Sample records for averrhoa carambola infestada


    Gheewala Payal; Kalaria Pankti; Chakraborty Manodeep; Kamath Jagadish V


    Herbal medicines and their application have always been the basis for man’s curiosity from the time immemorial. Averrhoa carambola Linn, commonly known as Kamrakh or Golden Star, is undoubtedly one of the most unique creations of nature grown widely in the tropics and the warmer areas of subtropics. Averrhoa carambola is reported to contain mainly saponins, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids. It is used as a well known remedy for the treatment of a number of manifestations in Ayurvedic as well...


    Gheewala Payal


    Full Text Available Herbal medicines and their application have always been the basis for man’s curiosity from the time immemorial. Averrhoa carambola Linn, commonly known as Kamrakh or Golden Star, is undoubtedly one of the most unique creations of nature grown widely in the tropics and the warmer areas of subtropics. Averrhoa carambola is reported to contain mainly saponins, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids. It is used as a well known remedy for the treatment of a number of manifestations in Ayurvedic as well as folklore systems of medicine. In Ayurveda, Averrhoa carambola finds use as an anti-helminth, anti-malarial, antipyretic, digestive tonic, febrifuge, antiscorbutic and antidote for poison. It is considered as one of the best Indian cooling medicines. These properties are believed to be mediated by different phytochemicals found in the plant, acting singly or in concert. A relatively large number of scientific publications on Averrhoa carambola have been published in recent years, including a number of research articles. The goal of this review is to provide an updated categorization of the phytochemical constituents along with the comprehensive list of known ethno-botanical uses, common names and a brief summary of relevant pharmacological activities of this plant.

  3. Characterization of Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) Plant Collection of Cibinong Plant Germplasm Garden Based on Phenotypic and Genetic Characters

    Dody Priadi; Ambar Yuswi Perdani; Yuli Sulistyowati; Fiqolbi Nuro Pohan; Enung Sri Mulyaningsih


    Indonesia as a rich biodiversity country has many superior fruit plant germplasms such as sweet star fruit or carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.). Some varieties of carambola which collected at the Germplasm Garden of Research Center for Biotechnology-LIPI have been used for parent trees of fruit plant production. Therefore, they have to be characterized both phenotypically and genetically. The objective of the study was to analyze the relationship between eight varieties of carambola i.e. Mala...

  4. Peningkatan Kandungan Kalium Urin Setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Sari Buah Belimbing Manis (Averrhoa carambola (THE INCREASE OF POTASSIUM URINE CONTENT AFTER ADMINSTRATION OF CARAMBOLA (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA FRUIT JUICE EXTRACT

    Ruqiah Ganda Putri Panjaitan


    Full Text Available Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. has been used as medicinal plant. This research has beenconducted to study the potential diuretic of fruit juice carambola extract on male rats. Diuretic activitywas tested by using Cumming’s method. The treatment was administered only once, and the urine up to 24hours after treatment was collected. The result shows that the administration of 1.6 mL/100 g body weightof fruit juice carambola extract resulted in lower urine volume compared to the without treatment orklortalidon at dose 0.315 mg/100 body weight (p>0.05. Furthermore, Na+ content in treatment rats’ wasurine lower compared to the without treatment or klortalidon (p<0.05. in contrast, high content of K+ wasobserveb in treatment  rast’ urine compared to the without treatment or klortalidon (p> 0.05. It is concludedthat the administration of carambola fruit juice extract may increase K+ content in urine and produce moreconcentrated urine. The mechanism of action, however, remains need to be proven, further.

  5. Analysis of the Potential Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Averrhoa carambola L. in Mice

    Daniela de Almeida Cabrini; Henrique Hunger Moresco; Priscila Imazu; Cíntia Delai da Silva; Evelise Fernandes Pietrovski; Daniel Augusto Gasparin Bueno Mendes; Arthur da Silveira Prudente; Moacir Geraldo Pizzolatti; Inês Maria Costa Brighente; Michel Fleith Otuki


    Inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are very common in the population; however, the treatments currently available are not well tolerated and are often ineffective. Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) is an Asian tree that has been used in traditional folk medicine in the treatment of several skin disorders. The present study evaluates the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the crude ethanolic extract of A. carambola leaves, its hexane, ethyl acetate, and b...




    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as qualidades física e química dos frutos de seis cultivares de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L., propagadas pela Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro, São Paulo, objetivando a obtenção de informações sobre a qualidade dos frutos produzidos nesta região. Foram utilizados frutos das cultivares Tean-ma, Fwang Tung, Arkin, Malásia, Golden Star e Nota-10. Os frutos foram analisados quanto à massa fresca, comprimento, largura, volume, porcentagem de suco, polpa e semente, número de sementes, coloração (L, Cromaticidade e ângulo Hue. Na polpa, determinou-se o pH, assim como o teor de umidade, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, vitamina C, açúcares solúveis totais e redutores, cinzas, proteína, pectina total e solúvel, e minerais (Ca, P, K, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn. Os resultados foram avaliados estatisticamente através de um delineamento inteiramente casualizado e revelaram que os melhores frutos são os originários das cultivares Arkin, Tean-ma e Nota-10, pois são os maiores, os mais pesados e apresentam os maiores teores de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e açúcares solúveis (AST, assim como boa relação SST/ATT. Os frutos da 'Arkin' mostraram coloração mais amarela, enquanto os da 'Golden Star' foram considerados de coloração mais clara, ou com maior translucidez. A textura foi menor nos frutos da 'Arkin', e se relacionou com a maior solubilização de suas pectinasPhysical and chemical quality were valued of six carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. cultivars, spreaded to the Bebedouro Experimenal Citrus Station, São Paulo, with purpose to obtainment informations about fruit quality in this region. Were utilized fruits of Tean-ma, Fwang Tung, Arkin, Malaysia, Golden Star and Nota-10 cultivars. The fruits were analysed to fresh weight, length, breadth, volume, percentage of juice, residue and seed, seed numbers, coloration (L, Chromaticity and Hue angle. In pulp, were

  7. Characterization of Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. Plant Collection of Cibinong Plant Germplasm Garden Based on Phenotypic and Genetic Characters

    Dody Priadi


    Full Text Available Indonesia as a rich biodiversity country has many superior fruit plant germplasms such as sweet star fruit or carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.. Some varieties of carambola which collected at the Germplasm Garden of Research Center for Biotechnology-LIPI have been used for parent trees of fruit plant production. Therefore, they have to be characterized both phenotypically and genetically. The objective of the study was to analyze the relationship between eight varieties of carambola i.e. Malaysia, Penang, Rawasari, Bangkok, Sembiring, Dewabaru, Demak and Dewimurni at the germplasm garden based on phenotypic and genetic characters. Phenotypic characters were observed directly in the field, whereas genetic characters were observed with RAPD markers using 10 primers. Phylogenetic analysis was done using NT-SYS software showed that there were three clusters of carambola varieties. Meanwhile, Malaysia and Penang varieties have closed relationships (96% compared with the other varieties. The result of the study would be dedicated to updating and completing the existing fruit plant collection database of Plants Germplasm Garden. 

  8. Assessment of heavy metals in Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola fruit samples at two developmental stages.

    Soumya, S L; Nair, Bindu R


    Though the fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola are economically and medicinally important, they remain underutilized. The present study reports heavy metal quantitation in the fruit samples of A. bilimbi and A. carambola (Oxalidaceae), collected at two stages of maturity. Heavy metals are known to interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. Although toxic, some elements are considered essential for human health, in trace quantities. Heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Pb, and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The samples under investigation included, A. bilimbi unripe (BU) and ripe (BR), A. carambola sour unripe (CSU) and ripe (CSR), and A. carambola sweet unripe (CTU) and ripe (CTR). Heavy metal analysis showed that relatively higher level of heavy metals was present in BR samples compared to the rest of the samples. The highest amount of As and Se were recorded in BU samples while Mn content was highest in CSU samples and Co in CSR. Least amounts of Cr, Zn, Se, Cd, and Pb were noted in CTU while, Mn, Cu, and As were least in CTR. Thus, the sweet types of A. carambola (CTU, CTR) had comparatively lower heavy metal content. There appears to be no reason for concern since different fruit samples of Averrhoa studied presently showed the presence of various heavy metals in trace quantities. PMID:27080855

  9. Cinética e modelagem da secagem de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) em secador de bandeja = Kinetics and modeling of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) drying in a tray dryer

    Paulo Bonomo; Modesto Antonio Chaves; Rafael da Costa Ilhéu Fontan; Calila Teixeira Santos; Renata Ferreira Bonomo


    No presente trabalho, objetivou-se obter curvas de secagem de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) em secador de bandejas. A partir dessas curvas foram obtidos dados de taxa de secagem e de difusividade, além do ajuste de modelos semiteóricos aos dados experimentais. As curvas de secagem foram obtidas, utilizando-se um secador de bandejas nas temperaturas de 50, 60 e 70°C e com fluxo de ar de 1,5 m s-1. Aos dados experimentais foram ajustados os modelos dePage, Henderson e Pabis e Exponencial, u...

  10. Antihyperglycemic Activities of Leaves of Three Edible Fruit Plants (Averrhoa Carambola, Ficus Hispida and Syzygium Samarangense) of Bangladesh

    Shahreen, Shejuty; Banik, Joyanta; Hafiz, Abdul; Rahman, Shahnaz; Zaman, Anahita Tanzia; Shoyeb, Md Abu; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Rahmatullah, Mohammed


    Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae), and Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) are three common plants in Bangladesh, the fruits of which are edible. The leaves and fruits of A. carambola and F. hispida are used by folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of diabetes, while the leaves of S. samarangense are used for treatment of cold, itches, and waist pain. Since scientific studies are absent on the antihyperglycemic effects of the leav...

  11. Hypoglycemic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae Efeito hipoglicemiante do extrato hidroalcoólico de folhas de Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae

    Edilene B. Ferreira


    Full Text Available The effect of the oral treatment (20 mg/kg x day with the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Averrhoa carambola L. (HELAC on fasting glycemia (15 h was examined. For this purpose, rats that received vehicle (Control group or HELAC (HELAC group during 15 days were compared. HELAC group showed lower fasting glycemia (pO efeito do tratamento via oral (20 mg/kg x day com extrato hidroalcoólico de folhas de Averrhoa carambola L. (EHFC sobre a glicemia de jejum (15 h foi examinada ao compararmos ratos que receberam veículo (Grupo controle ou EHFC (Grupo EHFC durante 15 dias. O grupo EHFC apresentou menor glicemia de jejum (p<0,05. Em contraste, o grupo EHFC apresentou maior (p<0,05 produção hepática glicose a partir de L-alanina (5 mM. Este efeito foi mediado, pelo menos parcialmente, pela ativação do catabolismo da L-alanina, inferido pela maior produção hepática de uréia (p<0,05 e L-lactato (p<0,05. Diferente da L-alanina, a produção hepática de glicose a partir de L-glutamina (5 mM, L-lactato (2 mM e glicerol (2 mM no grupo EHFC foi similar ao grupo controle. Adicionalmente, o efeito do tratamento com EHFC sobre a captação de glicose no músculo soleus, inferida pela incorporação de [14C]-glicose em glicogênio (síntese de glicogênio e produção de [14C]-lactato foi investigada, verificando-se resultados semelhantes nos dois grupos. Assim, concluiu-se que a redução da glicemia de jejum promovida pelo tratamento com EHFC não foi mediada por inibição da gliconeogenese hepática e/ou aumento da captação muscular de glicose.

  12. Cinética e modelagem da secagem de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. em secador de bandeja = Kinetics and modeling of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. drying in a tray dryer

    Paulo Bonomo


    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, objetivou-se obter curvas de secagem de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. em secador de bandejas. A partir dessas curvas foram obtidos dados de taxa de secagem e de difusividade, além do ajuste de modelos semiteóricos aos dados experimentais. As curvas de secagem foram obtidas, utilizando-se um secador de bandejas nas temperaturas de 50, 60 e 70°C e com fluxo de ar de 1,5 m s-1. Aos dados experimentais foram ajustados os modelos dePage, Henderson e Pabis e Exponencial, utilizando-se regressão não-linear. Todos os ajustes tiveram coeficiente de determinação (R2 superior a 0,96, mas o modelo de Page foi o que apresentou melhor ajuste. Observou-se que a difusividade efetiva, calculada a partir da lei de Fick, aumentou com a elevação da temperatura.In this work, drying curves were obtained for the star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. in a tray dryer. From theses curves, drying rates and diffusivity data were also obtained and semitheoreticalmodels were adjusted. The drying curves were obtained using a tray dryer with temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C and an air flux of 1.5 m s-1. The Page, Henderson & Pabis and Exponential models were fitted to the experimental data by non-linear regression. All fitted models presented high determination coefficients (R2. The Page model showed the best fit. It was observed that effective diffusivity, calculated by Fick’s law, increased with temperature.

  13. Application of Palm Stearin-Chitosan Edible Coating on Star Fruits (Averrhoa carambola L.)

    An edible coating comprising of hydrophilic (chitosan) and hydrophobic (palm stearin) components which demonstrated gas barrier and moisture barrier properties respectively, was developed to prolong the post harvest life of star fruits (Averrhoa carambola L.). The physicochemical properties of the coated star fruits were evaluated in terms of weight loss, firmness, visual appearance, colour and glossiness, respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) concentrations and ethylene concentration during storage at chilled temperature for 40 days. The results obtained showed that coating reduced weight loss, and maintained firmness and appearance of star fruits. Formulation 1:1 (chitosan:stearin) prevented decline in oxygen production, slowed down carbon dioxide production, and maintained firmness of star fruits. Visual appearance of star fruits showed that coating had lengthened the post harvest life of star fruits up to 40 days with no sign of mould growth. (author)

  14. Chemical constituents and evaluation of the toxic and antioxidant activities of Averrhoa carambola leaves

    Henrique H. Moresco


    Full Text Available The liquid-liquid partitioning of a crude hydroalcoholic extract of Averrhoa carambola L., Oxalidaceae, leaves led to the isolation of a sterol and three flavone C-glycosides. From the n-hexane fraction β-sitosterol was isolated and from the ethyl acetate fraction apigenin-6-C-β-L-fucopyranoside (1 and apigenin6-C-(2"-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-β-L-fucopyranoside (2 were obtained. Apigenin6-C-(2"-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (3 was isolated from the n-butanol fraction. Compound 3 is new, while 1 and 2 have been previously isolated from A. carambola. The antioxidant activity was measured using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing power of iron (III to iron (II ions. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed the most antioxidant activity. As evaluated by ability of the sample to scavenge DPPH the IC50 values were 90.92 and 124.48 µg/ mL, respectively. In the assay of reducing power these fractions presented 135.64 and 125.12 of ascorbic acid equivalents, respectively. The antioxidant activity exhibited a significant relationship with the phenolic content (r² = 0.997, but a poor relationship with the flavonoids content (r² = 0.424. The n-hexane fraction was the only fraction to present good toxicity using A. salina with LC50 800.2 µg/mL.

  15. Analysis of the Potential Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Averrhoa carambola L. in Mice

    Daniela Almeida Cabrini


    Full Text Available Inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are very common in the population; however, the treatments currently available are not well tolerated and are often ineffective. Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae is an Asian tree that has been used in traditional folk medicine in the treatment of several skin disorders. The present study evaluates the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the crude ethanolic extract of A. carambola leaves, its hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions and two isolated flavonoids on skin inflammation. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a croton oil-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. Topically applied ethanolic extract reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 73 ± 3% and an ID50 value of 0.05 (range: 0.02–0.13 mg/ear. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity was also inhibited by the extract, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 60 ± 6% (0.6 mg/ear. All of the fractions tested caused inhibition of edema formation and of MPO activity. Treatment with the ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective, resulting in inhibition levels of 75 ± 5 and 54 ± 8% for edema formation and MPO activity, respectively. However, treatment of mice with isolated compounds [apigenin-6-C-β-l-fucopyranoside and apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-l-fucopyranoside] did not yield successful results. Apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-l-fucopyranoside caused only a mild reduction in edema formation (28 ± 11%. Taken together, these preliminary results support the popular use of A. carambola as an anti-inflammatory agent and open up new possibilities for its use in skin disorders.

  16. Armazenagem em atmosfera modificada passiva de carambola azeda (Averrhoa carambola L. cv. 'Golden Star' Storage in passive modified atmosphere of 'Golden Star' starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.

    Leandro Camargo Neves


    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o efeito das embalagens de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD, em diferentes espessuras, no prolongamento da vida útil pós-colheita de carambolas cv. 'Golden Star'. Os frutos foram colhidos fisiologicamente maturos, sendo selecionados pela ausência de defeitos e acondicionados nas embalagens de PEBD, constituindo os seguintes tratamentos: T1 - controle (sem embalagem; T2 - PEBD de 6 mim; T3 - PEBD de 10 mim; T4 - PEBD de 15 mim. Os frutos foram armazenados a 12 +/- 0,5 ºC e 95 +/- 5% de UR, por 45 dias, e mais 5 dias a 22 +/- 3ºC e 72 +/- 5% de UR. Vinte e quatro horas após a colheita e a cada nove dias, amostras eram retiradas do armazenamento refrigerado (AR, mantidas por 12 horas em condições ambiente (22 +/- 3ºC e 72 +/- 5% UR e analisadas quanto à firmeza de polpa (FP, à perda de massa fresca, à coloração da epiderme, aos sólidos solúveis totais (SST, à acidez total titulável (ATT e à ocorrência de distúrbios fisiológicos. Realizou-se também uma análise sensorial ao final do experimento. A maior firmeza de polpa e acidez total titulável, o melhor padrão de coloração, o menor conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais, a ausência de manchas e podridões, e a melhor aceitabilidade pelos julgadores foram obtidos com os frutos acondicionados em embalagens de 10 mim.This work was carried out to evaluate the effects of low density polyethylene bags (LDPB with different thickness on Golden Star starfruit shelf life. The fruits were harvested at mature-green ripening stage, selected from lack of defects and placed in LDPB bags, constituting the following treatments: T1 - control (no bags; T2 - 6 mum thickness LDPB; T3 - 10 mum thickness LDPB; T4 - 15 mum thickness LDPB. Fruits were stored for 45 days in refrigerated air at 12 +/- 0,5ºC and 95 +/- 3% RH and then left at 22 +/- 3ºC and 72 +/- 5% RH for 5 days. Twenty-four hours after harvest and every nine days, samples were removed from cold storage

  17. Avaliação do perfil glicêmico de pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 com e sem administração de infusão de folhas de Averrhoa carambola =Evaluation of glycemic profile of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 with or without administration of Averrhoa carambola infusion

    Rodrigues, Roseli et al.


    Objetivos: avaliar o efeito da infusão das folhas da planta Averrhoa carambola nos níveis glicêmicos de pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: este ensaio clínico estudou 22 pacientes, divididos em grupo teste (11 pacientes que fizeram uso do chá das folhas de Averrhoa carambola) e grupo controle (11 pacientes sem uso do chá), que foram acompanhados durante um período de três meses. Para avaliar os níveis glicêmicos, foi feita dosagem sanguínea em intervalos de 15 dias. Result...

  18. Effect of fluorescent light on selected antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity during storage of fresh-cut carambola (averrhoa carambola l.) fruit

    The effects of fluorescent light on the availability of selected antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity during storage of fresh-cut carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit were investigated. The samples of fresh-cut fruit, stored at 5 +- 1 deg. C, were exposed to fluorescent light (157 Lux) for 12 days. Total phenolic compounds (TPC) and ascorbic acid (AA) content of the processed fruit were analyzed using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Antioxidant activity of the fruit was assessed following 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results of the present study showed that light exposure did not exert any significant effect, while storage period significantly reduced the AA content of the fruits tested. On the other hand, with few exceptions, there were notable random changes, recorded in the TPC and antioxidant activity of the fruit as function of storage period and light exposure. (author)

  19. Negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on the guinea pig atrium of extracts obtained from Averrhoa carambola L. leaves

    Vasconcelos C.M.L.


    Full Text Available It has been reported that star fruit can lead to a fatal outcome in uremic patients. The intoxication syndrome consists of hiccups, mental confusion, dizziness, and vomiting. On the other hand, folk medicine uses teas and infusions of carambola leaves to treat headache, vomiting, cough, insomnia, and diabetes. This motivated us to determine if Averrhoa carambola can act on the contractility and automaticity of the guinea pig heart. We measured the atrial isometric force in stimulated left atria and determined the chronotropic changes in spontaneously beating right atria. The carambola leaf extracts (1.5 mg/ml abolished the contractile force in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the crude, methanolic, ethanolic, aqueous, and acetic extracts, the aqueous one was the most potent (EC50 = 520 ± 94 µg/ml; flavonoids and tannins are the main constituents; Na+ and K+ contents in 1.0 mg/ml of aqueous extract were 0.12 ± 0.016 and 1.19 ± 0.15 mM, respectively. The aqueous extract abolished the positive Bowditch staircase phenomenon and reduced the inotropic response to CaCl2 (0.17-8.22 mM, events that are dependent on the cellular Ca2+ inward current. The adrenergic, muscarinic or opioid membrane receptors do not seem to participate in the mechanism of action of the cardioactive substance(s. In spontaneously beating atria, the aqueous extract promoted a negative chronotropic effect that was antagonized by 0.1 µM isoproterenol bitartrate. With this agonist, the EC50 of the aqueous extract increased from 133 ± 58 to 650 ± 100 µg/ml. These data regarding the effect of A. carambola on guinea pig atrial contractility and automaticity indicate an L-type Ca2+ channel blockade.

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K


    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control. PMID:26212939

  1. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes.

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin


    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications. PMID:27057195

  2. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes

    Chalinee Ronpirin


    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB, a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight, while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively. Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD. Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications.

  3. Determination of polyphenolic content, HPLC analyses and DNA cleavage activity of Malaysian Averrhoa carambola L. fruit extracts

    Zakia Khanam


    Full Text Available In developing countries, the increasing gap between population growth and food supply has created renewed interest in finding reliable and cheap natural resources of nutraceutical value and health promoting properties. Therefore, the present study deals with the phytochemical analyses and DNA cleavage activity of Averrhoa carambola L. fruit (starfruit extracts. The phytochemical studies involve colour tests and quantification of phenolics and flavonoids of the prepared ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids present in the extracts were conducted by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC equipped with diode array detector (DAD. DNA cleavage activity of the extracts was evaluated through gel electrophoresis against plasmid Escherichia coli DNA at different concentrations (0.125–0.60 μg/μl. The results of the study exhibited that the starfruit is a rich source of polyphenols and all the extracts exhibited a dose dependent DNA cleavage activity, whereas ethanolic extract induced more cleavage as compared to the aqueous extract. In conclusion, the present study provides preliminary evidence with regard to nutraceutical value of the fruit. So, further extensive study is a prerequisite to exploit DNA cleaving properties of the fruit extracts for therapeutic application.

  4. Efeito do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico e de frações de folhas da Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae no metabolismo glicêmico de ratos Wistar = Effect of Hydroalcoholic extract and fractions of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae leaves on the glycemic metabolism of Wistar rats

    Marilene Provasi


    Full Text Available As folhas de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. são utilizadas na fabricação do fitoterápico Glico-Vitae., indicado no tratamento do diabetes melittus tipo 2. Em nossos estudos, ratos machos Wistar que receberam, por via intragástrica, o extrato bruto liofilizado (EC e as frações de EC (20 mg/kg, durante duas semanas, apresentaram redução da glicemia. Mas, diferentemente da insulina, o EC e suas frações não estimularam a síntese de glicogênio e a produção de lactato em músculo sóleo isolado. Da fração mais ativa, empregando métodos espectroscópicos de EM, RMN1H e RMN13C, foram isoladas trêsfrações semipurificadas majoritárias e, por comparação com os dados da literatura, foram identificadas como misturas complexas de açúcares.Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. leaves have been used for the production of Glico-Vitae., a phytotherapic medicine indicated for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Male Wistar rats, which received intragastric administration of the liophyliled extract (EC and fractions of EC (20 mg/kg during 2 weeks, showed decreased (p < 0.05 blood glucose levels. However, in contrast to insulin, EC and its fractions neither increased the glycogen synthesis or thelactate production in isolated soleus muscle. In addition, by using spectroscopic methods (MS, NMR1H and NMR13C a mixture of complex sugars were obtained from the fraction with the highest activity.

  5. Perlakuan Uap Panas (Vapor Heat Treatment untuk Disinfestasi Lalat Buah dan Mempertahankan Mutu Buah Belimbing (Averrhoa carambola L.

    Eti Rohaeti


    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study mortality of carambola fruit fly (B. carambolae D & H and to study responses of VHT on quality of carambola (A. carambola L. Fruit fly mortality due to heat has been investigated by immersing fruit fly eggs into hot water at temperatures of 40, 43, 46 dan 49oC for 30 minutes and then at temperature of 46.5oC for 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 minutes. Star fruit were treated at temperature of 46.5oC for 5, 15, 30 minutes and then stored in temperatures of 5, 15oC and room temperature (28-30 oC. The result show that mortality has been achieved 100% at temperature more than 43.0oC for 30 minutes and at temperature 46.0oC for more than 15 minutes. VHT had significant influences to decrease the fruit respiration rates, chilling injury, antraknose, to increase the weight loss, color, and soluble solid content. However, there were no significant change in the hardness, water content, vitamin C and organoleptic test. VHT at temperature 46.5oC for 20 up to 30 minutes were effective to kill fruit flies inside carambola and VHT combined by storing in temperature of 15oC were able to maintain carambola quality during storage.

  6. Averrhoa carambola L., Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels and Cissus sicyoides L.: medicinal herbal tea effects on vegetal and animal test systems Averrhoa carambola L., Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels e Cissus sicyoides L.: efeitos dos chás de plantas medicinais sobre os sistemas-teste vegetal e animal

    Mario Sergio Mantovani


    Full Text Available Since folk medicine has been greatly appreciated for centuries, many researchers decided to study more deeply the curative qualities of plants. In the present study, meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. were used as vegetal test system and bone marrow cells of Wistar rats as animal test system. Both were treated in vivo to evaluate whether the plants Averrhoa carambola L., Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels and Cissus sicyoides L. presented cytotoxic and mutagenic effects and whether they resulted in cell alterations in their morphology, chromosomes or cell cycle division. Herbal teas were prepared as normally done by the population, albeit in two different concentrations, the usual concentration and a concentration ten times higher. Rats were treated with only one concentration of teas. Results showed that teas did not alter the cell cycle of Allium cepa L., with the exception of the 24 hours analysis after suspension of treatment (recovery of treatments, with a lower concentration of Averrhoa carambola. The latter had a low mitotic index when compared to control and to the post-treatment analysis, showing an inhibition of cell division. The three herbal teas neither induced an increase in the number of chromosomal damage in bone marrow cells of Wistar rats nor altered the cell division cycle. Results are important in so far as these plants are used as therapeutic agentsAs plantas medicinais têm sido muito estudadas devido aos seus efeitos curativos. Neste estudo foram utilizados o sistema teste vegetal em células meristemáticas de Allium cepa L. e o sistema teste animal em células da medula óssea de ratos Wistar tratados in vivo para avaliação dos efeitos citotóxicos e mutagênicos das plantas Averrhoa carambola L., Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels e Cissus sicyoides L., analisando-se o ciclo de divisão celular, morfologia e cromossomos. Os chás das plantas foram preparados da maneira usada pela população e em duas diferentes concentrações, a

  7. Aqueous leaf extract of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae reduces both the inotropic effect of BAY K 8644 on the guinea pig atrium and the calcium current on GH3cells

    Carla M. L. Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available It was previously showed that aqueous leaf extract (AqEx of Averrhoa carambola depresses the guinea pig atrial inotropism. Therefore, experiments were carried out on guinea pig left atrium and on pituitary GH3 cells in order to evaluate the effect of AqEx on the cellular calcium influx. The atrium was mounted in an organ chamber (5 mL, Tyrode, 27 ± 0.1 ºC, 95 % O2, 5 % CO2, stretched to 10 mN, and paced at 2 Hz (0.5 ms, 400 V and GH3 cells were submitted to a whole cell voltage clamp configuration. In the atrium, the AqEx (1500 µg/mL shifted to the right the concentration-effect curve of the positive inotropic effect produced by (± BAY K 8644, an L-type calcium channel agonist. The AqEx increased EC50 (concentration required to promote 50% of the maximum effect of the inotropic effect of BAY K 8644 from 7.8 ± 0.38 to 115.1 ± 0.44 nM (N = 3; p < 0.05. In GH3 cells assayed with 500 µg/mL of AqEx, the L-type calcium inward current declined 30 % (from 282 to 190 pA. Nevertheless, the extract did not change the voltage correspondent to the peak current. These data suggest that, at least in part, the negative inotropic effect of AqEx on the guinea pig atrium is due to a reduction of the L-type calcium current.

  8. Carambola como causa de lesão renal aguda

    Karilla Lany Scaranello; Valeria Regina de Cristo Alvares; Daniely Maria Queiroz Carneiro; Flávio Henrique Soares Barros; Thais Marques Sanches Gentil; Myriam José Thomaz; Benedito Jorge Pereira; Mariana Batista Pereira; Graziella Malzoni Leme; Mary Carla Esteves Diz; Sandra Maria Rodrigues Laranja


    A carambola pertence à família das Oxalidáceas, espécie Averrhoa carambola. É rica em sais minerais, vitaminas A, C, complexo B e ácido oxálico. Estudos recentes demonstram que a toxicidade da fruta difere entre os indivíduos e pode ser explicada pelas respostas biológicas individuais como idade, quantidade da ingestão, neurotoxinas em cada tipo de fruta. Adicionalmente, a nefrotoxicidade causada pela fruta é dose dependente, podendo levar ao desenvolvimento de lesão renal aguda pela deposiçã...

  9. Zinc, nickel and cadmium in carambolas marketed in Guangzhou and Hong Kong, China: Implication for human health

    Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a popular juicy fruit throughout the tropical and subtropical world. This study was designed to quantify the levels of zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) in carambolas marketed in southern China, and further to evaluate the potential health risk of human consumption of carambola. Zinc concentrations, ranging from 1.471 to 2.875 mg/kg (on fresh weight basis), were below the maximum permissible concentration for Zn in fruit of China (5 mg/kg). However, Ni concentrations (0.134-0.676 mg/kg) were considerably higher than the related recommendation values. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in 51% of the carambolas purchased from Guangzhou exceeded the maximum permissible concentration for Cd in fruit of China (0.03 mg/kg). Our results implicated that the consumption of 0.385 kg carambola contaminated by Cd per day would cause the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of Cd by the consumer to be exceeded. In addition, the remarkably high Ni concentrations in carambolas should also be of concern. The status of heavy metal contamination of carambola products marketed in the other regions and their implications for human health should be identified urgently by in-depth studies

  10. Developmental light level affects growth, morphology, and leaf physiology of young carambola trees

    Growth and leaf physiology responses of container-grown 'Arkin' carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) trees to long-term exposure of approximately 25%, approximately 50%, or 100% sunlight were studied in four experiments in Guam and Florida. Shading increased rachis length and leaflet area, and decreased leaflet thickness. Shaded trees also had a more horizontal branch orientation. Shading reduced dark respiration (Rd) and light compensation and saturation points but increased chlorophyll concentration and N-use efficiency. Light-saturated net CO2 assimilation (A) was not affected by developmental light level. Trees in full sun had smaller total leaf area, canopy diameter, and shoot:root ratio and exhibited leaflet movement to avoid direct solar radiation. Also, trees grown in 100% sunlight had a more vertical branch orientation and greater stomatal density than shaded trees. The ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm) declined during midday in 100% sunlight trees. This pattern was accompanied by a midday suppression of A in 100% sunlight-grown trees in Guam. 'Arkin' carambola trees exposed to approximately 25%, approximately 50%, or 100% sunlight for up to 39 weeks exhibited physiological and morphological adaptations that resulted in similar growth. These results indicate that carambola efficiently adapts to different developmental light intensities

  11. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambola, papaya and mango

    Preliminary experiments carried out on the effects of irradiation on carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.) and mango (Mangifera indica L.) with regard to fruit fly treatment, fruit injury and the physicochemical and organoleptic properties showed that irradiation can be successfully developed and should be investigated further as a quarantine treatment for these fruits. Emergence of normal adult fruit flies of the Dacus dorsalis complex did not occur when infested carambolas were treated at doses as low as 100 Gy. Carambola showed external symptoms of injury at irradiation doses in excess of 200 Gy. There appeared to be some reduction in sugar content at doses exceeding 100 Gy. Papaya, cv. ''Eksotika'', tolerated irradiation up to 300 Gy. Irradiation at this dose did not alter the ripening behaviour, nor did it cause any injury or alter the organoleptic properties of the fruit. An additional benefit was that doses above 250 Gy significantly reduced freckling of the fruit and enhanced its cosmetic value. ''Eksotika'' is an ideal candidate for quarantine treatment using gamma irradiation. Mango, cv. ''Harumanis'', tolerated irradiation fairly well. Exposure of fruit to doses of up to 750 Gy did not produce significant injury. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 17 tabs

  12. Carambola como causa de lesão renal aguda

    Karilla Lany Scaranello


    Full Text Available A carambola pertence à família das Oxalidáceas, espécie Averrhoa carambola. É rica em sais minerais, vitaminas A, C, complexo B e ácido oxálico. Estudos recentes demonstram que a toxicidade da fruta difere entre os indivíduos e pode ser explicada pelas respostas biológicas individuais como idade, quantidade da ingestão, neurotoxinas em cada tipo de fruta. Adicionalmente, a nefrotoxicidade causada pela fruta é dose dependente, podendo levar ao desenvolvimento de lesão renal aguda pela deposição de cristais de oxalato de cálcio intratubular, assim como por lesão direta das células epiteliais tubulares, levando à apoptose das mesmas. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente que, após a ingestão do suco da fruta e fruta in natura, desenvolveu lesão renal aguda, necessitando de terapia dialítica, evoluindo com desfecho favorável e recuperação da função renal.

  13. Influência de pré-influência de pré-tratamentos sobre a desidratação osmótica de carambolas Pre-treatments influence on the osmotic dehydration of star fruit slices

    Elke Shigematsu; Nenis Maria Eik; Mieko Kimura; Maria Aparecida Mauro


    A desidratação osmótica (DO) de fatias de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) em solução de sacarose foi estudada, com o objetivo de otimizar o processo. Num primeiro conjunto de experimentos, aplicou-se revestimento de coberturas comestíveis (pectina ou pectina+amido) sobre as fatias, seguido de DO em solução aquosa de sacarose (50%, p/p, 27°C). Num segundo conjunto, foi realizada secagem parcial da cobertura, em estufa, antes da DO. Num terceiro conjunto de experimentos testou-se a adição...

  14. Movement influences carambola leaflet chlorophyll fluorescence and temperature under sunny conditions

    Leaflets of 'Arkin', 'B-10', 'Kary', and 'Sri Kembangan' carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) trees were restrained in a horizontal position for 3.5 h during midday under full sun conditions to determine the influence of overriding natural leaflet movement on adaxial chlorophyll fluorescence and temperature. Induced chlorophyll fluorescence obtained after 30 minutes of dark adaptation following the period of full sun exposure was affected by leaflet movement. Restrained leaflets exhibited a variable fluorescence (Fv)/peak fluorescence (Fm) of 0.48, while that of unrestrained leaflets was 0.65. Adaxial leaflet temperature of restrained leaflets was 6C higher than that of leaflets that were allowed to move. The influence of leaflet movement on temperature or chlorophyll fluorescence was not different among the four cultivars. However, mean Fv/Fm of 'Kary' and 'Sri Kembangan' was lower than that of 'B-10'. Our results indicate that the ability of carambola to change leaflet angle leads to lower temperature and higher photochemical efficiency than occurs when leaflets are not allowed to move naturally (vertically orient) under full sun conditions

  15. The ameliorative effects ofAverroha carambola on humoral response to sheep erythrocytes in non-treated and cyclophosphamide-immunocompromised mice

    Shadma Wahab; Arshad Hussain; Md Parwez Ahmad; Aliza Rizvi; Md Faruque Ahmad; Alaul Hasan Abad Farooqui


    Objective:To evaluated immunomodulatory and antioxidant activity of the methanol extract ofAverrhoa carambola(A. carambola) leaves in mice.Methods:The assessment of immunomodulatory activity on specific and non-specific immunity was studied by administration of test extract by oral feeding canula to the test groups.Hemagglutinating antibody(HA) titer, delayed type of hypersensitivity(DTH) response, hematological profile(Hb,WBC,RBC), lipid per oxidation(LPO), reduced glutathione(GSH), superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT) were determined by in vivo experiments.Results:The evaluation of immunomodulatory potential of A. carambola(800 and1200 mg/kg, p.o.) evoked a dose-dependent increase in antibody titer values andDTH reaction induced bySRBC was also found significant(P<0.001).Also it caused increase in hematological profile,GSH,SOD,CAT activity and significantly decreasedLPO levels in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice.Result shows that the extract treated animals showed up regulation of(IL-6 andTNF-α) cytokines.Conclusions:Immunomodulators are being used as an adjuvant in conditions of immunodeficiency in cancer and to a limited extent in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.The results obtained in this study indicate that A. carambola possesses potential immunomodulatory and antioxidant activity.

  16. Impact of micronized starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) fiber concentrate on lipid metabolism in mice.

    Herman-Lara, Erasmo; Elvira-Torales, Laura I; Rodriguez-Miranda, Jesús; Torruco-Uco, Juan G; Carmona-García, Roselis; Mendoza-García, Patricia G; García, Hugo S; Soto-Rodríguez, Ida; Sánchez-Valdivieso, Enrique; Martínez-Sánchez, Cecilia E


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronized insoluble fiber from starfruit bagasse as an ingredient of a functional food (FF) or as micronized insoluble fiber-rich fraction (IFRF) and its effects in vivo on lipids metabolism in a murine model. Experimental animals were divided in four isoproteic (15.8%) treatments differing on the fiber and cholesterol level used. The micronized IFRF particle size ranged from 37.5 to 149 μm. Treatments with added IFRF and those including the FF lowered serum triacylglycerols, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) concentrations (IFRF: 14.2, 25.4, 55.06, and 12.18%, respectively; FF: 30.18, 39.47, 35.11, and 43.18%, respectively). IFRF produced the overall highest serum hypolipidemic effect and prevented the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver. Both the IFRF and the FF exhibited hypolipidemic effects that suggest a potential role of starfruit insoluble fiber as a component of FFs aimed against cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24846002

  17. Quality attributes of starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) juice treated with ultraviolet radiation.

    Bhat, Rajeev; Ameran, Suhaida Binti; Voon, Han Ching; Karim, A A; Tze, Liong Min


    Starfruit juice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV-C) light for 0, 30 and 60min at room temperature (25±1°C). On exposure, the titratable acidity significantly decreased, while the decrease in °Brix and pH were not significant. With regard to colorimetric parameters, L(∗) value increased significantly with a subsequent decrease in a(∗) and b(∗) values corresponding to UV treatment time. Except for the ascorbic acid, other antioxidants measured (% DPPH inhibition, total phenols, flavonols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) showed enhancement on expsoure to UV (significant at 60min). Microbial studies showed reduction in APC, yeasts and mould counts by 2-log cycle on UV treatments. These results supports the application of UV as a measure of non-thermal and physical food preservation technique for starfruit juice that can be explored commercially to benefit both the producers and consumers. PMID:23140712

  18. Colour Change of Enamel after Application of Averrhoa bilimbi

    Cut Fauziah


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Teeth discoloration is mainly treated with dental bleaching. Use of chemical bleaching has side effects, so it is important to find an alternative natural dental bleaching agent. Averrhoa bilimbi contains peroxide and oxalate acid that possess tooth whitening properties. Objective: To determine the change in color of dental enamel after the application of Averrhoa bilimbi and 10% carbamide peroxide. Methods: Samples were 20 post-extracted of the two tested materials premolars (10 specimens each for Averrhoa bilimbi and carbamide peroxide application. After the application, the specimens were incubated at 37ºC for 2 hours, washed and soaked in aquadest before further incubated for another 14 days. The colour changed was observed by 5 independent observers using shade guide. Results: Quantitative and qualitative analyzes were performed. Qualitatively, A3 color has changed into C1, A2, D2, B2 and B1 in the Averrhoa bilimbi group. A more significant color change in the 10% carbamide peroxide group (p=0.005 compared to Averrhoa bilimbi group (p=0.005 were observed. The difference of resulted enamel colour change was statistically significant (p=0.002. Conclusion: Averrhoa bilimbi had a good prospect as dental bleaching agent since its application effectively resulted in a slight enamel colour change although its whitening properties was still lower than 10% carbamide peroxide.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.134

  19. Optimization of process parameters for extrusion cooking of low amylose rice flour blended with seeded banana and carambola pomace for development of minerals and fiber rich breakfast cereal.

    Borah, Anjan; Lata Mahanta, Charu; Kalita, Dipankar


    The low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB) and carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) pomace blends were extruded to prepare ready to eat breakfast cereal in a single-screw extruder. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was used to evaluate effect of independent variables, namely blend ratio (80:10:10 - 60:30:10 of low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana and carambola pomace), screw speed (200 - 400 rpm), barrel temperature (90 - 130 (°)C) and feed moisture content (9 - 21 g/100 g, wet basis) on product responses. Quadratic polynomial equations were also obtained by multiple regression analysis. The predicted models were adequate based on lack-of-fit test and coefficient of determination obtained. The feed moisture content had critical effect on all response variables. The compromised optimal conditions obtained by numerical integration for development of extrudates were: screw speed of 350 rpm, barrel temperature of 120 (°)C, feed moisture content of 12 g/100 g and 65:25:10 of blend ratio of feed. In the optimized condition low-amylose rice blend is found to have better physicochemical properties (water absorption index of 481.79 g/100 g; water solubility index of 44.13 g/100 g) and dietary fiber content of 21.35 g/100 g respectively. The developed breakfast cereal showed considerable amount of minerals (Mg and K) and overall acceptability was found to be 7.8. PMID:26787944

  20. Conservação refrigerada de carambolas em embalagens plásticas Refrigerated preservation of carambolas in plastic packagings

    Rosemberg G. da Cruz


    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se o efeito de duas embalagens (polietileno de baixa densidade - PEBD e polipropileno - Longa Vida Pak ou LVP em relação ao controle (sem embalagem sobre a conservação de carambolas em atmosfera refrigerada (10 ºC. Utilizou-se o planejamento fatorial inteiramente casualizado 3 x 4 x 2 (3 embalagens x 4 períodos de armazenamento x 2 repetições. As análises para acompanhamento do armazenamento foram: pH, ºBrix (sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, perda de peso, coliformes totais e fecais, bolores e leveduras. O nível de contaminação microbiológica (bolores e leveduras foi aceitável até 21 e 28 dias para carambolas não embaladas e embaladas, respectivamente. A embalagem LVP apresentou os menores índices de contaminação. Em relação às alterações físico-químicas, não houve diferenças significativas entre as embalagens com relação a perda de peso, pH e acidez titulável e o teor de sólidos solúveis foi maior para os frutos armazenados em embalagens LVP. Os resultados globais indicam que ambas as embalagens aumentam a vida útil deste produto e que, do ponto de vista microbiológico, a embalagem LVP foi melhor que a embalagem PEBD para a preservação sob condições refrigeradas.The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of two packaging materials (low density polyethylene- LPDE and polypropylene-LVP on Averrhoa carambola L shelf-life under refrigeration. A factorial design 3 x 4 x 2 (3 packaging x 4 days of storage x 2 repetitions was used. The fruits were analysed for pH, total soluble solids, total titrable acidity, weight loss, total and fecal coliforms, moulds and yeasts. The microbiological contamination levels (moulds and yeast was acceptable up to 21 and 28 storage days for unpacked and packed fruits, respectively. The fruits inside LVP packaging showed lower level of contamination. The weight loss, pH and titrable acidity alterations were not significantly different between the two

  1. Performance of Exotic Carambola under Bangladesh Condition

    S.M. Luthfur Rahman; G.H. Ghose; M. A. Rahman; M.A.I. Khan; M.S. Hossain


    A study on the performance of five genotypes of exotic carambola namely, AC0012, AC0013, AC0014, AC0010 and AC0011 was conducted at the Regional Horticulture Research Station, Akbarpur, Moulvibazar for two years (1998 and 1999). The genotype produced significantly higher plant-1and ha-1 yield over all the genotypes tested. Number of fruits plant-1 was also significantly higher (770.5) in AC0012 than all the genotype except AC0013 (560.5). The genotype AC0012 produced the largest fruit (112.70...

  2. Penggunaan Hot Water Treatment dan CaCl2 untuk Mencegah Kerusakan Fisiologis Buah Belimbing (Averrhoa carambola L.

    Siti Trinurasih


    Full Text Available Demand and productivity of starfruit have been increased every year. With that potency, starfruit could determined as national fruit commodityto be exported. One of the obstacle that encountered by fruit export from Indonesia was the high attack of pest or fruit fly which caused many fruit do not qualify in the quarantine process. Moreover, the problem of postharvest handling should be more focused because the starfruit was perishable commodity. In this research, postharvest handling was combination of hot water treatment and soaking in CaCl2 solution. This research used starfruit variety of Dewi with ripeness index of level 4. Samples treated with hot water treatment (HWT with three levels (35oC for 60’; 45oC for 40’ and 55oC for 15’. After HWT, samples treated with soaking in CaCl2 solution at three level treatments (60’; 40’; dan 20’. The results showed that HWT was very significantly affected on overall starfruit quality during storage, whereas treatment of soaking in CaCl2 solution wasn’t significantly affected on starfruit quality. Meanwhile, combination of HWT and CaCl2 were significantly affected to respiration rate, weight shrinkage, brightness level, yellow-blue pulp level, and panelists acceptance toward flavor and aroma. Treatment of HWT 55ºC for 15 minutes, softening of fruit pulp cannot be avoided because of the heat injury. Combination of HWT 45ºC for 40 minutes and 4% CaCl2 for 60 minutes can maintain quality till 24th day panelist acceptance test.

  3. Distribution of Anastrepha spp. in carambola orchards: Evidence for migration

    Carambola orchards in Juana Diaz, Corozal, and Isabela, PR, were monitored for Anastrepha spp. fruit flies using Multi-lure traps baited with putrescine and ammonium acetate. The number of flies at various locations within the orchards were statistically compared with the expected distribution if fl...


    Cristiane Ramos de Jesus-Barros; Orimax Monteiro Cruz; Ricardo Adaime


    Fruits of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) are reported for the first time as hosts of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Brazil.   Keywords: Bactrocera carambolae, quarantine pest, Amazon, murici.   DOI:

  5. Influência de pré-influência de pré-tratamentos sobre a desidratação osmótica de carambolas Pre-treatments influence on the osmotic dehydration of star fruit slices

    Elke Shigematsu


    Full Text Available A desidratação osmótica (DO de fatias de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. em solução de sacarose foi estudada, com o objetivo de otimizar o processo. Num primeiro conjunto de experimentos, aplicou-se revestimento de coberturas comestíveis (pectina ou pectina+amido sobre as fatias, seguido de DO em solução aquosa de sacarose (50%, p/p, 27°C. Num segundo conjunto, foi realizada secagem parcial da cobertura, em estufa, antes da DO. Num terceiro conjunto de experimentos testou-se a adição de CaCl2 na solução osmótica. A aplicação dos revestimentos antes da DO não melhorou a eficiência (máxima perda água/ganho soluto devido à grande retenção de umidade e à fácil impregnação de sacarose nos mesmos, enquanto que o tecido vegetal sem revestimento restringiu mais o ganho de soluto e propiciou maior saída de água. A utilização de CaCl2 a 0,04M, na própria solução osmótica de sacarose, melhorou ligeiramente a eficiência do processo, em relação à solução sem o sal. A DO em solução de sacarose, sem e com a adição de CaCl2, geraram resultados positivos na qualidade sensorial da carambola em fatias, desidratadas em secador (60 e 70°C, em comparação com a fruta não tratada, sendo que a melhor temperatura de secagem foi 60°C.Osmotic dehydration (OD of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. in sucrose solution was studied, aiming at optimizing the process. At a first set of trials, edible coating (pectin or pectin+starch was applied on the slices followed by OD (50%, w/w, 27°C. On a second set of trials, the coatings partial drying in the oven, before OD, was also assessed. At a third set of trials, the addition of the CaCl2 in the osmotic solution itself was tested. The pectin based and pectin+starch based coatings, moist or oven-dried before the osmotic dehydration, were not viable on the process efficiency improvement (maximum water loss/solute gain due to the high moisture retention and the easy sucrose

  6. Himenópteros parasitóides de larvas de Anastrepha spp. em frutos de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. na região de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brasil Himenopterous parasitoids of Anastrepha spp. larvae, in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. In divinópolis region, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva


    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de conhecer os parasitóides de moscas-da-fruta na região de Divinópolis-MG. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação, sendo individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas adultas ou de seus parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha foi a espécie mais comum, com 44,5%.The objective of this work was to identify the parasitoids of fruit flies in Divinópolis-MG region. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha was the most common specie with a frequency of 44,5%.

  7. 杨桃中化学污染物分析及农药残留暴露评估%Analysis of Chemical Contaminants and Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Carambola (Averrhoa carambola) Fruit

    段云; 关妮; 邓爱妮; 罗金辉



  8. Polytene Chromosome Analysis of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Farzana Yesmin


    Full Text Available The present investigation constitutes a first effort to study the polytene chromosomes of Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae. It is a serious pest of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex group, infesting various types of fruits and vegetables in Southeast Asia, Australia and the Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse each arm of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of this species individually. The tips, distinguishing characteristics as well as significant landmarks are recognized in each chromosome arm. Photographic illustrations of the chromosomes is presented and discussed. The information can be used for comparative studies among species of the tephritid genera which facilitate the development of novel control methods.

  9. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ‘Averrhoa bilimbi’ fruit juice ingestion

    Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; A Mathew; Rajesh, R; Kurien, G.; J. RAJESH; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.


    Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patien...

  10. Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Averrhoa bilimbi Fruit Extract

    R. S. Rimal Isaac; Sakthivel, G.; Ch. Murthy


    We report on rapid one-step green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using fruit extract of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the quantitative formation of gold and silver nanoparticles. The characteristics of the obtained gold and silver nanoparticles were studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV/Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). UV/Vis spe...

  11. Penggunaan Ekstrak Bunga Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa Bilimbi L.) Sebagai Pewarna Dalam Sediaan Lipstik

    Lova, Navrati


    Pickle fruit flower (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) has the potential to be used as an alternative to natural dyes because it has an attractive colour. The reddish purple of pickle fruit flower is caused by anthocyanin pigments which is derived flavonoid compound. This anthocyanin has many benefits, one of them as a natural dye that can replace synthetic dyes. The effort back to nature are influence world of cosmetics, so the researchers to make lipstick formula preparations using dyes from pickle fru...

  12. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambolas infested with Caribbean fruit flies

    Carambolas infested with the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation. Probit 9 was estimated to be 22.95 Gy (95% fiducial limits 16.68 Gy - 49.73 Gy). Over 100,000 immature A. suspensa infesting carambolas were treated at 50 Gy with no adult survivors. This dose did not cause any observable damage to the fruit. The 50 Gy dose satisfies quarantine requirements for treatment of fruits exposed from fruit fly infested areas. (author)

  13. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ‘Averrhoa bilimbi’ fruit juice ingestion

    Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurien, G.; Rajesh, J.; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.


    Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

  14. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn?Nature?s Drug Store- A Pharmacological Review



    Full Text Available Use of various plant parts like leaves, bark, flowers, fruits, seeds, roots or the whole plant as such for medicinal purpose has a long tradition in different culture. Averrhoa bilimbi (Bilimbi is medicinally used as a folk remedy for many symptoms .It is an attractive, long-lived tropical tree, reaching 5-10 m in height. It has a short trunk and a number of upright branches. The fruit conserve is administered as a treatment for coughs, beri-beri and biliousness. Syrup prepared from the fruit is taken as a cure for fever and inflammation and to stop rectal bleeding and alleviate internal hemorrhoids. The leaves are applied as a paste or poulticed on itches, swellings of mumps and rheumatism, and on skin eruption. The leaves have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities. A flower infusion is said to be effective against coughs and thrush. The leaves and fruit extract is an effective antibacterial against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis. This review aims at compiling the potential benefits of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn based on its pharmacological activity.

  15. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using carambola fruit extract and their antibacterial activity

    Mane Gavade, S. J.; Nikam, G. H.; Dhabbe, R. S.; Sabale, S. R.; Tamhankar, B. V.; Mulik, G. N.


    In this study well defined silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using carambola fruit extract. After exposing the silver ions to the fruit extract, the rapid reduction of silver ions led to the formation of stable AgNPs in solution due to the reducing and stabilizing properties of carambola fruit juice. The synthesized NPs were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction pattern. The as-synthesized AgNPs were phase pure and well crystalline with a face-centered cubic structure. The AgNPs were characterized by TEM to determine their size and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized AgNPs was investigated against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by agar well diffusion method. This newly developed method is eco-friendly and could prove a better substitute for the current physical and chemical methods for the synthesis of AgNPs.

  16. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge


    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. PMID:24995839

  17. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge


    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. PMID:24935641

  18. Antioxidant Activity and Bioactive Components of Oxalidaceae Fruit Extracts

    The study was conducted to evaluate the Antioxidant Activity (AA), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) of Oxalidaceae fruit extracts. Two types of Averrhoa carambola L. and two types of bilimbi fruits were used in this study. Bilimbi fruits selected were Averrhoa bilimbi L. and Averrhoa bilimbi cv. while Averrhoa carambola L. selected were Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) and another type of Averrhoa carambola L. which is known as tart type. The maturity stage for both Averrhoa carambola L. fruits (honey and tart type) were selected at commercial maturity stages which were stage 3 and stage 4. Antioxidant estimation of oxalidaceae fruit extracts were evaluated by using Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) and Total Phenolic Content (TPC), while antioxidant activity were evaluated using scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), β-carotene Bleaching (BCB) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays. Phytochemical screening of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, tannins and saponins were also performed on all samples. Averrhoa carambola L. indicated positive results for all phytochemical screening conducted and similar results were observed from bilimbi fruits, except for alkaloids. Averrhoa carambola L. (tart type) of stage 4 possessed higher TPC and TFC followed by Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) of stage 4. Averrhoa carambola L. (tart type) of stage 4 also exhibited high scavenging effect (74 %) as determined by DPPH assay with the value of EC50 72.36 mg/ ml while Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) of stage 3 showed significantly lower percentage of scavenging effect. The results also demonstrated that FRAP values of Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) of stage 4 and Averrhoa carambola L. (tart type) of stage 4 were higher than other samples (5.1023 mmol TE/ g and 5.0759 mmol TE/ g) and similar trends were observed for β-carotene Bleaching (BCB) assay, where Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) of stage 4

  19. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain

    Isasawin,Siriwan; Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Thanaphum, Sujinda


    Background The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is a high profile key pest that is widely distributed in the southwestern ASEAN region. In addition, it has trans-continentally invaded Suriname, where it has been expanding east and southward since 1975. This fruit fly belongs to Bactrocera dorsalis species complex. The development and application of a genetic sexing strain (Salaya1) of B. dorsalis sensu stricto (s.s.) (Hendel) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) has...


    Sabiha Sultana Chowdhury et al.


    Full Text Available Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. (Family: Oxalidiaceae is a medicinal plant which is extensively used in traditional medicine to cure cough, cold, itches, boils, rheumatism, syphilis, diabetes, whooping cough, and hypertension. In this study, hydromethanolic extract of A. bilimbi fruits was examined for its antioxidant action using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were also estimated. Moreover, brine shrimp lethality bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic potential of A. bilimbi. The extract exhibited strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with and IC50 value of 20.35μg/ml as opposed to the IC50 value of the reference standard, ascorbic acid (12.6μg/ml. It also displayed remarkable total antioxidant capacity (417.093±6.577mg/g in ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE. Total phenol and total flavonoid contents of the extract were 106.16±2.818 mg/g in gallic acid equivalent (GAE and 276.73±25.25 mg/g in quercetin equivalent (QE, respectively. A. bilimbi fruit extract also showed strong cytotoxic potential with an LC50 value of 5.011μg/ml in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Our results suggest that, in addition to having cytotoxic potential, A. bilimbi fruits are rich in polyphenolic antioxidants with strong radical scavenging capacity.

  1. Population Dynamic Observation And Mass Trapping Of Fruit Fly Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock)

    In connection with the control of B. carambolae, major pest of mango fruit in Indonesia using sterile insect technique, population monitoring with methyl eugenol attractant baited traps, absolute population measurement with release and recapture techniques, and mass trapping to reduce population of the pest in mango orchards were conducted. Based on the number of the male fly trapped it was know that the fly population was always low when no mature mango fruit found on the orchard, and it strated to increase in October, the middle time, of mango harvest until some time after the end of harvesting time. In August, when the population was low, about 4000 flies/hectare or 600 flies/hectare were found in the extensive and intensive culture orchards respectively. Mass trapping with 4 trapps per hectare was able to kill about 620 and 240 male flies per hectare of the extensive and intensive culture orchards respectively

  2. Development Of Biosteres sp Parasitation On Larvae Of Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) As Complementary Of Sterile Insect Technique

    Sterile insect technique was compatible with biological control after parasitoid releasing. In order to find out suitable life stage of B. carambolae to use as host in the mass rearing of Biosteres sp. parasitoid, an efectivity of the parasitoid infestation on different age of B. carambolae egg by putting fruits in cage containing 200 pairs of B. carambolae flies for the 1 hour. The fruit of infected fruit fly larvae with the different age i.e. 1,2,3, and 4 days were offered to 80 pairs of adult pamsitoid age 1,2, and 3 weeks for old for two hours i.e. 7.00-9.00; 9.00- 11.00; 11.00-13.00; 13.00-15.00; and 15.00-17.00. Numbers of parasitoid emerge from each fruit were observed. Results of the parasitation effectiveness assays show that 1-2 days old larvae were the most severely infested larvae infestation by the done at 7-15 of the day by the day parasitoid. Infestation mostly done by parasitoid of 7-14 days old

  3. Regional programme for the eradication of the Carambola fruit fly in South America

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock, the Carambola fruit fly (CFF), was probably introduced into Suriname from Indonesia in the 1960s or 1970s. The most likely mechanism of introduction was people arriving at Suriname from Indonesia by air, through Amsterdam. Any other method of transport would be too lengthy. Air travel was not commonly available to the general Surinamese population before the 1960s. About one-fifth of the Surinamese population is of Indonesian origin, and many strong ties remained between the countries. These ties are loosening with the increasing number of generations after immigration, which occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The first recorded Bactrocera found in Suriname was in 1975, when flies were reared from a market fruit and preserved unidentified in the Ministry of Agriculture's insect collection. Bactrocera were not recorded again until 1986, when infested fruits were brought to the attention of the Ministry by a homeowner. These specimens were sent to the United States for identification and were identified as Dacus dorsalis. B. carambolae was formally described in 1994 as a species belonging to the B. dorsalis complex (Drew and Hancock 1994). At that time, in 1986, little importance was given to the finding in the United States, perhaps because the identifier was unaware that Suriname is in South America rather than Asia. The international community would only become aware of the establishment of a Dacus/Bactrocera species in the Americas four years later. The population of flies in the Guyanas has now been identified as B. carambolae, and its establishment in South America is a threat to the production and marketing of fruits throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas and the Caribbean (Hancock 1989). It might be expected that the newly established B. carambolae would move rapidly into the tropical forests where there are many species of the native Anastrepha fruit flies and, presumably, many

  4. Morphological and histological damage on reproduction organ of radio-sterilized male fruit flies bactrocera carambolae (drew & hancock) (diptera; tephritidae)

    It is known that gamma irradiation of 90 Gy on pupae of Bactrocera carambolae (Drew & Hancock) fruit fly induced sterility on the adults, however limited data on the cause of sterility is available. To obtain such information, morphological and histological damages on the reproduction organ of male adult flies emerged from irradiated pupae were observed. Pupae of 9 day-old were irradiated with 90 Gy gamma, and the male adults of 7 and 14 day-old emerged from the pupae were dissected to obtained the testis. Morphology and size of the testis of irradiated and unirradiated flies were observed under the microscopes, each in 10 replicates. Preparate of the testis were also made and observed under the microscopes of 400 magnification. The results showed that significant damages were found on testis of the irradiated B. carambolae flies due to irradiation, so that the growth of the organ disturbed as shown by the smallers size of the irradiated testis as compare to the normal one. On the irradiated 7 day-old flies, the length and width of testis were 25.9 and 30.2 % smaller, while on those of 14 day-old the testis were 39.20 and 44.42 % smaller, than the normal. Besides smaller in size, dead germinal cells on the testis preparate were also observed. It is concluded that sterility on the male flies was due to the damage on the germinal cells so that abnormal spermatogenesis process happened. The smaller in size of the testis, is also differentiate between of the irradiated from the normal flies of B. carambolae. (author)

  5. Controle de larvas de Boophilus microplus por Metarhizium anisopliae em pastagens infestadas artificialmente Control of Boophilus microplus larvae by Metarhizium anisopliae in artificially infested pastures

    Lúcia Mara de Souza Basso


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do controle exercido por Metarhizium anisopliae na população de Boophilus microplus, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha, e do híbrido Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp., artificialmente infestadas com fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato. Trinta canteiros com 1 m² de área cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente. Quinze foram pulverizados com esporos do fungo e quinze controles em cada forrageira, constituindo cinco repetições de cada tratamento, foram infestados com número e peso padronizados de fêmeas ingurgitadas do ácaro. Aplicou-se o fungo, na concentração de 1,8x10(8 conídios mL-1, em três situações: pulverização antes da infestação com o carrapato, após a infestação e posterioriormente à emergência das primeiras larvas nos capins. A ação do fungo foi avaliada no 35º, 38º, 41º, 48º, 55º e 61º dia pós-infestação, por meio da contagem de larvas recuperadas. Obteve-se controle de larvas do ácaro, que, nas avaliações realizadas entre o 35º e o 48º dia pós-infestação, variou entre 87% e 94%. As médias das contagens de estágios larvares do carrapato foram menores em todas as amostragens realizadas no capim-Tifton 85, indicando que houve efeito da pastagem na ação do fungo. A situação de aplicação influencia a atividade do fungo, com melhor resultado nas coletas realizadas entre o 41º e 55º dia após infestação em B. brizantha, e aplicação dos conídios logo após a emergência das primeiras larvas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae fungus against Boophilus microplus population in Brachiaria brizantha and Tifton 85 (Cynodon pastures, artificially infested with tick engorged females. Thirty plots of 1 m² each were randomly distributed in fifteen treated and fifteen control groups per type of grass, establishing five repetitions for each treatment. Pastures were infested with engorged tick females

  6. Development of leaf silvering in squash cultivars infested by silverleaf whitefly Prateamento das folhas em cultivares de aboboreira infestadas por mosca-branca

    AL Lourenção


    tratamentos (cultivares e cinco repetições, sendo cada parcela formada por duas plantas. Procedeu-se à infestação da área experimental por meio de transplante de plantas de soja infestadas pela mosca-branca entre as aboboreiras, quando estas emitiram o terceiro par de folhas. A evolução do prateamento nas folhas foi avaliada a cada dois ou três dias, mediante uso de escala de notas variando de 1 (sem sintomas a 5 (folha completamente prateada. 'Baianinha', 'Golden Delight', 'Caravela' e 'Arlika' apresentaram grau máximo de prateamento das folhas (média 5,0 enquanto 'Novita' (2,5, 'Atlas' (2,0 e 'Atlanta AG-303' (1,5 exibiram sintomas amenos, caracterizando-se como menos sensíveis a essa desordem fisiológica.

  7. Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoretic Band Pattern of Esterase in the Pupae of Bactrocera papavae and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae

    M. Hasanuzzaman


    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to compare the electrophoretic banding patterns of esterase isozyme between the pupae of Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae by using polyacrylamide gel. These two Bactrocera species are the major agricultural pests, especially fruits and vegetables. One esterase band, EST-1 was detected and the relative mobility value was 0.15 which was close to the cathode. The EST-1 band was present in the pupae of both Bactrocera species. There was no difference in the esterase patterns of both species. The thickness and activation of the band varied slightly. So, the results prove that the pupae of the two Bactrocera species have almost similar esterase band pattern in the same polyacrylamide gel.

  8. Vida útil pós-colheita de frutos de bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimb L. armazenados sob refrigeração Postharvest shelf-life of bilimbi fruits (Averrhoa bilimbi L. under cold storage

    Pahlevi Augusto de Souza


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a vida útil pós-colheita de frutos de bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi l. armazenados sob refrigeração. Os bilimbis foram colhidos em dois estádios de maturação, determinados pela coloração, em dez plantas no município de Arêz - RN, em novembro de 2006, e transportados em caixa de poliestireno com gelo até a Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido, Mossoró - RN. Os frutos foram colocados em bandejas de isopor, embalados com filme de PVC e mantidos a 10º C ± 1ºC e 95% UR. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, que constou dos estádios de maturação verde ou amarelo e dos tempos de armazenamento de 0; 3; 5; 7; 9 e 11 dias. Avaliaram-se aparência externa, firmeza da polpa, perda de massa, pH, os teores de sólidos solúveis (SS, de acidez titulável (AT e de ácido ascórbico, e relação SS/AT. Verificou-se aumento na perda de massa, no pH e na relação SS/AT, com redução do conteúdo de ácido ascórbico, AT e firmeza da polpa. A vida útil pós-colheita foi de 9 dias.Aiming to evaluate the postharvest shelf-life of bilimbi fruits (Averrhoa bilimbi l. stored under cold storage, bilimbí fruits were harvested in two maturation stages (determined by the peel color at ten plants in Arêz -RN, Brazil, in November 2006 and transported in polystyrene box containing ice´s bag to the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-árido, Mossoró - RN. The fruits were placed in polystyrene trays, packed with PVC film and maintained at 10 ± 1 ºC and 95% RH. It was used a completely randomized design in 2 x 6 factorial scheme, which consisted of stadiums (green or yellow and the period of 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 days, respectively. It was evaluated external appearance, soluble solids, flesh firmness, weight loss, pH, titratable acidity (TA, ascorbic acid and ratio. There was an increase of the weight loss, pH and the ratio and reduction of the content of ascorbic acid, TA and

  9. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae.

    Haq, Ihsan Ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd


    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade. PMID:26362991

  10. Irradiation of Eggs and Larvae of Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock) Fruit Fly to Produce Irradiation Host for Its Parasitoids

    Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) fruit fly, a major pests of commercial fruits in Indonesia, is attacked by several species of parasitoids in the field, such as by Biosteres sp. that attacks on early instar larvae and Opius sp. on late instar larvae. In order to produce irradiated host in mass rearing of both species, several dosage of gamma were tested on both eggs and larvae. Egg masses of 0.5 ml were irradiated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy and then inoculated into artificial diet. Viability of the eggs, the larval period and the number of pupae produced were observed. About 200 third instar larvae irradiated with 0, 10, 30, 50,70 dan 90 Gy and the number and quality of the pupae developed were then observed. The results showed that the eggs irradiated with tested dosage did not reduce its viability however it reduced the survival of larvae emerged. Number of pupae produced from 0.5 ml irradiated eggs were reduced from 2740 pupae to 407, 167, 113, 53 and 44 pupae, besides the pupation delayed up to three days. Irradiation on third instars larvae did not reduce its pupation, since pupae were developed from > 85 % of irradiated larvae. However, irradiation did reduced the fly emergence from the pupae. Irradiated hosts for Biosteres sp and Opius sp can be produced by irradiating eggs however it should be evaluated since the survival rate of the larvae reduced. Irradiation of third instar larvae may produce irradiated host for Opius sp So, the use of irradiated eggs or irradiated larvae as host in the colonization of the parasitoids will insure no hosts emerged as adult. However it remain to be proved whether irradiated hosts are prefered and able to support the life of parasitoid. (author)

  11. Tratamiento eficaz con tintura de añil 5 % de una paciente infestada por Pediculus capitis Effective treatment of a patient infested with pediculus capitis by using 5 % Indigofera suffruticosa Mill tincture

    Tamara García Calixto


    Full Text Available Introducción: en Cuba se reportaron altas frecuencias de pediculosis capitis desde finales de los años noventa, particularmente en algunos grupos de escolares y sus convivientes. Estos últimos se involucran en la cadena de transmisión de esos insectos y pueden desempeñar, en la actualidad, una función importante como reservorios del parásito. Objetivo: reportar la eficacia del tratamiento con añil cimarrón en una paciente infestada de Pediculus capitis. Métodos: se describe un caso de infestación persistente con pediculosis capitis en una paciente de 55 años de edad, tratada con solución de permetrina 1 % y posteriormente con tintura de añil cimarrón 5 %. Resultados: la identificación microscópica de adultos y estadios pre-adultos del parásito confirmaron la presencia de Pediculus capitis. El tratamiento del cabello con permetrina 1 % no fue eficaz en 2 aplicaciones realizadas. Como alternativa de tratamiento, se aplicó tintura de añil 5 %, lo que permitió disminuir la población de ectoparásitos adultos y logró eliminar la infestación después de una segunda aplicación, con la constante extracción de las liendres realizada por el personal paramédico encargado del caso. Conclusión: la aplicación de este procedimiento inocuo podría servir como alternativa terapéutica para esta afección.Introduction: pediculosis capitis was very frequently reported in Cuba since the end of the 90's, particularly in some groups of school children and their relatives. The latter are involved in a chain of transmission of these insects and may play an important role at present as parasite reservoirs. Objective: to report on the efficacy of the treatment of one female patient suffering from Pediculus capitis by using 5 % Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (añil cimarrón tincture. Methods: a case of persistent infestation with pediculosis capitis was described in which a 55 years-old patient was firstly treated with 1% permethrin solution

  12. Effect of process variables on the osmotic dehydration of star-fruit slices Efeito das variáveis de processo na desidratação osmótica de fatias de carambola

    Camila Dalben Madeira Campos


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effect of blanching and the influence of temperature, solution concentration, and the initial fruit:solution ratio on the osmotic dehydration of star-fruit slices. For blanching, different concentrations of citric and ascorbic acids were studied. The samples immersed in 0.75% citric acid presented little variation in color in relation to the fresh star-fruit. Osmotic dehydration was carried out in an incubator with orbital shaking, controlled temperature, and constant shaking at 120 rpm. The influence of process variables was studied in trials defined by a complete 23 central composite design. In general, water loss and solids gain were positively influenced by temperature and by solution concentration. Nevertheless, lower temperatures reduced water loss throughout the osmotic dehydration process. An increase in the amount of dehydrating solution (initial fruit:solution ratio slightly influenced the evaluated responses. The process carried out at 50 ºC with a solution concentration of 50% resulted in a product with lower solids gain and greater water loss. Under these conditions, blanching minimized the effect of the osmotic treatment on star-fruit browning, and therefore the blanched fruits showed little variation in color in relation to the fresh fruit.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do branqueamento e a influência da temperatura, concentração de sacarose e da relação fruta:solução inicial na desidratação osmótica de fatias de carambola. Para o branqueamento, diferentes concentrações de ácido cítrico e ascórbico foram estudadas. As amostras imersas em 0,75% de ácido cítrico apresentaram pouca variação de cor em relação à carambola fresca. A desidratação osmótica foi conduzida em uma incubadora com agitação orbital, com temperatura controlada e agitação constante de 120 rpm. A influência das variáveis de processo foi avaliada através de ensaios definidos

  13. Estudio seroepidemiológico y entomológico sobre la enfermedad de Chagas en un área infestada por Triatoma maculata (Erichson 1848 en el centro-occidente de Venezuela An entomological and seroepidemiological study of Chagas' disease in an area in central-western Venezuela infested with Triatoma maculata (Erichson 1848

    María Elena Rojas


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realizó un estudio seroepidemiológico, entomológico y de factores de riesgo para la infestación de las viviendas en un área infestada por Triatoma maculata (Parroquia Xaguas, Municipio Urdaneta, Estado Lara, Venezuela. Se muestrearon 140 viviendas, 509 personas y 110 cánidos, a los cuales se les determinó anticuerpos séricos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi mediante ELISA y MABA, utilizando antígenos recombinantes. La infección por Tr. cruzi de los triatominos fue determinada por microscopía óptica y PCR. Los resultados mostraron una seroprevalencia en humanos de 1,57% y en cánidos de 6,36%. De los 545 triatominos capturados 97,98% fueron T. maculata, 1,65% Eratyrus mucronatus y 0,37% Panstrongylus geniculatus; con índices vectoriales de infección 0,36%, infestación 16,4%, colonización 39,1%, coinfestación 8,6% y dispersión 100%. La presencia de vectores en el domicilio y peridomicilio estuvo asociada a la presencia de gallinas, desorden en el peridomicilio, caprinos, gallineros y/o distribución del domicilio. Los resultados permiten concluir que T. maculata es el vector predominante en la región, con capacidad de infestar y colonizar el domicilio y estaría involucrado en la transmisión de la enfermedad de Chagas.This article presents a study on seroepidemiological, entomologic, and risk factors for domiciliary infestation in a circumscribed area infested with Triatoma maculata in Parroquia Xaguas, Urdaneta Municipality, Lara State, Venezuela. One hundred and forty households, 509 persons, and 110 dogs were sampled. Serum anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies were determined by means of ELISA and MABA techniques using recombinant antigens. Tr. cruzi infection in the triatomines was determined by direct microscopy and PCR. According to the results, 1.57% of humans and 6.36% of dogs were positive for serum anti-Tr. cruzi antibodies. Triatomine species were: 97.98% T. maculata, 1.65% Eratyrus mucronatus, and 0

  14. Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits

    Muhammad Redzuan Hairuddin; Mohd Sabri Pak Dek; Farooq Anwar; Nazamid Saari; Norshahida Mohamad Shofian; Azizah Abdul Hamid; Azizah Osman


    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.0...

  15. Intoxicação por carambola em paciente com insuficiência renal crônica: relato de caso Star fruit intoxication in a chronic renal failure patient: case report

    Fábio Gonzaga Moreira


    Full Text Available A insuficiência renal crônica é doença de elevada morbidade e mortalidade e sua incidência e prevalência em estágio terminal têm aumentado progressivamente a cada ano. Segundo a Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia, as principais causas de insuficiência renal crônica são hipertensão arterial, glomerulonefrite e diabetes mellitus. Diversos fatores elevam o risco de mortalidade em pacientes com nefropatia crônica, principalmente idade, presença de diabetes e número de comorbidades associadas. Para pacientes com menos de 50 anos de idade a taxa de sobrevida em 5 anos é de 62% e para aqueles acima desta idade e com diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus a sobrevida é de apenas 23%. A carambola, fruta originária da Ásia e muito difundida na maioria dos países tropicais, tem sido reportada como contendo uma neurotoxina capaz de provocar graves alterações neurológicas em pacientes com histórico de nefropatia crônica. Dentre estas alterações podemos observar desde quadros leves, como soluços e confusão mental, até quadros mais sérios, como convulsões e morte. Essa neurotoxina parece apresentar especificamente inibição sobre o sistema de condução GABAérgico. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente nefropata crônico que, após ingestão de carambola, inicia quadro de mal-estar, náuseas e vômitos, seguidos de episódios convulsivos reentrantes e vai a óbito mesmo com o tratamento hemodialítico convencional.Chronic renal failure is a high morbidity and mortality condition, with its terminal phase incidence and prevalence steadily growing year after year. According to the Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia [Brazilian Society of Nephrology], the main causes of renal failure are arterial hypertension, glomerulonephritis and diabetes mellitus. Several factors are implied on chronic renal failure patients' risk of mortality, particularly age, diabetes and associated co-morbidities. For patients below 50 years old, the 5 years

  16. Comparação entre cultivares de carambola para produção de produtos minimamente processados Comparison among cultivars of star fruits for production of fresh-cut

    Flávia Okushiro Ogassavara


    Full Text Available Este trabalho caracterizou frutos de carambolas 'Hart', 'Malásia' e 'Nota 10', quanto à qualidade de seus produtos minimamente processados (PMP. Frutos recém-colhidos foram higienizados, armazenados por 12 horas a 12±1ºC e 90±5%UR, processados, e o produto acondicionado em embalagens PET e armazenado a 10,3±1ºC e 80±5%UR, por 8 dias. Avaliaram-se o rendimento dos frutos em PMP, assim como a evolução de sua qualidade, a cada 2 dias, quanto à perda de massa fresca, aparência, coloração, pH, teores de acidez titulável (AT, sólidos solúveis (SS e ácido ascórbico (AA e relação SS/AT. O rendimento em produtos minimamente processados foi menor para a 'Hart'(44,70%, intermediário para a 'Nota 10' (66,38% e maior para a 'Malásia' (72,58%. A perda de massa fresca foi significativamente maior nos PMPs da carambola 'Hart' quando comparados com os das outras cultivares, durante o armazenamento. A aparência dos produtos produzidos com frutos da 'Malásia' manteve-se boa por até 6 dias (nota 3, quando se apresentavam com indícios de escurecimento, enquanto os produzidos com a 'Hart' e a 'Nota 10' conservaramna boa por 4 dias (nota 3. A coloração dos produtos evoluiu, passando de esverdeada para verde-amarelada, como pode ser evidenciado pela média geral do ângulo de cor (de 115,40 para 100,48. Os teores de sólidos solúveis nos PMP, das cultivares Malásia (7,26ºBrix e Hart (6,97ºBrix não variaram significativamente entre si, e reduziram-se nos da 'Nota 10', de 8,8 ºBrix para 7,1 ºBrix. A acidez titulável e o pH (3,80 - 3,90 não variaram nos produtos da 'Malásia' e 'Hart', levando a relação SS/AT a não se alterar. Os teores de ácido ascórbico dos produtos minimamente processados das três cultivares apresentaram aumento seguido de redução durante o período de armazenamento. A integração dos resultados indicam que os frutos da cultivar Malásia se apresentaram como os melhores para a produção de produtos


    Jos\\u00E9 Antonio Rangel-Lucio


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la oleorresina de jícama en la calidad de la semilla de frijol. En laboratorio se obtuvo el extracto de oleorresina media nte HPLC y se detectó la presencia de rotenona (15 mg/l. Se ensayaron tres concentraciones (Ci, g/ml del extracto: C1 (5x10-7, 5x10-6, ¿5x10-2; C2 (1x10-2, 2x10-2,¿6x10-2; C3 (5x10-1, 6x10-1,¿9x10-1 y testigo por concentración, en frascos de 300 ml con 50 g de semilla de frijol (varie dades Flor de Ma yo, Flor de Junio, Ma - yocoba y veinte gorgojos adultos. El ensayo sólo comprendió semillas de frijol tratadas con C2 por 48 horas para evaluar vigor y germinación estándar a los tres y sie te días después de la siembra, bajo normas de IS TA. El aumento de C2 fue gradual en el número de plántulas normales y germinación estándar en el primer recuento, en particular con las diluciones 3 x 10-2 a 6 x 10-2; en el segundo recuento se confirmó la germinación estándar total con estas mismas diluciones. El frijol Ma yocoba en presencia del extracto de semilla de jícama, mantuvo el vigor y valores porcentuales aceptables de germinación estándar de la semilla.

  18. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L


    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. PMID:21710038

  19. Cadmium contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees and its potential health risk in Guangzhou, China

    This study examines cadmium (Cd) contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees in Guangzhou, China, and assesses its potential health risk. Soils and tissues samples of three species of fruit trees were collected from three orchards. The average soil Cd concentration was 1.27, 1.84 and 0.68 mg/kg in orchards I, II, and III, respectively. The carambola (Averrhoa carambola) accumulated exceptionally high concentrations of Cd (7.57, 10.84, 9.01 and 2.15 mg/kg dw in root, twig, leaf and fruit, respectively), being 6.0-24 times and 4.0-10 times the corresponding tissue Cd in the longan (Dimocarpus longan) and wampee (Clausena lansium), respectively. Furthermore, all Cd concentrations (0.04-0.25 mg Cd/kg fw) of the fruits exceeded the tolerance limit of cadmium in foods of PR China (0.03 mg/kg fw). Our results indicate that the carambola tree has high Cd accumulation capacity and might be a Cd accumulator; and its fruit, among the three species of fruits studied, also poses the highest potential health risk to local residents. - Carambola fruit can accumulate high levels of cadmium and may be a health risk for humans

  20. Evaluation of the toxic effect of star fruit on serum biochemical parameters in rats

    Z Y Khoo


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effect of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit juice at different storage conditions in Sprague Dawley (SD rats. Twenty female rats weighing 180 ± 20 g were randomly assigned into four groups with five rats per group (n = 5. First group served as the control group, fed with distilled water (vehicle. Second, third and fourth groups were orally treated with juice of A. carambola stored for 0, 1 and 3 h respectively for 14 days. Cage-side observations were done daily after each treatment. Body weight, food consumption and water intake were recorded on day-0, day-3, day-7 and day-14. All rats were fasted overnight prior to blood collection through cardiac puncture on day-15. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, urea and creatinine in blood serum were measured. Data were analyzed using Dunnett′s test. From the results obtained, there was no lethality found and LD 50 could not be determined. Increment of ALT levels (P < 0.05 was reported in those rats treated with A. carambola juice stored for 3 h. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that A. carambola juice stored for 0 hand 1 h are safe to be consumed. However, juice stored for 3 h exerts toxic effect on rat liver at hepatocellular level.

  1. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin


    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder. PMID:27043608

  2. Interspecific cross of the Bactrocera dorsalis Complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): How did it happen?

    The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, which taxonomically resembles the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), comprises at least 52 species. Two closely related members of the complex, namely B. papayae Drew and Hancock and B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, were recently reclassified as new species (Drew and Hancock 1994). Under this taxonomic revision, B. papayae is now regarded as a distinct species from B. carambolae based on the differences of: 1) wing pattern of the costal band at apex R4+5, 2) the presence of a dark spot on the fore femora and, 3) the pattern of the transverse black band on terga III-V. Chemical examination of the volatile components produced by the males of both species also revealed pronounced differences in the chemistry of their rectal gland secretions (Perkins et al. 1990). In Malaysia, B. papayae has a wider distribution and a larger host range compared with B. carambolae. Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) and various species of wax apple (Syzygium spp.) are the preferred hosts of B. carambolae whilst B. papayae attacks over 150 species but preferentially 'attacks' banana (Musa spp.), starfruit, mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.) and guava (Psidium guajava L.) in decreasing order (Tan 1997). Recently, data from field trapping studies using methyl eugenol (ME) in Penang Island, Malaysia, showed the presence of male flies with intermediate morphological characteristics between B. papayae and B. carambolae. Laboratory testing showed that these two species are able to interbreed and produce viable offspring. The hybrids also possess a variety of intermediate characteristics between the two species (Wee and Tan, unpublished data). Therefore, the question arises as to whether B. papayae and B. carambolae should be categorised as different species, subspecies or even as different strains. And before a satisfactory conclusion can be achieved, there are some key issues that need to be addressed. Firstly, after ME

  3. Qualidade de carambolas azedas cv. 'Golden Star' tratadas com CaCl2 por imersão e armazenadas sob refrigeração Quality of starfruit cv 'Golden Star' treated with CaCl2 and stored under refrigerated conditions

    Leandro Camargo Neves


    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes concentrações de CaCl2 aplicadas na pós-colheita de carambolas cv. 'Golden Star, durante o armazenamento refrigerado (AR. Os frutos colhidos fisiologicamente maturos foram selecionados pela ausência de defeitos e imersos em soluções de CaCl2, em diferentes concentrações, em temperatura ambiente (22 °C por 20 minutos. Após aplicação dos tratamentos T1 - controle (0% de CaCl2; T2 - CaCl2 a 1%; T3 - CaCl2 a 2%; T4 - CaCl2 a 3%, e T5 - CaCl2 a 4%, os frutos foram colocados em câmara frigorífica, por 35 dias, a 12 ± 0,5ºC e 95 ± 3%, e mais 3 dias a 22 ± 3°C e 72 ± 5% de umidade relativa (UR. 24 horas após a colheita e a cada sete dias, amostras foram retiradas da AR, mantidas por 12 horas em condições ambiente (22 ± 3°C e 72 ± 5% UR e analisadas quanto ao teor de cálcio na polpa, perda de massa fresca, coloração da epiderme, firmeza de polpa (FP, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e a ocorrência de distúrbios fisiológicos. Ao final do experimento, foi feita uma análise sensorial. Observou-se que os frutos imersos em solução de CaCl2 a 2% apresentaram menor perda de massa fresca e maior firmeza de polpa. As carambolas deste tratamento também não apresentaram manchas e podridões e foram preferidas pelos julgadores no teste de preferência. Os sólidos solúveis totais, a acidez total titulável e a coloração não apresentaram diferença estatística entre os tratamentos. Na análise de teores de cálcio adsorvido pelos frutos, determinou-se que quanto, maior a concentração da solução de CaCl2 aplicada, maior a concentração de cálcio presente na polpa.In the present work were evaluated the effects of different CaCl2 concentrations applied after harvest on starfruit cv. Golden Star, during refrigerated storage (RS. The fruits were harvested at physiological maturity stage, selected free of defects and immersed for 20 minutes at

  4. Cultivar affects browning susceptibility of freshly cut star fruit slices

    Teixeira Gustavo Henrique de Almeida


    Full Text Available Consumption of freshly-cut horticultural products has increased in the last few years. The principal restraint to using freshly-cut carambola is its susceptibility to tissue-browning, due to polyphenol oxidase-mediated oxidation of phenolic compounds present in the tissue. The current study investigated the susceptibility to browning of star fruit slices (Averrhoa carambola L. of seven genotypes (Hart, Golden Star, Taen-ma, Nota-10, Malásia, Arkin, and Fwang Tung. Cultivar susceptibility to browning as measured by luminosity (L* varied significantly among genotypes. Without catechol 0.05 M, little changes occurred on cut surface of any cultivars during 6 hour at 25degreesC, 67% RH. Addition of catechol led to rapid browning, which was more intense in cvs. Taen-ma, Fwang Tung, and Golden Star, with reduction in L* value of 28.60%, 27.68%, and 23.29%, respectively. Browning was more intense in the center of the slices, particularly when treated with catechol, indicating highest polyphenol oxidase (PPO concentration. Epidermal browning, even in absence of catechol, is a limitation to visual acceptability and indicates a necessity for its control during carambola processing. Care must be given to appropriate selection of cultivars for fresh-cut processing, since cultivar varied in browning susceptibility in the presence of catechol.

  5. A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the antioxidant activity of five fruit juices.

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata


    A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of juices from carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), black jamun (Syzygium cumuni L.Skeels.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var lanatus), pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was carried out. Depending on the type of fruit sample and treatment, increase or decrease in phytochemical values was observed. Overall, sonication had a positive effect on the total flavonoid content in all the juice samples followed by microwave treatment with exceptions in some cases. High-performance liquid chromatography study showed the presence of different phenolic acids depending on the sample type. The phenolic acids in some processed carambola juice samples showed decrease or complete destruction, while in some cases, an increase or appearance of newer phenolic acid originally not detected in the fresh juice was observed as seen in conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwaved at 600 W and sonicated juices. Both microwaved and sonicated samples were found to have positive effect on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity with exceptions in some cases. Therefore, microwave and sonication treatment could be used in place of thermal pasteurisation depending on the sample requirements. PMID:26190045


    M. A. Oliveira


    Full Text Available Scarabaeidae defoliators are considered of great importance in Brazil because they seriously damage the leaf system of several plant species. The objective of this study was to report the occurrence of the defoliating beetle Bolax campicola Machatschke, 1974 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae attacking ornamental plants in the urban area of municipality of Forestal, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The initial attack was observed on the ornamental palm species Dypsis lutescens (Arecaceae whose leaves were completely consumed, and then these insects began to feed on Canna indica (Cannaceae, another ornamental species, which was found near to the first. However, in the same location newly planted fruit tree seedlings of Plinia trunciflora (Myrtaceae, Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae and Malpighia emarginata (Malpighiaceae were attacked and completely defoliated. This report of damage to plants in urban areas by B. flavolineatus demonstrates the need for studies on the behavior and feeding preference of these insects, and even their ability to adapt to different host plants.

  7. In vitro physicochemical, phytochemical and functional properties of fiber rich fractions derived from by-products of six fruits.

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahanta, Charu Lata


    A comparative study was done on the health promoting and functional properties of the fibers obtained as by-products from six fruits viz., pomace of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr), peels of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), Burmese grape (Baccurea sapida Muell. Arg) and Khasi mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and blossom of seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB). Highest yield of fiber was obtained from Burmese grape peel (BGPL, 79.94 ± 0.41 g/100 g) and seeded banana blossom (BB 77.18 ± 0.20 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber content (TDF) was highest in fiber fraction derived from pineapple pomace (PNPM, 79.76 ± 0.42 g/100 g) and BGPL (67.27 ± 0.39 g/100 g). All the samples contained insoluble dietary fiber as the major fiber fraction. The fiber samples showed good water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities. The fiber samples exhibited antioxidant activity. All the samples showed good results for glucose adsorption, amylase activity inhibition, glucose diffusion rate and glucose diffusion reduction rate index. PMID:27570274

  8. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Anne M. Costa


    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.Influência de diferentes frutos tropicais em aspectos biológicos e comportamentais da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Estudos em Ceratitis capitata, uma praga agrícola, pode auxiliar

  9. Formulasi Sediaan Pewarna Pipi Dalam Bentuk Padat Dengan Menggunakan Ekstrak Bunga Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa)

    Fahraint, Izafella


    Rouge is a kind of cosmetic that used for coloring cheek with artistic touch so it can improve the aesthetics of make up. Rouge are made on various colors from pink to dark red. Belimbing wuluhs flower contains of antocyanin pigment which produce is red color. The objective of this observation was to make the rouge in a solid form using belimbing wuluh flower (Ai -errhoa bi/imbi L.) extract as a colourant. Extract was made by macerating 500 g belimbing wuluh flower using 96% ethanol which ...

  10. Application of Flower Extract Wuluh Star Fruit(Averrhoa Billimbi L. On Effervescent Powder

    Haslina Haslina


    Full Text Available Excavation alternative natural ingredients that could potentially be used as a coloring agent continues, one source of natural antioxidants are used as raw material for functional foods is the flower star fruit. This study aims to determine the application star fruit flower extract (Averrhoabilimbi L in effervescent powder and indigo determine solubility, antioxidant activity, total acid and water content. This study uses a randomized block design (RAK are arranged with one factor and three replication. Further tests were used test of Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5%. Starfruit flower extract formulations were applied to the effervescent powder significant effect (p <0.05 on the solubility, antioxidant activity, total acid and water content. The best treatment in effervescent powder formula II star fruit flower extract with a solubility of 0.15%, 95.95% antioxidant activity, total acid content  2.13% and moisture content 3.62%.

  11. Effect of Drying Temperature on the Chemical Properties and Diffusivity of belimbi (averrhoa belimbi)

    Shahari, N.; Jamil, N.; Rasmani, K. A.; Nursabrina


    In recent years, many dried fruit products have been developed in response to a strong demand by the customer. This type of fruit has a different composition and hence different moisture diffusivity (D). During drying, Fick's Law of diffusion, which describes the movement of liquid water was used to calculate this diffusivity. However diffusivity has strong effects on the material drying characteristics and these must be determined. In this paper, Fick's Law of diffusion with different kinds of boundary conditions was solve using separation of variable (SOV). In order to get the value of D, results obtained using SOV will be compared with the results from the drying of belimbi at temperature of 40°C, 50°C and 60°C. Although the results show that variation in the values of diffusivity for different temperatures is relatively small, but the variation in the total time required for drying is significantly bigger: between 3-7 hours. Its shown that diffusivity is an important measurement and should be considered in the modeling of the drying process. The chemical properties of belimbi slices in terms of vitamin C, total ash and antioxidant activity with different air temperatures and pretreatment were also investigated. Higher drying temperatures gives less drying time, a lower vitamin C and antioxidant activity but a greater total of ash, whilst pre-treatment can increased vitamin C and antioxidant activity. The results show that pre-treatment and the drying temperature are important variables to improve mass and heat transfer, as well as the belimbi chemical properties.

  12. Nonhost status of mangosteen to Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera:Tephritidae) in Thailand

    Postharvest quarantine treatments (irradiation or vapor heat) are used to control fruit flies and other pests in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) exported to the United States and Japan from Thailand. No-choice tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine whether Thai mangosteen is a host f...

  13. Lyoniresinol 3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-mediated hypoglycaemia and its influence on apoptosis-regulatory protein expression in the injured kidneys of streptozotocin-induced mice.

    Qingwei Wen

    Full Text Available Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae root (ACLR has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine for treating diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN. (±-Lyoniresinol 3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (LGP1, LGP2 were two chiral lignan glucosides that were isolated from the ACLR. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of LGP1 and LGP2-mediated hypoglycaemia on renal injury in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. STZ-induced diabetic mice were administrated LGP1 and LGP2 orally (20, 40, 80 mg/kg body weight/d for 14 days. Hyperglycaemia and the expression of related proteins such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, caspase-3, -8, -9, and Bcl-associated X protein (Bax were markedly decreased by LGP1 treatment. However, LGP2 treatment had no hypoglycaemic activity. Diabetes-dependent alterations in the kidney such as glomerular hypertrophy, excessive extracellular matrix amassing, and glomerular and tubular basement membrane thickening were improved after 14 days of LGP1 treatment. B cell lymphoma Leukaemia-2 (Bcl-2 expression was reduced in the STZ-induced diabetic mouse kidneys but was enhanced by LGP1 treatment. These findings suggest that LGP1 treatment may inhibit diabetic nephropathy progression and may regulate several pharmacological targets for treating or preventing diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Viabilidade de sementes de trigo tratadas com fenitrotion e infestadas por Sitophilus oryzae (L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae durante o armazenamento Viability of stored wheat seeds when treated with fenitrothion and infested by Sitophilus oryzae (L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Isabel Helena de Almeida Zeituni Plazas


    Full Text Available O esclarecimento de aspectos do comportamento de gorgulhos (Sitophilus spp. em sementes de trigo armazenadas e o acompanhamento da qualidade física e fisiológica das sementes neste contexto, é essencial para aprimorar o monitoramento das sementes durante a armazenagem. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência do inseticida fenitrotion, quanto à proteção oferecida às sementes de trigo contra os insetos Sitophilus oryzae (L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae e de acompanhar a germinação das sementes tratadas ou não com inseticida, durante o armazenamento, sementes de trigo dos cultivares IAC-120 e IAC-350 foram tratadas ou não com fenitrotion três meses após a colheita e armazenadas em condições de ambiente de laboratório, em Campinas (SP, durante 15 meses. Em intervalos trimestrais, adultos de S. oryzae foram colocados nas amostras de sementes de cada uma das repetições dos tratamentos com insetos. Avaliou-se a sobrevivência desses insetos, bem como a progênie resultante. Em seguida, as sementes das amostras das repetições de todos os tratamentos com e sem insetos foram analisadas quanto ao grau de umidade, germinação e infestação por insetos. O inseticida fenitrotion, na dose recomendada pelo fabricante, não permitiu a proteção das sementes contra a infestação por S. oryzae, mesmo por períodos curtos de dois meses e que, na ausência de insetos, as sementes de trigo com elevado potencial de germinação inicial podem mantê-lo inalterado por períodos de 14 a 17 meses após a colheita, quando armazenadas em condições ambientes, em regiões com clima semelhante ao de Campinas.Clarifying aspects of the weevils (Sitophilus spp. behavior on stored wheat seeds, considering the seed quality, is essential to improve the seed management during storage. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the insecticide fenitrothion as protecting wheat seeds against Sitophilus oryzae (L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and to measure the seed germination during storage, wheat seeds of IAC-120 and IAC-350 cultivars were treated or not with the insecticide fenitrothion three months after harvest and stored in laboratory ambient conditions, in Campinas, SP, Brazil, during 15 months. S. oryzae adults were trimonthly placed on seed samples from the replications of the treatments with insects. The survival of the insects was evaluated, as well as the resulting progeny. The insects were eliminated and seed moisture content, germination and insect infestation were measured at the seed samples from the replications of all the treatments with or without insects. It was concluded that fenitrothion, in the recommended dose, does not protect wheat seeds, against S.oryzae infestation, even in short-term storage of two months. Wheat seeds with high initial germination level can keep their viability, for 14 to 17 months after harvest, when stored in ambient conditions, in regions, which have the climate similar to Campinas.

  15. Anti- and Pro-Lipase Activity of Selected Medicinal, Herbal and Aquatic Plants, and Structure Elucidation of an Anti-Lipase Compound

    Muhammad Abubakar Ado


    Full Text Available Plants that help in slowing down the digestion of triacylglycerols (TAGs in the pancreas and small intestine of humans play an important role in the reduction of obesity. On the other hand, there may be plants or plant parts that stimulate intestinal lipolytic activity, thus contributing to greater TAG assimilation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aqueous methanolic extracts of ninety eight (98 medicinal, herbal and aquatic plant materials from Malaysia for their effect on porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL activity and to identify the structure of an anti-lipase compound from one of the sources. The degree of inhibition was also quantified as relative to orlistat activity against PPL (orlistat equivalents. Results revealed that while 19.4% of the extracts were found to have anti-lipase activity ≥80%, 12% were actually found to promote PPL activity. Twenty two percent (22.4% exhibited moderate inhibition (41%–80% and 2% were neutral toward PPL activity. The ripe fruit of Averrhoa carambola and the leaves of Archidendron jiringa (Jack I.C Nielsen L. (jering, Cynometra cauliflora (nam-nam and Aleurites moluccana (L. Willd (candle nut/buah keras had the highest (100% anti-lipase activity and are equivalent to 0.11 µg orlistat/mL. Plants that stimulated lipase activity included Pimpinella anisum L. (aniseed/jintan manis, activating the enzyme by 186.5%. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of C. cauliflora leaves and found to be an active lipase inhibitor. The structure was elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR analyses.

  16. Anti- and pro-lipase activity of selected medicinal, herbal and aquatic plants, and structure elucidation of an anti-lipase compound.

    Ado, Muhammad Abubakar; Abas, Faridah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ghazali, Hasanah M


    Plants that help in slowing down the digestion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in the pancreas and small intestine of humans play an important role in the reduction of obesity. On the other hand, there may be plants or plant parts that stimulate intestinal lipolytic activity, thus contributing to greater TAG assimilation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aqueous methanolic extracts of ninety eight (98) medicinal, herbal and aquatic plant materials from Malaysia for their effect on porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) activity and to identify the structure of an anti-lipase compound from one of the sources. The degree of inhibition was also quantified as relative to orlistat activity against PPL (orlistat equivalents). Results revealed that while 19.4% of the extracts were found to have anti-lipase activity ≥80%, 12% were actually found to promote PPL activity. Twenty two percent (22.4%) exhibited moderate inhibition (41%-80%) and 2% were neutral toward PPL activity. The ripe fruit of Averrhoa carambola and the leaves of Archidendron jiringa (Jack) I.C Nielsen L. (jering), Cynometra cauliflora (nam-nam) and Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd (candle nut/buah keras) had the highest (100%) anti-lipase activity and are equivalent to 0.11 µg orlistat/mL. Plants that stimulated lipase activity included Pimpinella anisum L. (aniseed/jintan manis), activating the enzyme by 186.5%. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of C. cauliflora leaves and found to be an active lipase inhibitor. The structure was elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR analyses. PMID:24287996

  17. Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T


    Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety. PMID:23597204

  18. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Tiago Ledesma Taira


    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart. Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping, nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae, and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.

  19. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Anne M. Costa


    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  20. The Use Of Local Product Yeast For Substitution Torula Yeast In The Formulation Of Artificial Diet Fruit Fly Larvae Bactrocera Carambolae Drew and Hancock

    The use of local product yeast I.e brewer yeast, yeast of tapai (fermented cassava), yeast of tempe (fermented soy beam), and brem(intoxicating beverage made of fermented rice) after cooked and uncooked were used to substitute torula yeast to reduce cost production for mass-rearing of fruit fly had been carried out. Artificial diet formulation consisted of torula yeast, wheat bran, nipagin, sodium benzoate, cane sugar, water and HCI ti make pH of 4. One kilogram of diet was inoculated with 1 ml of fruit fly eggs. Parameters of the experiment were, the number of pupae, weight of pupae, percentage of pupae and the percentage of viable fly. The results showed that the number of pupae were 6356 for brewers yeast with cooked and 0.942 gram/100 pupae for brem. Percentage viable emergence fly were 70%, 18.25% and 15.25% for brewers yeast with cooked and uncooked respectively. Cost production for 1.000.000 using cooked brewer yeast was reduced about Rp.179,200 or cost efficiency were 55.56%

  1. Dipping of Eggs, Use of Low Temperature and Aeration to Improve Fruit Fly Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock) Mass Rearing in Sterile Insect Technique Programme

    In the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme a large number of homogenous age of pupae should be produced to be sterilized and released into the field. A methodology to preserve eggs which at the same time delay the egg hatch is needed in the production of a large number of pupae with homogenous age. The study on method of preserving fruit fly eggs the effect of dipping, low temperature, on the viability of eggs, the quality of larvae hatched from the eggs, and the quality of pupae produced were observed. Viability of eggs were observed as percent of egg hatch, quality of larvae as number of pupae produced from 0.5 ml of eggs when reared on artificial diet, and quality of pupae as percent of the flies number emerged and flew from the pupae. In room temperature (26 oC) dipping did not preserve fruit fly eggs and aeration did not improve the preservation. Although after one day dipping the viability of eggs only decreased from 90 % (control) to 80.5 %, (without aeration) and 81.5 % (with aeration) it decreased the number of pupae been produced from 1447 pupae (control) to 382 pupae (without aeration) and 616 pupae (with aeration). Low temperature successfully preserved the egg up to 24 hours. After 24 hour dipping in low temperature (16 oC) the viability of eggs were decreased up to 84.75 % (without aeration) and able to produce 1104 pupae. Aeration during dipping in low temperature did not improve the preservation. (author)

  2. Incidência e viabilidade de sementes crioulas de milho naturalmente infestadas com fungos em pré e pós-armazenamento Incidence and viability of creole seeds of corn naturally infested with fungi in pre-and post-storage

    Hugo Cesar Rodrigues Moreira Catão


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade sanitária e fisiológica de quatorze variedades de sementes de milho crioulas em pré e pós-armazenamento em embalagens de polietileno tereftalato (PET. Houve efeito das variedades e das épocas de avaliações sobre a incidência de fungos e germinação. Dentre a micobiota observada, Fusarium moniliforme (88%, Penicillium spp. (6,9% e Aspergillus spp. (2,1% tiveram a maior porcentagem de incidência. Após o armazenamento, houve decréscimo de F. moniliforme (69% e aumento de Penicillium spp. (35% e Aspergillus spp. (22%. A incidência desses fungos não comprometeu a qualidade fisiológica das sementes, que apresentaram elevadas porcentagens de vigor e germinação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the sanitary and physiological quality of fourteen varieties of creole corn seeds in pre-and post-storage in packaging of polyethylene terephthalate (PET. Among the mycobiota observed Fusarium moniliforme (88%, Penicillium spp. (6,9% and Aspergillus spp. (2,1% had the highest incidence. After storage there was a slight decrease in the percentage of F. moniliforme (69% and a increase of Penicillium spp. (35% and Aspergillus spp. (22%. The incidence of these fungi did not compromise the physiological quality of seeds that showed high percentages of vigor and germination.

  3. Intoxicação por carambola em paciente com insuficiência renal crônica: relato de caso Star fruit intoxication in a chronic renal failure patient: case report

    Fábio Gonzaga Moreira; Rodrigo Lerário Iervolino; Silvia Zanon Dall'Orto; Antonio Claudomiro Aparecido Beneventi; José Licinio de Oliveira Filho; Aécio Flávio Teixeira de Góis


    A insuficiência renal crônica é doença de elevada morbidade e mortalidade e sua incidência e prevalência em estágio terminal têm aumentado progressivamente a cada ano. Segundo a Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia, as principais causas de insuficiência renal crônica são hipertensão arterial, glomerulonefrite e diabetes mellitus. Diversos fatores elevam o risco de mortalidade em pacientes com nefropatia crônica, principalmente idade, presença de diabetes e número de comorbidades associadas. Par...

  4. Utilisation of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 as quarantine treatment of medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae); Utilizacao da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 como tratamento quarentenario de plantas medicinais, aromaticas e condimentares desidratadas infestadas por Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) e Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare


    The research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation of the Cobalto-60 as quarantine treatment of the medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella determining the disinfestation doses to attend the criterion in the not emergency of adults of the species in study and analysing through the Chromatography of Thin Layer the effect of the gamma radiation of the cobalto-60 on the active principle of extract dehydrated of Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Origanum vulgare, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Thymus vulgaris. The work was developed in the Laboratorio de Inseticidas in the Instituto Biologico in Sao Paulo in the period of August of 2005 the June of 2007. The radiation source used gamma was an experimental irradiator of Cobalto-60, model Gamacell 220, located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, located in Sao Paulo. In the period of 30 days after the irradiation of the samples evaluated the number of adults emerged of Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, using the data of mortality for the analysis of Probit. Obtained 100% of not emergency of adults in the Lasioderma serricorne with the dose of 2,00 kGy and 100% of not emergency of adults in the Plodia interpunctella with the dose of 2,25 kGy. The Chromatographic Analysis of Thin Layer was to evaluate did not show chemical differences in the extracts analysed. (author)

  5. Increasing the brightness of light sources

    Fu, Ling


    In this work the principle of light recycling is applied to artificial light sources in order to achieve brightness enhancement. Firstly, the feasibilities of increasing the brightness of light sources via light recycling are examined theoretically, based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics including Kirchhoff's law on radiation, Planck's law, Lambert-Beer's law, the etendue conservation and the brightness theorem. From an experimental viewpoint, the radiation properties of three different kinds of light sources including short-arc lamps, incandescent lamps and LEDs characterized by their light-generating mechanisms are investigated. These three types of sources are used in light recycling experiments, for the purpose of 1. validating the intrinsic light recycling effect in light sources, e. g. the intrinsic light recycling effect in incandescent lamps stemming from the coiled filament structure. 2. acquiring the required parameters for establishing physical models, e.g. the emissivity/absorptivity of the short-arc lamps, the intrinsic reflectivity and the external quantum efficiency of LEDs. 3. laying the foundations for designing optics aimed at brightness enhancement according to the characteristics of the sources and applications. Based on the fundamental laws and experiments, two physical models for simulating the radiance distribution of light sources are established, one for thermal filament lamps, the other for luminescent sources, LEDs. As validation of the theoretical and experimental investigation of the light recycling effect, an optical device, the Carambola, is designed for achieving deterministic and multiple light recycling. The Carambola has the function of a concentrator. In order to achieve the maximum possible brightness enhancement with the Carambola, several combinations of sources and Carambolas are modelled in ray-tracing simulations. Sources with different light-emitting mechanisms and different radiation properties

  6. Antioxidant Activities of some Local Bangladeshi Fruits%一些孟加拉当地产水果的抗氧化活性

    Soubir Titov; 张玉霞


    研究了A.heterophyllus,A.squamosa,T.bellirica,S.samarangense,A.carambola and O.europ水果的抗氧化活性.首先将这些成熟的水果切成小片,然后用日光晒干,最后用研磨器磨成粉末.这些水果粉末用99.99%的乙醇进行乙醇提取.这些提取物的活性通过其清除稳定的1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)自由基的能力进行测定.实验结果表明,所有A.heterophyllus,A.squamosa,T.bellirica,S.samarangense,A.carambola and O.europa这些水果的乙醇提取物都具有抗氧化活性,这些水果的乙醇提取物的的IC50值分别是410,250,34,200,30和76 μg/mL.其中A.carambola具有最高的抗氧化活性,其次是T.bellirica,O.europa,S.samarangense,A.squamosa和A.heterophyllus.结果表明A.carambola,T.bellirica和O.europa对人体健康是非常有益的.%In the present study,antioxidant activities of the fruits of A. Heterophyllus,A.squamosa,T.bellirica, S.samarangense,A.carambola and O.europa were investigated.For this,at first matured fruits of them were sliced into small pieces and dried in the sun and finally crushed in a grinder to make powder. Ethanolic extracts of fruit powder were prepared using 99.99% ethanol.The antioxidative activities of these extracts were determined according to their abilities of scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical . It was demonstrated that all the ethanolic extracts of A. Heterophyllus,A.squamosa, T.bellirica, S. Samarangense, A. Carambola and O.europa showed antioxidant activities. The IC50 of the ethanolic extracts of A.heterophyllus, A.squamosa, T.bellirica,S.samarangense,A.carambola and O.europa were 410,250,34,200,30 and 76μg/mL,respectively.Among them, A. Carambola showed the highest antioxidant activities followed by T.bellirica, O. Europa, S. Samarangense, A. Squamosa and A.Heterophyllus indicating that fruits of A.carambola, T. Bellirica and O.europa are very beneficial to human health.

  7. Compostos antioxidantes em frutos de acessos de caramboleira em diferentes ambientes de Pernambuco

    José Severino de Lira Júnior; João Emmanoel Fernandes Bezerra; Ildo Eliezer Lederman; Lídia Cristina dos Santos Alencar Correia; Maria Inês Sucupira Maciel


    A polpa da carambola contém compostos químicos com propriedades antioxidantes importantes à saúde humana, contra o envelhecimento celular e a prevenção de doenças. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o fruto de acessos de caramboleira quanto às concentrações de compostos antioxidantes. Foram analisadas as concentrações de ácido ascórbico, carotenoides totais, flavonoides, fenólicos totais e taninos em cinco acessos selecionados de carambola, cultivada em três distintas regiões edafoclimáticas de ...

  8. Healthful and nutritional components in select Florida tropical fruits

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (v...

  9. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua and A. suspensa at four sites in Guánica, Puerto Rico; one forest fragment in Ponce, Puerto Rico; in a commercial mango orchard in Guayanilla, PR; and an experimental carambola orcha...

  10. Mutation breeding in South Africa 2003–2004

    Four commercial citrus cultivars have been produced from conventional citrus mutation programme in South Africa. Three hundred and fifty citrus mutant lines obtained from sectoral chimeras using in vitro techniques were included in the citrus evaluation programme and useful mutations of particularly difficult-to-breed cultivars is continuing. Gamma irradiation response curves (Co60) as well as the LD50 levels were determined for Citrus, Litchi, Guava, Cherimoya, Pitanga, Jaboticaba and Carambola. Grafting and propagation techniques for all species, and in particular, those where no information exists, were established. Citrus, Litchi, Guava, Cherimoya, Pitanga, Jaboticaba and Carambola are all characterised by having long juvenile phases making conventional breeding programmes slow and costly. Mutation breeding is being used in an attempt to overcome this problem and produce material which can be used in the screening of advantageous genes in subsequent breeding programmes. (author)

  11. Las Plantas Cultivadas y Sus Plagas.

    Universidad Nacional de Colombia Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias


    Full Text Available El artículo contiene en orden alfabético las plantas cultivadas con las diferentes plagas por las cuales se ven afectadas y para las que se han venido buscando mecanismos de control y erradicación. Algunas de estas plantas son: Aguacate, Acacia, Almendro, Algodón, Banana, Cacahuate, Cacao, Cafeto, Caña de azúcar, Caoba, Carambola, Cedro, Granadilla, Limón, Maíz, Tabaco, entre otras.

  12. Compostos antioxidantes em frutos de acessos de caramboleira em diferentes ambientes de Pernambuco

    José Severino de Lira Júnior


    Full Text Available A polpa da carambola contém compostos químicos com propriedades antioxidantes importantes à saúde humana, contra o envelhecimento celular e a prevenção de doenças. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o fruto de acessos de caramboleira quanto às concentrações de compostos antioxidantes. Foram analisadas as concentrações de ácido ascórbico, carotenoides totais, flavonoides, fenólicos totais e taninos em cinco acessos selecionados de carambola, cultivada em três distintas regiões edafoclimáticas de Pernambuco. Os acessos de carambola diferiram significativamente entre si, quanto às concentrações de ácido ascórbico, fenólicos totais e taninos. A significância para os efeitos de ambiente confirmou que os locais de cultivo são heterogêneos, em relação ao potencial produtivo de frutos com diferentes concentrações médias de ácido ascórbico, flavonóis, fenólicos totais e taninos. A interação significativa entre genótipos e ambientes indica que os acessos de carambola apresentam respostas diferenciadas às concentrações de ácido ascórbico, flavonóis, fenólicos totais e taninos, quando cultivadas em diferentes locais. As condições de cultivo da Estação Experimental do IPA Itambé e os acessos IPA-7.2, IPA-22.3 proporcionaram as maiores concentrações de ácido ascórbico, fenólicos totais e taninos.

  13. Synonymization of key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomic changes based on a review of 20 years of integrative morphological, molecular, cytogenetic, behavioural and chemoecological data

    Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White are four horticultural pest tephritid fruit fly species that are highly similar, morphologically and genetically, to the destructive pest, the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). This similarity has rendered the discovery of reliable diagnostic characters problematic, which, in view of the economic importance of these taxa and the international trade implications, has resulted in ongoing difficulties for many areas of plant protection and food security. Consequently, a major international collaborative and integrated multidisciplinary research effort was initiated in 2009 to build upon existing literature with the specific aim of resolving biological species limits among B. papayae, B. philippinensis, B. carambolae, B. invadens and B. dorsalis to overcome constraints to pest management and international trade. Bactrocera philippinensis has recently been synonymized with B. papayae as a result of this initiative and this review corroborates that finding; however, the other names remain in use. While consistent characters have been found to reliably distinguish B. carambolae from B. dorsalis, B. invadens and B. papayae, no such characters have been found to differentiate the latter three putative species. We conclude that B. carambolae is a valid species and that the remaining taxa, B. dorsalis, B. invadens and B. papayae, represent the same species. Thus, we consider B. dorsalis (Hendel) as the senior synonym of B. papayae Drew and Hancock syn.n. and B. invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White syn.n. A redescription of B. dorsalis is provided. Given the agricultural importance of B. dorsalis, this taxonomic decision will have significant global plant biosecurity implications, affecting pest management, quarantine, international trade, postharvest treatment and basic research


    Dyah Rini Indriyanti; Niken Subekti; Latifah -


    Lalat buah Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) merupakan salah satu hama pen ting menyerang tanaman buah-buahan dan sayuran. B. carambolae di laboratorium tertarik pada olahan limbah kakao. Hasil uji coba di lapangan belum memuaskan karena olahan limbah kakao mudah rusak. Tujuan penelitian ini mengkaji respon lalat buah Bactrocera yang diberi umpan ekstrak olahan limbah kakao berpenga wet. Pengawet yang digunakan yakni: Natrium klorida (NaCl), Natrium benzoat (C7H5NaO2) dan Potasium sorbat...

  15. Biological meaning of the methyl eugenol to fruit flies

    Tachi, S.; Subahar, S


    The objective of this research is to test a hypothesis whether methyl eugenol has a benefit in sexual selection of fruit flies and to find at what age the male flies respond to methyl eugenol. This test was conducted using carambola fruit fly (Bractocera carambolae) at Inter University Center for Life Science of ITB. The results of the tests are summarized as follows ; 1. Males started to respond to methyl eugenol at the age of 11 days old and the maximum number of males were recorded on 14 and 15 days old. 2. Most of the carambola fruit fly start to respond to methyl eugenol before they become sexually mature. 3. A very small percentage of newly emerged males (less than 1%) survive to mate with females during treatment with methyl eugenol. Methyl eugenol has benefit in sexual selection of carabola fruit fly, i.e., males responded to methyl eugenol before they engage in sexual activities, while females responded to methyl eugenol only when males started their mating activities. (author)

  16. Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L. are more efficient at removing worker brood artificially infested with the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans than are Italian bees or Italian/Africanized hybrids

    José Carlos Vieira Guerra Jr.


    abelhas de origem européia. A capacidade destas abelhas de detectar e reagir à cria infestada com este ácaro pode ser um dos fatores chaves que determina esta tolerância. Células de cria de operária foram infestadas artificialmente, abrindo o opérculo, inserindo ácaros fêmeas adultas vivas e selando as células. A habilidade das abelhas africanizadas de reconhecer e remover esta cria infestada artificialmente foi comparada com a de abelhas híbridas italianas/africanizadas e com dois grupos de abelhas italianas "puras", em três experimentos distintos. Rainhas italianas já fecundadas foram importadas dos EUA ou foram obtidas da ilha de Fernando de Noronha, Brasil, onde abelhas italianas são mantidas desde 1984. Colmeias africanizadas removeram em media 51% da cria infestada, enquanto colmeias híbridas italianas/africanizadas removeram 25%. Colmeias africanizadas também removeram uma proporção significativamente maior de cria infestada do que colmeias "puras" italianas com rainhas dos EUA (59 vs. 31%, respectivamente. Da mesma maneira, quando colmeias africanizadas foram comparadas com colmeias de abelhas italianas da ilha de Fernando de Noronha, as africanizadas foram significativamente mais eficientes na remoção de cria infestada (61 vs. 35%, respectivamente, apesar de que a população de abelhas italianas desta ilha foi exposta a varroa e elas sobreviveram sem tratamento durante mais de 12 anos. Somente as abelhas africanizadas removeram uma proporção significante da cria infestada com V. jacobsoni, quando os dados foram corrigidos pela taxa de remoção da cria das células controles.

  17. Biological screening of selected herbs used in traditional treatment of diabetes

    The leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (petai belalang) and Averrhoa belimbi (belimbing buluh) were claimed in folk traditional medicine to be effective for diabetes treatment. However, there was not enough scientific research or data to support these claims. In this study, through biological screening for cytotoxic activities using brine shrimp lethality assay, these herbs in aqueous extracts were suitable to be consumed. The brine shrimp were not affected by the aqueous extracts indicating the absence of toxic substances in both herbs. Further studies must be carried out in animal for toxicity testing to determine the safeness and efficiency of these herbs for diabetes treatment. (Author)


    Cure Hakim José Ricardo


    Full Text Available

    El ácaro depredador Phytoseiulus persimilis ha sido usado con éxito para el control del ácaro fitófago Tetranychus urticae, el cual constituye  una de las plagas mas importantes en los cultivos de rosa de la Sabana de Bogotá. En Colombia esta estrategia de control se ha visto limitada por la falta de disponibilidad de los depredadores en el comercio del producto. En el presente trabajo se proponen criterios para estandarizar las bases para la producción de P. persimilis en plantas de frijol infestadas con poblaciones de T. urticae de diferentes tiempos de desarrollo, utilizando una proporción constante de depredadores liberados. Se encontró que plantas infestadas con poblaciones de T. urticae por más de tres semanas permiten obtener mayores incrementos de población de los depredadores y que aproximadamente a los 25 días después de realizada la liberación, de los depredadores en las plantas infestadas, se obtienen los mayores poblaciones del depredador en estado de ninfa y adulto para cosechar, y usar como estrategia de control en los cultivos.

  19. Estimativa de Trichogramma pretiosum para controle de Tuta absoluta em tomateiro estaqueado Estimate of Trichogramma pretiosum to control Tuta absoluta in stalked tomato

    Dirceu Pratissoli; Robson Thomaz Thuler; Gilberto Santos Andrade; Luiz Carlos Marozzi Zanotti; Alexandre Faria da Silva


    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o número ideal de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley a ser liberado em campo para o controle da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). O experimento foi implantado em casa de vegetação, onde, 60 dias após o transplantio, plantas de tomate foram infestadas com 200 ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller), na proporção de 70% no terço superior das plantas, 24% no terço médio e 6% no terço inferior. Fêmeas de T. pretiosum foram liberadas na...

  20. Ensaio sobre a eficácia do ácido fórmico no tratamento da Varroose

    Pires, Sância; Serrano, José; Ruíz, José; Pereira, Óscar; Silva, Elisa


    Este ensaio teve como objectivo estudar a eficácia do ácido fórmico no tratamento da Varroose. O ensaio decorreu num apiário situado na área de influência do Parque Natural de Montesinho. De acordo com a metodologia descrita por (2; 3), em 15 colmeias de modelo Langstroth e infestadas de forma natural, pelo ácaro Varroa destructor (1), aplicámos esponjas impregnadas com 240 mi de ácido fórmico a 85%, durante 20 dias.

  1. Capacidad de infestación en invernadero de los biotipos B y Q de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) en plantas de tomate con y sin el gen Mi

    Baraja, M.J.; Manchón, M.A.; Nombela, Gloria; Muñiz, M.; Beitia, F.


    Se han realizado experimentos de libre elección en condiciones de invernadero para obtener la relación entre el porcentaje de plantas de tomate infestadas (y) y el número de adultos de los biotipos By Qde Bemisia tabaci Gennadius(x) mediante la función linealz=-ax,siendo z= ln[1-(y/100)], utilizándose variedades de estecultivo con y sin elgen Mi de resistencia a nematodos del género Meloidogyne y al áfido de la patata, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). Tanto el número medio de adultos como el ...

  2. Sobre uma pintura inseticida para o controle de Triatoma infestans, na Bolívia About an insecticidal paint for controlling Triatoma infestans, in Bolivia

    João Carlos Pinto Dias; A. Jemmio


    Avaliações preliminares sobre uma pintura inseticida à base de diazinon, clorpirifós e piriproxifen em formulação micro-encapsulada (Inesfly 5A IGR ®) mostrou efetiva e persistente atividade contra Triatoma infestans intra e peridomiciliar, numa região altamente infestada do Chaco Boliviano. Ressaltam, além disso, a boa manuseabilidade do produto e o bom aspecto deixado pela pintura em casas e anexos tratados, bem como uma excelente aceitação pela população e autoridades sanitárias locais, o ...

  3. Reação de Brachiaria spp. e Panicum maximum a Pratylenchus brachyurus Host status of Brachiaria spp. and Panicum maximum to Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Mário M Inomoto; Andressa C. Z. Machado; Sonia R. Antedomênico


    O sistema plantio direto é utilizado em extensas áreas agrícolas do Brasil, condição que pode propiciar o aumento dos danos causados pelos fitonematóides na cultura principal, na dependência da reação das plantas utilizadas como coberturas vegetais. O capim-colonião (Panicum maximum) e as braquiárias (Brachiaria spp.) podem ser utilizadas em áreas infestadas por Meloidogyne incognita e M. javanica, pois não são hospedeiras dessas espécies, mas sua resposta ao nematóide Pratylenchus brachyurus...

  4. Resistencia de cultivables de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) a herbicida imazamox: aspectos fisiológicos, bioquímicos y agronómicos

    Jiménez Rosario, Francisco


    La identificación de genes de resistencia a herbicidas en plantas ha permitido el desarrollo de cultivos resistentes haciendo más eficiente el control de las malas hierbas. Esto ha representado un incremento en la productividad agrícola, principalmente en zonas infestadas por malezas emparentadas con el cultivo, como Aegilops cylindrica Host, en trigo y Oryza sativa L. (Arroz salvaje), en arroz. Sin embargo el uso de estas tecnologías pudiera impactar negativamente en la dinámi...

  5. Estudio taxonómico de las especies de la familia bruchidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) relacionadas con el género Desmodium (Fabaceae) en el mundo.

    Vásquez Chan, Adriano


    La presente investigación se realizó con el propósito de determinar las especies de brúquidos (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) que se alimentan de semillas de plantas del género Desmodium Desv. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) en el mundo. Se desarrollaron claves dicotómicas para determinar géneros y especies de brúquidos del Nuevo y Viejo Mundo, además de ampliar la información existente sobre la asociación brúquido-Desmodium de la base de datos BRUCOL. Se revisaron semillas de Desmodium infestadas por ...

  6. Aplicación de la solarización para el control de la Verticilosis del olivo en plantaciones establecidas

    Blanco López, Miguel Ángel; López Escudero, Francisco Javier


    Se han realizado 4 experimentos de solarizacion en 3 plantaciones comerciales de olivo infestadas con Verticillium dahliae en Andalucía. En 3 de los experimentos la solarizacion se aplicó a filas de árboles y, en el cuarto, a árboles individuales. Las plantaciones mostraban inicialmente diferentes densidades de inoculo del patógeno en el suelo. Los estudios previos indicaron que en el Experimento I, localizado en Marinaleda, se hallaban presentes aislados del patógeno altamente virulentos (de...

  7. Surtos populacionais de Bemisia tabaci no estado de São Paulo Outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    André Luiz Lourenção; Hiroshi Nagai


    A partir de 1991, tem sido observada a presença da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) em altas populações em hortaliças e orna-mentais nos municípios paulistas de Paulínia, Holambra, Jaguariúna e Artur Nogueira. Foram constatadas infestações severas em tomateiro, brócolos, berinjela e aboboreira; nesta última, o sintoma observado em plantas infestadas pela mosca-branca é o prateamento da face superior das folhas, em conjunto com queda drástica da produção. Uma lavour...


    Ramiro Reyes-Guzmán; Jesús Borboa-Flores; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J.; Ema C. Rosas-Burgos; Pablo S. Osuna-Amarillas; Wong-Corral, Francisco J.; María M. Ortega-Nieblas; Juan D. D. León-Lara


    La fracción volátil de los aceites esenciales de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus camaldulensis se utilizaron para evaluar su actividad insecticida sobre el barrenador menor de los granos Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). Muestras de granos de trigo fueron infestadas con el insecto y expuestas a los vapores de diferentes volúmenes (5, 10 y 15 μL) de los aceites por diferentes periodos (24, 48 y 72 h). La actividad enzimática amilolítica y proteolítica se determinaron en las progenies (F1) que emergi...

  9. Wing shape as a potential discriminator of morphologically similar pest taxa within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Schutze, M K; Jessup, A; Clarke, A R


    Four morphologically cryptic species of the Bactrocera dorsalis fruit fly complex (B. dorsalis s.s., B. papayae, B. carambolae and B. philippinensis) are serious agricultural pests. As they are difficult to diagnose using traditional taxonomic techniques, we examined the potential for geometric morphometric analysis of wing size and shape to discriminate between them. Fifteen wing landmarks generated size and shape data for 245 specimens for subsequent comparisons among three geographically distinct samples of each species. Intraspecific wing size was significantly different within samples of B. carambolae and B. dorsalis s.s. but not within samples of B. papayae or B. philippinensis. Although B. papayae had the smallest wings (average centroid size=6.002 mm±0.061 SE) and B. dorsalis s.s. the largest (6.349 mm±0.066 SE), interspecific wing size comparisons were generally non-informative and incapable of discriminating species. Contrary to the wing size data, canonical variate analysis based on wing shape data discriminated all species with a relatively high degree of accuracy; individuals were correctly reassigned to their respective species on average 93.27% of the time. A single sample group of B. carambolae from locality 'TN Malaysia' was the only sample to be considerably different from its conspecific groups with regards to both wing size and wing shape. This sample was subsequently deemed to have been originally misidentified and likely represents an undescribed species. We demonstrate that geometric morphometric techniques analysing wing shape represent a promising approach for discriminating between morphologically cryptic taxa of the B. dorsalis species complex. PMID:21867577

  10. Produção de blends a partir de frutos tropicais e nativos da Amazônia

    Leandro Camargo Neves; Ronaldo Moreno Benedette; Jéssica Milanez Tosin; Edvan Alves Chagas; Vanuza Xavier da Silva; Marcos André de Souza Prill; Sergio Ruffo Roberto


    Neste trabalho, objetivou-se o enriquecimento nutricional de néctares de frutos, pelo processamento de blends, usando-se fruteiras tropicais e Amazônicas produzidas em Roraima. Foram utilizados néctares de abacaxi, buriti, caju, camu-camu, carambola, maracujá, murici, lima-ácida Tahiti e taperebá. Foi realizado um ensaio preliminar onde se constatou que os néctares de abacaxi e maracujá seriam utilizados como matrizes e, dos quais, saíram os tratamentos: 2 controles - 100% de abacaxi e 100% d...


    A. G. Patil et al


    Full Text Available Herbal drugs play an important role in health care dynamics especially in developing countries. The key step in isolation of biologically active compounds is extraction, which is expressed as total extractive yield, yields of metabolites of interest or intensity of biological activity. Extraction of phytoconstituents from plant materials has been of tremendous interest and potential. Extractive value of the crude drug also indicates the quality as well as purity of the drug. For most extractions, relatively simple techniques, such as percolation and maceration are effective and economical. Some specific applications however, require more sophisticated and costly extraction techniques using specialized equipments. It is often possible to select the specific solvent to maximize the yields on the basis of different techniques, varying in cost and level of complexity. Therefore the objective of the present study was to compare different extraction techniques with various solvents for determination of extractive values. The plants selected for the present research work were Averrrhoa carambola L. fruits (Oxalidaceae, Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. fruits (Cucurbitaceae and Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. rhizomes (Hypoxidaceae. The maximum percentage of extractive value for L. vulgaris Ser. fruit extract was found to be 76.26±0.46 in water using reflux for extraction, whereas A. carambola L. fruit extract and C. orchioides Gaertn. rhizome extract, the maximum percentage of extractive values were found to be 88.40±0.80 and 54.00±0.80 respectively in water using ultrasound extraction method.


    Mauricio Daza V

    Full Text Available El ácaro depredador Phytoseiulus persimilis ha sido usado con éxito para el control del ácaro fitófago Tetranychus urticae, el cual constituye una de las plagas mas importantes en los cultivos de rosa de la Sabana de Bogotá. En Colombia esta estrategia de control se ha visto limitada por la falta de disponibilidad de los depredadores en el comercio del producto. En el presente trabajo se proponen criterios para estandarizar las bases para la producción de P. persimilis en plantas de frijol infestadas con poblaciones de T. urticae de diferentes tiempos de desarrollo, utilizando una proporción constante de depredadores liberados. Se encontró que plantas infestadas con poblaciones de T. urticae por más de tres semanas permiten obtener mayores incrementos de población de los depredadores y que aproximadamente a los 25 días después de realizada la liberación, de los depredadores en las plantas infestadas, se obtienen los mayores poblaciones del depredador en estado de ninfa y adulto para cosechar y usar como estrategia de control en los cultivos.The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis has been used successfully to control the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae in rose crops, in what is one of the most important pests. In Colombia , this control strategy has been limited by the lack of predators in the trade of the product. Here was proposed to standardize the basis for the production of P. persimilis on bean plants infested with populations of T. urticae of different development times, using a constant proportion of predators released. We found that populations of plants infested with T. urticae for more than three weeks resulted in higher population increase of predators and at approximately 25 days after the release of predators on plants infested, you get the largest predator populations in a state of nymph and adult to harvest and use as a strategy control in crops.

  13. Prevalence of nits and lice in sampls of cut hair from floors of barbershop and beauty parlors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais state, Brazil Prevalência de lêndeas e piolhos em amostras de cabelo recolhidas do chão de barbearias e salões de beleza em Belo Horizonte, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Pedro Marcos Linardi


    Full Text Available A louse survey based on samples of cut hair collected from floors of barbershops and beauty parlors was conducted in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from October 1984 to April 1985, as an alternative way to determine the prevalence of pediculosis capitis in the population. Of 475 samples examined for nits, nymphs, or adults of Pediculus capitis, 140 were infested (29.5%. A total of 58 lice and 3.553 nits were found in 33.632.9 g of hair collected, giving a ratio of 0.10 nit/g. Almost 29% of the nits were viable and capable of being transmitted after hatching. There was significant difference among the infestation rates by socioeconomic levels, and samples from barbershops with male customers were the most infested. based upon the number of haircuts in each sample, we estimated that 5 or 6% of the population might be infested by this species.Foi realizado um estudo de piolhos em amostras de cabelo recolhidas do chão de barbearias e salões de beleza de Belo Horizonte, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de outubro de 1984 a abril de 1985, como um meio alternativo para se determinar a prevalência da pediculose do couro cabeludo junto a população. Das 475 amostras examinadas em relação a presença de lêndeas, ninfas ou adultos de Pediculus capitis, 140 estavam infestadas (29,5%. Um total de 58 piolhos e 3.553 lêndeas foi encontrado em 33.632,9 g de cabelo coletado, correspondendo a uma relação de 0,10 lêndea/grama. Quase 29% das lêndeas eram viáveis e capazes de serem transmitidas após eclosão. Houve uma diferença significativa da infestação por níveis sócio-econômico, assim como as amostras procedentes de salões masculinos foram as que se apresentaram mais infestadas. Considerando o número de cortes de cabelo por amostra, estima-se que 5 ou 6% da população poderia estar infestada por esta espécie.

  14. Ocorrência de cochonilhas em espinheira-santa (Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek Occurrence of mealybugs in "espinheira-santa" (Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek

    J.M. Vitória


    Full Text Available Maytenus ilicifolia é uma espécie medicinal nativa do Brasil que vem sendo cultivada para atender a crescente demanda do mercado. Os fatores que interferem na produção, tal como a incidência de pragas e doenças, devem ser estudados para garantir o incremento na produtividade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência e a identificação de cochonilhas associadas a 15 acessos de espinheira-santa (Maytenus ilicifolia do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Clima Temperado e do Instituto Federal Sul-rio-grandense. Foi registrada a quantidade de plantas infestadas em cada acesso e identificado, em laboratório, as espécies de cochonilhas infestantes. O número de plantas infestadas variou entre os acessos. Foram identificadas as cochonilhas Ceroplastes sp. e Saissetia oleae, família Coccidae. Dos 10 acessos infestados, 23 (11,3% plantas apresentaram infestação com Ceroplastes sp. e, apenas uma (0,5%, com Saissetia oleae. O acesso 133 mostrou a maior incidência de Ceroplastes sp. (33,3%, seguido do acesso 130 (25,0%. O acesso 123 foi o que apresentou menor quantidade de plantas infestadas (4,8%. Saissetia oleae ocorreu em apenas uma planta, pertencente ao acesso 136 (5,6%.Maytenus ilicifolia is a medicinal species native to Brazil which has been cultivated to meet the growing market demand. Factors that interfere with the production, such as the incidence of pests and diseases, should be studied to ensure increased productivity. The aim of this study was to record the occurrence and the identification of mealybugs associated with 15 "espinheira-santa" (Maytenus ilicifolia accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of "Embrapa Clima Temperado" and "Instituto Federal Sul-rio-grandense". The quantity of infested plants in each accession was recorded and the species of infested mealybugs were identified in the laboratory. The number of infested plants varied among accessions. The identified mealybugs were Ceroplastes sp. and

  15. Domiciliation of Triatoma pseudomaculata (Corrêa e Espínola 1964 in the Jequitinhonha Valley, State of Minas Gerais Domiciliação de Triatoma pseudomaculata (Corrêa e Espínola 1964 no Vale do Jequitinhonha, Estado de Minas Gerais

    Girley Francisco Machado de Assis


    Full Text Available Impact of the vector control program was evaluated eight years after implantation of epidemiological surveillance for Chagas’ disease in Berilo, a municipality in the Jequitinhonha Valley of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. In all 5,242 domiciliary units (96% of the total were inspected and 10 found to be infested by the triatomine bug Triatoma pseudomaculata. Triatomines were found associated with bats inside one house and in the peridomiciles of the other nine. None of the 111 Triatoma pseudomaculata captured was infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Noireau et al16 traps were installed in (n=8 and around (n=100 the infested house but no Trypanpsoma cruzi-infected triatomines were found. None bat, opossums (Didelphis albiventris and rat captured in the peridomicile were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi although 24% of the inhabitants of the house infested by Triatoma pseudomaculata were seropositive for the parasite, based on ELISA, IHA and IIF.Oito anos após a implantação da vigilância epidemiológica para doença de Chagas em Berilo, Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, Brasil, foi realizada uma pesquisa para verificar o impacto do Programa de Controle Vetorial. Neste trabalho, 5. 242 (96% unidades domiciliares foram vistoriadas. Dez estavam infestadas por Triatoma pseudomaculata. Em nove delas os insetos estavam infestando o peridomicílio e em uma casa foi constatado um foco intradomiciliar associado a morcegos. Foram capturados 111 insetos da espécie Triatoma pseudomaculata e nenhum exemplar estava infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi. Na casa infestada e em torno dela foram instaladas respectivamente 8 e 100 armadilhas de Noireau et al16 e nenhum triatomíneo foi capturado. Oitenta morcegos capturados e examinados também estavam negativos para Trypanosoma cruzi bem como três gambás (Didelphis albiventris e um roedor, todos capturados no peridomicílio. Um porcentual de 24% dos moradores das casas infestadas por Triatoma pseudomaculata foi

  16. A comparison of the hygienic response of Africanized and European (Apis mellifera carnica honey bees to Varroa-infested brood in tropical Brazil

    Pia Aumeier


    Full Text Available In order to examine the significance of hygienic behavior for the tolerance to varroosis of Africanized honey bees, they were compared with non-tolerant Carniolans in tropical Brazil. Capped worker brood cells were artificially infested with living Varroa mites, and inspected some days later. Uncapping, disappearance of the introduced mite and removal of the pupa were recorded in a total of manipulated 3,096 cells during three summer seasons. The hygienic response varied between Africanized and Carniolan colonies, but this difference was significant only in one year, during which Africanized honey bees removed a significantly greater proportion of Varroa mites than European honey bees. A high proportion of the mites disappeared from artificially infested brood cells without damage to the pupae. The opening of the cell and the removal of the bee brood are independent traits of a graded response by adult workers towards mite-infested brood cells. We found a higher between-colony variation in the reaction towards Varroa-infested brood of Africanized honey bees compared to Carniolans. The overall similar response of the two bee types indicates that hygienic behavior is not a key factor in the tolerance to varroosis of Africanized bees in Brazil.Com o intuito de examinar o significado do comportamento higiênico na tolerância à varroose de abelhas africanizadas, elas foram comparadas com as não tolerantes Cárnicas no Brasil tropical. Células de cria de operárias operculadas foram artificialmente infestadas com ácaros Varroa vivos e inspecionadas alguns dias depois. Desoperculação, desaparecimento dos ácaros introduzidos e remoção da pupa foram anotados em um total de 3096 células manipuladas durante três verões. A resposta higiênica variou entre as colônias africanizadas e de Cárnicas, mas esta diferença foi significante apenas em um ano, durante o qual as abelhas africanizadas removeram uma proporção significantemente maior de

  17. Desinfestação por atmosfera anóxia: método utilizado pela biblioteca do conjunto das Químicas/USP

    Marina Mayumi Yamashita


    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve como foi realizada a desinfestação, por atmosfera anóxia, nas coleções de livros e periódicos. O objetivo é relatar o tratamento nas obras infestadas. A desinfestação mostrou-se eficiente e eficaz resultando na valorização da preservação do patrimônio bibliográfico da Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentação do Conjunto das Químicas da Universidade de São Paulo e criando uma consciência da importância das medidas preventivas e corretivas.

  18. Aedes albopictus em área rural do Brasil e implicações na transmissão de febre amarela silvestre Aedes albopictus in rural zone of Brazil and its implication in the sylvatic yellow fever transmission

    Almério de Castro Gomes


    Full Text Available Durante estudos ecológicos sobre mosquitos anofelíneos no município de Bataguassu, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, foram encontradas larvas e adultos de Aedes albopictus. Pela primeira vez sua introdução ocorre numa área enzoótica do vírus selvático da febre amarela no Brasil. Isto sugere risco potencial para transferência desse vírus para área urbana infestada com Aedes aegypti.Larvae and adult forms of Aedes albopictus were found during ecological study of anopheline mosquitos in the rural zone of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. This occurrence was registered, for the first time in Brazil, in an enzoootic area if sylvatic yellow fever virus. This implies a potential risk of the transfer of this virus to an urban area infested with Aedes aegypti.

  19. Representações sobre dengue, seu vetor e ações de controle por moradores do município de São Sebastião, litoral Norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Social representations concerning dengue, dengue vectors, and control activities among residents of São Sebastião on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Ana Maria Cavalcanti Lefèvre; Andressa Francisca Ribeiro; Gisela Rita Alvarenga Monteiro Marques; Lígia Leandro Nunes Serpa; Fernando Lefèvre


    Buscou-se, neste trabalho, identificar conhecimentos da população sobre a dengue e biologia do vetor, a fim de propiciar, através desse conhecimento, o diálogo entre a lógica técnica e a leiga, para conseguir avanços concretos na participação e no controle social da dengue e do vetor. Foi realizada pesquisa em área infestada pelo Aedes aegypti, com transmissão de dengue, no Município de São Sebastião, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram feitas cem entrevistas, com cinco questõ...

  20. Presencia del Triatoma infestans en la ciudad de Lima

    Abelardo Tejada


    Full Text Available 1 . Ha sido descubierto un foco del Triatoma infestans dentro de la zona urbana de la ciudad de Lima, verificándose su presencia en 10 viviendas de un modesto barrio. En tales casas fueron capturados un total de 99 especímenes del referido insecto, entre adultos y ninfas, así como 148 huevos sin eclosionar. 2. El examen del contenido intestinal y las heces en 68 de los triatomas capturados fue negativo para Trypanosoma cruzi. 3. Se supone que este nuevo foco se haya originado a partir de la región Sur del Perú, donde existen muchas localidades infestadas por el T. infestans. 4. Esta sería la primera vez que se verifica la presencia del T. infestans en la ciudad de Lima.

  1. Treatment of Cryptotermes brevis infestations in furniture with heat, solid fumigants and inert gases

    Borges, Annabella; Guerreiro, Orlando; Ferreira, Maria T.; Myles, Timothy G.; Borges, Paulo A.V.


    A Cryptotermes brevis é uma térmita extraordinária na sua capacidade única de atacar madeira extremamente seca. É, igualmente, extraordinária na capacidade de atacar uma grande variedade de tipos de madeira, o que nos leva a concluir como sendo a única espécie de térmitas que é facilmente encontrada em mobílias. Como tal, é muito fácil a sua dispersão aquando do transporte de mobílias infestadas, de lugar para lugar, e esta é uma das principais razões pela qual esta térmita consegue ter uma d...

  2. Disposição espacial e injúrias da lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em milho

    Elmo Pontes de Melo


    Full Text Available O conhecimento dos padrões de dispersão populacional de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, a mais importante praga do milho, no Brasil, é fundamental para o estabelecimento de técnicas eficientes de monitoramento e manejo. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a distribuição espacial da praga na cultura. A distribuição espacial foi avaliada em cinco campos experimentais, de um hectare cada, divididos em 100 unidades experimentais, onde se avaliaram de cinco a dez plantas por parcela. Foi testado o ajuste das frequências observadas às esperadas, de acordo com as distribuições de Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Spodoptera frugiperda ocorreu em elevados índices populacionais na área amostral, com correlação significativa entre a nota de injúria 3 e o número de lagartas médias, o que também ocorreu para o número de plantas infestadas com pelo menos uma lagarta média. Não houve correlação significativa entre a nota de injúria 3 e lagartas pequenas. O modelo que melhor se aproximou dos dados de distribuição da oviposição foi a Binomial Positiva, enquanto a disposição espacial de lagartas, atacando a espiga, foi descrita como aleatória. O modelo de distribuição Binomial Positiva foi o que melhor representou a distribuição espacial da população de plantas infestadas; a distribuição das lagartas de tamanho médio teve padrão de distribuição agregada.

  3. Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits.

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Manthey, John A; Luzio, Gary; Talcott, Stephen T; Goodner, Kevin; Baldwin, Elizabeth A


    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey sapote, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya, and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total soluble phenolics (TSP), total ascorbic acid (TAA), total dietary fiber (TDF), and pectin. ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging activity) assays were used to determine antioxidant activity. The TSP, ORAC, and DPPH ranged from 205.4 to 2316.7 g gallic acid equiv/g puree, sapodilla and green papaya exhibited the lowest levels. Guava and mamey sapote exhibited the highest TDF and pectin levels. Many of the tropical fruits were shown to contain an abundance of hydrolyzable tannins, ellagic acid conjugates, and flavone glycosides. Preliminary descriptions are given of the phenols in red/white pitaya (dragonfruit), lychee, and mamey sapote, these fruit being thus far uncharacterized in the literature. PMID:16968105

  4. Self-assembly behavior of a linear-star supramolecular amphiphile based on host-guest complexation.

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Xing; Yang, Fei; Shen, Hong; You, Yezi; Wu, Decheng


    A star polymer, β-cyclodextrin-poly(l-lactide) (β-CD-PLLA), and a linear polymer, azobenzene-poly(ethylene glycol) (Azo-PEG), could self-assemble into a supramolecular amphiphilic copolymer (β-CD-PLLA@Azo-PEG) based on the host-guest interaction between β-CD and azobenzene moieties. This linear-star supramolecular amphiphilic copolymer further self-assembled into a variety of morphologies, including sphere-like micelle, carambola-like micelle, naan-like micelle, shuttle-like lamellae, tube-like fiber, and random curled-up lamellae, by tuning the length of hydrophilic or hydrophobic chains. The variation of morphology was closely related to the topological structure and block ratio of the supramolecular amphiphiles. These self-assembly structures could disassemble upon an ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. PMID:25310380

  5. Molecular structure and conformations of caramboxin, a natural neurotoxin from the star fruit: A computational study

    Pichierri, Fabio


    Using density functional theory calculations we investigate the molecular structure and conformations of caramboxin, a neurotoxin recently isolated from the star fruit Averroha carambola. Among the seven conformers that exist within an energy window of ∼16.0 kcal/mol, two of them are the most favored ones with an energy difference of less than 2.0 kcal/mol. The computed chemical shifts of these two low-energy conformers are in good agreement with the experimental values determined in deuterated dimethylsulfoxide thus confirming the 2D chemical structure assigned to the neurotoxin. A topological analysis of the theoretical electronic charge density of four caramboxin conformers reveals the existence of intramolecular CH⋯O/N interactions which, in addition to the classical OH⋯O/N H-bonding interactions, contribute to decrease the conformational freedom of the neurotoxin.

  6. Induced mutation in tropical fruit trees

    This publication is based on an FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and provides insight into the application of induced mutation and in vitro techniques for the improvement of well known fruit trees such as citrus, mango, avocado and papaya, as well as more exotic fruit trees such as litchi, annona, jujube, carambola, pitanga and jaboticaba. The latter are of particular importance due to their adaptation to harsh environments and their high potential as basic food and micronutrient providers for populations in poorer and more remote regions. The findings of the CRP show that application of radiation induced mutation techniques in tropical and subtropical fruit trees can contribute to improving nutritional balance food security, and to enhancing the economic status of growers

  7. Parasitóides (Braconidae associados à Anastrepha (Tephritidae em frutos hospedeiros do litoral sul da Bahia Parasitoids (Braconidae associated with Anastrepha (Tephritidae in host fruits on the southern coast of Bahia, Brazil

    Maria Aparecida Leão Bittencourt


    Full Text Available Dentre os organismos que atuam no controle biológico natural dos tefritídeos, os representantes da família Braconidae constituem-se no mecanismo de parasitismo natural mais atuante, e na região Neotropical, representantes de Opiinae são os principais agentes de controle de Anastrepha. Este trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer a percentagem de parasitismo e as espécies de braconídeos associados às fruteiras cultivadas em municípios da região Litoral Sul da Bahia. No período de agosto de 2005 a março de 2008, coletaram-se frutos hospedeiros de moscas-das-frutas de diversas espécies botânicas, e dos frutos foram obtidas as seguintes espécies de Anastrepha: A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. bahiensis, A serpentina, A. sororcula e A. zenildae. Do total de 838 exemplares de braconídeos, 21,36% foram da espécie Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, provenientes de cajá, carambola, goiaba, manga e pitanga; 4,42% da espécie Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck obtidos dos frutos de cajá, carambola e goiaba, e apenas um exemplar da espécie Opius bellus Gahan (0,12% que emergiu da amostra de goiaba. A espécie Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (74,10% foi predominante e emergiu dos pupários provenientes de todos os frutos hospedeiros coletados, provavelmente pela maior eficiência desta espécie em localizar as larvas dos tefritídeos. A percentagem média de parasitismo de Anastrepha spp. foi de 4,45%.Among the organisms acting in the natural biological control of tephritids, members of the family Braconidae are the most active form of natural parasite, and in Neotropical regions, members of Opiinae are the main control agents of Anastrepha. The objective of this work was to discover the percentage of parasitism and the species of braconid associated with fruit trees growing in cities on the southern coast of Bahia. During the period of August, 2005 to March, 2008, hosts fruits of fruit flies from several plant species were collected and from the

  8. Avaliação da resistência dê cafeeiros às raças dê Meloidogyne incognita Evaluation of coffea resistance to Meloidogyne incognita races

    Rubens Rodolfo Albuquerque Lordello


    Full Text Available No Centro Experimental de Campinas do Instituto Agronômico, de abril de 1984 a agosto de 1985, realizaram-se dois experimentos, em vasos, para avaliar a resistência de mudas de sete linhagens de Coffea arabica ('Mundo Novo': CP388-17, CP379-19, CP501 e MP376-4; 'Catuaí Amarelo' H2077-2-5-62 e 'Catuaí Vermelho' H2077-2-5-81, e 'Caturra Amarelo' e dois de C. canephora (Robusta: 'Guarini' col. 10 e 'Kouillon' col. 67-14 às quatro raças de Meloidogyne incognita. No primeiro experimento, cada muda foi infestada com 8.000 ovos, passados cinco meses do transplante, e a avaliação, efetuada seis meses depois. No segundo experimento, as mudas foram infestadas cerca de um ano do transplante com 7.000 ovos cada uma e a avaliação realizada decorridos dez meses. Todas as plantas foram infestadas pelas raças 1 e 2; entretanto, a reprodução do nematóide foi menor nas plantas mais velhas. As raças 3 e 4 apresentaram baixas infestações e algumas reações de imunidade, principalmente a 4, que tem pouca importância prática pela sua pequena ocorrência. Os cultivares de Catuaí revelaram médias de notas de ootecas menores que as das linhagens de 'Mundo Novo', indicando menor suscetibilidade. Contudo, é importante ressaltar que a menor infestação não significa que as raças 3 e 4 sejam menos danosas ao cafeeiro quando o parasitam em campo.Two experiments were carried out in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the resistance of young trees of seven lines of Coffea arabica ('Mundo Novo': CP388-17, CP379-19, CP501 and MP376-4; 'Catuaí Yellow' H2077-2-5-62 and 'Catuaí Red' H2077-2-5-81; and 'Caturra Yellow' and two of C. canephora (Robusta: 'Guarini' col, 10 and 'Kouillon' col. 67-14 to the four races of Meloidogyne incognita in pots. In the first experiment, each plant was infested five months after transplanting with 8000 eggs, and evaluated six months later. In the second experiment, the plants were infested near one year

  9. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea

    Neuza R. W. Lima


    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%. The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0% than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males. The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites. These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml. All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.Cyphocharax gilbert exibe castração parasitária quando está infestado pelo crustáceo Riggia paranensis, estando impossibilitado de reproduzir. Os peixes foram coletados no trecho médio do rio Itabapoana, Brasil, para analisar a prevalência do parasitismo, quantificar crescimento e as concentrações de esteróides sexuais, considerando o tamanho do corpo, o sexo e a condição reprodutiva dos espécimes. A maioria dos peixes analisados estava infestada (56,0%. A presença de duas linhas em escamas foi mais freqüente entre os peixes infestados (22,0% que entre os peixes não infestados (12,0% para as

  10. Um critério de menor custo, como subsídio para a escolha do método de combate a triatomíneos vetores da Doença de Chagas A cheaper criterion in helping to select the method to combat triatomid vectors of Chaga's disease

    Ubiratan Lemos dos Reis


    Full Text Available Apesar da prioridade da luta antimalárica, o Serviço de Erradicação da Malária e Profilaxia da Doença de Chagas do Estado de São Paulo, não descuidou, mesmo nas fases iniciais da campanha de erradicação, do combate aos triatomíneos vetores da doença de Chagas. Não ocorrendo descontinuidade na sua profilaxia, foram encontradas inúmeras localidades não mais infestadas, especialmente nas áreas onde predomina o Triatoma infestans. Essa situação decorreu não sòmente em função dos métodos de profilaxia adotados, mas também, sem dúvida, do desenvolvimento sócio-econômico da região. Mostrou-se que a redução no número de focos e na densidade dos triatomíneos, permitiu que a desinsetização em massa das casas, passasse a ser encarada como desnecessária, aconselhando-se sua substituição pelo denominado método seletivo. Através do estudo comparativo dos custos dispendidos na realização desses dois métodos de desinsetização, estabeleceu-se uma fórmula matemática para determinar até que valor do percentual de infestação das habitações de uma área, o método seletivo, que vem sendo indicado como o mais adequado, é também o mais econômico. Conhecendo-se o custo unitário da casa pesquisada (C P e o da casa rociada (Ce, pode-se determinar o percentual de casas infestadas (Xe para o qual o custo do trabalho é o mesmo, seja para rociado total, seja para rociado seletivo, usando-se a expressão: Xe = 100 (1- Cp/Ce; para um percentual de casas infestadas menor que Xe, o método seletivo será o de menor custo.Although the antimalarial campaign always had priority, the Serviço de Erradicação de Malária e Profilaxia da Doença de Chagas of the State of São Paulo (Brazil never neglected, even at the beginning of the campaign, to fight against the triatomid vectors of Chagas' Disease. Because there was no interruption in the prophylaxis, it is not unusual at present to find several localities without triatoma

  11. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A


    The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 μg/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 μg/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 μg/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents. PMID:21184195

  12. Evaluation of thrombolytic potential of three medicinal plants available in Bangladesh, as a potent source of thrombolytic compounds

    Md. Ali


    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is aimed to investigate in vitro thrombolytic activity of three Bangladeshi medicinal plants Averrhoa bilimbi (Oxalidiaceae, Clerodendrum viscosum (Verbanaceae and Drynaria quercifolia (Polypodiaceae. Materials and methods: Each the plant was extracted with methanol at room temperature and the concentrated methanolic extracts (MEF were fractionated by the modified Kupchan partitioning method to render pet-ether soluble fraction (PESF, carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction (CTSF, chloroform soluble fraction (CSF and aqueous soluble fraction (AQSF. To observe their thrombolytic potential, a prompt and swift method was involved where streptokinase and water were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Result: Among the three plants, AQSF and PESF of D. quercifolia with CTSF of C. viscosum exhibited highest thrombolytic activity by clot lysis of 34.38%, 34.27% and 28.64%, respectively. Among other extracts A. bilimbi, C. viscosun and D.quercifolia showed significant percentage (% of clot lysis compared to standard streptokinase (41.05% while the negative control water revealed 3.31 % lysis of clot. Conclusion: From our findings it is observed that all the plants revealed remarkable thrombolytic activity. Therefore, steps should be taken to observe in vivo clot dissolving potential and to isolate active component(s of these extracts.

  13. Especies de Megacerus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae y sus plantas hospederas en Yucatán Megacerus species (Coleoptera: Bruchidae and their host plants in Yucatán

    Enrique Reyes


    Full Text Available Se registra la incidencia de Megacerus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae en semillas de 7 especies de Convolvulaceae de 6 sitios al norte de Yucatán. Las semillas de Ipomoea crinicalyx, I. hederifolia, I. nil, I. triloba, Jacquemontia penthanta, Merremia aegyptia y M. cissoides recolectadas en etapa de dispersión fueron colocadas en sobres limpios de papel y puestas en condiciones de laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los brúquidos. Se obtuvieron 1111 coleópteros pertenecientes a 5 especies: Megacerus (Megacerus cubiculus, M. (M. porosus, Megacerus (M. sp., M. (M. tricolor, y M. (Serratibruchus cubiciformis. Las semillas de I. crinicalyx, M. aegyptia y M. cissoides fueron infestadas principalmente por M. (M. porosus, las de I. hederifolia e I. triloba por M. (M. cubiculus y las de I. nil por M. (M. tricolor. Todos los individuos de Megacerus (M. sp., fueron encontrados en semillas de J. penthanta. En el nivel génerico de hospedero se encontró que las semillas de Ipomoea fueron infestadas principalmente por M. (M. cubiculus y las de Merremia por M. (M. porosus. Estos resultados amplían el rango de plantas hospederas registrado para las especies de Megacerus y resaltan la estrecha asociación que existe entre un linaje de depredadores de semillas Bruchidae y plantas de la familia Convolvulaceae.Seed-attacking by Megacerus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae is reported for 7 Convolvulaceae species from 6 sites at the North of Yucatan. Seeds of Ipomoea crinicalyx, I. hederifolia, I. nil, I. triloba, Jacquemontia penthanta, Merremia aegyptia and M. cissoides were collected and placed in clean envelopes under laboratory conditions to collect all bruchids emerged from seeds. A total of 1111 coleopterans were hatched from seeds, and 5 taxa were identify: Megacerus (Megacerus cubiculus, M. (M. porosus, Megacerus (M. sp., M. (M. tricolor, and M. (Serratibruchus cubiciformis. Seeds of I. crinicalyx, M. aegyptia and M. cissoides were attacked mainly by M. (M. porosus; I

  14. Brazilian ground pearl damaging blackberry, raspberry and blueberry in Brazil Pérola-da-terra causando danos em amoreira-preta, framboeseira e mirtileiro no Brasil

    Caio Fábio Stoffel Efrom


    Full Text Available The Brazilian ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922 (Hemiptera: Margarodidae, is a subterranean, polyphagous scale insect native of Southern Brazil that feeds on a variety of different vineyard plant species (Vitis spp.. In this study, it is reported three new plant hosts of the species. In 2007 and 2010, infested plants were documented in the towns of Farroupilha (29°14'34"S, 51°23'20"W and Vacaria (28°26'30"S, 50°52'59"W in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specimens of the ground pearl were found in the roots of three cultivated berry plants: blackberry (Rubus spp., raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberry (Vaccinium sp.. Observed symptoms included: chlorotic leaves, gradual wasting, reduced production, and mortality. Given the increasing popularity of berry orchards in the region, this study serves as an alert for farmers to avoid establishing them in areas infested with the ground pearl and to check for the insects in the root cuttings used to establish berry crops.A pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922 (Hemiptera: Margarodidae é uma cochonilha subterrânea, polífaga, nativa do sul do Brasil, que se alimenta de diversas espécies vegetais causando prejuízos, principalmente à cultura da videira (Vitis spp.. Nesta comunicação, três espécies vegetais são relatadas como novos hospedeiros da praga. Em 2007 e 2010, plantas infestadas foram registradas nos municípios de Farroupilha (29°14'34"S e 51°23'20"W e Vacaria (28°26'30"S e 50°52'59"W, RS. Exemplares da cochonilha foram encontrados em raízes de amoreira-preta (Rubus spp., framboeseira (Rubus idaeus L. e mirtileiro (Vaccinium sp.. Os sintomas observados foram folhas cloróticas, definhamento progressivo, diminuição na produção e morte das plantas. Devido à ampliação do cultivo de pequenas frutas na região, essa informação serve de alerta aos produtores para que evitem o plantio em áreas infestadas com a cochonilha e observem a presen

  15. Identificación del genotipo del virus del papiloma humano en pacientes portadoras de lesiones cérvico uterinas

    Alexander Morales Fontaine


    Full Text Available Fundamento: en los últimos años se ha observado un elevado predominio de mujeres infestadas por genotipos del  Virus del Papiloma Humano considerados de alto riesgo por su elevada oncogenicidad.Objetivo: identificar los genotipos del Virus del Papiloma Humano en pacientes portadoras de este con lesiones cervicales, cuyas biopsias fueron analizadas en el departamento de anatomía patológica, perteneciente al Hospital General Docente ¨Ernesto Guevara de la Serna¨, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2013 a diciembre de 2014.Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, en 45 pacientes cuyas biopsias fueron tomadas de forma aleatoria de un total de 456 casos en los que se encontraron evidencias histopatológicas de infección por el  Virus del Papiloma Humano, en el período referido período de estudio. Las biopsias fueron enviadas al Laboratorio de Biología Molecular del departamento de Virología del Instituto de Medicina Tropical ´´Pedro Kourí´, a fin de aislar e identificar los tipos de este virus, involucrados en la patogénesis de las lesiones premalignas en estudio. Se utilizaron fuentes secundarias dadas por los resultados de la identificación del genotipo del virus aislado enviados desde dicha institución. Los datos se procearon según la estadística descriptiva, mediante el análisis porcentual.Resultados: en el 88,8 % de la muestra se obtuvo infestación por el Virus del Papiloma Humano, de alto riesgo de oncogenicidad, de ellos hay una preponderancia del genotipo 16, con 26 casos (57,7 % seguido del 31 con 12 aislamientos (26,6 % y 2 pacientes presentaron el genotipo 52 para el 4,4 %. El 6,6 % de la muestra resultó estar infestadas por el genotipo 11, el cual es considerado de bajo riesgo y en 2 casos no fue posible realizar la tipificación.Conclusiones: Existió gran predominio de pacientes afectadas por Virus de Papiloma Humano de alto riesgo de oncogenicidad.

  16. Plano de amostragem para Dichopelmus notus (Eriophyidae na cultura da erva-mate Sampling plan for Dichopelmus notus (Eriophyidae on mate-tea orchard

    Guilherme Bertoldo


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a amostragem presença-ausência para Dichopelmus notus Keifer (Eriophyidae na cultura da erva-mate. O trabalho foi realizado em plantação comercial, em Cascavel, PR, entre abril de 1999 e julho de 2000. Procederam-se a coletas quinzenais de 240 folhas em diferentes partes de 10 plantas. A contagem dos ácaros nas folhas foi realizada, em laboratório, com auxílio de microscópio estereoscópico. Foi determinado o padrão de agregação com o modelo da potência de Taylor, e também a proporção de folhas infestadas e o número de amostras requeridas foram estimados por análise de regressão. D. notus apresentou distribuição agregada. A proporção de folhas infestadas estimadas pelo modelo matemático mostrou ser um parâmetro confiável para se estimar a densidade populacional do ácaro, sendo que o número de amostras requeridas foi pequeno, o que viabiliza a aplicação prática do método.The objective of this research was to evaluate presence-absence sampling plan for Dichopelmus notus Keifer (Eriophyidae on mate-tea orchard. This study was conducted in Cascavel, State of Paraná, Brazil, from April 1999 to July 2000, in a mate-tea tree commercial plantation. Biweekly sampling of 240 leaves in different parts of 10 plants was conducted, and the number of mites was registered. The aggregation pattern was determined using the Taylor’s power law model. The proportion of the infested leaves and the number of required samples were estimated by regression analysis. D. notus presented aggregated distribution. The estimated proportion of infested leaves showed to be reliable in order to estimate the population density of mites. The number of sample unities required to estimate infestation density was low, which makes practical application of this sampling method to be feasible.


    Dyah Rini Indriyanti


    Full Text Available Lalat buah Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae merupakan salah satu hama pen ting menyerang tanaman buah-buahan dan sayuran. B. carambolae di laboratorium tertarik pada olahan limbah kakao. Hasil uji coba di lapangan belum memuaskan karena olahan limbah kakao mudah rusak. Tujuan penelitian ini mengkaji respon lalat buah Bactrocera yang diberi umpan ekstrak olahan limbah kakao berpenga wet. Pengawet yang digunakan yakni: Natrium klorida (NaCl, Natrium benzoat (C7H5NaO2 dan Potasium sorbat (C6H7KO2. Konsentrasi yang dipakai masing-masing pengawet 0,1%; 0,2% dan 0,3%. Pengamatan dilakukan selama satu ming gu. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa daya tahan limbah yang diberi penga wet dan yang tidak dilihat secara secara fisik (warna dan tekstur tidak berbeda nyata, namun ada perbedaan bau. Limbah yang tidak diberi pengawet ada kecen derungan baunya tidak sedap dibanding yang diberi pengawet. Hal ini yang mempengaruhi ketertarikan lalat terhadap olahan limbah kakao. Respon ketertarikan lalat Bactrocera terhadap olahan limbah kakao yang diberi pengawet berbeda antara satu dengan yang lain. Respon ketertarikan tertinggi Bactrocera cenderung pada olahan limbah kakao yang diberi pengawet Natrium klorida 0,3%, Potasium sorbat 0,2% dan Natrium benzoat 0,1%.The fruit fly Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the important pests attacking crops of fruits and vegetables. In the laboratory, B. carambolae was attracted by the processed cocoa waste. The results of field trials have not been satisfactory yet, because the processed cocoa waste was easily damaged. The purpose of the study wast to examine the response of Bactrocera to the bait made of processed cocoa extract waste containing preservatives. The preservatives used were: Sodium chloride (NaCl, sodium benzoate (C7H5NaO2 and potassium sorbate (C6H7KO2. The concentration of each preservative was 0.1%; 0.2% and 0.3%. A one-week observation was made. The result showed that there was no

  18. Redução de inóculo de Aphelenchoides besseyi em sementes de Brachiaria brizantha tratadas com óleos essenciais

    Thalita Suelen Avelar Monteiro


    Full Text Available Óleos essenciais foram testados com o objetivo de controlar Aphelenchoides besseyi em sementes de Brachiaria brizantha cv. 'Marandu'. Sementes naturalmente infestadas por A. besseyi foram tratadas com óleos essenciais de mostarda (Brassica nigra, canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, verbena (Lippia citriodora e Bioprotector (r (produto comercial composto por extratos e óleos essenciais derivados de plantas, nas concentrações de 0,5% e 1,0%. Avaliou-se também o efeito dos tratamentos após aplicação direta nos juvenis (ensaio in vitro. Todos os óleos tiveram sua efetividade reduzida no ensaio em semente (in vivo em relação ao ensaio in vitro. Os tratamentos não erradicaram o nematoide das sementes, sendo que os óleos essenciais de canela e verbena, nas concentrações 0,5% e 1,0%, Bioprotector (r a 1,0% e óleo de mostarda a 1,0% reduziram o nível populacional do nematoide em sementes contaminadas. O óleo de mostarda a 1,0% destacou-se dos demais por ter apresentado ação nematicida sem alterar a germinação das sementes.

  19. Aspectos do mecanismo de ação do amônio glufosinato: culturas resistentes e resistência de plantas daninhas

    Caio Augusto De Castro Grossi Brunharo


    Full Text Available Com o advento de culturas geneticamente modificadas para a tolerância ao herbicida não-seletivo amônio glufosinato no Brasil, associado à sua importância como herbicida alternativo às áreas infestadas por plantas daninhas resistentes ao glyphosate, o conhecimento de certos aspectos sobre seu mecanismo de ação, particularidades da molécula e manejo consciente tornam-se necessários. Nesse sentido, a presente revisão de literatura foi realizada na tentativa de abranger, à luz do atual conhecimento, os conceitos sobre a bioquímica envolvida no mecanismo de ação desse importante herbicida, sua dinâmica de entrada na célula vegetal, sua utilização em culturas geneticamente modificadas e seu “manejo protetivo”, com a intensão de prolongar ao máximo possível essa indispensável ferramenta do sistema de produção de alimentos.

  20. Ocorrência do ácaro vermelho europeu Panonychus ulmi (Koch (Tetranychidae associado à cultura da videira no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil European red spider mite Panonychus ulmi (Koch (Tetranychidae occurrence of vineyards in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Noeli Juarez Ferla


    Full Text Available Neste artigo é descrita ocorrência e o dano causado pelo ácaro vermelho europeu Panonychus ulmi (Koch associado à cultura da videira. As coletas foram realizadas na safra 2005-2006 em Vitis vinifera L. da cultivar Merlot, nos municípios de Bento Gonçalves e Candiota, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As folhas infestadas apresentaram bronzeamento, com manchas avermelhadas na face adaxial, resultando na queda prematura das mesmas. Esse é o primeiro registro do ácaro vermelho europeu danificando a cultura da videira no Rio Grande do Sul.The occurrence and the damage caused for the European red spider mite Panonychus ulmi (Koch associated to the culture of the grapevine are described. The collections had been carried through in 2005-2006 seasons in Vitis vinifera L. of cultivating Merlot in Bento Gonçalves and Candiota counties, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The infested leaves had presented bronzing, with spots redly in the adaxial face resulting in the premature fall. This is the first register of the European red mite damaging the culture of the grapevine in Rio Grande do Sul.

  1. Sobre uma pintura inseticida para o controle de Triatoma infestans, na Bolívia About an insecticidal paint for controlling Triatoma infestans, in Bolivia

    João Carlos Pinto Dias


    Full Text Available Avaliações preliminares sobre uma pintura inseticida à base de diazinon, clorpirifós e piriproxifen em formulação micro-encapsulada (Inesfly 5A IGR ® mostrou efetiva e persistente atividade contra Triatoma infestans intra e peridomiciliar, numa região altamente infestada do Chaco Boliviano. Ressaltam, além disso, a boa manuseabilidade do produto e o bom aspecto deixado pela pintura em casas e anexos tratados, bem como uma excelente aceitação pela população e autoridades sanitárias locais, o que estimula novas investigações e o emprego do produto em maior escala e contra outros vetores da doença de Chagas.Preliminary evaluations of an insecticidal paint based on diazinon, chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen in a micro-encapsulated formulation (Inesfly 5A IGR ® have shown that it has effective and persistent activity against Triatoma infestans inside homes and in areas surrounding homes, in a highly infested region of the Bolivian Chaco. Furthermore, the evaluations have highlighted that the product presents good handling characteristics and gives a good appearance to houses and outhouses that have been treated, and that its acceptance among the population and the local sanitary authorities is excellent. This encourages new investigations and the use of the product on a larger scale and against other vector species for Chagas disease.

  2. Uso de nuevas herramientas para el control de triatominos en diferentes situaciones entomológicas en el continente americano

    Oliveira Filho Alfredo M.


    Full Text Available Se relatan los resultados obtenidos en el terreno seis meses y dos años post-tratamiento con las nuevas herramientas para el control de triatominos desarrolladas con apoyo de la OMS/TDR, o sea, a pinturas insecticidas, una suspensión emulsionable de lenta liberación conteniendo el 8,3% de malathion, aplicada por rociamiento; b potes fumígenos que, después de encendidos, echan humos que contienen cypermetrina y DDVP; c cajas sensoras para detección de triatominos. Los ensayos en el terreno fueron realizados en Chile, Honduras y Paraguay contra tres especies principales de vectores de la enfermedad de Chagas - Triatoma infestans, T. dimidiata y Rhodnius prolixus, según el protocolo elaborado por un comité de expertos de la OMS. Los resultados indican que las pinturas insecticidas constituyen un eficaz medio de control de estos vectores en cualquiera de las condiciones estudiadas, sea en el domicilio, sea en el peridomicilio, manteniendo los porcentajes de infestación muy próximos a cero. Comparaciones preliminares de la técnica de cajas sensoras para detección de casas infestadas por triatominos, con la búsqueda hecha por personal entrenado (hora/hombre indican esta última como la mas apropiada.

  3. Infestação por Pediculus humanus (Anoplura: Pediculidae no Município de São Paulo, SP, Brasil Infestation by Pediculus humanus (Anoplura: Pediculidae in a metropolitan area of Southeastern Brazil

    Pedro Marcos Linardi


    Full Text Available Adultos, ninfas e lêndeas da espécie Pediculus humanus foram encontrados em barraco, infestando roupas de cama e vestes de três habitantes em uma favela na cidade de São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Lêndeas, num total de 198, foram encontradas aderidas em 15,0 cm² de fibras de vestes infestadas, dando uma média de 13,2 por cm². Dada a freqüência em diversas cidades do Brasil, de precárias condições de vida, promiscuidade, ausência de saneamento básico e negligência das autoridades sanitárias tal ocorrência poderá ser maior do que um simples caso isolado.Adults, nymphs and nits of the Pediculus humanus were found in a frame-house infesting the clothes and bedding of three inhabitants in a shanty town in S. Paulo county, S. Paulo State. A total of 198 nits were found glued in 15.0 cm² of fibres of the infested clothing, giving a ratio of 13.2 nits/cm². Having in view that the precarious living conditions, promiscuity, absence of basic sanitation and negligence of the sanitary authorities in various Brazilian cities, this situation should not be underestimated. This find should be more frequent than an isolated observation.

  4. The palm tree Copernicia cerifera (carnaúba as an ecotope of Rhodnius nasutus in rural areas of the State of Piauí Northeastern Brazil

    Artur da S. Pinto


    Full Text Available The C. cerifera palm tree (carnaúba is widely distributed in the Northeastem Brazil, including the State of Piauí. This investigation revealed that R. nasutus is the ortly triatomine species captured on that palm tree, in five different localities. 78% of palm trees were infested with triatomines, and 4.0% were infected with flagellates morphologically and biologically indistinguishable from Trypanosoma cruzi. Birds, rodents and marsupials were found as major blood meai sources for R. nasutus.A palmeira C. cerifera (carnaúba é largamente distribuída no Nordeste do Brasil onde está situado o Estado do Piauí. Esta investigação revelou que R. nasutus foi a única espécie de triatomíneo capturada neste tipo de palmeira, na área rural deste Estado, em cinco localidades diferentes. Setenta e oito por cento das palmeiras estavam infestadas com triatomíneos, dos quais 4,0% estavam infectados com flagelados morfologicamente e biologicamente indistingüíveis do T. cruzi. Aves, roedores e marsupiais foram identificados como as principais fontes alimentares para o R. nasutus.

  5. Spittlebug Cephisus siccifolius damaging eucalypt plants in the State of Bahia, Brazil Cigarrinha-de-espuma Cephisus siccifolius em plantio de eucalipto clonal no Estado da Bahia, Brasil

    Genésio Tâmara Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Most common pests of eucalyptus plants in Brazil are leaf cutting ants and defoliating caterpillars. Other groups, eventually, feeding on eucalyptus include Heteroptera and cicadas. The objectives of this work were to identify and to describe attack symptoms of Cephisus siccifolius (Walker 1851 (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae on eucalyptus trees in a stand of 25.77 hectares in the State of Bahia, Brazil, where 99.3% of them were attacked by this spittlebug. Damage was more severe on branches and leaves. Tree death was, relatively, low while those cut showed 4.7 colonies of this spittlebug with 21.9 nymphs per colony. Cultural control with the removal of trees attacked was recommended.Os insetos-praga mais comuns em plantios de eucalipto no Brasil são formigas cortadeiras e lagartas desfolhadoras. Eventualmente, outros insetos como percevejos e cigarrinhas podem danificar essas plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e descrever os sintomas de ataque, em um plantio de eucalipto de 25,77 hectares, no Estado da Bahia, onde 99,3% das árvores tinham sido atacadas pela cigarrinha-de-espuma Cephisus siccifolius (Walker 1851 (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae. Os danos foram maiores em galhos e folhas. A mortalidade de árvores foi baixa, apesar de se observar 4,7 colônias de cigarrinhas por árvore, com 21,9 ninfas por colônia. O corte das árvores infestadas foi recomendado como controle.

  6. Neoplasmas da bexiga associados à hematúria enzoótica bovina Urinary bladder neoplasms associated with bovine enzootic hematuria

    Marione de Albuquerque Moreira Souto


    Full Text Available Relatam-se três casos de hematúria enzoótica bovina (HEB em animais provenientes do município de Jaguari, RS, Brasil. As pastagens de todas as propriedades de origem estavam altamente infestadas por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum. Três bovinos, com idades entre 4 e 7 anos, apresentaram sinais clínicos que incluíam emagrecimento progressivo, hematúria intermitente e palidez das mucosas. As principais lesões foram observadas na bexiga e consistiam de três tipos de neoplasmas: hemangioma capilar, hemangiossarcoma e carcinoma de células escamosas. A epidemiologia, os sinais clínicos e as lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas observadas nos três bovinos são consistentes com o diagnóstico de HEB.Three cases of bovine enzootic hematuria (BHE are described in cattle from the municipality of Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The pastures of all affected farms were highly infested with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum. Three 4-7-year-old bovine had clinical signs of progressive weight loss, intermittent hematuria, and mucosal pallor. The main lesions were observed in the urinary bladder and consisted of three types of neoplasms: capillary hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. The epidemiology, the clinical signs, and the gross and microscopic lesions observed in all three bovine were of BHE.

  7. Efeito da azadiractina sobre Chaetosiphon fragaefolli (Cockerell, 1901 (Hemiptera: Aphididae na cultura do morangueiro

    Daniel Bernardi


    Full Text Available O pulgão-verde Chaetosiphon fragaefolli é o principal inseto-praga da cultura do morangueiro. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da azadiractina para o controle do inseto em laboratório e casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos avaliados foram a azadiractina (Azamax®, 100; 200 e 300 ml.100L-1 comparado com o tiametoxam (Actara 250 WG®, 10 g.100L-1, lambda-cialotrina (Karate Zeon 50 CS®, 80 ml.100L-1 e uma testemunha (água. Os produtos foram pulverizados sobre plantas de morangueiro da cultivar Aromas infestadas artificialmente em casa de vegetação. A azadiractina foi equivalente a lambda-cialotrina e ao tiametoxam no controle de C. fragaefolii desde que realizada uma segunda pulverização sete dias após a primeira. A persistência biológica dos inseticidas lambda-cialotrina e tiametoxam foi superior a 28 dias, com um controle de 75% da população de pulgões, enquanto azadiractina apresentou menor persistência biológica, controlando 70% da população por sete dias.

  8. Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil.

    de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria


    The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power. PMID:18785051

  9. Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia

    Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah


    This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.




    Full Text Available Start fruit (Avverhoa carambola is rich in nutrients and contains dietary antioxidants which are beneficial to human health. Currently, the commercial potential of this fruit has not been fully explored especially in its dried form. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of pre-treatment on the drying kinetics and product quality of star fruit slices. The various pre-treatment methods investigated were hot water blanching and dipping in sugar solution. The star fruit was cut into thin slices (5 mm for drying (60°C-80°C using a hot air ventilated oven. Mathematical modelling showed that the Page model was able to describe the moisture diffusion process during drying. Effective diffusivity values were found within the order reported for most food materials (10-8-10-12 m2/s. A decreasing trend in shrinkage ratios was observed with decreasing moisture ratios which corresponds to the greater rate of moisture removal especially at the falling rate period. Overall colour changes were more significant in the blanched samples which could be due to the non-enzymatic browning.

  11. Crescimento, teor e acúmulo de nutrientes em hipobiotos de caramboleiras, cultivados em diferentes soluções nutritiva

    Danilo Eduardo Rozane


    Full Text Available O Brasil é um dos maiores produtores de carambola do mundo, entretanto, há poucas informações científicas, especialmente estudos de nutrição mineral em caramboleiras. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de soluções nutritivas no desenvolvimento e no estado nutricional de hipobioto (porta-enxertos de caramboleira. O delineamento experimental empregado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro soluções nutritivas e cinco repetições. Como solução padrão foi utilizada a de Hoagland & Arnon, comparada com outras três soluções. O experimento foi conduzido em estufa de vidro, em recipientes plásticos de oito litros. Cento e cinqüenta dias após o transplantio, foram determinados a massa da matéria seca, teores e acúmulo de nutrientes nos diversos órgãos da planta. As soluções nutritivas de Furlani, de Castellane & Araújo e de Sarruge foram semelhantes na produção de massa da matéria seca da planta inteira de hipobiotos de caramboleira. O uso da solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon resultou em menor acúmulo da massa da matéria seca na planta inteira e de nutrientes, exceto de N, Ca e Fe.

  12. Bactrocera dorsalis complex and its problem in control

    Eight species of fifty-two in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are serious pests in the Asia-Pacific region. Of these, all except one are attracted to methyl eugenol. Four of these pests B. carambolae, B. dorsalis, B. papayae and B. philippinesis are polyphagous species and infest 75, 117, 195 and 18 fruit host species respectively. Common names for B. carambalae and B. papayae (sympatric species) have caused confusion. Both species can interbreed and produce viable offspring; and their natural hybrids have been collected. Bactrocera dorsalis and B. papayae can interbreed readily and produce viable offspring in the laboratory as males produce identical booster sex and aggregation pheromonal components after consuming methyl eugenol. The DNA sequences of one of their respective allelic introns of the actin gene are also identical which suggests that they are not distinct genetic species. Protein bait application and male annihilation techniques have been successful in the management of fruit flies in many cases but they have to compete with natural sources of lures. SIT is amenable for non-methyl engenol species; but for methyl eugenol sensitive species, sterile makes should be allowed to consume methyl eugenol before release to have an equal mating competitiveness with wild males. (author)

  13. Viabilidade de uso do híbrido Hawaii 7996 como porta-enxerto de cultivares comerciais de tomate Potential of Hawaii 7996 hybrid as rootstock for tomato cultivars

    Suane Coutinho Cardoso


    Full Text Available A técnica de enxertia é utilizada em algumas hortaliças, principalmente em áreas infestadas, para atribuir resistência a patógenos do solo, minimizando as perdas de produção de cultivares suscetíveis. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de plantas de tomateiro enxertadas em híbrido, tido como resistente a Ralstonia solanacearum, em comparação a pés-francos. O experimento foi desenvolvido em viveiro (produção de mudas e enxertia e em céu aberto, no município de Cruz das Almas, Bahia, no período de outubro de 2003 a fevereiro de 2004. Utilizou-se o método de enxertia de fenda cheia, com o híbrido 'Hawaii 7996' como porta-enxerto e as cultivares Santa Clara, Santa Cruz Kada e Débora Plus, suscetíveis a R. solanacearum, como enxerto. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos (3 enxertados e 3 pés-francos, 5 repetições e 6 plantas por parcela útil. Avaliaram-se os caracteres: diâmetro do caule, altura da planta e da primeira inflorescência, distância entre inflorescências e produtividade comercial de frutos. O desenvolvimento das plantas, a produção total e a massa média dos frutos foram semelhantes para os tratamentos enxertados em relação a seus respectivos pés-francos e não houve incompatibilidade entre porta-enxerto e enxerto. A cultivar Santa Cruz Kada foi mais sensível às condições agroecológicas do município de Cruz das Almas, refletindo negativamente na produção e no peso médio dos frutos. Observou-se na enxertia com o híbrido 'Hawaii 7996' potencial para viabilizar a produção de tomateiros comerciais suscetíveis à murcha bacteriana, em áreas infestadas com R. solanacearum.Grafts have been used in horticultural crops, to overcome soilborne plant pathogens, and thus minimize yield losses of susceptible cultivars. This work aimed at to evaluate growth and yield of tomato plants grafted on to a hybrid resistant to Ralstonia

  14. Dengue and the risk of urban yellow fever reintroduction in São Paulo State, Brazil Dengue e risco da reintrodução da febre amarela urbana no Estado de São Paulo

    Eduardo Massad


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose a mathematical method for the estimation of the Basic Reproduction Number, R0, of urban yellow fever in a dengue-infested area. METHODS: The method is based on the assumption that, as the same vector (Aedes aegypti causes both infections, all the quantities related to the mosquito, estimated from the initial phase of dengue epidemic, could be applied to yellow fever dynamics. It is demonstrated that R0 for yellow fever is, on average, 43% lower than that for dengue. This difference is due to the longer dengue viremia and its shorter extrinsic incubation period. RESULTS: In this study the analysis was expanded to the epidemiological situation of dengue in São Paulo in the year 2001. The total number of dengue cases increased from 3,582 in 2000 to 51,348 in 2001. It was then calculated R0 for yellow fever for every city which have shown R0 of dengue greater than 1. It was also estimated the total number of unprotected people living in highly risky areas for urban yellow fever. CONCLUSIONS: Currently there is a great number of non-vaccinated people living in Aedes aegypti infested area in the state of São Paulo.OBJETIVO: Propor um modelo matemático para a estimativa da reprodutibilidade basal, R0, para a febre amarela urbana em uma área infestada pela dengue. MÉTODOS: O método utilizado considera que, como ambas as doenças são transmitidas pelo mesmo vetor (Aedes aegypti, poder-se-ia aplicar todos os parâmetros quantitativos relativos ao mosquito, estimados pela fase inicial da curva de crescimento de casos de dengue, à dinâmica da febre amarela. Demonstra-se que o R0 da febre amarela é em média 43% menor que o da dengue. Esta diferença deve-se à viremia mais prolongada da dengue, bem como ao menor período de incubação extrínseco daquele vírus no mosquito. RESULTADOS: Apresenta-se a aplicação desta análise matemática à situação epidemiológica da dengue no estado de São Paulo, para o ano de 2001

  15. Distribuição espacial e plano de amostragem de Calacarus heveae (Acari em seringueira Spatial distribution and sampling plan for Calacarus heveae (Acari on rubber trees

    Noeli Juarez Ferla


    Full Text Available Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 é um eriofídeo descrito de espécimes coletados em plantas de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbiaceae na região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Esse ácaro prefere a face adaxial dos folíolos e pode causar a perda do brilho, amarelecimento, bronzeamento dessa região e a subseqüente queda prematura das folhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a distribuição de C. heveae em seringueira, selecionar a unidade de amostragem mais representativa e desenvolver um plano de amostragem para o estudo de sua flutuação populacional. O trabalho foi conduzido com os clones PB 260 e IAN 873, respectivamente nos municípios de Itiquira e de Pontes e Lacerda, ambos no Mato Grosso. Em Itiquira, diferenças significativas foram observadas em quatro ocasiões em relação ao número médio de ácaros por folha nos diferentes estratos das plantas. Nas amostragens realizadas em Pontes e Lacerda, nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada entre os estratos em relação àquele parâmetro. Apenas em Itiquira, em uma ocasião de amostragem, foi verificada diferença entre os três estratos, em relação à proporção de folhas infestadas. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi verificada em relação ao número médio de ácaros por folha e proporção de folhas infestadas por C. heveae a diferentes distâncias da periferia da copa. Calacarus heveae exibe distribuição agregada no campo. Para estimar a densidade de C. heveae, um plano numérico e um plano binomial de amostragem foram desenvolvidos.Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 (Eriophyidae is a mite described from specimens collected on rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbiaceae in the northwest region of the state of São Paulo. This mite prefers the adaxial face of the folioles which it can turn dry, yellowish and brownish; it can also cause leaf fall. The aim of this work was to analyze the distribution of C. heveae on rubber trees, to select the most

  16. Biological and behavior aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 on cotton plantsAspectos biológicos e comportamentais de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 em algodoeiro

    Luciano Pacelli Medeiros Macedo


    Full Text Available It was aimed to study biological and behavior aspects of larvae and adults of Chrysoperla externa in greenhouse, on cotton plants. Recently hatched larvae were released on the upper third of cotton plants, which were previously infested with Aphis gossypii,. After emergence, adults were separated by sex and packed in cylindrical PVC recipients with cotton plant. We evaluated the duration of each larval, pre-pupal and pupal periods, pre-oviposition, oviposition, effective oviposition and post-oviposition periods, male and female logevity, daily and total oviposition capacity. The behavior of pupal stage was also evaluated, which released three larvae of the 3rd instar per cotton plant and they were put on the lower, medium and upper sections. As treatments, it was used naked soil, dried leaves from cotton plant, crushed rock nº 1; and crushed rock nº 1 + dried leaves. Larvae from different instars were released on the upper section of the cotton plants infested with A. gossypii to verify the search timing that marked the period the prey was exposed to the predator. C. externa larvae passed through all the phases of their biological cycle and there was no significant influence on the type of the soil covering used on pupal stage, since all of them were significantly higher on naked soil. There was no significative difference on the prey search by C. externa larvae.Objetivou-se estudar aspectos biológicos e comportamentais de larvas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa em casa-de-vegetação, em plantas de algodão. Larvas recém eclodidas foram liberadas no terço superior de plantas de algodão previamente infestadas com Aphis gossypii, onde permaneceram até a pupação. Após a emergência, adultos foram separados por sexo, acondicionados em recipientes cilíndricos de PVC contendo uma planta de algodoeiro. Avaliaram-se a duração de cada ínstar, dos períodos larval, pré-pupal e pupal, dos períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposi

  17. Entomological aspects of Chagas' disease transmission in the domestic habitat, Argentina Aspectos entomológicos de la transmisión de la Enfermedad de Chagas en Argentina

    SS Catalá


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the risk of Trypanosoma cruzi domestic transmission using an entomological index and to explore its relationship with household's characteristics and cultural aspects. METHODS: There were studied 158 households in an endemic area in Argentina. Each household was classified according to an entomological risk indicator (number of risky bites/human. A questionnaire was administered to evaluate risk factors among householders. RESULTS: Infested households showed a wide range of risk values (0 to 5 risky bites/human with skewed distribution, a high frequency of lower values and few very high risk households. Of all collected Triatoma infestans, 44% had had human blood meals whereas 27% had had dogs or chickens blood meals. Having dogs and birds sharing room with humans increased the risk values. Tidy clean households had contributed significantly to lower risk values as a result of low vector density. The infested households showed a 24.3% correlation between time after insecticide application and the number of vectors. But there was no correlation between the time after insecticide application and T. infestans' infectivity. The statistical analysis showed a high correlation between current values of the entomological risk indicator and Trypanosoma cruzi seroprevalence in children. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of T. cruzi domestic transmission assessed using an entomological index show a correlation with children seroprevalence for Chagas' disease and householders' habits.OBJETIVO: Estudiar el riesgo doméstico de transmisión de Trypanosoma cruzi por medio de un indicador entomológico y analizar su relación con características culturales y de las viviendas. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 158 casas en el área endémica argentina. Cada vivienda infestada se clasificó de acuerdo con un indicador entomológico de riesgo (número de picadas riesgosas/ humano. Mediante encuestas se evaluaron factores de riesgo asociados a la vivienda y habitos

  18. Freqüência de biovares de ralstonia solanacearum em diferentes cultivares e épocas de cultivo de batata no rio grande do sul Frequency of biovars of Ralstonia solanacearum on different cultivars and potato planting seasons in Rio Grande do Sul



    Full Text Available A presença das biovares I e/ou II de Ralstonia solanacearum em uma lavoura de batatas (Solanum tuberosum tem influência direta no sucesso das medidas adotadas para controlar a murcha bacteriana. As biovares diferem entre si em relação à agressividade, latência e sobrevivência. Assim, um experimento de campo foi conduzido em uma área naturalmente infestada em duas épocas de cultivo com os objetivos de verificar (1 a incidência de biovares I e/ou II, (2 a relação entre biovar e época de plantio e (3 a relação entre biovar e cultivar de batata. Os isolados obtidos de plantas das cultivares Achat, Baronesa, Elvira, Macaca, Monte Bonito e Trapeira foram identificados como biovar I ou II através da PCR, utilizando os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores T3A e T5A. Ambas as biovares foram encontradas na área naturalmente infestada. De 73 isolados de R. solanacearum, 94,5% foram identificados como biovar II e 5,5% como biovar I. A biovar II foi isolada dos cultivos de primavera e de outono, independente da cultivar, mas a I apenas do cultivo de primavera e de plantas assintomáticas das cultivares Achat e Macaca. A maior população da biovar I nestas duas cultivares pode ser uma evidência da possível relação entre biovar e cultivar.The occurrence of biovars I and/or II of Ralstonia solanacearum in a potato (Solanum tuberosum field has direct consequences for the success of the measures adopted to control bacterial wilt. Biovars differ regarding aggressiveness, latency and survival. An experiment was conducted in a naturally infested potato field in two seasons to find (1 the incidence of biovars I and II, (2 the relationship between biovar and planting season, and (3 the relationship between biovar and potato cultivar. Bacterial isolates from potato cultivars Achat, Baronesa, Elvira, Macaca, Monte Bonito, and Trapeira were identified as biovar I or II through PCR, using T3A and T5A primers. Both biovars I and II were found in the

  19. Produção e qualidade do grão do arroz irrigado infestado por adultos de percevejo-das-panículas Yield and grain quality of flood rice infested with adults of rice stink bug

    Evane Ferreira


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os danos qualitativos e quantitativos, causados por adultos de Oebalus poecilus (Dallas Stal, em panículas de 39 genótipos de arroz irrigado. Em campo, as panículas emergentes foram isoladas em gaiolas e infestadas com dois insetos, no início da fase leitosa das espiguetas. Panículas não infestadas serviram de testemunha. Após a colheita, amostras compostas de 50 espiguetas de cada grau de infestação, para cada genótipo, foram semeadas em telado, e a emergência foi determinada após 16 dias. Manchas no grão foram avaliadas em amostras de 50 espiguetas. O percevejo provocou alterações significativas, pois reduziu a massa e o número de espiguetas por panícula, a porcentagem de plântulas emergidas, e aumentou a porcentagem de espiguetas vazias e com grão manchado. A combinação da porcentagem de perda de massa com a de sementes inviáveis foi de 44%, e da perda de massa com a de espiguetas manchadas, de 81,4%. A maior porcentagem de plântulas emergidas de espiguetas manchadas ocorreu nos genótipos de ciclo médio. Os genótipos de ciclo curto CNAi 8859, CNAi 8879, CNAi 8885 e CNAi 8886, e os de ciclo médio CNAi 9089, CNAi 9097, CNAi 9150, CNAi 9687 CNAi 9730, CNAi 9747 e CNAi 9778 são os mais tolerantes ao percevejo-das-panículas.The objective of this work was to compare the effects of infestation with adults of rice stink bug, Oebalus poecilus (Dallas Stal, on panicles of 39 genotypes of irrigated rice. In the field, newly emerged panicles were isolated in cages and infested with two insects in the beginning of the milky stage. Non-infested panicles comprised the controls. After harvest, samples of 50 spikelets from each infestation level were seeded in screen house, and the emergence was determined 16 days after planting. Stains in the grain were evaluated in samples of 50 spikelets. The stink bug produced significant alterations, reducing weight and number of spikelets per panicle

  20. External parasites of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes: identification in an ex situ population from Mexico

    JaquelineB de Oliveira


    estudio fue identificar los ectoparásitos de aves de presa en cautiverio en México y verificar su impacto en la salud de las aves. Se estudiaron 74 rapaces (66 Falconiformes y ocho Strigiformes de 15 especies, juveniles y adultos de ambos sexos que fueron confiscadas y mantenidas en el Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS en Los Reyes La Paz (20º22’ N, 98º59’ W, estado de México. La prevalencia fue de 16.2%; 66.7% de las rapaces estaban infestadas por un único tipo de ectoparásito. Los piojos fueron los más prevalentes (91.7%, seguidos por los ácaros y las pulgas (8.3%. Los piojos Degeeriela fulva (72.7%, Craspedorhynchus sp. (45.4% y Strigiphilus aitkeni (9.1% fueron extraídos de las alas, cabeza y cuello de aguililla cola-roja (Buteo jamaicensis, aguililla migratoria (B. swainsoni, aguililla de Harris (Parabuteo unicinctus y lechuza de campanario (Tyto alba. El ácaro Kramerella sp. fue extaído de T. alba; mientras que un Caracara (Caracara cheriway estaba infestado por la pulga Echidnophaga gallinacea. No se observaron signos clínicos en ninguna de las aves infestadas. Probablemente el uso periódico de organofosforatos fue el responsable de la baja prevalencia y de los niveles de ingesta de piojos. La diversidad de ectoparásitos identificados ilustra la importancia de una detallada revisión de las rapaces en cautiverio. Cinco nuevos hospederos y registros geográficos son presentados.

  1. Surtos populacionais de Bemisia tabaci no estado de São Paulo Outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    André Luiz Lourenção


    Full Text Available A partir de 1991, tem sido observada a presença da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae em altas populações em hortaliças e orna-mentais nos municípios paulistas de Paulínia, Holambra, Jaguariúna e Artur Nogueira. Foram constatadas infestações severas em tomateiro, brócolos, berinjela e aboboreira; nesta última, o sintoma observado em plantas infestadas pela mosca-branca é o prateamento da face superior das folhas, em conjunto com queda drástica da produção. Uma lavoura de tomate severamente infestada por B. tabaci apresentava o sintoma referido colo amadurecimento irregular dos frutos do tomateiro; plantas invasoras presentes nessa área também foram intensamente colonizadas, principalmente Sida rhombifolia L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Solanum viarum Dun. e Ipomoea acuminata Roem. & Schult. Em Holambra, verificaram-se ataques intensos em plantas ornamentais, principalmente crisântemo (Chrysantemum morifolium Ramat. e bico-de-papagaio (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.; roseiras foral pouco colonizadas. Nessas hortaliças e nas ornamentais, a aplicação quase diária de inseticidas não reduziu a infestação do inseto. Além dessas plantas, campos de algodão, em Holambra, e de feijão, em Paulínia, também foram infestados por B. tabaci. Nos E.U.A., a capacidade de certas populações de B. tabaci de induzir o prateamento da folha em aboboreira e de colonizar intensamente E. pulcherrima, entre outros fatores, têm levado à distinção do biótipo "B" ou "poinsétia", nome vulgar dessa euforbiácea; todavia, estudos recentes na Califórnia (E.U.A. mostram a possibilidade de se tratar de duas espécies distintas. Dada a similaridade entre as infestações associadas a B. tabaci que vêm ocorrendo naquele país e, mais recentemente, no Brasil, é provável que o biótipo B ou essa nova espécie tenha sido aqui introduzido.Since 1991, an increase in the populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Homoptera

  2. ANTI-TICK EFFECT OBSERVED IN MATURE PLANTS O TROPICAL LEGUMES Stylosanthes humilis and Stylosanthes hamata



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The anti-tick effect of Stylosanthes humilis and Stylosanthes hamata was evaluated for mature plants on plots experimentally infested with larvae of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Cenchurus ciliaris was used as control grass. The effect was evaluated counting the total number of live tick larvae recovered by the double flannel flag technique from the experimental plots during a four week period. The effect observed in both Stylosanthes species did not show significant differences (p > 0.05 between them and the larval survival percentage was 5.1 % for S. humilis and 7.5 % for S. hamata. In the first specie the anti-tick effect was lower than the one reported for young plants, but in S. hamata this effect was similar in young and mature plants. Further studies are necessary to complement the knowledge about this plant and to establish their use in field conditions..RESUMEN El efecto anti-garrapata de plantas maduras de las leguminosas tropicales Stylosanthes humilis y Stylosanthes hamata , fue evaluado en parcelas experimentalmente infestadas con larvas de garrapata Boophilus microplus, utilizando al pasto Cenchurus ciliaris como tratamiento testigo. El efecto fue evaluado contando el número total de larvas vivas recuperadas de las parcelas experimentales por la técnica de bandera de doble recorrido durante un periodo de cuatro semanas. El efecto anti-garrapata observado en ambas especies de Stylosanthes no mostró diferencias entre ellas (p<0.05, el porcentaje de sobrevivencia de larvas fue del 5.1% para S. humilis y 7.5% para S. hamata. En la primera especie el efecto anti-garrapata fue menor que el reportado en plantas jóvenes, pero en S. hamata este efecto fue similar en plantas maduras y jóvenes. Es necesario realizar más estudios para complementar el conocimiento que se tiene acerca de estas plantas y establecer su uso en condiciones de campo

  3. Flutuação sazonal de Dermatobia hominis em peles bovinas oriundas de matadouro

    Brito Luciana Gatto


    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo do efeito da temperatura, precipitação pluviométrica e da umidade relativa sobre a flutuação sazonal de larvas de Dermatobia hominis em 5.142 peles de bovinos. As peles foram obtidas junto a um matadouro localizado no município de Piraí, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, durante o período de novembro de 1995 a outubro de 1997. Os maiores picos de peles parasitadas por berne foram observados em novembro de 1995 e dezembro de 1996. Picos menores de infestação foram observados nos meses de março e maio de 1996 e março de 1997, quando também foram observadas altas porcentagens de peles infestadas. O aumento na porcentagem de peles parasitadas acompanhou o aumento da temperatura média mensal, sendo que temperaturas iguais ou maiores que 25ºC se mostraram benéficas ao aumento na porcentagem de peles parasitadas, assim como a precipitação pluviométrica, onde observou-se que períodos de chuvas mensais acima de 200 mm³ favoreceram ao aumento da porcentagem de peles parasitadas. As menores porcentagens de peles parasitadas por berne foram observadas durante o período de junho a outubro de 1996 e de 1997, quando verificou-se temperaturas médias mensais variando entre 21ºC e 22,5ºC, sendo que estas não se mostraram favoráveis ao aumento na porcentagem de peles parasitadas, assim como, precipitações pluviométricas mensais menores que 50 mm³. Das 5.142 peles examinadas, 2.710 (52,7% encontravam-se parasitadas pelo berne.

  4. Aspectos críticos do controle do dengue no Brasil

    Tauil Pedro Luiz


    Full Text Available O dengue é hoje a principal doença re-emergente no mundo. Na ausência de uma vacina preventiva eficaz, de tratamento etiológico e quimioprofilaxia efetivos, o único elo vulnerável para reduzir a sua transmissão é o mosquito Aedes aegypti, seu principal vetor. As dificuldades de combater este mosquito, em grandes e médias cidades, são muitas. Há facilidades para sua proliferação e limitações para reduzir seus índices de infestação, geradas pela complexidade da vida urbana atual. Os objetivos do controle do dengue devem ser estabelecidos com base nos conhecimentos científicos e técnicos disponíveis. Assim, não sendo possível evitar casos de dengue em áreas infestadas pelo A. aegypti, é possível prevenir epidemias de grandes dimensões por meio do aprimoramento da vigilância epidemiológica, e é possível e factível reduzir a letalidade da doença, dos níveis atuais de 5 a 6% para cerca de 1% das formas graves. A elaboração e execução de planos estratégicos de organização da assistência aos casos suspeitos de dengue têm mostrado, tanto em outros países, como em algumas cidades brasileiras, ser um instrumento muito útil na redução da letalidade.

  5. Aspectos críticos do controle do dengue no Brasil

    Pedro Luiz Tauil


    Full Text Available O dengue é hoje a principal doença re-emergente no mundo. Na ausência de uma vacina preventiva eficaz, de tratamento etiológico e quimioprofilaxia efetivos, o único elo vulnerável para reduzir a sua transmissão é o mosquito Aedes aegypti, seu principal vetor. As dificuldades de combater este mosquito, em grandes e médias cidades, são muitas. Há facilidades para sua proliferação e limitações para reduzir seus índices de infestação, geradas pela complexidade da vida urbana atual. Os objetivos do controle do dengue devem ser estabelecidos com base nos conhecimentos científicos e técnicos disponíveis. Assim, não sendo possível evitar casos de dengue em áreas infestadas pelo A. aegypti, é possível prevenir epidemias de grandes dimensões por meio do aprimoramento da vigilância epidemiológica, e é possível e factível reduzir a letalidade da doença, dos níveis atuais de 5 a 6% para cerca de 1% das formas graves. A elaboração e execução de planos estratégicos de organização da assistência aos casos suspeitos de dengue têm mostrado, tanto em outros países, como em algumas cidades brasileiras, ser um instrumento muito útil na redução da letalidade.

  6. Trypanosomiasis americana en el Perú: I. El insector vector y los animales que actúan de reservorio de la enfermedad de Chagas en la región sudoccidental

    Arístides Herrer


    Full Text Available Como resultado de observaciones llevadas a cabo durante los meses de enero a marzo de 1952, sobre varios aspectos de la enfermedad de Chagas en la región sudoccidental del Perú, se informa lo siguiente: 1. El Triatoma infestans es el único vector de la enfermedad de Chagas en la mencionada región. Su actual distribución abarcaría la vertiente occidental de los Andes desde el paralelo 14 al 18 de latitud sur, y desde el nivel del mar hasta las proximidades de los 3.500 me tros de altitud. 2. En la mayoría de las localidades el T. infestans se encuentra infectado por el Trypanosoma cruzi variando la incidencia de la infección de acuerdo con los animales domésticos sobre los cuales se alimenta el triatomino. Los lugares donde se crían o encierra cobayos siempre ofrecen mayor incidencia de la infección. 3. En busca de infecciones naturales al T. cruzi, por medio de observaciones de sangre fueron revisados 356 animales domésticos, entre los que se encuentran 297 cobayos, 32 perros, 14 conejos, 8 gatos y 5 cerdos. De éstos, en 17 cobayos y un gato fué posible verificar la infección. 4. En el valle de Moquegua se observó un caso de asociación entre el T. infestans y ratones grises, en las proximidades de una casa que parecía no se encontraba infestada por este triatomino. Tanto los triatomas como también los ratones capturados se encontraban infectados por el T. cruzi. 5. Finalmente se presentan algunas consideraciones sobre el rol de reservorio de la enfermedad de Chagas que desempeñarían ciertos animales domésticos en la región sudoccidental del Perú.

  7. Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico

    Zayame Vegette Pinto


    Full Text Available A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, causada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica e lisa (Regina e Elisa, infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique, sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano.

  8. Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae poisoning in Murrah buffaloes in Rio Grande do Sul Intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em bubalinos no Rio Grande do Sul

    André M.R. Corrêa


    Full Text Available Thirteen (14.4% out of 90 Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis became ill after con-sumption of Senecio brasiliensis, and 11 (12.2% of them died. The buffaloes were kept in a highly Senecio brasiliensis infested area. The poisoning occurred in June-August 2006 on a farm in the county of Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Clinical signs included weakness, apathy, progressive weight loss, permanent decubitus, and diarrhea. Necropsy was performed in 2 of the 11 buffaloes that died. The pathological findings were typical of poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids. High infestation of pastures with S. brasiliensis, severe drought, and consequent starvation were the main epidemiological factors associated with the poisoning here described.Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em búfalos Murrah (Bubalus bubalis em uma propriedade localizada no município de Nova Prata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no período de junho a agosto de 2006. De um total de 90 búfalos, 13 adoeceram e 11 morreram. Os animais eram mantidos em áreas de pastoreio altamente infestadas por S. brasiliensis. Os principais sinais clínicos relatados foram letargia, apatia, emagrecimento progressivo, diarréia e decúbito permanente. Necropsia foi feita em dois dos 11 animais mortos. As lesões foram características de intoxicações por alcalóides pirrolizidínicos. A grande quantidade da planta, forte estiagem e desnutrição conseqüente foram os principais achados epidemiológicos associados com a mortalidade.

  9. Atividades educativas para o controle de triatomíneos em área de vigilância epidemiológica do Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Falavigna-Guilherme Ana Lucia


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é descrever um projeto de atividades de educação sanitária para a comunidade rural e profissionais de saúde de municípios em fase de vigilância epidemiológica de triatomíneos no Paraná. Uma equipe composta de técnicos da Fundação Nacional de Saúde, professores, funcionários e acadêmicos da Universidade Estadual de Maringá foi treinada, preparando um manual de orientações e elaborando um fluxo a ser seguido em caso de denúncia de triatomíneo ou de indivíduo com suspeita de infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. De junho de 1996 a fevereiro de 2000, as atividades incluíram 742 famílias, 2.300 alunos e 27 professores em 18 escolas de ensino fundamental, incluindo um evento para especialistas com 40 participantes, 21 reuniões em Postos de Saúde e a entrega de um mostruário com triatomíneos. Três anos após a realização dessas atividades e aspersão de inseticida (cipermetrina 125mg i.a./m², verificou-se redução de 80,6% das unidades domiciliares infestadas por triatomíneos, além da conscientização da comunidade rural e profissionais de saúde. Foi discutida a necessidade de formação de profissionais compromissados com a inversão do modelo de saúde vigente no País.

  10. Susceptibilidad a insectos en selecciones y variedades de annona muricata l. y persea americana m. en Puerto Rico

    Irma Cabrera


    Full Text Available En Puerto Rico se han reportado varios insectos en las guanábanas (Annona muricata L. y los aguacates (Persea americana M, sin embargo los de mayor importancia son el barrenador de la semilla Bephratelloides cubensis (A. y Apate monacha (F. en A. muricata y Pseudacysta persea (F. en P. americana. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue determinar la incidencia de B. cubensis y A. monacha en seis selecciones de guanábana y en siete variedades de aguacate. De las evaluaciones realizadas en A. muricata, se observó que las selecciones IV-10, VII-14 y VI-1 mostraron la mayor incidencia y la IV-16 mostró la menor incidencia de B. cubensis en relación al número de barrenos por fruta. En cuanto a la incidencia de A. monacha en A. muricata las selecciones IV-16, IV-2, IV-3, VII-14 presentaron la mayor incidencia de barrenos por árbol. En las evaluaciones realizadas en Persea americana se seleccionaron las variedades Ávila, Semil 34, Wilson Popenoe, Pollock, Candelaria, Semil 43 y Butler como las variedades comerciales más sembradas en Puerto Rico. Se observó que la variedad Avila obtuvo el mayor número de huevos, ninfas, hembras y machos de P. persea por hojas comparadas con las demás variedades. Respecto al número de hojas infestadas por árbol se encontró valores significativos (P≤0,01 en la variedad Avila. Resultando tener un 90% de las hojas dañadas. No se observó que las variedades evaluadas tuviese baja o ninguna preferencia a P. Persea

  11. Resolving cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests.

    Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M Teresa; De Meyer, Marc; Clarke, Anthony R


    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on "Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade" was conducted from 2010 to 2015. As captured in the CRP title, the objective was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. The scientific output was the accurate alignment of biological species with taxonomic names; which led to the applied outcome of assisting FAO and IAEA Member States in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and the facilitation of international agricultural trade. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, using coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, within an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. The following progress was made for the four complexes selected and studied: Anastrepha fraterculus complex - Eight morphotypes and their geographic and ecological distributions in Latin America were defined. The morphotypes can be considered as distinct biological species on the basis of differences in karyotype, sexual incompatibility, post-mating isolation, cuticular hydrocarbon, pheromone, and molecular analyses. Discriminative taxonomic tools using linear and geometric morphometrics of both adult and larval morphology were developed for this complex. Bactrocera dorsalis complex - Based on genetic, cytogenetic, pheromonal, morphometric, and behavioural data, which showed no or only minor variation between the Asian/African pest fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera invadens, the latter three species were synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis. Of the five target pest taxa studied, only Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae remain as scientifically valid

  12. Effect of High Energy Electron Beam Irradiation on Epidermis Color of Certain Imported Fruits%高能电子束辐照处理对几种进口水果表皮色泽的影响

    徐赟; 戚文元; 岳玲; 颜伟强; 包英姿; 孔秋莲


    以泰国青芒果(honeys)、澳大利亚红芒果(R2E2)和台湾二林种杨桃为试材,研究电子束辐照处理对果实表皮色泽的影响,为电子束辐照检疫进口水果提供参考依据.结果表明,三种水果经0.43、0.85、1.26、1.68 kGy剂量的电子束辐照后立即观测,未发现肉眼可见的色泽变化,但总色差计算分析表明,辐照处理可导致果实产生色差,其中以0.43 kGy处理的色差最小,1.68 kGy处理的最大.货架条件(15~25℃)存放7d后,不同辐照剂量处理的果皮色泽表现出明显的差异,果皮出现褐变,且剂量越大,褐变指数越高,其中泰国青芒果的后熟黄化受到抑制.因此,建议台湾二林种杨桃的适宜辐照剂量应在0.43 kGy以下,泰国青芒果和澳大利亚红芒果的适宜辐照剂量应在0.85 kGy以下.统计分析色泽参数(L*、a*、b*)与辐照剂量的相关性发现,三种水果果皮的红/绿轴参数a*与辐照剂量存在显著相关,在评价辐照果实色泽中具有重要意义.%In order to provide basis for irradiation use on quarantine of fresh fruits, effects of E -beam irradiation on skin color of mango (honeys, R2E2) and carambola were studied. Results showed that, macroscopical changes of fruits skin color were not occurred for those fruits which were just irradiated with doses of 0.43, 0.85, 1.26, 1.68 kGy. But the total color difference (△E) of fruits were detected, and 1.68 kGy treated fruits was higher than that of lower dose treated ones. After storage at shelf situation (15~25 ℃) for 7 days, the differences of skin color of which were treated at different dosage were macroscopical. Skins browning were observed which increased with the higher doses, and the ripening of honeys was inhibited. These results indicated that, the appropriate irradiation dose for carambola would be under 0.43 kGy while those for mango (honeys, R2E2) would be under 0.85 kGy. In addition, the correlation analysis between values of L

  13. Resolving cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests

    Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M. Teresa; De Meyer, Marc; Clarke, Anthony R.


    Abstract An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade” was conducted from 2010 to 2015. As captured in the CRP title, the objective was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. The scientific output was the accurate alignment of biological species with taxonomic names; which led to the applied outcome of assisting FAO and IAEA Member States in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and the facilitation of international agricultural trade. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, using coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, within an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. The following progress was made for the four complexes selected and studied: Anastrepha fraterculus complex – Eight morphotypes and their geographic and ecological distributions in Latin America were defined. The morphotypes can be considered as distinct biological species on the basis of differences in karyotype, sexual incompatibility, post-mating isolation, cuticular hydrocarbon, pheromone, and molecular analyses. Discriminative taxonomic tools using linear and geometric morphometrics of both adult and larval morphology were developed for this complex. Bactrocera dorsalis complex – Based on genetic, cytogenetic, pheromonal, morphometric, and behavioural data, which showed no or only minor variation between the Asian/African pest fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera invadens, the latter three species were synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis. Of the five target pest taxa studied, only Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae remain as

  14. Roles of semiochemicals in mating systems: A comparison between Oriental fruit fly and Medfly

    Males of tephritid fruit fly species show strong affinity to specific chemicals produced by plants. Amongst the economically important species in the Asian Pacific area, methyl eugenol acts as a potent attractant for males of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and several other species within the dorsalis species complex (e.g., B. papayae Drew and Hancock, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, etc.), cuelure [4-(4-acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone] and the naturally occurring deacetyl derivative (raspberry ketone) act as specific attractants for flies such as the melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the Queensland fruit fly, B. tryoni (Froggatt) (Metcalf 1990). These attractants have been successfully used as baits in mass trapping for monitoring populations during eradication programmes for these pests (Chambers 1977, Koyama et al. 1984). Likewise, trimedlure has been developed as a synthetic attractant for males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), while α-copaene has been known to be a naturally occurring attractant for the species. For most tephritids, however, the biological function of male attraction to these natural or artificial compounds remains unclear. Recent studies (Nishida et al. 1988 1997, Nishida and Fukami 1990, Tan 1993, Tan and Nishida 1996) have shown that males of B. dorsalis and related species ingest these compounds from natural sources, selectively incorporate them into the rectal glands, and use them to synthesise the sex pheromone and allomone. It appears that similar chemical compounds, when ingested, may provide pheromonal precursors in the melon fly as well (Nishida et al. 1993, Shelly and Villalobos 1995). In contrast, Medfly males do not feed on the source of chemical attractant. According to our observations, α-copaene strongly affected the courtship behaviour of the Medfly, which suggests that these natural compounds may possibly be involved in the formation of leks and the mating

  15. Produção de blends a partir de frutos tropicais e nativos da Amazônia

    Leandro Camargo Neves


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se o enriquecimento nutricional de néctares de frutos, pelo processamento de blends, usando-se fruteiras tropicais e Amazônicas produzidas em Roraima. Foram utilizados néctares de abacaxi, buriti, caju, camu-camu, carambola, maracujá, murici, lima-ácida Tahiti e taperebá. Foi realizado um ensaio preliminar onde se constatou que os néctares de abacaxi e maracujá seriam utilizados como matrizes e, dos quais, saíram os tratamentos: 2 controles - 100% de abacaxi e 100% de maracujá; 1 blend entre as matrizes - 50% de abacaxi + 50% de maracujá; 7 blends de cada matriz com cada fruto escolhido, na proporção de 1:1. Foram adicionados benzoato de sódio e dióxido de enxofre, nas concentrações de 500 e 200 ppm, respectivamente, em todos os néctares e blends trabalhados. Os resultados referentes à composição nutricional dos blends refletiram aumento significativo nos valores nutricionais quando em comparação com as matrizes, bem como com os néctares individuais de cada fruto. O mesmo comportamento foi observado mesmo após 10 dias de armazenamento não refrigerado. Com relação à estabilidade microbiológica, apenas os blends que utilizaram o buriti como componente apresentaram comprometimento. As análises químicas dos blends demonstraram padrões distintos das matrizes; entretanto, quando submetidos à análise sensorial, mostraram-se satisfatórias por parte dos julgadores. As composições que mais agradaram os julgadores foram os blends de ambas as matrizes associadas ao camu-camu e murici.

  16. Purification and chemical characterisation of a cell wall-associated β-galactosidase from mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit.

    Gerardi, Carmela; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo


    Using four different chromatographic steps, β-galactosidase was purified from the ripe fruit of sweet cherry to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 131-fold purification. The Prunus avium β-galactosidase showed an apparent molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consisted of four different active polypeptides with pIs of about 7.9, 7.4, 6.9 and 6.4 as estimated by native IEF and β-galactosidase-activity staining. The active polypeptides were individually excised from the gel and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Each of the four native enzymes showing β-galactosidase activity was composed of two polypeptides with an estimated mass of 54 and 33 kDa. Both of these polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The 54 kDa polypeptide of sweet cherry β-galactosidase showed a 43% identity with the 44 kDa subunit of persimmon and apple β-galactosidases and the 48 kDa subunit of carambola galactosidase I. The sweet cherry β-galactosidase exhibited a strict specificity towards p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside, a pH optimum of 4.0 and K(m) and V(max) values of 0.42 mM and 4.12 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein respectively with this substrate. The enzyme was also active towards complex glycans. Taken together the results of this study prompted a role for this class of enzymes on sweet cherry fruit ripening and softening. PMID:23121861

  17. 杨梅复合饮料澄清工艺研究

    庄雅香; 贺永朝; 宋洪波; 叶翌冬; 马岁祥


    以澄清度为指标,研究壳聚糖添加用量、作用温度、作用时间对杨梅、杨桃、苹果、芦荟复合汁澄清效果的影响,采用L9(34)正交试验,通过极差和方差分析发现,影响壳聚糖澄清效果的主次因素为壳聚糖添加量>作用时间>作用温度,其中壳聚糖添加量和作用时间达到了显著水平,而作用温度的影响不显著;澄清的最佳工艺条件为壳聚糖添加量1.5%,作用温度45℃,作用时间60 min,在此条件下复合汁的澄清度可达96.8%。%Taking clarity as indicator, the effect of chitosan dosage, reaction temperature and reaction time on clarifying for the compound juice of bayberry, carambola, apple and aloe vera is studied. L9(34) orthogonal experiment is adopted. Through analysis of range and variance, it is found that factors decreasing sequence of affecting clarity are chitosan dosage > reaction time > reaction temperature. The effects of chitosan dosage and reaction time are significant while the impact of reaction temperature is not significant . The optimized clarifying condition is chitosan dosage of 1.5%, reaction temperature of 45 ℃, and reaction time of 60 min. Under the condition, clarity of compound juice can reach 96.8%.

  18. The mitochondrial genome of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Complete DNA sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic analysis with other tephritids using next generation DNA sequencing.

    Choudhary, Jaipal S; Naaz, Naiyar; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Rao, Mathukumalli Srinivasa; Das, Bikash


    Mitochondrial genome can provide information for genomic structure as well as for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. The complete 15,935 bp mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae), is assembled from Illumina MiSeq read data. The mitogenome information for B. zonata was compared to the homologous sequences of other tephritids. Annotation indicated that the structure and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA sequences were typical of, and similar to, the ten closely related tephritid species. The nucleotide composition shows heavily biased toward As and Ts accounting 73.34% and exhibits a slightly positive AT skew, which is similar to other known tephritid species. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cox1 with TCG and atp8 with GTG. Nine PCGs use a common stop codon of TAA or TAG, whereas the remaining four use an incomplete termination codon T or TA likely to be completed by adenylation. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, with an exception for trnS((AGN)). Four short intergenic spacers showed high degree of conservation among B. zonata and other ten tephritids. A poly(T) stretch at the 5' end followed by [TA(A)]n-like stretch and a tandem repeats of 39 bp has been observed in CR. The analysis of gene evolutionary rate revealed that the cox1 and atp6 exhibits lowest and highest gene substitution rates, respectively than other genes. The phylogenetic relationships based on Maximum Likelihood method using all protein-coding genes and two ribosomal RNA genes confirmed that B. zonata is closely related to Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, and Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera dorsalis belonging to B. dorsalis species complex forms a monophyletic clade, which is in accordance with the traditional morphological classification and recent molecular works. PMID:26031235

  19. Specific detection of benzimidazole resistance in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from fruit crops by PCR-RFLP.

    Chung, Wen-Hsin; Chung, Wen-Chuan; Peng, Mun-Tsu; Yang, Hong-Ren; Huang, Jenn-Wen


    Anthracnose diseases, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, are a worldwide problem and are especially important in Taiwan owing to the severe economic damage they cause to tropical fruits that are grown for local consumption and export. Benzimidazoles are systemic fungicides widely used for controlling these diseases in Taiwan. Thirty-one isolates of C. gloeosporioides from mango and strawberry grown in Taiwan were examined for their sensitivity to benzimidazole fungicides. The responses of the isolates grown on benzimidazole-amended culture media were characterized as sensitive, moderately resistant, resistant or highly resistant. Analysis of point mutations in the beta-tubulin gene by DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments revealed a substitution of GCG for GAG at codon 198 in resistant and highly resistant isolates and a substitution of TAC for TTC at codon 200 in moderately resistant isolates. A set of specific primers, TubGF1 and TubGR, was designed to amplify a portion of the beta-tubulin gene for the detection of benzimidazole-resistant C. gloeosporioides. Bsh1236I restriction maps of the amplified beta-tubulin gene showed that the resistant isolate sequence, but not the sensitive isolate sequence, was cut. The PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was validated to detect benzimidazole-resistant and benzimidazole-sensitive C. gloeosporioides isolates recovered from avocado, banana, carambola, dragon fruit, grape, guava, jujube, lychee, papaya, passion fruit and wax apple. This method has the potential to become a valuable tool for monitoring the occurrence of benzimidazole-resistant C. gloeosporioides and for assessment of the need for alternative management practices. PMID:19854306

  20. Cytogenetic and symbiont analysis of five members of the B. dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae): no evidence of chromosomal or symbiont-based speciation events

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Asimakis, Elias D.; Cáceres, Carlos; Tsiamis, George; Bourtzis, Kostas; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Zacharopoulou, Antigone


    Abstract The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, currently comprising about 90 entities has received much attention. During the last decades, considerable effort has been devoted to delimiting the species of the complex. This information is of great importance for agriculture and world trade, since the complex harbours several pest species of major economic importance and other species that could evolve into global threats. Speciation in Diptera is usually accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements, particularly inversions that are assumed to reduce/eliminate gene flow. Other candidates currently receiving much attention regarding their possible involvement in speciation are reproductive symbionts, such as Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, Arsenophonus, Rickettsia and Cardinium. Such symbionts tend to spread quickly through natural populations and can cause a variety of phenotypes that promote pre-mating and/or post-mating isolation and, in addition, can affect the biology, physiology, ecology and evolution of their insect hosts in various ways. Considering all these aspects, we present: (a) a summary of the recently gained knowledge on the cytogenetics of five members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, namely Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae, supplemented by additional data from a Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. colony from China, as well as by a cytogenetic comparison between the dorsalis complex and the genetically close species, Bactrocera tryoni, and, (b) a reproductive symbiont screening of 18 different colonized populations of these five taxa. Our analysis did not reveal any chromosomal rearrangements that could differentiate among them. Moreover, screening for reproductive symbionts was negative for all colonies derived from different geographic origins and/or hosts. There are many different factors that can lead to speciation, and our data do not support chromosomal and/or symbiotic

  1. Estimativa de Trichogramma pretiosum para controle de Tuta absoluta em tomateiro estaqueado Estimate of Trichogramma pretiosum to control Tuta absoluta in stalked tomato

    Dirceu Pratissoli


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o número ideal de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley a ser liberado em campo para o controle da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. O experimento foi implantado em casa de vegetação, onde, 60 dias após o transplantio, plantas de tomate foram infestadas com 200 ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, na proporção de 70% no terço superior das plantas, 24% no terço médio e 6% no terço inferior. Fêmeas de T. pretiosum foram liberadas nas proporções de 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 e 32 parasitóides por ovo do hospedeiro. Independentemente do terço da planta analisado, a proporção de 16 parasitóides por ovo apresentou os melhores resultados. Esta é a proporção mais próxima da ideal, para liberação em plantios comerciais de tomate estaqueado, visando o controle da traça-do-tomateiro.The objective of this work was to estimate the ideal number of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley to be released in field for the tomato leafminer control Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in which tomato plants with 60 days, after the transplantation, were infested with 200 eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, an alternative host, in the subsequent ratios: 70% of eggs were put on the top of the plants, 24% on the medium height and 6% on the very bottom of the plants. Females of T. pretiosum were released following the ratios of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 parasitoids per host egg. Independently of the three distinct plant parts (top, medium or bottom, the ratio of 16 parasitoids per host egg delivered the best results. This ratio value was closer to the ideal number for field releasing in commercial crop production of stalked tomato, aiming the tomato leafminer control.

  2. Epidemiology of Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae in sheep in Botucatu, State of São Paulo Epidemiologia de Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae em ovinos em Botucatu, São Paulo

    Bruna Fernanda da Silva


    Full Text Available The seasonal factors that influence Oestrus ovis infestation in sheep were determined in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Southwestern Brazil, from April 2008 to March 2011. Two tracer lambs were monthly exposed to natural infestation by O. ovis larvae for 28 consecutive days, by grazing with a sheep flock. Tracer animals were then euthanized and the larvae of O. ovis recovered from nasal and sinus cavities. Of the 72 tracer lambs, 50% were infested with O. ovis larvae and the mean intensity of infestation per head infested was 16.8 larvae, with an average of 7.8 L1, 5.3 L2 and 3.7 L3. O. ovis larvae were present during the four seasons of the year, but the mean larval burden was significantly higher during the spring and summer months, compared to winter (P Os fatores sazonais que influenciam a infestação por larvas de Oestrus ovis, foram determinados no período de abril de 2008 a março de 2011, em ovinos criados em Botucatu, São Paulo, região Sudeste do Brasil. Mensalmente, dois cordeiros traçadores permaneceram em pastejo com um rebanho ovino durante 28 dias consecutivos, expostos à infestação natural por larvas de O. ovis. Em seguida, os cordeiros foram sacrificados, e as larvas de O. ovis recuperadas da cavidade nasal e seios frontais. Dos 72 cordeiros traçadores, 50% estavam infestados por larvas de O. ovis, com intensidade média de infestação de 16,8 larvas/cabeça infestada, com média de 7,8 L1, 5,3 L2 e 3,7 L3. As larvas de O. ovis foram recuperadas durante as quatro estações do ano, mas o número médio de larvas foi significativamente superior durante os meses de primavera e verão comparado aos meses de inverno (P < 0,05. A maior taxa de recuperação larval coincidiu com temperaturas médias entre 20 °C e 25 °C e umidade relativa do ar por volta de 70%. Os resultados sugerem que a evolução e desenvolvimento de O. ovis ocorre praticamente durante o ano inteiro, mas a infestação é mais frequente nos meses de

  3. Tratamento térmico solar da água para controle de fitopatógenos Solar heating of water for controlling phytopathogenic microorganisms

    Maria Aparecida S. Tanaka


    Full Text Available Alguns microrganismos fitopatogênicos podem ser transportados pela água, que se constitui em importante e eficiente forma de disseminação. O controle de fitopatógenos pelo tratamento térmico da água infestada, utilizando a energia solar, constituiu o objetivo do trabalho. Quantificou-se a eficiência de um sistema automatizado de aquecimento solar desenvolvido para esta finalidade, baseado em processo misto de aquecimento da água em circuito fechado, com coletores planos e transmissão de calor por convecção natural e forçada. A automatização e a equalização da temperatura foram obtidas por termostatos localizados em diferentes pontos. Verificou-se boa eficiência do equipamento, trabalhando na temperatura de 60 ºC, tanto em rendimento de água processada como na eliminação do inóculo de fitopatógenos de importância econômica, como Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum spp., Fusarium spp., Pythium spp., Verticillium dahliae e Rhizoctonia solani. À exceção de F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli, os patógenos testados não sobreviveram ao tratamento térmico a temperaturas acima de 55 0C. A técnica mostrou-se promissora como uma opção na desinfestação da água para uso em irrigação de viveiros, casas de vegetação e diversas finalidades em pequenas ou médias propriedades agrícolas.Some phytopathogenic microorganisms may be transmitted by water representing an efficient means way of inoculum dissemination. The objective of the work was to quantify the efficiency of thermal treatment by solar heating in the control of pathogens in contaminated water. The equipment developed for this purpose was composed of flat collectors and used both natural and forced convection to transfer heat to the circulating water. Thermostats, placed in different locataions, automatically equalized the temperature of the system. The equipment was verified to peform well at 60 ºC, in terms of water processed as well as in the eradication of

  4. An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae

    Karla N. Oliveira


    Full Text Available An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei is one the greatest threats to eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. The effects of rainfall to reduce the abundance of lerp of Glycaspis brimblecombei on experimentally infested seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were assessed. The number of lerps on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of every leaf of 60 seedlings was recorded, before and after submission to the following treatments: "artificial rain", "leaf wetting" and control. A drastic reduction in lerp abundance per plant was observed after the treatments "leaf wetting" and artificial rain (F = 53.630; p Teste experimental da chuva como agente de controle de Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei é uma das maiores ameaças das plantações de eucalipto do Brasil. Foram avaliados os efeitos da água na redução da abundância de conchas desse inseto em mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis infestadas experimentalmente. Foi quantificado o número de conchas nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial de todas as folhas de 60 mudas, antes e após a aplicação dos seguintes tratamentos: "chuva artificial", "molhamento das folhas" e controle. Foi observada uma drástica redução na abundância de conchas nos tratamentos "chuva artificial" e "molhamento das folhas" (F = 53,630; p < 0,001, o que não ocorreu para o tratamento controle ao longo do experimento (F = 1,450; p = 0,232. Ao final do experimento, a abundância de conchas foi significativamente menor no tratamento "chuva artificial" e "molhamento das folhas" do que no tratamento controle. Dessa forma, dois dias de chuva mostraram ser eficientes para diminuir mais que 50% da população de conchas, com quase 100% de eficiência após 5 dias de experimento. Nossos resultados


    Daniela Rézio e Silva


    Full Text Available

    Para determinar o efeito dos percevejos Oebalus poecilus e O. ypsilongriseus sobre o rendimento e a qualidade dos grãos de arroz de terras altas, panículas de cinco cultivares foram infestadas, isoladamente, pelos seguintes níveis populacionais: zero (tratamento testemunha, dois insetos adultos da primeira espécie, dois insetos adultos da segunda espécie e um inseto adulto de cada espécie. A comparação das cultivares pelas porcentagens de perda de massa por espigueta e de espiguetas vazias não apresentou efeitos diferenciados entre tratamentos, nem interação "tratamentos x cultivares" significativa. A avaliação da atividade alimentar, pela presença de bainhas de estilete, mostrou que o percevejo O. ypsilongriseus foi mais ativo que O. poecilus. Esses afetaram de modo diferente o vigor das cultivares, entretanto, não influenciaram o teor de amilose. Os percevejos também reduziram o rendimento total de arroz beneficiado e aumentaram o número de grãos inteiros manchados, apesar de não terem alterado o número total de grãos inteiros.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Inseto; percevejo das panículas; bainha de estilete.

    To determine the effect of Oebalus poecilus and O. ypsilongriseus on grain yield and quality of five upland rice cultivars, isolated panicles were subjected to four levels of infestation (number of adult insects: zero (control treatment, two O. poecilus, two O. ypsilongriseus and one O. poecilus plus one O. ypsilongriseus. Neither the treatments nor the interaction of the treatments with cultivars had significant effects on percentages of weight loss and empty spikelets. Insect activity, evaluated by the presence of feeding sheaths in the spikelets, demonstrated that O. ypsilongriseus was more active than O. poecilus. Plant vigor was also affected differently

  6. Prevalência de enteroparasitas na população urbana do 2.° subdistrito de Botucatu, SP (Brasil Prevalence of intestinal parasites on the populations of Botucatu, SP (Brazil

    Mauro R. de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Procurou-se conhecer a prevalência de enteroparasitoses na população urbana do 2.° subdistrito de Botucatu, SP (Brasil através de exames coprológicos realizados pelos métodos de FAUST, HOFFMAN e processo de tamização. A prevalência de enteroparasitoses foi relacionada com atributos da população, tais como sexo, idade, cor e com fatores ligados ao meio ambiente. O processo de amostragem empregado foi o casual simples em duplo estágio, sendo o quarteirão a unidade primária do primeiro estágio e o domicílio a unidade do segundo estágio. Os resultados mostraram que 53,76% das 895 pessoas amostradas apresentavam-se infestadas por uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. As prevalências foram as seguintes: Ancylostomidae, 17,54%; T. trichiurus, 13,63%; A. lumbricoides, 10,69%; S. stercoralis, 6,03%; E. vermicularis, 3,69%; H. nana, 1,79%; Taenia sp, 1,22%; S. mansoni, 0,22%; E. coli, 15,53%; G. lamblia, 14,07%; E. nana, 2,35%; I. bütschlii, 1,01% e E. histolytica, 0,22%.A study of the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis on the population of Botucatu's 2nd Subdistrict, S. Paulo, Brazil, is presented. Passed stool was examined by using FAUST, HOFFMAN and tamization techniques. The prevalence of intestinal parasites is related to population characteristics such as sex, age, race and some environmental features. Simple random sampling technique in double stage was applied. Among 895 examined persons, 53,76% were infected by intestinal parasites. The prevalence of the various parasites were: Ancylostomydae, 17,54%; T. trichiurus, 13,63%; A. lumbricoides, 10,39%; E. vermiculares, 3,69%; H. nana, 1,79%; Taenia sp, 1,22%; E. coli, 15,53%; G. lamblia, 14,07%; E. nana, 2,35%; I. bütschlii, 1,01% and E. histolytica, 0,22%.

  7. Processamento mínimo, atmosfera modificada, produtos químicos e resfriamento no controle da podridão basal pós-colheita em frutos do coqueiro anão verde Minimal processing, modified atmosphere, chemical products and cooling to control post-harvest basal rot of fresh green coconut fruits (Cocos nucifera

    Francisco Marto Pinto Viana


    Full Text Available O trabalho teve o objetivo de investigar, isolada e integradamente, o efeito do corte polar do coco verde, a atmosfera modificada, e a associação de produtos químicos, sob condições de câmara frigorífica no controle da podridão basal pós-colheita causada por Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Frutos provenientes de áreas infestadas foram cortados transversalmente, removendo-se as brácteas e, em seguida, foram submetidos aos tratamentos com ceras e fungicidas. Após o tratamento, esses frutos foram embalados em caixas de papelão e transferidos para a câmara frigorífica à ±12º C por 30 ou 35 dias, de acordo com o ensaio. As avaliações foram realizadas a cada dois dias. A exclusão do fungo por meio do corte do mesocarpo na região das brácteas do coco verde foi eficiente no controle da doença, e a proteção com a cera EF-1 foi excelente protetor contra o dano pelo frio e fungos deteriorantes nos frutos cortados. Também, verificou-se que a associação corte basal do fruto + emulsão de cera + fungicida foi uma excelente alternativa de conservação e controle da doença em estudo.Fruits of coconut (Cocos nucifera cultivated in Brazil for coconut milk consumption are highly susceptible to attack by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Infection occurs still in the field as the pathogen remains quiescent in the plant. This study was undertaken to test several processing methods in order to avoid fruit deterioration. Fruits collected from a plantation with a record of severe disease outbreaks were cut at the basal region and treated with emulsions prepared from palm wax, alone and with fungicides. Fruits were cut 1.5 cm deep from the insertion point by using a cut machine developed for this task. fruits were placed in a paper box, and kept in a cool chamber at +12ºC for 30 to 35 days, depending upon the treatment. Evaluations were carried out every 2 days. The cutting process successfully eliminated the fungus from the fruit tissues

  8. Medida da infestação domiciliar por Triatoma infestans Housing infestation research by Triatoma infestans

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini


    Full Text Available Em conjunto de 27 edifícios situados na localidade denominada Bairro da Ilha, no Município de Salto de Pirapora, Estado de São Paulo, procurou-se aplicar o método de Gómez-Núñez para a seleção de casas infestadas pelo Triatoma infestans. Comparando com o processo de inspeção domiciliar mediante a captura manual, porém sem o emprêgo de substâncias insetífugas, o método revelou-se equivalente. Contudo, êle traz vantagens que não podem ser desprezadas. Entre outras, ressaltam a sua uniformidade e o baixo custo. Através o levantamento da percentagem de caixas positivas até a segunda semana de observação, pode-se também estimar o grau de infestação local. Nesta pesquisa, revelou índice de Tipo III. O significado e classificação desses índices deverá ser objeto de maiores investigações. Contudo, no que pese a necessidade de maior número de ensaios, o método poderá vir a ser de bastante utilidade na avaliação de localidades submetidas a expurgos, sejam êles seletivos ou não.In 27 dwellings located at Bairro da Ilha, in the County of Salto de Pirapora, S. Paulo State, Brazil, it the Gómez-Núñez method for selection of houses infested by Triatoma infestans bugs was tested. In the observations there no significant differences between this method and the simple house inspection through manual collection, were found but without using chemicals as repellents. Nevertheless, several good advantages such as the uniformity and the low cost of the method were noticed. The purpose was also to estimate the local infestation through the infestation index based on the percentage of positive boxes found in the second week of observation. In this research, the index was classified as Type III. The significance and usefulness of this classification will be tested by future researches. Nevertheless it will be reasonable to admit that the method has good possibilities of being used for the houses evaluation, after the insecticide

  9. Mapeamento da distribuição espacial da infestação de Panicum maximum durante a colheita da cultura de milho Mapping of the spatial distribution of Panicum maximum during corn harvesting

    L.S. Shiratsuchi


    Full Text Available Metodologias de mapeamento de plantas daninhas em áreas agrícolas estão sendo utilizados a fim de gerar mapas de aplicação localizada de herbicidas, sendo que, este mapeamento vem sendo feito através de ferramentas da agricultura de precisão. O mapeamento das plantas daninhas gera então mapas de tratamentos de herbicidas que comandam pulverizadores capazes de realizar a aplicação localizada de herbicidas, aproveitando o comportamento contagioso inerente da comunidade das plantas daninhas, porém poucos experimentos relatam a eficiência desses métodos. Este experimento teve como objetivo comparar metodologias de mapeamento do capim-colonião (Panicum maximum, com base na avaliação visual durante e após a colheita da cultura de milho. Durante a colheita foi conduzido o monitoramento com avaliação visual, feito por uma pessoa devidamente treinada e pelo operador antecipadamente orientado. Após a colheita, a avaliação visual foi feita por amostragens, numa grade regular de 20 x 20 m. Foi observada uma subestimação de 6% da área infestada, com uma infestação de mais de 80% de cobertura pelo método de mapeamento durante a colheita, quando comparado com o caminhamento na grade regular após a colheita. Os dois métodos foram coincidentes em 45% da área marcada.Weed mapping methodologies are being tested in agricultural fields to generate maps of spotted application of herbicides by using precision farming tools. Weed mapping may generate herbicide treatment maps, allowing herbicide spray only where needed. However, few experiments have reported the efficiency of these methods. This research aimed to compare Panicum maximum mapping methodologies based on visual assessment during and after corn harvesting. Monitoring combined with visual assessment was performed during harvesting by a duly trained worker and a previously oriented operator. Visual assessment was done by samplings after harvesting in a regular 20 x 20 m grid. An

  10. Tratamento inseticida e qualidade de sementes de milho durante o armazenamento Insecticide treatment and seed quality of corn during storage

    Oscar José Smiderle


    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa objetivou verificar os efeitos dos inseticidas deltametrina, clorpirifos, fosfina e da terra diatomácea no controle de insetos em sementes de milho, armazenadas durante 12 meses, visando oferecer alternativas de produtos inseticidas, utilizando delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As sementes do híbrido AG 303, tratadas com deltametrina e clorpirifos, aplicados na forma isolada ou em combinação, fosfina e terra diatomácea, foram acondicionadas em sacos de papel multifoliado e armazenadas por doze meses (maio/1997 a abril/1998 em condições normais de ambiente. Em intervalos bimestrais, sete épocas no total, as sementes foram submetidas às seguintes determinações: exame de sementes infestadas, massa de 100 sementes, teste de germinação, teste de frio, envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica, emergência de plântulas em campo e velocidade de emergência de plântulas. A análise dos dados e interpretação dos resultados permitiram concluir que: os inseticidas deltametrina e clorpirifos (isolados ou associados, a terra diatomácea e a fosfina promovem, de maneira similar, o controle de insetos-praga que ocorrem no armazenamento e não causam toxicidade às sementes; a qualidade fisiológica das sementes é efetivamente preservada pelos tratamentos com inseticidas químicos e terra diatomácea.To study the effects of insecticides (deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, phosphin, and diatomaceous earth on the insect control of stored corn seeds during 12 months, this research was performed to find an alternative product, using a randomized design. Seeds of the hybrid AG 303 were treated with either isolated or combined deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos, phosphin and diatomaceous earth, and they were further arranged into multifoliated paper bags and stored for twelve months (May/1997 through April/1998 under normal environmental conditions. Seeds were submitted to an infested seed exam, mass of 100 seeds, germination

  11. Variabilidade espacial de populações de Diatraea saccharalis em canaviais e sugestão de método de amostragem

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda


    Full Text Available A broca Diatraea saccharalis é uma das mais importantes pragas da cana-de-açúcar no Brasil. O manejo de áreas infestadas está embasado no controle biológico com Cotesia flavipes, cujas liberações são feitas em função da população de lagartas da praga em campo. Por esta razão, a estimativa desta população é de fundamental importância para o sucesso do programa de manejo. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a variabilidade espacial de D. saccharalis em canaviais e sugerir um método de amostragem que permitisse uma estimativa adequada das populações em campo. Seis campos de aproximadamente 1 ha cada um foram amostrados, em grid retangular de aproximadamente 10 x 10 m, com ilhas. Cada ponto de amostragem foi representado pela coleta das formas biológicas da praga no interior dos colmos em 2 m de sulco. Na maioria das áreas, as populações de formas imaturas de D. saccharalis distribuíram-se de forma contagiosa, com alcance do semivariograma variando de 18 a 80 m. Com base no alcance médio, estimou-se em seis o número médio de pontos de amostragem por hectare que deveriam ser feitos para representar adequadamente a área. Este número foi menor do que o estimado utilizando parâmetros da estatística clássica. Sugere-se que, para estimativa das formas imaturas de D. saccharalis em canaviais, a amostragem seja feita em grid de 40 x 40 m, o que resulta em aproximadamente seis pontos de amostragem por hectare e permitirá, na maioria das áreas, efetuar levantamentos com independência e coeficientes de variação menores que 50%.

  12. Estudo comparativo de eficácia de larvitrampas e ovitrampas para vigilância de vetores de dengue e febre amarela Comparative study of the efficiency of larval and ovitraps for the surveillance of dengue and yellow fever vectors

    Cristiano Correa de Azevedo Marques


    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de aprimorar a vigilância entomológica dos vetores de Dengue e Febre Amarela - Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus - no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, realizou-se estudo comparativo de eficácia de larvitrampas (armadilhas de larvas, e ovitrampas (armadilhas de ovos. A região estudada é infestada somente pelo Aedes albopictus, espécie que conserva hábitos silvestres, mas também coloniza criadouros artificiais. A primeira parte do estudo foi realizada em área periurbana de Tremembé-SP, onde foram comparados três ocos de árvore, 23 ovitrampas e 5 larvitrampas. A segunda parte dos experimentos desenvolveu-se no Município de Lavrinhas-SP, no distrito de Pinheiros, onde 20 ovitrampas foram instaladas (uma por quadra e 5 larvitrampas foram localizadas em pontos estratégicos (comércios, depósitos e postos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a ovitrampa, além da capacidade de positivar-se mesmo em presença de criadouros naturais, possui eficiência superior à larvitrampa. Constatou-se que para avaliação de efeitos da termonebulização as ovitrampas apresentaram uma significativa redução na média de ovos, o que não se verificou em relação ao Índice de Breteau.A comparative study of the efficiency of ovitraps and larval-traps was undertaken with a view to improving the entomological survey of vectors of Dengue and Yellow Fever - Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus - in S. Paulo State, Brazil. The region studied is infested only by Aedes albopictus, a species that keeps to wild habitats but colonizes artificial breeding grounds as well. The first part of the study was located in a periurban area of Tremembé county were 3 hollon trees, 23 ovitraps and 5 larval-traps were compared. The second part of these experiments took place in Lavrinhas county (Pinheiros district, where 20 ovitraps and 5 larval-traps were tested. The results showed that the ovitrap was more efficiente than larval-traps and were positive even in

  13. Caracterización de la Pediculosis capitis en una muestra de niños infestados del área metropolitana de San José, Costa Rica

    Olger Calderón Arguedas


    Full Text Available El problema de la infestación por Pediculus humanus capitis fue evaluado en 7312 escolares del Área Metropolitana de San José, Costa Rica. 730 (10.0% de los niños estudiados mostraron una infestación positiva por al menos una de las siguientes formas evolutivas parasitarias: huevos eclosionados o sin eclosionar, ninfas y adultos. Del total de positivos, la mayoría estuvo constituido por niñas (80.8%, en tanto que el porcentaje representado por niños fue sólo del 19%, p<0.05. El uso de pelo largo, así como la constitución lacia de éste, fueron las características más frecuentemente observadas en la población infestada, la cual estuvo conformada en su mayoría por individuos de raza blanca. Esta última observación podría estar relacionada más con la composición étnica de la población metropolitana que con un tropismo definido por los parásitos. Los índices de hacinamiento (Nº de personas por vivienda/ Nº de camas por vivienda más frecuentemente observados tuvieron valores entre 1.00 y 1.49, lo que refleja que una parte considerable de los niños infestados no vivían en condiciones de hacinamiento en sus viviendas. La presencia, de preescolares se evidenció en aproximadamente la mitad de la muestra estudiada, mientras que la utilización de guarderías sólo se vio en una minoría, por lo que estas características no se presentan como condicionantes importantes en la muestra poblacional estudiada. Los datos sugieren que la pediculosis capitis es uno de los problemas de salud pública más comunes en la niñez costarricense, el cual podría interferir con sus procesos de aprendizaje y lesionar su bienestar general.

  14. Comportamiento de dos variedades de sandía Citrullus lanatus (Thunb Matsura y Nakan, injertadas sobre los portainjertos de calabaza, Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita máxima y estropajo Luffa cylindrica The performance of two varieties of water melon Citrullus lanatus (Thub Matsura and nakai, grafted over pumpkin Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita maxima and estropajo Luffa cylindrica graftholders

    Moreno Juan Carlos


    Full Text Available

    En 1987-I, se realizó en predios de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Palmira un estudio para evaluar la viabilidad de los injertos, cuantificar la producción e introducir alternativas de manejo de los problemas fitosanitarios. El suelo bien estructurado tiene textura FArL, pH 7.0, materia orgánica 3%, P 48 ppm, K .7 me/100g de suelo y una CIC de 19 me/100g de suelo. Se realizó un injerto de púa o escudete con plántulas de sandía de las variedades Charleston Gray y Sugar baby sobre los patrones de las especies citadas. Al patrón se le eliminó el meristemo apical y se rajó longitudinalmente 1.0 - 1.5 cm y se le introdujo la púa en forma de cuña. La púa consistió en el 50% del tallo, las hojas cotiledonares y el meristemo apical. Las unidades experimentales en el campo se distribuyeron en bloques completos al azar, en donde los tratamientos fueron las plantas injertadas y los tratamientos testigos las variedades de sandía sembradas directamente por semillas. El prendimiento de las púas superó el 90% en todos los casos. Los portainjertos Lagenaria y Cucurbita influyeron en mayor aumento de área foliar, mientras que Luffa disminuyó ostensiblemente. Los portainjertos no desmejoraron las características organolépticas de las frutas de las dos variedades. El número de frutos en las plantas infestadas sobre zapallo y estropajo disminuyeron.

    In the first semester of 1987 was done this experiment at Universidad Nacional, Palmira. The objectives were to evaluate grafts viability, to quantify production and to give alternatives to phytosanitary problems. It was done a prick or escutcheon graft with water melon small plants from Charleston Gray and Sugar Baby. The summit bud was eliminated and it was longitudinally cut 1.0 - 1.5 cm for inserting the prick cotyledon leaves and the summit bud. Experimental units were distributed in random complete blocks, where experiment treatments were grafted plants and control the

  15. Diatomaceous earth effects on weevils with different susceptibility standard to phosphine Efeito da terra de diatomácea sobre carunchos com diferentes padrões de susceptibilidade à fosfina

    Patrícia M. da Conceição


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticide activity of diatomaceous earth (DE, at different temperatures, on two populations of Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica previously diagnosed as resistant and susceptible to phosphine. The efficiency of DE in the control of the insects was evaluated at temperatures of 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ± 2 ºC. The experiments were accomplished in Petri dishes containing 35 g of whole-wheat grain treated with DE in the dose of 1.0 kg t-1. The control was constituted by untreated wheat grain. Each Petri dish was infested with 30 adult insects. Insect mortality was registered seven days after the beginning of the bioassays. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. The populations of T. castaneum and R. dominica, respectively, resistant and susceptible to phosphine have similar susceptibility patterns. The mortality of two populations of T. castaneum increased with increasing temperature. For R. dominica, the mortality did not change with the temperature.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida da terra de diatomácea (TD, em diferentes temperaturas, em relação a duas populações de Tribolium castaneum e Rhyzopertha dominica previamente diagnosticadas como resistentes e susceptíveis à fosfina. A eficiência da TD foi avaliada nas temperaturas de 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 ± 2 ºC e os experimentos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo 35 g de grãos inteiros de trigo, tratados com TD na dose de 1,0 kg t-1. O controle foi constituído de grãos de trigo não tratados; ressalta-se que cada placa de Petri foi infestada com 30 insetos adultos, cuja mortalidade foi contabilizada sete dias após o início dos bioensaios. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As populações de T. castaneum e R. dominica, respectivamente, resistentes e susceptíveis à fosfina apresentaram padr

  16. Varroa jacobsoni infestation of adult Africanized and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera in mixed colonies in Brazil

    Geraldo Moretto


    Full Text Available Different levels of infestation with the mite Varroa jacobsoni have been observed in the various Apis mellifera races. In general, bees of European races are more susceptible to the mite than African honey bees and their hybrids. In Brazil honey bee colonies are not treated against the mite, though apparently both climate and bee race influence the mite infestation. Six mixed colonies were made with Italian and Africanized honey bees. The percentage infestation by this parasite was found to be significantly lower in adult Africanized (1.69 ± 0.44 than Italian bees (2.79 ± 0.65. This ratio was similar to that found in Mexico, even though the Africanized bees tested there had not been in contact with varroa, compared to more than 20 years of the coexistence in Brazil. However, mean mite infestation in Brazil on both kinds of bees was only about a third of that found in Mexico.Desde o contato inicial entre o ácaro Varroa jacobsoni e a abelha Apis mellifera, diferentes níveis de infestação foram verificados entre as diversas raças dessa espécie de abelhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o grau de infestação determinado pelo acaro Varroa jacobsoni em abelhas Apis mellifera, africanizadas e italianas puras, quando criadas numa mesma colméia. Para isso, o grau de infestação foi obtido em seis colônias de abelhas constituídas de operárias de ambas as raças. O resultado de dezesseis repetições mostrou que as abelhas africanizadas foram menos infestadas que as abelhas italianas. Esse resultado sugere que, nas condições naturais de infestação, as abelhas africanizadas são mais defensivas ao parasita Varroa jacobsoni, garantindo a essa raça de abelhas a resistência à praga varroosis.

  17. Olfactory mediated interactions between Citrus aurantium Toxoptera citricida and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Interação olfativa entre Citrus aurantium Toxoptera citricida e Lysiphlebus testaceipes

    Reetu Bahadoorsingh


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish whether there are olfactory interactions in the Lysiphlebus testaceipes Toxoptera citricida and Citrus aurantium tritrophic system. The response of male and female L. testaceipes to different odour sources of the host plant C. aurantium, the aphid host T. citricida and aphid-plant complex were investigated using a Y-tube olfactometer. Laboratory experiments were conducted by exposing individually aged male and female L. testaceipes to eight different odour treatments. Response of the parasitoids was taken after 15 min exposure to the volatiles from the different odour sources and based on their orientation to the particular chamber. Seventy percent of both male and female L. testaceipes showed high attractivity to aphid infested leaves. There was no significant difference based on age and sex of the parasitoid on their choice of odour. The organic compounds released by these combinations acted as semiochemicals in the tritrophic interactions and it is suggested that insect feeding induced attraction of the parasitoid L. testaceipes.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se existe interação olfativa no sistema tritrófico entre Lysiphlebus testaceipes Toxoptera citricida e Citrus aurantium. A resposta de machos e fêmeas de L. testaceipes a diferentes fontes de odor da planta hospedeira C. aurantium, o afideo parasita T. citricida e o complexo afideo-planta foram investigados com um olfatômetro do tipo tubo em Y. Os experimentos de laboratório foram conduzidos, expondo-se machos e fêmeas de L. testaceipes de diferentes idades, individualmente, a oito tratamentos com diferentes fontes de odor. A resposta do parasitóide foi tomada depois de 15 minutos de exposição aos voláteis de diferentes fontes de odor, baseando-se na orientação dos parasitóides a uma câmara particular. Setenta por cento de L. testaceipes machos e fêmeas, exibiram maior atração ao odor das folhas infestadas pelo af

  18. Acarianos infestadores de culturas de cogumelos: Biologia - Classificação - Métodos de combate

    A. E. Arêa Leão


    Full Text Available São resumidas as referências encontradas na literatura sôbre infestações de acarianos em culturas de cogumelos e as dificuldades encontradas para exterminá-los. Descrevem-se com detalhes as características das culturas infestadas que permitem a suspeita e mesmo certeza de infestação pela simples observação da cultura. É feito um estudo sôbre a morfologia, evolução e hábitos dos acarianos que infestaram a micoteca do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, provávelmente Tyroglyphus longior e Tarsonemus floricolus. São descritas as experiências feitas com várias drogas no sentido de combater os acarianos. Finalmente os autores aconselham o uso do querosene em larga escala não só para matar os acarianos como também para evitar novas infestações. O querosene deverá ser pingado externamente nas rõlhas de algodão dos tubos de cultura e aplicado largamente sôbre suportes, armários, etc.; as placas de petri deverão ser colocadas sôbre papel de filtro embebido em querosene.The references found in the litterature on mite infested cultures of fungi and the difficulties found to eliminate such infestation are summarized. The characteristics of the mite infested cultures, which permit the suspicion of infestation and even to have the certainly of this by the simple observation of the culture tube are described in detail. The authors study the morphology, evolution and habits of the mites which infested the fungi collection of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Such mites were probably Tyroglyphus longior and Tarsonemus floricolus. The experiments made with some drugs against the mites are described. The AA. recommend the use of kerosene either to kill the mites or to prevent new infestations. Kerosene should be dropped on the culture tubes cotton plugs (4-5 drops and abundantly applied on supports, tables, cupboards, etc; Petri dishes should be placed on paper filter soaked in kerosene.

  19. Fontes de resistência a Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 em tomateiro Sources of resistance to Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 in tomato

    André Luiz Lourenção


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de encontrar fontes de resistência à traça Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyr., em tomateiro, foram avaliados diversos genótipos das espécies Lycopersicon esculentum, L. pimpinellifolium e L. peruvianum. Em triagem inicial em casa de vegetação, as introduções NAV 29 e NAV 115, pertencentes a L. peruvianum, destacaram-se como os genótipos mais resistentes a esse inseto, apresentando a menor perda de área foliar. Uma linhagem de L. pimpinellifolium, NAV 98, mostrou-se menos atacada nos ponteiros que os genótipos de L. esculentum. Uma mistura de pólen de NAV 29 e NAV 115 foi utilizada para polinização de plantas dessas duas introduções, e as sementes obtidas desse processo denominaram-se NAV 29/115. A seguir, foi feito experimento em casa de vegetação envolvendo NAV 29/115, NAV 98, 'Rio Grande' e 'Pavesetter', sendo esses dois cultivares de L. esculentum de crescimento determinado. A infestação foi artificial, através de plantas fortemente infestadas pela traça e colocadas entre as plantas do experimento. Avaliações feitas periodicamente estimando visualmente a porcentagem de área foliar consumida pelas lagartas de S. absoluta, evidenciaram alta resistência de NAV 29/115 em relação aos demais materiais. O presente trabalho mostra que NAV 29, NAV 115 e NAV 29/115, genótipos de L. peruvianum, constituem promissoras fontes de resistência à traça S. absoluta.Eighty-five wild and cultivated tomato accessions, being 71 Lycopersicon esculentum, 10 L. pimpinellifolium and 4 L. peruvianum, were evaluated in greenhouse, under artificial infestation, for resistance to Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyr. (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. NAV 29 and NAV 115 (L. peruvianum showed the least foliar damage while NAV 98 (L. pimpinellifolium was less attacked in the buds than cultivated tomatoes (L. esculentum. Then, a comparative trial was carried out among the Rio Grande and Pacesetter tomato cultivars, NAV 98 and NAV 29/115 (mixed

  20. Intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense Spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae poisoning of cattle in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Nadia A.B. Antoniassi


    Full Text Available Relata-se a intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense. As investigações iniciaram após a morte de 12 bovinos, de um rebanho de 500 animais, criados em uma extensa área intensamente infestada por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa com escassa disponibilidade de outra forragem. As mortes ocorreram entres os meses de junho e setembro de 2006. O quadro clínico foi caracterizado por emagrecimento e sinais neurológicos com dificuldade locomotora. Um bovino foi necropsiado sem que se observassem alterações macroscópicas significativas. Histologicamente havia tumefação e vacuolização celular, em neurônios, células acinares pancreáticas, tubulares renais e foliculares da tireóide. Bovinos com quadro clínico similar foram retirados da área invadida por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa e colocadas em áreas com pastagem nativa e de Brachiaria sp. e apresentaram melhora clínica após período de 15 dias.A spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro poisoning of cattle in the county of Poconé, Brazilian Pantanal, is reported. The investigation began after 12 cattle had died from a flock of 500 animals maintained in an extensive area intensely infested by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa with scarce availability of other fodder plants. The deaths occurred from June to September of 2006. Clinical signs were loss of weight and neurological deficits with hypermetry and incoordination. No significant gross lesions were observed at postmortem examination of one bovine. Histological changes comprised widespread cytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, cells of the thyroid, kidney and pancreas. Cattle with similar clinical picture, that had been removed from the area invaded by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa and placed into areas with native and Brachiaria sp. pasture, recovered clinically within 15 days.

  1. Injuries caused by citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella exacerbate citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri infection Injúrias da larva minadora dos citros (Phyllocnistis citrella intensificam a infecção por cancro cítrico (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri

    Waldir C. Jesus Junior


    Full Text Available After the introduction of citrus leafminer in São Paulo State, an increase in the number of new plants infected with citrus canker has been observed. The interaction between these two organisms is known, but there is no information about how the leafminer damage intensifies citrus canker incidence and severity. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the effects of leafminer damage in citrus canker infection and its influence on the monocyclic components of the disease on Citrus limonia. Higher incidence of diseased plants, AUDPC (area under the disease progress curve, disease severity and shorter incubation periods were observed in plants inoculated after insect infestation. These factors explain the association found between the higher citrus canker intensity and the damage caused by the insect and show, albeit partially, the consequences of these changes in the spread of the pathogen under natural conditions of infection.Após a constatação da larva minadora dos citros no Estado de São Paulo foi observado um aumento no número de novas plantas infectadas pelo cancro cítrico. Apesar da interação existente entre o cancro cítrico e a larva minadora dos citros ser conhecida já há alguns anos, não há informações que permitam explicar claramente os aumentos observados na incidência e severidade do cancro cítrico quando de sua associação com as injúrias provocadas pelo inseto. Desta forma, no presente trabalho foram avaliados os efeitos de injúrias da larva minadora dos citros na infecção por cancro cítrico e a influência da larva minadora nos componentes monocíclicos da doença em Citrus limonia. Foram observadas maiores incidências de plantas doentes, área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, severidade da doença e menores períodos de incubação quando a inoculação ocorreu em plantas infestadas pela larva minadora dos citros. Esses fatores explicam a associação encontrada entre a maior intensidade

  2. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in enzootic haematuria aetiology/ Papilomavírus bovino tipo 2 na etiologia da hematúria enzoótica bovina

    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri


    Full Text Available Bovine enzootic haematuria (EH occurs worldwide and is endemic in regions with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum infested grassland. EH is chronic disease that is characterized by clinical signs of intermitent haematuria, anemia and progressive emaciation and haemorragic, hyperplasic and neoplasic lesions of urinary bladder. Although bracken fern intoxication has been related to EH, most recent bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 infection has been also assessed. Some researches has shown that the presence of BPV-2 in association with bracken fern carcinogenic compound leads to the malignant progression of urinary bladder lesions that cause the clinical signs of EH. In this review the major evidence of BPV-2 involviment in the aetiology of EH is presented along with diagnostic methods and prophylaxis of this disease that causes considerable economic losses in brazilian cattle breeding.A hematúria enzoótica (HE bovina é de ocorrência mundial e apresenta caráter endêmico em regiões com pastagens infestadas com samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum. A HE é uma doença crônica caracterizada por sinais clínicos de hematúria intermitente, anemia e emagrecimento progressivo e por lesões hemorrágicas, hiperplásicas e neoplásicas da mucosa da bexiga. Apesar da intoxicação pela samambaia estar relacionada à etiologia da HE, mais recentemente a infecção pelo papilomavírus bovino tipo 2 (BPV-2 também tem sido avaliada. Estudos demonstram que a presença do BPV-2, associada à ação dos compostos carcinogênicos da samambaia, leva à progressão maligna das lesões na mucosa vesical responsáveis pelos quadros clínicos observados na HE. Nesta revisão são apresentadas as principais evidências do envolvimento do BPV-2 na etiologia da HE, bem como métodos de diagnóstico e profilaxia desta doença que ocasiona prejuízos econômicos consideráveis à pecuária bovina brasileira.


    Sandra Queiroz Porto Mesquita


    Full Text Available

    Aiming to study alternatives to control Acanthoscelides obtectus in beans grain, it was made this experiment, evaluating the abamectin’s efficiency. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme 6 x 7, with 3 replications. There were 6 grain treatments and 7 storage periods. It was used bean grain ‘EMGOPA -201’, treated with abamectin in dosages 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 ppm, pirimifós-metil (10 ppm and deltametrina + fenitrothion (0.4 + 7.5 ppm, and control. After treatment, grain samples were kept away, packaged in a bottle with web ird, and infested with 20 no sexed insects. The insecticide efficiency was evaluated 02, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after treatment. It was observed that from 30 days storage, all products reduced the alive insects number and that abamectin insecticide must be recommended in 3.0 ppm dosage.

    Com o objetivo de investigar novas alternativas no controle de Acanthoscelides obtectus em grãos de feijão, foi realizado o presente trabalho, em que se verifica a eficiência do princípio ativo do inseticida abamectin. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 6 X 7, com 3 repetições, sendo 6 tratamentos de grãos e 7 períodos de armazenamento. Utilizaram-se grãos de feijão ‘EMGOPA - 201’, que foram tratados com abamectin nas dosagens de 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0 ppm, pirimifós-metil (10 ppm e deltametrina + fenitrothion (0,4 + 7,5 ppm, além da testemunha. Após o tratamento, amostras dos grãos foram retiradas e acondicionadas em frascos de vidro com tampa telada e infestadas com 20 insetos não sexados. A eficiência dos inseticidas foi avaliada aos 02, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias após a aplicação dos produtos. Observou-se que a partir de 30 dias de armazenamento todos os

  4. Toxicity of organic farming‑compatible products to the coffee leaf miner Toxicidade de produtos compatíveis com a agricultura orgânica ao bicho‑mineiro do cafeeiro

    Madelaine Venzon


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of organic farming‑compatible products to the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella. Lime sulphur, enriched Bordeaux mixture (Viça Café Plus, and the "supermagro" biofertilizer were first tested in laboratory. The most promising product was tested afterwards under field conditions. In laboratory, different concentrations of each product were applied on L. coffeella eggs and on infested coffee‑mined leaves. Only lime sulphur had ovicidal effects at an acceptable concentration (1.6% for field applications, but no significant effect on larvae mortality was found. Enriched Bordeaux mixture and the "supermagro" biofertilizer had no effect on L. coffeella eggs and larvae. In the field trial, biweekly or monthly sprayings of lime sulphur at different concentrations caused population decrease after 30 days; however, this effect was not significant after 60 or 90 days.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de produtos compatíveis com a agricultura orgânica ao bicho‑mineiro Leucoptera coffeella. A calda sulfocálcica, a calda Viçosa comercial (Viça Café Plus e biofertilizante supermagro foram testados inicialmente em laboratório. O produto mais eficaz foi posteriormente testado em condições de campo. Em laboratório, diferentes concentrações de cada produto foram aplicadas sobre ovos de L. coffeella e sobre folhas de café infestadas com o bicho‑mineiro. Apenas a calda sulfocálcica teve efeito ovicida a uma concentração (1,6%, viável para aplicação no campo; porém, sem nenhum efeito significativo sobre a mortalidade das larvas. A calda Viçosa comercial e o biofertilizante supermagro não tiveram efeito sobre ovos e larvas de L. coffeella. No experimento de campo, a pulverização quinzenal ou mensal de diferentes concentrações da calda causou a redução da população 30 dias após a aplicação; no entanto, esse efeito não foi significativo após 60 ou 90

  5. Suscetibilidade de Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae ao enxofre Susceptibility of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae to sulfur

    José Roberto Gonçalves


    Full Text Available As criações de Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae são freqüentemente infestadas pelo ácaro Acarophenax lacunatus (Cross e Krantz (Prostigmata: Acarophenacidae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar doses de enxofre, acaricida eficaz contra A. lacunatus, não-prejudiciais ao desenvolvimento de R. dominica. As unidades experimentais foram constituídas de placas de Petri contendo 30 g de grãos de trigo infestados com 30 adultos de R. dominica. Os tratamentos consistiram na utilização de doses de enxofre sobre os grãos, correspondentes a 0,0; 0,6; 0,9; 1,2; 1,5; 3,0; 6,0; 12,0; 24,0 e 48,0mg i a g-1, em dez repetições. As unidades experimentais foram armazenadas por 60 dias a 30±1°C, 60±5% UR e escotofase de 24h. O desenvolvimento de R. dominica foi afetado pela utilização de doses de enxofre maiores que 3,0mg i a g-1.The laboratory rearing of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae is frequently infested by the parasite mite Acarophenax lacunatus (Cross and Krantz (Prostigmata: Acarophenacidae. This study was aimed at evaluating the sulfur doses, an effective acaricide against A. lacunatus, not harmful to the development of with R. dominica. The experimental units were Petri dishes containing 30g of whole wheat grains powdered with the different doses of the sulfur (0.0, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, 24.0 and 48.0mg a i g-1 infested with 30 adults of R. dominica, in ten replicates. All treatments were maintained under controlled conditions (30±1°C, 60±5% r h and 24h scotophase for 60 days after the insect infestation. Sulfur doses higher than 3.0mg a i g-1 negatively affected R. dominica development.

  6. AVALIAÇÃO DE DANOS Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae NO ALGODOEIRO CULTIVAR IAC-17 EVALUATION OF Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE DAMAGES IN THE COTTON PLANT IAC-17 CULTIVAR

    Valquíria da Rocha Santos Veloso


    Full Text Available

    Com a finalidade de avaliar os danos causados por Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 na produção do algodoeiro, foi conduzido o presente trabalho. Foram utilizados quatro níveis de infestação artificial aos 75 e 95 dias da germinação das plantas. As avaliações foram feitas através da produção de algodão em caroço, por parcela. As diferenças na produção em plantas infestadas aos 75 e 95 dias da germinação, comparadas com a testemunha, foram estatisticamente significativas para as infestações com 1, 2 e 4 lagartas por planta. Aos 75 dias, devido ao fato de existirem poucos órgãos frutíferos, a redução na produção deu-se devido ao ataque das lagartas aos ponteiros e aos caules, com corte parcial ou total. Na infestação aos 95 dias a produção diminuiu linearmente em relação aos diferentes níveis de infestação; nesta época as lagartas mostraram preferência pelas estruturas frutíferas do algodoeiro.

    This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluate the damages provoked by Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 in cotton-plant yield. To evaluate the decrease in the cotton yield four levels of artificial infestation were used at 75 and 95 days from plant germination. The damage was evaluated on cotton seeds per plot. The differences in the yield of infested plants at 75 and 95 days from germination, when compared to the check, were statistically significant for the infestations of 1, 2 and 4 larvae per plant. At 75 days when the plants presented a low number of fruit organs, the yield decrease was due to the attack of larvae cutting partially or totally the shoots and stems. As to the infestation at 95 days the yield decreased linearly in relation to the different levels of infestation; at this time the larvae showed a preference for the fruit

  7. Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de soja resistente ao glyphosate

    Núbia Maria Correia


    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o controle de plantas daninhas em área cultivada com soja resistente ao herbicida glyphosate, sem a utilização de práticas complementares de manejo de plantas daninhas. Foram desenvolvidos experimentos, em condições de campo, nos anos agrícolas 2005/2006 e 2006/2007 em Jaboticabal (SP. Foram avaliadas duas cultivares de soja resistentes ao glyphosate (CD 214 RR e M-SOY 8008 RR, oito tratamentos de herbicidas (glyphosate, em aplicação única, nas doses de 0,48; 0,72; 0,96 e 1,20 kg ha-1 de equivalente ácido, associadas ou não a aplicação sequencial na dose de 0,48 kg ha-1, além de duas testemunhas, uma capinada e outra mantida infestada. As cultivares de soja influenciaram na infestação das espécies de plantas daninhas na área. Sem a aplicação de glyphosate, houve o predomínio de X. strumarium na área, desfavorecendo a ocorrência de outras espécies. Quando utilizado glyphosate, independentemente da dose, a infestação contabilizada aos 35 e 40 dias após a primeira aplicação, no primeiro e segundo ano, respectivamente, foi baixa. O controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja transgênica é diretamente influenciado pela dose de glyphosate, havendo controle satisfatório com a aplicação única de 0,96 kg ha-1 ou a sequencial de 0,48 + 0,48 kg ha-1 de glyphosate. Em situação de menor infestação (2006/2007, a aplicação única de 0,48 kg ha-1 de glyphosate é suficiente para o controle das plantas daninhas. As cultivares de soja transgênica CD 214 RR e M-SOY 8008 RR influenciam diferencialmente a dinâmica das espécies de plantas daninhas, sendo o controle químico mais efetivo na situação de cultivo de M-SOY 8008 RR, em que houve menor diversidade e desenvolvimento das plantas daninhas.

  8. Eugeniamyia dispar em pitangueira: parasitoides associados, dinâmica populacional e distribuição de galhas na planta

    Adriana Neutzling Bierhals


    Full Text Available A pitangueira Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae é uma frutífera nativa da América do Sul, podendo ser encontrada em quase todo o território brasileiro, bem como no Paraguai, no Uruguai e na Argentina. Nas folhas dessa planta, são encontradas galhas induzidas por Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os parasitoides associados a E. dispar, a dinâmica populacional de E. dispar e dos parasitoides e a distribuição de galhas na planta. Ramos e folhas foram coletados quinzenalmente, durante as safras agrícolas de 2007/2008 e 2008/2009, em pomares de pitangueira localizados no município de Pelotas-RS, e transportados para o laboratório para a contagem do número de galhas. Do material coletado, foram individualizadas dez folhas em recipientes plásticos (200 mL contendo 30 mL de uma solução à base de ágar-água (2% e metilpara-hidroxibenzoato (nipagin (0,2%. Os recipientes foram fechados e mantidos sob condições controladas de temperatura (24±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotofase (14h, sendo registrado, diariamente, o número de insetos emergidos. Obteve-se uma espécie de Hymenoptera, Rileya hegeli (Eurytomidae, como parasitoide de E. dispar. Quanto à dinâmica populacional de E. dispar e de R. hegeli, foi observado, nos dois anos de avaliação, que a população de ambos aumentou a partir de outubro, atingindo as maiores populações nos meses de dezembro, janeiro e fevereiro, decrescendo posteriormente. O número de galhas por folha variou de zero a 23, sendo que 61,19% das folhas apresentavam de uma a oito galhas e que o número de folhas com galhas por ramo variou de uma a nove, sendo que 63,00% dos ramos apresentaram de uma a três folhas infestadas.

  9. Sex and aggregation pheromone transport after methyl eugenol consumption in male Bactrocera papayae

    Amongst at least 52 sibling species complexes in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), B. papayae (formerly Mal B) Drew and Hancock (Drew and Hancock 1994) is beginning to emerge as an economically important insect pest which poses a severe threat to the fruit cultivation in both subtropical and tropical countries. In Malaysia, B. papayae is one of the most damaging pests which infests many commercially grown fruits (Tan and Lee 1982). Like the Oriental fruit fly and its sibling species complex, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, B. papayae is also strongly attracted to, and compulsively feeds on, methyl eugenol (ME) (Tan 1993). Chemical analyses revealed that in B. papayae males, ME is converted to phenylpropanoids which are then selectively accumulated in the rectal gland. Of the three major volatile substances, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoyphenol (allyl-DMP) was detected in higher quantities relative to the trans-coniferyl alcohol (4-(3-hydroxy-E-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenol) (CF) and cis-3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (cis-DMC) (Nishida et al. 1988a, 1988b). Behavioural studies have also shown that allyl-DMP and CF function as male sex and aggregation pheromone in B. papayae (Tan and Nishida 1996, Hee and Tan 1998). Allyl-DMP was found to be the most attractive compound and cis-DMC the least attractive to the males (Tan 1996). Consumption of ME enhances the mating competitiveness of males. This is demonstrated by the strong attraction of females to conspecific ME-fed males in wind tunnel experiments (Hee and Tan 1998). In male-male mating competition for virgin females, males that fed on ME performed significantly better (Shelly and Dewire 1994, Tan and Nishida 1996). Thus it appears that ME-fed males produced signals that were more attractive. However, the characterisation and understanding of the functions of these phenylpropanoids have not been accompanied by studies of their physiological mode of transport in male flies. The current

  10. Arsenic and heavy metal concentrations in surface soils and vegetables of Feni district in Bangladesh.

    Karim, R A; Hossain, S M; Miah, M M H; Nehar, K; Mubin, M S H


    An investigation of various heavy metals including the arsenic (As) poisoning in soils and vegetables in five upazillas under Feni district of Bangladesh was performed by neutron activation technique using the neutron irradiation facilities of TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Bangladesh Atomic Energy Research Establishment (BAERE), Savar, Dhaka. A total of 30 samples (15 surface soils and 15 foodstuffs) were studied in five Upazillas namely as, Sonagazi, Dagan Bhuiya, Feni Sadar, Fulgazi and Parsuram of Feni district taking three samples of each kind from each upazilla. Samples of each kind together with the standard reference material (SRM) were irradiated in the same neutron flux and the gamma-rays of nuclides from the irradiated samples were assessed and screened for As, Br, U, Th, Cr, Sc, Fe, Zn and Co in soils and As, Br, Na, K, Cr, Sc, Fe, Zn and Co in vegetables (i.e; eddoe, taro, green papaya, plantain, potato, callaloo, bottle ground and carambola). The measurement of gamma-rays was carried out by means of a calibrated high resolution HPGe detector. The concentration of product nuclides containing in the irradiated samples was determined from the peak count-rates of prominent gamma-lines for the corresponding nuclides. Among all contaminants, only As, Zn and Cr for both samples were focused because of their higher values compared with the local as well as the world typical values. The present results revealed that the mean levels of As in Parsuram, Feni Sadar and Pulgazi upazillas are higher than the world typical value of 2 mg/kg. The mean values of Zn and Cr for all upazillas are higher than the world typical values 32 and 27.9 mg/kg, respectively. For the case of vegetables, the mean concentration of As is found only in Eddoe (5.33 ppm) and Taro (1.46 ppm) collected from Sonagazi and Feni Sadar upazilla; which are higher than the values in Samta (0.1 ppm for eddoe and 0.44 ppm for taro) under Jessore district of Bangladesh. The mean concentrations of

  11. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    Roger I. Vargas


    Full Text Available Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more

  12. Food irradiation in the United States: irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh fruits and vegetables and for the control of microorganisms in meat and poultry

    Recently there has been a renewed focus on food irradiation in the United States (US) for the disinfestation of fresh fruits and vegetables to eliminate pests from imported agricultural commodities that could threaten the economic viability of American agriculture and for the control of bacterium E. coli 0157:H7 in beef, a pathogen that threatens the safety of the US domestic food supply. In January 1999 USDA/APHIS published in the Federal Register a rule which authorized irradiation as a guarantee treatment for papayas for movement from Hawaii to the US mainland. This treatment was never used for a number of reasons. However, in December, 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published its final rule to terminate production and consumption of methyl bromide, the only remaining broad spectrum fumigant for disinfesting agricultural commodities for pests of quarantine significance on imported and exported commodities. With increased global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide as a fumigant for regulatory pests treatment made it imperative that practical treatment options be explored including irradiation. In May 1996, USDA/APHIS published a Notice of Policy which sets forth a policy statement that share positions and policies of USDA concerning the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment. Subsequently in July, 1997, USDA/APHIS amended its Hawaiian regulation by increasing the dose required for papayas intended for interstate movement and by allowing carambolas and litchis also to move interstate as well. Fruits from Hawaii to the US mainland are currently being irradiated and distributed in commerce throughout the US Irradiation treatments now afford movement of many exotic fruits to the US mainland that could not be done earlier due to the lack of available treatment methods. To help combat this potential public health problem, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treating red meat products. This process has been

  13. Efeito da solarização e biofumigação, durante o outono, na incidência de murcha-bacteriana e produtividade da batata Effect of soil solarization and biofumigation during autumn on bacterial wilt incidence and potato yield

    Mírian Josefina Baptista


    Full Text Available A murcha-bacteriana causada por Ralstonia solanacearum é uma das principais doenças da cultura da batata. A solarização tem sido estudada como opção para a desinfestação do solo e tem potencial para o controle da murcha bacteriana. A técnica é indicada para uso nas estações quentes do ano pois depende de condições climáticas adequadas. Devido ao período de plantio de determinadas culturas, é interessante avaliar o uso da solarização em outras épocas do ano e associada a outras técnicas para garantir sua eficiência. A biofumigação é a desinfestação do solo através da adição de matéria orgânica que, durante sua decomposição, libera substâncias tóxicas aos fitopatógenos. Neste trabalho avaliou-se durante o outono (maio a junho os efeitos da adição de cama de aves (biofumigação e da solarização na incidência natural da murcha-bacteriana e na produtividade da batata, através dos tratamentos: adição de cama de aves (20 t/ha, uréia (100 kg/ha, aplicação de brometo de metila e solo sem tratamento (testemunha, todos solarizados ou não solarizados. Avaliou-se a produção de tubérculos totais e comerciais e, a partir da incidência de murcha-bacteriana, foi feito o cálculo da área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. Na área infestada, apenas o uso do brometo de metila proporcionou reduções significativas na incidência da murcha-bacteriana. No entanto, a aplicação de brometo de metila e a adição de cama de aves em associação com a solarização possibilitaram produção significativamente maior de tubérculos de batata em relação à testemunha. Os efeitos da solarização associada à biofumigação com cama de aves sobre a produtividade da batata em área infestada com R. solanacearum devem ser melhor investigados.Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important diseases of the potato. Soil solarization has been studied as an option for soilborne

  14. Índices de prevalencia del ácaro Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en cuadros de cría nuevos o previamente utilizados por Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae Infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in new and old honeybee brood combs of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Jorge, A. Marcangeli


    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar los niveles de infestación de Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman en panales de cría nuevos y viejos, en colonias de la abeja criolla (híbrido de Apis mellifera mellifera (Linnaeus y Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en un apiario ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires, durante la primavera del año 2005. Se trabajó sobre 20 colmenas tipo Langstroth, de un híbrido de Apis mellifera (Linnaeus infestadas naturalmente por el ácaro Varroa destructor, y seleccionadas al azar. En cada una de ellas se escogió un panal de 2 años (viejo que se colocó en el centro del nido de cría, junto con un panal recientemente labrado por las abejas (nuevo. Luego de que ambos cuadros fueran operculados, se los extrajo y se llevaron al laboratorio para su posterior análisis. Cada una de las celdas de cría se desoperculó e inspeccionó en busca de ácaros, registrándose el número de hembras de ácaros que habían ingresado para su reproducción, se calculó el nivel de infestación como el cociente entre el número de celdas infestadas por ácaros y el número total de celdas inspeccionadas. Los resultados mostraron que los panales viejos presentaron niveles de infestación significativamente superiores a los registrados en panales nuevos (13,52% ± 3,35 y 6,18% ± 2,12 respectivamente; t = 10,62; p = 1,9 E-9; g. l.= 19. El mismo patrón fue observado en el número promedio de ácaros por panal (443,3 ± 70,54 y 217,85 ± 51,76 para panales viejos y nuevos respectivamente; t = 23,87; p = 1,24 E-15; g. l.= 19. Los ácaros presentan una marcada preferencia por los panales viejos. Esta selección estaría guiada por olores propios de las celdas, que actuarían como atrayentes. Además, posiblemente enmascaran su presencia de esta manera y evitan así ser detectados y eliminados por las abejas nodrizas mediante los comportamientos higiénicos.The aim of this work was to

  15. Danos qualitativos e quantitativos de Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera, Aphididae em mudas de Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae1 Qualitative and quantitative damage by Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera, Aphididae on Pinus taeda Linnaeus seedlings (Pinaceae

    Scheila R. M. Zaleski


    Full Text Available O pulgão-gigante-do-pinus, Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, é considerado atualmente uma das principais pragas dos reflorestamentos de pinus no Brasil. Como a informação sobre os danos causados por esta praga é restrita, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo caracterizar e quantificar os danos de C. atlantica em Pinus taeda. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram testados três níveis de infestação com densidades populacionais de zero (testemunha protegida com inseticida 10 ± 2, 20 ± 2 e 50 ± 2 afídeos por muda de P. taeda com idades de 90 e 150 dias. As mudas atacadas apresentaram redução no desenvolvimento, entortamento do fuste, superbrotação e presença abundante de fumagina devido ao desenvolvimento de fungo sobre o honeydew eliminado pelos afídeos. O diâmetro do colo diminuiu significativamente em 16,1% na densidade de 50 ± 2 afídeos/planta, nas mudas com 90 dias, quando comparado à testemunha. Nas mudas com 150 dias não houve diferença significativa no diâmetro do colo entre as parcelas infestadas e a testemunha. Houve uma redução de 24,4% na altura das mudas de 90 dias com a densidade de 50 ± 2 afídeos e 32,6% nas mudas de 150 dias, com intensidade de 20 ± 2 afídeos.The giant conifer aphid, Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, is one of the main insect pests on pine reforestation areas in Southern Brazil, nowadays. Since there is very few information about its damage, the objective of this study was to characterize and quantify the damage of C. atlantica on Pinus taeda. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, using a random design, with three infestation levels: 0 (control, 10 ± 2, 20 ± 2 and 50 ± 2 aphids on each P. taeda seedling of 90 and 150 days old, with 20 replicates/treatment. The main damage observed were stunting, twisting, oversprouting and large amount of sooty mold on honeydew

  16. Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids

    Silvia Renata S Wilcken


    Full Text Available A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki' e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf, número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi. Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos.Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A

  17. Avaliação de germinação e dormência de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho Seed germination and dormancy of red rice ecotypes

    A.M.L. Schwanke


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos relativos à germinação e dormência de 16 ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de lavouras comerciais dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina. Os ecótipos foram estudados e comparados com os cultivares BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417 e El Paso L 144, em condições de casa de vegetação. Os experimentos foram realizados durante o ano agrícola 2001/02, na Embrapa Clima Temperado - Estação Experimental de Terras Baixas, no município de Capão do Leão, RS. Foram avaliadas em laboratório a biometria e a massa de mil grãos, além de testes de germinação e dormência aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a colheita dos genótipos. Os resultados evidenciaram grande variabilidade nas características morfofisiológicas dos ecótipos estudados. Os ecótipos de arroz-vermelho avaliados, procedentes de lavouras de arroz irrigado do RS e SC, apresentaram alta variabilidade quanto às características das sementes e à intensidade e duração da dormência. Alguns ecótipos avaliados apresentaram sementes com período de dormência maior que 150 dias após a colheita. Os resultados deste trabalho confirmam também que o êxito no manejo do arroz-vermelho em lavouras infestadas depende da recomendação e adoção por parte dos produtores não de medidas isoladas, mas de um grupo de medidas complementares que, quando adotadas conjuntamente, permitem minimizar os problemas com o arroz-vermelho.The objective of this work was to evaluate aspects related to the phenotypic characterization of red rice ecotypes collected in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The ecotypes were studied and compared to the commercial rice cultivars BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417, and El Paso L 144. In the laboratory experiment, seed biometry, 1000 seed-weight and seed germination and dormancy 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days after harvesting were evaluated. The red rice ecotypes from the

  18. Comportamento de Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman em dez espécies vegetais de verão para rotação de culturas ou cultura armadilha no plantio direto Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman behaviour in ten summer rotation specles and trapping crops for no-tillage system

    Mauro Tadeu Braga da Silva


    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae foi avaliado em dez espécies vegetais sob condições naturais num solo manejado há três anos no sistema de plantio direto corn soja cultivada no verão. Foram observados o número de plantas atacadas, a oviposição, o núrnero e peso de larvas, o número de larvas hibernantes no solo e o número de adultos emergidos. O inseto se reproduziu e desenvolveu ern feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L guandu anão (Cajanus cajan L, lab-lab (Dolichos lablab L. e soja (Glycine max L. e ao contrário, em crotalária júncea (Crotalaria júncea L. girassol (Helianthus annuus L., milheto (Pennisetum americanum Leek, milho (Zea mays L, mucuna preta (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper et Tracy e sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. não completou o ciclo de vida. Os resultados indicaram que a cultura do feijão, guandu anão, lab-lab e soja aumentaram a população do inseto. Entretanto, ocorreu redução na população do inseto corn as culturas da crotalária júncea, girassol, milheto, milho, mucuna preta e sorgo. As quatro primeiras espécies são hospedeiras preferenciais, podendo ser usadas como culturas armadilhas e as demais, não são hospedeiras, pois propiciam a diminuição da população do inseto, sendo ideais para uso em sistemas derotação de culturas no verão, em áreas infestadas, para substituir o monocultivo da soja em plantio direto.The development of Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman (Coleoptera. Curculionidae was evaluated on ten crop species under natural conditions under no-tillage system for three years and infested with the insect Soybean was the Summer crop continously cultivated in the area. Number of attacked plants, oviposition, number and weight of larvae and number of adults emerged were the parameters evaluated. The insect reproduced and developed in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L, grandull (Cajanus cajan L., dolichos (Dolichos lablab L. and soybean (Glycine max L. and

  19. Seleção indireta para teor de 2-tridecanona em tomateiros segregantes e sua relação com a resistência à traça-do-tomateiro Indirect selection to 2-tridecanone content and its relation to tomato pinworm resistance

    Cláudia Regina Gontijo Labory


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a relação entre o teor de 2-tridecanona (2-TD em materiais selecionados e o nível de resistência à traça-do-tomateiro (Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae em gerações avançadas de Lycopersicon spp. derivado de cruzamentos interespecíficos. Foi usada uma população de tomateiros segregantes (geração F4RC2 para 2-TD, uma metilcetona que confere resistência à traça-do-tomateiro. Genótipos foram selecionados e avaliados quanto à resistência do tipo não-preferência: três materiais com alto teor do aleloquímico 2-TD (HI1, HI2, HI3 e dois materiais com baixo teor (LO1, LO2, além das testemunhas. Após infestação controlada, foram avaliados: contagem do número de ovos postos, evolução da lesão nos folíolos, porcentagem de folíolos atacados, e índice geral de lesão causada pela traça. Plantas com alto teor de 2-TD (HI1 e HI3 tiveram uma baixa progressão das lesões ocasionadas pelo ataque de T. absoluta. A planta LO1 foi muito atacada pela praga, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a planta LO2, que foi infestada acidentalmente por ácaros do gênero Tetranychus, acarretando, provavelmente, uma disputa de nicho ecológico entre os dois artrópodes. Concluiu-se que altos teores de 2-TD estão ligados a mecanismos de resistência à traça-do-tomateiro do tipo não-preferência por oviposição e alimentação.This work had the objective to verify the relation between 2-tridecanone (2-TD in selected plants and resistance level to tomato pinworm (Tutaabsoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in advanced generations of Lycopersicon spp. interspecific crosses. It was used a tomato population (F4RC2 generation segregant for 2-TD, a methyl ketone that controls the resistance of the tomato pinworm. Materials were selected and evaluated for a non-preference mechanism of resistance. Three genotypes with high level of the allelochemic 2-TD (HI1, HI2, HI3, two with low

  20. Padrão de oviposição e tabela de vida da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae Oviposition pattern and life table of South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae

    Maria Alice de Medeiros


    Full Text Available A traça-do-tomateiro apresentou maior oviposição ao colonizar tomateiros cultivados em sistema convencional em relação ao orgânico em estudos prévios realizados no campo. Visando confirmar e entender o padrão observado no campo, aspectos bioecológicos como oviposição e mortalidade de imaturos foram comparados em condições semi-controladas de casa de vegetação com plantas cultivadas em vasos com solo proveniente do sistema orgânico e convencional. Adultos da traça-do-tomateiro foram liberados na casa de vegetação e após 24h, as plantas infestadas foram transferidas para outra casa de vegetação, para acompanhamento de coortes horizontais. Os ovos naturalmente depositados pela traça-do-tomateiro foram localizados na planta e demarcados. Em seguida, a folha foi ensacada. Diariamente as plantas foram observadas, registrando a fase de desenvolvimento do inseto e a ocorrência de morte, até que todos os insetos completassem seu ciclo de vida. A oviposição pela traça-do-tomateiro em plantas com solos oriundos do sistema convencional foi duas vezes maior do que em plantas com solos do sistema orgânico. A curva de sobrevivência da fase imatura e a tabela de vida da traça-do-tomateiro em casa de vegetação mostraram que a sobrevivência em plantas com solo orgânico e convencional não apresentaram diferenças. Assim as diferenças no comportamento de padrão de oviposição observadas a campo provavelmente não estão relacionadas com o desempenho da progênie e podem ser influenciado pelo ambiente proporcionado pelo sistema orgânico de produção.The tomato pinworm presented higher oviposition when colonizing tomato plants cropped in conventional system than in organic system, in previous field studies. Aiming to confirm and to understand the observed pattern in the field, bioecological processes, such as oviposition and mortality of immatures, were compared on ploted plants in soil from organic and conventional systems in

  1. Comportamento de pastejo e ingestão de forragem por novilhas de corte em pastagens de milheto e papuã Grazing behavior and forage ingestion by beef heifers on pearl millet and alexander grass pastures

    Vagner Guasso da Costa


    Full Text Available Foram estudados o desempenho, o comportamento e a ingestão de forragem por novilhas de corte em pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke e papuã (Urochloa plantaginea no período de janeiro a abril de 2008. Foi utilizado o método de pastejo contínuo com número variável de animais. A ingestão de forragem foi estimada nos estádios vegetativo e reprodutivo das forrageiras usando o óxido de cromo como indicador da produção fecal. As avaliações de comportamento foram feitas por meio de observação visual, em quatro períodos contínuos de 24 horas. Os valores médios de massa de forragem, oferta de forragem e oferta de lâminas foliares foram de 3.927 kg/ha de MS, 14,6 kg de MS/100 kg de peso corporal (PC e 3,36 kg de MS/100 kg de PC, respectivamente. As variáveis do pasto, o desempenho animal, o comportamento ingestivo e a ingestão de forragem foram semelhantes entre milheto e papuã. As variáveis da forragem, desempenho animal e tempos de pastejo, ócio e ruminação e número de bocados por dia apresentaram variação ao longo dos dias de utilização da pastagem. A ingestão de forragem foi de 2,49% do peso corporal e não variou conforme o estádio fenológico. Em áreas infestadas com papuã, sua utilização em pastejo proporciona desempenho semelhante ao obtido com milheto.It was studied performance, behavior and forage ingestion by beef heifers on pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke and Alexander grass (Urochloa plantaginea pastures from January to April 2008. The continuous grazing method with a variable number of animals was used. Forage ingestion was estimated during vegetative and reproductive stage of forage plants using chromic oxide as fecal production marker. Evaluations of behavior were carried out by visual observation in four 24-hour continuous periods. Mean values of forage mass, forage offer and leaf blade offer were 3,927 kg/ha of DM, 14.6 kg of DM/100 kg BW and 3.36 kg of DM/100 kg BW

  2. Silício e imidacloprid na colonização de plantas por Myzus persicae e no desenvolvimento vegetativo de batata inglesa Silicon and imidacloprid on plants colonized by Myzus persicae and on vegetative development of potato

    Flávia Batista Gomes


    Full Text Available O pulgão Myzus persicae (Sulzer é considerado praga-chave da cultura da batata inglesa, cuja produtividade depende do uso de inseticidas para o seu controle. Este trabalho foi conduzido para verificar o efeito do silício e do imidaclopride na colonização de plantas por M. persicae e seus possíveis reflexos positivos no desenvolvimento da batata inglesa. Foram testados cinco tratamentos, com sete repetições: 1- testemunha; 2- ácido silícico a 1%; 3- imidacloprid na dosagem recomendada (252g ha-1; 4- ácido silícico a 1% e imidacloprid na metade da dosagem recomendada (126g ha-1; e 5- imidaclopride na metade da dosagem recomendada (126g ha-1. Após 20 dias do plantio, as plantas (cv. Emeraude foram infestadas com dez pulgões adultos. Avaliaram-se, após 20 dias da infestação, o número de ninfas e de adultos de pulgões, a altura, o diâmetro, o número de folhas e a fitomassa fresca e seca das plantas. As plantas tratadas com o inseticida foram pouco colonizadas pelos pulgões e aquelas tratadas com silício apresentaram menor infestação em relação à testemunha. Em relação à altura, ao diâmetro e à fitomassa, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, porém a testemunha apresentou menor número de folhas. Assim, o silício diminuiu a colonização da batata por M. persicae e o uso da metade da dosagem recomendada de imidacloprid (126g ha-1 foi igualmente eficiente para impedir a colonização, tornando a adubação silicatada mais uma tática a ser testada no manejo integrado de pragas da batateira.The aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer is a key pest of potato crops, the yield of which depends on insecticides for its control. This research was carried out to verify the effect of silicon and imidacloprid on the colonization of potato plants by M. persicae and its possible positive consequences on development parameters. Five treatments with seven replications were tested: 1- control treatment; 2- 1% silicic acid

  3. Redução do inóculo inicial de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum em soja cultivada após uso do sistema Santa Fé Reduction of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum initial inoculum in soybean grown after the use of the Santa Fé system

    Claudia Adriana Görgen


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a efetividade do sistema Santa Fé na redução do inóculo inicial de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, agente causal do mofo-branco em soja. O experimento foi realizado em Jataí, GO, nas safras de 2007/2008, 2008/2009 e 2009/2010, em lavoura comercial infestada naturalmente pelo patógeno. Foram feitas avaliações quanto ao número de escleródios germinados na superfície do solo, e quanto ao número de apotécios e estipes do patógeno. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial (2x4, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram do sistema Santa Fé (milho + Urochloa ruziziensis e do milho solteiro implantados na safrinha, em março de 2008 e 2009. Além disso, estudaram-se também quatro diferentes épocas de avaliação da germinação dos escleródios e produção de apotécios e estipes. Verificou-se que o sistema Santa Fé aumentou a proporção de escleródios menores que 2 mm, considerados de menor infectividade, e favoreceu a redução do inóculo inicial por meio da germinação de escleródios e formação de apotécios na entressafra, o que reduziu o número de escleródios germinados e o número de apotécios em pleno florescimento durante os cultivos da soja. O sistema Santa Fé pode reduzir o inóculo inicial de S. sclerotiorum, e pode ser utilizado no manejo do mofo-branco da soja.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of Santa Fé system on reduction of the initial inoculum of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent of white mold in soybean. The experiment was carried out in Jataí, GO, Brazil, during 2007/2008, 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 growing seasons, in a commercial field naturally infested with the pathogen. Evaluations were done for number of sclerodia germinated on the soil surface, and for the pathogen number of apothecia and stipes. The experimental design was a randomized block, in a 2x4 factorial arrangement with four

  4. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade, detecção e monitoramento da resistência de Tetranychus urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir Selections for resistance and susceptibility, detection and monitoring of resistance to the acaricide chlorfenapyr in Tetranychus urticae koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Mário Eidi Sato


    Full Text Available Problemas com resistência de ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, a acaricidas têm sido registrados em diversos países, inclusive no Brasil. O estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a resistência de T. urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir e avaliar a freqüência de resistência a esse composto em áreas comerciais de seis culturas no Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade a clorfenapir foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de T. urticae coletada em 2002 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Holambra (SP. Após seis seleções para resistência e cinco seleções para suscetibilidade, foram obtidas as linhagens suscetível (S e resistente (R de T. urticae a clorfenapir. A razão de resistência (CL50 R/ CL50 S obtida alcançou valores de 571 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 37,4 mg L-1 de ingrediente ativo (i.a. para o monitoramento da resistência de T. urticae a clorfenapir. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 21 populações de ácaros em áreas comerciais de diferentes culturas (mamão, morango, feijão, tomate, crisântemo, rosa, em vários municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Arenas confeccionadas com folha de feijão foram infestadas com ácaros T. urticae e pulverizadas com clorfenapir, na sua concentração discriminatória, em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram grande variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a clorfenapir. Foram observadas populações com freqüências de resistência entre 0,0 e 65,4%. As maiores freqüências de resistência foram observadas para populações coletadas de crisântemo em Holambra (SP.Problems associated with acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae Koch have been recorded in several countries including Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize the resistance of T. urticae to the acaricide chlorfenapyr and to evaluate the resistance

  5. Life cycle of female ticks of Amblyomma cooperi Nuttal & Warburton, 1908 (Acari: Ixodidae under laboratory conditions Ciclo biológico de fêmeas do carrapato Amblyomma cooperi Nuttal & Warburton, 1908 (Acari:Ixodidae sob condições de laboratório

    A.T.S. Almeida


    Full Text Available The biological cycle of female ticks of Amblyomma cooperi was studied under controlled conditions. The study has begun with two engorged females collected in a naturally infested wild capybara. The larvae originated from the oviposition of these two females were used for collecting young adults through artificial infestations in rabbits. The female parasitic and free living phases were evaluated using artificial infestation of ticks in a capybara. The average body weight of females was 958.2± 175.6mg, the average pre-egg laying period was 8.5± 1.4 days, the reproductive efficiency index was 59.5± 4.2 and the nutritional efficiency index was 77.3± 4.8. The incubation and eclosion periods were 41.9 and 5.9 days, respectively, and the rate of eclosion was 64%. These figures were obtained under high relative humidity conditions which were necessary for the success of the egg incubation process of this species. The preliminary data obtained with the artificial infestation in rabbits raises the possibility of this and other domestic species be used as an epidemiologic link between the domestic and the wild environment with the potential exposure of human populations to A. cooperi and to the maculosa fever agent.O ciclo biológico de Amblyomma cooperi foi estudado sob condições de laboratório. O estudo iniciou-se com duas fêmeas ingurgitadas coletadas de uma capivara selvagem naturalmente infestada. As larvas provenientes da postura foram utilizadas para obtenção de adultos, por meio de infestação artificial em coelhos. As fases parasitária e de vida livre das fêmeas foram avaliadas utilizando-se infestação artificial em capivara. A média de peso corporal foi de 958,2± 175,6mg, a média do período de pré-postura de 8,5± 1,4 dias e dos índices de eficiência reprodutiva e nutricional de 59,5± 4,2 e 77,3± 4,6, respectivamente. Os períodos de incubação e eclosão foram de 41,9 e 5,9 dias, respectivamente. A taxa de eclosão foi

  6. Valores hematológicos e identificação morfo-citoquímica de células sangüíneas de capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris parasitadas por carrapatos e capivaras livres de infestação - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2116 Hematological values and morpho-cytochemical blood cells identification of tick parasited capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris and capybaras free of parasitism - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2116

    Antenor Aguiar Santos


    Full Text Available Amostras de sangue foram colhidas de 37 capivaras parasitadas por carrapatos e de 21 capivaras livres de infestação para a identificação dos diferentes tipos celulares circulantes e para realização de hemograma. Após análise morfológica, as células sangüíneas foram identificadas como heterófilos, eosinófilos, basófilos, linfócitos, monócitos e plaquetas. A reação de PAS demonstrou glicogênio no citoplasma dos heterófilos e plaquetas. Reação positiva para mieloperoxidase e lipídeos foi demonstrada apenas nos grânulos citoplasmáticos esféricos dos heterófilos e em todos os grânulos citoplasmáticos dos eosinófilos. O método do azul de bromofenol revelou reação fortemente positiva nos grânulos de heterófilos, eosinófilos, basófilos e nas hemácias. Reação positiva para fosfatase alcalina foi observada nos heterófilos e eosinófilos. Os valores hematimétricos que mostraram diferenças estatisticamente significantes (p6/µL e 2,81±0,62 x 106/µL, hematócrito (48.14±4.75% e 41,22±6.21%, e, na contagem diferencial, os heterófilos (39,38±11,02% e 16,14±7,13% e, eosinófilos (8,57±3,78% and 21,92±10,24%. Os carrapatos foram identificados como Amblyomma cajenense and Amblyomma cooperi. As capivaras altamente infestadas por esses carrapatos apresentaram anemia e uma eosinofilia marcante.Blood samples were collected from thirty seven adult parasited capybaras and twenty one free of parasitism aiming the characterization of different circulating cell types and complete hemogram. After a morphological analysis, the blood cells were identified as heterophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and platelets. The PAS reaction revealed glycogen in heterophils and platelets cytoplasm. A positive reaction was found only in heterophils round granules and in all cytoplasmic granules of eosinophils for the demonstration of myeloperoxidase activity and lipids. The bromofenol blue method revealed strong

  7. Transmissão experimental do Grapevine virus B pela cochonilha Pseudococcus longispinus Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae Transmission of the Grapevine virus B by the mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae in Brazil

    Hugo Kuniyuki


    Full Text Available Em São Paulo, existem dois isolados do Grapevine virus B (GVB, sorologicamente semelhantes e sintomatologicamente distintos, que causam a doença denominada fendilhamento cortical ("grapevine corky bark", GCB. Na literatura estrangeira existem relatos de que o GVB pode ser transmitido por cochonilhas brancas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de verificar a transmissibilidade do GVB de videira infectada para videira sadia através da cochonilha da espécie Pseudococcus longispinus. Os dois isolados do vírus foram testados: o isolado comum (GVB-C e o isolado Itália (GVB-I. A confirmação de infecção foi feita através da análise visual de sintomas, ELISA e RT-PCR. Em todos os testes de inoculação experimental, os primeiros sintomas da virose foram notados com, aproximadamente, 8 a 12 meses após a exposição às cochonilhas. Plantas sadias da variedade LN-33, mantidas ao redor de uma planta infectada com o GVB-C e altamente infestada pela P. longispinus, tornaram-se infectadas com incidência de 54,2%, após 4 anos. Empregando-se inoculação experimental com cochonilhas virulíferas, plantas da indicadora LN-33 apresentaram infecção de 46,2% e 40,0% para o GVB-C e GVB-I, respectivamente, após 3 anos de observações. Apesar desta espéciede cochonilhaocorrer de maneira eventual nos vinhedos do Estado de São Paulo, precauções devem ser tomadas em áreas onde são mantidos clones sadios de variedades de copa e de porta-enxerto de videira, visto que esses insetos, além de possuírem grande número de plantas hospedeiras, também podem transmitir outros importantes vírus da videira.In the State of São Paulo, Brazil, there are two isolates of Grapevine virus B (GVB associated with grapevine corky bark disease (GCB. Although serologically similar, they induce distinct reaction on some grape varieties. They are called GVB-C for common isolate and GVB-I for isolate obtained from the variety Italia. The objective of this work was

  8. Eficácia do herbicida glifosato-potássico submetido à chuva simulada após a aplicação Effects of rainfall on efficacy the potassium glyphosate in weeds

    Gustavo Martini


    Full Text Available Apesar de possuir boa ação herbicida, alguns fatores afetam a eficácia do glifosato e, nesse contexto, realizaram-se estudos buscando formulações mais eficazes. O experimento foi instalado em área do Campus da FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal (SP. Testou-se a formulação potássica de glifosato comparada com solução aquosa e grânulos dispersíveis em água à mesma dosagem (0,36 kg.ha-1 e.a em cinco intervalos (1, 2, 4, 6 e > 48 horas sem chuva após a aplicação, comparados com uma testemunha sem uso de herbicidas. Foram aplicados em pós-emergência sobre Brachiaria plantaginea, B. decumbens e Digitaria horizontalis. A aplicação foi feita com pulverizador costal a CO2, à pressão de 2,5, munido de barra com seis bicos DG 110.02 e consumo de calda equivalente a 200 L.ha-1. Realizaram-se cinco avaliações de porcentagem de controle em relação à testemunha infestada, atribuídas visualmente, até 42 dias após aplicação. Notou-se que o controle da formulação potássica sobre as espécies avaliadas foi mais precoce, necessitando apenas quatro horas após sua aplicação para se igualar ao intervalo superior a 48 horas sem chuva. As demais necessitaram de, no mínimo, seis horas de intervalo.In spite of possessing good herbicidal action, some factors affect the effectiveness of the glyphosate and, in that context, studies were accomplished looking for more effective formulations. The experiment was installed in area of FCAV-UNESP Campus, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State. The potassium glyphosate formulation was compared to CS and WG formulations, at the same rate (0.36 kg.ha-1 a.e, in five intervals (1, 2 ,4 6 and 48 hours without rain after the application, compared to a control without herbicides. They were applied in post emergence on Brachiaria plantaginea, B. decumbens and Digitaria horizontalis. The herbicides were applied with costal sprayer, at a constant pressure (35 lbf/pol², with four nozzles DG 11002. The


    José Eduardo Marcondes Almeida


    Full Text Available Estudou-se a área de forrageamento do cupim Heterotermes tenuis utilizando-se a isca Termitrap® marcada com o radioisótopo 32P. O experimento foi conduzido numa área com cana-de-açúcar, em Piracicaba-SP. Foram localizados 20 focos de H. tenuis, com iscas. Em cada um desses focos aplicou-se uma isca Termitrap® impregnada com 18,5 MBb (500 mCi 32P na forma de fosfato de sódio diluído em 15 ml de água destilada. Ao redor das iscas marcadas, foram instaladas iscas sem marcador em quatro pontos: Norte, Sul, Leste e Oeste, eqüidistantes de 1, 5, 10 e 20 metros. Cada tratamento foi representado por um foco previamente determinado e marcado e uma das distâncias estipuladas para a isca de monitoramento, sendo repetido de 4 a 6 vezes. Após 15 dias da marcação, procedeu-se a avaliação coletando-se 15 indivíduos de H. tenuis de cada isca de monitoramento infestada, acondicionando-os em frascos de vidro com água destilada, que foram analisados em cintilador líquido, pelo teste de Cerenkov. Verificou-se que em apenas 20% das iscas de monitoramento coletaram-se cupins e 11,3% estavam marcadas com o radioisótopo. Constatou-se que ocorrem diversas colônias forrageando numa mesma área. A área de forrageamento de H. tenuis em cana-de-açúcar pode variar de 3 a 1.250 m2.The area of foraging of the termite species Heterotermes tenuis was evaluated using the Termitrap® bait marked with the radioisotope 32P. The experiment was conducted in an area with sugarcane, in Piracicaba,SP Brazil. Twenty infestion foci of H. tenuis were identified with baits. Each focus recieved baits labeled with 18.5 MBb (500 mCi 32P in the form of sodium phosphate diluted in 15 ml of distilled water. Surrounding the marked baits were installed baits without marker in four points: North, South, East and West, halfway of 1, 5, 10 and 20 meters. Each treatment was represented previously by a focus settled and marked and one of the distances specified for the monitoring

  10. Seleção de genótipos de capim-elefante quanto à resistência à cigarrinha-das-pastagens Selection of elephant grass genotypes for resistance to spittlebug

    Alexander Machado Auad


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar genótipos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. quanto à resistência à cigarrinha-das-pastagens (Mahanarva spectabilis. Para avaliação da antibiose, aos trinta dias após o plantio, cada planta foi infestada com seis ovos próximos à eclosão, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 30 genótipos e dez repetições. Quarenta e cinco dias após a eclosão das ninfas, avaliou-se a porcentagem de sobrevivência do inseto-praga nos diferentes genótipos. Para avaliação da não-preferência, foram quantificados, quinzenalmente, o número e tamanho de ninfas por vaso, em plantas mantidas em casa de vegetação, onde adultos de M. spectabilis eram periodicamente liberados, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições por genótipo, em dois períodos de amostragem. Os genótipos Cameroon de Piracicaba, Pioneiro, Cuba 169, Santa Rita, Mineiro Ipeaco, Mercker Comum de Pinda e CNPGL 96-27-3 foram selecionados quanto à resistência, pelo mecanismo de antibiose. O número e o tamanho médio das ninfas variaram significativamente em razão do genótipo de capim-elefante, no estudo da não-preferência. Os genótipos Roxo de Botucatu e Pioneiro são candidatos à testemunha suscetível e resistente, respectivamente, pelo mecanismo de antibiose, e os genótipos Cameroon e Cameroon Piracicaba são promissores pelo mecanismo de não-preferência.The objective of this work was to evaluate genotypes of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. regarding resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva spectabilis. For antibiosis evaluation, each plant was infested with six eggs near hatching, thirty days after planting, in a completely randomized design with 30 genotypes and ten repetitions. Forty-five days after the nymphs hatched, the insect survival rate was evaluated on the different genotypes. For nonpreference mechanism evaluation, the size and number of the nymphs per pot were