Le Comber, S.C.; Ainouche, M.L.; Kovařík, Aleš; Leitch, A.R.
Roč. 186, č. 1 (2010), s. 113-122. ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : autopolyploidy * diploidization * neofunctionalization Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.516, year: 2010
Vergara, Fredd; Kikuchi, Jun; Breuer, Christian
Autopolyploidy is a process whereby the chromosome set is multiplied and it is a common phenomenon in angiosperms. Autopolyploidy is thought to be an important evolutionary force that has led to the formation of new plant species. Despite its relevance, the consequences of autopolyploidy in plant metabolism are poorly understood. This study compares the metabolic profiles of natural diploids and artificial autotetraploids of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0. Different physiological parameters are compared between diploids and autotetraploids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analysis (carbon:nitrogen balance) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The main difference between diploid and autotetraploid A. thaliana Col-0 is observed in the concentration of metabolites related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) shunt, as shown by multivariate statistical analysis of NMR spectra. qRT-PCR shows that genes related to the TCA and GABA shunt are also differentially expressed between diploids and autotetraploids following similar trends as their corresponding metabolites. Solid evidence is presented to demonstrate that autopolyploidy influences core plant metabolic processes.
Havelka, M.; Bytyutskyy, D.; Symonová, R.; Flajšhans, M.
Roč. 48, č. 12 (2016). ISSN 0999-193X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02940S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : sturgeon * spontaneous autopolyploidy * image-analysis densitometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.821, year: 2014
Vergara, Fredd; Kikuchi, Jun; Breuer, Christian
Autopolyploidy is a process whereby the chromosome set is multiplied and it is a common phenomenon in angiosperms. Autopolyploidy is thought to be an important evolutionary force that has led to the formation of new plant species. Despite its relevance, the consequences of autopolyploidy in plant metabolism are poorly understood. This study compares the metabolic profiles of natural diploids and artificial autotetraploids of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0. Different physiological parameters are compared between diploids and autotetraploids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analysis (carbon:nitrogen balance) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The main difference between diploid and autotetraploid A. thaliana Col-0 is observed in the concentration of metabolites related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) shunt, as shown by multivariate statistical analysis of NMR spectra. qRT-PCR shows that genes related to the TCA and GABA shunt are also differentially expressed between diploids and autotetraploids following similar trends as their corresponding metabolites. Solid evidence is presented to demonstrate that autopolyploidy influences core plant metabolic processes. PMID:27212081
Hardy, O J; Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Loose, M.; Meerts, P.
In the northeastern part of Belgium, the Centaurea jacea complex shows extensive morphological variation and is represented by a diploid (2n = 22) and a tetraploid (2n = 44) cytotype. Polysomic inheritance of allozyme markers in the tetraploids, suggesting autopolyploidy, is here demonstrated for the first time. In order to test whether the tno cytotypes occupy distinct habitats and possess different gene pools, patterns of allozymic and morphological variation were investigated in relation t...
CATALÁN, PILAR; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Palop-Esteban, Marisa; Moreno, Carlos; González-Candelas, Fernando
Polyploidy is a common phenomenon occurring in a vast number of land plants. Investigations of patterns of inheritance and the origins of plants (i.e., autopolyploidy vs. allopolyploidy) usually involve cytogenetic and molecular studies of chromosome pairing, chromosome mapping, and marker segregation analysis through experimental crosses and progeny tests. Such studies are missing for most wild species, for which artificial crosses are difficult, not feasible, or unaffordable. We report here...
Clark, Lindsay V; Stewart, J Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya;
Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable h...... in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. These results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars....... high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites....... Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicated a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M...
Pudota B Bhaskar
Full Text Available Potato is the third most important food crop worldwide. However, genetic and genomic research of potato has lagged behind other major crops due to the autopolyploidy and highly heterozygous nature associated with the potato genome. Reliable and technically undemanding techniques are not available for functional gene assays in potato. Here we report the development of a transient gene expression and silencing system in potato. Gene expression or RNAi-based gene silencing constructs were delivered into potato leaf cells using Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration. Agroinfiltration of various gene constructs consistently resulted in potato cell transformation and spread of the transgenic cells around infiltration zones. The efficiency of agroinfiltration was affected by potato genotypes, concentration of Agrobacterium, and plant growth conditions. We demonstrated that the agroinfiltration-based transient gene expression can be used to detect potato proteins in sub-cellular compartments in living cells. We established a double agroinfiltration procedure that allows to test whether a specific gene is associated with potato late blight resistance pathway mediated by the resistance gene RB. This procedure provides a powerful approach for high throughput functional assay for a large number of candidate genes in potato late blight resistance.
Full Text Available Hordeum bulbosum L. (Poaceae is considered to be sources of useful alleles which can be used in cereal improvement. Thirty two native Iranian H. bulbosum were collected from different localities and were studied by karyotype analysis. We assessed the karyotype asymmetry of the Iranian bulbous barley populations and analyzed the data to look for their geographic distribution correlations. All of the studied populations were tetraploid (2n=4x=28 and the analysed parameters of karyotype of H. bulbosum support the autopolyploidy origin of the species with nearly symmetric karyotype. The results showed the most asymmetric karyotypes within northeast (Golestan and northwest (Gardane-e Heiran populations and the most symmetric karyotyps in populations from the west of Iran. Therefore, it can be assumed that the oldest populations are in the slopes of Zagros Mountains and the youngest germplasms occur in the northeast of this country. It can be concluded that the species originated from the west of Iran and distributed towards east and northeast.
Pernille Bronken Eidesen
Full Text Available Saxifraga oppositifolia L. is a common circumpolar plant species that displays considerable morphological and genetic variation throughout its range. It is mainly diploid, but tetraploids are reported from several regions. The growth form varies from prostate to cushion-shaped, and the plant thrives in wet snow beds as well as on dry ridges. This variation has triggered the curiosity of many researchers, but as yet, no one has explained the observed morphological variation using ecological and/or genetic factors. However, the ploidy level has rarely been taken into account. This is the first study that demonstrates a significant correlation between ploidy level, ecology and growth form in S. oppositifolia. We successfully analysed 193 individuals of S. oppositifolia from 15 locations in Svalbard to investigate possible relationships among growth forms (prostrate, intermediate and cushion, ecological factors (vegetation and soil characteristics and ploidy level. Results from flow cytometry reported 106 diploids, eight triploids and 79 tetraploids. Tetraploids almost exclusively showed prostrate growth, while the diploids displayed all three growth forms, evidence that growth form is at least partly genetically determined. Our analyses of environmental and vegetation data in relation to ploidy level indicated overlapping niches, but the tetraploids showed a narrower niche, and one shifted towards more benign habitats characterized by higher pH, higher soil temperatures and higher cover of vascular plants. The latter may suggest that tetraploids are slightly better competitors, but less hardy. Thus, autopolyploidy in S. oppositifolia has expanded the ecological amplitude of this species complex.
Full Text Available The giant organs and enhanced concentrations of secondary metabolites realized by autopolyploidy are attractive for breeding the respective medicinal and agricultural plants and studying the genetic mechanisms. The traditional medicinal plant Chinese woad (Isatis indigotica Fort., 2n = 2x = 14 is now still largely used for the diseases caused by bacteria and viruses in China. In this study, its autopolyploids (3x, 4x were produced and characterized together with the 2x donor for their phenotype and transcriptomic alterations by using high-throughput RNA sequencing. With the increase of genome dosage, the giantism in cells and organs was obvious and the photosynthetic rate was higher. The 4x plants showed predominantly the normal meiotic chromosome pairing (bivalents and quadrivalents and equal segregation and then produced the majority of 4x progeny. The total 70136 All-unigenes were de novo assembled, and 56,482 (80.53% unigenes were annotated based on BLASTx searches of the public databases. From pair-wise comparisons between transcriptomic data of 2x, 3x, 4x plants, 1856 (2.65%(2x vs 4x, 693(0.98%(2x vs 3x, 1045(1.48%(3x vs 4x unigenes were detected to differentially expressed genes (DEGs, including both up- and down-regulated ones. These DEGs were mainly involved in cell growth (synthesis of expansin and pectin, cell wall organization, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, response to stress and photosynthetic pathways. The up-regulation of some DEGs for metabolic pathways of functional compounds in the induced autotetraploids substantiates the promising new type of this medicinal plant with the increased biomass and targeted metabolites.