Sample records for automobile engineers

  1. Stirling engines for automobiles

    Beremand, D. G.


    The results of recent and ongoing automobile Stirling engine development efforts are reviewed and technology status and requirements are identified. Key technology needs include those for low cost, high temperature (1300 - 1500 F) metal alloys for heater heads, and reliable long-life, low-leakage shaft seals. Various fuel economy projections for Stirling powered automobiles are reviewed and assessed.

  2. Improved automobile gas turbine engine

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Wong, R. Y.; Schumann, L. F.; Galvas, M. R.


    Upgraded engine delivers 100 hp in 3500 lb vehicle. Improved fuel economy is due to combined effects of reduced weight, reduced power-to-weight ratio, increased turbine inlet pressure, and improved component efficiencies at part power.

  3. Vibro-acoustics of automobile engines; Vibro-acoustique des moteurs d'automobile

    Leclere, Q.; Laulagnet, B.; Guyader, J.L. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Polac, L. [Renault DM, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France)


    This article treats of the vibro-acoustics of automobile engines. A presentation of the phenomena leading to noise emission is performed: internal sources, dynamical behaviour of the structure, acoustic radiation of the external engine envelope. The complexness of engines leads to multiple noise sources which are described, analyzed and quantified. The technical solutions for their abatement are presented. The following points are successively described: dynamical behaviour of the engine-propulsion system, acoustic radiation, inertia stresses, combustion noise, common rail diesel injection system noise, piston slap, distribution drive noise, turbo-charger whistle, gearbox noise. (J.S.)

  4. Competence: sciences, clean engines: the automobile safety; Competences: sciences, moteurs propres: le salut de l'automobile

    Quiret, M.


    In the framework of the greenhouse gases emission reduction in the automobile sector, this paper presents the possible technological innovations for the engines: an optimization prior to the combustion hopeful the electronic of the injections, the consumption decrease and the electromagnetic valves. (A.L.B.)

  5. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)


    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  6. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou


    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  7. Imitating model of the electronic regulator frequencies of rotation of the automobile diesel engine

    Тырловой, С. И.


    The imitating model of an frequency electronic regulator of rotation of high-speed diesel engine an automobile diesel engine with the distributive fuel pump of Bosch company is resulted. Is executed simulation transitive modes of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators. Deterioration influence plungers steams on dinamic and economic indicators of a diesel engine is analysed. Operational indicators of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators are compared. The obt...


    Shapko, V.; Shapko, S.


    Exceeded is the analysis of distribution automobile internal combustion engine modes operations on rate crankshaft and on loading with priority of conditions considers engines efficiency. Presented is a methods of analytical determination to optimal conditions use of multi-purpose performance.

  9. Multimedia software design of automobile construction based on 3D engine

    Xu, Guo-dong; Chi, Xiao-xia


    This paper introduces the methods of three-dimensional modeling, assembling and simulating design of an automobile based on 3D engine, Pro/Engineer and 3DSMax. Research is also carried out on the order and the route of virtual assembling as well the corresponding processes.

  10. Data-driven algorithm to estimate friction in automobile engine

    Stotsky, Alexander A.


    Algorithms based on the oscillations of the engine angular rotational speed under fuel cutoff and no-load were proposed for estimation of the engine friction torque. The recursive algorithm to restore the periodic signal is used to calculate the amplitude of the engine speed signal at fuel cutoff....... The values of the friction torque in the corresponding table entries are updated at acquiring new measurements of the friction moment. A new, data-driven algorithm for table adaptation on the basis of stepwise regression was developed and verified using the six-cylinder Volvo engine....

  11. V-TECS Guide for Automobile Engine Performance Technician.

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide is intended to assist teachers responsible for instructing future auto engine performance technicians. The following topics are covered: diagnosing engine performance problems, ignition system problems, fuel system problems, mechanically related performance problems, emission control system problems, and electronic control systems;…

  12. 17. Aachen colloquium automobile and engine technology. Proceedings; 17. Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik. Kolloquiumsband



    The Proceedings of the '17th Aachener Colloquium - Automobile and Engine Tecnology', held 6. - 8.October 2008 in Aachen/Germany, contains effectively 104 papers. These contributions deal with the following main subjects:new diesel engines I and II; hybrids I and II; CAE-methods; friction estimation by sensor fusion; ADAS for increased traffic safety I and II; new spark ignition engines I-III; exhausat aftertreatment diesel engines; FVV-project reports; integrated chassis control systems; driver assistance in commercial vehicles; si engines with alternative fuels; engine acoustics; steering systems I and II; detection traffic environment for ADAS; combustion concepts EGR and VVT; engine mechanics; development of safe vehicle systems; supercharging - downsizing; emission concepts diesel engines I and II; automotive strategy concepts; suspension systems; vehicle development; integrated safety;chasis systems. (org.)

  13. Predicting vibration signals of automobile engine using chaos theory

    LIU Chun; ZHANG Laibin; WANG Zhaohui


    Condition monitoring and life prediction of the vehicle engine is an important and urgent problem during the vehicle development process. The vibration signals that are closely associated with the engine running condition and its development trend are complex and nonlinear. The chaos theory is used to treat the nonlinear dynamical system recently. A novel chaos method in conjunction with SVD (singular value decomposition)denoising skill are used to predict the vibration time series. Two types of time series and their prediction errors are provided to illustrate the practical utility of the method.

  14. Brand rivalry, market segmentation and the pricing of optional engine power on automobiles

    Verboven, Frank


    This paper analyzes how the prices strategies for base automobile models may differ from those for premium models, sold with extra engine power. The popular monopoly model of market segmentation according to willingness to pay for quality is compared with two models of brand rivalry. In a first scenario, consumer are fully informed of all prices; in a second scenario, consumers are initially only informed about the prices of base models , due to selective price advertising strategies. Impli...

  15. Coupled analysis of engine noise and interior noise of an automobile

    郑旭; 毛杰; 郝志勇


    The coupled model of a four-cylinder internal combustion engine and a dash panel was constructed to analyze the relationship between the engine noise and interior noise of an automobile. Finite element analysis, flexible multi-body dynamics, and boundary element analysis were integrated to obtain the tetrahedron-element models, structural vibration response, and radiated noise, respectively. The accuracy of the finite-element model of the engine was validated by modal analysis via single-input multi-output technology, while the dash panel was validated by sound transmission loss experiment. The block was optimized to reduce the radiated acoustic power from the engine surface. The acoustic transfer path between the engine cabin and passenger compartment was then established. The coupled analysis results reveal that the interior noise is optimized due to the engine noise reduction.

  16. A mathematic model of thermoelectric module with applications on waste heat recovery from automobile engine

    Over two-thirds energy of fuel consumed by an automobile is discharged to the surroundings as waste heat. The fuel usage can be more efficient if thermoelectric generators (TEG) are used to convert heat energy into electricity. In this study, a thermoelectric module composed of thermoelectric generators and a cooling system is developed to improve the efficiency of an IC engine. Two potential positions on an automobile are chosen to apply this module, e.g. exhaust pipe and radiator to examine the feasibility. To predict the behaviors of this module, a one dimensional thermal resistance model is also build, and the results are verified with experiments. The maximum power produced from the module is 51.13 mWcm-2 at 290 oC temperature difference. The model results show that, TE module presents better performance on the exhaust pipe than on the radiator.

  17. Measurements of major VOCs released into the closed cabin environment of different automobiles under various engine and ventilation scenarios.

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Jo, Hyo-Jae; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann; Ma, Chang-Jin; Kumar, Pawan


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in automobile cabins were measured quantitatively to describe their emission characteristics in relation to various idling scenarios using three used automobiles (compact, intermediate sedan, and large sedan) under three different idling conditions ([1] cold engine off and ventilation off, [2] exterior air ventilation with idling warm engine, and [3] internal air recirculation with idling warm engine). The ambient air outside the vehicle was also analyzed as a reference. A total of 24 VOCs (with six functional groups) were selected as target compounds. Accordingly, the concentration of 24 VOC quantified as key target compounds averaged 4.58 ± 3.62 ppb (range: 0.05 (isobutyl alcohol) ∼ 38.2 ppb (formaldehyde)). Moreover, if their concentrations are compared between different automobile operational modes: the 'idling engine' levels (5.24 ± 4.07) was 1.3-5 times higher than the 'engine off' levels (4.09 ± 3.23) across all 3 automobile classes. In summary, automobile in-cabin VOC emissions are highly contingent on changes in engine and ventilation modes. PMID:27261883

  18. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    Medhurst, Laura L.


    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  19. Nonpolluting automobiles

    Hoolboom, G.J.; Szabados, B. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering


    The advantages/disadvantages of energy storage devices, which can provide nonpolluting automobile systems are discussed. Four types of storage devices are identified: electrochemical (batteries); hydrogen; electromechanical (flywheels); and molten salt heat storage. A high-speed flywheel with a small permanent magnet motor/generator has more advantages than any of the other systems and might become a real competitor to the internal combustion engine. A flywheel/motor/generator system for automobiles now becomes practical, because of the technological advances in materials, bearings and solid state control circuits. The motor of choice is the squirrel cage induction motor, specially designed for automobile applications. The preferred controller for the induction motor is a forced commutated cycloconverter, which transforms a variable voltage/variable frequency source into a controlled variable-voltage/variable-frequency supply. A modulation strategy of the cycloconverter elements is selected to maintain a unity input displacement factor (power factor) under all conditions of loads voltages and frequencies. The system is similar to that of the existing automobile, if only one motor is used: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-differential-wheels. In the case of two motors, the mechanical differential is replaced by an electric one: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-wheel. A four-wheel drive vehicle is obtained when four motors with their own controllers are used. 24 refs.

  20. Novel Air Flow Meter for an Automobile Engine Using a Si Sensor with Porous Si Thermal Isolation

    Androula G. Nassiopoulou


    Full Text Available An air flow meter for measuring the intake air of an automobile engine is presented. It is based on a miniaturized silicon thermal mass flow sensor using a thick porous Si (Po-Si layer for local thermal isolation from the Si substrate, on which the sensor active elements are integrated. The sensor is mounted on one side of a printed circuit board (PCB, on the other side of which the readout and control electronics of the meter are mounted. The PCB is fixed on a housing containing a semi-cylindrical flow tube, in the middle of which the sensor is situated. An important advantage of the present air flow meter is that it detects with equal sensitivity both forward and reverse flows. Two prototypes were fabricated, a laboratory prototype for flow calibration using mass flow controllers and a final demonstrator with the housing mounted in an automobile engine inlet tube. The final demonstrator was tested in real life conditions in the engine inlet tube of a truck. It shows an almost linear response in a large flow range between –6,500 kg/h and +6,500 kg/h, which is an order of magnitude larger than the ones usually encountered in an automobile engine.

  1. Novel air flow meter for an automobile engine using a Si sensor with porous Si thermal isolation.

    Hourdakis, Emmanouel; Sarafis, Panagiotis; Nassiopoulou, Androula G


    An air flow meter for measuring the intake air of an automobile engine is presented. It is based on a miniaturized silicon thermal mass flow sensor using a thick porous Si (Po-Si) layer for local thermal isolation from the Si substrate, on which the sensor active elements are integrated. The sensor is mounted on one side of a printed circuit board (PCB), on the other side of which the readout and control electronics of the meter are mounted. The PCB is fixed on a housing containing a semi-cylindrical flow tube, in the middle of which the sensor is situated. An important advantage of the present air flow meter is that it detects with equal sensitivity both forward and reverse flows. Two prototypes were fabricated, a laboratory prototype for flow calibration using mass flow controllers and a final demonstrator with the housing mounted in an automobile engine inlet tube. The final demonstrator was tested in real life conditions in the engine inlet tube of a truck. It shows an almost linear response in a large flow range between –6,500 kg/h and +6,500 kg/h, which is an order of magnitude larger than the ones usually encountered in an automobile engine. PMID:23202189

  2. Ignition of an automobile engine by high-peak power Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser-spark devices.

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Dascalu, Traian; Salamu, Gabriela; Dinca, Mihai; Boicea, Niculae; Birtas, Adrian


    Laser sparks that were built with high-peak power passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers have been used to operate a Renault automobile engine. The design of such a laser spark igniter is discussed. The Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser delivered pulses with energy of 4 mJ and 0.8-ns duration, corresponding to pulse peak power of 5 MW. The coefficients of variability of maximum pressure (COVPmax) and of indicated mean effective pressure (COVIMEP) and specific emissions like hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured at various engine speeds and high loads. Improved engine stability in terms of COVPmax and COVPmax and decreased emissions of CO and HC were obtained for the engine that was run by laser sparks in comparison with classical ignition by electrical spark plugs. PMID:26831972

  3. Novel Air Flow Meter for an Automobile Engine Using a Si Sensor with Porous Si Thermal Isolation

    Androula G. Nassiopoulou; Panagiotis Sarafis; Emmanouel Hourdakis


    An air flow meter for measuring the intake air of an automobile engine is presented. It is based on a miniaturized silicon thermal mass flow sensor using a thick porous Si (Po-Si) layer for local thermal isolation from the Si substrate, on which the sensor active elements are integrated. The sensor is mounted on one side of a printed circuit board (PCB), on the other side of which the readout and control electronics of the meter are mounted. The PCB is fixed on a housing containing a semi-cyl...

  4. Imaging diagnostics of ethanol port fuel injection sprays for automobile engine applications

    This paper presents characteristics of ethanol sprays at port fuel injection (PFI) conditions with variations in injection and ambient parameters. Details of temporal and spatial development of ethanol PFI sprays are studied using Mie-scattering and high-speed shadowgraph imaging techniques. Momentum flux-based injection rate measurement is also performed. The influences of fuel flow-rate, injection duration, and ambient air cross-flow are of particular interest in an effort to understand ethanol PFI spray characteristics that are relevant to automobile engines. For comparison purposes, the results from gasoline fuel are also presented. Ethanol flow-rate effects are studied using two injectors with different nozzle-hole sizes at a fixed injection pressure. From the experiments, it was found that the actual injection duration was longer for the higher flow-rate injector although an electronic pulse width was fixed. This was due to an extended delay in the injector needle closing as the flow resistance against the needle was increased for the high flow-rate injector. For liquid droplets, the larger hole size of the higher flow-rate injector caused a higher mean droplet diameter and higher number of droplets. Injection duration was also varied to study transient spray behaviour: short-injection sprays with the end-of-injection transient dominating the overall spray development were compared to long, steady-injection sprays. From Mie-scattering images, the number of droplets and mean droplet diameter were found to be less for the short injection sprays. Detailed analysis using an axial profile of the number of droplets and mean droplet diameter suggested that the observed trends were a result of increased evaporation rate near the nozzle after the end of injection. This was consistent with shadowgraph images showing no liquid regions but only the vapour-phase fuel near the nozzle. Under the influence of ambient air cross-flow, both mean droplet diameter and number of

  5. The automobile of the future: engine technologies and automotive fuels developed by IFP; l'automobile du futur: les technologies moteurs et carburants developpes par l'IFP

    Appert, O.; Pinchon, Ph.


    In front of the challenges of climate change and depletion of petroleum reserves, in front of the continuous strengthening of pollution regulations applied to automobile (Euro IV and V) and the advances of R and D, several ways of research can be explored to answer the mobility needs of the coming decades. The IFP takes stock of these topics in this press kit which comprises 11 documents: the synthesis of O. Appert and P. Pinchon's talk about 'the cleaner and multi-energies automobile of the future', the slides of this presentation, the future evolutions of automobiles motorizations, the long-term evolutions of engines/fuels (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel fuel in the USA (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), bio-fuels in Europe (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel pollution abatement: efficient results from the IFP's diesel combustion process 'NADI'(TM), the presentation of the IFP scientific meeting of September 22-23, 2004 'which fuels for low CO{sub 2} engines?', the strategic positioning of IFP in the world energy and environmental context, the brochures 'IFP engines and fuels: a competitive advantage' and 'innovating for a sustainable development in the domain of energy'. (J.S.)


    А. Voronkov


    Expound are the results of study of elaration of construction of crankshaft 4-cylinder V-evocative piston pneumatic engine, which is made by conversion of serial internal-combustion engine 4Ч 7,6x6,6.

  7. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Ozomata David AHMED


    Full Text Available Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, opening of any door will disengage the device and the engine will stop. To restart the engine, the doors must be closed and the codes rendered sequentially-in this case the codes are 1974.

  8. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Feldman, Bernard J.


    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  9. The new 1.8 l four-cylinder spark ignition engine for Opel automobiles; Der neue 1,8-l-Vierzylinder-Ottomotor fuer Opel-Automobile

    Boehler, G.; Loehnert, T.; Poepperl, M.; Steffens, K. [Opel Powertrain GmbH, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Grebe, U.D. [GM Powertrain, Ruesselsheim (Germany)


    With the introduction of the new Opel Zafira in summer of this year, the newly developed 1.8 l spark ignition engine of the mid-size engine family will be offered for the first time. The engine is the second representative in the new generation 3 products presented in 2003. It demonstrates excellent performance characteristics in connection with clearly reduced fuel consumption. By integrating two variable cam phasers and a new intake and exhaust system, the performance was increased to 103 kW and the torque to 175 Nm. The fuel consumption in the MVEG cycle was reduced by 4%. (orig.)

  10. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    Kim, Hwajin


    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  11. HPLC analysis of aldehydes in automobile exhaust gas: Comparison of exhaust odor and irritation in different types of gasoline and diesel engines

    This study investigated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify and measure aldehydes from automobile exhaust gas. Four aldehydes: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), acrolein (H2C=CHCHO) and propionaldehyde (CH3CH2CHO) and one ketone, acetone (CH3)2CO are separated. The other higher aldehydes in exhaust gas are very small and cannot be separated. A new method of gas sampling, hereafter called bag sampling in HPLC is introduced instead of the trapping gas sampling method. The superiority of the bag sampling method is its transient gas checking capability. In the second part of this study, HPLC results are applied to compare exhaust odor and irritation of exhaust gases in different types of gasoline and diesel engines. Exhaust odor, irritation and aldehydes are found worst in direct injection (DI) diesel engines and best in some good multi-point injection (MPI) gasoline and direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Indirect injection (IDI) diesel engines showed odor, irritation and aldehydes in between the levels of MPI gasoline, DIG and DI diesel engines

  12. Operating cycle resolved modelling and hardware-in-the-loop-simulation of diesel engines of automobiles with turbocharging; Arbeitsspielaufgeloeste Modellbildung und Hardware-in-the-Loop-Simulation von Pkw-Dieselmotoren mit Abgasturboaufladung

    Zahn, Sebastian


    Model-based and simulation-based approaches increasingly are used in the process of software development and function development for automobile control devices in order to reduce the development time as well as to save test-stand trials. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the design of a dynamic model of a diesel engine for the hardware-in-the-loop test environment. The development, the test and pre-application of modern engine control units of automobiles with a cylinder-based combustion control is in the focus of the model application. The developed real-time model of the engine consists of a air pathway model, an exhaust gas pathway model, a VTG turbocharger model, a model of the cylinder group as well as an emission model. The parametrization of the engine model requires a continuous setting method. The model is validated by means of stationary and dynamic measured data of the engine test stand.

  13. The automobile and environmental problems

    Pocci, G.


    Actions taken by Expert's Group WP 29 of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe concerning the protection of the environment from automobile pollution are reported. Regulation 15, adopted by the group, establishes tests and sets limits for the amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides emitted from internal combustion engine automobile exhaust and crankcases under urban and idling conditions. Regulation 29 specifies limits to the same pollutants emitted from diesel engines, to be determined by measurements of the opacity of exhaust fumes during constant engine operation and acceleration. Regulations limiting pollutant emissions from motorcycles and mopeds have also been established, and, while adherence to these regulations has already reduced vehicle emissions, research is continuing on stricter controls, fuel conservation, test standardization for the United States and Japan, and analysis sampling methods.

  14. Development of Nitrile Rubber Coating for Seal of Automobile Engine%汽车发动机密封用丁腈橡胶涂料的研制

    郑楠; 梁志鸿; 邱祖民


    The preparation method of nitrile rubber (NBR) coating for seal of automobile engine was described.The influence of solvents, fillers, phenolic resin, sulfurization agent and other additives on the properties of coating was discussed.An optimum formulation was obtained:NBR N41 100, phenolic resin 2402 50 ~ 55, carbon black N330 30, ZnO 5, sulfur 1 ~ 3, accelerator CZ 0.5 ~ 2, accelerator DM 0.5 ~1.5, DOP 5, anti - aging agent RD 2, ethyl acetate 200 ~270, methylethyl Retone 30 ~ 100.The influence of various primers on the NBR coat was discussed, the experimental results demonstrated that the Chemlok 205 was the best primer between the NBR coat and metal sheet.The NBR coat was applied by roller, sulfurized at 150 ℃ for 1 hour.The NBR coated -metal gasket produced by this process can meet the requirement of automobile engine working conditions.%介绍了汽车发动机密封用丁腈橡胶涂料的制备方法,讨论了溶剂、填料、酚醛树脂、硫化剂及其他助剂的选用对涂层性能的影响,得出了丁腈橡胶涂料最佳配方:丁腈橡胶N41 100份,酚醛树脂2402 50~55份,炭黑N330 30份,氧化锌5份,硫磺1~3份,促进剂CZ 0.5~2份,促进剂DM 0.5~1.5份,DOP 5份,防老剂RD 2份,醋酸乙酯200~270份,丁酮30~100份.讨论了不同的底涂剂对涂层的影响,结果表明:Chemlok 205对丁腈橡胶与金属板材粘接效果最佳.采用辊涂的方式对丁腈涂料进行施工,硫化温度150℃,硫化时间为1h.在此条件下生产的丁腈橡胶涂料垫片,可满足汽车发动机的工况要求.


    Ugnenko, E.


    Basic system engineering principles of an estimation of ecological safety at designing, construction and reconstruction of highways are shown. A complex approach to the definition of settlement visibility on highways is offered.

  16. A Cooling System for an Automobile Based on Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Cycle Using Waste Heat of an Engine.

    Satish K. Maurya; Saurabh Awasthi


    Now a days the air conditioning system of cars is mainly uses “Vapour Compression Refrigerant System” (VCRS) which absorbs and removes heat from the interior of the car that is the space to be cooled and rejects the heat to atmosphere. In vapour compression refrigerant system, the system utilizes power from engine shaft as the input power to drive the compressor of the refrigeration system, hence the engine has to produce extra work to run the compressor of the refrigerating s...

  17. Voice control in automobiles; Sprachbedienung im Automobil

    Aiello, D.; Sitter, W. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG (Germany). Div. Infotainment Solutions; Kaemmerer, B. [Siemens Corporate Technology (Germany). Fachzentrum Professional Speech Processing


    Voice control simplifies handling the growing number of assistance, communication and convenience systems in automobiles. Siemens VDO Automotive have used the company's comprehensive know-how in the field of voice and communications machines from other sectors - particularly the telecommunications sector - to develop a voice control system for automobiles. It is distinguished by its intelligent architecture with high performance and extremely user-friendly features. (orig.)

  18. The automobile share

    Out of a conversion of 120 billions metric tons of fossil carbon per year 1 billion are traffic related. But this amount is growing steadily. The global automobile density is about 10 automobiles per capita. It grows with 1.7% per year, as fast as the population. The number of automobiles doubles in 25 years. In all groups of developed countries the automobile density increased from 5 to 50 automobiles per capita in less than 50 years so far. Where is the fuel for the 1 billion automobiles of the year 2030 or 2050? Can one reduce this number or what chances does one have to reduce the adverse consequences? Whatever the number of motor vehicles will be, man will have the chance to reduce fuel consumption and therefore CO2-emission together with other emissions considerably

  19. A Cooling System for an Automobile Based on Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Cycle Using Waste Heat of an Engine.

    Satish K. Maurya


    Full Text Available Now a days the air conditioning system of cars is mainly uses “Vapour Compression Refrigerant System” (VCRS which absorbs and removes heat from the interior of the car that is the space to be cooled and rejects the heat to atmosphere. In vapour compression refrigerant system, the system utilizes power from engine shaft as the input power to drive the compressor of the refrigeration system, hence the engine has to produce extra work to run the compressor of the refrigerating system utilizing extra amount of fuel. This loss of power of the vehicle for refrigeration can be neglected by utilizing another refrigeration system i.e. a “Vapour Absorption Refrigerant System”. As well known thing about VAS that these machines required low grade energy for operation. Hence in such types of system, a physicochemical process replaces the mechanical process of the Vapour Compression Refrigerant System by using energy in the form of heat rather than mechanical work. This heat obtained from the exhaust of high power internal combustion engines.

  20. Non Thermal Plasma Technology for Purification of Automobile Exhaust Based on Stirling Engine%基于斯特林发动机的低温等离子体净化汽车尾气技术

    陶杰; 任连城; 赵成利


    With the popularization of automobile, the exhaust becomes a problem that should be solved. Stirling Engine Technology and Non Thermal Plasma Technology have their own irreplaceable advantages in their respective fields. And the combination of the two technologies can have wide applications. Non thermal plasma technology for purification of automobile exhaust based on Stirling engine utilizes waste heat to purify the pollution of automobile exhaust. This technology has the advantages of energy conservation, high efficiency and low-cost.%随着汽车的大量普及,汽车尾气已成为亟待解决的问题。斯特林发动机技术和低温等离子体技术在各自领域均有无可替代的优势,将两种技术结合可以产生广泛的应用。基于斯特林发动机的低温等离子体净化汽车尾气技术可以利用汽车尾气余热处理汽车尾气中污染物,具有节能、高效、低成本的显著优势。

  1. 小型汽车发动机连杆弯曲失效分析%Bending failure analysis of connecting rod of small-sized automobile engine

    段莉萍; 陈耘; 张维贤; 唐家耘


    小型汽车发动机活塞连杆组在使用过程中连杆发生弯曲.对活塞连杆组中各组成零件的状态、表面形貌等进行宏观分析;对连杆进行化学成分、表面缺陷、显微组织缺陷和金相组织分析.结果表明:发动机活塞连杆组出现异常,主要是由于连杆发生弯曲变形,工字型部位存在表面折叠、表面脱碳、带状组织和较严重的非金属夹杂物等缺陷,降低了42CrMo钢的刚度和抗弯强度,导致连杆弯曲变形失效.%A connecting rod of small-sized automobile engine was bended in the driving service. The macroscopic analysis of state and surface morphology of the component parts in piston - connecting rod was carried out. The chemical composition, metallurgical structure, surface and microstructure defects of connecting rod were analyzed. The results show that there exists surface puckerings, surface decarbonization, banded structures and nonmetallic inclusions in the I - shaped position of connecting rod. It is concluded that the abnormal condition of piston-connecting rod is mainly caused by the bending deformation of connecting rod. Surface puekerings, surface decarbonization and banded structures in the connecting rod reduce the mechanical performance of 42CrMo steel, which results in the failure of connecting rod.

  2. Study on the Automobile Engine Connecting Rod Milling Combination Machine Tools%汽车发动机连杆铣削组合机床研究

    徐铭; 苏华礼; 马江虎


    连杆是汽车发动机的重要组成部分。由于连杆结构的特殊性,对连杆体与连杆盖结合面的加工提出了更高的要求。通过对连杆端面的分析,提出采用立式单面铣削组合机床进行加工。在完成组合机床总体方案的基础上,确定了加工工艺、进给参数、加工工序图等相关设计内容。该组合机床具有结构紧凑、刚性好、生产率高、加工质量稳定等特点,将有效提高连杆端面的生产效率和加工质量。%The connecting rod is the important component of automobile engines. Because of architectural par⁃ticularity of the connecting rod, the higher treating request has been brought forward to the connecting rod body and the connecting rod cover face. By the analysis of connecting rod face, the connecting rod is going to treated by the upright single face milling combination machine tools. On the basis of accomplishing the combination ma⁃chine tool overall design, design contents are determined such as the processing technology, progress parameters and the machining procedure graph, etc. The combination machine tool has characteristics such as the compact structure, good stiffness, high efficacy and the stable processing quality. The production efficiency and the pro⁃cessing quality will been obviously improved.

  3. Solar Energy Automobile

    HE Jianhua


    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  4. Initial test results with a single-cylinder rhombic-drive Stirling engine. [to be applied to automobile engine design to conserve energy

    Cairelli, J. E.; Thieme, L. G.; Walter, R. J.


    A 6 kW (8 hp), single-cylinder, rhombic-drive Stirling engine was restored to operating condition, and preliminary characterization tests run with hydrogen and helium as the working gases. Initial tests show the engine brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) with hydrogen working gas to be within the range of BSFC observed by the Army at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, in 1966. The minimum system specific fuel consumption (SFC) observed during the initial tests with hydrogen was 669 g/kW hr (1.1 lb/hpx hr), compared with 620 g/kWx hr (1.02 lb/hpx hr) for the Army tests. However, the engine output power for a given mean compression-space pressure was lower than for the Army tests. The observed output power at a working-space pressure of 5 MPa (725 psig) was 3.27 kW (4.39 hp) for the initial tests and 3.80 kW (5.09 hp) for the Army tests. As expected, the engine power with helium was substantially lower than with hydrogen.

  5. The automobile in Japan

    Lone, Stewart; Madeley, Christopher


    Lone: The 1920s saw the emergence in Kansai of modern industrial urban living with the development of the underground, air services; wireless telephones, super express trains etc. Automobiles dominated major streets from the early 1920s in the new Age of Speed. Using Kyoto city as an example, the article covers automobile advertising, procedures for taxis, buses and cars and traffic safety and regulation. Madeley: Nissan Motor Company had a longer connection with the British industry than any...

  6. 汽车发动机缸盖与排气歧管装配体的模态分析%The assembly of the automobile engine cylinder head and exhaust manifold of modal analysis

    孙洪哲; 李卫民; 韩国辉


    发动机排气系统的密封决定着发动机性能,研究发动机的振动对密封性能的影响。应用ANSYS Workbench软件分析,对汽车发动机缸盖、排气歧管密封垫及排气歧管的装配体进行带有预应力的模态分析,得到该装配体的固有频率,并与发动机对外激振频率进行比较,进而判断两者之间不能发生共振现象。证明该因素不会影响发动机缸盖、密封垫片及排气歧管装配体的密封性能。%The sealing of the engine exhaust system determines the engine performance, and to study the effect of the vibration of the engine on the sealing performance. Application of ANSYS Workbench software on the automobile engine cylinder head, the exhaust manifold gasket and the exhaust manifold assembly with a prestressed modal analysis, get the inherent frequency of the assembly, and comparing with the engine external excitation frequency, and judge between cannot occur resonance phenomenon. Show that the factors will not affect the engine cylinder head, sealing gasket sealing performance and exhaust manifold assembly.

  7. Price Variability in Automobile Insurance

    Joseph A. Fields; Emilio C. Venezian; David Jou


    In this paper the causes of variation in automobile insurance prices are examined within a small and homogenous state. The central hypothesis of interest is the relation between the price of automobile insurance and the quality of the product. The findings here indicate that the market is one which contains substantial frictions, making the search for automobile insurance products a worthwhile activity for consumers.

  8. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Ozomata David AHMED


    Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, openi...

  9. Northeast:Automobile Feast



    @@ The northeast has a lot of firsts in the history of China's industrial development,including the first automobile factory-FAW.Due to the system problem and many other complicated factors,quite a number of the northeastern industry enterprises are out of date during the China's economic transition period.

  10. On the automobile lightweight

    Ma Mingtu; Yi Hongliang; Lu Hongzhou; Wan Xinming


    The significance, description parameters, evaluation method, implement way and design for lightweight of au- tomobile are comprehensively reviewed. The relationship among the performances of auto parts & components, the prop- erties of materials and application of advanced technologies is also elaborated. According to recently related progress of lightweight and authors' research and developing work, lightweight of automobile is comprehensively and systematically overviewed.

  11. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  12. The automobile after tomorrow

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)


    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Automobile Club CERN

    Automobile Club CERN


     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  14. L'auto adaptation à des mélanges essence/alcool utilisés comme carburant automobile: le moteur souple The Self-Adapting of Gasoline/Alcohol Mixtures Used As Automotive Fuel: the Flexible Engine

    Dorbon M.


    Full Text Available Le moteur souple est un moteur susceptible d'être alimenté par des carburants constitués de mélanges d'une essence classique et d'un alcool léger (méthanol ou éthanol; si la concentration de chacun des composants de ces mélanges varie, les réglages nécessaires au bon fonctionnement du véhicule se font automatiquement. Dans cet article, sont tout d'abord exposées les propriétés caractéristiques en tant que carburant automobile de l'un de ces alcools légers, le méthanol. Puis viennent les descriptions des dispositifs qui font le moteur souple c'est-à-dire d'une part les systèmes de reconnaissance du carburant et d'autre part les appareillages susceptibles de modifier les réglages du moteur (alimentation et allumage en fonction de la qualité du mélange consommé. A flexible engine is one capable of running on fuels consisting of mixtures of conventional gasoline and a light alcohol (methanol or ethanol. If the concentration of each of these components of such mixtures varies, the tuning required for the proper running of the vehicle takes place automatically. This article begins by describing the characteristic properties of one of these light alcohols (methanol as an automotive fuel. Then the equipment is described that makes an engine flexible, i. e. both the fuel recognition systems and the equipment capable of changing engine tuning (feed and ignition as a function of the quality of the mixture burned.

  15. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Chattopadhyay O


    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  16. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the corrosion protection measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed steel having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for corrosion attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly corrosion resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of

  17. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  18. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  19. Automobile air pollution: control equipment--catalytic converters. Volume 2. 1977-January, 1980 (citations from the Engineering Index Data Base). Report for 1977-Jan 80

    Cavagnaro, D.M.


    The citations of worldwide engineering literature cover automotive catalytic converters. Included are such topics as converter design and materials, performance tests, effectiveness in pollutant reduction, catalyst poisoning, catalyst selection, chemistry involved in the emission control, and the overall feasibility of using these converters under normal driving conditions. Control of sulfuric acid and sulfate emissions is also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 142 abstracts, 37 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Chery Automobile: Chinese Firms catching up

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Sheng Yun


    textabstractChery Automobile Co., Ltd. is one of the few private automobile companies in China. Compared to state automobile companies, it lacks adequate resources and state support; compared to joint-venture brands, it cannot leverage popular and profitable international models. Despite these obstacles, Chery has developed dramatically over the last decade, becoming the top automobile exporter among all automobile companies in China. Strategic alliances served as the foundation of its amazin...

  1. The Linguistic Features of English Automobile Advertisements



    Household cars are largely demanded today, stimulating the economic development throughout the automobile industry. To enlarge market, all automobile producers pay great efforts to advertisements which result in a large quantity of automobile advertisements. Due to the rare analysis on the linguistic features of automobile advertisements, this essay makes a specific study on this. Analysis will be done through the perspectives of the lexical level, the syntactic level and the rhetoric level. Hence, valid references could be offered to future automobile advertisers.

  2. Automobile Driving and Aggressive Behavior

    Novaco, Raymond W.


    Automobile driving and aggressive behavior have had an extensive association. Themes of dominance and territoriality have long been part of automobile driving, which has also involved flagrant assaultive actions. Recent episodes of roadway violence in metropolitan areas have raised community concern about aggressive behavior in driving, although common beliefs about why such violence occurs can be seen as pseudoexplanations. Various themes in the psychology of aggression are presented as they...

  3. High-fidelity Simulation of Jet Noise from Rectangular Nozzles . [Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model for Noise Reduction in Advanced Jet Engines and Automobiles

    Sinha, Neeraj


    This Phase II project validated a state-of-the-art LES model, coupled with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) far-field acoustic solver, to support the development of advanced engine concepts. These concepts include innovative flow control strategies to attenuate jet noise emissions. The end-to-end LES/ FW-H noise prediction model was demonstrated and validated by applying it to rectangular nozzle designs with a high aspect ratio. The model also was validated against acoustic and flow-field data from a realistic jet-pylon experiment, thereby significantly advancing the state of the art for LES.

  4. Steam automobile analysis

    Peoples, J. A.


    Report includes many charts that present graphically the effects of design parameters on performance. Equations and data are given which can assist designer in selecting among such factors as working medium, horsepower, and engine components.

  5. An updated estimation of the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of automobile CO emissions

    Tsunogai, Urumu; Hachisu, Yosuke; Komatsu, Daisuke D.; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Gamo, Toshitaka; Akiyama, Ken-ichi

    We estimate up-to-date values of the average isotopic compositions of CO emitted from automobiles. In the estimation, we determined the isotopic compositions of CO in tail pipe exhaust for four gasoline automobiles and two diesel automobiles under varying conditions of both idling and running. While the dependence on the automobile manufacturer is little, each automobile equipped with functional catalytic converter exhibits a large temporal δ13C and δ18O variation. They tend to show 13C and 18O enrichment in accordance with the reduction of CO in exhaust, suggesting that the functional catalytic converter in engines enhances the δ13C and δ18O values of CO from tail pipes through a kinetic isotope effect during CO destruction. Assuming that automobiles run a modeled driving cycle, we estimated the average δ13C and δ18O of CO to be -23.8±0.8‰ PDB and +25.3±1.0‰ SMOW, respectively, for recent gasoline automobiles, and -19.5±0.7‰ PDB and +15.1±1.0‰ SMOW, respectively, for recent diesel automobiles. While the δ13C and δ18O values of recent gasoline automobiles coincide well with the isotopic compositions of source CO in present trunk road atmosphere estimated in this study, those are +4-+6‰ ( δ13C) and +1-+3‰ ( δ18O) higher than those reported previously and also those emitted from old, non-catalyst automobiles determined in this study. Recent improvements in functional catalytic converters have enhanced and will enhance the δ13C and δ18O values of CO from automobiles.

  6. Analyse de la sensibilité aux paramètres gazoles d'un moteur diesel d'automobile à injection directe Small Direct Injection Diesel Engine Sensitivity to the Diesel Fuel Characteristics

    Montagne X.


    Full Text Available L'étude présentée a été réalisée dans le cadre du GMCL (Groupement Moteur Carburant Lubrifiant, organisme qui réunit des constructeurs d'automobiles, des raffineurs et des additiveurs, avec l'objectif d'examiner la sensibilité d'un moteur Diesel à injection directe d'automobile aux paramètres du gazole. Les partenaires de cette étude sont Elf, IFP, Octel, PSA, Renault et Total. Parmi les solutions technologiques permettant de disposer de convertisseurs d'énergie assurant de faibles niveaux d'émissions de polluants et de consommation, le moteur Diesel se place naturellement en bonne position. Dans ce contexte, on enregistre aujourd'hui l'émergence du moteur Diesel à injection directe pour les véhicules légers en raison de ses performances, notamment en regard de la consommation. Toutefois, cette technologie nécessite une technique d'injection performante, associée à la gestion électronique, demande de l'EGR et un catalyseur d'oxydation afin de régler les problèmes d'émissions polluantes et sonores. Il est donc de première importance de cerner avec précision la sensibilité du moteur Diesel à injection directe aux paramètres carburants afin de tirer le meilleur profit de cette technologie. À partir d'un ensemble de gazoles formulés pour faire varier la composition chimique, l'indice de cétane et la densité, un moteur Audi à injection directe de type 1Z a été testé au banc, dans des conditions standard de réglage (avance à l'injection et taux de gaz recyclés. Cet ensemble de résultats a ainsi permis de démontrer que l'accroissement de l'indice de cétane, la réduction de la densité et de la teneur en polyaromatiques ont une influence positive sensible sur les émissions de CO, d'hydrocarbures imbrûlés, des VOF. En ce qui concerne les émissions de particules, l'indice de cétane semble avoir une influence négative sur la fraction sèche dans certaines conditions. De plus, il apparaît que les

  7. 汽车及零部件轻量化技术现状及研究方向%Automobile industry of hubei province college institute of automotive engineering



    文章简要介绍了目前汽车轻量化技术的发展状况,包括轻量化设计内容、各种轻量化材料的性能及运用,从而阐述了汽车轻量化的实施途径及方法。%This article introduced development of automobile lightweight technique, include lightweight design overview, material performance and application, elucidated implement ways and methods of automobile lightweight.

  8. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  9. Determinants of automobile loan default and prepayment

    Sumit Agarwal; Ambrose, Brent W.; Souphala Chomsisengphet


    The authors examine whether a borrower’s choice of automobile reveals information about future loan performance. They find that loans on most luxury automobiles have a higher probability of prepayment, while loans on most economy automobiles have a lower probability of default, even when holding traditional risk factors, such as income and credit score, constant.


    The report gives results of an evaluation of six subcompact automobiles for the emission of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and other organics into the passenger compartment. Evaluated were a Ford Pinto, AMC Gremlin, GMC Vega, GMC Chevette, NMC Datsun 710, and VW Rabbit. VCM was qua...

  11. Hierarchical functional model for automobile development; Jidosha kaihatsu no tame no kaisogata kino model

    Sumida, S. [U-shin Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nagamatsu, M.; Maruyama, K. [Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Sapporo (Japan); Hiramatsu, S. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    A new approach on modeling is put forward in order to compose the virtual prototype which is indispensable for fully computer integrated concurrent development of automobile product. A basic concept of the hierarchical functional model is proposed as the concrete form of this new modeling technology. This model is used mainly for explaining and simulating functions and efficiencies of both the parts and the total product of automobile. All engineers who engage themselves in design and development of automobile can collaborate with one another using this model. Some application examples are shown, and usefulness of this model is demonstrated. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N


    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates. PMID:3675807

  13. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    Peoples, J. A.


    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  14. The Feasibility Study of the Waste Heat Air—Conditioning System for Automobile

    Gui-pingLin; Xiu-ganYuan; 等


    In this paper,the feasibility of application of a solid-absorption system using ammonia and chlorides as working pair to automobile air-conditioning system is investigated.This system has the advantages of minimum environmental problem and utilizing waste heat from the automobile engine as thermal energy input.Analyses show that the main problem associated with the application of solid-absorption system is the size of the reactors.Techniques to solve this problem are discussed.

  15. Growing Chinese Automobile

    Bai Yifeng


    @@ Established in September 27,2003, Zhejiang Gonow Auto mobile Co., Ltd. is a private company specialized in the manufacture of pickup and sport-utility vehicle (SUV). The company is located in Luqiao District, Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province, P. R. China. It covers an area of 268,000 square meters in the first stage with annual production capacity of 60, 000 pickups and SUV, and 60, 000 engines. Now the four major crafts workshops of pressing, welding, coating and general assembly have been established with the floor space surpassing 100,000 square meters. The second stage is planned to use 100 hectares with annual production capacity of 250,000 minibuses.

  16. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.


    A. D. Gusev; V. S. Demyanova


    Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize aut...

  18. Prelaunch Forecasting of New Automobiles

    Urban, Glen L.; John R. Hauser; John H. Roberts


    This paper develops and applies a prelaunch model and measurement system to the marketing planning of a new automobile. The analysis addresses active search by consumers, dealer visits, word-of-mouth communication, magazine reviews, and production constraints---issues that are important in understanding consumer response to durable goods. We address these issues with a detailed consumer flow model which monitors and projects key consumer transitions in response to marketing actions. A test-vs...

  19. Automobile technology of the future

    Looking ahead to the year 2000, this fascinating publication takes an in-depth look at new technology which will impact the passenger car of tomorrow. New developments in the areas of performance, reliability, comfort, fuel economy, safety, and environmental compatibility are examined. In this book the authors offer analysis on subjects such as the impact of legislation, the acceptance of ABS, and features of the future dashboard. Offering insight to readers with both technical and general interest in automobiles

  20. The dynamics of automobile expenditures

    Copeland, Adam


    This paper presents a dynamic model for light motor vehicles. Consumers solve an optimal stopping problem in deciding if they want a new automobile and when in the model year to purchase it. This dynamic approach allows for determining how the mix of consumers evolves over the model year and for measuring consumers' substitution patterns across products and time. I find that temporal substitution is significant, driving consumers' entry into and exit from the market. Through counterfactuals, ...

  1. Electric automobil - wishes and reality

    Duchoň, Bedřich; Opava, Jaroslav


    The demands on cars energy resources are given by the following items: power, speed, acceleration, operation range. All these factors are under balance: future wishes and contemporary reality. The proposal is dedicated to the analysis of demands related to the electric automobiles. As a hopefulness solution of these transport means can be seen for city transport (forwarding, shopping, postal services etc). The technical and economic approaches are discussed, too.

  2. Hybrid Voltage Regulator for Automobiles

    Sei-Ichi Denda; Tadashi Takahashi; Akihiro Sawamura


    In the course of the development of hybrid voltage regulators for automobile use, increasing the reverse blocking voltage with decreasing of saturation voltage for output power darlington transistors, the capability of monolithic IC chip against surge pulses generated in cars, and an improvement of the pattern design of thick film in order to withstand temperature cycling, have been important subjects. Power darlingtons have more than 150 V of reverse voltage as well as large secondary breakd...

  3. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    Renato Fonseca


    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  4. Environmental implications of the automobile

    There are over 12 million automobiles in Canada, each travelling over 16,000 km annually. The value of motor vehicles and parts produced in Canada accounts for over 6% of the gross domestic product, and vehicle-related sales account for the largest proportion of Canadian retail activity. The environmental issues related to the high impact of the automobile on Canadian life are discussed. In the manufacture of motor vehicles, over 2 billion kg of metal are used a year; although much of this comes from recycled materials, some depletion of nonrenewable resources is required. It is also estimated that 66-105 GJ of energy are needed to produce a motor vehicle, equivalent to as much as 20% of all the energy consumed during the vehicle's lifetime. Environmental impacts result from this use of resources and energy, including land disturbances and air pollution. Land use impacts are also those related to appropriation of urban and rural land for roadway and service uses, plus pollution of adjoining lands by road runoff. In 1990, the transportation sector used 29% of end-use energy, of which retail gasoline sales for motor vehicles accounted for 54%. Environmental impacts from oil refining, fuel combustion, and waste disposal are described, and programs to mitigate these impacts are outlined. Significant reductions in automobile emissions have already occurred from the increased use of emission control devices, improved fuel efficiency, and stricter standards. Further improvements are possible via such means as better manufacturing procedures, increased recycling of automobile components, better inspection and maintenance, and use of alternative fuels and alternate transportation modes. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  5. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  6. The Automobile Buyer Behaviour: Emotional or Rational?

    Economist Phd. Candidate CRUCERU Gheorghe; Assistant Professor Phd. Candidate MICUDA Dan


    The automobile buyer’s behaviour is a specific one and the knowledge and understanding of the motivations is important for the automobile manufacturers and distributors. Automobile buyers are the beneficiaries of complex high technology products, which have a long-term use. The paper is focused on understanding the mechanisms that underlie the buying process, the buyers’ expectations and needs, as essential elements for producers and distributors. When these mechanisms are controlled, the com...

  7. Automobile Fuel Economy: What is it Worth?

    Nair, Santosh; Espey, Molly


    The marginal value of increased automobile fuel economy is estimated using a hedonic model of 2001 model year automobiles sold in the United States. This value is then compared to the average expected lifetime fuel savings attributable to increased fuel economy. Results indicate that automobile buyers fully internalize fuel cost savings attributable to improved fuel economy at low discount rates, and may partially internalize other perceived benefits of improved fuel economy such as reduction...

  8. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Chattopadhyay O


    Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (...

  9. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  10. The Emergence of the Chinese Automobile Sector

    Mark Baker; Markus Hyvonen


    The Chinese automobile sector has experienced rapid growth over the past decade, with China recently becoming the world’s largest producer of automobiles. Given the steel-intensive nature of automobile production, the expansion of China’s automobile sector has seen it become an important end-user of steel. With the number of cars in China still very low relative to its large population, car sales are likely to remain at a high level for the foreseeable future; accordingly, Chinese car mak...

  11. Automobile


    Le groupe Volkswagen, 1er constructeur européen, a récemment annoncé vouloir défier le leader mondial Toyota. Dans ce contexte, les conclusions du suivi scientifique des profondes réformes de l’organisation du travail chez VW tombent à point nommé. Le programme Auto 5000 adopté par les partenaires sociaux en juin 2006 pourrait être la réplique allemande à ce « toyotisme » sur lequel Toyota a construit sa nouvelle compétitivité. (ib)


    A. D. Gusev


    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize automobile tires has been indicated. Physical and mechanical indicators have been established and the residual durability of metal cord as a product of tire processing has been evaluated. The comparative analysis with an industrial fiber has been carried out. The most technological and economic directions to be taken in the recycling of rubber scraps in order to do-mestically manufacture tile and of metal cord to manufacture fiber-concrete of various types are suggested for a “floating floor” structure.

  13. Your Automobile Dollar, [Revised.] Money Management

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Law, Jean L., Ed.

    This booklet on automobile purchasing and maintenance, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook discusses buying, maintaining, and operating cars. Section 1 discusses managing automobile dollars. Topics include…

  14. Study of automobile exhaust particles by spectromicroscopy

    In this paper,automobile exhaust particles of Gol and Santana 3000 were studied by spectro microscopy. The STXM results show that the single particulate is sized at 500 nm, with the mass distribution reducing towards the center. The N 1s NEXAFS spectra of automobile exhaust particles have similar structure with those of nitrates, which can be deduced as the main chemical species of nitrogen in automobile exhaust particles. There are minor amounts of ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds in automobile exhaust particles. A single Gol automobile exhaust particle was stack scanned in the energy range of 396-416 eV. By principal component analysis and cluster analysis, it can be deduced that there are main three chemical species of nitrogen. The particle surface consists of mainly nitrates, the inside consists of mainly ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds, and the middle layer is an inter gradation consisting of mainly nitrates and organic nitrogen compounds. (authors)


    Viorel Pop


    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  16. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  17. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  18. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.


    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  19. Automated Sequencing and Subassembly Detection in Automobile Body Assembly Planning


    The choice of the sequence in which parts or subass em blies are put together in the mechanical assembly of a product can drastical ly affect the efficiency of the assembly process. Unlike metal cutting operation s where computer aided system have been available for some 15 to 25 years to hel p manufacturing engineers in generating cutting sequences and NC programs, the m ajority of assembly planning tasks in automobile body design is still manually p erformed by assembly designers according to their pa...

  20. The rolling and skidding of automobile tyres

    Tabor, D.


    This article deals in simple terms with the rolling and skidding of automobile tyres. It shows that skid resistance on slippery road surfaces may be significantly increased by using tyre treads of high hysteresis loss.

  1. Information searches by consumers of miniature automobiles

    CHEN Dao-ping; LIU Wei


    We studied the information search behaviors of Chinese consumers of miniature automobiles. First, we identified the main sources where consumers acquire or seek information about miniature automobiles and discussed their extent of information search. Then, based on logistic regression and optimal scaling regression of statistics, we studied the influences of characteristics of consumers of miniature automobiles on the extent of information search and on Internet usage. The results indicate that consumers often utilize four sources to obtain information about miniature automobiles. The dominant information source for consumers is their friends/family, followed by dealers, newspapers, and TV. Age, occupation, education and income significantly affect the extent of information search, but gender and city of residence do not have significant impacts. Age, city of residence, occupation, education and income produce significant influences on Internet usage. Gender has an insignificant influence on whether a consumer uses the Internet to search for information.

  2. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin


    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.


    Bilichenko, V.; Tsymbal, S.


    The block diagram which with use of imitating modelling will allow to choose optimum strategy diversification the enterprises of automobile transport is developed, having received the maximal profit at the minimal expenses.

  4. The Honey Trap:The democratization of leisure through automobilism

    Wagner, Michael


    Michael F. Wagner: The Honey Trap –The democratization of leisure through automobilismThe automobile has achieved a central position in modern everyday life as an essential artefact to mobility. This raises the question how automobiles have been mediated for mass consumption? The central thesis in the article is that the culture of Danish automobilism was constructed around and appropriated through leisure activities conducted primarily by the automobile consumer’s organisation Touring Club d...

  5. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa


    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  6. Competition in the IndianAutomobile Industry

    Singh, Gagandeep


    ABSTRACT “Following India's growing openness, the arrival of new and existing models, easy availability of finance at relatively low rate of interest and price discounts offered by the dealers and manufacturers all have stirred the demand for vehicles and a strong growth of the Indian automobile industry”. The main focus of my dissertation will be the Indian automobile industry due to its rich diversity and ever-changing patterns. The Research Question which I would follow would be t...

  7. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  8. Information competence formation characteristics while preparation of specialists of the automobile profile

    Makarova, Irina; Rifat KHABIBULLIN; Gennady MAVRIN; Guliya AKHMETZYANOVA; Almaz AKHMETSHIN


    Innovative approaches to formation of information competence while preparation of specialists of the automobile section are considered in this article: the content of information competence both basic and component part of professional competence, and also its value for the decision of professional problems on life cycle maintenance of automotive engineering is defined.

  9. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency

  10. Effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers

    Kikuchi, Shigeta; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Yamagata, Akihiro


    Since the automobile turbochargers are installed in an engine compartment with limited space, the ducts upstream of the turbocharger compressor may be curved in a complex manner. In the present paper, the effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers is discussed. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a turbocharger compressor validated for the compressor model with the straight pipe applied to the compressor with the curved pipe are executed, and the deterioration of the performance for the curved pipe is confirmed. It is also found that the deterioration of compressor performance is caused by the interaction of the secondary flow and the impeller.

  11. 车用柴油机技术状态数据实时采集系统设计%The Design of Automobile Diesel Engine Technical State Digital Real-time Data Collection System

    王宪成; 张根良; 和穆; 姜力


    基于ARM10嵌入式主板,采用传感器、信号调理模块、PC104采集板,设计了车用柴油机技术状态数据采集、处理系统。标定试验表明:系统精度为1%,能够满足实时采集的要求。实车应用试验实现了车用柴油机技术状态监测,为车用柴油机视情维修提供技术手段。%Based on the ARM10 embedded motherboard, sensors, signal conditioning modules and PC104 acquisition board were used to develop the data acquisition and processing system of automobile diesel engine' s technical state. By calibration tests, it has proved that the system' s accuracy is 1%, which can meet the requirements of real-time collection. By real vehicle application tests, it has realized diesel engine' s technical state monitoring, thus could provide technical means for diesel engine' s CBM.

  12. Renewing Marketing Strategy in Kenyan Automobile Industry

    Kalliokuusi, Miriam


    This thesis studies how to renew existing marketing strategies for case company; in so doing, the thesis fulfills its main objective. Company X, a market leader in the Kenyan automobile sector and has various well-known brands under their corporate umbrella. The automobile industry in Kenya has faced some hardship with steady decline in sales in the last couple of years and Mercedes-Benz as a brand suffered under the circumstances. One major cause of the drop in sales is due to the influx of ...

  13. Modeling of Electromagnetic Damper for Automobile Suspension

    Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Suda, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Hirofumi; Kondo, Takuhiro

    In this paper, the modeling of the electromagnetic damper (EMD) for automobile suspension is presented and the validation of the model is demonstrated by comparing the numerical results with the experimental results obtained using shaker tests. EMD is used as an active suspension and controlled to have output force calculated from velocities of sprung and unsprung masses. The formulation of EMD system for active suspensions is first developed, and the validation of the EMD model is demonstrated by experiments of the EMD for automobile suspensions. The validity of the formulation of the EMD developed in this investigation is shown for the frequency responses as well as energy balance for its active use.

  14. Mechanisms of injury in automobile crashes.

    Huelke, D F


    The only way to determine the causes of injury in automobile collisions is through examination of data collected in detailed investigation of crashes. Such data were gathered from a ten-year study of collisions that caused injury to the occupants of the cars. In a comparison of injuries in the newer model automobiles-vehicles equipped with the safety features-with those in older model cars not equipped with the present-day occupant protection devices, significant reduction in injury severity was noted. PMID:5059662

  15. Automobile Exhaust Pollution and Purification Methods

    Tang, Dawei


    As we all know, the automobile gas exhaust pollution has become more and more severe at recent years. It influences both to the human beings health and to quality of environment. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the main components of the exhaust gases, and give a basic and effective way to solve the problem. In this thesis, first the danger of exhaust pollution and its components will be presented. Then the writer will give the general mechanism of automobile exhaust ...


    Bilichenko, V.; Smyrnov, E.


    Modern conditions of enterprise on automobile transport are analyzed. Technical development of enterprise on automobile transport as one of the ways of increasing competitive abilities and there profits is considered.


    ŞAHİN, Yaşar Güneri


    ABSTRACTIn connection with the developments in the automobile sector, the number of in-automobile components, the amount of cable used for providing in-automobile communication between these components and costs are increased gradually. In this study, a method is presented in which asynchronous serial connection is used for decreasing the initial and maintenance costs by means of decreasing the amount of cables used in middle and lower class automobiles. The electronic circuits required to es...

  18. The Strategic Transformation of Automobile Industry in China

    Som Techakanjanakit; Meifang Huang


    In the past few years, the global automobile industry is developing difficultly because of the influence from the financial crisis. In contrast, China's automobile production and sales are still having a blowout type growth, and jumped into the world's largest automobile production and sales market. At the same time, Chinese automobile companies continue to deepen and join with international brand cooperation; independent research and development of the independent brand production, and their...

  19. Research on automobile culture and entertainment industry in China

    Li Qing-song; Tang Lan; Cai Yun


    Rapid development of the automotive Industry and culture Industry is promoted the rapid rise of automobile industry of the culture and entertainment. With the further development of the automobile industry and people's living standards, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in the proportion of China's economy is more and more important, but theoretical research in this area is nearly blank. With previous researches, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in China...

  20. Interior Noise Prediction of the Automobile Based on Hybrid FE-SEA Method

    S. M. Chen


    created using hybrid FE-SEA method. The modal density was calculated using analytical method and finite element method; the damping loss factors of the structural and acoustic cavity subsystems were also calculated with analytical method; the coupling loss factors between structure and structure, structure and acoustic cavity were both calculated. Four different kinds of excitations including road excitations, engine mount excitations, sound radiation excitations of the engine, and wind excitations are exerted on the body of automobile when the automobile is running on the road. All the excitations were calculated using virtual prototype technology, computational fluid dynamics (CFD, and experiments realized in the design and development stage. The interior noise of the automobile was predicted and verified at speed of 120 km/h. The predicted and tested overall SPLs of the interior noise were 73.79 and 74.44 dB(A respectively. The comparison results also show that the prediction precision is satisfied, and the effectiveness and reliability of the hybrid FE-SEA model of the automobile is verified.


    O. M. Pilipenko


    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model for electronic control system of the angular ignition timing (AIT in the (ICE, which is running on ozonized fuel. An algorithm for  ignition system control of internal combustion engine using ozonized fuel has been developed in the paper. A structure of the dynamic ignition system while using a control unit for supplying  ozone into fuel with a purpose to improve automobile ecological and economical indices adapted to operational conditions. Application of the given system allows to ensure minimum reduction of operational petrol consumption and concentration of incomplete combustion products due to optimum ozone dosage into the fuel.  The paper proposes a controlled automobile ignition system as a sequential scheme which has a great number of discrete inputs and outputs and many discrete internal  states. The scheme establishes a functional dependence between input and output states. The paper provides an assessment of ecological indices according to massive emissions of carbon monoxide СО, hydrocarbon СпНт and nitric oxide NOx .  The analysis of  investigations results has been carried out in the paper.

  2. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.


    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  3. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.


    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  4. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  5. Trends in chassis and automobile electronics components

    Hackenberg, Ulrich [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)


    The rapidly-growing importance of electronics in automobile construction is in part determined by the debate on sustainability and the clear trend towards electric power trains. Another factor, however, is the decisive impact of electronics on the further development of components, e.g. for chassis. Apart from environmental protection, key motivators for component development include comfort, safety, infotainment and driver assistance. (orig.)

  6. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Feldman, Bernard J.


    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  7. Nonwovens in the Automobile Interior

    Seile, A; Beļakova, D


    Textile applications have a significant role in the automotive architecture. The structure of textiles, used fibres and textile producing technology depends on textile placement in the car. Sound absorption is a very important property of textiles because of the large number of noise sources in a car (engine and driving noise) and from the road. Nonwoven fabrics have the ability to reduce noise; other significant benefits of nonwovens are high productivity, low production costs, opportunity t...

  8. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry


    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  9. Efficient controller area network data compression for automobile applications

    Yu-jing WU; Jin-Gyun CHUNG


    Controller area networks (CANs) have been designed for multiplexing communication between electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicles and many high-level industrial control applications. When a CAN bus is overloaded by a large number of ECUs connected to it, both the waiting time and the error probability of the data transmission are increased. Thus, it is desirable to reduce the CAN frame length, since the duration of data transmission is proportional to the frame length. In this paper, we present a CAN message compression method to reduce the CAN frame length. Experimental results indicate that CAN transmission data can be compressed by up to 81.06%with the proposed method. By using an embedded test board, we show that 64-bit engine management system (EMS) CAN data compression can be performed within 0.16 ms;consequently, the proposed algorithm can be successfully used in automobile applications.

  10. Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Combustion and Pollutants Formation of New Technology Light Duty Diesel Engines Modélisation multidimensionnelle de la combustion et de la formation des polluants dans les nouveaux moteurs diesel automobiles

    Belardini P.


    Full Text Available In the present paper some results, obtained by the use of modern numerical CFD tools, are presented. In particular, starting from the experimental characterization of a common rail DI Diesel engine, the empirical constants of the different submodels were tuned to obtain satisfactory results in some key test conditions. The main constraints of numerical models, to obtain a right scaling of pollutants predictions in the different test cases are analyzed. The numerical analysis demonstrates that the numerical CFD tools, at their stage of development, can help the engine designers to define the more promising strategies to obtain tailpipe emission control of common rail Diesel DI engines. Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats obtenus en utilisant des outils de simulation de la mécanique des fluides numérique (CFD. À partir de résultats expérimentaux issus de la caractérisation d'un moteur Diesel common rail, les constantes empiriques de divers modèles ont été ajustées afin d'obtenir des résultats satisfaisants pour des cas tests représentatifs. Les principales contraintes des modèles numériques pour obtenir une bonne précision dans les différents cas d'études sont ici analysées. Cette analyse numérique montre que la CFD permet déjà, au stade de développement atteint, d'aider les ingénieurs à définir les stratégies les plus prometteuses pour maîtriser les émissions à l'échappement des moteurs Diesel à injection common rail.

  11. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Liang Wang


    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  12. Innovation, Emissions Policy, and Competitive Advantage in the Diffusion of European Diesel Automobiles

    Miravete, Eugenio J.; Moral Rincón, Maria J; Thurk, Jeff


    Spurred by Volkswagen's introduction of the TDI diesel engine in 1989, market penetration of diesel cars in Europe increased from 10% in 1990 to over 50% in 2000. Using Spanish automobile registration data, we estimate an equilibrium discrete choice, oligopoly model of horizontally differentiated products. We find that changing product characteristics and the increasing popularity of diesels leads to correlation between observed and unobserved (to the researcher) product characteristics, an a...

  13. Development and exploitation of optical diagnoses based on radicals fluorescence. Application to automotive engines; Developpement et exploitation de diagnostics optiques bases sur la fluorescence de radicaux. Application aux moteurs automobiles

    Auge, M.


    During this PhD, we have developed an optical technique based on radicals fluorescence. The objective was to obtain more information on combustion phenomena. We first have applied the OH and HCHO PLIF technique simultaneously in laminar premixed counter-flow flames under pressure. With this technique, we have obtained the local heat release rate of the flame and an estimation of the laminar flame speed and the thickness of the flame for different fuels and pressure. We have then applied this technique on a Diesel fuel jet in combustion placed in a high pressure cell to understand the different phenomena occurring. Then PLIF at 355 nm was applied in direct and indirect injection spark ignition engine to detect the unburned. We have demonstrated the high potential of the technique used during this PhD to obtain local heat release rate of a flame. We have also progressed in our comprehension of the phenomena occurring during the combustion processes. (author)

  14. Hybridní pohon automobilů

    Tvrdý, Josef


    Obsahem této bakalářské práce je přehled možných hybridních pohonů automobilů a jejich praktické využití. Je zaměřena na hlavní výhody a nevýhody hybridního pohonu a zabývá se dopadem takto vybavených automobilů na životní prostředí, především na produkci skleníkových plynů. Také uvádí pohled na hybridy z finančního hlediska. This bachelor thesis deals with an overview of all possible hybrid vehicle propulsion systems and their practical usage. It is focused on the main advantages and disa...

  15. Amarok Pikap: interactive percussion playing automobile

    Artut, Selçuk Hüseyin; Artut, Selcuk Huseyin


    Alternative interfaces that imitate the audio-structure of authentic musical instruments are often equipped with sound generation techniques that feature physical attributes similar to those of the instruments they imitate. Amarok Pikap project utilizes an interactive system on the surface of an automobile that is specially modified with the implementation of various electronic sensors attached to its bodywork. Sur-faces that will be struck to produce sounds in percussive instrument modeling ...

  16. Estimation of Claim Numbers in Automobile Insurance

    Arató, Miklós; Martinek, László


    The use of bonus-malus systems in compulsory liability automobile insurance is a worldwide applied method for premium pricing. If certain assumptions hold, like the conditional Poisson distribution of the policyholders claim number, then an interesting task is to evaluate the so called claims frequency of the individuals. Here we introduce 3 techniques, two is based on the bonus-malus class, and the third based on claims history. The article is devoted to choose the method, which fits to the ...

  17. Telematics Strategy for Automobile Insurers : Whitepaper

    Paefgen, Johannes; Fleisch, Elgar; Staake, Thorsten; Ackermann, Lukas; Best, Jonas; Egli, Lukas


    This whitepaper investigates the business implications telematics services and Pay-as-you-drive (PAYD) insurance in particular, from the perspective of automobile insurance providers. Specifically, it discusses - the PROFITABILITY and competitive dynamics of PAYD insurance, - a simplified BUSINESS CASE for a new market entrant with a PAYD product, - the present STRUCTURE OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETS for insurance telematics services, - DRIVERS AND BARRIERS for the focus markets Swit...


    Sexauer, Benjamin; Roe, Terry L.; Kinsey, Jean D.


    The model in this paper integrates the possibility of misinformation into consumer utility theory. If the utility realized from a good differs from the utility anticipated at time of purchase, shifts in demand would occur, and thus changes in consumer surplus. These changes provide a measure of the cost of misinformation or value of improved information. The empirical analysis yields estimates of the private and social cost of inaccuracies in automobile buyers; pre-purchase mileage estimates....

  19. Statistical machine translation for automobile marketing texts

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Weibel, Manuela; Volk, Martin


    We describe a project on introducing an in-house statistical machine translation system for marketing texts from the automobile industry with the final aim of replacing manual translation with post-editing, based on the translation system. The focus of the paper is the suitability of such texts for SMT; we present experiments in domain adaptation and decompounding that improve the baseline translation systems, the results of which are evaluated using automatic metrics as well as manual evalua...

  20. New type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system

    A new type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system for identification and measuring of contamination with natural and artificial gamma isotopes is described. developed. Its main principle is a maximal use of the energy resolution of NaJ(Tl) detectors. The system consists of a spectrometer working simultaneously with a set of 1-16 scintillator blocks and a registration/ data processing unit. The operational mode, optimal performance and control subsystem are described

  1. Análise das estratégias de produção de seis montadoras de motores para automóveis Operations strategies of automobile engine assembly companies

    Alceu Gomes Alves Filho


    Full Text Available São identificadas e analisadas neste artigo as Estratégias de Produção (EP adotadas, durante o período 2005-2006, por 6 empresas montadoras de motores para automóveis instaladas no Brasil. Três delas instalaram-se há várias décadas no País e são aqui denominadas "estabelecidas"; as outras três, apenas há alguns anos, são denominadas "entrantes". Para o levantamento de informações sobre as EPs adotadas, entrevistas semiestruturadas foram feitas com pelo menos um dos principais responsáveis - gerentes - pela unidade produtora de motores em cada empresa. Observou-se que as EPs adotadas pelas empresas são distintas entre os grupos e em cada grupo (intragrupos, marcadas por diferenças nas áreas de decisão estruturais, apesar de haver semelhanças entre as estratégias competitivas das empresas em cada grupo (estabelecidas e entrantes. Alguns dos resultados encontrados nesta pesquisa confirmam proposições da literatura, outros indicam que há temas que precisam ainda ser cuidadosamente investigados.The operations strategies adopted by six engine assemblers between 2005 and 2006 in Brazil were identified and analyzed. Three of them started their operations some decades ago and were, therefore, denominated "established firms". The other three have started their operations only after the 1990s and were denominated "entrant firms". Information on the adopted strategies was gathered through interviews with at least one of the main managers in each engine assembly plant investigated. We observed that the adopted operations strategies are different in terms of inter and intra groups of those plants. The distinct characteristics of operations strategies are mainly due to differences in structural decision areas although the competitive strategies in each group have some common traces.

  2. Perspectives d'amélioration du rendement à très faible charge des moteurs d'automobile Prospects for Lmprovinq the Very-Low-Load Efficiency of Automotive Engines

    Douaud A.


    Full Text Available Le mauvais rendement énergétique des véhicules utilisés à très faible charge (circulation urbaine, vitesses limitées provient entre autres des combustions non optimales. Celles-ci sont de plusieurs types : combustion lente et/ou tardive, ratés de propagation. L'acquisition de cycles de pression au moyen du système DIGITAP développé à l'In-titut Français du Pétrole (IFP est décrite et le calcul instantané du travail cycle-à-cycle permet de définir un critère de stabilité de fonctionnement du moteur. L'analyse thermodynamique des cycles montre que la composition du mélange air + carburant + gaz résiduels, trop proche des limites de propagabilité de flamme, est à l'origine des phénomènes observés. Des voies d'action portant sur les gaz résiduels, la turbulence et les paramètres du système d'allumage sont dégagées et permettent des améliorations importantes du rendement. The poor energy efficiency of vehicles used at very low engine load (urban traffic, limited speeds comes from non-optimum combustion, among other causes. Such combustion may be of several types, i. e. slow and/or late combustion, propagation misfiring. The recording of pressure cycles by the DIGITAP system developed at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP is described, and the instantaneous computing of the cycle-to-cycle work enables a stability criterion for engine operating to be described. The thermodynamic analysis of the cycles shows that the composition of the air + fuel + residuel gas mixture which is too close to flame propagation limits is at the origin of the phenomena observed. Methods of action concerning residual gases, turbulence and the parameters of the ignition system are determined and make for great improvements in efficiency and stability for such types of running.

  3. A kinetic study of several aromatic compounds oxidation: applied to pollutants formation in car engines; Etude cinetique de l'oxydation de composes aromatiques: application a la formation de polluants dans les moteurs automobiles

    Pengloan, G.


    Commercial fuels contain a multitude of chemical compounds. Their incomplete combustion in car engines leads to pollutants emission. The aim of this study is to improve our knowledge of oxidation kinetic mechanisms at high temperature for aromatic hydrocarbons because of their importance in fuels composition. Kinetics of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and styrene combustion was studied, at equivalence ratio in the range 0.5 to 1.5, by means of two experimental apparatus: a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) and a shock tube (ST). In the JSR, reactive mixtures, diluted by N{sub 2}, were oxidized at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range 950 to 1400 K. Concentration profiles of sampled stable species were measured, at a steady residence time, by gas chromatography (GC/MS, GC/FID/TCD). In the ST, temperature and pressure ranges were higher: 1300 < T(K) < 2000, 1 < P(bar) < 20. Ignition delays were measured by recording OH emission profiles at 306 nm. A detailed kinetic reaction mechanism for the oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons at high temperature was proposed. This mechanism includes 936 reactions and 125 species. It's based on the kinetic scheme of Ristori et al. (2001),It was further validated in the present work by modeling the ignition of benzene and toluene. Ethyl-benzene and styrene sub-mechanisms were developed. The agreement between the simulations and JSR experimental data is satisfactory. The ignition delays are well simulated. However, the modeling of concentration profiles needs improvements: defaults in the mechanism of benzene have repercussions on the predicted reactivity of ethyl-benzene and styrene which is higher than observed in the experiments. (author)

  4. The Analysis of The Abnormal Noise of Piston Pin of Automobile Engine%汽油机活塞销轴心轨迹计算及在故障诊断中的应用

    丁恒鉴; 肖云魁; 唐彦峰; 阳建成


    Adopting Hamn's method to solve Reynolds equation,in this paperthe dimensionless bearing capacity of the oil film in sliding bearings under unstable load with different eccentricities and kinetic parameters is calculated.Basing on the pressure measured in the engine cylinder,the load of the piston pin is accounted.Then according to the balance relation between the load of the piston pin and the bearing capacity of the oil film,we can decide the moving orbit of the piston pin in the connecting-rod bush by means of the oil film thickness calculated at each moment under the dynamic load.The result shows that the connecting rod is compressed during most running time while the compressed force of connecting rod is much bigger than the pulled force.Making use of the result we could not only design more reasonable structure of piston connecting rod and diagnose the trouble of piston pin more easily,but also explain many practiced phenomena of trouble.%采用汉氏法求解雷诺方程,计算出不稳定载荷下滑动轴承在不同偏心率和动力参数条件下的油膜无量纲承载力,并根据实测的发动机气缸压力计算出活塞销所承受的负荷。然后根据实际负荷与油膜承载力的平衡关系,计算出动载荷下每一时刻的油膜厚度,从而确定活塞销轴心在连杆小头铜套中的运动轨迹。计算结果表明,连杆在整个运行周期中,绝大部分时间承受压缩载荷,且压缩载荷远比拉伸载荷大。此结果可用于发动机活塞连杆组的结构设计与故障诊断中,并能对一些实际故障现象进行合理的理论解释。

  5. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)


    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  6. Globalization of the Automobile Industry ; Traditional Locations under Pressure?

    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter


    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  7. Performance Investigation of Automobile Radiator Operated with ZnFe2O4 Nano Fluid based Coolant

    Tripathi Ajay; Chandra H


    The cooling system of an Automobile plays an important role in its performance, consists of two main parts, known as radiator and fan. Improving thermal efficiency of engine leads to increase the engine's performance, decline the fuel consumption and decrease the pollution emissions. Water and ethylene glycol as conventional coolants have been widely used in radiators of an automotive industry for many years. These heat transfer fluids offer low thermal conductivity. With the advancement of n...

  8. High temperature ceramics for automobile gas turbines. Part 2: Development of ceramic components

    Walzer, P.; Koehler, M.; Rottenkolber, P.


    The development of ceramic components for automobile gas turbine engines is described with attention given to the steady and unsteady thermal conditions the ceramics will experience, and their anti-corrosion and strain-resistant properties. The ceramics considered for use in the automobile turbines include hot-pressed Si3N4, reaction-sintered, isostatically pressed Si3N4, hot-pressed SiC, reaction-bonded SiC, and glass ceramics. Attention is given to the stress analysis of ceramic structures and the state of the art of ceramic structural technology is reviewed, emphasizing the use of ceramics for combustion chambers and ceramic shrouded turbomachinery (a fully ceramic impeller).



    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.




    This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V) automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant curren...




    Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.

  12. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance allowance. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Automobile or...

  13. Alternativní pohony automobilů

    Filip, Vojtěch


    Náplní této bakalářské práce je analýza aktuálně používaných alternativních pohonů automobilů, jejich srovnání se současnými zážehovými a vznětovými spalovacími motory. Seznámení s technickým řešením jednotlivých pohonů a jejich kategorizace do několika základních skupin, podle charakteristických klíčových rysů. Dále obsahuje bližší seznámení s nejdůležitějšími komponenty automobilů, vyžívajících tyto alternativní pohony a současně jejich přednostmi ale také nedostatky, které nyní brzdí rozší...


    Kryvokon, A.; Bondarenko, A.


    Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.


    A. Kryvokon


    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  16. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.


    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  17. The Impact of Price Controls on Mandatory Automobile Insurance Markets

    Strauss, Jason


    This is a theoretical paper that models a mandatory automobile insurance market using a partial equilibrium concept where automobile insurance is one good and a composite good represents all others. Price controls, heterogeneous service, administrative, and adjusting costs, as well as capital reserves and capital costs are all included in this simple model.

  18. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.


    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  19. The Role of Technical Innovation and Sustainability on Energy Consumption: A Case Study on the Taiwanese Automobile Industry

    Chao-Wu Chou


    Full Text Available The impact of global warming and climate change is one of the most critical challenges of the 21st century. The greenhouse effect caused by technological development and industrial pollution has accelerated the speed of global warming. The continuous improvement in automobile energy consumption is one of the most effective ways to reduce global warming. A comparative analysis is proposed to examine the various automobiles that utilize technological innovation to improve their energy consumption. Their contribution to CO2 emissions is then investigated. This study focuses on technical innovation and output power of a conventional engine. The results indicate that innovative engines (such as the Ford turbo petrol/diesel engine, the EcoBoost/TDCi have improved energy consumption and reduce CO2 emissions. In addition, the Toyota hybrid vehicles have also improved energy consumption and reduced greenhouse gases emissions.

  20. Controller for computer control of brushless dc motors. [automobile engines

    Hieda, L. S. (Inventor)


    A motor speed and torque controller for brushless d.c. motors provides an unusually smooth torque control arrangement. The controller provides a means for controlling a current waveform in each winding of a brushless dc motor by synchronization of an excitation pulse train from a programmable oscillator. Sensing of torque for synchronization is provided by a light beam chopper mounted on the motor rotor shaft. Speed and duty cycle are independently controlled by controlling the frequency and pulse width output of the programmable oscillator. A means is also provided so that current transitions from one motor winding to another is effected without abrupt changes in output torque.

  1. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.


    ... regarding tort liability. In addition, the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of...

  2. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    A K Shukla; C L Jackson; K Scott


    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of $ca$. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. The advantages and disadvantages of candidate fuel-cell systems and various fuels are considered together with the issue of whether the fuel should be converted directly in the fuel cell or should be reformed to hydrogen onboard the vehicle. For fuel cell vehicles to compete successfully with conventional internal-combustion engine vehicles, it appears that direct conversion fuel cells using probably hydrogen, but possibly methanol, are the only realistic contenders for road transportation applications. Among the available fuel cell technologies, polymer–electrolyte fuel cells directly fueled with hydrogen appear to be the best option for powering fuel cell vehicles as there is every prospect that these will exceed the performance of the internal-combustion engine vehicles but for their first cost. A target cost of $ 50/kW would be mandatory to make polymer–electrolyte fuel cells competitive with the internal combustion engines and can only be achieved with design changes that would substantially reduce the quantity of materials used. At present, prominent car manufacturers are deploying important research and development efforts to develop fuel cell vehicles and are projecting to start production by 2005.

  3. Assistance to a car heat engine by a self-controlled synchronous machine: engine energy control enhancement and pollutant emission reduction; Assistance d`un moteur thermique d`automobile par une machine synchrone autopilotee: amelioration de la gestion energetique et reduction des polluants du groupe moto-propulseur

    Kouadio, L.


    A new method for spark-ignition engine control, more especially in idle conditions, has been developed to prevent engine stalling and improve its idling performances in terms of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions: the car synchronous machine, traditionally operating as an alternator, is used in certain phases to provide an external supplementary torque on the engine shaft. Methods are proposed for optimising the synchronous machine operation as a generator and as an engine, then the main engine control parameters are presented and a linear signal model is established around a nominal idling point, which is used for simulations. Experimental results show evident reductions of fuel consumption and a significant robustness improvement in the engine dynamics

  4. Increasing use of nanotechnology in the field of automobile production; Wachsende Anwendungen der Nanotechnologie im Automobilbau

    Presting, H. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Forschung Ulm (RMI/DI) (Germany)


    The nanotechnology is a technology that can be applied in many fields of the automobile production. Its application ranges from propulsion, light construction, energy conversion, emission control and reduction, wear and tear reduction, improved drive dynamics up to the possibility to recycle the car body. Further reaching visions of nano in the car aim at CO{sub 2} free engines, driving without accidents, self-healing car bodies and self-cleaning wind shields and at choosing a colour depending on the mood. This paper gives an overview of the increasing applications of nanotechnology in the automobile focusing on the contribution of the nanotechnology to protect resources. (orig.) [German] Die Nanotechnologie ist auch im Automobilbau eine stark interdisziplinaere Technologie. Ihre Anwendungen reichen von Antrieb, Leichtbau, Energiekonversion, Emissionskontrolle und Reduzierung, Verschleissreduzierung, verbesserter Fahrdynamik bis hin zu Recycelbarkeit der Karosserie. Weiter reichende Visionen von Nano im Auto haben CO2 freie Motoren, unfallfreies Fahren, selbst heilende Karosserien und selbst reinigende Windschutzscheiben bis hin zu Stimmung abhaengigen Farbwahl zum Ziel. Hier wird ein Ueberblick ueber die wachsenden Anwendungen der Nanotechnologie im Automobil gegeben mit Schwerpunkt auf den Beitraegen der Nanotechnologie zur Ressourcenschonung.


    González, Eduardo


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  6. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.


    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  7. Automobile exhausts as a source for the environmental pollution by polychloro-dibenzodioxins and -dibenzofurans

    This research project was focussed on the analysis of polyhalogenated dibenzodioxins (''dioxins'') and dibenzofurans (''furans'') emitted through automobile exhausts (halogen = chlorine or bromine). High-resolution selective capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass-selective detection was used. The two compound groups show basic differences in pattern and concentrations for traffic-related samples. In the ''dioxin''-series the higher-chlorinated dibenzodioxins (increasing from Cl4 to Cl8) are preferentially found, in contrast to the ''furane'', present in higher amounts, for which the lower-halogenated dibenzofurans are more important (decreasing from Cl1 to Cl6 and from Br1 to Br4). The distribution of the dioxin- and furan isomers produced corresponds closely to the so-called ''2,6-type'' pattern which is due to a retarded oxidation and/or a stabilization of phenoxy-intermediates containing the 2,6- or 2,4,6-substitution pattern. To what extent a particular dioxin/furan immission is due to automobile-related emissions can, in the light of the present results, be estimated only by taking several factors into account; source remoteness, the predominance of brominated or partly brominated dibenzofurans over the chlorinated congeners, the presence of other, also halogenated, polycyclic aromatics related to the automobile combustion engine. Areas close to traffic are primarily or completely influenced by the ''dioxin''-emissions of automobiles. For the calculation of the toxic equivalents (TE) for traffic-related emissions, the most important of the ''2,3,7,8''-substituted congeners are the furans 2,3,7,8-Cl4DF (F 83) and 2,3,4,7,8-Cl5DF (F 114) as well as the dioxins 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Cl7DD (D 73) and octachlorodibenzodioxin (D-75). (orig.)

  8. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Jovanović Miomir


    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  9. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  10. A Study of the Translation of Automobile Trademark



    Name is an interesting thing, almost everything has its name. Nowadays along with the rising of consumption levels in China, the brand name of the car becomes an important topic. And the translation of the name of the automobile is the primary task for establishing the global image of the brand. In this paper, I summarize the translation methods for automobile trademarks and point out the importance of the translation of automobile’s trademarks. In addition, this paper explores the trend in the trans-lation of automobile names in China.

  11. Standardization Boosts the Development ofCHANGAN AUTOMOBILE


    In the past two decades,CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE has been sticking to its core value of "technology innovation and consistent care" and dedicating to lead the automobile culture by technology innovation.Till now,it has a complete product range of micro vehicles,passenger cars,buses,trucks,SUV,MPV,etc.,and engineplatforms ranging from 0.8L to 2.5L.CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE brand output ranked 13th in the world and first in China in 2009.Its brand value reached 30.515 billion RMB in 2011,among most valuable brands in China.

  12. Cars Gone Wild: The Major Contributor to Unintended Acceleration in Automobiles is Pedal Error

    Schmidt, Richard A.; Young, Douglas E.


    “Unintended-acceleration” automobile accidents typically begin when the driver first enters the car, starts the engine, and intends to press his/her right foot on the brake while shifting from Park to a drive gear (Drive or Reverse). The driver reports an unintended (uncommanded) full-throttle acceleration, coupled with a loss of braking, until the episode ends in a crash. Pedal misapplications – where the right foot contacts the accelerator instead of the brake that was intended – have been ...

  13. Fuzzy analytic network process based multi criteria decision making methodology for a family automobile purchasing decision

    Yesim Yayla, A.; Yildiz, A


    Nowadays, in parallel with the advancing technology, automobiles that have substantially advanced technological properties are being manufactured. Intended uses of the automobiles have been changing in our days in contrast to 1960s when automobiles were only used for transportation. Consumers, in our day and age, expect profoundly different properties from an automobile. In this context, more than one criterion become effective on making decision on purchasing an automobile that has the requi...

  14. Supply Chain Management Practices of Indian Automobile Industry

    B. S. Sahay; Vikram Sharma; G. D. Sardana


    The automobile industry is a major contributor to India’s economy. The Indian automobile manufacturers face stiff international competition in the wake of all major US and European car manufacturers entering the Indian market. In the contemporary scenario, supply chain management practices can be adopted to improve operational efficiency and profits. This paper presents the current status of Indian automotive supply chains. For this, data was collected by conducting a nationwide survey. The...

  15. Measures of Technical Efficiency in Two Sectors: Banks and Automobiles

    Rapacciuolo Ciro


    The aim of this paper is to evaluate technical efficiency in the automobile and the banking industry, using balance sheet data on businesses in the two sectors: the world leading automobile producers and the top-20 Italian banking groups. The measurement of inefficiency, a strand of literature started by Farrell (1957), is conducted by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is one of the existing approaches in this field; Fare, Grosskopf e Lovell (1994) prepared the ground for th...

  16. Evolution of organizational structure and strategy of the automobile industry

    Heng, S.H.; Wibbelink, R.


    This paper is a historically oriented study of the automobile industry. It sets out to understand why have the structure and strategy of the dominant companies in the automobile industry changed in the way they have done. Our findings suggest three factors at work, namely the knowledge of car production and of customers, the capability of the technological system, and the business environment. The knowledge system represents the level of know-how and the availability of information. In a sens...

  17. Computer Model for Automobile Climate Control System Simulation and Application

    Emin Oker


    Full Text Available A software to simulate the dynamic operation of climate control system for a generic automobile has been developed. The transient nature of passenger cabin temperature and relative humidity are predicted using the principles of thermodynamics. Analysis include detailed simulations of every component of the automobile air conditioning network. The methodology is validated by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results.

  18. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira; Andy Petroianu; Dafne Maria Villar Gonçalves; Gisele Araújo Pereira; Luiz Ronaldo Alberti


    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  19. Ethanol as an Alternative Fuel for Automobiles: Using the First Law of Thermodynamics to Calculate the "Corn-Area-per-Car" Ratio

    Pietro, William J.


    Students will use the first law of thermodynamics to determine the feasibility of using corn ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuels in automobiles. Energy flow is tracked from the Sun, to photosynthesized carbohydrate, to ethanol through fermentation, and finally to work in the combustion engine. Feasibility is gauged by estimating a…

  20. Divided Combustion Chamber Gasoline Engines - A Review for Emissions and Efficiency

    Bascunana, Jose L.


    Describes characteristic designs of the engine. Data for fuel economy and emission are presented. Data show that automobiles equipped with one of the engines described have passed the 1975 Federal Emissions Standards. (SLH)

  1. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.;


    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data of...... gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. We note that significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety of...

  2. An Electromagnetic Mechanism Which Works Like an Engine

    Shirsendu Das


    Engine is the main power source of Automobiles , where combustion takes place & produces heat which converts into mechanical energy. We know IC-Engines are used in Automobiles, Aeroplane etc .But the incomplete combustion produces some harmful gasses, which is one main cause of air pollution. Modern Science & Technology has been taken many positive steps for emission control. Like, using CNGs & LPGs instead of petrol & diesel. Nowtechnology brings Electrical bikes, scooters & cars. The batter...

  3. Exposure to emissions from gasoline within automobile cabins

    Gasoline is emitted from automobiles as uncombusted fuel and via evaporation. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) from gasoline are at higher levels in roadway air than in the surrounding ambient atmosphere and penetrate into automobile cabins, thereby exposing commuters to higher levels than they would experience in other microenvironments. Measurements of VOC concentrations and carbon monoxide were made within automobiles during idling, while driving on a suburban route in New Jersey, and on a commute to New York City. Concentrations of VOC from gasoline were determined to be elevated above the ambient background levels in all microenvironments while VOC without a gasoline source were not. The variability of VOC concentrations with location within the automobile was determined to be smaller than inter-day variability during idling studies. VOC and carbon monoxide levels within the automobile cabin differed among the different routes examined. The levels were related to traffic density and were inversely related to driving speed and wind speed. Overall, daily VOC exposure for gasoline-derived compounds during winter commuting in New Jersey was estimated to range between 5 and 20% and constituted between 15 and 40% of an individual's daily exposure based on comparison to urban and suburban settings, respectively. VOC exposure during commuting in Southern California was estimated to range between 15 and 60%

  4. Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor

    Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei


    Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

  5. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.


    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  6. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  7. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    Wu, Dianliang; Zhu, Hongmin


    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.


    Savenkov, N.


    A method of regulating automobile engine operation with continuously variable transmis-sion is developed. This allows to select the optimal modes of engine and gear ratios of the variator ratio, taking into account traffic conditions.

  9. Adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface



    The adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface was analyzed and the formula about it was derived.Some suggestions about highway construction,driving safety of the drivers and the judgment of the traffic accidents were presented.The results show that the adhesion coefficient is a function with the extreme value.If there is atmospheric pressure in the tire,the load of the vehicle and the degree of the coarse on the road surface is not selected properly,it will reach the least and affect the safety of the running automobile.

  10. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Yunsong Xu


    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  11. Atmospheric pollution coming from automobiles and public health

    The air pollution coming from automobile is responsible of different diseases in respiratory or cardiovascular system. epidemiological studies in professional or general media give information in term of public health. If the role of air pollution from automobile at short terms is well established, for effects at long term (such cancers or chronic diseases of respiratory system) the measurement or estimation of the exposure is not sufficient for the moment and makes the epidemiology unable to quantify effects. In spite of these lacks, it is important to reduce the risk for the most fragile people. (N.C.)

  12. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others


    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  13. Evaluating the Economic Impacts of Technological Innovation in the Automobile Industry: The Input-Output Approach

    Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Takafumi


    In this paper, the economic impacts of technological innovation, such as electric and hybrid vehicles, in the automobile industry in Japan are examined. The automobile industry has to develop environmentally friendly vehicles in the face of the global warming issue and the exhaustion problem of petroleum. The conventional automobiles with gasoline and diesel oil don’t meet the demands of present age. The new generation automobiles will become popular for coming several decades. The indust...

  14. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.


    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway...

  15. 76 FR 61779 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0067.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Automobile or..., servicepersons and their survivors complete VA Form 21-4502 to apply for automobile or other conveyance...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  17. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  18. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?


    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  19. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.


    ... automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Vehicles § 109-38.104 Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. (a) (b) All requests to purchase passenger automobiles larger than class IA, IB, or II (small, subcompact, or compact) shall...

  20. Development of amorphous wire type MI sensors for automobile use

    Honkura, Yoshinobu


    Amorphous wire type MI sensors have a high sensitivity compared to thin film MI sensors, but there have been reliability problems in developing an amorphous wire type MI sensor for automobile application because of the wide range of operating temperatures. It was difficult to achieve sufficient soldering strength between the amorphous wire and the electrode of the MI chip. In addition, stress is induced in the amorphous wire during soldering thus lowering the temperature stability characteristics. Therefore, we developed a new method for soldering the amorphous wire and a new method for assembly of the MI chip. Together with the redesign of the electronic circuit, these developments have yielded an MI sensor suitable for automobile application. This MI sensor has a sensitivity of 250 mV/Oe, has stable temperature characteristics between -40°C and 85°C and easily passed the thermal shock test, the most stringent durability test for automobile electronic parts. Two different types of products are under development; one is a standard type whose output is linear to the external magnetic field, and the other is a switch type whose output is ON or OFF relative to a threshold magnetic field. Future applications include an ABS sensor, an electronic compass, an automatic tracking system for automobiles and so on.

  1. A Review of the Fatigue Analysis of an Automobile Frames

    Jadav Chetan S., Panchal Khushbu C., Patel Fajalhusen*


    Full Text Available In this paper an effort is made to review theinvestigations that have been made on the differentfatigue analysis techniques of automobile frames. Anumber of analytical and experimental techniquesare available for the fatigue analysis of theautomobile frames. Determination of the differentanalysis around different condition in anautomobile frames has been reported in literature.

  2. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  3. ASE Program Certification Standards for Automobile Technician Training Programs.

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This document presents and explains the development and application of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) program certification standards that were developed to improve the quality of secondary- and postsecondary-level automobile technician training by implementing a certification program that certifies programs in…

  4. Hysteretic Current Controlled Zvs Dc/Dc Converter For Automobile

    Cernat, M.; Scortarul, P.; Tanase, A.;


    A novel bi-directional dc-dc converter with ZVS and interleaving for dual voltage systems in automobiles is presented. A variable frequency extended band hysteretic current control method is proposed. In comparison with classical fixed frequency current control PWM, the reverse polarity peak...

  5. Technology Demonstration of General Black box Standard for Automobiles (GBSA

    Kishor R


    Full Text Available GBSA is an upcoming proposal towards Automobile industry and to the federal governing bodies around the world. Here we are intent to create a disciplinary system to save city sons from accident death and to abolish insurance piracy. The proposal is actually developed from the loss of mankind in society but pulled by technology and humanity facts..

  6. New Technology and Human Resource Development in the Automobile Industry.

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This document contains five case studies of plants within large enterprises in the automobile industry (Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen, Renault, and Volvo), plus reports of each company's views on human resource development, new technology, and changes in work organization and skill formation. The document is composed of five narrative sections,…

  7. Development of amorphous wire type MI sensors for automobile use

    Amorphous wire type MI sensors have a high sensitivity compared to thin film MI sensors, but there have been reliability problems in developing an amorphous wire type MI sensor for automobile application because of the wide range of operating temperatures. It was difficult to achieve sufficient soldering strength between the amorphous wire and the electrode of the MI chip. In addition, stress is induced in the amorphous wire during soldering thus lowering the temperature stability characteristics. Therefore, we developed a new method for soldering the amorphous wire and a new method for assembly of the MI chip. Together with the redesign of the electronic circuit, these developments have yielded an MI sensor suitable for automobile application. This MI sensor has a sensitivity of 250 mV/Oe, has stable temperature characteristics between -40 deg. C and 85 deg. C and easily passed the thermal shock test, the most stringent durability test for automobile electronic parts. Two different types of products are under development; one is a standard type whose output is linear to the external magnetic field, and the other is a switch type whose output is ON or OFF relative to a threshold magnetic field. Future applications include an ABS sensor, an electronic compass, an automatic tracking system for automobiles and so on

  8. Making cars smarter: The growing role of electronics in automobiles

    Thomas H. Klier; James M. Rubenstein


    Electronics make up nearly 40% of the content of today’s average new automobile, and their share will continue to grow. On June 2, 2011, as part of the eighteenth annual Automotive Outlook Symposium (AOS), the Chicago Fed hosted a panel of experts at its Detroit Branch to examine the current and future roles of electronics in motor vehicles.

  9. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.;


    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low-vo...

  10. Classification of Surface Quality of Automobile Lamp—Reflector

    袁旭军; 贺莉清; 等


    This paper introduces an installation for quickly classifying automobile's metal reflectors based on their roughness.The measuring principle and the mechanical structure are presented.Schematics of circuits and experimental results are given.Elimination and reduction of the effect of background lights or different bulbs on the measuring results are also described in detail.

  11. Automobiles on Steroids: Product Attribute Trade-O�s and Technological Progress in the Automobile Sector

    Christopher R. Knittel


    New car fleet fuel economy, weight and engine power have changed drastically since 1980. These changes represent both movements along and shifts in the "fuel economy/weight/engine power production possibilities frontier." This paper estimates the technological progress that has occurred since 1980 and the trade-offs that manufacturers and consumers face when choosing between fuel economy, weight and engine power characteristics. The results suggest that if weight, horsepower and torque were h...

  12. Automobiles on Steroids: Product Attribute Trade-Offs and Technological Progress in the Automobile Sector

    Christopher R. Knittel


    New car fleet fuel economy, weight and engine power have changed drastically since 1980. These changes represent both movements along and shifts in the "fuel economy/weight/engine power production possibilities frontier". This paper estimates the technological progress that has occurred since 1980 and the trade-offs that manufacturers and consumers face when choosing between fuel economy, weight and engine power characteristics. The results suggest that if weight, horsepower and torque were h...

  13. The growing interest of automobile manufacturers for natural gas as an automotive fuel

    The prospects for natural gas vehicles (NGV) are good. The number of trucks, busses and passenger cars that run on natural gas has considerably increased over the last few years. Natural gas is applauded from various sides as the most important alternative engine fuel. Some prestigious automobile manufacturers have meanwhile included NGV in their price list. However, it's up to the authorities and the gas industry itself in particular to make or break the success of NGV. The maximum range of 300 km is still too limited as is the number of natural gas filling stations in most countries. And without financial impetus NGV will not be able to compete with petrol- and diesel-fueled cars. Yet, clean natural gas vehicles appear to realize a market share of 1% soon

  14. Hopes in the Crisis——Chinese Automobile Market in the World Auto manufacturing Industry Shuffle

    Gao Shurong


    @@ Global automobile markets shuffle against the economic crisis The economic crisis spread rapidly around the world,making automobile industry one of the victims who are shocked hardest,leading to an industrial shuffle in global automobile industry.USA,EU and Japan,the traditional top three leading countries in global automobile industry,could not have their lucks to escape from the crisis.The weak global automobile market forces these transnational auto companies to be more cautious about the future than ever.As reflected in the latest performance reports,though governments took measures to maintain the market,the sharp decline in global automobile sales volume continued in the first quarter.Automobile market bottomed out in the second quarter.US auto industrywas affected the most,with two out of the top three manufacturers getting bankrupt and regrouped.

  15. The Study on the Impact of Bibcock Enterprise Business Model to Technology Innovation Case of the Jmei' s Bibcock Enterprises of Automobile-engineering Machinery Industry%龙头企业商业模式对技术创新的影响研究——以厦门汽车—工程机械产业龙头企业为例

    陈玉慧; 郑孟玲; 汪欣彤


    龙头企业商业模式对技术创新具有重要影响,但既往文献中甚少提及,且未深入研究。以厦门汽车—工程机械产业龙头企业为例,从商业模式的构成要素与技术创新的影响因素间的交叉部分入手,分析龙头企业商业模式对于技术创新的影响。研究发现:在龙头企业商业模式中,价值定位决定技术创新起点,价值实现影响技术创新成果,价值保持促进技术创新实现。因此,从企业发展的全局出发,突破现有商业模式,重视企业技术创新,确定龙头企业创新主体地位,营造良好集群创新氛围,应成为产业集群乃至区域经济发展的重要战略选择。%Bibcock enterprise business model has an important impact on the technological innovation, but it was seldom mentioned and not in-depth researched, this study comprehensively analyzes the influence of bibcock enterprise business model on technological innovation, according to the overlapping parts between business model elements and the influence factors of technology innovation, by choosing the Xiamen' s bibcock enterprises of automobile-engineering machinery industry as cases, According to the research ,the author find that in the business model of bibcock enterprise, value position decides the starting point of technological innovation and value realization affects technology innovation achievement and value keeping is available for technological innovation realization. Therefore,from the overall developmental situation of the enterprise, breaking the existing business model, attaching importance to technology innovation, determining the subject position of bibcock enterprise innovation and creating a good atmosphere of clusters innovation should be treated as the important strategic choices for industrial cluster and regional economic development.

  16. Analysis on the R-R interval time series of automobile long distance drivers; Kosoku doro no chojikan soko ni yoru R-R kankakuji keiretsu kaiseki

    Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya Municipal Women`s College, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshioka, T.; Watanabe, Y. [Toyota National College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)


    Analyses were performed on change in living body information as time elapses while driving a car, the differences between automobile drivers and fellow passengers, and between automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers. A comparison on body temperatures in automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers shows sharper changes in the motorcycle drivers. Motorcycles, being different from automobiles, put the drivers exposed to atmosphere during driving, applying larger living body load. Adrenalin increases its concentration when a human is under mental load, so does noradrenalin when under physical load. Both of adrenalin and noradrenalin showed an increasing trend in the afternoon as compared with in the morning. From the comparison with the normal daily life, fellow passengers have also large mental living body load, who were found to have concentration change of nearly two times or more than that in normal conditions. A subject who rode in a car in the first experiment and drove a motorcycle in the second experiment was discovered to have his right hand grasping power decreased remarkably after the second experiment. Fatigue factors unique to motorcycle driving are thought the engine vibration, the hot air, the need of taking balance of the motorcycle attitudes, and stress from noise. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  17. NF EN 14214. - Automotive fuels. - Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines. - Requirements and test methods; NF EN 14214. - Carburants pour automobiles. - Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG) pour moteurs Diesel. - Exigences et methodes d'essais



    This standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used either as automotive fuel for diesel engines, at 100% concentration, or as an extender for automotive fuel for diesel engines, in accordance with the requirements of EN 590. At 100% concentration it is applicable to fuel for use in diesel engine vehicles designed or subsequently adapted to run on 100% FAME.

  18. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.


    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  19. The Inherited Traditional Culture of Automobile Molding DNA Design Research

    Song Qiang


    Full Text Available Design of automobile modeling DNA is the core that makes enterprises establish a good and unique brand image to win on market. This paper described the definition and meaning of production DNA, also discussed the composition of production DNA and researched the design ideas of production DNA from both macro and micro aspects. Finally, it recommended would research the traditional culture into the past, present and future of three periods, explored the idea of traditional culture that the automobile modeling DNA inherited under these three periods and analyzed with the red flag car as an example. This research provided a guideline to help automotive corporations to implement brand strategies, and helped to design autos with Chinese elements, sense of the times and fashion trends and can perform the modern mental outlook of Chinese people.


    YAN Shuwang; ZHANG Xinqiang; LIU Run


    An FE analysis procedure was presented to predict the behavior of soil-geogrid interaction under automobile loading. The dynamic interactions between the transverse bars, the longitudinal ribs and the soil were simulated by a system consisting of nonlinear springs, dashpots and masses, to study the deformation properties of the reinforced soil. The equivalent stiffness and damping ratios could be determined with the shaking table. The dynamic responses of a reinforced subgrade were analyzed with the 3D finite element approach. This approach is programmed and applied to analyze the soil-geogrid interaction under dynamic loading. The comparative analysis of the response of the reinforced subgrade and that of the subgrade without reinforcement shows that the geogrid placed at the bottom of the base layer may effectively reduce the accumulative plastic deformation due to the cyclic automobile loading.

  1. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN


    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  2. Study on the Fuzzy COntrol Strategy of Automobile with CVT

    HuJianjun; QINDatong; 等


    In order to study the dynamic characteristics of automobile with a CVT system, a bond graph analysis model of continuously variable transmission is established.On the base of the simulation state space equations that are established with bond graph theory,a fuzzy control strategy with an expert system of starting process has been introduced.Considering uncertain system parameters and exterior resistance disturbing,the effect of the profile of membership function and the defuzzification algorthm on the capacity of the fuzzy controller has been studied.The result of simulation proves that the proposed fuzzy controller is effective and feasible,Such controller has been employed in the actual control and has proved practicable.The study lays a foundation for design of the fuzzy controller for automobile with a CVT system.

  3. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.


    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  4. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Yunsong Xu; Shen Yin; Jinyong Yu; Hamid Reza Karimi


    The traditional mechanical instrument lacks the ability to satisfy the market with characters of favorable compatibility, easy upgrading, and fashion. Thus the design of a TFT-LCD (thin film transistor-liquid crystal display) based automobile instrument is carried out. With a 7-inch TFT-LCD and the 32-bit microcontroller MB91F599, the instrument could process various information generated by other electronic control units (ECUs) of a vehicle and display valuable driving parameters on the 7-in...

  5. A New Method for Estimation of Automobile Fuel Adulteration

    Gupta, Anil; Sharma, R. K.


    The problem of increasing urban air pollution due to fast increasing number of auto mobiles and adulteration of automobile fuel has been pointed out in the context of developing countries. For prevention of the adulteration, the monitoring of fuel quality at the distribution point is essential. For the detection/estimation of the commonly used adulterants (i.e. diesel in petrol and kerosene in diesel), a number of possible methods have been reviewed. As such there is no standard method/equipm...

  6. Digital Laser Welding System for Automobile Side Panel

    Park, Hong-Seok; Choi, Hung-Won


    The laser as economical and flexible tool has established a solid ground in industrial manufacturing area. Specially at welding BIW (Body In White) in automobile industry, the importance of it has been increased due to the technological characteristics such as high process speed, slim seam and good capability of automation and so on. For application of laser welding technique, welding principle and influential factors were investigated based on the analysis of laser welding processes. With th...

  7. A Flowchart Approach to Malaysia's Automobile Industry Cluster Policy

    Kuchiki, Akifumi


    In this paper, we apply a flowchart approach to investigate Malaysia's automobile cluster policy. We investigate whether the industrial cluster policy has been successful or not, suggest policy prescriptions, and propose a way to prioritize policy measures. Our flowchart approach leads to the following three policy prescriptions: (1) Malaysian firms should establish sites for exporting compact cars with automatic transmissions; (2) actors in the public, semi-public and private sector should w...

  8. Life Cycle Assessment Practices: Benchmarking Selected European Automobile Manufacturers

    Chanaron, Jean-Jacques


    With the rise of environmental concerns in the general public, re-appropriated by influential politicians, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has become a widely used set of tools for the management of all impacts on environment by industrial products. LCA is carried out at the very early stages of product research, development and design. This is particularly true in the automobile industry where vehicle manufacturers Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are launching several new or re-vamped mo...

  9. Automobile Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts, Efficiency, and Alternatives

    Anderson, Soren; Parry, Ian; James M. Sallee; FISCHER, Carolyn


    This paper discusses fuel economy regulations in the United States and other countries. We first describe how these programs affect the automobile market, including their impacts on fuel use and other dimensions of the vehicle fleet. We then review different methodologies for assessing the costs of fuel economy regulations and discuss what the results of these methodologies imply for policy. Following that, we compare the welfare effects of fuel economy regulations to those of fuel taxes and ...


    Afonso Carneiro Lima; Edison Fernandes Polo; Fátima Regina Ney Matos


    This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE). The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors...

  11. "Uniqueness seeking and demand estimation in the German automobile industry"

    Guerzoni, Marco; Soellner, René


    This paper empirically analyzes the determinants of demand in the German automobile industry. Our primary goal is to refine the existing literature on that topic by exploring the impact of uniqueness seeking behaviour of individuals on the demand schedule. Using a dataset on the segment of compact cars in the German market, we show that consumers have an intrinsic need for uniqueness seeking, and the degree a product satisfies this need is to be considered as an additional product characteris...

  12. Translation of Automobile Brands from the Perspective of Skopos Theory

    刘竹林; 王俊


    With the steady growth of the Chinese economy, more and more countries are focusing on China. A great number of brands are entering the Chinese market and auto brand is one of them. Brand translation plays an important role for success of opening international market. This paper applies the Skopos theory to automobile brand translation, so as to provide a new angle to translation practice.

  13. Teamwork in the Automobile Industry - an Anglo-German Comparison

    Niels-Erik Wergin


    Teamwork in the automotive industry varies significantly from plant to plant. This article compares teamwork in four automobile plants in Germany and Britain, and addresses two questions: (1) Do different models of teamwork fit into a bi-polar model of teamwork, being either innovative or structural conservative? (2) Do current models of teamwork signify a development towards post-fordism, or are they merely part of a neo-fordist rationalisation of production? The following answers are sugges...

  14. Promoting automobile safety belt use by young children.

    Sowers-Hoag, K M; Thyer, B A; Bailey, J S


    A program using behavioral practice, assertiveness training, and social and contrived reinforcers was developed to establish and maintain automobile safety belt use by young children. Sixteen children (ages 4.8 to 7 years) who never used their safety belts during a 5-day preexperimental observation period were randomly assigned to two groups of eight each. A multiple baseline design across groups was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training program. During the 8-day baseline period ...

  15. Loyalty marketing in automobile dealerships : case: car dealer X

    Hyyryläinen, Heidi


    The purpose of this thesis is to study how customer loyalty is taken into account in automobile dealerships, what loyalty marketing means are used to improve customer loyalty, and what potential new loyalty marketing means can be implemented. The thesis is commissioned by Car dealer X. In the theoretical part, areas covered are customership and loyalty marketing. Customership includes customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, customer value and customer retention. Loyalty marketing contain...

  16. Market Analysis of RFID Systems in Indian Automobile Industry

    Mariappan, Ramachandran


    RFID is an emerging hot technology in tracking and tracing physical objects. The market for RFID ranges from technological artefacts like tags and reader infrastructure to software solutions and supply chain services. One of the key business sectors that have seen the initial benefits of RFID applications is the Automobile sector through improvements in local processes related to better production control and increased handling efficiency. In recent years, there has been a palpable shift in t...

  17. DAARIA: Driver Assistance by Augmented Reality for Intelligent Automobile

    George, Paul; Thouvenin, Indira; Fremont, Vincent; Cherfaoui, Véronique


    International audience Taking into account the drivers' state is a major challenge for designing new advanced driver assistance systems. In this paper we present a driver assistance system strongly coupled to the user. DAARIA 1 stands for Driver Assistance by Augmented Reality for Intelligent Automobile. It is an augmented reality interface powered by several sensors. The detection has two goals: one is the position of obstacles and the quantification of the danger represented by them. The...

  18. Hybrid GPS-GSM Localization of Automobile Tracking System

    Mohammad A. Al-Khedher


    An integrated GPS-GSM system is proposed to track vehicles using Google Earth application. The remote module has a GPS mounted on the moving vehicle to identify its current position, and to be transferred by GSM with other parameters acquired by the automobile's data port as an SMS to a recipient station. The received GPS coordinates are filtered using a Kalman filter to enhance the accuracy of measured position. After data processing, Google Earth application is used to view the current loca...

  19. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    H.P. Khairnar; V.M. Phalle; S. S. Mantha


    In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained hav...




    In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study ...

  1. Determinants of Expenditure in Automobile Maintenance: Some Evidence from Greece

    Bitros, George C.


    This paper derives a model of maintenance expenditures from an analytical framework in which maintenance, utilization and service life are appropriately integrated and estimates it with the help of automobile data from Greece. On the theoretical plain it is shown that the model allows endogenously for most of the variables that have been identified in the relevant literature as important determinants of maintenance expenditures. Also the model yields sharp sign predictions for the included va...

  2. Profit and Concentration in Commercial Automobile Insurance Losses

    Vickie L. Bajtelsmit; Raja Bouzouita


    Pricing of commercial insurance has generally been thought to be more competitive than that of personal insurance. For this reason, there has been little academic interest in the impact of market structure on insurer profitability for these lines, despite findings of such a relationship in other lines. This study examines whether such a relationship exists for commercial automobile insurance and finds that states with higher levels of concentration have higher average profit margins. This is ...

  3. Bioavailability of platinum emitted from automobile exhaust.

    Artelt, S; Kock, H; Nachtigall, D; Heinrich, U


    A model substance was used which is similar in respect to platinum content of exhaust particles emitted from a three-way-catalytic converter equipped engine. The bioavailability of platinum from such exhaust particles and the kind of platinum species formed in vivo were assessed. An in vitro solubility test showed a solubility of approximately 10 percent of platinum content of the model substance in physiological sodium chloride solution. Two short-term animal studies (8 days) were performed. In all examined rat tissues and body fluids platinum could be detected. In addition, the contribution of the overall bioavailability caused by swallowing a certain amount of the intratracheally applied platinum was evaluated by oral application. It was very low. An analytical method was developed to determine platinum species. Synthetic samples (matrix with a platinum standard solution) were analysed. In rat bronchoalveolar lavage spiked with a platinum standard solution only low molecular complexed platinum was found whereas in rat blood plasma all platinum was bound to proteins. In ongoing studies, the model substance is being tested in a three month rat inhalation study. PMID:9820662

  4. Wear Debris Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine by Ferrography Technique

    Ashesh Tiwari; , Suraj kumar sharma2


    IC engines are typically used for the auto vehicles. These engines are necessary for the auto as just like the heart for soul. Because the heart of soul is fail whole system of body additionally fail. Same issue is additionally applicable in automobile because the engine of the vehicle did not develop power, driver cannot run the vehicle. Maintenance is the most vital side for increasing Engine life that successively increases the life time of vehicle. Engine performances are ...


    Afonso Carneiro Lima


    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  6. Energy and economic evaluation of policies for accelerated investment in efficient automobiles. [Jack Faucett Automobile Sector Forecasting Model

    Brooks, Walter; Carhart, Steven C.; McGranahan, Gordon; Mulherkar, Shirish S.


    This report examines the effect of an energy-conservation policy that imposes excise taxes on cars having low fuel efficiency, coupled with a rebate on cars having high fuel efficiency. Two oil price cases are considered. The Jack Faucett Automobile Sector Forecasting Model is used to measure direct effects. The Brookhaven National Laboratory-University of Illinois Input-Output/Linear Programming model is used for economy-wide effects and impact on employment.

  7. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.310 - What will I be reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately...


    ... reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead... automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead? (a) Reimbursement based on Government costs—Unless you are committed to using a Government automobile as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  9. "Electronic Procurement networks and Parts Transaction Systems: A Case of the Automobile Industry"(in Japanese)

    Je-Wheon Oh; Takahiro Fujimoto


    Inter-firm information systems in the automobile industry have evolved from firm-specific networks to industrial standard networks and further to internet. This paper examines how electronic parts procurement systems in the automobile industry affected its patterns of inter-firm transactions through empirical studies on information networks, transaction systems, and architectural characteristics of automobile parts. We argue that choice of a certain parts transaction system tends to affect ch...

  10. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation


    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs shoul...