacity

  4. Geothermal resources of Sao Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal

    Duffield, W.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.


    Geothermal studies were carried out on the island of Sao Miguel, Azores to characterize the nature of the resource, to estimate its magnitude, and to identify target areas toward which exploration and developmental drilling might be directed. The main geothermal resource areas are Furnas, Agua de Pau, and Sete Cidades, three Quaternary silicic volcanic centers characterized by summit calderas beneath which magmatic heat sources provide thermal energy to overlying hydrothermal convection systems. For each of the systems, the studies have defined the size of the system, the subsurface temperature, the thermodynamic state of fluid in the system, the chemical composition of the fluid, and permeable parts of the system. 8 figs. (ACR)

  5. Landslides density map of S. Miguel Island, Azores archipelago

    P. Valadão


    Full Text Available The Azores archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean and is composed of nine volcanic islands. S. Miguel, the largest one, is formed by three active, E-W trending, trachytic central volcanoes with caldera (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas. Chains of basaltic cinder cones link those major volcanic structures. An inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoação and an old basaltic volcanic complex (Nordeste comprise the easternmost part of the island. Since the settlement of the island early in the 15th century, several destructive landslides triggered by catastrophic rainfall episodes, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occurred in different areas of S. Miguel. One unique event killed thousands of people in 1522. Houses and bridges were destroyed, roads were cut, communications, water and energy supply systems became frequently disrupted and areas of fertile land were often buried by mud. Based on (1 historical documents, (2 aerial photographs and (3 field observations, landslide sites were plotted on a topographic map, in order to establish a landslide density map for the island. Data obtained showed that landslide hazard is higher on (1 the main central volcanoes where the thickness of unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits is considerable high and (2 the old basaltic volcanic complex, marked by deep gullies developed on thick sequences of lava flows. In these areas, caldera walls, fault scarps, steep valley margins and sea cliffs are potentially hazardous.

  6. Genetic structure of the Azores Islands: a study using 15 autosomal short tandem repeat loci.

    Santos, Cristina; Alvarez, Luis; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Bruges-Armas, Jacome; Lima, Manuela


    The Azores archipelago (Portugal), located in the Atlantic Ocean, 1,500 km from the European mainland, is formed by nine islands of volcanic origin. The relative position of these islands allows the definition of three geographical groups: Eastern, Central and Western. Previous studies of the Azores using Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) have highlighted differences in the frequencies of several loci, when compared to Mainland Portugal or Madleira Island. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium (LD), described for Azorean samples has been tentatively explained as reflecting the presence of genetic sub-structuring in the archipelago. To provide information concerning the genetic profile of the Azores Islands and to evaluate the presence of substructuring we have determined the allelic frequencies of 15 autosomal STR loci, using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler Kit, in representative samples from the Azorean Islands. Either considering the Azores as a whole, or analysing by island all the loci were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Average gene diversity ranged from 0.7669 in Corvo to 0.7972 in Terceira Island. Allelic independence between loci, tested for the global sample, detected significant LD (after correction for multiple tests) for pairs D21S11/D7S820 and D3S1358/D5S818. The exact test of population differentiation, combining the information of the 15 markers analysed, revealed significant differences between the three groups of islands, and between islands. Inter-island analysis reinforces the previous data that suggested the existence of sub-structuring in the Azores archipelago. Moreover, the data generated by this study can be used in a future forensic genetic database of the Azores after the appropriate enlacement of sample size by island, preventing, in that way, misinterpretations caused by population substructuring and small sample sizes. PMID:20102040

  7. Waste management at Azores islands : challenges and opportunities

    Brito, A. G.; R. Nogueira; Cunha, R.


    An overview of the solid waste management practices in Azores is provided along with the guidelines and the waste projects comprised in the new Strategic Plan for Waste Management of Azores (PEGRA), under discussion. The Plan focus on waste valorisation, efficient use of resourses and protection of human health and ecosystems, under six thematic areas: i) ecoefficiency and consumption; ii) waste infrastructures; iii) economical and financial regime; iv) legal and institutional framework; v) h...

  8. Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in two population samples: Azores Islands and Central Portugal

    Carvalho, Mónica; Anjos, Maria João; Andrade, Lisa; Lopes, Virgínia; Santos, Márcia V.; Gamero, Joaquín-Jose; Corte Real, Francisco; Vide, Maria-Conceição


    The Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by nine STRs (DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393) were studied in 207 unrelated individuals from Central Portugal and 63 from Azores Islands. The most common haplotype in Central Portugal was shared by 3.4% of the males, while 160 haplotypes were unique. In Azores Islands the most common haplotype was shared by 6.4% of the males, while 40 haplotypes were unique. The values of haplotype diversity were 0.993 for Central Portug...

  9. Clenbuterol Storage Stability in the Bovine Urine and Liver Samples Used for European Official Control in the Azores Islands (Portugal)

    Pinheiro, Isabel; Jesuíno, Bruno; Barbosa, Jorge; Ferreira, Humberto; Ramos, Fernando; Matos, José; Silveira, Maria Irene Noronha da


    Clenbuterol is a well-known growth promoter, illegally used in farm animals, especially in cattle. Samples collected for the screening of β2-agonist residues in Portuguese Azores Islands must travel through all the nine islands until they reach Azores Central Laboratory. If any suspicious sample is detected, it must be further transported to the National Reference Laboratory in Lisbon for confirmation. As a consequence of these circumstances, samples are submitted to different transport and s...

  10. Beach debris in the Azores (NE Atlantic): Faial Island as a first case study.

    Pieper, Catharina; Ventura, Maria A; Martins, Ana; Cunha, Regina T


    Marine debris is widely recognised as a global environmental problem. This study assesses density, type, and temporal trends of marine debris in two sandy beaches of Faial Island (Azores, NE-Atlantic). During seven months (six days per month) the beaches were surveyed by performing 10 random transects at each site. Recorded items within the range 2-30 cm were organised into seven categories. Densities of total debris varied from 0 to 1.940 items m(-2), with plastics dominating both areas. Both beaches, presented the highest debris abundance in February, most probably related to prevailing winds and swell. Location and/or time of year also seemed to influence the type of debris present. These findings provide new insights into debris accumulation rates in the Azores, where no previous studies were made. It also confirms the global trend of increased plastics accumulation on shorelines, highlighting the need for further research in remote islands. PMID:26515994

  11. Environmental and sustainability impact assessment in small islands : the case of Azores and Madeira

    Ramos, Tomás B; Caeiro, Sandra; Douglas, Calbert H.; Ochieng, Cocker


    This paper compares Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) practices and effectiveness in the Portuguese islands of the Azores and Madeira. This was accomplished by qualitative appraisal and evaluation of the contents of EIA statements and the characterisation of the EIA practices. Data was collected from the islands’ regional environmental agencies and from the Environmental Portuguese Agency internet database. The findings reveal that most EIA project practitioners and consultants in the isl...

  12. Dendritic lava flows, landslides and terraces around the central Azores islands

    Tempera, F.; Mitchell, N. C.; Schmitt, T.; Isidro, E.; Cardigos, F.; Figueiredo, J.; Nunes, J.


    Surveying around volcanic ocean islands with sonars has recovered important information on giant landslides, faults and primary volcanic features, but efforts so far have largely been unable to image shallow water coastal areas because of vessel safety. Here we report surveying with a Reson 8160 multibeam sonar aboard a shallow draft research vessel, R/V Arquipelago, which enabled us to survey to less than 10 m water depth around the coasts of Faial, Pico and Sao Jorge islands of the Azores. The data cover coasts that have been growing volcanically, some during historical times. Where the coast has a finite abrasion shelf, the new data show that lava reaching the shore can breach the surf zone and develop a variety of submarine lava structures on the shelf. Many are dendritic in plan-view and some with transverse ribbing similar to pahoehoe flows on land but much larger scale. A variety of divergent flow paths are clearly indicated in the data. Some flows cross the shelf and descend the upper slope beyond the shelf break, providing evidence that a component of growth of the submarine island can include subaerially-originating lava as inferred from sulphur contents in submarine lava dredged from around Hawai'i. Where the abrasion shelf is very narrow or absent, the upper slope of the island contains abundant shallow landslides in the new unstable and steep volcanic material. The data show a variety of other interesting features, such as terraces, volcanic cones, collapse structures, tumuli, faults associated with the Azores plate boundary and sedimentary bedforms produced by interaction of oceanic currents with the island topography and from turbidity currents descending island slopes.

  13. Molybdenum and Uranium from Remote Continental Origin at Pico Summit, Pico Island, Azores, Portugal

    The present study looks into aerosols collected by a land-based, seven-wavelength Aethalometer, from the lower-free troposphere close to the summit of the Pico mountain (top height: 2351 m; sampling height: 2225 m), in Pico island, Azores, Portugal. Following suitable handling and preparation procedures, all samples were put through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA; k0-variant) for elemental assessment. Archival data have been used as an input to the HYSPLIT model (courtesy of NOAA ARL READY Website) for computing isentropic, backward trajectories of air masses reaching the Pico atmosphere. The results point to significant enrichments of molybdenum and uranium in high-altitude aerosols, especially in the summer samples. A local origin for either element is most unlikely though: Pico is a rural island, and there are no comparable records from low-altitude stations in the Azores at large. On the contrary, long-range transport from remote sources in continental areas--Europe and North-Central America--is rather compatible with the synoptic, elemental pathways converging over the Pico observatory for the period under study

  14. Molybdenum and Uranium from Remote Continental Origin at Pico Summit, Pico Island, Azores, Portugal

    Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Pacheco, Adriano M. G.; Tuncel, Gürdal


    The present study looks into aerosols collected by a land-based, seven-wavelength Aethalometer, from the lower-free troposphere close to the summit of the Pico mountain (top height: 2351 m; sampling height: 2225 m), in Pico island, Azores, Portugal. Following suitable handling and preparation procedures, all samples were put through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA; k0-variant) for elemental assessment. Archival data have been used as an input to the HYSPLIT model (courtesy of NOAA ARL READY Website) for computing isentropic, backward trajectories of air masses reaching the Pico atmosphere. The results point to significant enrichments of molybdenum and uranium in high-altitude aerosols, especially in the summer samples. A local origin for either element is most unlikely though: Pico is a rural island, and there are no comparable records from low-altitude stations in the Azores at large. On the contrary, long-range transport from remote sources in continental areas—Europe and North-Central America—is rather compatible with the synoptic, elemental pathways converging over the Pico observatory for the period under study.

  15. Chestnut cultivar diversification process in the Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands, and Azores.

    Pereira-Lorenzo, Santiago; Costa, Rita Maria Lourenço; Ramos-Cabrer, Ana María; Ciordia-Ara, Marta; Ribeiro, Carla Alexandra Marques; Borges, Olga; Barreneche, Teresa


    This is a large-scale molecular study based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of the diversification process in chestnut cultivars from Portugal and Spain, from the northern Iberian Peninsula to the Canary Islands and the Azores. A total of 593 grafted chestnut trees (Castanea sativa Mill.) were analysed with 10 SSRs: 292 from Portugal and 301 from Spain. Some of the trees studied were more than 300 years old. Accessions were analysed using a model-based Bayesian procedure to assess the geographical structure and to assign individuals to reconstructed populations based on the SSR genotypes. We found 356 different genotypes with a mean value of clonality of 33% owing to grafting. Mutations accounted for 6%, with hybridization being the main diversification process that can explain the great diversity found. Ten main cultivar groups were detected: four in northern Spain, five in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, and one in southern Spain related to the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This work demonstrated that cultivar origin and the diversification process was a combination of clonal propagation of selected seedlings, hybridization, and mutations, which allowed high levels of diversity to be maintained with respect to selected clones for fruit production. Furthermore, seedlings and graft sticks facilitated the transport to new destinations in the colonization process, transporting sometimes more than 3000 km if we consider the Azores and the Canary Islands. PMID:21491973


    Hoover, Donald; Rodrigues Da Silva, A.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Amaral, Roberto


    Geothermal exploration and development has been under way on Sao Miguel Island, Azores since 1975. This work had been restricted to the Fogo volcano, one of three dormant silicic volcanic centers on the island. The USGS in 1982 and 1983 conducted reconnaissance natural-source audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys of all three silicic centers to evaluate the potential for geothermal systems at each and to demonstrate the utility of the method in areas of difficult terrain. Results on Fogo showed a low resistivity trend extending from the present production area upslope to the caldera boundary. The upper part of this trend is the upwelling zone of a thermal plume which supplies the production area. Further exploration and drilling are now planned for this area.

  17. Seismic vulnerability of dwellings at Sete Cidades Volcano (S. Miguel Island, Azores)

    Gomes, A.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.


    Since the settlement of S. Miguel Island (Azores), in the XV century, several earthquakes caused important human losses and severe damages on the island. Sete Cidades Volcano area, located in the westernmost part of the island, was attained by strong seismic crises of tectonic and volcanic origin and major events reached a maximum historical intensity of IX (European Macroseismic Scale 1998) in this zone. Aiming to evaluate the impact of a future major earthquakes, a field survey was carried out in ten parishes of Ponta Delgada County, located on the flanks of Sete Cidades volcano and inside it is caldera. A total of 7019 buildings were identified, being 4351 recognized as dwellings. The total number of inhabitants in the studied area is 11429. In this work, dwellings were classified according to their vulnerability to earthquakes (Classes A to F), using the structure types table of the EMS-98, adapted to the types of constructions made in the Azores. It was concluded that 76% (3306) of the houses belong to Class A, and 17% (740) to Class B, which are the classes of higher vulnerability. If the area is affected by a seismic event with intensity IX it is estimated, that 57% (2480) to 77% (3350) of the dwellings will partially or totally collapse and 15% (652) to 25% (1088) will need to be rehabilitated. In this scenario, considering the average of inhabitants per house for each parish, 82% (9372) to 92% (10515) of the population will be affected. The number of deaths, injured and dislodged people will pose severe problems to the civil protection authorities and will cause social and economic disruption in the entire archipelago.

  18. The colonization history of Juniperus brevifolia (Cupressaceae in the Azores Islands.

    Beatriz Rumeu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A central aim of island biogeography is to understand the colonization history of insular species using current distributions, fossil records and genetic diversity. Here, we analyze five plastid DNA regions of the endangered Juniperus brevifolia, which is endemic to the Azores archipelago. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The phylogeny of the section Juniperus and the phylogeographic analyses of J. brevifolia based on the coalescence theory of allele (plastid diversity suggest that: (1 a single introduction event likely occurred from Europe; (2 genetic diversification and inter-island dispersal postdated the emergence of the oldest island (Santa Maria, 8.12 Ma; (3 the genetic differentiation found in populations on the islands with higher age and smaller distance to the continent is significantly higher than that on the younger, more remote ones; (4 the high number of haplotypes observed (16, and the widespread distribution of the most frequent and ancestral ones across the archipelago, are indicating early diversification, demographic expansion, and recurrent dispersal. In contrast, restriction of six of the seven derived haplotypes to single islands is construed as reflecting significant isolation time prior to colonization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our phylogeographic reconstruction points to the sequence of island emergence as the key factor to explain the distribution of plastid DNA variation. The reproductive traits of this juniper species (anemophily, ornithochory, multi-seeded cones, together with its broad ecological range, appear to be largely responsible for recurrent inter-island colonization of ancestral haplotypes. In contrast, certain delay in colonization of new haplotypes may reflect intraspecific habitat competition on islands where this juniper was already present.

  19. Familial hypercholesterolemia: Molecular characterization of possible cases from the Azores Islands (Portugal

    Teresa Cymbron


    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is an autosomal dominant disorder of the cholesterol metabolism, which constitutes a risk factor for coronary arterial disease (CAD. In the Azores Islands (Portugal, where mortality from CAD doubles its rate comparatively to the rest of the country and where a high frequency of dyslipidemia has been reported, the prevalence and distribution of FH remain unknown. The molecular characterization of a group of 33 possible cases of FH of Azorean background was undertaken in this study. A DNA array was initially used to search mutations in the LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 loci in 10 unrelated possible cases of FH. No mutations were detected in the array; after sequencing the full LDLR gene, 18 variants were identified, corresponding to two missense (c.806G > A; c.1171G > A and sixteen synonymous alterations. Six of the synonymous variants which are consistently described in the literature as associated with altered cholesterol levels were used to build haplotypes. The most frequent haplotype corresponded to TTCGCC (45%, a “risk” haplotype, formed exclusively by alleles that were reported to increase cholesterol levels. Some of the variants detected in the full sequencing of the LDLR gene fell within the ligand-binding domain of this gene, defined by exons 2 to 6. To add information as to the role of such variants, these exons were sequenced in the remaining 23 possible FH cases. Two missense alterations (c.185C > T; c.806G > A were found in this subset of possible FH cases. The missense alteration c.185C > T, identified in one individual, is novel for the Portuguese population. In silico analysis was not conclusive for this alteration, whose role will have to be further investigated. This study represents the first approach to the establishment of the mutational profile of FH in the Azores Islands.

  20. Near-surface wave velocity structure of Faial (Azores - Portugal) Island for site effect studies

    Borges, José; Neves, Samuel; Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Carvalho, João; Carvalho, Alexandra


    Throughout history, the life of the Azorean people has been marked by earthquakes that have had different effects depending on their proximity and magnitude. This seismic activity, which may have volcanic or tectonic origins, has affected the population of these islands by destroying infrastructure and claiming lives. The social and economic impacts of these phenomena are enormous. The last significant event affecting the Azores (Portugal) was the July 1998 Mw=6.2 earthquake causing major destruction affecting more than 5000 people, causing 8 deaths, 150 persons injured and 1500 homeless. Ground motion simulations are mainly based on source characteristics and are heavily dependent on the medium, which is still poorly understood. Subsurface soil condition can amplify the seismic waves, so, for seismic response analysis, it is necessary to know the shallow soil properties and its spatial variability. For this purpose, we applied P and S-wave refraction, Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) to characterize shear wave velocity at different sites in the Faial Island, in particular, in sites where already occurred amplification. Ambient vibrations can also be used to estimate physical properties of the shallower geological formations. With this goal, the obtained velocity models were confirmed by comparison between real H/V curves with synthetic ones. We concluded that the anomalous intensities observed in some sites are strongly related to thick layers of soft sediments of pyroclastic deposits produced by old volcanic eruptions occurred in the Faial Island.

  1. Engineering IT-enabled sustainable electricity services the tale of two low-cost green Azores Islands

    Xie, Le; Liu, Qixing


    Engineering IT-Enabled Electricity Services: The Tale of Two Low-Cost Green Azores Islands covers sustainable energy services to customers - a balanced choice and coordination of energy generated by traditional and alternative sources. The “Green Islands” project represents a decade of work by over a dozen researchers who have developed a model designed to utilize the potential of distributed clean resources. The key is the proper use of Information Technology (IT).  Sited on two islands in the Azores, the project developed the model of careful forecasting of demand and supply, down to the minute, coordinating the output of conventional power plants, wind energy, fly wheels, hydroelectricity, demand reduction, and even plug-in electric vehicles to take full advantage of the clean resources available. This contributed volume presents methods for predicting variable resources, such as wind power generation, and analyzes the achievable accuracy of these predictions. Throughout this book, contributors sho...

  2. Large-scale Sector Collapses in the Evolution of Santa Maria Island, Azores

    Marques, F. O.; Sibrant, A.; Hildenbrand, A.; Costa, A. C.


    Oceanic volcanic islands typically evolve through large-scale short-term events, either constructing or destructing the volcanic edifice. This tug of war between construction and catastrophic destruction should be recorded within a volcanic island, but old collapse events are sometimes hard to recognize because a number of processes modify the associated structures; therefore, recognition of the testimony of such events onshore, without recourse to offshore high-resolution bathymetry, is challenging and comprises our main objective. Additionally, no large-scale catastrophic sector collapses have ever been reported in the Azores, which makes Santa Maria Island a particularly interesting target. In Santa Maria, lava flows of the two main sub-aerial volcanic complexes dip gently to the west, they are separated by a volcano-sedimentary complex lying on an unconformity dipping gently to the east, and the ages decrease to the east. From this geometry and geochronology, we infer that: (1) more than half of the early shield volcano is missing (absence of all eastern flank, summit and part of the western flank), which we interpret as a large-scale sector collapse whose scar is in part the east-dipping unconformity covered with sediments ca. 4.2 Ma old; (2) the scar was filled by a younger shield volcano that grew very rapidly (ca. 4.0-3.6 Ma); (3) a second large-scale sector collapse followed, which again spared only part of the western flank of the younger shield volcano; (4) new volcanism made of dykes and volcanic cones aligned with the arcuate collapse scar indicate that the slide may have occurred ca. 3.6 Ma ago. We conclude that Santa Maria records onshore evidence of two large-scale sector collapses.

  3. Volcanic history and 40Ar/39Ar and 14C geochronology of Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal

    Calvert, A.T.; Moore, R.B.; McGeehin, J.P.; Rodrigues da Silva, A.M.


    Seven new 40Ar/39Ar and 23 new radiocarbon ages of eruptive units, in support of new geologic mapping, improve the known chronology of Middle to Late Pleistocene and Holocene volcanic activity on the island of Terceira, Azores and define an east-to-west progression in stratovolcano growth. The argon ages indicate that Cinco Picos Volcano, the oldest on Terceira, completed its main subaerial cone building activity by about 370-380??ka. Collapse of the upper part of the stratovolcanic edifice to form a 7 ?? 9??km caldera occurred some time after 370??ka. Postcaldera eruptions of basalt from cinder cones on and near the caldera floor and trachytic pyroclastic flow and pumice fall deposits from younger volcanoes west of Cinco Picos have refilled much of the caldera. The southern portion of Guilherme Moniz Volcano, in the central part of the island, began erupting prior to 270??ka and produced trachyte domes, flows, and minor pyroclastic deposits until at least 111??ka. The northern part of Guilherme Moniz Caldera is less well exposed than the southern part, but reflects a similar age range. The northwest portion of the caldera was formed sometime after 44??ka. Several well-studied ignimbrites that blanket much of the island likely erupted from Guilherme Moniz Volcano. The Pico Alto Volcanic Center, a tightly spaced cluster of trachyte domes and short flows, is a younger part of Guilherme Moniz Volcano. Stratigraphic studies and our new radiocarbon ages suggest that most of the Pico Alto eruptions occurred during the period from about 9000 to 1000??years BP. Santa Barbara Volcano is the youngest stratovolcano on Terceira, began erupting prior to 29??ka, and has been active historically. ?? 2006.

  4. Competing Notions of Diversity in Archipelago Tourism: Transport Logistics, Official Rhetoric and Inter-Island Rivalry in the Azores

    Eduardo Costa Duarte Ferreira


    Full Text Available Contending and competing geographies are often implicitly involved in archipelagic spaces. Various small island states and territories with multi-island geographies have flourishing tourism industries that presuppose an archipelagic experience: visitors are encouraged to explore and sample different island constituents of the territory. This strategy taps into different tourism niche markets, improves local value added, and shares tourism revenue beyond key nodes and urban centers. The organization of such an important economic activity however often reflects a ‘one-size-fits-all’, tightly coordinated, frequently contrived process that does not necessarily speak to the cultural and biogeographical forms of diversity that reside in the archipelago. This paper offers the notion of archipelago as a new way of rethinking problems and challenges encountered in island tourism, and then assesses the implications of this conceptualization on the representation of ‘the archipelago’ in the Azores, Portugal, and reviews what this approach means and implies for sustainable tourism policy.

  5. Adapting environmental function analysis for management of protected areas in small islands--case of Pico Island (the Azores).

    Calado, Helena; Bragagnolo, Chiara; Silva, Susana; Vergílio, Marta


    Protected areas (PAs) are considered key priorities for ensuring long-term sustainability of small islands. The traditional approach of conservation versus development is currently being replaced by an approach of "win-win" relationships. During the last decades PAs have been increasingly requested to simultaneously ensure biodiversity conservation, mainstream ecosystem services into main development policies, and accounting for leisure-related revenues to sustain local and regional economies. Following this new paradigm, the Smartparks project (Planning and Management System for Small Islands Protected Areas), encompassing this study, aimed at an innovative approach for supporting the management of PAs in small islands. In this study, we propose a methodology based on Environmental Functional Analyses (EFA) to compare the potential for conservation and the potential for use of PAs that can be used not only on small islands but also in other territories. For this purpose, a set of environmental and socio-economic components was defined and selected indicators describing each component to calculate conservation and use/development functions of PAs were established. Pico Island, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), was selected as the case study for testing the methodology. The EFA for all PAs of Pico Island was performed identifying those with more potential for conservation or for development of human activities, and also those with high levels of conflict. A total of 34 indicators was applied (assigning a value from 1 to 3) to the 22 PAs composing the INP of Pico Island: 44% were scored with a value of 1, in both ecological and social components; 22% and 29% were scored 3 in ecological and social components respectively. Social indicators were generally considered less important than environmental ones. In general, PAs presented higher values for conservation. The results further show that the potential for conservation and/or development was consistent with the

  6. Using aster multispectral imagery for mapping woody invasive species in pico da vara natural reserve (Azores Islands, Portugal

    Artur Gil


    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of ASTER imagery to support the mapping of Pittosporum undulatum, an invasive woody species, in Pico da Vara Natural Reserve (S. Miguel Island, Archipelago of the Azores, Portugal. This assessment was done by applying K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Maximum Likelihood (MLC pixel-based supervised classifications to 4 different geographic and remote sensing datasets constituted by the Visible, Near-Infrared (VNIR and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR of the ASTER sensor and by digital cartography associated to orography (altitude and "distance to water streams" of which the spatial distribution of Pittosporum undulatum directly depends. Overall, most performed classifications showed a strong agreement and high accuracy. At targeted species level, the two higher classification accuracies were obtained when applying MLC and KNN to the VNIR bands coupled with auxiliary geographic information use. Results improved significantly by including ecology and occurrence information of species (altitude and distance to water streams in the classification scheme. These results show that the use of ASTER sensor VNIR spectral bands, when coupled to relevant ancillary GIS data, can constitute an effective and low cost approach for the evaluation and continuous assessment of Pittosporum undulatum woodland propagation and distribution within Protected Areas of the Azores Islands.

  7. The effects of land-use change on arthropod richness and abundance on Santa Maria Island (Azores)

    Meijer, Seline S.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, P. A. V.


    We study how endemic, native and introduced arthropod species richness, abundance, diversity and community composition vary between four different habitat types (native forest, exotic forest of Cryptomeria japonica, semi-natural pasture and intensive pasture) and how arthropod richness...... and abundance change with increasing distance from the native forest in adjacent habitat types in Santa Maria Island, the Azores. Arthropods were sampled in four 150 m long transects in each habitat type. Arthropods were identified to species level and classified as Azorean endemic, single-island endemic (SIE...... and diversity, but the highest values of total arthropod abundance and introduced species richness and diversity. Arthropod community composition was significantly different between the four habitat types. In the semi-natural pasture, the number of SIE species decreased with increasing distance from the native...

  8. Neotectonics of Graciosa island (Azores: a contribution to seismic hazard assessment of a volcanic area in a complex geodynamic setting

    Ana Hipólito


    Full Text Available Graciosa is a mid-Pleistocene to Holocene volcanic island that lies in a complex plate boundary between the North American, Eurasian, and Nubian plates. Large fault scarps displace the oldest (Middle Pleistocene volcanic units, but in the younger areas recent volcanism (Holocene to Upper Pleistocene conceals the surface expression of faulting, limiting neotectonic observations. The large displacement accumulated by the older volcanic units when compared with the younger formations suggests a variability of deformation rates and the possibility of alternating periods of higher and lower tectonic deformation rates; this would increase the recurrence interval of surface rupturing earthquakes. Nevertheless, in historical times a few destructive earthquakes affected the island attesting for its seismic hazard. Regarding the structural data, two main fault systems, incompatible with a single stress field, were identified at Graciosa Island. Thus, it is proposed that the region is affected by two alternating stress fields. The stress field #1 corresponds to the regional stress regime proposed by several authors for the interplate shear zone that constitutes the Azorean segment of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary. It is suggested that the stress field #2 will act when the area under the influence of the regional stress field #1 narrows as a result of variations in the differential spreading rates north and south of Azores. The islands closer to the edge of the sheared region will temporarily come under the influence of a different (external stress field (stress field #2. Such data support the concept that, in the Azores, the Eurasia-Nubia boundary corresponds to a complex and wide deformation zone, variable in time.

  9. Volcanic, tectonic and mass-wasting processes offshore Terceira Island (Azores) revealed by high-resolution seafloor mapping

    Casalbore, D.; Romagnoli, C.; Pimentel, A.; Quartau, R.; Casas, D.; Ercilla, G.; Hipólito, A.; Sposato, A.; Chiocci, F. L.


    Terceira Island, in the Azores Archipelago, lies at the intersection of four submarine volcanic ridges. New high-resolution bathymetric and seismic reflection data have been used to analyze the main volcanic, tectonic and mass-wasting features of the island offshore. Volcanic features such as linear volcanic centers, and pointy and flat-topped cones are mainly concentrated on the narrow western and north-western ridges, characterized by an overall rugged morphology. Fault scarps dominate mainly the broad eastern and south-eastern ridges, which are characterized by an overall smooth and terrace-like morphology. On the eastern ridge, faults form a series of horsts and grabens related to the onshore Lajes Graben. The strikes of the fault scarps, linear volcanic centers and alignment of volcanic cones on the ridges reveal two main structural trends, WNW-ESE and NNW-SSE, consistent with the main tectonic structures observed on the Azores Plateau. In contrast, a large variability of strike was observed in inter-ridge areas, reflecting the relative importance of regional and local stresses in producing these structures. Mass-wasting features are subordinate and mostly represented by hundred meter-wide scars that indent the edge of the insular shelf surrounding the island, apart from two large, deeper scars identified on the southern steep flank of the western ridge. Finally, the remarkable morpho-structural differences between the western and eastern ridges are discussed in the framework of the evolution of the Terceira volcanic edifice and hypothesized to reflect successive stages of ridge evolution.

  10. A review of the MIS 5e highstand deposits from Santa Maria Island (Azores, NE Atlantic): palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Melo, Carlos; Silva, Luís; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Quartau, Rui; Hipólito, Ana; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Rebelo, Ana Cristina; Madeira, Patrícia; Rovere, Alessio; Hearty, Paul J.; Henriques, Diamantino; Silva, Carlos Marques da; Martins, António M. de Frias; Zazo, Caridad


    The privileged location of Santa Maria Island (Azores archipelago) in the middle of the North Atlantic makes the fossiliferous outcrops on this island of utmost importance to gain a better understanding of how coeval living communities relate to the broader evolutionary and biogeographic history of the Atlantic basin during the late Neogene and the Quaternary. Here we focus on this island's MIS 5e fossil record, offering a comprehensive review on the palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of the biota living in the mid North Atlantic during this interglacial. Several studies in oceanic islands stress the huge impact of sea level changes on insular communities. Pleistocene sea-level changes occur during the short-time events known as "Terminations" (associated to glacial/interglacial shifts) as well as with the onset of glaciations (associated to interglacial/glacial shifts). Both are responsible for extinctions and local disappearance of species, bottleneck effects and formation of new species, resulting in community structure changes. This work increases the number of fossil marine taxa reported from the Last Interglacial deposits of Santa Maria to 143 species. All the 19 new records are molluscs (13 gastropods and 6 bivalves), thus increasing the number of fossil molluscs to 136 species. Although thermophilic members of the "Senegalese" tropical fauna were found in these deposits, many of the most emblematic species (e.g., Persististrombus latus (=Strombus bubonius), Cymbula safiana, Harpa doris, Cardita senegalensis, Barbatia plicata, Ctena eburnea or Hyotissa hyotis) are absent, suggesting that they did not reach the Azores. Our results indicate that the main differences between the species composition of the MIS 5e and the present-day shallow-water Azorean communities are probably due to the dropping of sea surface temperature associated with the onset of the last glaciation, which had both direct and indirect effects on species ecology. A

  11. A permanent free tropospheric observatory at Pico summit in the Azores Islands? Past measurements (2001-2005) and future plans

    Honrath, R. E.; Fialho, P.; Helmig, D.; Val Martin, M.; Owen, R. C.; Kleissl, J.; Strane, J. M.; Dziobak, M. P.; Tanner, D. M.; Barata, F.


    Pico mountain in the Azores Islands provides a base for continuous, free tropospheric measurements that is unique in the central North Atlantic region. The PICO-NARE station was installed there in 2001 as a temporary observatory. However, the location proved ideal for studies of aged emissions from anthropogenic (N. American) and boreal fire (N. American and Russian) emissions, as well as for less frequent interception of European and African plumes. As a result, station operation was continued through summer 2005, and we are planning for continuing operation and conversion into a permanent Portuguese GAW station in the future. This poster will provide an overview of the station, the measurements made there, typical transport pathways to the station and interannual variability in transport, and an overview of the full suite of multi-season observations and key findings from measurements to date. In addition, data availability and near-term and long-term plans for the station's future will be discussed.

  12. Understanding and mapping local conflicts related to protected areas in small islands: a case study of the Azores archipelago

    Chiara Bragagnolo


    Full Text Available Establishing Protected Areas (PAs is considered one of the most appropriate ways to conserve nature and cultural landscapes. However, conservation constraints can generate social conflicts, especially at a local level. In small islands (SIs, local conflicts may escalate due to an increase in competition for limited space and resources. Pico island in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal, part of the Outermost European region, was considered a good case to study conservation-development conflicts due to the amount of designated protected land (> 35% of its surface and the approval of a new Azorean PA network in 2007. This paper presents a new approach to understanding and mapping local conflicts within PAs in SIs by integrating qualitative data and spatially explicit information. This research takes stock of the benefits, needs and constraints related to Pico Natural Park as perceived by local stakeholders through face-to-face semi-structured interviews; it subsequently identifies and transposes the conflicts distilled from stakeholder discourse into spatially representative visual maps via GIS. Research outcomes show that PAs are perceived mainly as constraints to local development, showing inconsistency between local expectations and regional conservation policy. This highlights the importance of including public participation processes prior to any implementation of conservation strategies. The proposed method provides a springboard towards effective conflict management for PAs on Pico island, showing a relatively low-cost and straightforward approach to minimising future local conflicts which could be adapted to other similar Outermost European regions and SIs.

  13. Marine conservation in the Azores: evaluating marine protected area development in a remote island context

    Rita eCosta Abecasis


    Full Text Available In the Archipelago of the Azores, over 110,000 km2 of marine areas presently benefit from some form of protection, including a suite of coastal habitats, offshore areas, seamounts, hydrothermal vents and large parcels of mid-ocean ridge. These areas are integrated in the recently established network of marine protected areas (MPAs, which stands as the cornerstone of Azorean marine conservation policies. This article describes and analyses the process of MPA establishment in the Azores and the current network of protected areas. Three phases of MPA development are identified, progressing from individual MPA establishment with little scientific support in the 1980s, the increasing scope of scientific research during the 1990s under European Union initiatives and the gradual implementation of an MPA network in the 2000s. Expert critical evaluation of the contemporary situation demonstrates that this network must be integrated within a wider regional marine management strategy, with MPA success being contingent upon the implementation of management plans, appropriate enforcement and monitoring, and bridging gaps in scientific knowledge.

  14. The fan mussel Pinna rudis – occurrence and association with Pontonia pinnophylax in Terceira Island (Azores, NE Atlantic.

    João Pedro Barreiros


    Full Text Available Pinna rudis is known as one of the biggest fan mussels in the Azores, reaching a length of up to 80cm. The specimens are generally found attached by numerous byssus threads, with their pointed anterior ends buried vertically in the substratum (mud, sandy mud or gravel. However, currently there is a notorious lack of basic knowledge about this species, with no specific studies available in the literature. The objective of the present work was to study the occurrence of Pinna rudis in the coast of Terceira Island, by analysing the spatial distribution of the individuals, and investigate the symbiotic association with the shrimp Pontonia pinnophylax. Along the south coast of Terceira Island, 23 dives in 13 sites were performed using 30 meters transects. The dives were made from August to October 2004, limited by meteorological conditions. The length of each pinnid was measured in situ, and above the sediment, to avoid unnecessary removal. During the study period, 28 P. rudis were observed with a length range from 10 to 30cm. The majority measured about 10 to 15cm. The occurrence of P. rudis was not the same at the different sites selected, occurring mainly in small patches of sand in rocky bottoms. Only solitary individuals were observed. No correlation between the length of the animals and the depth of their occurrence was detected. The shrimp Pontonia pinnophylax was found living within the largest bivalves and at deeper depths. The occupancy rate of Pinna rudis by Pontonia pinnophylax was 57% (containing one or two shrimps. It is believed that the life cycles of these two species may be linked. The exact relationship between these two species remains unclear and needs to be studied experimentally; however it is believed that this is a mutualistic association.

  15. Deformation in a hyperslow oceanic rift: Insights from the tectonics of the São Miguel Island (Terceira Rift, Azores)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.; Boulesteix, T.; Costa, A. C. G.; Catalão, J.


    The evolution of hyperslow oceanic rifts, like the Terceira Rift (TR) in the Azores, is still poorly understood. Here we examine the distribution of strain and magmatism in the portion of the TR making up the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary. We use São Miguel Island because it stretches most of the TR width, which allows to investigate the TR's architecture and shedding light on TR's age and mode of deformation. From topography and structural analysis, and new measurements of 380 faults and dikes, we show that (1) São Miguel has two main structural directions, N150 and N110, mostly concentrated in the eastern part of the island as an onshore continuation of the faults observed offshore in the NE (N110 faults) and SW (N140) TR walls; (2) a new N50-N80 fault system is identified in São Miguel; (3) fault and dike geometries indicate that eastern São Miguel comprises the TR's northern boundary, and the lack of major faults in central and western São Miguel indicates that rifting is mostly concentrated at master faults bounding the TR. Based on TR's geometry, structural observations and plate kinematics, we estimate that the TR initiated between 1.4 and 2.7 Ma ago and that there is no appreciable seafloor spreading associated with rifting. Based on plate kinematics, on the new structural data, and on São Miguel's structural and volcanic trends, we propose that the eastern two thirds of São Miguel lie along a main TR-related transform fault striking N70-N80, which connects two widely separated N130-N150 TR-trending segments.

  16. Functional biogeography of oceanic islands and the scaling of functional diversity in the Azores

    Whittaker, Robert J.; Rigal, François; Paulo A V Borges; Cardoso, Pedro; Terzopoulou, Sofia; Casanoves, Fernando; Pla, Laura; Guilhaumon, François; Richard J Ladle; Triantis, Kostas A.


    Analyses of species-diversity patterns of remote islands have been crucial to the development of biogeographic theory, yet little is known about corresponding patterns in functional traits on islands and how, for example, they may be affected by the introduction of exotic species. We collated trait data for spiders and beetles and used a functional diversity index (FRic) to test for nonrandomness in the contribution of endemic, other native (also combined as indigenous), and exotic species to...

  17. Lethal lesions and amputation caused by plastic debris and fishing gear on the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758). Three case reports from Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic).

    Barreiros, João P; Raykov, Violin S


    In this note we report and discuss three cases involving two serious injuries and one death on three specimens of the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta, found in Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic). Plastic debris and lost/discarded fishing gear caused these accidents. In fact, these types of marine litter are known to cause several accidents all over the world involving many taxa. However, we think that this issue has probably a much wider impact and detected cases such as those reported here are but just a small sample of the whole unknown dimension of this serious marine pollution problem. PMID:25066455

  18. Biogeochemistry of trace and major elements in a surface environment (volcanic rock, soil, mosses, lichens) in the S. Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal

    The distribution of the chemical element during weathering of trachyandesite in S. Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal), and in mosses and lichens growing on these rocks, was studied using instrumental neutron activation analysis. A general enrichment of rare earth elements (REEs), a Ce positive anomaly (partial oxidation after primary apatite dissolution) and a Eu negative anomaly (Eu2+ in plagioclases/clay minerals) are observed with increasing weathering. Mosses and lichens are Ce and Eu depleted, indicating that the main REE uptake is done via absorption from REE3+ secondary phosphates, probably together with P (essential nutrient). Zn, Br and Sb show higher enrichment factors in lichens and mosses. (author)

  19. Developing Atmospheric Science Tools for Teachers Based on Research at the Pico Mountain Observatory, Pico Island, Azores

    Harkness, L.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.


    Atmospheric science and climate change are becoming increasingly important, especially in education, as the Next Generation Science Standards now include climate change. A collaborating team of research scientists and students are studying the free troposphere, specifically the aerosol composition and properties, on the island of Pico in the Azores Archipelago. The research station sits in the caldera of Mount Pico, 2225 meters above sea level. At this elevation, the station is above the marine boundary layer, thus placing it in the free troposphere. In this work, collaboration between a high school Earth Science teacher and university researchers was formed with the goal of developing classroom and outreach materials regarding atmospheric science. Among the materials, a video was created containing: site and project background, explanation of some of the instruments used and candid conversations regarding science and research. The video serves several purposes, such as informing students and the general public about what is happening in the atmosphere and informing students about the importance of science and research. The video could also be used to educate the local island community and tourists. Other materials designed include data directly obtained from the project, such as measurements of aerosol particles in electron microscopy photos (which were imaged for particle morphology and size), and composition of the aerosol particles. Students can use this evidence, as well as other data, to gain a better understanding of aerosols and the overall effect they have on the climate. Students will discover this evidence as they work through a series of experiments and activities. Using the strategy of Claim-Evidence-Reasoning as a way to answer scientific questions, students will use the evidence they gathered to explain their ideas. One such question could be, 'How do aerosols affect the climate?' and the student's 'claim' is their answer to that question. In the

  20. Human Leptospirosis: Seroreactivity and Genetic Susceptibility in the Population of São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal)

    Esteves, Lisa M.; Bulhões, Sara M.; Branco, Claudia C.; Mota, Francisco M.; Paiva, Clara; Cabral, Rita; Vieira, Maria Luisa; Mota-Vieira, Luisa


    Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic and recognized neglected infectious disease. It has been observed that only a proportion of individuals exposed to pathogenic species of Leptospira become infected and develop clinically evident disease. Moreover, little information is available in subsequent reinfections. In the present study, we determine if a first infection with leptospirosis protects against subsequent reinfection, and investigate which of the host genetic factors are involved in the susceptibility and resistance to leptospirosis. Methodology and Findings We conducted, in 2011, a retrospective hospital-based case-control study in the São Miguel Island population (Azores archipelago). In order to determine the seropositivity against pathogenic Leptospira after the first episode of leptospirosis, we performed a serological evaluation in 97 unrelated participants diagnosed with leptospirosis between 1992 and 2011. The results revealed that 46.4% of the 97 participants have circulating anti-Leptospira antibodies, and from these participants 35.6% maintained the seroprevalence for the same serogroup. Moreover, three of them were reinfected with unrelated Leptospira serovars. The genetic study was carried out by adding a control group composed of 470 unrelated healthy blood donors, also from São Miguel Island. Twenty five SNPs among twelve innate immune genes – IL1α, IL1β, IL6, IL10, IL12RB1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, CD14, CISH, LTA and TNF – were genotyped, as well as HLA class I (–A and –B) genes. Association analysis indicates that genotypes -511GG (OR = 1.6, 95%CI 1.01-2.56, p = 0.04) in IL1β, +1196CG (OR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.26-3.27, p = 0.003) in IL12RB1, -292TA (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.06–2.1, p = 0.03) and +3415CG (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.08–3.08, p = 0.02), both in CISH confer susceptibility to pathogenic Leptospira. Conclusion The present study suggests some degree of long-term protection against leptospires with an

  1. Hydrogeochemical, Stable Isotopes and Hydrology of Fogo Volcano Perched Aquifers: São Miguel Island, Azores (Portugal)

    Antunes, P. C.; Boutt, D. F.; Martini, A. M.; Ferstad, J.; Rodrigues, F. C.


    Fogo Volcano is located at central part of São Miguel Island and corresponds to a polygenetic volcano with a caldera made by an intercalated accumulation of volcaniclastic deposits and lava flows. São Miguel Island is one of the nine volcanic islands that form the Azores Archipelago. The volcano is 950 meters high, with a caldera diameter of 3.2 Km, which holds a lake inside. The last eruption occurred in 1563-1564, as one of a group of seven traquitic eruptions occurring within the last 5000 years. The volcanic activity is related to hydrothermal activity in a geothermal field located in the volcanoes North flank. The hydrology of Fogo Volcano is characterized by a series of perched-water bodies drained by a large number of springs grouped at different altitudes on the volcano flanks. It is possible to identify three types of water (1) Fresh water, cold temperature (12 - 17 C) with low dissolved solids contents (average conductivity of 179 μS/cm), pH range between 6.60 and 7.82, dominated by the major ions Na, K, HCO3, and Cl, and correspond mainly to sodium bicarbonate type water. (2) Mineral water, cold temperature (12.5 - 19.4 C) with low dissolved solids contents (average conductivity of 261 μS/cm), acid pH range between 4.62 and 6.79, and correspond mainly to sodium bicarbonate type water. (3) Thermal water, with temperature of 32 C, high dissolved solids content (4.62 mS/cm), with a pH around 4.50 and belongs to sodium sulfate type water. South Fogo volcano have only fresh water springs and at high elevation, springs drained from pumice fall deposits near 700 m of altitude. Water dissolved solids contents increased slightly with springs at lower altitude due to water-rock interaction. Springs sampled around 700 m high have a conductivity average of 85 μS/cm, at 520 m an average of 129 μS/cm, at 430 m an average of 182 μS/cm, at 200 m an average of 192 μS/cm and at 12 m high sea level and average of 472 μS/cm. This trend is observed at North Fogo

  2. Applying GIS software to monitor adult Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) behaviour in Terceira Island, Azores

    Full text: The capabilities of Geographic Information System (GIS) in our days are well-known and it has numerous applications in many areas. Monitoring Ceratitis capitata adult dispersion is very important because this pest is spreading onto many cultures causing severe losses in orchards production. Knowing the spread capabilities of C. capitata it is important to evaluate the areas, which are more affected by this pest, its population dynamics and its seasonal presence. To monitor the C. capitata adult population, a network of Jackson and Tephri-traps was installed using a GPS in three fruit production areas of Terceira Island. The installation of this network was integrated in the INTERFRUTA project since January 2004 and the goal of it was to study the evolution C. capitata adult dispersion using GIS, under ESRI software, ArcView 3.2. To perform spatial analysis regarding the data from the network traps, the spatial analysis extension was used and applied the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method with a grid of 20m. A digital model of terrain was also used in order to cross-reference the information from the network traps and the topographic information. This software has demonstrated to be very useful to identify the problematic areas, as well as, to study the C. capitata dispersion behaviour. The results of spatial analysis in ArcView show some dispersion over the three zones, with a remarkable concentration of this pest between the 0 and 100 meters of altitude. With a three-dimensional analysis, it is possible to see that C. capitata adults have a preference for areas located in some topographic depressions, which apparently give them some climatic protection. This could be understood as a behaviour indicator for protection against the bad weather. This specific behaviour and the host type, as well as the ripening fruit evolution, could explain the adult population dynamics registered in the studied areas. (author)

  3. Incidence of downy mildew Plasmopara viticola (Berk. et Curtis ex. de Bary Berl. et de Toni in Terceira island, Azores

    Matej Zorman


    Full Text Available Downy mildew is one of the most economically important disease affecting vine production in Terceira island, Azores. By its incidence, frequency and quantity of pathogens, supported with favourable temperate humid climate conditions, this disease is difficult to control in terms of sustainable integrated plant protection policy. The objectives of INTERFRUTA project were to determine the incidence of the disease, to better understand it and to adopt an adequate forecasting model with necessary adjustments to predict the disease appearance and its in-time integrated plant protection control measures. Plasmopara viticola was directly observed in two weeks time periods on seven representative vineyards at different altitudes. Three of the monitored plots were established during study inside one plantation. Incidence was registered as result of visual symptoms in percentage, where 10% of plants in each vineyard were observed. Seasonal evolution of the disease was studied in one of the wine producing area.O Míldio é uma das doenças que mais afecta a vinha, na ilha Terceira, Açores. É uma doença fúngica de difícil controlo, pela sua incidência e frequência de aparecimento. Os objectivos do projecto INTERFRUTA II foram determinar a incidência desta doença para melhorar o conhecimento sobre esta e adoptar e validar um modelo matemático adequado à previsão do aparecimento da doença de modo a permitir a aplicação de medidas de protecção integrada. A evolução do míldio foi acompanhada em sete parcelas de vinha, da área vitivinícola dos Biscoitos, através da observação visual de folhas. Numa das parcelas, três dos talhões não foram tratados para servirem de controlo. Em cada parcela foram observadas 10% das plantas, tendo sido registada a percentagem de plantas com sintomas visuais da presença de míldio.

  4. NaOH and Na4P2O7 extractable organic matter in two allophanic volcanic ash soils of the Azores Islands : a pyrolysis GC/MC study

    Nierop, K.G.J.; Bergen, van P.F.; Buurman, P.; Lagen, van B.


    NaOH and Na4P2O7 extractable organic matter fractions of two volcanic ash profiles (Azores Islands) were studied by pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The soils did not have melanic horizons and were not affected by burning. The pyrolysates of all samples were dominated by po

  5. Chronic exposure to volcanic air pollution and DNA damage in Furnas Volcano (São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal) inhabitants

    Linhares, Diana; Garcia, Patricia; Silva, Catarina; Ferreira, Teresa; Barroso, Joana; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo


    Many studies in volcanic air pollution only have in consideration the acute toxic effects of gas or ash releases however the impact of chronic exposure to ground gas emissions in human health is yet poorly known. In the Azores archipelago (Portugal), São Miguel island has one of the most active and dangerous volcanoes: Furnas Volcano. Highly active fumarolic fields, hot springs and soil diffuse degassing phenomena are the main secondary volcanic phenomena that can be seen at the volcano surroundings. One of the main gases released in these diffuse degassing areas is radon (222Rn), which decay results in solid particles that readily settle within the airways. These decay particles emit alpha radiation that is capable of causing severe DNA damage that cumulatively can eventually cause cancer. Previous studies have established that chronic exposure to chromosome-damaging agents can lead to the formation of nuclear anomalies, such as micronuclei that is used for monitoring DNA damage in human populations. The present study was designed to evaluate whether chronic exposure to volcanic air pollution, associated to 222Rn, might result in DNA damage in human oral epithelial cells. A cross sectional study was performed in a study group of 142 individuals inhabiting an area where volcanic activity is marked by active fumarolic fields and soil degassing (hydrothermal area), and a reference group of 368 individuals inhabiting an area without these secondary manifestations of volcanism (non-hydrothermal area). For each individual, 1000 buccal epithelial cells were analyzed for the frequency of micronucleated cells (MNc) and the frequency of cells with other nuclear anomalies (ONA: pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis), by using the micronucleus assay. Information on lifestyle factors and an informed consent were obtained from each participant. Assessment of indoor radon was performed with the use of radon detectors. Data were analyzed with logistic regression models, adjusted

  6. Frequency of the CCR5-delta32 mutation in the Atlantic island populations of Madeira, the Azores, Cabo Verde, and São Tomé e Príncipe.

    Freitas, Tamira; Brehm, António; Fernandes, Ana Teresa


    There is evidence that the CCR5-delta32 mutation confers protection against HIV-1 infection to homozygous individuals. It is believed that this mutation spread through Europe with the Vikings and that it has been subjected to positive selection, leading to a high frequency in Europe (approximately 10%). We carried out the present study to determine the 32-bp deletion allele and genotype frequencies of the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) in the Atlantic island populations of Madeira, the Azores, Cabo Verde, and São Tomé e Principe. These Atlantic archipelagos were all colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th and 16th centuries, but the latter two received most of their settlers from the West African coast. The frequency of the CCR5-delta32 mutation varies between 0% in São Tomé e Príncipe and 16.5% in the Azores. The Azores Islands have one of the highest frequencies of homozygotes found in Europe (4.8%). There are significant differences (P Cabo Verde, and even within populations (e.g., Portugal, Madeira, and the Azores). PMID:17564248

  7. A new approach for assessing integrated potential conditions of soil and climate for the cultivation of vines in the Azores Islands

    Madruga, João; Azevedo, Eduardo; Reis, Francisco; Sampaio, João; Pinheiro, Jorge; Madeira, Manuel


    Being fairly common belief that the particular soil conditions are of great importance in defining the characteristics and qualities of the wine as the final product, it is also recognized the difficulty of establishing and interpreting this relationship clearly. The geological diversity seems to correlate with the characteristics defined in accordance with the classification system employed in France Appellation d' Origine Contrôlée (AOC), suggesting that, in addition to the variety and climate, geology and soil play an important role the properties and characteristics of the grapes produced in a given geographical location. Moreover, although it is known that the vine is tailored to a wide diversity of soil types, it appears also that many of the world's most famous vineyards are installed in poor and rocky terrain where no other crop would be grown in favorable conditions. Such is the case almost extreme implanted in the land of "cracker " and " Lagido " which are the traditional names in the archipelago of the Azores to the cracked surfaces of basaltic lava fields of heterogeneous size ranging from gravel to blocks of Azorean vineyards, whose vines manage to substrate cracks survival and production, albeit in modest yields. Apart from this traditional model of Azorean "terroir" of recognized cultural and landscape value where some interesting wines have been produced and quality recognized, there are significant areas in the islands whose soil and climate and physiographic characteristics suggest a potential for wine production that deserves to be the object of careful assessment, with a view to a possible study of integrated experimental basis. We refer specifically to landscape units of the lower area of some islands, in many cases presently devoted to pasture during the summer where productivity tends to be marginal, because strongly affected by water stress. Such areas preferably South exposed and of gentle slopes providing moderate exposure to the

  8. Competing Notions of Diversity in Archipelago Tourism: Transport Logistics, Official Rhetoric and Inter-Island Rivalry in the Azores

    Eduardo Costa Duarte Ferreira; Godfrey Baldacchino


    Contending and competing geographies are often implicitly involved in archipelagic spaces. Various small island states and territories with multi-island geographies have flourishing tourism industries that presuppose an archipelagic experience: visitors are encouraged to explore and sample different island constituents of the territory. This strategy taps into different tourism niche markets, improves local value added, and shares tourism revenue beyond key nodes and urban centers. The organi...

  9. Insect and spider rarity in an oceanic island (Terceira, Azores): true rare and pseudo-rare species

    Borges, Paulo A.V.; Ugland, Karl I.; Dinis, Francisco; Gaspar, Clara


    Until now the mechanisms of how recent historical land-use (hereafter called "habitat") changes in island ecosystems shape the distribution of individual insect species have been poorly understood in the field of conservation biology. In the present study we concentrate on the delicate equilibrium of the contribution of habitat island composition (i.e. habitat resource availability) with respect to island insect distribution patterns. In this context we study in detail the distribution patter...

  10. Geothermal electricity production at Azores

    Bicudo da Ponte, C. [SOGEO-Sociedade Geotermica dos Acores, SA, Sao Muguel (Portugal)


    The fact of been located in the Middle Atlantic Ridge, the condition of its volcanic origin and all actual and passed volcanic activities shown in the Azores Islands raise the idea to exploit the geothermal for electricity production. The development of that idea starts around three decades ago and the first milestone was the start up of Pico Vermelho Geothermal Power Plant (1980) feed by PV1 well. The second one was the successful operation of Ribeira Grande Geothermal Power Plant considering the of production CL1 and CL2 wells. Evaluation studies of geothermal resources of the Azorean islands tend to the conclusion that every islands has more potential geothermal resources able to satisfy its energy needs except S. Maria Island. (orig.)

  11. Cruise report for FS METEOR Cruise 60 Leg 3 from Las Palmas, Canary Islands to Ponta Delgada, Azores, during February 28 - March 14, 1982 (NODC Accession 0078562)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of this cruise leg was physical oceanography of the area between the Canaries and the Azores within the program of the SFB 133 'Warm water sphere of the...

  12. Strengthening of Structures Damaged by the Azores Earthquake of 1998

    Aníbal Costa; António Arêde


    This paper addresses repair and strengthening techniques proposed for the rehabilitation of small buildings on Faial Island, Azores, hit and damaged by the Azores earthquake on 9 July 1998. A brief description is provided of the construction type and practice in the island, highlighting the main type of houses. Due to the lack of relevant information concerning construction material data, experimental tests were performed in situ, involving static and dynamic measurements. The experimental ca...

  13. Stress-induced comenditic trachyte effusion triggered by trachybasalt intrusion: multidisciplinary study of the AD 1761 eruption at Terceira Island (Azores)

    Pimentel, A.; Zanon, V.; de Groot, L. V.; Hipólito, A.; Di Chiara, A.; Self, S.


    The AD 1761 eruption on Terceira was the only historical subaerial event on the island and one of the last recorded in the Azores. The eruption occurred along the fissure zone that crosses the island and produced a trachybasalt lava flow and scoria cones. Small comenditic trachyte lava domes (known as Mistérios Negros) were also thought by some to have formed simultaneously on the eastern flank of Santa Bárbara Volcano. Following a multidisciplinary approach, we combined geological mapping, paleomagnetic, petrographic, mineral and whole-rock geochemical and structural analyses to study this eruption. The paleomagnetic dating method compared geomagnetic vectors (directions and intensities) recorded by both the AD 1761 lava flow and Mistérios Negros domes and revealed that the two events were indeed coeval. Based on new data and interpretation of historical records, we have accordingly reconstructed the AD 1761 eruptive dynamics and distinguished three phases: (1) a precursory phase characterized by decreased degassing in the fumarolic field of Pico Alto Volcano and a gradual increase of seismic activity, which marked the intrusion of trachybasalt magma; (2) a first eruptive phase that started with phreatic explosions on the eastern flank of Santa Bárbara Volcano, followed by the inconspicuous effusion of comenditic trachyte (66 wt% SiO2), forming a WNW-ESE-oriented chain of lava domes; and (3) a second eruptive phase on the central part of the fissure zone, where a Hawaiian to Strombolian-style eruption formed small scoria cones (E-W to ENE-WSW-oriented) and a trachybasalt lava flow (50 wt% SiO2) which buried 27 houses in Biscoitos village. Petrological analyses show that the two batches of magma were emitted independently without evidence of interaction. We envisage that the dome-forming event was triggered by local stress changes induced by intrusion of the trachybasalt dyke along the fissure zone, which created tensile stress conditions that promoted ascent

  14. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) of the Azores (NE Atlantic).

    Avila, Sérgio P; Sigwart, Julia


    Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic), and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA) were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species. PMID:23825446

  15. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of the Azores (NE Atlantic

    Sérgio Ávila


    Full Text Available Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic, and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  16. Infecção viral da vinha nos Biscoitos (ilha Terceira - Açores Grapevine virus infection at Biscoitos (Terceira island - Azores

    Arícia Figueiredo


    Full Text Available A região dos Biscoitos na ilha Terceira, nos Açores, é mundialmente conhecida pela vinha em curraletas destinada à produção de Vinhos Licorosos de Qualidade Produzidos em Região Demarcada (VLQPRD. As castas predominantes são Verdelho branco e Verdelho roxo mas também estão presentes Terrantez, Arinto e Boal branco. Um dos objectivos do projecto Interfruta-II é avaliar o actual estado sanitário destas videiras em relação aos principais vírus. Assim, em Fevereiro de 2006, foi realizada uma prospecção em sete vinhas tendo sido analisados por ELISA os vírus GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2, GLRaV-3, GLRaV-7, GFLV, ArMV, GVA, GVB e GFkV. Os resultados são analisados por casta e vinha. No global mostram que a infecção por GLRaV-3 atinge os 100% e que a infecção por um ou dois Nepovirus é superior a 50%. Os restantes vírus foram detectados em menor percentagem. Existe elevada percentagem de infecções mistas. Atendendo ao prejudicial efeito qualitativo e/ou quantitativo das infecções detectadas, é apresentada uma estratégia de intervenção fitossanitária pretendendo contribuir para a recuperação da vinha nos Biscoitos.At Terceira island in Azores, the region Biscoitos is well known by its vineyards in typical “curraletas”. The grapevines are for the production of VLQPRD (i.e. Quality Liquorus Wines Produced in Demarcated Region. The predominant varieties are Verdelho branco and Verdelho roxo but also Terrantez, Arinto and Boal branco are present. One of the objectives of the project Interfruta-II is the evaluation of the actual sanitary status of those grapevines in relation to the main viruses. Therefore, in February 2006, a survey was done in seven vineyards evaluating by ELISA the virus GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2, GLRaV-3, GLRaV-7, GFLV, ArMV, GVA, GVB and GFkV. The results are analyzed by vineyard and by variety. In general they show that infection by GLRaV-3 is 100% and that infection by one or two Nepovirus is above 50%. The other

  17. Aerosol Optical Depth measurements in the Azores.

    Carvalho, Fernanda; Henriques, Diamantino; Fialho, Paulo


    10th BSRN Science and Review Workshop. De Bilt, The Netherlands, 7-11 July 2008. A preliminary analysis of AOD results from sun-photometer measurements collected at Jose Agostinho Observatory at Angra do Heroísmo (Terceira Island, the Azores) was presented. The observational period ranges from August 2004 to December 2007, using a SP02 sun-photometer at wavelengths 412, 500, 675, and 862 nm, coupled to a 2AXP sun-tracker. The sampling interval is 5 s and data is filtered for cloud contami...

  18. Choreonema thuretii and Pneophyllum confervicola (Corallinales, Rhodophyta), new records of coralline algae for the Azores

    Couto, Ruben P.; Alquicira, Edgar; Rodrigues, Armindo; Neto, Ana I.


    Copyright © 2011 ADAC. Tous droits réservés. Choreonema thuretii and Pneophyllum confervicola, two cosmopolitan species, are here recorded for the first time for the Azores. They were found during an investigation of intertidal communities in Pico Island (Azores) in the summer of 2007. Both species were found hosted in Jania rubens specimens, C. thuretii as a semi-endophytic parasite, P. confervicola as an epiphyte. They are present on other archipelagos from Macaronesia (Madeira and Canar...

  19. Climate characterization and modeling of pineapple greenhouses in the Azores archipelago

    Baptista, F.J.; Meneses, J.F.


    In the Azores Archipelago, Portugal, pineapples are cultivated on the Island of São Miguel, existing around 60 ha of glasshouses dedicated to this crop, being a very important sector for the local economy. The main goal of this work is to characterise the Azores pineapple glasshouse climate and to develop a model that allows predicting its internal air temperature. Climate data were recorded in two meteorological stations, one located inside the greenhouse and the other outside. G...

  20. Hydrogeology of the Azores volcanic archipelago (Portugal)

    Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Antunes, P.; Freire, P.


    The archipelago of the Azores is made of nine islands of volcanic origin located in the North Atlantic Ocean, with an area of 2333 km2 and approximately 237500 inhabitants, which are 98% dependant from groundwater sources for their water consumption. Therefore, groundwater is a resource that plays a vital role as drinking water source and as ecosystem support matrix. Nevertheless, besides the environmental, social and economical value of groundwater, this resource is subject to an increase pressure and in several islands water quality deterioration is shown by monitoring data. This pressure is also shown by the 42.7% increase expected for domestic use until the year 2020 at the Azores, with higher groundwater abstraction. The Azores climate can be considered as marine temperate, which is reflected by the low thermal amplitude and high precipitation. A well-established difference between a dry season and a colder and wet season occurs, as from October to March about 75% of the annual precipitation is registered. The average annual precipitation at the Azores is 1930 mm, exceeding by far the average annual actual evapotranspiration, which is 581 mm. Recharge rates range from 8.5% to 62.1%, and the highest values are observed at Pico, Terceira, Faial, São Miguel and Graciosa islands, especially in areas where the terrain is covered by recent basaltic lava flows and the soil cover is sparse. Groundwater resources estimates point to a total volume of about 1600x106 m3/yr. Values above the recharge median, equal to 101.3x106 m3/yr. were estimated for the São Miguel, São Jorge, Terceira and Flores islands. Despite differences in the islands growth, as a result of successive volcanic eruptions of various types, groundwater occurrence can be described in function of two main aquifers systems: (1) the basal aquifer system, which corresponds to fresh-water lenses floating on underlying salt water, and (2) perched-water bodies, which are usually drained by springs spread in

  1. The role of the Azores Archipelago in capturing and retaining incoming particles

    Sala, Iria; Harrison, Cheryl S.; Caldeira, Rui M. A.


    The capacity of the Azores Archipelago to capture and retain incoming particles and organisms that are drifting with the oceanic currents was the main focus of this study. Using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model coupled with the Connectivity Modeling System (an offline Lagrangian tool) a series of experiments were conducted to determine: i) the origin of the particles that reach the archipelago, ii) the capacity of each island sub-group to retain incoming particles and organisms, as well as the iii) oceanographic phenomena that lead to their transport and retention. The Gulf Stream (GS) and the westward propagating eddy corridors were identified as the main transport pathways affecting the Azores region. Eddy Kinetic Energy from altimetry data and Lyapunov exponent analysis suggest that eddies and filaments are the main delivery mechanisms. In the upper mixed layer, the GS and its associated eddies are a predominant regional oceanographic feature injecting particles from the north and west boundaries toward the Azores. The capacity to capture particles of each island sub-group was directly proportional to their size, while the retention time within the Azores region increased with depth, associated with the decrease in velocity of the intermediate water currents. This study opens new prospects to understand transport in the Mid-Atlantic (Azores) region and the islands' role in marine colonization, dispersal, fisheries recruitment and speciation.

  2. Evolution of elastic properties and acoustic emission, during uniaxial loading of rocks, from the Fogo Volcano in the island of Sao Miguel, Azores; Preliminary results.

    Moreira, M.; Wallenstein, N.


    A Computerized Uniaxial Press working up to 250 kN was installed in the middle 2011 in the Laboratory of Microseismic Monitoring of ISEL. The system is able to record continuous time, pressure and axial strain (1 µm resolution) at 1s sampling rate. The loading platens were designed to integrate acoustic emission (AE) transducers. Signals are acquired and processed through an 8-channel ESG Hyperion Ultrasonic Monitoring System (10 MSPS, 14/16-bit ADC). The first experiments, presented here, were applied to a set of rock samples from the Fogo, an active central volcano in the island of Sao Miguel. Two different volcanic rock types were studied: a fine grained alkali basaltic rock with a porphyritic texture, a porosity of 4.5% and bulk density of 2700 kg m-3 (sample #3); and a benmoreitic rock with a trachytic texture, a porosity of 8.1 %, and bulk density of 2400 kg m-3 (sample #4). Cores from sample #3 were subjected to continuous increasing pressure, until failure. They show a uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) spanning from 60 to 85 MPa and a stress-strain curve with two phases: a first one with relative low Young's Module (YM) followed by a second phase were the YM increases roughly 3 times. The stress transition value occurs broadly in a stress level 50% of the UCS. The AE produced in the process is almost negligible until the YM transition stress level and increases after that. Important pulses of high AE rate occur, (> 100 s-1), associated with the occurrence and propagation of fractures, which are always parallel to the principal stress, showing an evident pattern of tensile fractures. About 20s before the failure, very important deformation rate is observed, the YM strongly decrease, and continuous AE events, with low rate, usually 200 s-1. Cycling stress experiences were also performed showing reversible stress-strain relation for axial pressure below the YM transition level, and important hysteresis for axial pressure above that level. The associated AE

  3. The INTERFRUTA project and the study of medfly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) distribution in the fruit orchards of Terceira Island, Azores

    Full text: The INTERFUTA project, which has the goal of enlarging the fruit production, is a project of interregional cooperation between three regions and several institutions, that is financed by the EC program INTERRREG-III-B. In the field, four fruit trees are being studied (orange, apple, peach and banana) in three different sites of Terceira Island fruit production (Angra do Heroismo, Porto Judeu/Sao Sebastiao e Biscoitos). In this project we look it an integrated way at the fruit ecosystem as a whole. Therefore, we analyse all the climactic and all the most important production parameters. We also want to know the fungi and viruses that cause problems in fruit trees, but above all the composition and the dynamics of all the insects present. Special attention is given to the distribution and the life cycle of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its impact in terms of fruit infestation in the different orchards studied. This estimate of the medfly population was done in the three fruit production areas by monitoring the medfly males and females using traps. For the males a sexual pheromone (trimedlure) in Jackson traps was used, and for the females a food-based synthetic lure with a three-component attractant (trimethylamine, ammonium acetate and putrescine) in Tephritraps was used. The estimate of the medfly fruit damage was done using two methods: First, marking the fruits in the trees to determinate the number of fruits damaged, and second, collecting of damaged ruit near the maturation period in the orchards and around the traps and bringing them to the laboratory to determine the number of larvae per kilogram of fruit and the number of larvae registered in each kind of fruit. All this investigation has the goal of contributing to a better knowledge of the medfly population levels, the study of its evolution and appearance to measure the impact of this pest that, in a severe way, limits the fruit production in some of the

  4. New gravity and magnetics map of eastern part of Azores

    Dehghani, Ali


    The Azores are of volcanic origin and the volcanic activities are still occurs in the area. The main tectonic features in the eastern part of Azores are the Gloria Fault (GF) and São Miguel volcanic Island. The GF is an E-W strike-slip fault and can be traced by bathymetry. In the past decade many geological and geophysical investigations were dedicated to the study of tectonic features in the eastern part of Azores. Two of these cruises were organized by the Institute of Geophysics, University of Hamburg, Germany, in the years 2009 and 2012. In 2009 during the Meteor cruise M79-2 a total of 5500 km new Gravity and 2000 km new magnetic data were collected along some 60 Profiles. During the Poseidon cruise in the year 2012 some 2000 km new gravity and magnetic data were collected along two E-W profiles in the eastern part of Azores. The new gravity data were recorded with the modern Air-Sea-Gravimeter of Bodenseewerk KSS 31M and the new magnetic date with the Gradiometer SeaSpy. All new potential date were combined with the available data of the data base GEODAS and the new gravity anomaly maps (Free-Air and Bouguer) and the new magnetic anomaly map were produced. The maps show clearly the tectonic features in the area. The GF can be traced very well on both gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. Most of the small hills around the São Miguel Island are shown up in the magnetic anomaly map as strong magnetic anomaly. The new gravity and magnetic maps and the interpretation of them will be presented. The results of some 2-D modeling along some interesting profiles will be also presented and discussed.

  5. Comparison and validation of shallow landslides susceptibility maps generated by bi-variate and multi-variate linear probabilistic GIS-based techniques. A case study from Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores)

    Marques, R.; Amaral, P.; Zêzere, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Goulart, C.


    Slope instability research and susceptibility mapping is a fundamental component of hazard assessment and is of extreme importance for risk mitigation, land-use management and emergency planning. Landslide susceptibility zonation has been actively pursued during the last two decades and several methodologies are still being improved. Among all the methods presented in the literature, indirect quantitative probabilistic methods have been extensively used. In this work different linear probabilistic methods, both bi-variate and multi-variate (Informative Value, Fuzzy Logic, Weights of Evidence and Logistic Regression), were used for the computation of the spatial probability of landslide occurrence, using the pixel as mapping unit. The methods used are based on linear relationships between landslides and 9 considered conditioning factors (altimetry, slope angle, exposition, curvature, distance to streams, wetness index, contribution area, lithology and land-use). It was assumed that future landslides will be conditioned by the same factors as past landslides in the study area. The presented work was developed for Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores), a study area of 9,5 km2, mainly composed of volcanic deposits (ash and pumice lapilli) produced by explosive eruptions in Furnas Volcano. This materials associated to the steepness of the slopes (38,9% of the area has slope angles higher than 35°, reaching a maximum of 87,5°), make the area very prone to landslide activity. A total of 1.495 shallow landslides were mapped (at 1:5.000 scale) and included in a GIS database. The total affected area is 401.744 m2 (4,5% of the study area). Most slope movements are translational slides frequently evolving into debris-flows. The landslides are elongated, with maximum length generally equivalent to the slope extent, and their width normally does not exceed 25 m. The failure depth rarely exceeds 1,5 m and the volume is usually smaller than 700 m3. For modelling

  6. Magnetic study of the Furnas caldera (Azores

    J. M. Torta


    Full Text Available A local ground magnetic study of the Furnas caldera (S. Miguel Island, Azores has provided new insight into the magnetic structure of this volcano. Analysis of the data comprised removal of the IGRF, reduction to the pole, pseudogravity integration and upward continuation. Also, a spectral method was applied to estimate the depth to the magnetic sources, as well as a 2.5D forward modelling technique. Magnetic properties obtained at the laboratory for some representative sample rocks were considered in the modelling process. The most relevant features are the existence of an important negative anomaly inside the caldera and of an intense positive anomaly to the south of the coast. The former points out a decrease in the magnetization of the caldera filling materials with respect to the surrounding rocks, which could be explained as the result of post-eruption processes such as hydrothermal alteration. This is expected as Furnas has an active hydrothermal system probably related with a magmatic reservoir at high temperature. The positive anomaly suggests the existence of a strongly-magnetized body beneath the south coast.

  7. Neutron activation analysis of atmospheric biomonitors from the Azores. A comparative study of lower and higher plants

    Within an extensive survey of lower and higher plants in the Azores' Terceira and Santa Maria islands, this study is focused on the evaluation of ectohydric bryophytes and bark from Cryptomeria japonica as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for air-monitoring purposes. Neutron activation analysis (k0-NAA) has been applied to all field samples for elemental determinations. Judging from the present results, and since the islands embody most features of the whole archipelago, bryophytes do not appear as an option for further campaigns in the Azores, due to scanty supply and relatively poor performance as biomonitors. On the other hand, comparisons of bark with lichens collected at the same sites seem fairly good, and elements are enriched in bark to an even greater extent than in lichens. All things considered - including material availability and ecological concern - bark stands for a sensible choice for biomonitoring in the Azores. (author)

  8. Ten Years of Black Carbon Measurements in the North Atlantic at the Pico Mountain Observatory, Azores (2225m asl).

    Kumar, Sumit; Fialho, Paulo; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Olsen, Seth C.; Owen, R. Chris; Helmig, Detlev; Hueber, Jacques; Dziobak, Michael P.; Kramer, Louisa; Mazzoleni, Claudio


    45th annual Fall Meeting, AGU. San Francisco, California, 3-7 December. The Pico Mountain Observatory is located in the summit caldera of the Pico mountain, an inactive volcano on the Pico Island in the Azores, Portugal (38.47°N, 28.40°W, Altitude 2225m asl). The Azores are often impacted by polluted outflows from the North American continent and local sources have been shown to have a negligible influence at the observatory. The value of the station stems from the fact that this is the on...

  9. The 2007 Azores earthquakes: A case of trigering?

    Buforn, E.; Borges, J.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Caldeira, B.


    THE 2007 AZORES EARTHQUAKES: A CASE OF TRIGERING? E. Buforn1 F. Borges2, M. Bezzeghoud2 1. Departamento de Geofísica y Meteorología, Fac. CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain), 2.Departamento de Física e Centro de Geofísica de Évora, University of Évora, Colégio Luis Verney, Rua Romão Ramalho, 59, 7002-554 Évora, On 5 April (Mw=6.3) and 7 April 2007 (Mw=6.1 ) two earthquakes occur at the Formigas Islets (Azores Islands), both with same epicenter and felt (I=V/VI MSK) in S. Miguel Island. The rupture process of these earthquakes has been studied from body wave inversion of broad band data at telesesimic distances. Results obtained shown normal faulting for both shocks, with planes oriented in NW-SE direction, with focus at shallow depth (10 km and 6 km respectively). The slip distribution over the fault plane (152/44/-88) shows for the 05-04-07 event, the rupture propagating downward and a duration of 12s for the source time function. For the 07-04-07 event, the slip distribution over the fault plane (125/52/-81) shows de rupture propagating downward and duration of 10s for the STF. From these results we have estimated the static Coulomb stress change. We find that the static stress change caused by the 5 April event is higher, about 2 bar at epicenter the location of the second event (April 7), triggering the second rupture. Locations of aftershocks do not agree well with areas of increased Coulomb failure stress, which can be explained by the complexities of the rupture process oy by uncertainties at the hypocerter location

  10. Elemental composition of air masses under different altitudes in Azores, central north Atlantic

    Between 8th July 2002 and 18th June 2004, aerosol samples were collected in Azores. Their inorganic composition was obtained by neutron activation analysis in order to study the differences of aerosols in two atmospheric altitudes of the central north Atlantic: (1) PICO-NARE observatory (Lower Free Troposphere-LFT) at Pico mountain summit (38,470 deg N, 28,404 deg W, 2,225 m a.s.l.) in Pico Island, Azores, where air masses from the surrounding continents (Africa, Europe, Central and North America) pass through, carrying aerosols with anthropogenic (Sb, Br, Mo, U, Se and Tb) and/or natural emissions (Fe, Co, La, Na, Sm, Cr, Zn, Hf, K and Th); (2) TERCEIRA-NARE station (Marine Boundary Layer) at Serreta (38,69 deg N, 27,36 deg W, 50 m a.s.l.), in Terceira Island, Azores, where natural aerosols (I, Cl, Na, Br and other soil related elements) are predominant. However, a combined interpretation of the data points out to a co-existence of the anthropogenic elements Sb and Mo, eventually with similar origins as the ones passing Pico Mountain summit. Very high concentrations and enrichment factors for Sb, Mo and Br in LFT, higher than the ones found in other areas, confirm atmospheric long-range transport mainly from the west boundary of north Atlantic; this may indicate eventual accumulation and persistence of those elements in the area due to the presence of Azores high pressures or the Hadley cells effect. A significant correlation between Fe and Yb and the enrichment of rare earth elements (La, Sm, Tb and Yb) and Th in LFT aerosols, both reflect a mineral dust intrusions from north Africa (Sahara and Sahel region). (author)

  11. Prevalence of contagious and environmental mastitis-causing bacteria in bulk tank milk and its relationships with milking practices of dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island (Azores).

    Azevedo, Carla; Pacheco, Diana; Soares, Luísa; Romão, Ricardo; Moitoso, Mónica; Maldonado, Jaime; Guix, Roger; Simões, João


    This study aimed to assess the degree of contamination of bulk tank milk (BTM) by Staphylococcus spp. and coliform bacteria and to identify major milking practices that help perpetuate them in dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island. In July 2014, BTM was sampled and a survey concerning local milking practices was conducted on 100 herds. Semi quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other coliform bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens) in 100, 75, 59, and 35 % of BTM, respectively. According to multivariable univariate models, on herds not using hot water for cleaning the milking machine and teat liners, there was at least 3.4 more odds (P < 0.01) to have S. aureus or coliform bacteria contamination in BTM. The likelihood of finding S. aureus in BTM was higher (P < 0.001) on herds without high hygiene during milking, when milking mastitic cows at the end, on abrupt cessation of milking at dry-off, and official milk control implementation. The glove use also favored (odds ratio (OR) 5.8; P < 0.01) the detection of coliform bacteria in BTM. Poor milking practices identified in this study should be avoided in order to decrease S. aureus and coliform bacteria contamination of BTM. Other factors associated with milk quality in São Miguel Island also should be further investigated. PMID:26719295

  12. Nutrients and other elements in honey from Azores and mainland Portugal

    The present study aims the identification and quantification of trace elements in samples of honey from the Azores and the Portuguese mainland. Elemental concentrations were determined for Al, Br, Cl, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, and Zn. Some of these elements are essential dietary nutrients for humans. The essential elements, K and to a lesser extent Na and Cl were the most abundant in the honey samples. However, overall, the elemental content was very low, inferior to the recommended allowances for daily dietary intake (DDI), with the exception of Na whose concentration exceeded that of the recommended DDI. The results of the present investigation and data reported for other countries compare well. The honeys correlate much better when they are from Azores or from Portugal mainland, however, some good correlations were found between honeys from the islands and the mainland. The color of the honey, which depends of the flower-source, could have a role in the differences and similarities between the different honeys as suggested by the cluster analysis of the data. The correlation between honey, soil, tree bark and lichens, all collected in Azores, was poor. (author)

  13. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: Analysis of Results from the ARM Mobile Facility Deployment to the Azores (2009/2010)

    Wood, Robert [University of Washington, Dept of Atmos Sci


    The project focuses upon dataset analysis and synthesis of datasets from the AMF deployment entitled “Clouds, Aerosols, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP‐MBL)” at Graciosa Island in the Azores. Wood is serving a PI for this AMF deployment.

  14. Air-quality assessment of Pico-mountain environment (Azores) by using chemometric and trajectory analyses

    This article illustrates the use of chemometrics in the interpretation of aerosol data collected by a seven wavelength aethalometer at the PICO-NARE observatory, in Pico island, Azores, Portugal. Samples were assessed through k0-standardized, instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA), and concentrations of up to 20 airborne elements were determined. The chemometric analysis by self-organizing maps (SOM) tried to identify groups of similarity for sampling events and chemical tracers, discriminating in this way each group of similarity thus obtained. Additionally, synoptic back trajectories for each of the sampling days distributed into four clusters were calculated, in order to associate the classified groups with possible pollution sources. (author)

  15. Looking for North Atlantic Baleen Whales: When are they coming to the Azores?

    Laura González; Miranda van der Linde


    The archipelago of the Azores is like an oasis in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Surrounded by deep waters, those islands are a “must stop” place for every traveler, including, of course, cetaceans. Around the archipelago more than 24 different species of whales and dolphins can be seen. Some of them are resident such as the common dolphin or the emblematic sperm whale. But others are seasonal or sporadic, such as the spotted dolphin or the big baleen whales. The aim of this study is to as...

  16. A sustainable tourism in the Azores implies the environmental awareness of both

    Ventura, Maria A.


    2011 Shanghai International Conference on Social Science (SICSS 2011) 17-20 August. A set of nine “Islands’ Parks” has been created throughout the Azorean archipelago, an outmost region of the EU located in the North Atlantic Ocean. Within these parks we find the areas delimited by Natura 2000, a network based on 2 EU Directives: Habitats and Birds directives. Since these regions aim to protect Europe’s remaining natural areas, in remote and isolated islands like the Azores, this is a crit...

  17. Characterisation of a basin mire in the Azores archipelago

    E. Dias


    Full Text Available The Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic is an extremely important area for biodiversity because it is rich in rare species and habitats, and almost undisturbed. The Lagoa do Madruga is a small basin mire located at 956 m a.s.l. on Santa Bárbara Mountain, Terceira Island. It is an extremely good example of a peatland type that was first discovered in 1998, and has not previously been described in the international literature. This paper provides baseline information on its flora, vegetation communities, structure and hydrology. Thirty-one plant species including eight Sphagnum species and nine endemic vascular plants have been recorded, and four plant communities are distinguished. The maximum peat depth is three metres. The mire receives flowing water from its margins and from a small stream entering at its eastern end, in addition to intercepted precipitation and fog. The accumulated water forms pools and soakways which feed other wetlands downstream. The conservation status of the mire is good, but it is subject to increasing pressure from garbage generated during maintenance operations at a nearby antenna array.

  18. A multiproxy reconstruction of NAO evolution in the Azores archipelago since 1350 AD

    Hernández, Armand; Doolittle, Sara; Bao, Roberto; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Rubio-Inglés, Maria J.; Sánchez-López, Guiomar; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Marques, Helena S.; Sáez, Alberto; Giralt, Santiago


    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the main atmospheric circulation pattern affecting climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere, having a major impact on both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Instrumental records of the NAO are relatively short, and therefore paleoenvironmental multiproxy approaches become fundamental to better understand its behaviour for longer scale periods. The NAO is often defined as a large-scale meridional oscillation dipole of air pressure between the Azores High and the Iceland Low. Some of the NAO definitions include the use of sea level pressure from Ponta Delgada station in Azores, and thus any NAO reconstruction would gain in robustness if it includes paleoenvironmental information from this archipelago located at the southern end of the meridional dipole that characterizes the NAO pattern. However, to the best of our knowledge, very few historical and long-term reconstructions have been conducted in the Azores Islands. We present a ca. 600-year-long multiproxy reconstruction of the NAO evolution based on facies analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning, elemental and isotope geochemistry on bulk organic matter and the preliminary study of diatom and chironomid content from the sedimentary record of Lake Empadadas (37° 49' N - 25° 44' W, Azores Archipelago, Portugal). The precipitation regime in Azores Archipelago (i.e. intra and inter-annual variability) is clearly influenced by the NAO index, thus periods with dominant positive NAO index values (NAO+) are usually characterized by low winter precipitation in the Azores. Conversely, negative NAO phases (NAO-) induce high winter precipitation in the archipelago. These patterns suggest that past (winter) precipitation changes on the Azores may be partially used as a proxy for NAO changes, and thus a proxy for more large-scale changes in the North Atlantic region. According to this multiproxy characterization of the Lake Empadadas sediments

  19. International/Azores: Regenerative bulkhead; International/Azoren: Regenerativer Vorposten

    Beck, J.


    The Azores use geothermal heat to reduce their dependence on expensive imported oil. The local utility EDA also uses wind power, with the goal of doubling the current 20 percent share of renewable energy in power supply. (orig.)

  20. A checklist of the Lepidoptera from Corvo Island (Azores)

    Vieira, Virgílio; Tavares, João


    No presente estudo é apresentada uma lista das borboletas e traças recolhidas ou observadas em Julho e Outubro de 1993 na ilha do Corvo, Arquipélago dos Açores. A partir desta e da informação bibliográfica disponível foi elaborada a lista preliminar dos Lepidópteros do Corvo. São referidas pela primeira vez as famílias Tineidae, Gracillariídae, Hyponomeutidae, Choreutidae, Tortricidae, Pyralidae, Sphingidae e Noctuidae. Além disso, das vinte e oito espécies e subespécies assinaladas, ...

  1. First report of 13 species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in mainland Portugal and Azores by morphological and molecular characterization.

    David W Ramilo

    Full Text Available The genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae contains important vectors of animal and human diseases, including bluetongue, African horse sickness and filariosis. A major outbreak of bluetongue occurred in mainland Portugal in 2004, forty eight years after the last recorded case. A national Entomological Surveillance Plan was initiated in mainland Portugal, Azores and the Madeira archipelagos in 2005 in order to better understand the disease and facilitate policy decisions. During the survey, the most prevalent Culicoides species in mainland Portugal was C. imicola (75.3% and species belonging to the Obsoletus group (6.5%. The latter were the most prevalent in Azores archipelago, accounting for 96.7% of the total species identified. The Obsoletus group was further characterized by multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction to species level showing that only two species of this group were present: C. obsoletus sensu strictu (69.6% and C. scoticus (30.4%. Nine species of Culicoides were detected for the first time in mainland Portugal: C. alazanicus, C. bahrainensis, C. deltus, C. lupicaris, C. picturatus, C. santonicus, C. semimaculatus, C. simulator and C. subfagineus. In the Azores, C. newsteadi and C. circumscriptus were identified for the first time from some islands, and bluetongue vectors belonging to the Obsoletus group (C. obsoletus and C. scoticus were found to be widespread.

  2. Lectotypification of three endemic taxa of Ammi L. (Apiaceae from the archipelago of the Azores

    Bueno, Esther


    Full Text Available Lectotypes are designated here for taxa of the genus Ammi L. described by H.C. Watson from the Azores islands. The names Ammi huntii H.C. Watson, A. seubertianum (H.C. Watson Benth. & Hook. f. ex Trel. and A. trifoliatum (H.C. Watson Benth. & Hook. f. ex Trel. still remain untypified from their description. Those typifications constitute the starting point to further taxonomical studies on that aggregate.Se tipifican los táxones del género Ammi L. endémicos del archipiélago de las Azores, que fueron descritos por H.C. Watson. Los nombres de Ammi huntii H.C. Watson, A. seubertianum H.C. Watson Benth. & Hook. f. ex Trel. y A. trifoliatum H.C. Watson Benth. & Hook. f. ex Trel., permanecían sin tipificar desde su descripción original. Dichas tipificaciones se consideran el punto de partida para futuros estudios taxonómicos sobre este agregado.

  3. Spatio-temporal variation in the diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores archipelago, northeast Atlantic

    Neves, V; Nolf, D.; Clarke, M.


    The diet of Cory’s shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores was studied in four islands of the archipelago over four breeding seasons, using stomach flushings from 959 birds. Fish were identified from flesh, otoliths and vertebrae and cephalopods from flesh and lower beaks. The frequency of occurrence of prey taxa, and the numerical frequency of fish and cephalopods, showed marked variations both spatially, across the breeding cycle and between years. Overall, cephalopods from 37 species...

  4. Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, São Miguel, Azores

    Moore, Richard B.


    Six volcanic zones comprise São Miguel, the largest island in the Azores. All are Quaternary in age except the last, which is partly Pliocene. From west to east the zones are (1) the trachyte stratovolcano of Sete Cidades, (2) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte, (3) the trachyte stratovolcano of Agua de Pau, (4) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte and tristanite, (5) the trachyte stratovolcano of Furnas, and (6) the Nordeste shield, which includes the Povoação caldera and consists of alkali basalt, tristanite, and trachyte. New radiocarbon and K-Ar ages augment stratigraphic data obtained during recent geologic mapping of the entire island and provide improved data to interpret eruption frequency. Average dormant intervals for the past approximately 3000 years in the areas active during that time are about 400 years for Sete Cidades, 145 for zone 2, 1150 for Agua de Pau, and 370 for Furnas. However, the average dormant interval at Sete Cidades increased from 400 to about 680 years before each of the past two eruptions, and the interval at Furnas decreased from 370 to about 195 years before each of the past four eruptions. Eruptions in zone 4 occurred about once every 1000 years during latest Pleistocene and early Holocene time; none has occurred for about 3000 years. The Povoação caldera truncates part of the Nordeste shield and probably formed during the middle to late Pleistocene. Calderas formed during latest Pleistocene time at the three younger stratovolcanoes in the sequence: outer Agua de Pau (between 46 and 26.5 ka), Sete Cidades (about 22 ka), inner Agua de Pau (15.2 ka), and Furnas (about 12 ka). Normal faults are common, but many are buried by Holocene trachyte pumice. Most faults trend northwest or west-northwest and are related to the Terceira rift, whose most active segment on São Miguel passes through Sete Cidades and zone 2. A major normal fault displaces Nordeste

  5. Observations on the biology and ecology of selected macroalgae from the littoral of São Miguel (Azores).

    Neto, Ana I.


    Copyright © 2000 by Walter de Gruyter. The dominant benthic algal species from two sites, located on opposite coasts of the island of Sao Miguel, Azores (Sao Roque in the south and Sao Vicente on the north coast) were studied over a two-year period (September 1993-September 1995). From both sites monthly collections were made in the intertidal zone and in the adjacent subtidal zone down to a depth of 15 m. The algae occur under different ecological conditions, a few species being restricte...

  6. Establishment of a coastal fish in the Azores: recent colonisation or sudden expansion of an ancient relict population?

    Stefanni, S; Castilho, R; Sala-Bozano, M; Robalo, J I; Francisco, S M; Santos, R S; Marques, N; Brito, A; Almada, V C; Mariani, S


    The processes and timescales associated with ocean-wide changes in the distribution of marine species have intrigued biologists since Darwin's earliest insights into biogeography. The Azores, a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago located >1000 km off the European continental shelf, offers ideal opportunities to investigate phylogeographic colonisation scenarios. The benthopelagic sparid fish known as the common two-banded seabream (Diplodus vulgaris) is now relatively common along the coastline of the Azores archipelago, but was virtually absent before the 1990 s. We employed a multiple genetic marker approach to test whether the successful establishment of the Azorean population derives from a recent colonisation from western continental/island populations or from the demographic explosion of an ancient relict population. Results from nuclear and mtDNA sequences show that all Atlantic and Mediterranean populations belong to the same phylogroup, though microsatellite data indicate significant genetic divergence between the Azorean sample and all other locations, as well as among Macaronesian, western Iberian and Mediterranean regions. The results from Approximate Bayesian Computation indicate that D. vulgaris has likely inhabited the Azores for ∼ 40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.5-83.6) to 52 (95% CI: 6.32-89.0) generations, corresponding to roughly 80-150 years, suggesting near-contemporary colonisation, followed by a more recent demographic expansion that could have been facilitated by changing climate conditions. Moreover, the lack of previous records of this species over the past century, together with the absence of lineage separation and the presence of relatively few private alleles, do not exclude the possibility of an even more recent colonisation event. PMID:26174025

  7. Looking for North Atlantic Baleen Whales: When are they coming to the Azores?

    Laura González


    Full Text Available The archipelago of the Azores is like an oasis in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Surrounded by deep waters, those islands are a “must stop” place for every traveler, including, of course, cetaceans. Around the archipelago more than 24 different species of whales and dolphins can be seen. Some of them are resident such as the common dolphin or the emblematic sperm whale. But others are seasonal or sporadic, such as the spotted dolphin or the big baleen whales. The aim of this study is to assess the temporal distribution of the baleen whales sighted off Azores. We analyzed data gathered off the south coast of São Miguel (Azores from 2006 to 2013 from whale watching vessels. The whale watching company is located in Ponta Delgada and it works all throughout the year, always when the weather, the sea state and the number of tourists allow doing it. In Azores, whale watching companies use to locate cetaceans from land, with specialized lookouts spotting the animals from strategic points on the shore (as whalers did. These lookouts use powerful binoculars to locate the animals, and then give instructions to the boats to get to them. Once there, the boat registers date, hour, sea state, visibility, position (GPS, species, number of individuals, number of adults, juveniles and calves, behavior, association with other species and if there are other boats in the area. Photos are taken whenever it is possible and they are analyzed when the quality is good enough to distinguish natural marks and shapes. Most of the photos used in this study were taken in the last 5 years. Photo-Id catalogues were created for blue whales, fin whales and humpback whales. Data collected are more complete and frequent since 2009. In this case we have analyzed a total of 7691 sightings, belonging to 20 different species of cetaceans, 14 Odontoceti and 6 Mysticeti. In the latter group we recorded 491 sightings. The three most sighted Mysticeti species were the three great

  8. Spatio-temporal variation in the diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores archipelago, northeast Atlantic

    Neves, Verónica; Nolf, Dirk; Clarke, Malcolm


    The diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores was studied in four islands of the archipelago over four breeding seasons, using stomach flushings from 959 birds. Fish were identified from flesh, otoliths and vertebrae and cephalopods from flesh and lower beaks. The frequency of occurrence of prey taxa, and the numerical frequency of fish and cephalopods, showed marked variations both spatially, across the breeding cycle and between years. Overall, cephalopods from 37 species representing 17 families and fish from 33 species representing 18 families were identified, representing over 70 prey species and trebling what was previously known. Histioteuthidae, Ommastrephidae and Cranchiidae were the only cephalopod families present every year and represented two thirds of the cephalopods' consumption by number. Blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus was the most abundant prey species present in 1998 and 2002 but was absent in 1999 and 2000, representing on average 57.2% of prey by number in the years it occurred. Apart from blue jack mackerel, most fish species were present in very low numbers with the exception of Cubiceps gracilis, Scomberesox saurus and Maurolicus muellerii. Diaphus adenomus, was recorded for the first time for the Azores archipelago.

  9. The importance of post-mortem examinations in cetacean biology: A report of a necropsy on Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen, 1833 (Cetacea: Delphinidae, from the Azores, Northeastern Atlantic

    Mário César Sedrez


    Full Text Available This article reports the necropsy of a specimen of striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba found stranded in the north coast of Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal. Here, the importance of standard protocols in post-mortem examinations and the need to adequately proceed were discussed. Stranded marine mammals are valuable specimens for several studies of pathology and other veterinary medical aspects. Although the causa mortis was not determined, the full access to stranded specimens was crucial, not only for pathology studies but also for a proper training to veterinary medicine students whenever possible.




    The present paper gives a general perspective of the efforts going on at Terceira Island in Azores, Portugal, concerning the implementation of an Hydrogen Economy demonstration campus. The major motivation for such a geographical location choice was the abundance of renewable resources like wind, sea waves and geothermal enthalpy, which are of fundamental importance for the demonstration of renewable hydrogen economy sustainability. Three main campus will be implemented: one at Cume Hill, whe...

  11. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Bah, Isaac


    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  12. Estudio de la longevidad en la isla de Pico : (archipiélago de las Azores

    Carlota Santos


    Full Text Available The determinants of human longevity have been extensively studied, indicating cultural, nutritional and genetic factors as major causes that increase our life time.On the island of Pico,Azores,several studies have detected,between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries, distinct paths in the levels of mortality compared to those recorded in other contemporary European populations. Considering data from parish records on births, marriages and deaths, kinship relations were established and the main demographic characteristics of people in 9 of the island’s 17 parishes for that period were described. After applying the methodology of parish reconstitution and the method of Desjardins and Charbonneau, intergenerational correspondence in the age of death was analyzed, considering the sex of the parents and children, as well as different age groups, with the aim of verifying the existence of an intergenerational correspondence for longevity. The results confirm the hereditary component, and emphasize the negative effects of advanced paternal age at the time of birth in the life span of daughters but not of sons, as previously noted by other authors.

  13. Volcanic deformation sources associated with Fogo 2011-2012 unrest, Azores - The first modelling result

    Okada, Jun; Araújo, João; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Lorenzo, Maria; Ferreira, Teresa


    Volcanic deformation is often observed at many active volcanoes in the world by using space geodesy techniques, namely GNSS and InSAR. More difficulties in judgement if eruptions are imminent or not arise when such phenomenon occurs at dormant volcanoes due to the lack of eruption experiences with monitoring data. The eruption triggering mechanism is still controversial at many cases, but many attempts to image deformation sources beneath volcanoes have been made using geophysical inversion techniques. In this study, we show the case study of Fogo (Água de Pau) volcano, S. Miguel Island, Azores which represents over 450 years of eruption dormancy since 1563-1564. In the recent decades Fogo has exhibited three prominent unrest episodes (1989, 2003-2006, and 2011-2012). The lack of geochemical and hydrothermal evidences for a magmatic intrusion during those episodes does not encourage discussions on resuming volcanic activity of Fogo. However, the inflation/uplift are evident on the edifices at least for the last two unrest episodes based on GPS data by Trota et al. (2009) and Okada et al. (2015), respectively. The preliminary deformation modelling based on repeated GPS campaign data suggested a shallow expanding spheroid (Trota et al. 2009) or a single Mogi sources beneath the summit caldera. We performed a more integrated inversion for the 2011-2012 episode using a genetic algorithm optimizing the source parameters. The best fit model agrees well with the regional/local tectonic lineament suggesting the close relation between the volcanic sources and the regional/local tectonics. The regional extensional stress (between Eurasia and Nubia plates) may play important roles for the ascent of volcanic fluids at Fogo volcano. We do not discard the possibility that Fogo may have been preparing for eruptions by intermittent ascents of magma at shallow crust (i.e. experiencing "failed eruptions") during the apparent dormant period. As a local monitoring agency, CIVISA

  14. Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the Canary Islands precipitation

    García Herrera, Ricardo; Gallego Puyol, David; Hernández Martín, Emiliano; Gimeno, Luis; Ribera Rodríguez, Pedro


    The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the Canary Island rainfall and the Atlantic large-scale circulation, characterized by the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) index. The Canary Islands are located in the Atlantic subtropical belt under the direct influence of the Azores high and the trade winds. Their steep orography makes the islands very sensitive to small variations in a synoptic situation, thus providing an excellent natural observatory for the North Atlantic ...

  15. Characterization of the decolorizing activity of azo dyes by Bacillus subtilis azoreductase AzoR1

    Montira Leelakriangsak; Sukallaya Borisut


    The product of the Bacillus subtilis gene azoR1 is annotated as a putative azoreductase, production of which isinduced in response to thiol-reactive compounds. Here we report on the decolorization of four azo dyes by azoreductaseactivity. The ability of overexpressed AzoR1 strain ORB7106 to catalyze decolorization of azo dyes was investigated on agarplates and in liquid cultures. The decolorization efficacy of a mutant, ORB7106, which has lost negative control of azoR1expression, was signific...

  16. Seismic analysis and strengthening of Pico Island Churches

    Antonio Arede; Anibal Costa; Domingos Moreira; Nuno Neves


    The proposed study addresses the development of an integrated strategy for modelling, experimental calibration, numerical analysis and seismic strengthening carried out in two churches of the Pico Island, Azores, namely the Bandeiras and the Madalena churches. Following an initial description of the observed damages resulting from the 1998 earthquake, the modelling option for the churches structures is outlined. Reference is made to the use of ambient vibration tests that led to the definitio...

  17. Water composition in the unsaturated zone at Sete Cidades central volcano (S. Miguel, Azores, Portugal)

    Cruz, J.; Silva, M.; Mendonça, J.; Dias, I.; Prudêncio, I.


    A field study was developed at Sete Cidades, the westernmost of the three active composite volcanoes that dominate the geology of São Miguel, the largest of the nine islands from the Azores archipelago. Research methodology comprehends the characterization of soil-water composition at several depths, sampled by means of ceramic suction cups. Previously to their installation, cups were all submitted to several stages of washing, first in the laboratory with supra pure water, until aliquot conductivity stabilizes, and after in the field. This study was planned in order to study the water pollution due to agriculture, one of the main economic activities in the Azores, as shown by the gross value added to regional product. The negative effects of groundwater pollution due to agriculture have been reported in the majority of the nine islands, reflected by high contents of nitrogen species, derived from the inadequate use of synthetic and organic fertilizers, as well as from animal wastes leaching, or also by microbiology parameters. The relation between water pollution and agriculture results in some cases in the failure to comply regarding EU and national water quality regulations, through quality deterioration and compromising groundwater as strategic natural resource in the Azores. The studied area corresponds to Sete Cidades volcano caldera, a 5 km-diameter circular shaped depression, contoured by steep walls from 30 m high up to 400 m. In order to characterize unsaturated water composition in the caldera floor, five pasture locations were selected and monitored, as well as one site with the same physical conditions, but without agricultural activity. From the 5 pasture lands we discuss further results obtained in the so-called Pavão I (Pa I), which corresponds to the most extensive data set. On this site, 6 suction cups were installed, at depths 0.35 m, 0.7 m, 1 m, 1.3 m, 1.6 m and 1.9 m. In the site without agricultural activity, in the vicinity of Sete Cidades

  18. Land Use Change and Socio-Economic Evaluation in São Jorge Island (Between 15th and 20th Century)

    Dentinho, Tomaz; Serpa, Vanda; Silveira, Paulo; Goncalves, Joana


    The agenda explain the historical evolution of land uses in São Jorge Island (Azores- Portugal) between 15th-20th century.The economic exploitation of the island space prosecuted itself in simultaneous with his colony, one form to guarantee the auto supplying of the populations. First we assess the capacity of the island territory for different uses based on agronomic analysis and transform these capacities in attractiveness coefficients.Then we design a spatial interaction model with five di...

  19. A re-evaluation of Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in the Azores

    León-Cisneros, K.; Riosmena-Rodríguez, R.; Neto, A. I.


    The genus Scinaia in the Azores is re-evaluated based on historical and recent collections. A combination of morphological and anatomical diagnostic characters was used for species segregation, and a key for Azorean species determination is presented. Anatomical information associated to the hair development is described for the first time for the genus. The occurrence of S. furcellata and S. interrupta is confirmed for the archipelago. The presence of S. acuta is reported for the first time in the Azores, representing a spread from Australia to the N-Atlantic and specifically into the Macaronesian region. Its occurrence in the archipelago and the Canaries is discussed as a possible introduction.

  20. Cestodes from deep-water squaliform sharks in the Azores

    Caira, Janine N.; Pickering, Maria


    The majority of our knowledge on marine tapeworms (cestodes) is limited to taxa that are relatively easy to obtain (i.e., those that parasitize shallower-water species). The invitation to participate in a deep-water research survey off the Condor seamount in the Azores offered the opportunity to gain information regarding parasites of the less often studied sharks of the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zone. All tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) found parasitizing the spiral intestine of squaliform shark species (Elasmobranchii: Squaliformes) encountered as part of this survey, as well as some additional Azorean sampling from previous years obtained from local fishermen are reported. In total, 112 shark specimens of 12 species of squaliform sharks representing 4 different families from depths ranging between 400 and 1290 m were examined. Cestodes were found in the spiral intestines from 11 of the 12 squaliform species examined: Deania calcea, D. cf. profundorum, D. profundorum, Etmopterus princeps, E. pusillus, E. spinax, Centroscyllium fabricii, Centroscymnus coelolepis, C. cryptacanthus, C. crepidater, and Dalatias licha. No cestodes were found in the spiral intestines of Centrophorus squamosus. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed several potentially novel trypanorhynch and biloculated tetraphyllidean species. Aporhynchid and gilquiniid trypanorhynchs dominated the adult cestode fauna of Etmopterus and Deania host species, respectively, while larval phyllobothriids were found across several host genera, including, Deania, Centroscyllium, and Centroscymnus. These results corroborate previous findings that deep-water cestode faunas are relatively depauperate and consist primarily of trypanorhynchs of the families Gilquiniidae and Aporhynchidae and larval tetraphyllideans. A subset of specimens of most cestode species was preserved in ethanol for future molecular analysis to allow more definitive determinations of the identification of the

  1. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters--Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco.

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Isabel Neto, Ana; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M; Vasconcelos, Vitor


    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues. PMID:26670254

  2. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters—Portugal (Azores and Madeira and Morocco

    Marisa Silva


    Full Text Available Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues.

  3. El género Drouetius Méquignon, 1942 stat. prom., de las islas Azores (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae

    Machado, A.


    Full Text Available Drouetius Méquignon, 1942, was originally established as a monotypical subgenus of Laparocerus Schönherr, 1834, and is here upgraded to genus (stat. prom. based on morphological and molecular data. The genus and D. azoricus are redescribed, and D. azoricus nitens n. ssp., D. azoricus paralellirostris n. ssp. D. azoricus separandus n. ssp., D oceanicus n. sp., D. oceanicus tristis n. ssp., D. borgesi n. sp., D. borgesi sanctimichaelis n. ssp., and D. borgesi centralis n. ssp. are described. The different form of the transfer apparatus of the aedeagus has been used as criterion for aggregating the island populations into a single species. A tentative phylogenetic test based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene 16SrRNA from representative species of several tribes of Entiminae, points to a closer relationship between Drouetius and Peritelus, than with Brachyderes or other genera. Finally, a key for the identification of the species and subspecies is provided, as well as comments on their ecology and distribution in the Azores archipelago, where Drouetius is endemic.Drouetius Méquignon, 1942, establecido originalmente como subgénero monotípico de Laparocerus Schönherr, 1834, se eleva aquí a la categoría de género (stat. prom. en base a datos morfológicos y moleculares. Se aporta una redescripción del género y de D. azoricus, y se describen D. azoricus nitens n. ssp., D. azoricus parallelirostris n. ssp., D. azoricus separandus n. ssp., D. oceanicus n. sp., D. oceanicus tristis n. ssp., D. borgesi n. sp., D. borgesi sanctimichaelis n. ssp. y D. borgesi centralis n. ssp. La configuración del transponedor del saco interno del edeago se ha empleado como criterio para agrupar las poblaciones insulares en una misma especie. Un test filogenético orientativo basado en secuencias parciales del gen mitocondrial 16SrRNA de especies representativas de varias de las tribus de Entiminae, apunta hacia una relación más estrecha entre

  4. Effect of shallow-water venting in Azores on a few marine biota

    Colaco, A.; Raghukumar, C.; Mohandass, C.; Cardigos, F.; Santos, R.S.

    The 1000 m high D. Joao de Castro seamount lies in the middle of the Azores Archipelago (Portugal) on the hyperslow-spreading Terceira rift in the Atlantic. Hydrothermal vents were found near the top of the seamount and occurred in two distinct...

  5. Child abandonment and illegitimacy in the Island of São Jorge (Azores-Portugal).

    Lima, Manuela; Abade, Augusto; Smith, Malcolm T.


    During the 1992 Scientific Expedition to São Jorge, parish registers were consulted referring to some villages of the district of Velas, according to the following described: Baptisms (1875-1900)- Variables include date of birth, place of birth, legitimacy/illegitimacy (Velas; Santo Amaro). Marriages (1876-l900)- Variables include place of birth of the couple, residency, age, marital status, occupation and consanguinity (Urzelina-146; Velas-279; Santo Amaro-148; Norte Grande-290; ...

  6. Echinoderms from Azores islands: an unexpected source of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli isolates.

    Marinho, Catarina; Silva, Nuno; Pombo, Sofia; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Micael, Joana; Rodrigues, Pedro; Costa, Ana Cristina; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia


    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance and the implicated mechanisms of resistance were evaluated in Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli, isolated from a total of 250 faecal samples of echinoderms collected from Azorean waters (Portugal). A total of 144 enterococci (120 Enterococcus faecium, 14 E. hirae, 8 E. faecalis, 2 E. gallinarum) and 10 E. coli were recovered. High percentages of resistance in enterococci were found for erythromycin, ampicillin, tetracyclin and ciprofloxacin. The erm(A) or erm(B), tet(M) and/or tet(L), vat(D), aac(6')-aph(2″) and aph(3')-IIIa genes were found in isolates resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin, high-level gentamicin and high-level kanamycin, respectively. Resistance in E. coli isolates was detected for streptomycin, amikacin, tetracycline and tobramycin. The aadA gene was found in streptomycin-resistant isolates and tet(A)+tet(B) genes in tetracycline-resistant isolates. The data recovered are essential to improve knowledge about the dissemination of resistant strains through marine ecosystems and the possible implications involved in transferring these resistances either to other animals or to humans. PMID:23419753

  7. Propolis phenolic profile: a study in the atlantic islands of Azores

    Falcão, Soraia; Cardoso, Susana M.; Domingues, M. R. M.; Freire, C.; Vilas-Boas, Miguel


    Propolis it is a natural resinous substance that honeybees (Apis melifera, L.) collect from buds and exudates of plants and transformed in the presence of bee enzymes. This substance plays an important role in the hive as a construction and defence material due to its chemical and biological properties.[1] Propolis composition is extremely complex and dependent on its vegetal source, geographical location and climatic conditions. Typically this natural product includes resin (50%)...

  8. A rentabilidade da beterraba sacarina vs a agro-pecuária nos Açores The profitability of the saccharine beetroot vs dairy farming in the Azores

    Luísa Calado


    Full Text Available Nos Açores a produção de beterraba sacarina com fim industrial é exclusiva da ilha de S. Miguel onde, ao longo do último século, tem ocupado áreas com altitude até 300 metros e declives inferiores a 7%. A área variou entre 3000 hectares na década de sessenta e 200 hectares actualmente. A produtividade é variável situando-se entre as 20 e as 90 toneladas por hectare. Nos Açores a SINAGA é responsável pela transformação e distribuição dos produtos da beterraba. Com base num modelo de programação linear que estima o comportamento dos agricultores dos Açores foi possível concluir que o preço da beterraba influencia a quantidade de beterraba produzida, enquanto o preço do leite tem uma influência reduzida; que o maior efeito no aumento de produção é conseguido com o aumento de área mobilizável para a cultura o que só é possível com a redefinição do apoio técnico ao maneio da cultura.In the Azores the production of sugar beet for industrial uses is exclusive of the island of S. Miguel where along the last century it has occupied areas up to 300 meters and slopes inferior to 7 %. The used area varied between 3000 hectares in the sixties and 200 hectares at present. The productivity is variable being situated between 20 and 90 tons per hectare. In the Azores the SINAGA is responsible for the transformation and distribution of the products of the sugar beet. Using a linear programming model to explain the behaviour of farmers in the Azores it was possible to conclude that the price of sugar beet influences the quantity produced of beetroot while the price of the milk has a reduced influence; and that the biggest effect in the increase of production is got by the increase of cultivable area and with technical support.

  9. Multi Hazard Assessment: The Azores Archipelagos (PT) case

    Aifantopoulou, Dorothea; Boni, Giorgio; Cenci, Luca; Kaskara, Maria; Kontoes, Haris; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Paralikidis, Sideris; Psichogyiou, Christina; Solomos, Stavros; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Tsouni, Alexia; Xerekakis, Themos


    The COPERNICUS EMS Risk & Recovery Mapping (RRM) activity offers services to support efficient design and implementation of mitigation measures and recovery planning based on EO data exploitation. The Azores Archipelagos case was realized in the context of the FWC 259811 Copernicus EMS RRM, and provides potential impact information for a number of natural disasters. The analysis identified population and assets at risk (infrastructures and environment). The risk assessment was based on hazard and vulnerability of structural elements, road network characteristics, etc. Integration of different hazards and risks was accounted in establishing the necessary first response/ first aid infrastructure. EO data (Pleiades and WV-2), were used to establish a detailed background information, common for the assessment of the whole of the risks. A qualitative Flood hazard level was established, through a "Flood Susceptibility Index" that accounts for upstream drainage area and local slope along the drainage network (Manfreda et al. 2014). Indicators, representing different vulnerability typologies, were accounted for. The risk was established through intersecting hazard and vulnerability (risk- specific lookup table). Probabilistic seismic hazards maps (PGA) were obtained by applying the Cornell (1968) methodology as implemented in CRISIS2007 (Ordaz et al. 2007). The approach relied on the identification of potential sources, the assessment of earthquake recurrence and magnitude distribution, the selection of ground motion model, and the mathematical model to calculate seismic hazard. Lava eruption areas and a volcanic activity related coefficient were established through available historical data. Lava flow paths and their convergence were estimated through applying a cellular, automata based, Lava Flow Hazard numerical model (Gestur Leó Gislason, 2013). The Landslide Hazard Index of NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute) for heavy rainfall (100 year extreme monthly rainfall

  10. Population genetics and social organization of the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) in the Azores inferred by microsatellite analyses

    Pinela, Ana; Quérouil, Sophie; Magalhaes, S.; Silva, M. A.; Prieto, R.; Matos, J.,; Santos, R. S.


    In the northeast Atlantic Ocean, the archipelago of the Azores is frequented by female–offspring groups of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus L., 1758), as well as large males. The Azores apparently constitute both a feeding ground and a reproduction site. Little is known about the population and group structure of sperm whales in the area. We analysed 151 sloughed skin and biopsy samples collected from 2002 to 2004. Molecular analyses involved genetic tagging using 11 microsatellite loci a...

  11. On the potential of an RST-based analysis of the MODIS-derived chl-a product over Condor seamount and surrounding areas (Azores, NE Atlantic)

    Ciancia, Emanuele; Magalhães Loureiro, Clara; Mendonça, Ana; Coviello, Irina; Di Polito, Carmine; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Satriano, Valeria; Tramutoli, Valerio; Martins, Ana


    Oceanographic cruises have been conducted on the Condor seamount (SW Faial Island, Azores archipelago, NE Atlantic) since 2009 to collect in situ data and understand potential seamount effects on local biodiversity. Satellite data have been concurrently collected to infer the space-time upper-ocean optical property variability and the associated physical processes. The main limitation of this analysis is the persistent and significant cloud coverage above the region that, especially in some seasons, can significantly hinder satellite data availability. This study was meant to test the robust satellite technique (RST) over the Condor seamount, assess its capability to estimate multiyear trends and identify space-time anomalies. To this aim, 11-year MODIS/AQUA level 2-derived chlorophyll-a (chl-a) data were used. Results achieved for October 2010 show, within a large-scale analysis, the presence of well-defined areas of near-surface chl-a anomalies, highlighting the occurrence of a trapping effect due to flow-topography interaction processes. Regarding the Condor area, the chl-a anomalies detected along the eastern side of the seamount were linked to a strong vertical mixing that provided sufficient inorganic nutrients requested for productivity. The achieved results, whose accuracy was also tested through a comparison with in situ data, are consistent with those independently obtained by other authors who described the phytoplankton variability around the Condor seamount. This study shows the high potential of the RST approach to assess the chl-a variability in the space-time domain in oligotrophic regions such as the Azores, allowing the identification of the most important areas to be preserved and/or managed.

  12. Mid-Atlantic Ridge : zero-age geochemical variations between Azores and 22°N

    Bougault, Henri; Treuil, M.


    The MAPCO cruise of RV J. Charcot sampled zero-age basalts along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from the Azores Triple Junction to 24 N. Preliminary shipboard geochemical analyses together with earlier data show that some trace elements are not randomly distribued along the ridge. The latitude of the Haves transform delineate two regions of rare earth element distribution : north from Hayes, is flat to light rare (or equivalent) enriched : south from Hayes, is light rare earth (or equivalent) deplete...

  13. Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores archipelago

    Faustino, Cláudia E. S.; Silva, Mónica A.; Marques, Tiago A.; Thomas, Len


    Management schemes dedicated to the conservation of wildlife populations rely on the effective monitoring of population size, and this may require the accurate and precise estimation of this parameter. Line transect distance sampling can be an effective approach for estimating abundance. Little information is available regarding cetacean abundance in the Azores. This paper had two aims: 1) to design a line transect shipboard survey to estimate the absolute abundance of the most common ceta...

  14. Temperate bioerosion: ichnodiversity and biodiversity from intertidal to bathyal depths (Azores)

    M. Wisshak; Tribollet, Aline; Golubic, S; Jakobsen, J; Freiwald, A.


    In the temperate Azores carbonate factory, a substantial fraction of the calcareous skeletal components is recycled by a remarkable biodiversity of biota producing bioerosion traces (incipient trace fossils). To study this biodiversity, experimental carbonate substrates were exposed to colonisation by epilithic and endolithic organisms along a bathymetrical gradient from 0 to 500 m depth, during 1 and 2 years of exposure. The overall bioerosion ichnodiversity is very high and comprises 56 ich...

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of AzoR (azoreductase) from Escherichia coli

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of AzoR (azoreductase) have been performed. AzoR (azoreductase), an FMN-dependent NADH-azo compound oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli, has been crystallized in the presence of FMN by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using 2-propanol as a precipitant. AzoR catalyzes the reductive cleavage of azo groups. The crystals were found to diffract X-rays to beyond 1.8 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P42212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 92.2, c = 51.9 Å. The crystals are expected to contain one subunit of the homodimer in the asymmetric unit (VM = 2.6 Å3 Da−1) and to have a solvent content of 51.6%. Data sets were also collected from heavy-atom derivatives for use in phasing. As a result, crystals soaked in a solution containing K2PtCl4 for 23 d were found to be reasonably isomorphous to the native crystals and the presence of Pt atoms could be confirmed. The data sets from the native crystals and the K2PtCl4-derivatized crystals are being evaluated for use in structure determination by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering

  16. Ten Years of Black Carbon Measurements in the North Atlantic at the Pico Mountain Observatory, Azores (2225m asl)

    Kumar, S.; Fialho, P. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Olsen, S. C.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Dziobak, M.; Kramer, L. J.; Mazzoleni, C.


    The Pico Mountain Observatory is located in the summit caldera of the Pico mountain, an inactive volcano on the Pico Island in the Azores, Portugal (38.47°N, 28.40°W, Altitude 2225m asl). The Azores are often impacted by polluted outflows from the North American continent and local sources have been shown to have a negligible influence at the observatory. The value of the station stems from the fact that this is the only permanent mountaintop monitoring station in the North Atlantic that is typically located above the marine boundary layer (average MBL heights are below 1200 m and rarely exceed 1300 m) and often receives air characteristic of the lower free troposphere. Measurements of black carbon (BC) mass have been carried out at the station since 2001, mostly in the summer seasons. Here we discuss the BC decadal dataset (2001-2011) collected at the site by using a seven-wavelength AE31 Magee Aethalometer. Measured BC mass and computed Angstrom exponent (AE) values were analysed to study seasonal and diurnal variations. There was a large day-to-day variability in the BC values due to varied meteorological conditions that resulted in different diurnal patterns for different months. The daily mean BC at this location ranged between 0 and ~430 ngm-3, with the most frequently occurring value in the range 0-100 ngm-3. The overall mean for the 10 year period is ~24 ngm-3, with a coefficient of variation of 150%. The BC values exhibited a consistent annual trend being low in winter months and high in summer months, barring year to year variations. To differentiate between BC and other absorbing particles, we analyzed the wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption coefficient and determined a best-fit exponent i.e., the Ångström exponent, for the whole dataset. Visible Ångström exponent (AE: 470-520-590-660 nm) values ranged between 0 and 3.5, with most frequently occurring values in the range 0.85 to 1.25. By making use of the aethalometer light attenuation

  17. Content in metallic ions of wines from the Madeira and Azores archipelagos

    Pérez Trujillo, Juan P.; Conde, José E.; Pérez Pont, Maria L.; Marques, José C.; Câmara, José S.


    This study determines for the first time Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Sr, Li and Rb contents in wines from the archipelagos of Madeira and Azores (Portugal). The greater part of the mean content for the different parameters fell within the ranges described in the literature, except for sodium whose higher content may be due to the effect of marine spray. ANOVA was used to establish the metals with significant differences in mean content between the wines from both archipelagos, between tabl...

  18. Vitellibacter nionensis sp. nov., isolated from shallow water hydrothermal vent of Espalamaca, Azores.

    Rajasabapathy, R.; Mohandass, C.; Yoon, J.-H.; Dastager, S.G.; Liu, Q.; Khieu, T.-N.; Son, C.K.; Li, W.-J.; Colaco, A.

    5School of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam 6IMAR-Centre of IMAR of the University of the Azores/ Department of Oceanography and Fisheries and LARSyS Associated Laboratory, Rua Prof Frederico... concentration of methane, temperature 35 °C and pH 5.7 (Colaço, personal communication). Bottom water sample from the venting area was collected in September 2010 by scuba diving under Indo-Portugal bilateral program. For isolation of heterotrophic bacteria...

  19. Faults, Post-1720 Explosion Craters, and the Remains of a Lava Lake at Castro Bank Seamount (E Azores)

    Wunderman, R.; Barriga, F. J.; Nishimura, C.; Pacheco, J. M.; Vogt, P. R.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Santos, R.


    During 25-28 July 2003 the US Navy submarine NR-1 dove on the seamount D. Joao de Castro Bank, compiling reconnaissance sonar and visual data. Castro Bank sits along strike and between the eastern Azorian islands of Terceira and S. Miguel, occupying a seismically active region ˜60 km from each of these islands and apparently controlled by the same underlying tectonics as other islands found along the Azores' northern margin. Castro Bank's last recorded eruptions built a ˜1 km diameter ephemeral island in the 1720s. The bathimetry of the uppermost 40 m or so of the Bank is rather well known via single beam sonar, scuba diving and AUV surveys (IH, DOP/UA and ISR/IST, unpublished work). Our dives compiled data in concentric rings along contours, collecting side- and forward-looking sonar along an overall track length of ˜20 km, with the deepest ring approaching ˜200 m depth. To document key features we came near the sea floor and took videos in water with typical visibility of ˜10-15 m. This is the first progress report on our work, which found the edifice morphologically complex and irregular. We noted that the seamount was often covered by aerially extensive yellow-brown hyaloclastic tuffs that were presumably products of the 1720s eruption, but also cut by faults and fissures (with offsets of ten's of meters) exposing abundant areas of older edifice. The faults typically lacked sediment cover, and in one case a very fresh, sediment-free fault trended along the base of a steep cliff. This suggested the faults were much younger than the 1720 eruption, an observation in accord with intense seismicity recorded in this area. The faults provided exposures of older rocks, which included abundant breccia and lesser clearly identified pillows or thick lava flows. The NW quadrant contains two small, shallow, elliptical craters. These lie side-by-side and crosscut inferred 1720s-age tuffs. One crater held a lava lake, the body of which apparently withdrew or subsided

  20. Geographic variation in the Buzzard Buteo buteo (Linnaeus, 1758): Mid-Atlantic and West Mediterranean Islands (Aves: Accipitridae)

    James, Anthony H.


    This study analizes the geographic variation in Buteo buteo from the mid-Atlantic and Mediterranean islands, based on an external morphological analysis of 143 museum specimens. I review the taxonomic status of these populations. Dimensions and plumage characters show the subspecies B. b. rothschildi (Azores) and B. b. arrigonii (Sardinia) are clearly subspecifically distinct. B. b. insularum (Canaries) has diagnostic plumage differences sufficient to recognize its subspecific status. B. b. h...

  1. Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Detected in Pico, Azores, Portugal, Revealed a Unique Endemic Strain with More Than 17 Years of Independent Evolution

    Pedro J. Esteves


    Full Text Available Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is caused by a calicivirus, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, which is responsible for high mortality in domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. RHDV strains were sequenced from wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus collected in the Azorean island of Pico, Portugal. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Pico RHDV strains diverge from all of the others described so far, but cluster with the genogroups 1–5 (G1–G5. The genetic distance between the Pico RHDV sequences and each G1, G2 and G3–G5 genogroup (~0.08 is compatible with an RHDV introduction at least 17 years ago. Our results show that in Pico, RHDV is the outcome of an independent evolution from the original RHDV strain that appeared in its European rabbit population. These are the first sequences of RHDV obtained in the subspecies O. c. algirus, outside of its original region, the Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, we discuss the risk of rabbit translocations from the Azores to the Iberian Peninsula, where the rabbit wild populations are suffering high mortalities.

  2. Temporal evolution of a post-caldera, mildly peralkaline magmatic system: Furnas volcano, São Miguel, Azores

    Jeffery, A. J.; Gertisser, R.; O'Driscoll, B.; Pacheco, J. M.; Whitley, S.; Pimentel, A.; Self, S.


    Furnas is one of three active central volcanoes on São Miguel Island, Azores, and is considered to be one of the most hazardous in the archipelago. In this study, the pre-eruptive magma plumbing system of the 10 young (Group (UFG) is investigated via whole rock major and trace element geochemistry, mineral chemistry, thermobarometry, and petrogenetic modelling. The main aim of this work is to elucidate the petrogenesis of the Furnas trachytes, constrain the P-T-fO2 conditions under which they evolve, and investigate the temporal evolution of the magma plumbing system. Results indicate that the trachytes are derived predominantly from extended fractional crystallisation of alkali basalt parental magmas, at depths between ~3 and 4 km. This is considered to take place in a density-stratified reservoir, with alkali basalt magmas at the base and hydrous trachytes forming an upper cap or cupola. The presence of this reservoir at shallow crustal depths beneath the caldera likely inhibits the ascent and subsequent eruption of mafic magmas, generating a compositional Daly Gap. Rare syenitic ejecta represent in situ crystallisation of trachytic magmas in the thermal boundary zone at the top of the reservoir. Trachytic enclaves within these syenites, in addition to banded pumices and ubiquitous clinopyroxene antecrysts in the UFG pumice falls, provide evidence for mingling/mixing processes within the magmatic system. Despite relatively uniform major element compositions, systematic trace element variations within individual eruptions highlight the importance of fractional crystallisation during late-stage evolution of the trachytes. This is facilitated by the accumulation of water and the development of mild peralkalinity, which contribute to low pre-eruptive melt viscosities and efficient crystal settling. Compositional zoning patterns between individual eruptions cannot be accounted for by periodic tapping of a single magma batch undergoing fractional crystallisation

  3. The electric vehicles as a mean to reduce CO2 emissions and energy costs in isolated regions. The São Miguel (Azores) case study

    Most of small islands around the world today, are dependent on imported fossil fuels for the majority of their energy needs especially for transport activities and electricity production. The use of locally renewable energy resources and the implementation of energy efficiency measures could make a significant contribution to their economic development by reducing fossil fuel imports. An electrification of vehicles has been suggested as a way to both reduce pollutant emissions and increase security of supply of the transportation sector by reducing the dependence on oil products imports and facilitate the accommodation of renewable electricity generation, such as wind and, in the case of volcanic islands like São Miguel (Azores) of the geothermal energy whose penetration has been limited by the valley electricity consumption level. In this research, three scenarios of EV penetration were studied and it was verified that, for a 15% LD fleet replacement by EVs with 90% of all energy needs occurring during the night, the accommodation of 10 MW of new geothermal capacity becomes viable. Under this scenario, reductions of 8% in electricity costs, 14% in energy, 23% in fossil fuels use and CO2 emissions for the transportation and electricity production sectors could be expected. - Highlights: ► EVs impacts on the electric system in energy and power profiles, costs and emissions. ► At least an EV penetration of 15% is needed to allow new geothermal power production. ► Reductions in energy, fossil fuels use and CO2 emissions of 9%, 16% and 17% respectively. ► Electricity production with more % of renewable technologies reduces unit costs.

  4. Comparison of Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Properties from CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and DOE ARM AMF Measurements at the Azores

    Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Sun-Mack, Sunny


    Marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud properties derived from the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project using Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are compared with observations taken at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility at the Azores (AMF-Azores) site from June 2009 through December 2010. Cloud properties derived from ARM ground-based observations were averaged over a 1 h interval centered at the satellite overpass time, while the CERES-MODIS (CM) results were averaged within a 30 km×30 km grid box centered over the Azores site. A total of 63 daytime and 92 nighttime single-layered overcast MBL cloud cases were selected from 19 months of ARM radar-lidar and satellite observations. The CM cloud top/base heights (Htop/Hbase) were determined from cloud top/base temperatures (Ttop/Tbase) using a regional boundary layer lapse rate method. For daytime comparisons, the CM-derived Htop (Hbase), on average, is 0.063 km (0.068 km) higher (lower) than its ARM radar-lidar-observed counterpart, and the CM-derived Ttop and Tbase are 0.9 K less and 2.5 K greater than the surface values with high correlations (R(sup 2) = 0.82 and 0.84, respectively). In general, the cloud top comparisons agree better than the cloud base comparisons, because the CM cloud base temperatures and heights are secondary products determined from cloud top temperatures and heights. No significant day-night difference was found in the analyses. The comparisons of MBL cloud microphysical properties reveal that when averaged over a 30 km× 30 km area, the CM-retrieved cloud droplet effective radius (re) at 3.7 micrometers is 1.3 micrometers larger than that from the ARM retrievals (12.8 micrometers), while the CM-retrieved cloud liquid water path (LWP) is 13.5 gm( exp -2) less than its ARM counterpart (114.2 gm( exp-2) due to its small optical depth (9.6 versus 13.7). The differences are reduced by 50

  5. Temperate carbonate cycling and water mass properties from intertidal to bathyal depths (Azores, N-Atlantic

    M. Wisshak


    Full Text Available The rugged submarine topography of the Azores supports a diverse heterozoan association resulting in intense biotically-controlled carbonate production and accumulation. In order to characterise this cold-water (C factory a 2-year experiment was carried out to study the biodiversity of hardground communities and for budgeting carbonate production and degradation along a bathymetrical transect from the intertidal to bathyal 500 m depth.

    Seasonal temperatures peak in September (above a thermocline and bottom in March (stratification diminishes with a decrease in amplitude and absolute values with depth, and with tidal-driven short-term fluctuations. Measured seawater stable isotope ratios and levels of dissolved nutrients decrease with depth, as do the calcium carbonate saturation states. The photosynthetic active radiation shows a base of the euphotic zone in ~70 m and a dysphotic limit in ~150 m depth.

    Bioerosion, being primarily a function of light availability for phototrophic endoliths and grazers feeding upon them, is ~10 times stronger on the illuminated upside versus the shaded underside of substrates in the photic zone, with maximum rates in the intertidal (−631 g/m2/yr. Rates rapidly decline towards deeper waters where bioerosion and carbonate accretion are slow and epibenthic/endolithic communities take years to mature. Accretion rates are highest in the lower euphotic zone (955 g/m2/yr, where the substrate is less prone to hydrodynamic force. Highest rates are found – inversely to bioerosion – on downward facing substrates, suggesting that bioerosion may be a key factor governing the preferential settlement and growth of calcareous epilithobionts on downward facing substrates.

    In context of a latitudinal gradient, the Azores carbonate cycling rates plot between known values from the cold-temperate Swedish Kosterfjord and the tropical Bahamas, with a total range of two orders in

  6. Faroe Islands

    Christoffersen, Lisbet


    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  7. Chiroptera (Mammalia) del yacimiento del Mioceno medio de Escobosa de Calatañazor (Soria, España)

    Sesé, C.


    The Chiroptera from Escobosa de Calatañazor (Soria, Spain), an Upper Aragonian karstic site, are described in this report. The faunal list of Chiroptera is as follows: Megaderma gaillardi, Rhinolophus grivensis, Rhinolophus delphinensis and one chiropter, indeterminate family, different to the mentioned species. This fauna is typical of karstic sites and allows to compare it with those of other sites of the Miocene and Pliocene of west Europe and north Africa.

  8. Two new species of Aporhynchus (Trypanorhyncha: Aporhynchidae) from deep water lanternsharks (Squaliformes: Etmopteridae) in the Azores, Portugal

    Noever, C.; Caira, J. N.; Kuchta, Roman; Desjardins, L.


    Roč. 96, č. 6 (2010), s. 1176-1184. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960902; GA ČR GAP506/10/1994; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : lanternshark * Azores * Aporhynchus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2010

  9. Seasonal distribution and sex ratio of eleven noctuid species (Insecta, Lepidoptera) captured in blacklight traps on Terceira Island (Azores)

    Vieira, Virgílio; Araújo, M. G. Gomes de; Tavares, João


    The adult flight periods of Agrotis segetum (DENNIS & SCHIFFERMÜLLER), Noctua pronuba (LINNAEUS), Noctua atlantica (WARREN), Peridroma saucia (HÜBNER), Xestia c-nigrum (LINNAEUS), Mythimna loreyi (DUPONCHEL), Phlogophora meticulosa (LINNAEUS), Phlogophora interrupta(WARREN), Mesapamea storai (REBEL), Autographa gamma (LINNAEUS), and Trichoplusia orichalcea (FABRICIUS) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were studied between November 1992 and November 1993, at Terra Chã (110 m), Granja (310 m), Faj...

  10. Tourists' satisfaction and loyalty in the hotel business: an application to the island of São Miguel, Azores

    Couto, João Pedro Almeida; Batista, Maria da Graça Câmara; Botelho, Diana Rocha


    Given the recent competition in the hotel business and the constant search for satisfaction and loyalty of the guests, the objective of this study is to understand tourists’ perceptions of service quality offered at the hotels in São Miguel, and the factors contributing to their satisfaction and loyalty. Based on a reference model taken from literature on satisfaction and loyalty, na exploratory research of national and international tourists who stayed at the hotels of São Miguel was made. T...

  11. Exploring the new long-term (150 years) precipitation dataset in Azores archipelago

    Hernández, Armand; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Kutiel, Haim; Valente, Maria A.; Sigró, Javier


    Within the scope of the two major international projects of long-term reanalysis for the 20th century coordinated by NOAA (Compo et al. 2011) and ECMWF (Hersbach et al. 2013) the IDL Institute from the University of Lisbon has digitized a large number of long-term stations records from Portugal and former Portuguese Colonies (Stickler et al. 2014). Recently we have finished the digitization of all precipitation values from Ponta Delgada (capital of the Azores archipelago) obtaining an uninterrupted precipitation monthly time series since 1864 and additionally an almost complete corresponding daily precipitation series, with the exception of some years (1864/1872; 1878/1879; 1888/1905; 1931; 1936 and 1938) for which only monthly values are available. Here, we present an annually, seasonally and daily resolution study of the rainfall regime in Ponta Delgada for the last 150 years and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) influence over this precipitation regime. The distribution of precipitation presents an evident seasonal pattern, with a strong difference between the 'rainy season' (November/March) and the 'dry season' (June/August) with very little rainfall. April/May and September/October correspond to the transitional seasons. The mean annual rainfall in Ponta Delgada is approximately 910 mm and is accumulated (on average) in about 120 rainy days. The precipitation regime in Azores archipelago reveals large inter-annual and intra-annual variability and both have increased considerably in the last decades. The entire studied period (1865-2012) shows an increase in the rainfall conditions between a drier earlier period (1865-1938) and a wetter recent period (1939-2012). At daily resolution, we have used an approach based on different characteristics of rain spells (consecutive days with rainfall accumulation) that has been proved to be satisfactory for the analysis of the different parameters related to the rainfall regime (Kutiel and Trigo, 2014). This approach

  12. Galapagos Islands


    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Islands Climatology at Local Scale. Downscaling with CIELO model

    Azevedo, Eduardo; Reis, Francisco; Tomé, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Conceição


    Islands with horizontal scales of the order of tens of km, as is the case of the Atlantic Islands of Macaronesia, are subscale orographic features for Global Climate Models (GCMs) since the horizontal scales of these models are too coarse to give a detailed representation of the islands' topography. Even the Regional Climate Models (RCMs) reveals limitations when they are forced to reproduce the climate of small islands mainly by the way they flat and lowers the elevation of the islands, reducing the capacity of the model to reproduce important local mechanisms that lead to a very deep local climate differentiation. Important local thermodynamics mechanisms like Foehn effect, or the influence of topography on radiation balance, have a prominent role in the climatic spatial differentiation. Advective transport of air - and the consequent induced adiabatic cooling due to orography - lead to transformations of the state parameters of the air that leads to the spatial configuration of the fields of pressure, temperature and humidity. The same mechanism is in the origin of the orographic clouds cover that, besides the direct role as water source by the reinforcement of precipitation, act like a filter to direct solar radiation and as a source of long-wave radiation that affect the local balance of energy. Also, the saturation (or near saturation) conditions that they provide constitute a barrier to water vapour diffusion in the mechanisms of evapotranspiration. Topographic factors like slope, aspect and orographic mask have also significant importance in the local energy balance. Therefore, the simulation of the local scale climate (past, present and future) in these archipelagos requires the use of downscaling techniques to adjust locally outputs obtained at upper scales. This presentation will discuss and analyse the evolution of the CIELO model (acronym for Clima Insular à Escala LOcal) a statistical/dynamical technique developed at the University of the Azores

  14. Water column characterisation on the Azores platform and at the sea mounts south of the archipelago

    This study provides data concerning the hydrography and water chemistry of the Atlantic region between 29–38° N and 27–31° W, and establishes background values for dissolved Cu, Cd, Pb and As. Three water masses were identified: the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW), the Mediterranean Water (MW) and the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The ENACW exhibits a clear meridional gradient of temperature and salinity, with comparatively high values at the southern sites and lower values on the Azores platform. The ENACW, which includes the euphotic zone, also had comparatively high concentrations of oxygen and lower concentrations of nutrients and metals. The Cu, Cd and Pb results suggest that new background concentrations for OSPAR Region V (the Wider Atlantic) should be established as follows: 0.15–13 nM for Cu, 0.05–1.4 nM for Cd and 0.03–5 nM for Pb. The background concentrations of As for OSPAR Region V should be 7–28 nM.

  15. Definition of a methodology for the management of geological heritage. An application to the Azores archipelago (Portugal)

    Lima, Eva; Nunes, João; Brilha, José; Calado, Helena


    The conservation of the geological heritage requires the support of appropriate policies, which should be the result of the integration of nature conservation, environmental and land-use planning, and environmental education perspectives. There are several papers about inventory methodologies for geological heritage and its scientific, educational and tourism uses (e.g. Cendrero, 2000, Lago et al., 2000; Brilha, 2005; Carcavilla et al., 2007). However, management methodologies for geological heritage are still poorly developed. They should be included in environmental and land-use planning and nature conservation policies, in order to support a holistic approach to natural heritage. This gap is explained by the fact that geoconservation is a new geoscience still needed of more basic scientific research, like any other geoscience (Henriques et al., 2011). It is necessary to establish protocols and mechanisms for the conservation and management of geological heritage. This is a complex type of management because it needs to address not only the fragile natural features to preserve but also legal, economic, cultural, educational and recreational aspects. In addition, a management methodology should ensure the geosites conservation, the local development and the dissemination of the geological heritage (Carcavilla et al., 2007). This work is part of a PhD project aiming to contribute to fill this gap that exists in the geoconservation domain, specifically in terms of establishing an appropriate methodology for the management of geological heritage, taking into account the natural diversity of geosites and the variety of natural and anthropic threats. The proposed methodology will be applied to the geological heritage of the Azores archipelago, which management acquires particular importance and urgency after the decision of the Regional Government to create the Azores Geopark and its application to the European and Global Geoparks Networks. Acknowledgment This work is

  16. Propagation of uncertainties for an evaluation of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone tsunamigenic potential

    Antoshchenkova, Ekaterina; Imbert, David; Richet, Yann; Bardet, Lise; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent; Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène


    The aim of this study is to assess evaluation the tsunamigenic potential of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone (AGFZ). This work is part of the French project TANDEM (Tsunamis in the Atlantic and English ChaNnel: Definition of the Effects through numerical Modeling;, special attention is paid to French Atlantic coasts. Structurally, the AGFZ region is complex and not well understood. However, a lot of its faults produce earthquakes with significant vertical slip, of a type that can result in tsunami. We use the major tsunami event of the AGFZ on purpose to have a regional estimation of the tsunamigenic potential of this zone. The major reported event for this zone is the 1755 Lisbon event. There are large uncertainties concerning source location and focal mechanism of this earthquake. Hence, simple deterministic approach is not sufficient to cover on the one side the whole AGFZ with its geological complexity and on the other side the lack of information concerning the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. A parametric modeling environment Promethée ( was coupled to tsunami simulation software based on shallow water equations with the aim of propagation of uncertainties. Such a statistic point of view allows us to work with multiple hypotheses simultaneously. In our work we introduce the seismic source parameters in a form of distributions, thus giving a data base of thousands of tsunami scenarios and tsunami wave height distributions. Exploring our tsunami scenarios data base we present preliminary results for France. Tsunami wave heights (within one standard deviation of the mean) can be about 0.5 m - 1 m for the Atlantic coast and approaching 0.3 m for the English Channel.

  17. Organic matter composition and macrofaunal diversity in sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, NE Atlantic)

    Bongiorni, Lucia; Ravara, Ascensão; Parretti, Paola; Santos, Ricardo S.; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Amaro, Teresa; Cunha, Marina R.


    In recent years increasing knowledge has been accumulated on seamounts ecology; however their sedimentary environments and associated biological communities remain largely understudied. In this study we investigated quantity and biochemical composition of organic matter and macrofaunal diversity in sediments of the Condor Seamount (NE Atlantic, Azores). In order to test the effect of the seamount on organic matter distribution, sediment samples were collected in 6 areas: the summit, the northern and southern flanks and bases, and in an external far field site. Macrofauna abundance and diversity were investigated on the summit, the southern flank and in the far field site. The organic matter distribution reflected the complex hydrodynamic conditions occurring on the Condor. Concentrations of organic matter compounds were generally lower on the whole seamount than in the far field site and on the seamount summit compared to flanks and bases. A clear difference was also evident between the northern and southern slopes of the Condor, suggesting a role of the seamount in conditioning sedimentation processes and distribution of food resources for benthic consumers. Macrofauna assemblages changed significantly among the three sampling sites. High abundance and dominance, accompanied by low biodiversity, characterized the macrofauna community on the Condor summit, while low dominance and high biodiversity were observed at the flank. Our results, although limited to five samples on the seamount and two off the seamount, do not necessarily support the paradigm that seamounts are more biodiverse than the surrounding seafloor. However, the abundance (and biomass), functional diversity and taxonomical distinctiveness of the macrofaunal assemblages from the Condor Seamount suggest that seamounts habitats may play a relevant role in adding to the regional biodiversity.

  18. Non-indigenous species in Portuguese coastal areas, coastal lagoons, estuaries and islands

    Chainho, Paula; Fernandes, António; Amorim, Ana; Ávila, Sérgio P.; Canning-Clode, João; Castro, João J.; Costa, Ana C.; Costa, José L.; Cruz, Teresa; Gollasch, Stephan; Grazziotin-Soares, Clarissa; Melo, Ricardo; Micael, Joana; Parente, Manuela I.; Semedo, Jorge; Silva, Teresa; Sobral, Dinah; Sousa, Mónica; Torres, Paulo; Veloso, Vera; Costa, Maria J.


    Trends in abundance, temporal occurrence and spatial distribution of marine and brackish non-indigenous species (NIS) are part of the indicators to assess the compliance of Good Environmental Status in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU-MSFD). European-wide regional and national databases for NIS will be useful for the implementation of the EU-MSFD but there are still spatial gaps for some regions and taxonomic groups. In 2009, Portugal was among the countries with the lowest reported numbers of NIS in Europe and a national online database on NIS was not available. This study provides an updated list of NIS registered in Portuguese coastal and estuarine waters, including mainland Portugal and the Azores and Madeira archipelagos. A list of 133 NIS was cataloged, most of which recorded in the last three decades, showing that this area of the North Atlantic is no less prone to introductions than neighboring areas. Most NIS reported in the current inventory are native in the Indo-Pacific region. Fouling and ballast water are the most likely introduction vectors of NIS in the studied area but shipping routes connecting to the NIS native regions are rare, indicating that most species are secondary introductions. The high number of NIS in the Azores and Madeira islands indicates that this ecosystem type seems to be more susceptible to invasions but these preliminary results might be biased by a higher number of studies and knowledge on the NIS occurrence on the islands.

  19. Conception of a good-practices guide to the nature based tourism in the Azores (Portugal)

    Laulhe, Pierre; Caetano, Diogo; Estima, Deborah; Ventura, Maria A.


    2011 Shanghai International Conference on Social Science (SICSS 2011) 17-20 August. Azorean archipelago, located in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean, is packed with natural treasures well known in most parts of the world. In order to preserve them, the Portuguese government has set up a net of protected areas in all nine islands of the archipelago, known as “Island Parks”. Within these protected landscape we find Natura 2000 network, built upon two EC Directives: the Habitats and Bir...

  20. Happy Island

    McLerran, Larry


    I discuss the phase diagram for QCD in the baryon chemical potential and temperature plane. I argue that there is a new phase of matter different from the deconfined Quark Gluon Plasma: Quarkyonic Matter. Quarkyonic Matter is confined and exists at densities parametrically large compared to the QCD scale, when the number of quark colors, $N_c$ is large. I motivate the possibility that Quarkyonic Matter is in an inhomogeneous phase, and is surrounded by lines of phase transitions, making a Happy Island in the $\\mu_B$-T plane. I conjecture about the geography of Happy Island.




    Full Text Available The present paper gives a general perspective of the efforts going on at Terceira Island in Azores, Portugal, concerning the implementation of an Hydrogen Economy demonstration campus. The major motivation for such a geographical location choice was the abundance of renewable resources like wind, sea waves and geothermal enthalpy, which are of fundamental importance for the demonstration of renewable hydrogen economy sustainability. Three main campus will be implemented: one at Cume Hill, where the majority of renewable hydrogen production will take place using the wind as the primary energy source, a second one at Angra do Heroismo Industrial park, where a cogen electrical – heat power station will be installed, mainly to feed a Municipal Solid Waste processing plant and a third one, the Praia da Vitoria Hydrogenopolis, where several final consumer demonstrators will be installed both for public awareness and intensive study of economic sustainability and optimization. Some of these units are already under construction, particularly the renewable hydrogen generation facilities.

  2. Solomon Islands

    World Bank


    This report aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in the Solomon Islands and to identify gaps where engagement could further develop financial resilience. It also aims to encourage peer exchange of regional knowledge, specifically by encouraging dialogue on past experiences, lessons learned, optimal use of these financial tool...

  3. Severe accident containment-response and source term analyses by AZORES code for a typical FBR plant

    JNES is developing severe accident analysis codes in order to apply to the probability safety analysis (PSA) for a typical fast breeder reactor (FBR). AZORES code analyzes the severe accident phenomena in the reactor containment that reactor coolant (sodium) and molten core debris are released from the primary cooling system boundary, and the discharge rate to the environment of fission products (FP). This report summarizes analysis results using the AZORES code for a PLOHS (loss of decay heat removal function) accident sequence with the actual plant system about the containment bypass scenario (CVBP) and the containment failure scenario by hydrogen deflagration or detonation. The coolant temperature of the primary system and the secondary system in the PLOHS sequence increases at the almost same temperature, and the creep damage to the reactor coolant boundary will become remarkable if coolant temperature exceeds about 1,100 K. In the CVBP scenario, when an intermediate heat exchanger is ruptured by creep and the boundary of the secondary system is failed, the path from the primary system to environment is formed. Then, the reactor vessel (RV) is failed and sodium in the primary coolant system releases into the reactor vessel room (RV room). Sodium of high temperature which fell in the RV room damages the floor liner, and generates hydrogen by a reaction with concrete. In addition the reactor core is exposed into atmosphere and the core temperature increases with decay heat and then volatile FP and non-volatile FP are released to the environment through the secondary system from the primary system. In the non-CVBP scenario which the intermediate heat exchanger does not fail by creep, core debris falls into the RV room after reactor vessel failure or evaporation of sodium coolant molten. FPs released from the reactor vessel are retained in the RV room, the primary system room, the containment dome and so on. The hydrogen generated by sodium-concrete reaction and

  4. Severe accident containment-response and source term analyses by AZORES code for a typical FBR plant

    Japan Nuclear Energy Safety organization (JNES) is developing severe accident analysis codes in order to apply to the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for a typical fast breeder reactor (FBR). The AZORES code analyzes the severe accident phenomena in the reactor containment that reactor coolant (sodium) and molten core debris are released from the primary cooling system boundary and the release fraction to the environment of fission products (FP). This report summarized results analyzed using the AZORES code for a PLOHS (loss of decay heat removal function) accident sequence with the actual plant system about the containment bypass (CVBP) scenario, and the containment failure scenario due to hydrogen deflagration or detonation. The results showed that the coolant temperature of the primary system and the secondary system in the PLOHS sequence increased at the almost same temperature, and the creep damage to the reactor coolant boundary became significant when coolant temperature exceeded about 1,100 K. The release fractions of FP in the CVBP case were estimated to be 0.99 for Xe, 0.14 for iodine, 0.44 for Cs and 0.01 for non-volatile tetravalent Ce. The release fractions of FP in the containment vessel failure case due to hydrogen burning were estimated to be 0.82 for Xe, 0.06 for iodine, 0.06 for Cs and 0.003 for non-volatile tetravalent Ce. In the present study, release fractions of FPs to the environment were obtained for the CVBP and the containment failure cases of the PLOHS accident sequence for the typical FBR plant. (author)

  5. Modelling the extreme precipitation event over Madeira Island on 20 February 2010

    T. Luna


    Full Text Available In the morning of the 20 February of 2010 an extreme precipitation event occurred over Madeira Island. This event triggered several flash floods and mudslides in the southern parts of the island, resulting in 42 confirmed deaths, 100 injured, and at least 8 people still missing. These extreme weather conditions were associated to a weather frontal system moving northeastwards embedded in a low pressure area centered in the Azores archipelago. This storm was one in a series of such storms that affected Portugal, Spain, Morocco and the Canary islands causing flooding and strong winds. These storms were bolstered by an unusually strong sea surface temperature gradient across the Atlantic Ocean.

    In this study, the WRF model is used to evaluate the intensity and predictability of this precipitation extreme event over the island. The synoptic/orographic nature of the precipitation is also evaluated, as well as the sensitivity of the model to horizontal resolution and cumulus parameterization. Orography was found to be the main factor explaining the occurrence, amplitude and phase of precipitation over the Island.

  6. Intertidal rocky shore seaweed communities subject to the influence of shallow water hydrothermal activity in São Miguel (Azores, Portugal)

    Wallenstein, Francisco M.; Couto, Ruben P.; Torrão, Daniel F.; Neto, Ana I.; Rodrigues, Armindo S.; Wilkinson, Martin


    The volcanic origin of the Azores archipelago (Portugal) gives rise to active deep sea and shallow water hydrothermal activity that affects benthic communities. Intertidal seaweed surveys were conducted at two shores affected by intense shallow water hydrothermal vents. Water temperature, acidity and salinity were monitored. Seaweed communities were found to be species poor and have a disproportionally larger number of filamentous early successional species on shores that are subject to the effect of hot and acidic freshwater of volcanic origin. There is an ecological resemblance between hydrothermally affected seaweed communities in the Azores and those affected by acid mine drainage in the UK, thus indicating that hydrothermalism can be a useful scenario for pollution studies under conditions of ocean warming and acidification.

  7. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-containing Escherichia coli isolates in wild birds from the Azores Archipelago


    Abstract To study the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) containing Escherichia coli isolates, and the mechanisms of resistance implicated, 220 faecal samples from wild birds were collected between 2006 and 2010 in the Azores Archipelago. Samples were spread in Slanetz-Bartley agar plates supplemented with 4 mg/L of vancomycin and in Levine agar plates supplemented with 2 mg/L of cefotaxime for VRE and ESBL-containing ...

  8. Sampling strategies for biotope definition: minimal sampling area for selected groups of macroinvertebrates in the rocky subtidal of São Miguel, Azores.

    Martins, Gustavo M.; Wallenstein, Francisco; Álvaro, Nuno V.; Neto, Ana I.; Costa, Ana C.


    Azorean rocky shores are mainly characterized by patchy algae-based communities with variable associated macrofauna. Characterization studies should therefore include quantitative information for both algae and macroinvertebrates. Unlike for the algae, minimal sampling areas are undefined for macroinvertebrates in the Azores. The present study defines the minimal area to be used for the assessment of the abundance of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrate abundance. This study proposes methodo...

  9. Diets of thornback ray (Raja clavata) and tope shark (Galeorhinus galeus) in the bottom longline fishery of the Azores, northeastern Atlantic

    Morato, Telmo; Solà, Encarnacion; Grós, Maria P.; Menezes, Gui


    Tope shark (Galeorhinus galeus) and thornback ray (Raja clavata) are the two most captured elasmobranch species by the Azorean bottom longline fishery. In order to better understand the trophic dynamics of these species in the Azores, the diets of thornback ray and tope shark caught in this area during 1996 and 1997 were analyzed to describe feeding patterns and to investigate the effect of sex, size, and depth and area of capture on diet. Thornback rays fed mainly upon fishes and reptants...

  10. Intertidal rocky shore seaweed communities subject to the influence of shallow water hydrothermal activity in São Miguel (Azores, Portugal)

    Wallenstein, Francisco; Couto, Ruben P.; Torrão, Daniel F.; Neto, Ana I.; Rodrigues, Armindo; Wilkinson, Martin


    The volcanic origin of the Azores archipelago (Portugal) gives rise to active deep sea and shallow water hydrothermal activity that affects benthic communities. Intertidal seaweed surveys were conducted at two shores affected by intense shallow water hydrothermal vents. Water temperature, acidity and salinity were monitored. Seaweed communities were found to be species poor and have a disproportionally larger number of filamentous early successional species on shores that are subject to the e...

  11. The Climate of the Canary Islands by Annual Cycle Parameters

    Bechtel, B.


    Annual cycle parameters (ACP) provide a global climatology of annual land surface temperature (LST) based on daily 1 km MODIS observations. These are based on a simple model of the annual temperature cycle and allow estimating LST patterns under largely cloud-free conditions for every day of year. Further, they deliver measures for the LST variability and the frequency of cloud occurrence. It has been demonstrated, that they reproduce important surface climate characteristics at global and urban scale but their ability to reproduce topo-climates has yet to be studied in detail. In this paper their suitability to investigate climatic variability at km scale were studied at the case of the Canary Islands (Spain). This Archipelago, has a very stable climate dominated by the Azores high and the trade wind belt, but shows a large number of micro-climates ranging from arid hot climates to cold climates. It was found that ACPs are a relevant source of climatic information at km scale in complex orography. Specifically, known features such as subsidence inversion, the resulting sea of clouds, the strong differentiation in precipitation between the flat and high islands, as well as the northern and southern slopes at the latter were clearly visible in the parameters.

  12. Islands for SAT

    H Fang; Kilani, Y.; Lee, J.H.M.; Stuckey, P. J.


    In this note we introduce the notion of islands for restricting local search. We show how we can construct islands for CNF SAT problems, and how much search space can be eliminated by restricting search to the island.

  13. Beautiful hainan island



    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  14. Diversity, distribution and spatial structure of the cold-water coral fauna of the Azores (NE Atlantic)

    Braga-Henriques, A.; Porteiro, F. M.; Ribeiro, P. A.; de Matos, V.; Sampaio, Í.; Ocaña, O.; Santos, R. S.


    Cold-water corals are widely considered as important structural components of benthic habitats, potentially enhancing local abundance in a variety of fish and invertebrate species. Yet, current knowledge of the taxonomic diversity and distribution patterns of these vulnerable, slow-growing organisms is scarce and fragmented, limiting the effectiveness of spatial management and conservation measures. We have conducted an exhaustive compilation of records of alcyonaceans, antipatharians, scleractinians and stylasterids available through present day to assess the diversity, distribution and spatial structure of coral assemblages in the Azores exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The resulting database comprises 2501 entries concerning historical oceanographic expeditions and other published sources, as well as unpublished data from bottom longline by-catch. Our taxonomic inventory appears to be fairly complete for the explored habitats, accounting for 164 species (79 alcyonaceans, 58 scleractinians, 18 antipatharians and 9 stylasterids), nine of which were documented for the first time. The Azores EEZ harbours a mixed coral fauna with several zoogeographic origins, showing the closest affinity with the Lusitanian-Mediterranean region. Very few apparent endemics were found (14%), and only in part supported by consistent sampling. Coral diversity is particularly high between 300 and 900 m depths, in areas recognized as traditional fishing grounds or exploitable fish habitat within the 100-mile limit of the EEZ. The composition of coral assemblages shows significant geographical structure among longitudinal sections of the study area at comparable depths (100-1500 m). There is no evidence of a possible role of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge or latitudinal effects underlying this pattern, which suggests that it may instead reflect assemblage variability among features. Stronger changes in species composition were found along the bathymetric gradient. Notwithstanding the mix of

  15. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia


    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  16. Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in the Azores: lessons after 2 yr of monitoring in the Archipelago.

    Borges, Paulo A V; Guerreiro, Orlando; Ferreira, Maria T; Borges, Annabella; Ferreira, Filomena; Bicudo, Nuno; Nunes, Lina; Marcos, Rita S; Arroz, Ana M; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H; Myles, Timothy G


    The dispersal flights of West Indian drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) were surveyed in the major cities of Azores. The sampling device used to estimate termite density consisted of a yellow adhesive trap (size 45 by 24 cm), placed with an artificial or natural light source in a dark attic environment. In addition, data from two other projects were used to improve the knowledge about the geographical distribution of the species. The level of infestation in the two main Azorean towns differed, with high levels in the houses of Angra do Heroísmo, whereas in Ponta Delgada, there are fewer houses with high levels of infestation. The infestation in Ponta Delgada shows a pattern of spreading from the center outward to the city's periphery, whereas in Angra do Heroísmo, there was a pattern of spreading outward from several foci. The heavy infestation observed in Angra do Heroísmo and the clear increase of infestation levels observed from 2010 to 2011 is a reason for concern and calls for an urgent application of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) control strategy. PMID:25368085

  17. Moytirra: Discovery of the first known deep-sea hydrothermal vent field on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Azores

    Wheeler, A. J.; Murton, B.; Copley, J.; Lim, A.; Carlsson, J.; Collins, P.; Dorschel, B.; Green, D.; Judge, M.; Nye, V.; Benzie, J.; Antoniacomi, A.; Coughlan, M.; Morris, K.


    Geological, biological, morphological, and hydrochemical data are presented for the newly discovered Moytirra vent field at 45oN. This is the only high temperature hydrothermal vent known between the Azores and Iceland, in the North Atlantic and is located on a slow to ultraslow-spreading mid-ocean ridge uniquely situated on the 300 m high fault scarp of the eastern axial wall, 3.5 km from the axial volcanic ridge crest. Furthermore, the Moytirra vent field is, unusually for tectonically controlled hydrothermal vents systems, basalt hosted and perched midway up on the median valley wall and presumably heated by an off-axis magma chamber. The Moytirra vent field consists of an alignment of four sites of venting, three actively emitting "black smoke," producing a complex of chimneys and beehive diffusers. The largest chimney is 18 m tall and vigorously venting. The vent fauna described here are the only ones documented for the North Atlantic (Azores to Reykjanes Ridge) and significantly expands our knowledge of North Atlantic biodiversity. The surfaces of the vent chimneys are occupied by aggregations of gastropods (Peltospira sp.) and populations of alvinocaridid shrimp (Mirocaris sp. with Rimicaris sp. also present). Other fauna present include bythograeid crabs (Segonzacia sp.) and zoarcid fish (Pachycara sp.), but bathymodiolin mussels and actinostolid anemones were not observed in the vent field. The discovery of the Moytirra vent field therefore expands the known latitudinal distributions of several vent-endemic genera in the north Atlantic, and reveals faunal affinities with vents south of the Azores rather than north of Iceland.

  18. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole


    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on...... contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies...

  19. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-containing Escherichia coli isolates in wild birds from the Azores Archipelago

    Silva, Nuno; Igrejas, Gilberto; Rodrigues, Pedro; Rodrigues, Tiago; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Felgar, Ana; Pacheco, Rui; Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Regina; Poeta, Patrícia


    To study the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) containing Escherichia coli isolates, and the mechanisms of resistance implicated, 220 faecal samples from wild birds were collected between 2006 and 2010 in the Azores Archipelago. Samples were spread in Slanetz-Bartley agar plates supplemented with 4 mg/L of vancomycin and in Levine agar plates supplemented with 2 mg/L of cefotaxime for VRE and ESBL-containing E. coli isolation, r...

  20. Report of the Planning Group on Commercial Catches, Discards and Biological Sampling (PGCCDBS), 17-21 February 2014. Horta (Azores), Portugal



    The Planning Group on Commercial Catches, Discards and Biological Sampling [PGCCDBS] (Co-Chairs: Mike Armstrong, UK, and Gráinne Ní Chonchúir, Ireland) met in Horta, the Azores, 17th February – 21st February 2014. The PGCCDBS was established in 2002 in response to the EC-ICES Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) requesting ICES to provide support for the EU Data Collection Framework (DCF). It implements the ICES Quality Assurance Framework to ensure that data sets and parameters supporting asses...

  1. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from two contrasting sites in the Azores (Portugal) - Horta Bay and D. João de Castro Seamount

    Ribeiro, Sofia; Amorim, Ana

    This work resulted from an expedition to the Azores on board of "NTM Creoula" in summer 2005, organized by the Portuguese Navy, the Portuguese Federation for Underwater Activities (FPAS) and National Geographic Portugal. Surface sediment samples were collected from two contrasting sites: Horta Bay...... observed Protoceratium reticulatum maximum abundances in maximum abundances in shelf and slope-rise zone sediments. The fact that D. João de Castro Bank was dominated by recently formed cysts of this species suggests that this seamount constitutes an ecological niche which favours coastal...

  2. Ecología e impacto de los mamíferos invasores en ecosistemas insulares: la isla de Corvo, Archipiélago de las Azores

    Hervías Parejo, Sandra


    Tesis por compendio de publicaciones Esta investigación se ha centrado en analizar el impacto directo e indirecto de los tres mamíferos invasores más comunes en los ecosistemas insulares (el ratón casero Mus domesticus, la rata negra Rattus rattus y el gato Felis silvestris catus), sobre la pardela cenicienta (Calonectris diomedea borealis). El trabajo se ha desarrollado en Corvo, que es la isla más remota del Archipiélago de las Azores y la última en ser descubierta y colonizada, por lo q...

  3. Imaging hydrothermal systems at Furnas caldera (Azores, Portugal): Insights from Audio-Magnetotelluric data

    Hogg, Colin; Kiyan, Duygu; Rath, Volker; Byrdina, Svetlana; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Silva, Catarina; Viveiros, Maria FB; Ferreira, Teresa


    The Furnas volcano is the eastern-most of the three active central volcanoes of Sao Miguel Island. The main caldera formed about 30 ka BP, followed by a younger eruption at 10-12 ka BP, which forms the steep topography of more than 200 m in the measuring area. It contains several very young eruptive centers, and a shallow caldera lake. Tectonic features of varying directions have been identified in the Caldera and its vicinity. In the northern part of the caldera, containing the fumarole field of Caldeiras das Furnas, a detailed map of surface CO2 emissions was recently made available. In 2015, a pilot survey of 13 AudioMagnetoTelluric soundings (AMT) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) data were collected along two profiles in the eastern part of Furnas caldera in order to image the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. The data quality achieved by both techniques is extraordinary and first results indicate a general correlation between regions of elevated conductivity and the mapped surface CO2 emissions, suggesting that they may both be caused by the presence hydrothermal fluids. Tensor decomposition analysis using the Groom-Bailey approach produce a generalised geo-electric strike direction, 72deg East of North, for the AMT data compared to the surface geological strike derived from the major mapped fault crossing the profiles of 105deg. An analysis of the real induction arrows at certain frequencies (at depths greater than 350 m) infer that an extended conductor at depth does not exactly correspond to the degassing structures at the surface and extends outside the area of investigation. The geometry of the most conductive regions with electrical conductivities less then1 Ώm found at various depths differ from what was expected from earlier geologic and tectonic studies and possibly may not be directly related to the mapped fault systems at the surface. On the eastern profile, which seemed to be more appropriate for 2-D modelling with 72deg strike

  4. Resistivity structure of the Furnas hydrothermal system (Azores archipelago, Portugal) from AMT and ERT imaging.

    Byrdina, Svetlana; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Rath, Volker; Silva, Catarina; Hogg, Colin; Kiyan, Duygu; Viveiros, Fatima; Eleuterio, Joana; Gresse, Marceau


    The Furnas volcanic complex is located in the eastern part of the São Miguel Island and comprises a 5 km × 8 km summit depression filled by two nested calderas with several craters and a lake. Present-day volcanic activity of Furnas volcano is mostly located in the northern part of the caldera, within the Furnas village and north to Furnas Lake, where hydrothermal manifestations are mainly fumarolic fields, steam vents, thermal springs, and intense soil diffuse degassing. Considering the Furnas volcano as a whole, the total integrated CO2 efflux is extremely high, with a total amount of CO2 close to 1000 ton per day (Viveiros et al., 2009). We present the first results of an electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), combined with audio-magneto-telluric (AMT) measurements aligned along two profiles inside the caldera. The purpose of this survey is to delimit the extent, the geometry, and the depth of the hydrothermal system and to correlate the deep resistivity structure with high resolution cartography of diffuse CO2 flux (Viveiros et al, 2015). The ERT and AMT methods are complementary in terms of resolution and penetration depth: ERT can image the structural details of shallow hydrothermal system (down to 100 m in our study) while AMT can image at lower resolution deeper structures at the roots of a volcano (down to 4 km in our study). Our first independent 2D inversions of the ERT-AMT data show a good agreement between the surficial and deeper features. Below the main fumarole area we observe a low resistivity body (less than 1 Ohmm) which corresponds well to the high CO2 flux at the surface and is associated with an extended conductive body at larger depth. These results strongly suggest the presence of hydrothermal waters at depth or/and the presence of altered clay-rich material. On a larger scale however, the geometry of the conducting zones differs slightly from what was expected from earlier surface studies, and may not be directly related to fault zones

  5. Evaluation of the benefits of the introduction of electricity powered vehicles in an island

    Highlights: • Quantify impacts of new technologies in LCA energy and CO2 emissions and on electricity grid. • Methodology applied to small island with high potential of renewable energy integration. • Flores’ electricity distribution infrastructure can handle EV, revealing gains in fleet’s LCA. - Abstract: This paper evaluates the benefits of introducing electricity powered vehicles (EV) in one island of the Azores archipelago in Portugal, the island of Flores. A Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) for the road transportation sector including EV was performed and the EV impacts in the electricity grid were evaluated. Two scenarios considering the introduction of EV were considered (Scenarios 2 and 3 with a shift in the car stock in 2050 of 30% and 70% to EV) and compared to the baseline scenario (Scenario 1 with no EV penetration). The results show that, if no alternative solutions are adopted, the road transportation sector LCA energy consumption will increase 58% in 2050, compared to 2009. In the most attractive scenario studied regarding EV integration in Flores, the LCA energy consumption in 2050 decreases by 34% and CO2 emissions by 39%, when comparing with Scenario 1. Moreover, the island’s electricity network is ready for EV arrival, at least until 2020. Thereafter, a smart charging scheme should be implemented to manage the vehicles’ energy demand according to the network technical limitations and the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) should be reinforced, to decrease the island’s dependency on fossil fuels and, consequently, CO2 emissions

  6. Shemya Island prehistory

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  7. Island political economy

    Bertram, Geoffrey; Poirine, Bernard


    International audience In this chapter we build on the observation that island economies, and especially small ones (population below one million), exhibit a remarkably wide range of economic structures built on a correspondingly wide range of development strategies. Common elements of "islandness" may serve to define island economies as a general class, but there clearly exist several distinct "species" within that class, and a corresponding menu of strategic options open to islander comm...

  8. New observational capabilities on atmospheric sciences of the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) Graciosa island ARM facility

    Nitschke, Kim; Ortega, Paul; Azevedo, Eduardo; Miller, Mark


    One source of uncertainty that thwarts accurate and comprehensive representation of the present and future climate in models is the response of shallow cloud systems to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols. Low clouds systems that prevail over subtropical oceans, in particular, play a critical role in boundary layer dynamics and in the global climate, despite being poorly represented in climate models. The Azores have been identified as an optimal site to conduct research aimed at better understanding the physical processes and life cycle of marine stratocumulus and other marine boundary layer clouds. The United States Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Program has been providing data to advance research from atmospheric observations at diverse climatic regimes around the world ( for over 20 years. Since 2009, the Azores has been included in this global program. The campaign of the ARM Mobile Facility at Graciosa Island, Azores, in the context of the Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) project, added the most extensive and comprehensive dataset of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds to date. Solid preliminary findings from this valuable data set have been used to understand interactions between the cloud microphysical and macrophysical processes in marine boundary layer clouds that play a fundamental role in the cloud dynamics and precipitation, which in turn determine cloud radiative properties that impact on the energy balance of the Earth. Based upon the design and siting from the previous ARM Mobile Facility in support of CAP-MBL, the new Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) fixed site joined the global network of ARM Climate Research Facilities in October 2013. Since then, this user facility has augmented its baseline measurement capability to include a Ka-/W-Band scanning cloud radar, an X-Band precipitation radar and Raman and Doppler lidars. Coupled

  9. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  10. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Sverker C. Jagers


    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  11. Darwin and the island

    Fox, Justin Daniel.


    This thesis examines the fictional island and assesses the impact of Darwinism on the genre. I show how islands have been a recurring feature in European literature, fictional spaces where authors create a microcosm in which they satirise, criticise or hold up a mirror to their own society. I argue that traditonal Utopian islands are static realms and that through the introduction of evolution (Darwin and Wallace made their most important discoveries regarding the mechanism of...

  12. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  13. Una escritura de la desaparición y aparición siempre futuras: Superrealismo / El libro de Levante, prenovela (1929 de Azorín

    Daniel Aranjo


    Full Text Available En 1929, peu après la naissance du surréalisme français (1924, le francophile, nationaliste et membre de la Génération espagnole du 98, Azorín, résidant dans la ville frontalière de San Sébastian (Guipúzcoa, fait appel à une certaine écriture semi-automatique, fulgurant et recherchée, afin de provoquer l’émergence du personnage, divers et virtuel, du roman, toujours futur, dont le projet final converge à la fin vers son village natal de Monóvar (Levant, au bout d’un éblouissant voyage à travers la Péninsule et la Manche de Don Quichotte, un autre grand surréaliste.En 1929, poco después del nacimiento del Surrealismo francés (1924, el francófilo, nacionalista y noventayochista Azorín, desde la casi fronteriza San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa, usa cierta forma de escritura semi-automática, fulgurante y señoreada, para provocar la emergencia del personaje, diverso y virtual, de la novela, siempre futura, cuyo proyecto final acabará coincidiendo con el centro natal (siempre ausente y por venir de Monóvar (Levante al cabo de un deslumbrante viaje imaginario en tren a través de la Península y de la Mancha de Don Quijote, este gran Surrealista.

  14. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-containing Escherichia coli isolates in wild birds from the Azores Archipelago.

    Silva, Nuno; Igrejas, Gilberto; Rodrigues, Pedro; Rodrigues, Tiago; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Felgar, Ana Carolina; Pacheco, Rui; Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Regina; Poeta, Patrícia


    To study the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-containing Escherichia coli isolates, and the mechanisms of resistance implicated, 220 faecal samples from wild birds were collected between 2006 and 2010 in the Azores Archipelago. Samples were spread on Slanetz-Bartley agar plates supplemented with 4 mg/l vancomycin and on Levine agar plates supplemented with 2 mg/l cefotaxime for VRE and ESBL-containing E. coli isolation, respectively. vanA-containing enterococcal isolates (four Enterococcus faecium and two Enterococcus durans) and vanC-1 Enterococcus gallinarum isolates were detected in six and seven faecal samples, respectively. VRE isolates showed ampicillin (n=11), ciprofloxacin (n=9), tetracycline (n=6), erythromycin (n=5), quinupristin/dalfopristin (n=3) and high-level kanamycin resistance (n=1). The tet(L) and/or tet(M) gene was found in all tetracycline-resistant isolates and the erm(B) gene in all erythromycin-resistant isolates. Three vanA-containing E. faecium and two E. gallinarum presented specific sequences of the Tn5397 transposon. Four VRE isolates harboured the ace virulence gene. One faecal sample revealed one ESBL-containing E. coli isolate that belongs to the A phylogenetic group, showed a phenotype of resistance to β-lactams and tetracycline, and harboured the bla (CTX-M-14), bla (SHV-12) and the tet(A) genes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on defining the prevalence of VRE and/or ESBL-containing E. coli strains in wild birds from the Azores. The data recovered are essential to improve knowledge about the dissemination of resistant strains through wild ecosystems and their possible implications by transferring these resistances to other animals or to humans. PMID:21834624

  15. Imaging active faulting in a region of distributed deformation from the joint clustering of focal mechanisms and hypocentres: Application to the Azores-western Mediterranean region

    Custódio, Susana; Lima, Vânia; Vales, Dina; Cesca, Simone; Carrilho, Fernando


    The matching between linear trends of hypocentres and fault planes indicated by focal mechanisms (FMs) is frequently used to infer the location and geometry of active faults. This practice works well in regions of fast lithospheric deformation, where earthquake patterns are clear and major structures accommodate the bulk of deformation, but typically fails in regions of slow and distributed deformation. We present a new joint FM and hypocentre cluster algorithm that is able to detect systematically the consistency between hypocentre lineations and FMs, even in regions of distributed deformation. We apply the method to the Azores-western Mediterranean region, with particular emphasis on western Iberia. The analysis relies on a compilation of hypocentres and FMs taken from regional and global earthquake catalogues, academic theses and technical reports, complemented by new FMs for western Iberia. The joint clustering algorithm images both well-known and new seismo-tectonic features. The Azores triple junction is characterised by FMs with vertical pressure (P) axes, in good agreement with the divergent setting, and the Iberian domain is characterised by NW-SE oriented P axes, indicating a response of the lithosphere to the ongoing oblique convergence between Nubia and Eurasia. Several earthquakes remain unclustered in the western Mediterranean domain, which may indicate a response to local stresses. The major regions of consistent faulting that we identify are the mid-Atlantic ridge, the Terceira rift, the Trans-Alboran shear zone and the north coast of Algeria. In addition, other smaller earthquake clusters present a good match between epicentre lineations and FM fault planes. These clusters may signal single active faults or wide zones of distributed but consistent faulting. Mainland Portugal is dominated by strike-slip earthquakes with fault planes coincident with the predominant NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE oriented earthquake lineations. Clusters offshore SW Iberia are

  16. Floating sandstones off El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain: the peculiar case of the October 2011 eruption

    V. R. Troll


    Full Text Available The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite, (ii remelted magmatic material (trachyte, (iii altered volcanic rock, or (iv reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have collected and analysed the structure and composition of samples and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the archipelago. Based on their high silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, and the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate relicts, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary rocks that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. They hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies in the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment/covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores. The occurrence of these "restingolites" does therefore not indicate the presence of an explosive high-silica magma that is involved in the ongoing eruption.

  17. Floating sandstones off El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): the peculiar case of the October 2011 eruption

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F.; Berg, S.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.


    The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga) and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have collected and analysed the structure and composition of samples and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the archipelago. Based on their high silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, and the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate relicts, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary rocks that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. They hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies in the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment/covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of these "restingolites" does therefore not indicate the presence of an explosive high-silica magma that is involved in the ongoing eruption.

  18. Occurrence of upslope flows at the Pico mountaintop observatory: A case study of orographic flows on a small, volcanic island

    Kleissl, J.; Honrath, R. E.; Dziobak, M. P.; Tanner, D.; Val MartíN, M.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.


    Upslope flows caused by mechanical forcing in strong synoptic winds or by buoyant forcing driven by solar heating under weak synoptic winds can influence the air composition at mountaintop observatories. Using meteorological and trace gas measurements at the PICO-NARE observatory on Pico mountain (Azores Islands, North Atlantic Ocean), the frequency and impact of such orographic flows on a small, volcanic, subtropical island was examined. To determine the origin of mechanically lifted air, upstream kinetic energy was balanced against potential energy gained during uplift (Sheppard's model). Mechanically forced upslope flow is most important during October through April, when the calculated probability of observing marine boundary layer (MBL) air at the observatory near the summit ranges from 35 to 60% per month. In contrast, lower synoptic wind speeds and a more stable lower free troposphere during May-September result in a reduced frequency of MBL impacts (PICO-NARE station, were found on 54% of the days during May-August 2005. No corresponding increase in n-butane (used for heating and cooking at sea level residences) was detected, suggesting that the air did not originate from as low as sea level. These results indicate that the latitude, size, and topography of Pico island combine to prevent frequent transport of MBL air to the PICO-NARE station in the summer.

  19. The Cook Islands

    World Bank


    This country note is produced is part of The Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment andFinancing Initiative (PCRAFI). The geographic spread of the Cook Islands poses logistical problems for any necessary post-disaster relief and response efforts. The events of 2005 demonstrated that the Cook Islands is extremely vulnerable to the threat of tropical cyclones (TCs): in the two months of Februar...

  20. Marine and Island Ecology.

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others


    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  1. St. Vincent Island Tour

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  2. Back to Treasure Island

    Shriki, Atara


    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  3. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    V. R. Troll


    beneath the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment-covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores. The occurrence of "restingolites" indicates that crustal recycling is a relevant process in ocean islands, too, but does not herald the arrival of potentially explosive high-silica magma in the active plumbing system beneath El Hierro.

  4. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F. C.; Harris, C.; Berg, S. E.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Pedroza, K.


    Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment-covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of "restingolites" indicates that crustal recycling is a relevant process in ocean islands, too, but does not herald the arrival of potentially explosive high-silica magma in the active plumbing system beneath El Hierro.

  5. Census Snapshot: Rhode Island

    Romero, Adam P; Baumle, Amanda; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.


    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in Rhode Island. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in Rhode Island. In many ways, the over 2,400 same-sex couples living in Rhode Island are similar to married coupl...

  6. Nunivak Island muskox studies

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the Nunivak Island muskox, summarizing the carrying capacity and age and sex ratios. Recommendations are attached for muskox management.

  7. Solomon Islands; Selected Issues

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper analyzes Solomon Islands’ ongoing reforms concerning of the mineral taxation regime and the fiscal impact of mineral resources. The analysis shows that mineral revenue could be substantial, provided that mineral prices remain strong in the medium term. Enforcing the tax agreement with, a Gold Ridge company, and implementing the new resource taxation regime are critical to ensure that the forthcoming mineral wealth spills over to the rest of the economy. Solomon Islands should ado...

  8. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Daniele Mezzana


    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  9. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  10. Islands of Astronomy

    Godfrey Baldacchino


    Full Text Available A global review of islands and their connections with astronomy throughout history up to the contemporary times suggests eight compelling, distinct yet interlocking reasons why islands have been and remain so important to astronomy and astronomers. Islands constitute favourable locations for various types of astronomy-related activities: from tracking satellites and monitoring significant celestial events, to providing exceptional locations to jurisdictions with mandated dark and unpolluted skies. They appeal for their favourable longitude and (especially southern latitude, as well as for their disposition towards the conditions that the scientific community may expect in an ideal world: relatively clear viewing conditions from a secure, self-contained platform that is, however, endowed with connectivity. This article is written as a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy (2009.

  11. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, PSEG Long Island LLC (PSEG LI), Long Island...

  12. Long Island Solar Farm

    Anders, R.


    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  13. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch


    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  14. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  15. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  16. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  17. Islanded operation of distribution networks



    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  18. Marketing plan for Kuuskajaskari Island



    Marketing palan for Kuuskajaskari Island. ‡b Kuuskajaskari Island owned by the town of Rauma. Marketing plan should help the entrepreneurs of the islands to create services that target groups want and promote them by using the efficient marketing mix. The theoretical part consists of nature of tourism industry, travel consumers in general, then focus on Rauma areas and its island as targeted destination. Data was gathered from different official Finnish websites, books and from Sanni-Mari Aal...


    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: “What is a heat island?” “What are its impacts?" "What ar...

  20. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)


    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  1. Solomon Islands Botany

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.


    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  2. Solomon Islands : Workforce Development

    World Bank


    Solomon Islands has undertaken a comprehensive assessment of the strength of its workforce development (WfD) policies and institutions to support these initiatives and enhance evidence based dialogue on their implementation. This assessment has been based on the World Bank s Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) systems benchmarking initiative, under which a suite of analyt...

  3. Bone island and leprosy

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  4. Christmas Island birds returning

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  5. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    Larsen, Anders


    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...

  6. Island Ecology in Bermuda.

    Wulff, Barry L.; And Others


    Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

  7. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH


    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is...

  8. Gamma radiation monitoring at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Graciosa Island ARM facility

    Barbosa, Susana; Miranda, Pedro; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Nitschke, Kim


    Continuous monitoring of gamma radiation is often performed in nuclear facilities and industrial environments as a way to control the ambient radioactivity and give warning of potential accidents. However, gamma radiation is also ubiquitous in the natural environment. The main sources are i) cosmic radiation from space, including secondary radiation from the interaction with atoms in the atmosphere, ii) terrestrial sources from mineral grains in soils and rocks, particularly Potassium (K-40), Uranium (U-238) and Thorium (Th-232) and their decay products (e.g. Radium, Ra-226) , and iii) airborne Radon gas (Rn-222), which is the dominant source of natural environmental radioactivity. The temporal variability of this natural radiation background needs to be well understood and quantified in order to discriminate non-natural sources of radiation in the environment and artificial radionuclides contamination. To this end, continuous gamma radiation monitoring is being performed at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores. The site is unique for the study of the natural radioactivity background on one hand due to the remote oceanic geographical location, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean and clear of direct continental influence, and on the other hand because of the comprehensive dataset of atmospheric parameters that is available for enhancing the interpretation of the radiation measurements, as a result of the vast array of very detailed and high-quality atmospheric measurements performed at the ARM-ENA facility. Gamma radiation in the range 475 KeV to 3000 KeV is measured continuously with a 3" x 3" NaI(Tl) scintillator. The campaign started started in May 2015, with gamma

  9. Evolution of the accretion processes along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Azores since 5.5 Ma: An insight into the interactions between the ridge and the plume

    Maia, M.; Goslin, J.; Gente, P.


    International audience High-resolution bathymetry and gravity data north of the Azores Plateau show that this part of the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge is presently undergoing a phase of weak crustal production and magmatism. Most of the ridge segments are small and short-lived, suggesting a disrupted and highly variable accretion regime since anomaly 3A. The influence of the nearby plume appears to be relatively minor and corresponds more to a weak thermal signal than to any major input of plu...

  10. The conventional island

    For the conventional island, GEC Alsthom designs, manufactures and supplies: Mechanical equipment for the conventional island, Electrical equipment for the entire PWR unit, Safety-class mechanical equipment. Its experience and its own R and D resources, as well as close collaboration with EDF and experience feedback from equipment manufacturing, plant unit construction, and operation, enabled GEC Aslthom to meet the challenge of making a success of the massive nuclear power program launched in France. The latest step in the French nuclear power program is the 'N4' generation of 1450 MWe class units, for which GEC Alsthom has developed a second generation of impulse turbines, more compact and efficient moisture separator/reheaters and seawater-tight condensers

  11. Magnetic islands' dynamics

    The nonlinear evolution of the tearing mode is studied within the framework of single fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for different cases. First, the most simple instance of magnetic islands is studied, that is, the reduced MHD model within the cylindrical approximation for a given or constant resistivity profile. The nonlinear saturation of the tearing instability is then treated using two different methods: the first one, called the flux coordinate method, takes into account the fact that the current density is a flux function, whereas the second, simply called the perturbative method, does not. The generalized Rutherford equation is then provided by the asymptotic matching condition. It is shown not to depend on the choice of normalizations, as it should, and, in addition to new terms calculated for the first time, gives back all the results derived in previous work on the subject. It is also shown that the magnetic island gives rise to an order w3 modification of the poloidal magnetic flux, where w is the saturated island width, which is due to the flattening of the current density profile inside the separatrix. The perturbative method is then used to tackle two other issues, the first one being that of island rotation and the presence of an outer perturbation to the system. The corrections to the Rutherford equation due to these new effects are derived, and the importance of regularizing the vorticity profile in a new viscous-resistive boundary layer centered on the separatrix is emphasized, although not done explicitly. The second issue deals with the saturation of the tearing mode in full MHD, assuming single helicity and zero pressure. The equations are rewritten in a way that resembles the reduced MHD equations, so that the saturation equation can be derived using the perturbative method. Finally, the interest of such a study concerning the Reversed Field Pinch is discussed, and, in particular, the possibility that the tearing mode saturation may provide

  12. Urban heat island 1

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr


    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....


    Gordana Šarušić


    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  14. Solomon Islands : Operational Procurement Review

    World Bank


    Solomon Islands is a remote, scattered archipelago about 1,900 km northeast of Australia in the South Pacific, with terrain ranging from about 1,000 mountainous islands to low-lying coral atolls stretching in a 1,450 km chain east of Papua New Guinea across the Coral Sea to Vanuatu. The archipelago covers a total area of 725,197 sq km (approx 280,000 sq miles) with the main islands being C...

  15. Adaptation and diversification on islands.

    Losos, Jonathan B; Ricklefs, Robert E


    Charles Darwin's travels on HMS Beagle taught him that islands are an important source of evidence for evolution. Because many islands are young and have relatively few species, evolutionary adaptation and species proliferation are obvious and easy to study. In addition, the geographical isolation of many islands has allowed evolution to take its own course, free of influence from other areas, resulting in unusual faunas and floras, often unlike those found anywhere else. For these reasons, island research provides valuable insights into speciation and adaptive radiation, and into the relative importance of contingency and determinism in evolutionary diversification. PMID:19212401

  16. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B


    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations. PMID:25254475

  17. Islanders' Perspectives on Sustainable Living

    Gillian Cambers


    Full Text Available An internet forum, supported by the Small Islands Voice initiative, has since 2002 provided a place where islanders from around the world could discuss issues and problems and also learn from the experiences of others. This paper provides a reflective overview of the discussions over the past four years and attempts to identify some specific characteristics that identify islanders in their approaches to everyday living. An analysis of the forum respondents shows that approximately two thirds are male; one half come from the Pacific islands; and more than a half are employed in island-based occupations. Discussions have covered infrastructural development; resource management; environmental, social and economic issues. The overview indicates islanders are very willing to speak out and take ownership of their issues and problems and their discussions show a significant level of understanding about the need to balance limited resources and economic development. Proposals for action are practical and feasible and there is a strong vein of common sense running through the responses. Most significantly, islanders show a deep love for their island homes, an attitude of caring about the future development of their islands, and a willingness to try to solve their problems themselves.

  18. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.


    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  19. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts


    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Weather In Some Islands



    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  1. Urban heat island

    Kim, Hongsuk H.


    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  2. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Pasquale Gagliardi


    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  3. Mediterranean Islands: A Concept

    Lopašić, A.


    This article represents some of the results of my fieldwork and research on the islands of Sardinia, Corsica, Malta, Sicily, Crete and Susak between the years 1962–1986. My main filed-work in Sardinia was supported by the Social Science Research Council, London and the University of Reading/Berks, and the ones in Corsica, Malta and Sardinia by the Department of Ethnology, University of Cologne (Institut für Völkerkunde, Universität Köln) forming a part of a project on the Medit...

  4. La construcción de la autonomía profesional docente: el caso del movimiento de la escuela moderna en las Azores (Portugal

    Pedro Francisco GONZÁLEZ ROA


    Full Text Available La construcción de la identidad profesional, el reconocimiento y desarrollo de la capacidad de autonomía, la convicción de que la formación pasa necesariamente por un trabajo de cooperación, así como la construcción de respuestas a las exigencias del mundo contemporáneo y la certeza de que la «educabilidad» del alumno son objetivos y motor del proceso de construcción de la profesión para un grupo de docentes que, a lo largo de los últimos diez años, se viene dedicando, sistemática y «obsesivamente», a esta tarea. El objetivo fundamental del trabajo de estos profesionales pasa por mejorar ese instrumento que es el profesor a través de la construcción de una pedagogía cooperativa donde el centro sea el alumno en contexto de grupo, aspirando a la mejora permanente de la democracia. La experiencia de (autoformación cooperada que vamos a describir a continuación viene siendo desarrollada por un grupo de profesores en la Isla Terceira del Archipiélago de las Azores, en Portugal, a través del ejercicio de autonomía, espíritu crítico y sentido de participación social en un contexto suprainstitucional. La estrategia adoptada por el grupo incluye el trabajo de formación entre iguales en momentos de reflexión compartidos sobre las prácticas pedagógicas llevadas a cabo organizando para ello «grupos cooperativos» y otras modalidades de formación cooperada. Se apuesta en la perspectiva de «formarse» unos a otros en un contexto de comunicación y espíritu de ayuda mutua incidiendo en la realidad de su práctica pedagógica del día a día.

  5. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  6. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  7. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  8. An Island Called Cuba

    Jean Stubbs


    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  9. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands'


    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. The Museum of Piano Island



    GULANGYU, the island of pianos in southeast Xiamen, has more than 500 pianos. In the island's Shuzhuang Garden is the Gulangyu Piano Museum.Spread out over 2,000 square meters of land, the museum has on exhibit more than 70 pianos from the UK, France, Germany and Austria.

  11. Islands for nuclear power stations

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  12. Solomon Islands : Health Financing Options

    Somanathan, Aparnaa


    The objective of this Policy Note is to provide an assessment of available options for financing health care in the Solomon Islands. In doing so, the analysis will factor in the country-specific economic, social and political factors, which will ultimately influence the performance of the health financing mechanisms. The Note was motivated by the Solomon Islands Government s (SIG) interest...

  13. Islanded operation of distributed networks



    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  14. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  15. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...


    ... Register on August 14, 2007 (72 FR 45444), announcing our intent to complete a CCP/EA and inviting public... natural processes to occur with minimal human intervention; monitoring wildlife species; and working with... Fish and Wildlife Service Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges,...

  16. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  17. Marte Valles Crater 'Island'


    10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  18. PWR: nuclear islands

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary

  19. Man made floating island

    Martinak, B.


    An artificial island is described for use in energy production from ocean waves, comprising: a platform disposed atop the ocean surface; vertically disposed rigid posts extending beneath the platform short of the ocean floor; a stationary wave amplifier affixed to the posts, the wave amplifier of a conical shape with inclined sides for directing water upwardly from substantially any lateral direction when submerged to amplify wave action; a movable inverted conical float slidably mounted for translation movement along the posts and disposed between the platform and the wave amplifier for movement with the waves; an apex of the conical float directed substantially toward an apex of the conical wave amplifier; and an energy-drive device disposed on the platform. A means is provided for converting the motion of the float to transmittable energy for operating the energy-driven device.

  20. Islands in the ice

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour;


    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over the...... where the botanical survey was exhaustive. As no animals and humans are found on the nunataks, this change in diversity over a period of just 42 years must relate to environmental changes probably being climate-driven. This suggests that even the flora of fairly small and isolated ice-free areas reacts...

  1. PIPS: pathogenicity island prediction software.

    Siomar C Soares

    Full Text Available The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1 deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2 insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS. In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands.

  2. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  3. IslandViewer update: improved genomic island discovery and visualization

    Dhillon, Bhavjinder K.; Chiu, Terry A.; Laird, Matthew R.; Langille, Morgan G I; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.


    IslandViewer ( is a web-accessible application for the computational prediction and analysis of genomic islands (GIs) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin and are of high interest because they disproportionately encode virulence factors and other adaptations of medical, environmental and industrial interest. Many computational tools exist for the prediction of GIs, but three of the most accurate met...

  4. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  5. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  6. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  7. Ornithological bibliography of the Azores

    Le Grand, Gérald; Furtado, Duarte


    Only scientific publications up to 1980 are included in this bibliography. Other old narrations containing information on Azorean ornithology are being assembled for future publication. Certain unpublished works will also be dealt with. The part for consultation has been arranged in three sections. The first presents a numbered list of papers and books in chronological order up to 1980. Last minute alterations obliged us to eliminate some items and to use «bis» for repeated numbers in some...

  8. Energy reduction potential from the shift to electric vehicles: The Flores island case study

    The increase of fossil fuel demand raises concerns on availability of resources for future energy demand and on potential environmental impacts. Electric vehicles (EVs) appear as one alternative to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy resources. This research work analyzes the benefits of the introduction of EVs in a small energy system, the Flores island, Azores, in terms of primary energy and CO2 emissions. Four scenarios were designed considering different penetration rates of EVs (Low and High) and different time of recharging strategies (Fixed and Flexible). The high shares of RES in the electricity production system (60–62%) did not guarantee a significant use of RES for the recharging of EVs (10–40%), as the additional electricity required had to be produced mainly from the diesel generators. The flexible recharging strategies allowed doubling the share of RES in the recharging of the EVs when compared to fixed recharging, and consequently double the impact on the reduction of primary energy consumption and fossil fuels imports. While the reduction of primary energy ranged between 0.2% and 1.1%, for CO2 emissions there was a decrease between 0.3 and 1.7%, proving that EVs can help improve the sustainability of energy systems. - highlights: • High shares of RES in electricity do not guarantee a low energy use by EVs. • The introduction of EVs can help reduce CO2 emissions by 11% in 2030. • Flexible time of recharging strategies allows a 2.5 times higher share of RES

  9. Palaeomagnetic study of a subaerial volcanic ridge (Sao Jorge Island, Azores) for the past 1.3 Myr: evidence for the CobbMountain Subchron, volcano flank instability and tectonomagmatic implications

    Silva, P. F.; Henry, B.; Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.; Madureira, P.; Mériaux, C. A.; Kratinová, Zuzana


    Roč. 188, č. 3 (2012), s. 959-978. ISSN 0956-540X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : palaeomagnetic secular variation * magnetostratigraphy * rock and mineral magnetism * Atlantic Ocean Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.853, year: 2012

  10. Guest editorial introduction: Understanding island cities

    Adam Grydehoj


    Full Text Available Island studies research has traditionally focused on relatively rural, peripheral, and isolated communities, yet island cities (strongly urbanized small islands or archipelagos or major population centres of large islands or archipelagos also represent an important research area. Island spatiality has a host of historical and continuing effects on urban development, influencing urban densification and agglomeration, zonal differentiation, and neighbourhood formation in cities both big and small. This special section of Island Studies Journal includes papers on the island cities and urban archipelagos of Peel (Isle of Man, British Isles, Nuuk (Greenland, Palma de Majorca (Spain, Belize City (Belize, and Mumbai (India. The Island Cities and Urban Archipelagos research network seeks to help enrich wider island studies scholarship and contribute to introducing the island dimension to urban studies.