Sample records for automatic seat belts

  1. French experience in seat belt use.

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.


    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables an

  2. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  3. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece.

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G


    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats. PMID:21452095

  4. Seat belt use law in developing countries



    Objective:To highlight the way to successful implementation of mandantory seat belt use law in developing countries particulary where have significant increase in number or cars and subsequent increase in car occupant casualties.Methods:Literatures concerning seat belt use were reviewed and experiences of the world.Satisfactory or not,investigated.It summed up general aspects of seat belt use as well as benefits,attitude toward legislation and measures to enhance the usage.Results:Seat belt use has been proven and stood time tested as the most effective means to protect car occupants from road crash injuries.It appears to be arduous to achieve the golal of seat belt use law in developing countries. but possible via strategies appropriately leading to legislation and promotion of the belt usage.Conclusions:It is prime necessity for the government authorities to recognize the importance of seat belt use.There needs an organizational structure composed of relevant professional from both private and government sectors which is able to carry out every steps toward successful legislation and implementation:education,publicity,enforcement,evaluation and dissemination of the law's benefits.

  5. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L


    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use. PMID:27309488

  6. 77 FR 30885 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...


    ... Airplane Flight Manual (14 CFR 23.1581(j)). See 36 FR 12511; see also 14 CFR 23.562, 23.785; Legal... 121, part 91 did not require that each person have a separate seat and/or seat belt. See 36 FR 12511... Belt and Seating Requirements for General Aviation Flights AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  7. Seat belt use during pregnancy in Iran: attitudes and practices

    Mojgan Karbakhsh; Zahra Ershadi; Ali Khaji; Fatemeh Rahimi-Sharbaf


    Objective: Seat belt use during pregnancy reduces injury to the mother and her fetus. During recent years, the use of seat belts has been mandated by law in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes and practices of pregnant women regarding seat belt use.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we asked 335 pregnant women at a hospital-based prenatal care clinic on the use of safety belt before and during pregnancy. SPSS version 13.0 was used for data analysis.Results: The mean age of study subjects was 27.3 years±5.3 years with the median of 27 years. Compared with the seat belt use before pregnancy, no change was detected in 48.7% of the women; seat belt use had increased in 17.5 %of them and decreased in 33.8 %. Eighty-one percent of women knew the correct placing of both lap belt and shoulder belt. Only 4% of women had received education on proper restraint use during pregnancy.Conclusions: The prevalence of seat belt use during pregnancy is lower than reports which are mostly from developed nations. The fact that about one-third of women have decreased their seat belt usage during pregnancy highlights the importance of education of mothers on this topic.

  8. Canadian seat belt wearing rates, promotion programs, and future directions.

    Grant, B.A.


    On the basis of a national driver seat belt survey conducted in Canada each year, the most important results are presented. A number of programmes for increasing seat belt use has been evaluated in Canada. Finally, a description is given of some of the current and planned activities within Canada wh

  9. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats.

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A


    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit. PMID:19393812


    Kazimierz JAMROZ


    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  11. Face-Saving Devices: Seat Belts and Air Bags

    ... page: Face-Saving Devices: Seat Belts and Air Bags Using ... 11 percent) suffered facial fractures -- nasal and mid-face fractures most often. Those most likely to suffer ...

  12. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012, Region 4 - Atlanta

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012.

  13. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012, Region 9 - San Francisco

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012.

  14. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012, Region 1 - Boston

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012.

  15. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012, Region 6 - Dallas

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012.

  16. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012, Region 5 - Chicago

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012.

  17. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012, Region 8 - Denver

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012.

  18. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012, Region 10 - Seattle

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012.

  19. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012, Region 2 - New York

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012.

  20. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012, All States

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012.

  1. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012, Region 3 - Philadelphia

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012.

  2. The benefit of seat belt legislation in the United Kingdom.

    M. McCarthy


    Legislation for compulsory wearing of seat belts by car drivers and front seat passengers has been acclaimed as a major public health advance. Reports from other countries, and two recent evaluative studies in the United Kingdom, have suggested that legislation reduces both deaths and injuries. To assess the effect of the UK law 5 years after its implementation, trends in routine data for 1976-1987 have been reviewed. There were two sources of data: mortality statistics, published by the Offi...

  3. Diagnosis of seat belt injury using spiral CT

    Seat belt injury (s.b.i.) arises from not properly applied seat belts in case of car accidents. The importance of spiral CT for the diagnosis of s.b.i., especially of hidden traumatic lesions, will be demonstrated. Our experience includes 9 children in the age of 4 to 13 years suffering from life-threatening s.b.i. After life-saving treatment we took a spiral CT (Somatom plus S): First spiral CT, 10 mm slice thickness, without contrast medium (c.m.) and second spiral CT, 5 mm slice thickness, start delay 35-45 s after a large volume of c.m. Of these, 8 of 9 children survived. Besides bruising signs, head injuries, and knee point lesions in 4 of 9 cases, a combination of uptured duodenum, ruptured liver or spleen, and chance fractures of the spine was found which is typical for s.b.i. In the remaining 5 cases, two of the lesions were combined. Rupture of the small bowel was manifested mainly as the discrete finding of free air or inhomogeneous ascites with a high density (bowel contents mixed with blood). Not only the emergency doctor but also the radiologist should take into account the complexity of seat belt injuries. Spiral CT is the imaging method of choice in the case of polytraumatic children. (orig.)

  4. Biomechanical considerations for assessing interactions of children and small occupants with inflatable seat belts.

    Rouhana, Stephen W; Sundararajan, Srinivasan; Board, Derek; Prasad, Priya; Rupp, Jonathan D; Miller, Carl S; Jeffreys, Thomas A; Schneider, Lawrence W


    NHTSA estimates that more than half of the lives saved (168,524) in car crashes between 1960 and 2002 were due to the use of seat belts. Nevertheless, while seat belts are vital to occupant crash protection, safety researchers continue efforts to further enhance the capability of seat belts in reducing injury and fatality risk in automotive crashes. Examples of seat belt design concepts that have been investigated by researchers include inflatable, 4-point, and reverse geometry seat belts. In 2011, Ford Motor Company introduced the first rear seat inflatable seat belts into production vehicles. A series of tests with child and small female-sized Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and small, elderly female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) was performed to evaluate interactions of prototype inflatable seat belts with the chest, upper torso, head and neck of children and small occupants, from infants to young adolescents. Tests simulating a 6-year-old child asleep in a booster seat, with its head lying directly on its shoulder on top of the inflatable seat belt, were considered by engineering judgment, to represent a worst case scenario for interaction of an inflating seat belt with the head and neck of a child and/or small occupant. All evaluations resulted in ATD responses below Injury Assessment Reference Values reported by Mertz et al. (2003). In addition, the tests of the PMHS subjects resulted in no injuries from interaction of the inflating seat belt with the heads, necks, and chests of the subjects. Given the results from the ATD and PMHS tests, it was concluded that the injury risk to children and small occupants from deployment of inflatable seat belt systems is low. PMID:24435728

  5. Evidence that Seat Belts are as Effective as Child Safety Seats in Preventing Death for Children Aged Two and Up

    Steven D. Levitt


    Over the last thirty years, the use of child safety seats in motor vehicles has increased dramatically, fueled by well publicized information campaigns and legal mandates. In spite of this movement, there is relatively little empirical evidence regarding the efficacy of child safety seats relative to the much cheaper alternative of traditional seat belts. Using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) on all fatal crashes in the United States from 1975-2003, I find that child s...

  6. How would increasing seat belt use affect the number of killed or seriously injured light vehicle occupants?

    Høye, Alena


    The expected effects of increasing seat belt use on the number of killed or seriously injured (KSI) light vehicle occupants have been estimated for three scenarios of increased seat belt use in Norway, taking into account current seat belt use, the effects of seat belts and differences in crash risk between belted and unbelted drivers. The effects of seat belts on fatality and injury risk were investigated in a meta-analysis that is based on 24 studies from 2000 or later. The results indicate that seat belts reduce both fatal and non-fatal injuries by 60% among front seat occupants and by 44% among rear seat occupants. Both results are statistically significant. Seat belt use among rear seat occupants was additionally found to about halve fatality risk among belted front seat occupants in a meta-analysis that is based on six studies. Based on an analysis of seat belt wearing rates among crash involved and non-crash involved drivers in Norway it is estimated that unbelted drivers have 8.3 times the fatal crash risk and 5.2 times the serious injury crash risk of belted drivers. The large differences in crash risk are likely to be due to other risk factors that are common among unbelted drivers such as drunk driving and speeding. Without taking into account differences in crash risk between belted and unbelted drivers, the estimated effects of increasing seat belt use are likely to be biased. When differences in crash risk are taken into account, it is estimated that the annual numbers of KSI front seat occupants in light vehicles in Norway could be reduced by 11.3% if all vehicles had seat belt reminders (assumed seat belt wearing rate 98.9%), by 17.5% if all light vehicles had seat belt interlocks (assumed seat belt wearing rate 99.7%) and by 19.9% if all front seat occupants of light vehicles were belted. Currently 96.6% of all (non-crash involved) front seat occupants are belted. The effect on KSI per percentage increase of seat belt use increases with increasing

  7. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.


    ... shoulder harnesses. 23.785 Section 23.785 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... belts, and shoulder harnesses. There must be a seat or berth for each occupant that meets the following... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder...

  8. Seat belt syndrome: Delayed or missed intestinal injuries, a case report and review of literature

    Al-Ozaibi, Labib; Adnan, Judy; Hassan, Batool; Al-Mazroui, Alya; Al-Badri, Faisal


    Introduction Seat belt injuries are not uncommon. The use of seat belts is associated with a unique injury profile collectively termed “the seat belt syndrome”. The aim is to aid in the early diagnosis of seat belt injuries. Case presentation Two different patients presented to the emergency after sustaining a motor vehicle accident. Both were the drivers, restrained and had a frontal impact. On presentation they were hemodynamically stable with mild tenderness on the abdomen and the abdominal computed tomography (CT) did not show any signs of bowel or mesenteric injuries. The signs of peritonitis became obvious after 24 h in one case and after 3 days in the other. Discussion Early diagnosis provides better outcomes for patients with seat belt injuries, but this remains a challenge to trauma surgeons. The typical findings of peritonitis might not be present initially. The presence of abdominal wall ecchymosis (seat belt sign) increases the chance of intraabdominal injuries by eight folds. Conclusion Clinical signs of intestinal injuries might not be obvious on presentation. In the presence of seat belt sign the possibility of bowl injury must be suspected. Admit the patient for observation even if no clinical or radiological findings are present at presentation. PMID:26826929

  9. Injury pattern as an indication of seat belt failure in ejected vehicle occupants.

    Freeman, Michael D; Eriksson, Anders; Leith, Wendy


    Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the NASS-CDS for ejected front seat occupants of passenger vehicles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between seat belt failure status and injuries. Injury types associated with seat belt failure were significant OUE and head injuries (OR = 3.87, [95% CI 1.2, 13.0] and 3.1, [95% CI 1.0, 9.7], respectively). The two injury types were found to be a predictor of seat belt use and subsequent failure only if combined with a high (≥0.8) precrash probability of belt use. The injury pattern associated with a seat belt failure-related ejection has limited use in the forensic investigation of crash-related ejections. PMID:24660766

  10. Rear seat belt use as an indicator of safe road behaviour in a rapidly developing country.

    McIlvenny, Shirley; Al Mahrouqi, Fatma; Al Busaidi, Thuraiya; Al Nabhani, Ahmed; Al Hikmani, Fatma; Al Kharousi, Zaher; Al Mammari, Salima; Al Hoti, Anwaral; Al Shihi, Aysha; Al Lawati, Anwar; Al Kharousi, Ibtisam


    Injuries from road traffic accidents are set to become the second highest cause of disability-adjusted life years lost in developing countries by 2020. The number of injuries and deaths are disproportionately high in low income countries, which account for only 40% of all motor vehicles. Human behaviour is thought to be a major factor in most accidents. In Oman wearing a seat belt is compulsory in the front seats but not in the rear. Wearing a seat belt can reduce the severity of injuries when sitting in rear seats. This study examines the use of seat belts in cars entering a university and hospital campus in Oman to determine the degree of seat belt wearing in the rear. At peak times on a selected day, cars were stopped at the university's entrance barrier. The type of driver was identified - student, employee, hospital patient or visitor - and the degree of seat belt wearing among driver and passengers was noted. A total of 1,066 cars were stopped. Of this total, 90.1% of drivers and 80.9% of front seat passengers were wearing a restraint complying with Local traffic regulations. However, only 1.4% of back seat passengers wore a seat belt. Only 3.7% of children under the age of five were restrained in a child seat and only 16.7% of five- to 12-year-olds were strapped in. A third (34.6%) of under-fives were sitting in the front seat. In cars with child occupants, 40% of the time parents wore seat belts but the children did not. Occupants conformed to the law but behaviour indicated a lack of awareness of the dangers of not wearing seat belts, especially towards children. Traffic regulations need to be updated and the public educated about the need to wear seat belts. Health agencies could be more active in educating the public about road safety behaviour and should also be involved in the overall strategy to reduce injuries and deaths. PMID:15602998

  11. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies


    ..., child passenger safety is an area of great importance to the agency. Children restrained using seat... involved in a collision would experience an inadvertent buckle release upon loading of the belt, and...

  12. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference


    ... NPRM that, among other matters, proposed to require passenger seat belts on motorcoaches (75 FR 50958... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For non-legal issues: Ms... tested with the body block placed against the seat back, and that NHTSA's placement of the pelvic...

  13. Compliance with Use of Seat Belt among Commercial Drivers in a Nigerian Community

    Oluwole C. Omolase


    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed at determining compliance with use of seat belt among commercial intercity drivers. METHOD: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Owo, South West Nigeria among commercial intercity drivers between June and September, 2009. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria prior to commencement of this study. The permission of the leadership of Road Transport Workers’ Union was also sought and obtained. Ninety intercity commercial drivers out of the estimated one hundred and sixty intercity commercial drivers in the community were enrolled in this study. Informed consent was obtained from each of the respondents. The data obtained was collated and analyzed with SPSS 15.0.1 statistical soft ware version. RESULTS: Ninety respondents were enrolled in this study. The driving experience of the respondents revealed that most respondents: 53 (58.9% had more than 20 years driving experience. Most respondents;78 (86.7% complied with use of seat belt .The main barrier to compliance with seat belt was short trip;28 (50.9%.Most respondents; 67 (74.4%were in support of penalization of defaulters. The major source of awareness about seat belt was Federal Road Safety Corps;59 (65.6%. CONCLUSION: Most respondents complied with use of seat belt. The major barrier to compliance with seat belt was short trip within the community. The Federal Road Safety Corps should enforce compliance with the use of seat belt most especially within communities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 281-286

  14. Primary Seat-Belt Laws and Driver Behavior: Evidence from Accident Data

    Bae, Yong-Kyun


    This paper investigates the offsetting effect theory, using individual-level accident data to analyze how drivers respond to seat-belt laws. I find that drivers drive their vehicles more carefully when more stringent seat-belt laws are in effect. I also find that careful driving is not associated with pedestrian involvement in accidents. Using synthetic panel data, I find that the change in the laws results in an increased number of careful drivers and a decreased number of careless drivers i...

  15. Active Prompting to Decrease Cell Phone Use and Increase Seat Belt Use while Driving

    Clayton, Michael; Helms, Bridgett; Simpson, Cathy


    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an accident. Cell phone use while driving increases accident rates, and leads…

  16. 76 FR 18042 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use


    ... utility vehicle.'' Generally, most passenger cars, pickup trucks, vans, minivans and sport utility... Seat Belt Use (the Uniform Criteria). See 63 FR 46389. On March 14, 2000, NHTSA published a Final Rule, adopting the Uniform Criteria with one clarifying change.\\1\\ See 65 FR 13679. \\1\\ In 2000, NHTSA...

  17. 14 CFR 121.311 - Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.


    ... defined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 121.311, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seats, safety belts, and shoulder...

  18. 14 CFR 25.785 - Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses.


    ... must be protected from head injury by a safety belt and an energy absorbing rest that will support the... from contacting any injurious object. Each occupant of any other seat must be protected from head... use. (4) Located to minimize the probability that occupants would suffer injury by being struck...

  19. Occupant Restraint in the Rear Seat: ATD Responses to Standard and Pre-tensioning, Force-Limiting Belt Restraints

    FORMAN, Jason; Michaelson, Jarett; Kent, Richard; Kuppa, Shashi; Bostrom, Ola


    Recent studies have shown that restrained occupants over the age of 50 in frontal crashes have a higher risk of injury in the rear seat than in the front, and have hypothesized that the incorporation of technology such as belt pre-tensioning and force limiting preferentially in the front seat is at least partially responsible for this trend. This study investigates the potential benefits and trade-offs of seat belt pretensioners and force-limiters in the rear seat using a series of frontal im...

  20. 76 FR 36890 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...


    ... Printing Office's Web page at . You can also get a copy by sending a... belt properly secured about him.'' 36 FR 12511 (July 1, 1971). The FAA has previously interpreted this... Airplane Flight Manual (14 CFR Sec. 23.1581(j)). See 36 FR 12511; see also 14 CFR 23.562, 23.785;...

  1. Finite Element Based Stress Analysis of Seat Belt Using Integrated Force Method

    Anjali Kale


    Full Text Available Integrated force method (IFM has been developed for solving various continuum mechanics problems, where all the internal forces are taken as independent variables. The system equilibrium equations (EE's are mathematically concatenated with the MATLAB based compatibility conditions (CC's to form the global set of equations. This paper explains the solution strategy of prototype seat-belt component using integrated force method. Actual seat belt component is taken here to verify IFM based FE element are readily used which is named as REC_5F_8D and REC_13F_16D where 5F and 13F reflects number of internal unknowns and 8D and 16D are number of total displacements respectively. The results for “Von Mises Stress” and Maximum Displacement using IFM based formulation and compared with ANSYS.

  2. The Mechanical Behavior Of A Nylon Seat Belt Exposed To Cyclical Loads: A Numerical Approach

    Lucas Nogueira Assis,


    Full Text Available This work aims to study the mechanical behavior of a nylon seat belt when it is exposed to cyclical loads through the Finite Element Methods. This work used as base the brazilian regulamentoy standard ABNT NBR 7337:2011 to create the virtual model of the seat belt, with the following dimensions: 1.20mm thick, 48mm width and 250mm length. The next step was to import this CAD model to ANSYS 14.5 software, to create the correct material model for this case and apply the correct boundary conditions in order to analyze its behavior under a load that varies from 0 to 2000 N at a 10 Hz frequency. The final step was to analyze this numerical results that referring to this component under these conditions.

  3. Seat-belt-related injuries to the supra-aortic arteries.

    Illuminati, G; Calio, F G; Bertagni, A; Mangialardi, N; Martinelli, V


    Five seat-belt-related injuries occurring in four adults are reported. One injury involved the common carotid artery, two the internal carotid and two the subclavian arteries. Three of the four injured persons were asymptomatic and one had delayed-onset symptoms; none suffered stroke. There was no operative mortality or morbidity. Overall, the functional results of arterial reconstruction were good, with satisfactory patency at follow-up averaging 15 months. PMID:10225313

  4. Factors influencing students' usage of school bus seat belts: an empirical analysis of the Alabama pilot project.

    Lou, Yingyan; Mehta, Gaurav; Turner, Daniel S


    The Alabama State Department of Education and the Governor's Study Group on School Bus Seat Belts authorized and funded a research project to investigate the effects of lap-shoulder seat belts on Alabama school buses. This article performs an empirical analysis to address an important component of the study - factors that impact students' decisions about wearing seat belts or not on school buses. Discrete choice modeling framework is applied to quantify relative influences of various factors. To obtain the disaggregate level information on individual student's characteristics and trip properties, a new data collection protocol is developed. Eleven variables are investigated and eight of them are found to have significant impacts. They are age, gender, the home county of a student, a student's trip length, time of day, presence and active involvement of bus aide, and two levels of bus driver involvement. The resulting model fits the data well and reveals several trends that have been overlooked or underestimated in the literature. The model can also be used to predict the change of seat belt usage rate caused by the change of impact factors. This is helpful in identifying the most cost-effective ways to improve compliance rate, which is critical to bring the added safety benefit of seat belts into effect. This article is the first to quantify relative impacts of a range of variables using rigorous statistical modeling techniques. This study will contribute to the literature and provide valuable insights to the practice of school transportation management. PMID:21658490

  5. Development of an Emergency Locking Unit for a Belt-In-Seat (BIS System Using a MEMS Acceleration Sensor

    Chang Hyun Baek


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an emergency locking unit (ELU for a seat belt retractor which is mounted on the back frame of a vehicle seat. The proposed unit uses a recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor and solenoid mechanism. The seat has an upper frame supported to tilt on a lower frame. The retractor in belt in seat (BIS system is supported by the upper frame. The proposed recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor comprises orientation means for maintaining a predetermined orientation of emergency relative to the lower frame independently of the force of gravity when the upper frame tilts on the lower frame. Experimental results show that the developed recliner sensor unit operates effectively with respect to rollover angles. Thus, the developed unit will have a considerable potential to offer a new design concept in BIS system.

  6. Seat Belt Usage Interventions for Motor Vehicle Crash Prevention on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota.

    Amiotte, Joseph; Balanay, Jo Anne; Humphrey, Charles


    Motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are the leading cause of death from severe injuries on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (PRIR), averaging 16 MVC deaths per year from 2002 to 2011. The Sacred Cargo Coalition was established in PRIR in 2007 to implement intervention strategies to increase seat belt usage and reduce MVC fatalities, including seat belt law enforcement, creating a traffic court system, and educational campaigns on MVC prevention. The study described in this article examined the effectiveness of the interventions on increasing the seat belt usage rates and reducing MVC deaths. Secondary data were collected from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and other federal and local agencies. Seat belt usage rates increased an average of 6.8 percentage points from 2007 (10%) to 2012 (44%). MVC fatalities decreased by 46.7% from the preintervention to the intervention period. Maintenance and improvement of the intervention strategies may be achieved by seeking additional funding and including appropriate engineering activities in PRIR. PMID:26867291

  7. Numerical analysis of deep-seated mass movements in the Magura Nappe; Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic)

    Baron, I.; Agliardi, F.; Ambrosi, C.; Crosta, G.B.


    International audience Deep-seated slope failures are common features in the mountains of the Raca Unit, Magura Nappe of the Flysch Belt of Western Carpathians. Since they represent very complicated system, understanding of their evolution and triggers still remains unclear. We tried to provide a back-analysis of their development by using a finite difference code (FDM) of continua (Flac 4.0). We confirmed that such large mass movements could be triggered by water saturation of the bedrock...

  8. Numerical analysis of deep-seated mass movements in the Magura Nappe; Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic)

    Baron, I.; Agliardi, F.; Ambrosi, C.; Crosta, G.B.


    Deep-seated slope failures are common features in the mountains of the Raca Unit, Magura Nappe of the Flysch Belt of Western Carpathians. Since they represent very complicated system, understanding of their evolution and triggers still remains unclear. We tried to provide a back-analysis of their development by using a finite difference code (FDM) of continua (Flac 4.0). We confirmed that such large mass movements could be triggered by water saturation of the bedrock in the three particular g...

  9. An Experimental Approach Towards the Evaluation of a Seat Belt Campaign With an Inside View on the Psychology Behind Seat Belt Use

    Brijs, Kris; DANIELS, Stijn; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert


    A Belgian national safety belt campaign was evaluated by means of a questionnaire survey in a student sample. The evaluation was done through a three group after-only design with the use of one control group and two experimental groups. The first experimental group, the attentive group, was exposed to the campaign material in a very direct, attentive way, whereas the second experimental group, the pre-attentive group, was exposed rather inattentively. The framework of the Theory of Planned Be...

  10. Facial trauma in the largest city in latin america, são paulo, 15 years after the enactment of the compulsory seat belt law

    Tarley Eloy Pessoa de Barros; Gabriel Denser Campolongo; Talita Zanluqui; Dayane Duarte


    Traffic accidents are a reality throughout Brazil. The face is one of the anatomic parts most affected by these accidents, especially when a seat belt is not used. These accidents are costly for the public health system and have a significant impact on society and the lives of families involved. The compulsory use of seat belts in Brazil, especially in São Paulo, has decreased the rate of facial trauma. This suggests that the public health policies and measures adopted by the Brazilian author...

  11. 14 CFR 27.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.


    ... serious injury in an emergency landing as a result of the static inertial load factors specified in § 27... applicable flight and ground load conditions, including the emergency landing conditions of § 27.561(b). In... parts of the seats to reduce occupant loads for the emergency landing dynamic conditions of §...

  12. Numerical analysis of deep-seated mass movements in the Magura Nappe; Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic)

    Baron, I.; Agliardi, F.; Ambrosi, C.; Crosta, G. B.


    Deep-seated slope failures are common features in the mountains of the Raca Unit, Magura Nappe of the Flysch Belt of Western Carpathians. Since they represent very complicated system, understanding of their evolution and triggers still remains unclear. We tried to provide a back-analysis of their development by using a finite difference code (FDM) of continua (Flac 4.0). We confirmed that such large mass movements could be triggered by water saturation of the bedrock in the three particular geological and geomorphic settings. Such situation could have been caused by heavy rainfalls in humid phases of the Holocene or permafrost melting in Late Glacial. The effects of faulting, very deep weathering of the bedrock, low geotechnical parameters of smectite-rich material and the local slope geometry have also been accounted for in numerical models, as well as the other triggering factors of slope instability. FDM modelled shear zones are in agreement with observations.

  13. Numerical analysis of deep-seated mass movements in the Magura Nappe; Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic

    I. Baron


    Full Text Available Deep-seated slope failures are common features in the mountains of the Raca Unit, Magura Nappe of the Flysch Belt of Western Carpathians. Since they represent very complicated system, understanding of their evolution and triggers still remains unclear. We tried to provide a back-analysis of their development by using a finite difference code (FDM of continua (Flac 4.0. We confirmed that such large mass movements could be triggered by water saturation of the bedrock in the three particular geological and geomorphic settings. Such situation could have been caused by heavy rainfalls in humid phases of the Holocene or permafrost melting in Late Glacial. The effects of faulting, very deep weathering of the bedrock, low geotechnical parameters of smectite-rich material and the local slope geometry have also been accounted for in numerical models, as well as the other triggering factors of slope instability. FDM modelled shear zones are in agreement with observations.

  14. The effects of video-based and activity-based instruction on high school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions related to seat belt use

    Jones, Tudor Griffith, III

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of video-based science instruction and accompanying activity-based instruction on the knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of high school students' use of seat belts. Secondarily, the purpose was to determine order effects and interactions between the two treatments used in the study: video-based instruction and hands-on activity-based instruction. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action to investigate the factors influencing high school students' behavioral intentions regarding seat belt use. This study used a pretest-posttest-posttest treatment design. Data were collected on 194 students in high school introductory biology and chemistry classes in Gainesville, Florida. Ten intact high school science classes (eight treatment and two control) took pretests and posttests measuring physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to and after participating in the two treatments. The treatment group students participated in at least 500 minutes of instructional time divided among five lessons over 10 instructional days. All participants were pretested on physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to two treatments. Treatment A was defined as participating in one 50-minute video-based instructional lesson. Treatment B was defined as participating in four hands-on science activities regarding crash-related physics concepts. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used for analysis of the researcher-designed instruments, and ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The results of the analyses (p < .004) revealed that students who participated in either treatment showed significant differences in knowledge gains on 75% of the test items. The sequence of treatments did not produce significant differences in groups' posttest 2 knowledge mean scores. Combining the treatments resulted in higher mean knowledge scores than either

  15. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.


    ... serious injury in an emergency landing as a result of the inertial factors specified in § 29.561(b) and dynamic conditions specified in § 29.562. (b) Each occupant must be protected from serious head injury by a safety belt plus a shoulder harness that will prevent the head from contacting any...

  16. Seat Belt Usage in Injured Car Occupants: Injury Patterns, Severity and Outcome After Two Main Car Accident Mechanisms in Kashan, Iran, 2012

    Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Paravar, Mohammad; Mirzadeh, Azadeh Sadat; Mohammadzadeh, Javad; Mahdian, Soroush


    Background: Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are the main public health problems in Iran. The seat belts, which are vehicle safety devices, are imperative to reduce the risk of severe injuries and mortality. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate injury patterns, severity and outcome among belted and unbelted car occupants who were injured in car accidents. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional prospective study was performed on all car occupants injured in RTAs (n = 822) who were transported to hospital and hospitalized for more than 24 hours from March 2012 to March 2013. Demographic profile of the patients, including age, gender, position in the vehicle, the use of seat belts, type of car crashes, injured body regions, revised trauma score (RTS), Glasgow coma score (GCS), duration of hospital stay and mortality rate were analyzed by descriptive analysis, chi-square and independent t-test. P occupants were younger (28 years vs. 38 years) and had more frequently sustained head, abdomen and multiple injuries (P = 0.01, P = 0.01 and P = 0.009, respectively). Also, these patients had significantly lower GCS and elongated hospitalization and higher death rate (P = 0.001, P = 0.001 and P = 0.05, respectively). Tendency of severe head trauma and low RTS and death were increased in unbelted occupants in car rollover accident mechanisms (P = 0.001, P = 0.01 and P = 0.008, respectively). Conclusions: During car crashes, especially car rollover, unbelted occupants are more likely to sustain multiple severe injuries and death. Law enforcement of the seat belt usage for all occupants (front and rear seat) is obligatory to reduce severe injuries sustained as a result of car accidents, especially in vehicles with low safety. PMID:26064867

  17. Electroporation-based treatment planning for deep-seated tumors based on automatic liver segmentation of MRI images.

    Denis Pavliha

    Full Text Available Electroporation is the phenomenon that occurs when a cell is exposed to a high electric field, which causes transient cell membrane permeabilization. A paramount electroporation-based application is electrochemotherapy, which is performed by delivering high-voltage electric pulses that enable the chemotherapeutic drug to more effectively destroy the tumor cells. Electrochemotherapy can be used for treating deep-seated metastases (e.g. in the liver, bone, brain, soft tissue using variable-geometry long-needle electrodes. To treat deep-seated tumors, patient-specific treatment planning of the electroporation-based treatment is required. Treatment planning is based on generating a 3D model of the organ and target tissue subject to electroporation (i.e. tumor nodules. The generation of the 3D model is done by segmentation algorithms. We implemented and evaluated three automatic liver segmentation algorithms: region growing, adaptive threshold, and active contours (snakes. The algorithms were optimized using a seven-case dataset manually segmented by the radiologist as a training set, and finally validated using an additional four-case dataset that was previously not included in the optimization dataset. The presented results demonstrate that patient's medical images that were not included in the training set can be successfully segmented using our three algorithms. Besides electroporation-based treatments, these algorithms can be used in applications where automatic liver segmentation is required.

  18. Circuitry for the automatic tare balancing at radiometric weigh-feeder belts

    The invention has been aimed at a circuitry for the automatic tare balancing at radiometric weigh-feeder belts with digital data processing of the measurement pulse rate emitted by a radiation detector during a measuring cycle. To secure a non-perturbational and exact permanent pulse rate correction by the tare rate the measuring pulse rate is summed up under the operational mode 'taring' for a preselected rotation time of the empty belt and evaluated using a factor related to the length of measuring cycle. The resulting pulses are stored as an average value. Under the operational mode 'weighing' the difference between pulse rate and stored tare pulses will be formed and transmitted to a data processing unit

  19. Seating position, seat belt wearing, and the consequences in facial fractures in car occupants Posição no veículo, uso de cinto de segurança e suas conseqüências nas fraturas de face em ocupantes de carros

    Alexandre Siqueira Franco Fonseca


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Trauma caused by traffic accidents is among the main etiologies involved in the occurrence of facial fractures throughout the world. However, the trauma mechanisms involved are different according to the location where the study was performed, due to different conditions of development, legislation, and culture. A retrospective study was done between February 2001 and July 2006, with the purpose of determining the epidemiology and the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of facial fractures among car occupants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. METHODS: Data were collected from 297 patients admitted with facial fractures to the emergency room of the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. Within this period, 151 individuals had been involved in traffic accidents, among which 56 (37.08% were inside passenger cars. These were grouped based on the seating position that they were occupying at the time of the accident and the wearing of seat belts. Data concerning the number and location of fracture lines were obtained from the different groups, and a fracture/patient index (F/P I was calculated to compare and make reference to the impact energy among these groups, for subsequent analysis and discussion. RESULTS: 323 fracture lines occurred among 56 patients who were car occupants. By applying the F/P I, we obtained higher values in the group of rear-seat passengers who were not wearing seat belts (7.23 fractures per patient, followed by the group of drivers not wearing seat belts (6.33 fractures per patient, the group of front-seat passengers not wearing seat belts (5.58 fractures per patient, the group of drivers wearing seat belts (5.54 fractures per patient and, finally, the group of front-seat passengers wearing seat belts (4.00 fractures per patient. None of the rear-seat passengers was wearing seat belts. CONCLUSION: The data collected indicate that the driver position shows a high incidence of facial

  20. Electroporation-Based Treatment Planning for Deep-Seated Tumors Based on Automatic Liver Segmentation of MRI Images

    Pavliha, Denis; Serša, Gregor; Marolt-Mušič, Maja; Miklavčič, Damijan


    Electroporation is the phenomenon that occurs when a cell is exposed to a high electric field, which causes transient cell membrane permeabilization. A paramount electroporation-based application is electrochemotherapy, which is performed by delivering high-voltage electric pulses that enable the chemotherapeutic drug to more effectively destroy the tumor cells. Electrochemotherapy can be used for treating deep-seated metastases (e.g. in the liver, bone, brain, soft tissue) using variable-geo...

  1. The Seat

    米国勇; 张国宝(英译)


    One night, the huge statue of the Buddha, as tall as two meters, fell suddenly from its seat and broke in pieces. But two smaller statues on either of his sides, Gold Boy and Jade Girl, still remained intact.

  2. Lithospheric composition and structure beneath the northern margin of the Qinling orogenic belt--On deep-seated xenoliths in Minggang region of Henan Province

    LU; Fengxiang; WANG; Chunyang; ZHENG; Jianping


    Swarms of mafic-intermediate volcaniclastic bodies occur in the Minggang region of Henan Province, a tectonic boundary between the North Qinling and the North China Block, and emplaced at (178.31±3.77) Ma. These volcanic rocks are subalkaline basaltic andesites and contain abundance of lower crust and mantle xenoliths. Thus this area is an ideal place to reveal the lithospheric composition and structure beneath the northern margin of the Qinling orogenic belt. Geochemical data indicate that these mafic granulites, eclogites and metagabbros have trace elemental and Pb isotopic characteristics very similar to those rocks from the South Qinling Block, representing the lower part of lower crust of the South Qinling which subducted beneath the North China Block. Talcic peridotites represent the overlying mantle wedge materials of the North China Block, which underwent the metasomatism of the acidic melt/fluid released from the underlying lower crust of the South Qinling Block. Deep tectonic model proposed in this paper is that after the Late Paleozoic South Qinling lithosphere subducted northward and decoupled, the upper part of the lithosphere emplaced under the North Qinling and the lower part continuously subducted northward under the North China Block. In Early Mesozoic, the North Qinling Block obducted northward and the North China Block inserted into the Qinling orogenic belt in a crocodile-mouth shape.

  3. Crashworthiness of composite seats for civil aircraft

    Stephens, V. M.


    A study has been conducted into the design of civil aircraft seats which are forward-facing and use the lap-belt method of restraint. Within these terms of reference, the response of the seat restraint occupant system (SROS) to impact loading has been analysed using physical (dynamic testing) and analytical (computer simulation) modelling techniques. With the increasing use of fibre-reinforced polymer composites in aircraft for weight efficiency, and the consequent appearance of composite se...

  4. Lap belt injuries in children.

    McGrath, N


    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  5. Car safety belts: a study of two models adapted for people with arthritis.

    Arie, E


    People with arthritis find car seat belts difficult to use. Sixteen arthritic patients and 19 healthy volunteers completed a comparative study of one standard inertia-reel belt and two adapted inertia-reel belts with reduced retraction forces. Those with arthritis were strong enough to use the standard belt but both adapted belts had features making them easier to use. PMID:3708235

  6. Sistema de Medición Automático para el Consumo de Material Utilizado en Vestiduras Automotrices Automatic Measurement System for Material Consumption in Automobile Seat Covers

    Lidia H Rascón


    Full Text Available Se presenta el proceso de diseño y aplicación de un sistema para la medición automática de material utilizado en el proceso de corte de vestiduras automotrices. El diseño consta de un carrete medidor de material, sensores de presencia, un microcontrolador y una computadora. El microcontrolador cuenta los periodos de la señal de salida del codificador y calcula la medición de material. El sistema registra en una base de datos la cantidad de material utilizado, el material restante en el rollo y el material excedente utilizado en cada requerimiento de corte. El sistema de medición automático no interfiere con el proceso de corte, mide con mayor exactitud el material utilizado y disminuye sustancialmente el material de desperdicio.This work describes the design and application of a system for the automatic measurement of the quantity of material utilized in automobile seat covers. The design consists of a reader system, sensors, a controller, a microcontroller and a computer. When the cutting process finishes, a microprocessor store the measurement. This measurement is sent to a database for further analysis. The system counts the material utilized in the cutting process and the material that is left on a roll. The system adaptation does not interfere with the normal cutting process, allows measuring correctly the material consumption and diminishes the scrap material.

  7. Numerical prediction of seating position in car seats

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Markwijk, R. van; Verver, M.M.; Furtado, R.; Pewinsky, W.


    Two of the main design objectives for car interiors are comfort and safety. These aspects are both determined by the seating position of the occupant. Seat manufacturers use the SAE Three-Dimensional H-Point Machine™ to measure seating positions to design, audit, and benchmark seats. The seating pos

  8. Seating arrangement in Althingi

    Þorsteinn Magnússon


    Full Text Available Almost a century has passed since Althingi, the Parliament of Iceland, introduced, in 1916, the method of allocating seats to Members by drawing lots at the start of each session. This arrangement is not customary in any other national parliament in the world. It has never been established why this particular method of allocating seats was introduced in Althingi. Neither has it been mapped out how the allocation was conducted, what the Members thought of it nor what impact, if any, the arrangement had on the relations of Members and the workings of Althingi. This article therefore presents the first study of this subject in Iceland. The article also places the seat allocation procedure of Althingi in an international context, as the general rule in parliaments around the world is that Members are seated together in parliamentary party groups. The conclusions of the study are, among other things, that the seat allocation by lot was probably modelled on the House of Representatives of the United States Congress, where seats were allocated by lot from 1845-1913. The study also reveals that over 40 years passed until seat allocation by lot became fully established procedure in Althingi. In the Upper House seats were not allocated by lot at the great majority of sessions until 1959 and Members appear to have been mainly seated along party lines. In the Lower House it was common for some Members to exchange seats following the drawing of lots, and for some time attempts were made to introduce seating by parliamentary party, but the efforts were unsuccessful due to insufficient support. Since 1959 there has not been any disagreement regarding the drawing of lots for seats. Generally speaking, Members appear to hold the opinion that the seating arrangement in Althingi has a positive impact on personal relations, is a positive counterbalance to the division of Members into government supporters and opposition members and that the allocation of seats by

  9. Seated postural hypotension.

    Gorelik, Oleg; Cohen, Natan


    Most studies of postural hypotension (PH) have focused on standing PH. Less is known about PH after transition from a supine to sitting position. Moreover, seated PH has not been previously reviewed in the English literature. The aim of this review was to provide current information regarding seating-induced PH. Seventeen studies were reviewed regarding prevalence, methods of evaluation, manifestations, predisposing factors, prognosis, and management of seated PH. Prevalence ranged from 8% among community-dwelling persons to 56% in elderly hospitalized patients. Dizziness and palpitations were the most frequent symptoms. Of a variety of factors that have been identified as predisposing and contributing to seated PH, aging, bed rest, and hypertension were most important. Because seated PH is a common, easily diagnosable and frequently symptomatic condition, especially in elderly inpatients, this disorder warrants attention. Moreover, seating-induced falls in blood pressure and the associated symptoms, may be largely prevented by nonpharmacologic interventions. PMID:26515671

  10. Arranging the Seats



    Fiveyouthsfromdifferentcountriescometoapartyandsitaroundaroundtable.AisaChinesewhoalsospeaksEnglish;BisaFrenchWhohaslearnedJapanese;CcomesfromEnglandbutalsospeaksFrench;DisaJapanesewhoseforeignlanguageisChinese;EisaFrenchwhoalsospeaksSpanish(西班牙语).HowcanyouarrangetheirseatssothattheyCanspeakwiththepersonssittingnexttohim?(Keytobefound.)Arranging the Seats@官琪

  11. Composite shell spacecraft seat

    Barackman, Victor J. (Inventor); Pulley, John K. (Inventor); Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); McKee, Sandra D. (Inventor)


    A two-part seat (10) providing full body support that is specific for each crew member (30) on an individual basis. The two-part construction for the seat (10) can accommodate many sizes and shapes for crewmembers (30) because it is reconfigurable and therefore reusable for subsequent flights. The first component of the two-part seat construction is a composite shell (12) that surrounds the crewmember's entire body and is generically fitted to their general size in height and weight. The second component of the two-part seat (10) is a cushion (20) that conforms exactly to the specific crewmember's entire body and gives total body support in more complex environment.

  12. Situational characteristics of safety belt use.

    Fockler, S K; Cooper, P J


    Past research concerning the use and nonuse of safety belts has tended to stereotype users and nonusers as distinct entities on the basis of a single observed situation. The thought processes underlying the reasons given by drivers for using or not using seat belts have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to observe belt use by a group of drivers and describe factors contributing to their use or nonuse as defined by the drivers themselves. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 239 drivers whose safety belt wearing behavior was observed in specific city or highway driving locations. Vehicle license numbers, gender, and age group of selected drivers were used to retrieve driver records and insurance policy data. Open-ended questions were asked concerning their reasons for use or nonuse and their attitudes towards safety belts and other types of traffic safety countermeasures. Driver attitudes, characteristics, and records were compared between observed safety belt user and nonuser groups to validate variables predicting use or nonuse. Respondents' descriptions of the social and personal context of their choice to use or not use safety belts provide a broader view of seat belt wearing that suggests implications for planning future enforcement and education programs. PMID:2331287

  13. Car Seat Safety.

    Preston, J. A.


    This article provides information and a product listing concerning the special automobile seating needs of children with disabilities. The products listed meet the needs of children who weigh less than 20 pounds, must be transported lying down, need help with trunk control and/or head control, wear hip spica casts, are ventilator-dependent, and…

  14. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    Wiens, Janet


    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  15. Can Pelvis Angle be Monitored From Seat Support Forces in Healthy Subjects?

    Geffen, van Paul; Veltink, Peter H.; Koopman, Bart F.J.M.


    Individuals who cannot functionally reposition themselves often need dynamic seating interventions that change body posture from automatic chair adjustments. Pelvis alignment directly affects sitting posture, and systems that adjust and monitor pelvis angle simultaneously might be applicable to cont

  16. Seat IBE Concept


    大众的SEAT品牌发布了一款具有未来特色的SEAT IBE概念车。这款4座小车采用双门掀背钢炮设计,将使用一台75kW的电动机,最大功率74kW,18kW时的锂离子电池组负贵为它提供电力。

  17. Abdominal Injury Patterns in Real Frontal Crashes: Influence of Crash Conditions, Occupant Seat and Restraint Systems

    Lamielle, S.; CUNY,S; Foret-Bruno, JY.; Petit, P.; VEZIN,P; Verriest, JP.; Guillemot, H.


    An in-depth study was conducted through the analysis of medical reports and crash data from real world accidents. The objective was to investigate the abdominal injury patterns among car occupants in frontal crashes. The influence of the type of restraint system, the occupant seat, the age and the crash severity was investigated. The results indicate that the risk of abdominal AIS 3+ injuries increased with crash severity and decreased with the introduction of belt retractors. Rear belted pas...

  18. Validation of seat-off and seat-on in repeated sit-to-stand movements using a single-body-fixed sensor

    The identification of chair rise phases is a prerequisite for quantifying sit-to-stand movements. The aim of this study is to validate seat-off and seat-on detection using a single-body-fixed sensor against detection based on chair switches. A single sensor system with three accelerometers and three gyroscopes was fixed around the waist. Synchronized on–off switches were placed under the chair. Thirteen older adults were recruited from a residential care home and fifteen young adults were recruited among college students. Subjects were asked to complete two sets of five trials each. Six features of the trunk movement during seat-off and seat-on were calculated automatically, and a model was developed to predict the moment of seat-off and seat-on transitions. The predictions were validated with leave-one-out cross-validation. Feature extraction failed in two trials (0.7%). For the optimal combination of seat-off predictors, cross-validation yielded a mean error of 0 ms and a mean absolute error of 51 ms. For the best seat-on predictor, cross-validation yielded a mean error of –3 ms and a mean absolute error of 127 ms. The results of this study demonstrate that seat-off and seat-on in repeated sit-to-stand movements can be detected semi-automatically in young and older adults using a one-body-fixed sensor system with an accuracy of 51 and 127 ms, respectively. The use of the ambulatory instrumentation is feasible for non-technically trained personnel. This is an important step in the development of an automated method for the quantification of sit-to-stand movements in clinical practice. (paper)

  19. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Seat Belt Use in the US

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About . Vital Signs Current issue Infographic Topics Covered Alcohol Cancer Cardiovascular ...

  1. Fasten seat belts: Do car safety systems cause positive externalities?

    Michael Berlemann; Andreas Matthes


    Although traffic safety belongs to the quite intensively regulated sectors, there has been little discussion about the adequacy of the arguments underlying these regulations. We argue that passive and active car safety systems might cause positive externalities for other traffic participants and present empirical evidence in favour of this hypothesis.

  2. Feel Seating System


    我们不知道应该用什么样的名词来为Feel Seating System起名,床?沙发?躺椅?……它好像什么都是,却又什么都不是,这个由120只花花绿绿的软织物球所构成的东西,可以由你随心所欲地将它变成各种各样的坐具或卧具,抑或是偶尔当成一床被子或睡袋来使用都没问题。

  3. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, Region 7 - Kansas City

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2014 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey...

  4. Take your seats: Leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice

    Victoria Lynn Harms


    Full Text Available Despite an overall body symmetry, human behaviour is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.

  5. Take your seats: leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice.

    Harms, Victoria L; Poon, Lisa J O; Smith, Austen K; Elias, Lorin J


    Despite an overall body symmetry, human behavior is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias. PMID:26347639

  6. Great Belt

    Sørensen, Carsten S.; Kristensen, Per S.; Erichsen, Lars

    This paper describes aspects of the soil investigations and geotechnical evaluations for the foundation design of the 6.6 km long Great Belt West Bridge. The gravity foundations rest predominantly on glacial tills and pre-quaternary limestone. Special investigations for assessment of the soil pro...... properties for ship impact and ice loading are described briefly, and first experiences from settlement monitoring of the structure during erection are presented....

  7. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seating. 116.820 Section 116.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 116.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 115.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has been used to determine the number...

  8. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seating. 177.820 Section 177.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 176.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has...

  9. Seat Design for Crash Worthiness

    Pinkel, I Irving; Rosenberg, Edmund G


    A study of many crash deceleration records suggested a simplified model of a crash deceleration pulse, which incorporates the essential properties of the pulse. The model pulse is considered to be composed of a base pulse on which are superimposed one or more secondary pulses of shorter duration. The results of a mathematical analysis of the seat-passenger deceleration in response to the airplane deceleration pulse are provided. On the basis of this information, presented as working charts, the maximum deceleration loads experienced by the seat and passenger in response to the airplane deceleration pulse can be computed. This maximum seat-passenger deceleration is found to depend on the natural frequency of the seat containing the passenger, considered as a mass-spring system. A method is presented that shows how to arrive at a combination of seat strength, natural frequency, and ability to absorb energy in deformation beyond the elastic limit that will allow the seat to serve without failure during an airplane deceleration pulse taken as the design requirement.

  10. 75 FR 58340 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under...


    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3. Will..., Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under Technical Standard Order (TSO) TSO-C39b, TSO-C39c, or..., Ltd., seats and seating systems approved under TSO-C39b, TSO-C39c, or TSO-C127a. This proposed...

  11. Advances in examining preferences for similarity in seating: Revisiting the aggregation index.

    Hernandez, Ivan


    Past research finds that people prefer to sit next to others who are similar to them in a variety of dimensions such as race, sex, and physical appearance. This preference for similarity in seating arrangements is called aggregation and is most commonly measured with the aggregation index (Campbell, Kruskal, & Wallace, Sociometry 29, 1-15, 1966). The aggregation index compares the observed dissimilarity in seating with the amount of dissimilarity that would be expected if seats were chosen randomly. However, the current closed-form equations for this method limit the ease, flexibility, and inferences that researchers have. This paper presents a new approach for studying aggregation that uses bootstrapped resampling of the seating environment to estimate the aggregation index parameters. This method, compiled as an executable program, SocialAggregation, reads a seating chart matrix provided by the researcher and automatically computes the observed number of dissimilar adjacencies, and simulates random seating preferences. The current method's estimates not only converge with those of the original method, but it also handles a wider variety of situations and also allows for more precise hypothesis testing by directly modeling the distribution of the seating arrangements. Developing a better measure of aggregation opens new possibilities for understanding intergroup biases, and allows researchers to examine aggregation more efficiently. PMID:25427955

  12. Belt attachment and system

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.


    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  13. 77 FR 16910 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787 Series Airplanes; Single-place Side-facing Seats With...


    ...) through (c)(6) apply to the occupant of a side facing seat. Head Injury Criterion (HIC) assessments are... accident. This will reduce the potential for head injury, thereby reducing the Head Injury Criteria (HIC... protected from head injury by a safety belt and a cushioned rest that will support the arms, shoulders,......

  14. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exit seating. 135.129 Section 135.129....129 Exit seating. (a)(1) Applicability. This section applies to all certificate holders operating... certificate holder shall make the passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a...

  15. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each certificate... passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a non-discriminatory manner...

  16. NASA Standards Inform Comfortable Car Seats


    NASA developed standards, which included the neutral body posture (NBP), to specify ways to design flight systems that support human health and safety. Nissan Motor Company, with US offices in Franklin, Tennessee, turned to NASA's NBP research for the development of a new driver's seat. The 2013 Altima now features the new seat, and the company plans to incorporate the seats in upcoming vehicles.

  17. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 207; Seating systems. 571.207 Section... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.207 Standard No. 207; Seating systems. S1. Purpose and scope. This.... Definitions. Occupant seat means a seat that provides at least one designated seating position. Seat...

  18. 75 FR 30775 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council


    ... for the following vacant seats: Heritage Tourism seat, Citizen-at-Large seat, Recreational Diving seat...-Large, Conservation, Economic Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological...

  19. Development of a safe car seat

    Malnarič, Vili; Zupanc, Mirko; Drenovec, Mitja


    Here we present a list and order of actions to be taken for the successful development and industrialization of a safe car seat. During the seat's development, its safety role in the car has to be considered. With respect to this, the procedures defining the safety characteristics of the products have to be taken into account. The development stages for a safe car seat are merged within three phases, as follows: the preparation of the starting pointsfor the development of a safe car seat, the...

  20. Conical Seat Shut-Off Valve

    Farner, Bruce


    A moveable valve for controlling flow of a pressurized working fluid was designed. This valve consists of a hollow, moveable floating piston pressed against a stationary solid seat, and can use the working fluid to seal the valve. This open/closed, novel valve is able to use metal-to-metal seats, without requiring seat sliding action; therefore there are no associated damaging effects. During use, existing standard high-pressure ball valve seats tend to become damaged during rotation of the ball. Additionally, forces acting on the ball and stem create large amounts of friction. The combination of these effects can lead to system failure. In an attempt to reduce damaging effects and seat failures, soft seats in the ball valve have been eliminated; however, the sliding action of the ball across the highly loaded seat still tends to scratch the seat, causing failure. Also, in order to operate, ball valves require the use of large actuators. Positioning the metal-to-metal seats requires more loading, which tends to increase the size of the required actuator, and can also lead to other failures in other areas such as the stem and bearing mechanisms, thus increasing cost and maintenance. This novel non-sliding seat surface valve allows metal-to-metal seats without the damaging effects that can lead to failure, and enables large seating forces without damaging the valve. Additionally, this valve design, even when used with large, high-pressure applications, does not require large conventional valve actuators and the valve stem itself is eliminated. Actuation is achieved with the use of a small, simple solenoid valve. This design also eliminates the need for many seals used with existing ball valve and globe valve designs, which commonly cause failure, too. This, coupled with the elimination of the valve stem and conventional valve actuator, improves valve reliability and seat life. Other mechanical liftoff seats have been designed; however, they have only resulted in

  1. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    Gohmert, Dustin


    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  2. Comparison of two pelvic positioning belt configurations in a pediatric wheelchair.

    Cimolin, Veronica; Avellis, Martino; Piccinini, Luigi; Corbetta, Claudio; Cazzaniga, Andrea; Turconi, Anna Carla; Galli, Manuela


    Maintenance of stability for children in a wheelchair, particularly for those with spasticity, can be achieved through external stabilization components, such as pelvic positioning belts. Different kinds of pelvic belts exist on the market and one of the main characteristics is the different number of attachment points between the seat and the belt. As literature on this topic is limited to qualitative assessments, this study compared quantitatively 4-point versus 2-point pelvic positioning belts for the trunk fixation in 20 young patients with spasticity. Our data showed that 70% of the children required the use of pelvic belts on wheelchairs for stability and a better stability was observed with the 4-point belts than compared to the 2-point. Data generally showed in fact a higher percent of variation in terms of trunk flexion angleand knee joint angle with the 2-point belt than the 4-point belt, indicating increased submarining with the 2-point belt during sitting maintenance if compared to the 4-point belt (p < 0.05). According to our results, the 4-point belts seem to be the most effective configuration for patient stabilization, suggesting that its use prevents the thigh from submarining. PMID:24620707

  3. 75 FR 34172 - Lordstown Seating Systems, a Subsidiary of Magna Seating, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...


    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on May 5, 2010 (75 FR 24751). At the request of the state... Employment and Training Administration Lordstown Seating Systems, a Subsidiary of Magna Seating, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Intier Automotive Seatings of...

  4. Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor

    Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert


    A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

  5. The Vibration Wave of Continuous and Automatic Water, Water-Saving Washing Device for Belt Conveyor Systems%采用水中振动波进行输送机网的连续式、自动、节水型洗净装置



    The study introduced the operating principle of KOMATSUBARA FV washer,this continuous and automatic water, water-saving washing device could be applyed to belt conveyor systems in food factory,there was a advantage of high detergency and reducing cost, so that improved the health situation in food factory.%本研究介绍了KOMATSUBARA FV洗涤机的工作原理,这种采用水中振动波的连续式、自动、节水型洗净装置能够用于食品加工厂输送机网的洗涤,洗净效果优良,能够降低生产成本,提高食品生产的卫生状态。

  6. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  7. Technical note: Spine loading in automotive seating

    Zenk, R.; Franz, M.; Bubb, H.; Vink, P.


    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load distribu

  8. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  9. Entertainment and Pacification System For Car Seat

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)


    An entertainment and pacification system for use with a child car seat has speakers mounted in the child car seat with a plurality of audio sources and an anti-noise audio system coupled to the child car seat. A controllable switching system provides for, at any given time, the selective activation of i) one of the audio sources such that the audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers, and ii) the anti-noise audio system such that an ambient-noise-canceling audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers. The controllable switching system can receive commands generated at one of first controls located at the child car seat and second controls located remotely with respect to the child car seat with commands generated by the second controls overriding commands generated by the first controls.

  10. System for controlling child safety seat environment

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)


    A system is provided to control the environment experienced by a child in a child safety seat. Each of a plurality of thermoelectric elements is individually controllable to be one of heated and cooled relative to an ambient temperature. A first portion of the thermoelectric elements are positioned on the child safety seat such that a child sitting therein is positioned thereover. A ventilator coupled to the child safety seat moves air past a second portion of the thermoelectric elements and filters the air moved therepast. One or more jets coupled to the ventilator receive the filtered air. Each jet is coupled to the child safety seat and can be positioned to direct the heated/cooled filtered air to the vicinity of the head of the child sitting in the child safety seat.

  11. Seat PG鲸吞WLW


    10月5日,Seat Pagine Gialle S.P.A.(简称Seat)向媒体宣称,该公司已经成功从Eniro AB手中完全购买了“Wer liefert was”(简称WLW),拥有了WLW公司100%的股份。据透露,此次交易市值估计为1.15亿欧元(相当于约1.54亿美元),经由德国联邦竞争主管机关审核通过,而本次收购所需资金主要是源自于经营性现金流。

  12. Can pelvis angle be monitored from seat support forces in healthy subjects?

    Geffen, Paul van; Veltink, Peter H; Koopman, Bart F J M


    Individuals who cannot functionally reposition themselves often need dynamic seating interventions that change body posture from automatic chair adjustments. Pelvis alignment directly affects sitting posture, and systems that adjust and monitor pelvis angle simultaneously might be applicable to control body posture in sitting. The present study explores whether it is feasible to monitor pelvis angle from seat support forces. Pelvis angle estimation was based on equivalent "two-force member" loading for which pelvis orientation equals the orientation of the equivalent contact force. Theoretical evaluation was done to derive important conditions for practical application. An instrumented wheelchair was developed for experimental validation in healthy subjects. Seat support forces were measured, and mechanical analysis was done to derive the equivalent contact force from which we estimated the pelvis angle. Model analysis showed a significant influence of pelvis mass, hip force, and lumbar torque on the relation between the actual pelvis angle and the predicted pelvis angle. Proper force compensation and minimal lumbar torque seemed important for accurate pelvis angle estimations. Experimental evaluation showed no body postures that involved a clear relation between the pelvis angle and the orientation of the equivalent contact force. Findings suggest that pelvis angle could not be estimated in healthy individuals under the described experimental seating conditions. Validation experiments with impaired individuals must be performed under different seating conditions to provide a better understanding whether the principle is of interest for clinical application. PMID:19154073

  13. Reduced gravity fecal collector seat and urinal

    Brown, J. W. (Inventor)


    A waste collection system for use in a reduced gravity including a seat having an opening centrally located with a pair of opposed depressed valleys on opposite sides of said opening for accommodating the ischial tuberosities of a user. The seat has contoured surfaces for providing support of the user's body and includes a prominent ridge towards the rear, which provides forward-aft positioning cue to the user. A curved recess is provided adjacent the forward portion of the seat for accommodating a tubular urinal having an enlarged open mouth.

  14. Riding the belt

    Potts, A.


    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  15. Evaluation of Seat Comfort of Office Armchairs: an Impact of Articulated Seat Support and Gas Spring

    Jerzy Smardzewski


    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of an alternative seating system. The aim of this alternative approach was to determine the comfort of offi ce armchairs equipped with new construction solutions ensuring articulated support of the seat as well as articulated mounting of the gas spring. An offi ce armchair with a different seat support and gas spring was selected. Operational loads were applied to the seat surface. The following parameters were measured and calculated in the course of the performed experiments: contact area, average contact pressure and coeffi cient of seat pressure distribution (SPD. A new discomfort coeffi cient D expressing seat quality was elaborated. Preliminary data suggests that the prototypes provided greater sitting comfort than did the conventional chair. It was demonstrated that the new construction solution of the gas spring support guaranteed the highest comfort of the use of the examined armchairs.

  16. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seating in assembly areas. 36.308 Section... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.308 Seating in assembly... in assembly areas shall— (i) Provide a reasonable number of wheelchair seating spaces and seats...

  17. Using an experimental bicycle seat to reduce perineal numbness.

    Taylor, Kenneth S; Richburg, Allen; Wallis, David; Bracker, Mark


    Researchers evaluated the effectiveness of an experimental seat that was designed to prevent perineal numbness and possibly erectile dysfunction in male bicyclists. A trial of the device among 15 experienced cyclists measured perineal sensation after a 1-hour stationary cycling session on a standard seat followed several days later by the same exercise protocol on the experimental bike seat. Cyclists reported more numbness with the standard seat than with the experimental seat (79% vs 14%). Sensory testing found greater hypoesthesia with the standard seat. Innovations in bicycle seat design may decrease or eliminate perineal numbness. PMID:20086525

  18. Assessment of a three-point restraint system with a pre-tensioned lap belt and an inflatable, force-limited shoulder belt.

    Kent, Richard; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Dennis, Nate J; Lessley, David; Forman, Jason; Higuchi, Kazuo; Tanji, Hiromasa; Ato, Tadayuki; Kameyoshi, Hikaru; Arbogast, Kristy


    This study investigates the performance of a 3-point restraint system incorporating an inflatable shoulder belt with a nominal 2.5-kN load limiter and a non-inflatable lap belt with a pretensioner (the "Airbelt"). Frontal impacts with PMHS in a rear seat environment are presented and the Airbelt system is contrasted with an earlier 3-point system with inflatable lap and shoulder belts but no load-limiter or pretensioners, which was evaluated with human volunteers in the 1970s but not fully reported in the open literature (the "Inflataband"). Key differences between the systems include downward pelvic motion and torso recline with the Inflataband, while the pelvis moved almost horizontally and the torso pitched forward with the Airbelt. One result of these kinematic differences was an overall more biomechanically favorable restraint loading but greater maximum forward head excursion with the Airbelt. The Airbelt is shown to generate generally lower head, neck, and thoracic injury metrics and PMHS trauma than other, non-inflatable rear-seat restraint concepts (viz., a standard 3-point belt and a pre-tensioned shoulder belt with a progressive load limiter). Further study is needed to evaluate the Airbelt system for different size occupants (e.g., children), non-frontal impact vectors, and for out-of-position occupants and to allow the results with this particular system to be generalized to a broader range of Airbelt designs. PMID:22869308

  19. Automatic sequences

    Haeseler, Friedrich


    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  20. 76 FR 9551 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council


    .../Commercial Fishing seats, Heritage Tourism seat, and Economic Development seat. Applicants are chosen based... Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological Research, North Carolina Maritime...

  1. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    Gohmert, Dustin M.


    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  2. Dynamic characteristics of conveyor belts

    HOU You-fu; MENG Qing-rui


    The dynamic characteristics of a belt conveyor are determined to a large extent by the properties of the belt. This paper describes experiments designed to establish the dynamic properties of belting material. The dynamic elastic modulus, viscous damping and theological constants of the belt were measured. Several properties were studied as a function of the tensile loading on the belt. These included longitudinal vibration, the natural vibration frequency in the transverse direction and the response to an impulse excitation. Vibration response was observed under several different excitation frequencies. Most of these properties have not been tested previously under conditions appropriate for the ISO/DP9856 standard. Two types of belt were tested, a steel reinforced belt and a fabric reinforced belt. The test equipment was built to provide data appropriate for designing belt conveyors. It was observed that the stress wave propagation speed increased with tensile load and that tensile load was the main factor influencing longitudinal vibrations.

  3. Avaliação dos níveis de vibração vertical no assento de um trator agrícola de pneus utilizando um sistema de aquisição automática de dados Evaluation of the vertical vibration levels in a tire tractor seat by applying an automatic data aquisition system

    Paulo Fernando dos Santos Filho


    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá (FEG-UNESP, SP, no laboratório de vibração e acústica em uma área experimental, com os objetivos de: a determinar os níveis de vibração vertical no assento e na base do assento de um trator agrícola, executando a operação de gradagem para diferentes velocidades de trabalho; b caracterizar a faixa de freqüência que apresenta os maiores picos de vibração vertical no assento do operador do trator; e c analisar o conforto do operador, comparando os níveis de vibração obtidos com as principais normas vigentes. O sistema de aquisição de dados foi constituído por sensores de vibração, por condicionadores e amplificadores e por um conversor analógico-digital, instalados em um microcomputador e embarcados no trator ensaiado. Posteriormente os dados foram tratados pelo programa ORIGIN 50. Com base nos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: os níveis de aceleração encontrados na parte superior do assento foram consideravelmente inferiores aos níveis da base para as três velocidades, sendo a terceira marcha a que apresentou os maiores níveis de vibração; a faixa de freqüência que apresentou os maiores picos de vibração vertical foi entre 2 e 4 Hz; os valores de aceleração ponderada global encontraram-se bem acima dos limites definidos pela norma ISO 2631 para um período de 8 horas de trabalho; e houve crescimento dos níveis de vibração com o aumento da velocidade do sistema trator-implemento.A study was carried out at the Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá - FEG-UNESP, SP, in the acoustic and vibration laboratory as well as in an experimental area, to: a determine the levels of vertical vibration in both the seat and seat base of an agricultural tire tractor under operation (harrowing at different forward speeds; b characterize the frequency range presenting the highest vertical vibration peaks in the tractor operator seat; c analyze ride

  4. The JET belt limiter

    A limiter with an effective area in contact with the plasma of about 16 m2 is presently being manufactured for installation in 1987. This belt limiter consists of two toroidal rings located above and below the equatorial plane of the vacuum vessel. Each of the two rings comprises a structure with water cooling pipes and fins welded to the pipes. The limiter material in contact with the plasma (graphite or beryllium) is inserted between fins in the form of tiles. The belt limiter is designed to handle up to 40 MW of total power at flux densities of 3 - 5 MW/m2 for 10 s and to permit rapid exchange of different limiter materials. The design and manufacture of the belt limiter and the results of thermomechanical analysis for different edge properties, power levels and shot repetition rates, are reported. (author)

  5. The jet belt limiter

    A limiter with an effective area in contact with the plasma of about 16 m/sup 2/ is presently being manufactured for installation in 1987. This belt limiter consists of two toroidal rings located above and below the equatorial plane of the vacuum vessel. Each of the two rings comprises a structure with water cooling pipes and fins welded to the pipes. The limiter material in contact with the plasma (graphite or beryllium) is inserted between fins in the form of tiles. The belt limiter is designed to handle up to 40 MW of total power at flux densities of 3 - 5 MW/m/sup 2/ for 10 s and to permit rapid exchange of different limiter materials. This paper describes the design and manufacture of the belt limiter and the results of thermomechanical analysis for different edge properties, power levels and shot repetition rates

  6. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    G Ramadass; D Himabindu; N Srinivasulu


    Semi-detailed gravity investigations were carried out over an area of approximately 2750 sq km with maximum N-S and E-W extents of 55 and 50km respectively in the Gadag region in the Dharwar craton with a view to obtain a clearer perception of the structural configuration of the region. From qualitative analysis of the gravity data, several tectonic features are inferred: the high density Gadag schist belt is characterized by a gravity high and occurs in two discontinuous segments — the main N-S trending segment, and its thinner NW-SE trending extension, the two separated by a NE-SW trending deep seated fault. While the N-S trend of the Gadag schist belt is bounded on its east by the NW-SE trending Chitradurga thrust fault and on its west by another major NNW-SSE trending fault, the NW-SE extension is likewise bounded by two other NW-SE major faults. Quantitative evaluation from forward modeling/inversion of five profiles in the region, assuming a density contrast of 0.29 gm/cc of the anomalous schistose body with the gneissic host rocks indicated a synclinal structure plunging to the southeast along its axis for the Gadag schist belt. The maximum width and depth from surface of the schist belt are 22km and 5.6km respectively.

  7. Even in Taxis, Kids Belong in Safety Seats

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158608.html Even in Taxis, Kids Belong in Safety Seats But study finds ... 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Small children riding in taxis often aren't in a car safety seat, ...

  8. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192... Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.75 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s... mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other...

  9. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.75 Section 38.75... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.75 Priority seating signs. (a... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs...

  10. Coal belt options



    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  11. 30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems installed in belt haulageways...

  12. Evaluation of the seating of Qantas flight deck crew.

    Lusted, M; Healey, S; Mandryk, J A


    In 1985 Qantas Airways (Australia) requested an ergonomics assessment of three pilots' seats so that one could be selected for fitting in all new aircraft as well replacement in existing aircraft. The Ipeco seat was chosen. In 1991, after all aircraft were fitted with the Ipeco seats, the company then requested a further evaluation of the seat to see if it was acceptable to the pilots and if there were any outstanding problems. A seat feature checklist plus a body chart discomfort rating scale was given to the total crew of 1030 pilots. The results from the 202 respondents indicated that although the pilots found the Ipeco seat an improvement on the Weber seat there were some modifications required. The main problems included insufficient adjustment range of the lumbar support area and the thigh supports, and infrequent replacement of the seat cushion. The body charts supported the checklist results in that the main areas of discomfort indicated were the buttocks and low back. Recommendations for improvements in design of the Ipeco seat, training in use and maintenance are presented. The method used in this study has application for field assessment of seating in a wide range of occupations, particularly bus drivers, truck drivers and train drivers, who spend long hours seated without being able to take breaks. PMID:15676978

  13. The Economic Benefits of Child Safety Seat Misuse Reduction Programs and Design Improvements for Children in Rear Seats

    Zaloshnja, E.; Miller, T R


    This study finds that the break-even point for child safety seat misuse reduction programs and vehicle and seat design improvements is $121 a year per child seat in use, annual misuse reduction program cost is $6, and Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children (LATCH) cost $13 annually per seat in use (in 2004 dollars). To estimate societal injury cost savings we compared tow-away crash outcomes for children ages 0–4, traveling in child seats in the back of passenger vehicles in 1984–1986 vs. 199...

  14. Metamorphic belts of Anatolia

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Prouteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain


    Investigating metamorphic rocks from high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) belts that formed during the closure of several oceanic branches, building up the present Anatolia continental micro-plate gives insight to the palaeogeography of the Neotethys Ocean in Anatolia. Two coherent HP/LT metamorphic belts, the Tavşanlı Zone (distal Gondwana margin) and the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (proximal Gondwana margin), parallel their non-metamorphosed equivalent (the Tauride Carbonate Platform) from the Aegean coast in NW Anatolia to southern Central Anatolia. P-T conditions and timing of metamorphism in the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (>70?-65 Ma; 0.8-1.2 GPa/330-420°C) contrast those published for the overlying Tavşanlı Zone (88-78 Ma; 2.4 GPa/500 °C). These belts trace the southern Neotethys suture connecting the Vardar suture in the Hellenides to the Inner Tauride suture along the southern border of the Kirşehir Complex in Central Anatolia. Eastwards, these belts are capped by the Oligo-Miocene Sivas Basin. Another HP/LT metamorphic belt, in the Alanya and Bitlis regions, outlines the southern flank of the Tauride Carbonate Platform. In the Alanya Nappes, south of the Taurides, eclogites and blueschists yielded metamorphic ages around 82-80 Ma (zircon U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar data). The Alanya-Bitlis HP belt testifies an additional suture not comparable to the northerly Tavşanlı and Ören-Afyon belts, thus implying an additional oceanic branch of the Neotethys. The most likely eastern lateral continuation of this HP belt is the Bitlis Massif, in SE Turkey. There, eclogites (1.9-2.4 GPa/480-540°C) occur within calc-arenitic meta-sediments and in gneisses of the metamorphic (Barrovian-type) basement. Zircon U-Pb ages revealed 84.4-82.4 Ma for peak metamorphism. Carpholite-bearing HP/LT metasediments representing the stratigraphic cover of the Bitlis Massif underwent 0.8-1.2 GPa/340-400°C at 79-74 Ma (Ar-Ar on white mica). These conditions compares to the Tav

  15. Infrared Kuiper Belt Constraints

    We compute the temperature and IR signal of particles of radius a and albedo α at heliocentric distance R, taking into account the emissivity effect, and give an interpolating formula for the result. We compare with analyses of COBE DIRBE data by others (including recent detection of the cosmic IR background) for various values of heliocentric distance R, particle radius a, and particle albedo α. We then apply these results to a recently developed picture of the Kuiper belt as a two-sector disk with a nearby, low-density sector (40< R<50 endash 90 AU) and a more distant sector with a higher density. We consider the case in which passage through a molecular cloud essentially cleans the solar system of dust. We apply a simple model of dust production by comet collisions and removal by the Poynting-Robertson effect to find limits on total and dust masses in the near and far sectors as a function of time since such a passage. Finally, we compare Kuiper belt IR spectra for various parameter values. Results of this work include: (1) numerical limits on Kuiper belt dust as a function of (R, a, α) on the basis of four alternative sets of constraints, including those following from recent discovery of the cosmic IR background by Hauser et al.; (2) application to the two-sector Kuiper belt model, finding mass limits and spectrum shape for different values of relevant parameters including dependence on time elapsed since last passage through a molecular cloud cleared the outer solar system of dust; and (3) potential use of spectral information to determine time since last passage of the Sun through a giant molecular cloud. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  16. Belt-up!

    Woof, M.


    Advanced control systems, improved materials and new dust control systems have turned the humble conveyor belt into a sophisticated method for transporting materials. RJB Mining has improved productivity at the Price of Wales colliery in Yorkshire, UK, with the installation of Alstom`s VDM drive system; Qualter Hall`s upgraded conveyor system at the Rugely Power Station in the UK is proving its ability to minimise coal spillage. The article highlights advances by several manufacturers in conveyor technology. 5 photos.

  17. La nuova sfida di SEAT Pagine Gialle

    Leonardo Landini


    Full Text Available SEAT Pagine Gialle’s new challengeSEAT Pagine Gialle is a company that for over 80 years has provided information services, search and communication tools.The companies success and notoriety is built on a customer base of about 20 million families and 3 million professional operators with a continually updated technology with which it integrates with detailed geographical information that allows it to reach millions of users every day. The services the company offers include an advanced cartographic web-based search, satellite and aerial photos, the calculation of driving instructions, weather forecasts and traffic information, 360 degree views and the modelling of whole cities in 3D.

  18. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    Singh, Harinder J.; Wereley, Norman M.


    An adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension (AMSS) was analyzed for optimal protection of occupants from shock loads caused by the impact of a helicopter with the ground. The AMSS system consists of an adaptive linear stroke magnetorheological shock absorber (MRSA) integrated into the seat structure of a helicopter. The MRSA provides a large controllability yield force to accommodate a wide spectrum for shock mitigation. A multiple degrees-of-freedom nonlinear biodynamic model for a 50th percentile male occupant was integrated with the dynamics of MRSA and the governing equations of motion were investigated theoretically. The load-stroke profile of MRSA was optimized with the goal of minimizing the potential for injuries. The MRSA yield force and the shock absorber stroke limitations were the most crucial parameters for improved biodynamic response mitigation. An assessment of injuries based on established injury criteria for different body parts was carried out.

  19. Green power marketing : fasten your seat belt, the ride has begun

    A review of the status of the renewable energy markets in California was provided. Public response in California has been very favourable to 'green' power. Approximately 50 per cent of residential consumers have chosen a green product. Only one marketer is actively offering a non-green product. The major players in the California green market are Enron Wind Development Corp, PG and E Energy Services, Edison Source, and Green Mountain Energy Resources. A 1.5 cents per kWh green product credit rebated by the Public Utilities Commission through 1999 has been a useful marketing tool. A comparison was made between the California green market and the green market in Pennsylvania. Green market opportunities for Massachusetts, Arizona, and New York were also briefly reviewed. To make successful inroads into the energy market with green energy the following conditions are considered essential: choice for all consumers, meaningful affiliate standards, unbundling of revenue cycle services, no artificial barriers to entry, shopping credit, customer education and reasonable, meaningful disclosure protocols

  20. Using Naturalistic Driving Data to Examine Age and Gender Differences on Seat Belt Use

    Bao, S.; H. Xiong; SAYER, J; Buonarosa, M. L.


    Teens and young drivers are often reported as one driver group that has significantly lower seatbelt use rates than other age groups. Objective This study was designed to address the questions of whether and how seatbelt-use behavior of novice teen drivers is different from young adult drivers and other adult drivers when driving on real roads. Method Driving data from 148 drivers who participated in two previous naturalistic driving studies were further analyzed. The combined dataset represe...

  1. Motor vehicle crashes and maternal mortality in New Mexico: the significance of seat belt use.

    Schiff, M; Albers, L.; McFeeley, P


    In recent years, as deaths from medical complications during pregnancy have declined, injuries-specifically those sustained in motor vehicle crashes-represent a growing proportion of all pregnancy-associated deaths. To investigate pregnancy-associated deaths in motor vehicle crashes in New Mexico, we scrutinized the database of the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator for all deaths during pregnancy and up to 6 weeks postpartum from 1986 through 1995. A total of 97 deaths were identi...

  2. 78 FR 79074 - Technical Report Evaluating Seat Belt Pretensioners and Load Limiters


    ... significant effect for pretensioners and load limiters in truck-based LTVs (pickup trucks, SUVs with body-and... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit . How can I be...

  3. Belt conveyor for recycle aggregate

    Bezrodný, Roman


    This bachelor thesis deals with the belt conveyor for the transport of recycled aggregate in an oblique direction. The aim is to find constructional solutions to the belt conveyor for the assigned transport capacity of 95 000 kg per hour, and the assigned axial distance of 49 m and different height of 12 m. The thesis contains a brief description of the belt conveyor and a description of basic constructional components. It also contains a functional calculation of the capacity and forces acco...

  4. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Schneider, Abe


    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  5. Musculoskeletal analysis of driving fatigue: The influence of seat adjustments

    Majid, Noor Aliah binti Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Fareez Edzuan; Jamaludin, Mohd Syahmi;


    Main causes for discomfort experienced by vehicle drivers during driving were investigated using a rigid-body model originally developed in the AnyBody Modeling System [1]. The interactions between the human body and the car-seat in various combinations of seat-pan/backrest inclinations...... that various seat adjustments (e.g., seat-pan and backrest inclinations) and the pedal spring stiffness have complex influences on the muscle activation and spinal joint forces of the human body. From the results, an optimal adjustment for the car-seat is proposed, i.e. the backrest inclination is 10......° and the seat-pan inclination is between 0º to 5 º. This study can in general capture the overall interactions between human body and environment (i.e. the maximum muscle activity and spine forces), which is thought to be the factors of driving fatigue....

  6. Designing for Comfort and Reliability in an Intelligent Car Seat

    D.A. Wahab; N. F.A. Manan; M A Hannan; Abdullah, S.; Hussain, A


    Today, intelligent safety systems are installed in modern cars in view of minimising road hazards. An intelligent air bag system for example, comprised several subsystems that are integrated to include the weight sensor system, image sensor system, crash sensor system and tyre pressure monitoring system. These systems when poorly positioned into the car seat, will certainly affect comfort and reliability of the car seat. This research presents the design work on an intelligent car seat, which...

  7. An on-the-road experiment into the thermal comfort of car seats.

    Cengiz, Tülin Gündüz; Babalik, Fatih C


    This paper presents an evaluation of thermal comfort in an extended road trial study. Automobile seats play an important role in improving the thermal comfort. In the assessment of thermal comfort in autos, in general subjective and objective measurements are used. Testing on the road is very difficult but real traffic conditions affect the comfort level directly, as well as the driver's experience to real conditions. Thus, for such cases real traffic situations should not be neglected in the evaluation of comfort. The aim of this study was to carry out, on an extended road trial study, an evaluation of thermal comfort using human subjects. In the experiments used, the 100% polyester seat cover had three different cover materials, which were velvet, jacquard and micro fiber. All experiments were carried out on a sunny day with ten participants over 1h. They were carried out at air temperatures of 25 degrees C in a Fiat Marea 2004, which had an automatic climate function. Skin temperature at eight points and skin wettedness at two points on the human body were measured during the trials. Participants were required to complete a questionnaire of 15 questions, every 5 min. It can be concluded that there was negligible difference in participants' reported thermal sensation between the three seats. According to objective measurement results, all seat cover materials have the same degree of thermal comfort. On the road the participants feel warmer around their waist than any other area of the body. It was suggested that the effects of real traffic conditions must be accounted for in comfort predictions. PMID:16759628

  8. Toilet Seat Rules: Why you Shouldn't Care

    Marvasi, Enrico


    This paper analyzes the issue of choosing a socially efficient rule on how to leave the toilet seat. Leaving the seat as it is after usage is found to be the best rule over a wide parameters space. Using a loss function minimization approach, factors such as relative toilet usage, frequency of the down position, relative gender importance and cost elasticity to seat movements are considered. Leaving the seat as it is after usage proves to be dominating a large set of other rules that entail n...

  9. Differential Effects of Seating Arrangements on Disruptive Behavior of Fifth Grade Students during Independent Seatwork

    Bicard, David F.; Ervin, Angela; Bicard, Sara C.; Baylot-Casey, Laura


    We investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose. During individual seating, disruptive behavior occurred more than three times as often when the students…

  10. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?


    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  11. Design of a recumbent seating system

    Croyle, Scott; Delarosa, Jose; George, Daren; Hinkle, Cathy; Karas, Stephen


    Future space shuttle missions presented by NASA might require the shuttle to rendezvous with the Russian space station Mir for the purpose of transporting astronauts back to earth. Due to the atrophied state of these astronauts, a special seating system must be designed for their transportation. The main functions of this seating system are to support and restrain the astronauts during normal reentry flight and to dampen some of the loading that might occur in a crash situation. Through research, the design team developed many concept variants for these functional requirements. By evaluating each variant, the concepts were eliminated until the four most attractive designs remained. The team used a decision matrix to determine the best concept to carry through embodiment. This concept involved using struts for support during reentry flight and a spring damper/shock absorber system to dampen crash landing loads. The embodiment design process consisted of defining the layout of each of the main functional components, specifically, the seat structure and the strut structure. Through the use of MCS/pal two, the design was refined until it could handle all required loads and dampen to the forces specified. The auxiliary function carriers were then considered. Following the design of these components, the complete final layout could be determined. It is concluded that the final design meets all specifications outlined in the conceptual design. The main advantages of this design are its low weight, simplicity, and large amount of function sharing between different components. The disassembly of this design could potentially present a problem because of time and size constraints involved. Overall, this design meets or exceeds all functional requirements.

  12. A sloped seat wedge can change the kinematics of the lumbar spine of seated workers with limited hip flexion.

    Kim, Ji-Won; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Jae-Seop


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether a wedge type seat decreases the lumbar flexion angle of seated workers with limited hip flexion. [Subjects] Twelve sedentary workers with limited hip flexion were recruited. [Methods] Three seat surfaces were used: a level surface, a forward-inclining wedge, and a backward-reclining wedge. The angles of lumbar flexion and pelvic tilt were measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Differences in kinematic data of the subjects seated on the three seat surfaces were analyzed using repeated one-way analysis of variance. [Results] The degree of lumbar flexion decreased significantly when using the forward-inclining wedge compared with the level surface and backward-reclining wedge. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that sitting on a forward-inclining wedge may be useful for minimizing the compensatory lumbar flexion of individuals with limited hip flexion who work in a seated position. PMID:25202175

  13. Will the Driver Seat Ever Be Empty?

    Fraichard, Thierry


    Self-driving technologies have matured and improved to the point that, in the past few years, self-driving cars have been able to safely drive an impressive number of kilometers. It should be noted though that, in all cases, the driver seat was never empty: a human driver was behind the wheel, ready to take over whenever the situation dictated it. This is an interesting paradox since the point of a self-driving car is to remove the most unreliable part of the car, namely the human driver. So,...

  14. Seating Location in Large Lectures: Are Seating Preferences or Location Related to Course Performance?

    Benedict, Mary Ellen; Hoag, John


    Using data on individuals taking principles of economics courses in large lecture rooms, the authors investigate whether a student's seating preference is related to success in the classroom. They find that individuals who prefer to sit near the front of the room have a higher probability of receiving As, whereas those who prefer the back have a…

  15. A Sloped Seat Wedge Can Change the Kinematics of the Lumbar Spine of Seated Workers with Limited Hip Flexion

    Kim, Ji-Won; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Jae-Seop


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether a wedge type seat decreases the lumbar flexion angle of seated workers with limited hip flexion. [Subjects] Twelve sedentary workers with limited hip flexion were recruited. [Methods] Three seat surfaces were used: a level surface, a forward-inclining wedge, and a backward-reclining wedge. The angles of lumbar flexion and pelvic tilt were measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Differences in kinematic data of the...

  16. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Zellner, B. H.


    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  17. Child Posture and Shoulder Belt Fit During Extended Night-Time Traveling: An In-Transit Observational Study.

    Forman, Jason L.; Segui-Gomez, Maria; Ash, Joseph H.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.


    Understanding pediatric occupant postures can help researchers indentify injury risk factors, and provide information for prospective injury prediction. This study sought to observe lateral head positions and shoulder belt fit among older child automobile occupants during a scenario likely to result in sleeping - extended travel during the night. An observational, volunteer, in-transit study was performed with 30 pediatric rear-seat passengers, ages 7 to 14. Each was restrained by a three-poi...

  18. Thermal performance of aircraft polyurethane seat cushions

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.


    Measurements were conducted on 7.6 x 7.6 cm samples of polyurethane seat cushion material in a modified National Bureau of Standards smoke density chamber to simulate real life conditions for an onboard aircraft fire or post-crash fire. In this study, a non-flaming heat radiation condition was simulated. Two aluminized polymeric fabrics (Norfab 11HT-26-A and Preox 1100-4) and one neoprene type material in two thicknesses (Vonar 2 and 3) were tested as heat blocking layers to protect the urethane foam from rapid heat degradation. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to characterize thermally the materials tested. It was found that Vonar 2 or 3 provided approximately equal thermal protection to F.R. urethane as the aluminized fabrics, but at a significant weight penalty. The efficiency of the foams to absorb heat per unit mass loss when protected with the heat blocking layer decreases in the heating range of 2.5-5.0 W/sq cm, but remains unchanged or slightly increases in the range of 5.0-7.5 W/sq cm. The results show that at all heat flux ranges tested the usage of a heat blocking layer in aircraft seats significantly improves their thermal performance.

  19. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.


    ... No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222). (b... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of seating positions. 571.10...

  20. 36 CFR 1192.27 - Priority seating signs.


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.27 Section 1192.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.27 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s)...

  1. Validation of the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test

    Cohen, Laura J.; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Lane, Suzanne; Boninger, Michael L.; Minkel, Jean; McCue, Michael


    The purpose of this study was to develop the scoring system for the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test (SMSCT), obtain and appraise internal and external structure evidence, and assess the validity of the SMSCT. The SMSCT purpose is to provide a method for testing knowledge of seating and mobility prescription. A sample of 106 therapists…

  2. 36 CFR 1192.105 - Priority seating signs.


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.105 Section 1192.105 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s)...

  3. 36 CFR 1192.55 - Priority seating signs.


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.55 Section 1192.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain...

  4. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs....

  5. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  6. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.105 Section 38.105 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs....

  7. Development of a Motor Driven Rowing Machine with Automatic Functional Electrical Stimulation Controller for Individuals with Paraplegia; a Preliminary Study

    Jung, Da-Woon; Park, Dae-Sung; Lee, Bum-Suk; Kim, Min


    Objective To examine the cardiorespiratory responses of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegia using a motor driven rowing machine. Method Ten SCI patients with paraplegia [A (n=6), B (n=1), and C (n=3) by the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale] were selected. Two rowing techniques were used. The first used a fixed seat with rowing achieved using only upper extremity movement (fixed rowing). The second used an automatically moving seat, facilitating active upper ex...

  8. A pilot evaluation of two G-seat cueing schemes

    Showalter, T. W.


    A comparison was made of two contrasting G-seat cueing schemes. The G-seat, an aircraft simulation subsystem, creates aircraft acceleration cues via seat contour changes. Of the two cueing schemes tested, one was designed to create skin pressure cues and the other was designed to create body position cues. Each cueing scheme was tested and evaluated subjectively by five pilots regarding its ability to cue the appropriate accelerations in each of four simple maneuvers: a pullout, a pushover, an S-turn maneuver, and a thrusting maneuver. A divergence of pilot opinion occurred, revealing that the perception and acceptance of G-seat stimuli is a highly individualistic phenomena. The creation of one acceptable G-seat cueing scheme was, therefore, deemed to be quite difficult.

  9. Rethinking design parameters in the search for optimal dynamic seating.

    Pynt, Jennifer


    Dynamic seating design purports to lessen damage incurred during sedentary occupations by increasing sitter movement while modifying muscle activity. Dynamic sitting is currently defined by O'Sullivan et al. ( 2013a) as relating to 'the increased motion in sitting which is facilitated by the use of specific chairs or equipment' (p. 628). Yet the evidence is conflicting that dynamic seating creates variation in the sitter's lumbar posture or muscle activity with the overall consensus being that current dynamic seating design fails to fulfill its goals. Research is needed to determine if a new generation of chairs requiring active sitter involvement fulfills the goals of dynamic seating and aids cardio/metabolic health. This paper summarises the pursuit of knowledge regarding optimal seated spinal posture and seating design. Four new forms of dynamic seating encouraging active sitting are discussed. These are 1) The Core-flex with a split seatpan to facilitate a walking action while seated 2) the Duo balans requiring body action to create rocking 3) the Back App and 4) Locus pedestal stools both using the sitter's legs to drive movement. Unsubstantiated claims made by the designers of these new forms of dynamic seating are outlined. Avenues of research are suggested to validate designer claims and investigate whether these designs fulfill the goals of dynamic seating and assist cardio/metabolic health. Should these claims be efficacious then a new definition of dynamic sitting is suggested; 'Sitting in which the action is provided by the sitter, while the dynamic mechanism of the chair accommodates that action'. PMID:25892386

  10. 30 CFR 75.1103-1 - Automatic fire sensors.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors. 75.1103-1 Section 75.1103-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... fire sensors. A fire sensor system shall be installed on each underground belt conveyor. Sensors...

  11. Chaos on the conveyor belt

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by spring to an external static point, and due to the dragging effect of the belt the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can only be achieved by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks, around five.

  12. Statistical Performance Evaluation Of Soft Seat Pressure Relief Valves

    Harris, Stephen P.; Gross, Robert E.


    Risk-based inspection methods enable estimation of the probability of failure on demand for spring-operated pressure relief valves at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This paper presents a statistical performance evaluation of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves. These pressure relief valves are typically smaller and of lower cost than hard seat (metal to metal) pressure relief valves and can provide substantial cost savings in fluid service applications (air, gas, liquid, and steam) providing that probability of failure on demand (the probability that the pressure relief valve fails to perform its intended safety function during a potentially dangerous over pressurization) is at least as good as that for hard seat valves. The research in this paper shows that the proportion of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves failing is the same or less than that of hard seat valves, and that for failed valves, soft seat valves typically have failure ratios of proof test pressure to set pressure less than that of hard seat valves.

  13. Deep-seated gas generation and preservation condition in China

    LIU Wenhui; ZHANG Dianwei


    Deep-seated gas is defined in this paper as natural gas generated under the combined action of high temperature,high pressure, and environment media. As to organic matter vertical evolution, deep-seated gas is natural gas, which is generated and deposited under the position of an oil genera-tion window. Deep-seated gas exploration is an important potential field for oil-gas exploration. Also, it is an inexorable trend to the further development of oil and gas provinces.In this paper, the authors will examine and distinguish the concept of deep-seated gas, and discuss the distribution and gas source of deep-seated gas. It is pointed out that kerogen,assemble dissoluble organic matter and disperse dissoluble organic matter all have Contributed to deep-seated gas generation, especially disperse dissoluble organic matter in composite and superimposed sedimentary basin. In the end,according to the structural evolution and hydrocarbon source rock depositional distribution, the distribution of deep-seated gas in China is predicted.

  14. Application of Zen sitting principles to microscopic surgery seating.

    Noro, Kageyu; Naruse, Tetsuya; Lueder, Rani; Nao-I, Nobuhisa; Kozawa, Maki


    This paper describes the application of an alternative seating concept for surgeons that reflects the research of Zen sitting postures, which require Zazen meditators to maintain fixed postures for long durations. The aim of this alternative approach is to provide sitters with a seat pan with sacral support(1) that provides a more even distribution of seat pressures, induces forward pelvic rotation and improves lumbar, buttock and thigh support. This approach was applied to the development of a chair for microscopic surgery. The experimental chair is a seat pan that closely matches the three-dimensional contours of the user's buttocks. Seat comfort was evaluated by comparing both changes in pelvic tilt and seat pressure distributions using Regionally-Differentiated Pressure Maps (RDPM) with subjective ratings of surgeons while operating in prototype and conventional chairs. Findings include that the sacral support of the prototype chair prevents backward pelvic rotation, as seen in zazen (Zen sitting postures). Preliminary data suggests that the prototype provided greater sitting comfort and support for constrained operating postures than did the conventional chair. These findings support the selective application of concave-shaped seat pans that conform to users' buttocks and reflect Zen sitting principles. PMID:21798514

  15. Research of Contact Stresses between Seat Cushion and Human Body

    Pervan Stjepan


    Full Text Available Design optimization of seat cushions is associated with the need to investigate their softness using, for this purpose, various kinds of loading pads. The aim of the investigation was: to determine seat cushion stiffness of a chair selected from a set of dining-room furniture, to determine values and distributions of contact strains on the seat surface caused by loading pad of different hardness, numerical calculation of contact strains between the seat cushion and the loading pad and to verify the results of these calculations with the results of laboratory experiments. The performed tests showed that the assessment of the seat cushion stiffness and the evaluation of contact stresses on their surface should be carried out using an equally stiff loading pad. In numerical calculations, polyurethane foams should be modeled as hyperfoam bodies of σ=f(ε characteristics determined in an axial compression test. Contact stresses between the seat cushion and the user’s body should be reduced as a result of application of a frictionless connection of thin layers of polyurethane foams with foam forming the proper elastic layer of the seat.

  16. Statistical Performance Evaluation Of Soft Seat Pressure Relief Valves

    Risk-based inspection methods enable estimation of the probability of failure on demand for spring-operated pressure relief valves at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This paper presents a statistical performance evaluation of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves. These pressure relief valves are typically smaller and of lower cost than hard seat (metal to metal) pressure relief valves and can provide substantial cost savings in fluid service applications (air, gas, liquid, and steam) providing that probability of failure on demand (the probability that the pressure relief valve fails to perform its intended safety function during a potentially dangerous over pressurization) is at least as good as that for hard seat valves. The research in this paper shows that the proportion of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves failing is the same or less than that of hard seat valves, and that for failed valves, soft seat valves typically have failure ratios of proof test pressure to set pressure less than that of hard seat valves

  17. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.


    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  18. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?


    ... applicable foreign government safety requirements, including those pertaining to exit seating (see 14 CFR 121... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  19. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?


    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  20. 76 FR 13620 - Opportunity to Partner; Testing of Patient Compartment Seating and Restraints to Proposed Test...


    ... Compartment Seating and Restraints to Proposed Test Standard Authority: 29 U.S.C. 669. AGENCY: NIOSH, Centers... existing, redesigned, and/or new seating to validate the test methods proposed. It is anticipated testing... analysis. Prospective industry partners will provide the following test assets: Seating, seat...

  1. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.


    ... seat airplanes. 121.344a Section 121.344a Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

  2. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.


    ...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection, an.... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset or...

  3. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.


    ... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with...

  4. Joint overbooking and seat allocation for fare families

    Hjorth, Robert; Fiig, Thomas; Bondoux, Nicolas;


    Revenue Management Systems (RMS) traditionally solve the seat allocation problem separately from the overbooking problem. Overbooking is managed by inflating the authorization levels obtained from seat allocation by various heuristics. This approach although suboptimal, is necessitated because...... of the complexity and dimensionality of the Dynamic Program (DP), which prohibits computation for realistic size problems. We review several DP models developed for seat-allocation and overbooking over a time span of 40 years, reflecting changed business environments. In this report we link these models together...... by means of two transformations: The marginal revenue transformation of Fiig et al. [2010] and the equivalence charging scheme of Subramanian et al. [1999]. These transformations enable us to transform the joint seat allocation and overbooking problem for fare family fare structures into an equivalent...

  5. Designing for Comfort and Reliability in an Intelligent Car Seat

    D. A. Wahab


    Full Text Available Today, intelligent safety systems are installed in modern cars in view of minimising road hazards. An intelligent air bag system for example, comprised several subsystems that are integrated to include the weight sensor system, image sensor system, crash sensor system and tyre pressure monitoring system. These systems when poorly positioned into the car seat, will certainly affect comfort and reliability of the car seat. This research presents the design work on an intelligent car seat, which is equipped with a load cell type-sensory system. The load cells are used to detect the weight of a passenger for the deployment of an air bag system. The proposed design is validated against displacement and stress analysis using an 80 kg load to simulate the weight of a passenger. Results from the design validation indicated that the proposed configuration and material is appropriate for use in the intelligent car seat application.

  6. Analysis of seated and standing triple Wingate tests.

    Wilson, Robert W; Snyder, Ann C; Dorman, Jason C


    Observations of athletes in seated and standing cycling positions in laboratory and field settings have led to the perception that they produce different outputs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in power output and physiological responses between seated and standing positions of athletes during 3 consecutive Wingate tests. Seven (n = 7) elite-level speedskaters completed 3 x 30-second Wingate tests (resistance = 7.5% body weight) with 3.5 minutes of recovery between each test in both seated and standing positions. During the recovery period, athletes pedaled against no resistance in the seated position. Testing was randomized and separated by at least 48 hours. Power output, heart rate, blood lactate, and muscle oxygenation data were collected. Statistical analysis of comparable tests (i.e., seated Wingate test 1 [WinD1] compared with standing Wingate test 1 [WinU1]; WinD2:WinU2; WinD3:WinU3) revealed no significant differences between the seated and standing variables. Position during a short-duration maximal-effort exercise test on a stationary bike did not produce statistically different results in power, maximal heart rate, blood lactate, or muscle oxygenation. As no differences were detected between positions, practitioners can allow subjects to choose their position. Also, if a subject rises out of the seat during a "seated" test, this change may not affect the subject's physiological variables. However, transitioning from one position to the other during the test is not advised due to the possible chance of injury. It should be acknowledged that there may be reasons for stipulating one position over another (e.g., injuries, leg length). PMID:19387391

  7. High-Pressure Valve With Controlled Seating Force

    Bradley, R. H.


    Poppet and seat less likely to be damaged by faulty operation. Improvements in widely-used high-pressure valve increase accuracy of preloading of poppet. Redesigned valve prevents metal shavings and other debris from developing during operation, installation, or removal. New features include secondary seal in cap. Belleville washers create precise value of seating force. If installer attempts to exceed force, torque limiter gives tactile and aural warning and makes further force increases difficult.

  8. Pseudo-dynamic method for structural analysis of automobile seats

    J. O. Carneiro; Melo, F. J. Q. de; Pereira, J. T.; Teixeira, V.


    This work describes the application of a pseudo-dynamic (PsD) method to the dynamic analysis of passenger seats for the automotive industry. The project of such components involves a structural test considering the action of dynamic forces arising from a crash scenario. The laboratory certification of these automotive components consists essentially on the inspection of the propagation and extension of plastic deformations zones in metallic members of the seat structure as cons...

  9. Autist mobile seat's frame strength simulation used in a car

    Suryo, S. H.; Jamari, J.; Naufal, G. K.; Ismail, R.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Desiningrum, D. R.


    Going on a car with autistic children needs a special handling. Autistic children that tend to be hyperactive in the car may disturb driving. A tool is needed to keep them in a calm state when they are in the car. Autist Mobile Seat is an aid for the autistic children when going on a car. The aid is an additional seat paired with the main seat of the car. This aid consists of three main things: Main frame, body skin, and pneumatic system. Frame as the main component supporting the Autist Mobile Seat functions as a holder as well as a body skin retainer in order to be able to retain the body of the autistic children. The strength of the frame from this Autist Mobile Seat should be counted as an anticipation from the failure of the frame function when receiving load when used by the autistic children in the car. Consequently, a test on the frame of the Autist Mobile Seat towards the load received should be conducted by using a method of FEM (Finite Element Method) with the help of commercial software. The simulation produces the maximum strength, the frame towards the load received as well as the critical point on the frame when loading occurs.

  10. Multi-leg Seat Inventory Control Based on EMSU and Virtual Bucket

    Wei Fan; Jianwei Wang; Ip, W. H.


    Expected marginal seat revenue (EMSR) is a well-known method for airline seat inventory control airlines. However, this method employs a static model to study the dynamic reservation process, and does not take into account the risk tolerance of policy makers. Expected marginal seat utility (EMSU) replaces revenue by utility, which addresses the real situation of seat inventory control. However, there is still a lack of multi-leg seat control algorithms based on EMSU. Therefore, using EMSU and...

  11. Launching jets from accretion belts

    Schreier, Ron


    We propose that sub-Keplerian accretion belts around stars might launch jets. The sub-Keplerian inflow does not form a rotationally supported accretion disk, but it rather reaches the accreting object from a wide solid angle. The basic ingredients of the flow are a turbulent region where the accretion belt interacts with the accreting object via a shear layer, and two avoidance regions on the poles where the accretion rate is very low. A dynamo that is developed in the shear layer amplifies magnetic fields to high values. It is likely that the amplified magnetic fields form polar outflows from the avoidance regions. Our speculative belt-launched jets model has implications to a rich variety of astrophysical objects, from the removal of common envelopes to the explosion of core collapse supernovae by jittering jets.

  12. Kuiper Belts Around Nearby Stars

    Nilsson, R; Brandeker, A; Olofsson, G; Pilbratt, G L; Risacher, C; Rodmann, J; Augereau, J -C; Bergman, P; Eiroa, C; Fridlund, M; Thébault, P; White, G J


    In order to detect and characterise cold extended circumstellar dust originating from collisions of planetesimal bodies in disks, belts, or rings at Kuiper-Belt distances (30--50\\,AU or beyond) sensitive submillimetre observations are essential. Measurements of the flux densities at these wavelengths will extend existing IR photometry and permit more detailed modelling of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the disks spectral energy distribution (SED), effectively constraining dust properties and disk extensions. By observing stars spanning from a few up to several hundred Myr, the evolution of debris disks during crucial phases of planet formation can be studied. // We have performed 870\\,$\\mu$m observations of 22 exo-Kuiper-Belt candidates, as part of a Large Programme with the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope. Dust masses (or upper limits) were calculated from integrated 870\\,$\\mu$m fluxes, and fits to the SED of detected sources revealed the fractional dust luminosities $f_{\\mathrm{dust}}$, dust temperatures...

  13. Measurement and modelling of x-direction apparent mass of the seated human body-cushioned seat system.

    Stein, George Juraj; Múcka, Peter; Chmúrny, Rudolf; Hinz, Barbara; Blüthner, Ralph


    For modelling purposes and for evaluation of driver's seat performance in the vertical direction various mechano-mathematical models of the seated human body have been developed and standardized by the ISO. No such models exist hitherto for human body sitting in an upright position in a cushioned seat upper part, used in industrial environment, where the fore-and-aft vibrations play an important role. The interaction with the steering wheel has to be taken into consideration, as well as, the position of the human body upper torso with respect to the cushioned seat back as observed in real driving conditions. This complex problem has to be simplified first to arrive at manageable simpler models, which still reflect the main problem features. In a laboratory study accelerations and forces in x-direction were measured at the seat base during whole-body vibration in the fore-and-aft direction (random signal in the frequency range between 0.3 and 30 Hz, vibration magnitudes 0.28, 0.96, and 2.03 ms(-2) unweighted rms). Thirteen male subjects with body masses between 62.2 and 103.6 kg were chosen for the tests. They sat on a cushioned driver seat with hands on a support and backrest contact in the lumbar region only. Based on these laboratory measurements a linear model of the system-seated human body and cushioned seat in the fore-and-aft direction has been developed. The model accounts for the reaction from the steering wheel. Model parameters have been identified for each subject-measured apparent mass values (modulus and phase). The developed model structure and the averaged parameters can be used for further bio-dynamical research in this field. PMID:16962599

  14. Interaction between humans and car seats : studies of occupant seat adjustment, posture, position, and real world neck injuries in rear-end impacts

    Jonsson, Bertil


    Background: The latest generation of rear-end whiplash protection systems, as found in the WHIPS Volvo and SAHR Saab, have reduced injury rates by almost 50% in comparison with the previous generation of seat/head restraint systems. Occupant behaviour, such as seated posture and seat adjustment settings, may affect the injury risk. Method: Five studies were conducted. Studie I was an injury outcome study based on insurance data. Studies II-IV investigated seat adjustment, occupant backset, an...

  15. Study of thermal conditions at belt slippage

    Hoffmann, R.; Pampel, W.; Pfleger, P.


    Conveyor belt slippage experiments are carried out on the Chrudim (Czechoslovakia) industrial sized test stand for belt widths up to 1 m and driving drum forces up to 400 kW. The stand is operated jointly by TAKRAF (GDR) and VITKOVICE VUTZ, Prague. From 1972 to 1981, 7 belt conveyor fires occurred in GDR brown coal surface mines due to belt slippage. One of these cases led to a belt fire after only 15 s at 100% belt slippage. Aim of the study was to determine accurate permissible slippage values. Design of the test stand is explained as well as test procedures with belt slippage at the driving drum varying between 10 and 100%. Belt driving parameters were measured along with temperature of the drum surface. The heat penetration parameter b (in kJ/m/sup 2/) was calculated. Maximum temperatures up to 150 C were measured on the drum during partial slippage and 370 C at 100% belt slippage. The ignition temperature of rubber abrasion fines was also analyzed and found to vary between 40 and 318 C, i.e. substantially lower than belt and drum layer ignition temperatures. Graphs and diagram of slippage measurement results are calculated. Values for permissible maximum slippage time for operating belt slippage monitoring devices are shown. These devices are required to be installed in the GDR at heavy mine belt conveyors with driving forces exceeding 500 kW. 8 refs.

  16. Recognition of large scale deep-seated landslides in forest areas of Taiwan using high resolution topography

    Lin, Ching-Weei; Tseng, Chih-Ming; Tseng, Yi-Hsing; Fei, Li-Yuan; Hsieh, Yu-Chung; Tarolli, Paolo


    Large deep-seated landslides can be reactivated during intense events, and they can evolve into destructive failures. They are generally difficult to recognize in the field, especially when they develop in densely forested areas. A detailed and constantly updated inventory map of such phenomena, and the recognition of their topographic signatures is absolutely a key tool for landslide risk mitigation. The aim of this work is to test in forested areas, the performance of the new automatic and objective methodology developed by Tarolli et al. (2012) for geomorphic features extraction (landslide crowns) from high resolution topography (LiDAR derived Digital Terrain Models - DTMs). The methodology is based on the detection of landslides through the use of thresholds obtained by the statistical analysis of variability of landform curvature. The study was conducted in a high-risk area located in the central-south Taiwan, where an accurate field survey on landsliding processes and a high-quality set of airborne laser scanner elevation data are available. The area has been chosen because some of the deep-seated landslides are located near human infrastructures and their reactivation is highly dangerous. Thanks to LiDAR's capability to detect the bare ground elevation data in forested areas, it was possible to recognize in detail landslide features also in remote regions difficult to access. The results, if compared with the previous work of Tarolli et al. (2012), mainly focused on shallow landslides, and in a not forested area, indicate that for deep-seated landslides, where the crowns are more evident, and they are present at large scale, the tested methodology performs better (higher quality index). The method can be used to interactively assist the interpreter/user on the task of deep-seated landslide hazard mapping, and risk assessment planning of such regions.

  17. Detecting Mass Loss in Main Belt Asteroids

    Sandberg, Erik; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Ridgway, Susan E.; Kotulla, Ralf C.; Valdes, Francisco; Allen, Lori


    Sandberg, E., Rajagopal, J., Ridgway, S.E, Kotulla, R., Valdes, F., Allen, L.The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is being used for a survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Here we attempt to identify mass loss in main belt asteroids (MBAs) from these data. A primary motivation is to understand the role that asteroids may play in supplying dust and gas for debris disks. This work focuses on finding methods to automatically pick out asteroids that have qualities indicating possible mass loss. Two methods were chosen: looking for flux above a certain threshold in the asteroid's radial profile, and comparing its PSF to that of a point source. After sifting through 490 asteroids, several have passed these tests and should be followed up with a more rigorous analysis.Sandberg was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829)

  18. Adaptive control of an active seat for occupant vibration reduction

    Gan, Zengkang; Hillis, Andrew J.; Darling, Jocelyn


    The harmful effects on human performance and health caused by unwanted vibration from vehicle seats are of increasing concern. This paper presents an active seat system to reduce the vibration level transmitted to the seat pan and the occupants' body under low frequency periodic excitation. Firstly, the detail of the mechanical structure is given and the active seat dynamics without external load are characterized by vibration transmissibility and frequency responses under different excitation forces. Owing the nonlinear and time-varying behaviour of the proposed system, a Filtered-x least-mean-square (FXLMS) adaptive control algorithm with on-line Fast-block LMS (FBLMS) identification process is employed to manage the system operation for high vibration cancellation performance. The effectiveness of the active seat system is assessed through real-time experimental tests using different excitation profiles. The system identification results show that an accurate estimation of the secondary path is achieved by using the FBLMS on-line technique. Substantial reduction is found for cancelling periodic vibration containing single and multiple frequencies. Additionally, the robustness and stability of the control system are validated through transient switching frequency tests.

  19. Seat inventory control methods for Chinese passenger railways

    包云; 刘军; 马敏书; 孟令云


    Railway seat inventory control strategies play a crucial role in the growth of profit and train load factor. The railway passenger seat inventory control problem in China was addressed. Chinese passenger railway operation features and seat inventory control practice were analyzed firstly. A dynamic demand forecasting method was introduced to forecast the coming demand in a ticket booking period. By clustering, passengers’ historical ticket bookings were used to forecast the demand to come in a ticket booking period with least squares support vector machine. Three seat inventory control methods:non-nested booking limits, nested booking limits and bid-price control, were modeled under a single-fare class. Different seat inventory control methods were compared with the same demand based on ticket booking data of Train T15 from Beijing West to Guangzhou. The result shows that the dynamic non-nested booking limits control method performs the best, which gives railway operators evidence to adjust the remaining capacity in a ticket booking period.

  20. Airflow Characteristics at the Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki;


    A method for active control over the interaction between the free convection flow around occupant‘s body and locally applied airflow from front on the velocity field at the breathing zone of a seated person was studied. A workplace equipped with personalised ventilation (PV) generating flow from...... front/above against the face of a thermal manikin with realistic body shape and surface temperature distribution (used to resemble a seated human body) was set in a climate chamber (4.70 m x 1.62 m x 2.60 m). The air temperature in the chamber was kept at 20 0C. Ceiling diffuser supplied ventilation air...

  1. The Off-line Group Seat Reservation Problem

    Clausen, Tommy; Hjorth, Allan Nordlunde; Nielsen, Morten;


    In this paper we address the problem of assigning seats in a train for a group of people traveling together. We consider two variants of the problem. One is a special case of two-dimensional knapsack where we consider the train as having fixed size and the objective is to maximize the utilization...... of the seats in the train. The second is a special case of two-dimensional bin packing where all requests must be accommodated while trying to minimize the number of passenger cars needed. For both variants of the problem we present a number of bounds and develop exact algorithms. Computational results...

  2. Optimization of Semi-active Seat Suspension with Magnetorheological Damper

    Segla, Stefan; Kajaste, J.; Keski-Honkola, P.

    The paper deals with modeling, control and optimization of semiactive seat suspension with pneumatic spring and magnetorheological damper. The main focus is on isolating vertical excitation from the cabin of a bucket-wheel excavator in order to protect the excavator driver against harmful vibration. Three different control algorithms are used to determine the desired semi-active damping force: skyhook control, balance control and combination of balance and skyhook controls. The dynamic behavior of the semi-active system is optimized using genetic algorithms. As the objective function the effective value of the seat (sprung mass) acceleration is used.

  3. Effect Of Vibration Amplitude Level On Seated Occupant Reaction Time

    Amzar Azizan; Ratchaphon Ittianuwat; Zhengqing Liu


    The past decade has seen the rapid development of vibration comfort in the automotive industry. However little attention has been paid to vibration drowsiness. Eighteen male volunteers were recruited for this experiment. Before commencing the experiment total transmitted acceleration measured at interfaces between the seat cushion and seatback to human body was adjusted to become 0.2 ms-2 r.m.s and 0.4 ms-2 r.m.s for each volunteer. Seated volunteers were exposed to Gaussian random vibration...

  4. Release-rate calorimetry of multilayered materials for aircraft seats

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Duskin, F.; Speith, H.; Trabold, E.


    Multilayered samples of contemporary and improved fire-resistant aircraft seat materials were evaluated for their rates of heat release and smoke generation. Top layers with glass-fiber block cushion were evaluated to determine which materials, based on their minimum contributions to the total heat release of the multilayered assembly, may be added or deleted. The smoke and heat release rates of multilayered seat materials were then measured at heat fluxes of 1.5 and 3.5 W/cm2. Abrasion tests were conducted on the decorative fabric covering and slip sheet to ascertain service life and compatibility of layers

  5. Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan


    An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of

  6. Design of belt conveyor electric control device based on CC-link bus

    Chen, Goufen; Zhan, Minhua; Li, Jiehua


    In view of problem of the existing coal mine belt conveyor is no field bus communication function, two levels belt conveyor electric control system design is proposed based on field bus. Two-stage belt conveyor electric control system consists of operation platform, PLC control unit, various sensors, alarm device and the water spraying device. The error protection is realized by PLC programming, made use of CC-Link bus technology, the data share and the cooperative control came true between host station and slave station. The real-time monitor was achieved by the touch screen program. Practical application shows that the system can ensure the coalmine production, and improve the automatic level of the coalmine transport equipment.

  7. Optimum design of automobile seat using statistical design support system; Tokeiteki sekkei shien system no jidoshayo seat eno tekiyo

    Kashiwamura, T. [NHK Spring Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Shiratori, M.; Yu, Q.; Koda, I. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)


    The authors proposed a new practical optimum design method called statistical design support system, which consists of five steps: the effectivity analysis, reanalysis, evaluation of dispersion, the optimiza4ion and evaluation of structural reliability. In this study, the authors applied the present system to analyze and optimum design of an automobile seat frame subjected to crushing. This study should that the present method could be applied to the complex nonlinear problems such as large deformation, material nonlinearity as well as impact problem. It was shown that the optimum design of the seat frame has been solved easily using the present system. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Evaluating the relationships between the postural adaptation of patients with profound cerebral palsy and the configuration of the Seating Buggy's seating support surface.

    Hatta, Tatsuo; Nishimura, Shigeo; Inoue, Kaoru; Yamanaka, Masanori; Maki, Makoto; Kobayashi, Norikazu; Kishigami, Hirotoshi; Sato, Masahiko


    We are currently investigating the physiological polymorphism of wheelchair users with profound cerebral palsy and the properties of the Seating Buggy (developed by S. Nishimura, 1998) to clarify important and general elements of wheelchairs for widespread use. Cerebral palsy is a diagnostic term used to describe a group of motor syndromes resulting from disorders in early brain development. Recently, it has been shown that the Seating Buggy produces functional head-neck alignments and active control of sitting balance for people with profound cerebral palsy. The Seating Buggy is a wheelchair for the profoundly disabled and features a wide adjustment range from heights of 120 cm to 175 cm. Its seating support surface is comprised of a sling-seat. To examine the relationships between the postural adaptation of patients with profound cerebral palsy and the configuration of the Seating Buggy's seating, we assessed the postural alignment of the Seating Buggy's user and then measured the configuration of its resulting seating support surface with a three dimensional scanning system. Twenty-one subjects were used for the purposes of this investigation in their everyday environment. Postural adaptation and wheelchair fitting in the Seating Buggy were assessed from the viewpoint of the Active Balanced Seating by a seating expert. The subjects fell into two categories, as follows: 11 for appropriate or nearly appropriate fitting, and 10 for ill-fitting. The depth of thoracic support and the forward distance of lumbar support for those who claimed that it was ill-fitting were significantly reduced compared with that of those who claimed that the Seating Buggy offered an appropriate or nearly appropriate fitting. It was suggested that the properly adjusted depth of thoracic support and distance of the lumbar support were related to the resulting satisfactory head-neck alignment and sitting balance of the patients with profound cerebral palsy. PMID:17435368

  9. The effect of seating preferences of the medical students on educational achievement

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Parva, Mohammad; Ahrari, Iman; Tavana, Samar; Hemyari, Camellia; Pakshir, Keyvan; Jafari, Peyman; Sahraian, Ali


    Background: The seat selection and classroom dynamics may have mutual influence on the student performance and participation in both assigned and random seating arrangement. Purpose: The aim of the study was to understand the influence of seat selection on educational achievement. Methods: The seating positions of the medical students were recorded on an architectural plan during each class session and the means and standard deviations of the students’ locations were calculated in X and Y ori...

  10. Numerical Simulation of Helicopter Cockpit Seat subjected to Crash Impact

    M.N. Sulaiman


    Full Text Available Sikorsky S-61 or better known as “Nuri” had served the Malaysian aviation sector for the past four decades. It is mainly used for transportation, combat search and rescue purposes. However, there were Nuri helicopter crashes or accident cases reported during its operation period which involved loss of its occupants. The pilot survivability rate can be improved provided that the vertical impact loading on the helicopter is reduced during the crash accident. Utilization of an energy absorbing pilot seat or cockpit structure maybe one of the approaches to minimize the impact shock exerted to the occupants. However, the shock or maximum acceleration of the cockpit/pilot seat has to be first determined before a thorough design scheme can be undertaken. In this study, a vertical crash event of the Nuri pilot seat from 500 feet altitude was simulated and the maximum acceleration rate was determined using MSC PATRAN/LSDYNA. The pilot survivability was determined by comparing the result with human tolerance criteria data available in other published works. From the result, it was found that the maximum acceleration of the Nuri pilot seat was 584.4g at 19. 63 milliseconds, thus it can be concluded that the survivability aspect of the pilot is fatal when compared to other published works.

  11. Peer status and classroom seating arrangements: A social relations analysis

    Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Cillessen, A.H.N.


    The current studies addressed the associations of classroom seating arrangements with peer status using the social relations model. Study 1 examined whether physical distance between classmates was associated with likeability and popularity. Participants were 336 children from 14 fifth- and sixth-gr

  12. How Far up Am I? The Mathematics of Stadium Seating

    McGraw, Rebecca; Romero, David; Krueger, Robert


    The mathematics students are given a task to understand the fundamentals of liner functions by analyzing the height of the football stadium bleachers, as studying mathematical relationships in real-world contexts can enhance a student's knowledge of mathematics. The study of the stadium seating problem helps students to understand quadratic,…

  13. Deep-seated Problems Haven't Yet Been Addressed

    Hu Zuliu


    @@ China's capital market has changed remarkably in recent times, finally recovering after a long period of painful adjustment. In the depths of extreme market depression, people have profoundly experienced and understood some deep-seated problems confronting China's capital market in the last four years.

  14. Seating tool for preparing molded-plug terminations on FCC

    Chambers, C. M.; Corum, C. C.


    Hand-operated tool positions and seats window piece and conductor spacer onto conductors of two stripped cables during process of terminating cables with molded plug. Tool accommodates cables up to 3 in. wide and is used in conjunction with folding tools.

  15. Engine valve and seat insert wear study with a simulator

    Y.S.Wang; S.Narasimhan


    The demands on higher performance and the increasing use of alternative fuels chal-lenge engine valves now with greater wear problems than before. A seat wear simulator was builtto evaluate the compatibility and wear of valve and seat insert. The rig test results have been suc-cessfully correlated with engine test results. In this study, intake valves made from Sil 1 materialwere treated with salt bath nitride processes and tested against six different insert materials. Wearresistance of these combinations was ranked and compared to the Sil 1 valve without nitriding.The test results demonstrate that nitriding improved valve seat wear resistance. In the total valveseat recession ranking, the combination of nitrided Sil 1 valve against T 400 insert exhibited theleast total recession among the nineteen combinations of valve and insert tested. The results indi-cate that the valve seat wear mechanisms are a complex combination of adhesion and shearstrain. The nitrides in the compound layer of nitrided valves gave strong atomic bonding, higherhardness, compressive residual stresses, and possible low friction, thus resulted in the superiorwear performance.

  16. Effects of sagittal postural adjustments on seat reaction load

    Geffen, van Paul; Reenalda, Jasper; Veltink, Peter H.; Koopman, Bart F.J.M.


    Wheelchair-dependent subjects often adopt a passive sitting posture and suffer from sitting acquired pressure ulcers (PU) that mainly occur when high buttock pressures sustain for a longer period of time. Body posture directly influences seating load and proper postural change is therefore essential

  17. Design Optimisation and Conrol of a Pilot Operated Seat Valve

    Nielsen, Brian; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard


    The paper gives an approach for optimisation of the bandwidth of a pilot operated seat valve for mobile applications. Physical dimensions as well as parameters of the implemented control loop are optimised simultaneously. The frequency response of the valve varies as a function of the pressure drop...

  18. Development and initial validation of the Seated Posture Scale

    Lelia Barks, PhD, ARNP


    Full Text Available Literature shows that some health outcomes (e.g., eating, breathing, and speaking are directly related to posture. Evidence of outcomes mediated by wheelchair seated posture is limited to interface pressure, physical function, and wheelchair skills and safety. This study’s purpose was to develop and validate a rapid, low-burden, paper-pencil assessment of wheelchair seated posture for research use and to test feasibility of its use with a sample of older adults. We used a prospective design and a convenience sample of older adults who were receiving rehabilitation services in a community living center. Forty-nine older wheelchair users participated. Main measures were the Seated Posture Scale (SPS, Modified Ashworth Scale, Barthel Index, Visual Descriptor Scale, scale-content validity index (S-CVI, Cronbach alpha, and test-retest reliability. Rating by six experts yielded the overall content validity score (S-CVI of 0.744. Total SPS score correlated positively with physical function (Barthel Index, r = 0.46, p < 0.001 and negatively with muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale, r = –0.44, p = 0.001, supporting SPS construct validity. Internal consistency was 0.66 (Cronbach alpha. Test-retest reliability yielded Pearson product-moment correlations of 0.89 to 0.99. We conclude that the SPS has sufficient preliminary validity and reliability to support its use as an evaluation of wheelchair seated posture in outcomes research.

  19. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for the expeditionary fighting vehicle

    The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.

  20. Spinal Elongation and its Effects on Seated Height in a Microgravity Environment

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen


    Objectives: 1. To collect spinal elongation induced seated height data for subjects exposed to microgravity environments. 2. To provide information relating to the seated height rate of change over time for astronauts subjected to microgravity. We will collect: Seated Height measurement (ground & flight) and digital still photograph (ground and flight).

  1. Seat headrest-incorporated personalized ventilation: Thermal comfort and inhaled air quality

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Ivanova, T.; Stefanova, G.


    The performance of personalized ventilation with seat headrest-mounted air supply terminal devices (ATD), named seat headrest personalized ventilation (SHPV), was studied. Physical measurements using a breathing thermal manikin were taken to identify its ability to provide clean air to inhalation...... occupants are seated most of the time, e.g. theatres, vehicle compartments, etc. © 2011 ....

  2. Modeling energy absorption in commercial airline seating with MADYMO dynamic simulation

    Pruitt, D.; Muller, D.W.; Marshall, R.; Altamore, P.


    Dynamic testing of aircraft seats has been incorporated to enhance the survivability of aircraft mishaps for over 10 years. This standard may be introduced into aircraft with certification basis prior to this introduction if seat loads can be limited to the structural capabilities of the seat track.

  3. Patterns of Seated Activity in Sensory Gardens among Children Educated in Special Schools

    Hussein, Hazreena


    This study investigated the seated activity among children educated in special schools and their adult carers in two sensory gardens in the United Kingdom. Seated activity was established whether the seating was used as intended or whether users preferred to sit on other attributes during their learning session. The objectives of this study are to…

  4. 41 CFR 301-10.124 - What are coach-class Seating Upgrade Programs?


    ... Seating Upgrade Programs? 301-10.124 Section 301-10.124 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Seating Upgrade Programs? Sometimes these programs are called “Coach Elite,” “Coach Plus,” “Preferred... upgrade options are not considered a new or higher class of accommodation since the seating is still...

  5. Effects of Seating Position on Student Performance in High School Mathematics Classrooms

    Shipman, Paul Eric


    The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the effects of seating position on mathematics course performance with relationship to gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The study was conducted using three seating arrangements: alphabetic, student self-select and rotation. The data collected included the students' seating position,…

  6. The Mutual Impact of Personality Traits on Seating Preference and Educational Achievement

    Hemyari, Camellia; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ahrari, Iman; Tavana, Samar; Parva, Mohammad; Pakshir, Keyvan; Jafari, Peyman; Sahraian, Ali


    Several studies have investigated the association between students' seating positions and their classroom performance. However, the role of personality traits on seating preference in the classroom has not been well investigated. The aim of the study was to understand how students choose their seats according to their personality traits in a…

  7. 76 FR 31453 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Single-Occupant Side-Facing Seats


    ...(c)(1) through (c)(6) apply to the occupant of a side-facing seat. Head injury criterion (HIC... landing. The relative forces and injury mechanisms affecting the occupants of side-facing seats during an... will support the pelvis, upper arm, chest, and head of an occupant seated next to the structure....

  8. Academic Library Seating: A Survey of Usage, with Implications for Space Utilization.

    Organ, Michael; Jantti, Margie


    To identify areas where seats could be removed to accommodate a growing collection, the University of Wollongong (New South Wales, Australia) library surveyed patron seating usage. The survey supported a 12% reduction in seating, which enabled the installation of additional shelving and a compactus to store 20,000 volumes while having a minimal…

  9. Uraniferous mineralizations in the Kuusamo Schist Belt, northeastern Finland

    The Kouveraara Co-Cu-Au mineralization was found in 1982 with the aid of a geophysical ground survey. This survey was connected with research on the Kouvervaara uranium mineralization in the Early Proterozoic Kuusamo Schist Belt, located just south of the Arctic Circle. In further work, using the Kouvervaara sulphide mineralization as a reference, six Co and Au bearing sulphide mineralizations were discovered, with the help of low altitude aerial geophysical techniques. The Co-Au mineralizations, hosted by the Sericite Quartzite Formation, occur within the hydrothermally altered zones. These zones consist of chloritization, carbonatization, sulphidization, sericitization and albitization, the latter being the most extensive. Excluding the Juomasuo mineralization, uranium is only a trace element in these mineralizations. Other characteristic trace elements are molybdenum and tungsten. The Sivakkaharju and Konttiaho Co-Au-U-Mo mineralizations were found by radiometric ground surveys carried out in 1985 and 1986. These hydrothermal mineralizations occur within brecciated quartz-albite-carbonate rocks and are good manifestations of the positive correlation between uranium and gold in the Kuusamo area. Compared with the other sulphide mineralizations, the Au, U, and Mo contents are remarkably high. Genetically, the mineralizations in the Kuusamo area are associated with deep seated fracture and fault zones, controlled by ancient intracontinental hot spot activity and continental rifting. (author). 31 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  11. Belt technology stretches conveyors' coverage



    With China the leading growth engine in the conveyor market, leading belt manufacturers are establishing local manufacturing plants to boost their presence. Fenner is planning to almost triple production capacity over the next three years, with a third of its investment in China. Shanxi-Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems is a joint venture between Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems GmbH, now part of ContiTech Ag, and its Chinese partners Lu An Mining Group Co. Ltd. and Jingcheng Anthracite Group Co. Ltd. It manufacturers steel cable belts, PVC and multi-ply belts for coal mines and power plants. Recent belt designs by FennerEurope and Metso Minerals are reported. 2 photos.


    Li Yinghui; Gao Qing; Jian Kailin; Yin Xuegang


    The nonlinear dynamic responses of viscoelastic axially transmission belts are investigated and the Kelvin viscoelastic differential constitutive model is employed to characterize the material property of belts. The generalized equation of motion is obtained for a viscoelatic axially transmission belts with geometric nonlinearity first, and then is reduced to be a set of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations by applying Galerkin's method. Finally, the effects of viscosity parameter and elastic parameter and the moving velocity of the belts on the transient responses are investigated by the research of digital simulation.

  13. Brusque belt: a monocyclic evolution ?

    This paper discusses the radiometric data for the Brusque Belt (SC) where Rb-Sr isochrons, U-Pb in zircons, K-Ar in minerals and whole rock Sm-Nd model ages are available. The analysis of these results reveals two main groups, without intermediate values. The first, 500 to 800Ma., is related to magmatic and metamorphic ages and the second, 1600-2000Ma begin with the (probably) sedimentation age. A monociclic evolution is proposed, but with uncertanties in the age of the first metamorphic phase. (author)

  14. Comfort analysis of driver's seat for passenger car through simulation of the sitting process

    In this paper, a method in two phases for ergonomic analysis of the seating comfort in the driver’s seat for passenger vehicles is presented. In the first phase, the comfort seating postures of the driver are analyzed considering the comfort angles for the placement of human body and necessary space for foot controls in vehicles, as well as the ranges of adjustments of the driver's seat and steering wheel. According to the determined comfort postures, the seat-human body virtual system is modeled. In the second phase, virtual testing of the seating comfort is performed with two different body sizes for 50th and 80th percentiles of virtual mannequins. The results can be used further to improve the arrangement of the basic comfort components for the driver's seat in vehicles. Virtual solid model of a driver's body and driver's seat was created, especially for analysis of the pressure distribution on the contact surface of the virtual human body and the seat cushion foam. The virtual testing was performed using software package ABAQUS, simulating processes with finite element analysis method (FEA). The testing includes variation of the spatial mechanical properties of polyurethane foam and variation of the male body sizes for 50th and 80th percentiles. The results from the virtual testing were verified experimentally using pressure distribution mapping sensors. Using to the virtual testing system for seating comfort, design changes of the seat can be introduced and verified. (Author)

  15. Effect of a Dynamic Seating Surface on Postural Control and Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Meyer, Erna Rosenlund; Trew, Lisa

    Purpose: The purpose was to investigate if a seating system involving a dynamic material covering the seat back and base improves postural control, alignment and function in children with cerebral palsy and to investigate consequences of adapting The Seated Postural Control Measure to a target...... point in a seatback and seat bottom made of a dynamic material and designed to give ergonomic support and is part of research collaboration in the Northern Region of Denmark, supported financial by the named partners and the European Regional Development Fund. Participants: A total of 10 children, age...... 10-16 from a school for children with special needs in the Northern Region of Denmark. Methods: In this clinical study two seating systems were compared; the new developed dynamic seating system (DSS) versus a traditional seating system of various types (TSS). The study was approved by the Danish...

  16. The Highway Safety Mass Media Youth Project: A Media Campaign Aimed at Drunk Driving and Seat Belt Use.

    Blosser, Betsy J.; And Others

    To address the issues of drunk driving and failure to use car restraints among teens and young adults, a 21-month-long media campaign has been developed especially for the 15- to 24-year-old audience to compare the effectiveness of paid advertisements and public service announcements. A formative research approach to message design will be used to…

  17. Occupant Dynamics in Rollover Crashes: Influence of Roof Deformation and Seat Belt Performance on Probable Spinal Column Injury

    Bidez, Martha W.; Cochran, John E.; King, Dottie; Burke, Donald S.


    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in the United States for people ages 3–33, and rollover crashes have a higher fatality rate than any other crash mode. At the request and under the sponsorship of Ford Motor Company, Autoliv conducted a series of dynamic rollover tests on Ford Explorer sport utility vehicles (SUV) during 1998 and 1999. Data from those tests were made available to the public and were analyzed in this study to investigate the magnitude of and the temporal rel...

  18. The influence of seat configuration on maximal average crank power during pedaling: a simulation study.

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Neptune, Richard R


    Manipulating seat configuration (i.e., seat tube angle, seat height and pelvic orientation) alters the bicycle-rider geometry, which influences lower extremity muscle kinematics and ultimately muscle force and power generation during pedaling. Previous studies have sought to identify the optimal configuration, but isolating the effects of specific variables on rider performance from the confounding effect of rider adaptation makes such studies challenging. Of particular interest is the influence of seat tube angle on rider performance, as seat tube angle varies across riding disciplines (e.g., road racers vs. triathletes). The goals of the current study were to use muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations of pedaling to 1) identify the overall optimal seat configuration that produces maximum crank power and 2) systematically vary seat tube angle to assess how it influences maximum crank power. The simulations showed that a seat height of 0.76 m (or 102% greater than trochanter height), seat tube angle of 85.1 deg, and pelvic orientation of 20.5 deg placed the major power-producing muscles on more favorable regions of the intrinsic force-length-velocity relationships to generate a maximum average crank power of 981 W. However, seat tube angle had little influence on crank power, with maximal values varying at most by 1% across a wide range of seat tube angles (65 to 110 deg). The similar power values across the wide range of seat tube angles were the result of nearly identical joint kinematics, which occurred using a similar optimal seat height and pelvic orientation while systematically shifting the pedal angle with increasing seat tube angles. PMID:21245509

  19. Automatic input rectification

    Long, Fan; Ganesh, Vijay; Carbin, Michael James; Sidiroglou, Stelios; Rinard, Martin


    We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation, SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process correctly. When given an atypical input that does not satisfy these constraints, SOAP automatically rectifies the input (i.e., changes the input so that it satisfies the learned constraints). The goal is to automatically convert potentially dangerous inputs into typical inputs that the ...

  20. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Narcis Eduard Mitu


    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  1. Apparatus for heat treating plastic belts

    Topits, A., Jr.


    Apparatus performs programed rotating, stretching/shrinking and heat treatment necessary to fabrication of high-performance plastic belts. Belts can be treated in lengths varying from 7 to 48 in., in widths up to 1 in., and in thicknesses up to approximately 0.003 in.

  2. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick

    Staley, Mark


    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  3. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Corliss, G.F. (comp.)


    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  4. A quantitative measurement method for comparison of seated postures.

    Hillman, Susan J; Hollington, James


    This technical note proposes a method to measure and compare seated postures. The three-dimensional locations of palpable anatomical landmarks corresponding to the anterior superior iliac spines, clavicular notch, head, shoulders and knees are measured in terms of x, y and z co-ordinates in the reference system of the measuring apparatus. These co-ordinates are then transformed onto a body-based axis system which allows comparison within-subject. The method was tested on eleven unimpaired adult participants and the resulting data used to calculate a Least Significant Difference (LSD) for the measure, which is used to determine whether two postures are significantly different from one another. The method was found to be sensitive to the four following standardised static postural perturbations: posterior pelvic tilt, pelvic obliquity, pelvic rotation, and abduction of the thighs. The resulting data could be used as an outcome measure for the postural alignment aspect of seating interventions in wheelchairs. PMID:26920073

  5. Seating, Money, and Food at an Amdo Village Funeral

    Rin chen rdo rje


    Full Text Available Seating, food, and money are discussed in the context of funerals held in the Amdo Tibetan village of Lo khog, located in Mar khu thang Town, Gcan tsha County, Rma lho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, PR China. An analysis of these three elements, combined with an intimate personal account of the funeral of the first author's close relative in 2005, offer insights into villagers' social status, and power and gender roles in their everyday lives.

  6. Helium injection inspection for the evaluation of septifoil seating

    This report describes the design development process and proof-of- concept testing for the Septifoil Helium Injection Inspection Technique. This inspection technique may be used to demonstrate that a reactor septifoil is properly installed on its supply pin. The inspection technique has been shown to successfully identify correct and incorrect (mis-seated) installation of a septifoil with little likelihood of a false indication

  7. Penetrating pediatric trauma owing to improper child safety seat use.

    Riggle, Andrew; Bollins, John; Konda, Subbarredy; Aggarwal, Rahul; Beiswenger, Ashlei


    We present a case of a 15-month-old child with a history of thoracic impalement after improper safety seat restraint. The foreign body was stabilized with bulky dressings in the field before transport. Imaging revealed possible pulmonary artery involvement; and consequently, a thoracotomy was done to obtain vascular control before removal. We use this case to highlight prehospital care and operative management of a patient with foreign body impalement. PMID:20105612

  8. Development of a Foldable Seating Device Useful in Public Places

    Amol M. Kolhe


    Full Text Available It is often found that there is inadequate seating in various public and private spaces. So, more than likely, people are left standing for extending periods of time while waiting in line, waiting for public transportation like bus, train, waiting at entertainment and spectator venues, and similar situations. Extending standing, while unpleasant for most, is often not recommended for certain groups, such as the elderly or those with chronic conditions. This paper relates to a foldable, a portable stool, and more particularly, to a portable stool that can be carried in a compact manner and utilized in situations of inadequate seating. Study Objective of this paper is that we can provide some means to the elderly people or those with chronic conditions. Who do not get seat in the train/buses/public places should be beneficial. Also one can use it anywhere at their own will. This paper relates to foldable/ portable stools and has its general objective to produce a device of such a kind which is of compact nature when folded or in inoperative position and is of strong and sturdy character when open or operative.

  9. Effect of Cognitive Load on Seating Posture in Children.

    Igarashi, Go; Karashima, Chieko; Hoshiyama, Minoru


    Although children are frequently required to sit upright, it is often difficult to maintain this posture when performing cognitive tasks. Information about the relationship between a cognitive tasks and postural seating control is important for children to complete tasks more effectively. To determine the muscle activity and body sway of children in a seated posture while performing a cognitive task, changes in muscle activity and center of pressure (COP) were recorded while 4(th) grade children performed arithmetic tasks. Electromyography was recorded from the internal oblique and lumbar multifidus muscles, and the COP was recorded using a baropodometer placed on the stool. These variables were measured during easy (EA) and difficult (DA) arithmetic tasks. EMG activity decreased during the EA and DA tasks, while the COP was displaced in the DA task. The results of the arithmetic tasks were not related to the EMG or COP changes. Attention to maintain a seated posture may be reduced when children perform cognitive tasks. Therefore, it may be better to allow children to alter their posture especially when they are performing difficult tasks. In this research, we only used arithmetic tasks as the cognitive exercise, and therefore, other types of tasks should be examined. PMID:26317316

  10. Machine for development impact tests in sports seats and similar

    Gonçalves, R. M.


    This paper describes the stages of development of a machine to perform impact tests in sport seats, seats for spectators and multiple seats. This includes reviews and recommendations for testing laboratories that have needs similar to the laboratory where unfolded this process.The machine was originally developed seeking to meet certain impact tests in accordance with the NBR15925 standards; 15878 and 16031. The process initially included the study of the rules and the election of the tests for which the machine could be developed and yet all reports and outcome of interaction with service providers and raw materials.For operating facility, it was necessary to set entirely the machine control, which included the concept of dialogue with operator, the design of the menu screens and the procedures for submission and registration of results. To ensure reliability in the process, the machine has been successfully calibrated according to the requirements of the Brazilian network of calibration.The criticism to this enterprise covers the technical and economic aspects involved and points out the main obstacles that were needed to overcome.