Sample records for automatic high-order shimming

  1. Software compensation of eddy current fields in multislice high order dynamic shimming

    Sengupta, Saikat; Avison, Malcolm J; Gore, John C.; Welch, E. Brian


    Dynamic B0 shimming (DS) can produce better field homogeneity than static global shimming by dynamically updating slicewise shim values in a multislice acquisition. The performance of DS however is limited by eddy current fields produced by the switching of 2nd and 3rd order unshielded shims. In this work, we present a novel method of eddy field compensation (EFC) applied to higher order shim induced eddy current fields in multislice DS. This method does not require shim shielding, extra hard...

  2. Software compensation of eddy current fields in multislice high order dynamic shimming

    Sengupta, Saikat; Avison, Malcolm J.; Gore, John C.; Welch, E. Brian


    Dynamic B0 shimming (DS) can produce better field homogeneity than static global shimming by dynamically updating slicewise shim values in a multislice acquisition. The performance of DS however is limited by eddy current fields produced by the switching of 2nd and 3rd order unshielded shims. In this work, we present a novel method of eddy field compensation (EFC) applied to higher order shim induced eddy current fields in multislice DS. This method does not require shim shielding, extra hardware for eddy current compensation or subject specific prescanning. The interactions between shim harmonics are modeled assuming steady state of the medium and long time constant, cross and self term eddy fields in a DS experiment and ‘correction factors’ characterizing the entire set of shim interactions are derived. The correction factors for a given time between shim switches are shown to be invariable with object scanned, shim switching pattern and actual shim values, allowing for their generalized prospective use. Phantom and human head, 2nd and 3rd order DS experiments performed without any hardware eddy current compensation using the technique show large reductions in field gradients and offsets leading to significant improvements in image quality. This method holds promise as an alternative to expensive hardware based eddy current compensation required in 2nd and 3rd order DS. PMID:21458339

  3. Automatic Palmprint Identification based on High Order Zernike Moment

    R. Gayathri


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hand geometry contains relatively invariant features of an individual. Palmprint recognition is an efficient biometric solution for authentication system. The existence of several hand-based authentication commercial systems indicates the effectiveness of this type of biometric. Approach: We proposed a palmprint verification system using high order Zernike moment that was robust to rotation, translation and occlusion. Zernike moment was an efficient algorithm for representing the shape features of an image. The design consists of feature extraction and matching of image using high order Zernike moment. Zernike moments at high orders was calculated from the image and the image was classified using K-Nearest Neighborhood (KNN. The reason for using Zernike moment was that it was the best algorithm due to its orthogonality and rotation invariance property. Results and Conclusion: Computational cost can be reduced by detecting the common term of Zernike moment. Experiments and classifications have been performed using Hong Kong PolyU palm print database with 125 individuals left hand palm images; every person has 5 samples, totaling up to 625. We then get every persons palm images as a template (totaling 125. The remaining 500 are used as the training samples. The proposed palmprint authentication system achieves a recognition accuracy of 98% and interesting working point with False Acceptance Rate (FAR of = 1.062% and False Rejection Rate (FRR of = 0%. Experimental evaluation demonstrates the efficient recognition performance of the proposed algorithm compared with conventional palmprint recognition algorithms.

  4. Magnet shimming made easier

    A function minimising method embodied in an available standard computer library routine VA04A applied to the normally tedious business of magnet shimming has been shown to hold great promise in saving time and effort. Application of the method to the overall problem of magnet design will make the process almost automatic. (UK)

  5. Gradient shimming based on regularized estimation for B0-field and shim functions.

    Song, Kan; Bao, Qingjia; Chen, Fang; Huang, Chongyang; Feng, Jiwen; Liu, Chaoyang


    Mapping B0-field and shim functions spatially is a crucial step in the gradient shimming. The conventional estimation method used in the phase difference imaging technique takes no account for noise and T2(∗) effects, and is prone to create noisy and distorted field maps. This paper describes a new gradient shimming based on the regularized estimation for B0-field and shim functions. Based on a statistical model, the B0-field and shim function maps are estimated by a Penalized Maximum Likelihood method that minimizes two regularized least-squares cost functions, respectively. The first cost function of B0-field exploits the two facts that the noise in the phase difference measurements is Gaussian and the B0-field maps tend to be smooth. And the other one adds an additional fact that each shim function corresponds to a given spherical harmonic of the magnetic field. Significant improvements in the quality of field mapping and in the final shimming results are demonstrated through computer simulations as well as experiments, especially when the magnetic field homogeneity is poor. PMID:27131476

  6. A new gradient shimming method based on undistorted field map of B0 inhomogeneity

    Bao, Qingjia; Chen, Fang; Chen, Li; Song, Kan; Liu, Zao; Liu, Chaoyang


    Most existing gradient shimming methods for NMR spectrometers estimate field maps that resolve B0 inhomogeneity spatially from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at different echo times. However, the distortions induced by B0 inhomogeneity that always exists in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate shimming. This work proposes a new gradient shimming method based on undistorted field map of B0 inhomogeneity obtained by a more accurate field map estimation technique. Compared to the traditional field map estimation method, this new method exploits both the positive and negative polarities of the frequency encoded gradients to eliminate the distortions caused by B0 inhomogeneity in the field map. Next, the corresponding automatic post-data procedure is introduced to obtain undistorted B0 field map based on knowledge of the invariant characteristics of the B0 inhomogeneity and the variant polarity of the encoded gradient. The experimental results on both simulated and real gradient shimming tests demonstrate the high performance of this new method.

  7. AA, shims and washers on quadrupole ends

    CERN PhotoLab


    Due to the fact that much of the field of the quadrupoles was outside the iron (in particular with the wide quadrupoles) and that thus the fields of quadrupoles and bending magnets interacted, the lattice properties of the AA could not be predicted with the required accuracy. After a first running period in 1980, during which detailed measurements were made with proton test beams, corrections to the quadrupoles were made in 1981, in the form of laminated shims at the ends of the poles, and with steel washers. With the latter ones, further refinements were made in an iterative procedure with measurements on the circulating beam. This eventually resulted, amongst other things, in a very low chromaticity, with the Q-values being constant to within +- 0.001 over the total momentum range of 6 %. Here we see the shims and washers on a narrow qudrupole (QFN, QDN). See also 8103203, 8103204, 8103205, 8103206.

  8. Dynamic Shimming of the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    Juchem, Christoph; Nixon, Terence W.; Diduch, Piotr; Rothman, Douglas L.; Starewicz, Piotr; de Graaf, Robin A.


    Dynamic shim updating (DSU) of the zero- to second-order spherical harmonic field terms has previously been shown to improve the magnetic field homogeneity in the human brain at 4 Tesla. The increased magnetic field inhomogeneity at 7 Tesla can benefit from inclusion of third-order shims during DSU. However, pulsed higher-order shims can generate a multitude of temporally varying magnetic fields arising from eddy-currents that can strongly degrade the magnetic field homogeneity.

  9. SHIMS -- A Spatial Heterodyne Interferometer for Methane Sounding Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project develops the Spatial Heterodyne Interferometer for Methane Sounding (SHIMS), a lightweight, compact, robust spectrometer system for remote sensing of...

  10. Phase error reduction in superconductive undulators using induction shimming

    As shown in a first proof of principle experiment, induction shimming can constitute a simple and efficient method of increasing the field quality of superconductive undulators. Although previous measurements on a single undulator half were successful in giving a qualitative understanding on hysteresis in the shim coils, it was found that the measurement setup needs improvement for meaningful calculations of the phase error reduction. Presented here are the first results on phase error reduction with induction shimming, using a measurement setup with improved accuracy. Theoretical results on the coupling between shim coils, important for the function of the shim system and for an extension to full length undulators, are also presented in this contribution.

  11. Effect of Shim Arm Depletion in the NBSR

    Hanson A. H.; Brown N.; Diamond, D.J.


    The cadmium shim arms in the NBSR undergo burnup during reactor operation and hence, require periodic replacement. Presently, the shim arms are replaced after every 25 cycles to guarantee they can maintain sufficient shutdown margin. Two prior reports document the expected change in the 113Cd distribution because of the shim arm depletion. One set of calculations was for the present high-enriched uranium fuel and the other for the low-enriched uranium fuel when it was in the COMP7 configuration (7 inch fuel length vs. the present 11 inch length). The depleted 113Cd distributions calculated for these cores were applied to the current design for an equilibrium low-enriched uranium core. This report details the predicted effects, if any, of shim arm depletion on the shim arm worth, the shutdown margin, power distributions and kinetics parameters.

  12. Enabling Object Storage via shims for Grid Middleware

    Skipsey, Samuel Cadellin; Dewhurst, Alastair; Britton, David; Roy, Gareth; Crooks, David


    The Object Store model has quickly become the basis of most commercially successful mass storage infrastructure, backing so-called "Cloud" storage such as Amazon S3, but also underlying the implementation of most parallel distributed storage systems. Many of the assumptions in Object Store design are similar, but not identical, to concepts in the design of Grid Storage Elements, although the requirement for "POSIX-like" filesystem structures on top of SEs makes the disjunction seem larger. As modern Object Stores provide many features that most Grid SEs do not (block level striping, parallel access, automatic file repair, etc.), it is of interest to see how easily we can provide interfaces to typical Object Stores via plugins and shims for Grid tools, and how well experiments can adapt their data models to them. We present evaluation of, and first-deployment experiences with, (for example) Xrootd-Ceph interfaces for direct object-store access, as part of an initiative within GridPP\\cite{GridPP} hosted at RAL....

  13. Dynamic shim updating (DSU) for multislice signal acquisition.

    de Graaf, Robin A; Brown, Peter B; McIntyre, Scott; Rothman, Douglas L; Nixon, Terence W


    Dynamic shim updating (DSU) is a technique for achieving optimal magnetic field homogeneity over extended volumes by dynamically updating an optimal shim setting for each individual slice in a multislice acquisition protocol. Here the practical implementation of DSU using all first- and second-order shims is described. In particular, the hardware modifications and software requirements are demonstrated. Furthermore, the temporal effects of dynamically switching shim currents are investigated and a Z(2)-to-Z(0) compensation unit is described and implemented to counteract the temporal Z(0) variations following a change in the Z(2) shim current. The optimal shim settings for all slices are determined with a quantitative and user-independent, multislice phase-mapping sequence. The performance of DSU is evaluated from multislice phase maps and spectroscopic images acquired on rat brain in vivo. DSU improved the magnetic field homogeneity over all spatial slices, with a more pronounced effect on the slices positioned away from the magnet isocenter, thereby making the magnetic field homogeneity highly uniform over an extended volume. PMID:12594742

  14. High-order harmonic generation

    Jakubczak, Krzysztof

    Rijeka: InTech, 2010 - (Duarte, F.), s. 61-82 ISBN 978-953-307-405-4 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA ČR GA202/08/1734; GA ČR GC202/07/J008; GA MŠk 7E09113 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) M100100911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : high-order harmonic (HHG) * x-ray * laser * gaseous media * multilayer mirror Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  15. Persistent-mode high-temperature superconductor shim coils: A design concept and experimental results of a prototype Z1 high-temperature superconductor shim

    Iwasa, Yukikazu; Hahn, Seungyong; Voccio, John; Keun Park, Dong; Kim, Youngjae; Bascuñán, Juan


    Design, fabrication, and test results of a type persistent-mode high-temperature superconductor (HTS) shim coil are presented. A prototype Z1 rectangle-loop shim, cut from 46-mm wide Y-Ba-Cu-O tape manufactured by AMSC, was fabricated and tested at 77 K. The HTS shim, much thinner than the conventional NbTi shim, is placed inside the main magnet and immune to its diamagnetic wall effects. Combined with the >12-T and >10-K operation capability, the HTS shim offers a versatile design option for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnets, liquid-helium-free as well as conventional, and is particularly attractive in the next generation NMR magnets. PMID:23983275

  16. The use of iron shims to reduce the toroidal field ripple in Tokamaks

    A study was performed to investigate the use of laminated ferromagnetic material, iron shims, to reduce the toroidal field, TF, ripple in Tokamaks. Fixed geometry shims can reduce the TF ripple and will behave linearly for Low Field Tokamaks with central fields under 2 Tesla. For High Field Tokamaks with central fields under 6 Tesla, fixed geometry shims can reduce the TF ripple but will have some non-linear behavior. Variable geometry shims can reduce the field ripple significantly with complete linearity for High Field Tokamaks

  17. Still shimming or already measuring? - Quantitative reaction monitoring for small molecules on the sub minute timescale by NMR

    Kind, J.; Thiele, C. M.


    In order to enable monitoring of rapidly occurring reactions Wagner et al. recently presented a simple scheme for 1D NMR experiments with continuous data acquisition, without inter-scan delays, using a spatially-selective and frequency-shifted excitation approach (Wagner et al., 2013). This scheme allows acquisition of proton spectra with temporal resolutions on the millisecond timescale. Such high temporal resolutions are desired in the case of reaction monitoring using stopped flow setups. In regular 1H NMR-spectra without spatial selection the line width increases for a given shim setting with changes in sample volume, susceptibility, convection and temperature or concentration gradients due to the disturbance of magnetic field homogeneity. Concerning reaction monitoring this is unfortunate as shimming prior to acquisition becomes necessary to obtain narrow signals after injection of a reactant into an NMR sample. Even automatic shim routines may last up to minutes. Thus fast reactions can hardly be monitored online without large hardware dead times in a single stopped flow experiment. This problem is reduced in the spatially-selective and frequency-shifted continuous NMR experiment as magnetic field inhomogeneties are less pronounced and negative effects on the obtained line shapes are reduced as pointed out by Bax and Freeman (1980) [2] and demonstrated by Wagner et al. (2013). Here we present the utilization of this technique for observation of reactions in small molecule systems in which chemical conversion and longitudinal relaxation occur on the same timescale. By means of the alkaline ethyl acetate hydrolysis, a stoichiometric reaction, we show advantages of spatially-selective excitation on both temporal resolution and line shapes in stopped flow experiments. Results are compared to data obtained by non-selective small angle excitation experiments.

  18. Passive shimming of a superconducting magnet using the L1-norm regularized least square algorithm

    Kong, Xia; Zhu, Minhua; Xia, Ling; Wang, Qiuliang; Li, Yi; Zhu, Xuchen; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart


    The uniformity of the static magnetic field B0 is of prime importance for an MRI system. The passive shimming technique is usually applied to improve the uniformity of the static field by optimizing the layout of a series of steel shims. The steel pieces are fixed in the drawers in the inner bore of the superconducting magnet, and produce a magnetizing field in the imaging region to compensate for the inhomogeneity of the B0 field. In practice, the total mass of steel used for shimming should be minimized, in addition to the field uniformity requirement. This is because the presence of steel shims may introduce a thermal stability problem. The passive shimming procedure is typically realized using the linear programming (LP) method. The LP approach however, is generally slow and also has difficulty balancing the field quality and the total amount of steel for shimming. In this paper, we have developed a new algorithm that is better able to balance the dual constraints of field uniformity and the total mass of the shims. The least square method is used to minimize the magnetic field inhomogeneity over the imaging surface with the total mass of steel being controlled by an L1-norm based constraint. The proposed algorithm has been tested with practical field data, and the results show that, with similar computational cost and mass of shim material, the new algorithm achieves superior field uniformity (43% better for the test case) compared with the conventional linear programming approach.

  19. High order limit in bunch compressor

    This paper studies the high order effect in bunch compressing. There exists the limit of high order effect which is from RF accelerating field and bunch compressor, the bunch length obtained from high order theory is longer than that from linear theory, the initial uniform distribution bunch is easier to compress than the initial Gaussian distribution. Finally, a numerical simulation has been carried out, and the results agree with the theory well. (authors)

  20. High-Order Hamilton's Principle and the Hamilton's Principle of High-Order Lagrangian Function

    ZHANG Ming-Jiang; ZHAO Hong-Xia; FANG Jian-Hui; MA Shan-Jun; LU Kai


    In this paper, based on the theorem of the high-order velocity energy, integration and variation principle, the high-order Hamilton's principle of general holonomic systems is given. Then, three-order Lagrangian equations and four-order Lagrangian equations are obtained from the high-order Hamilton's principle. Finally, the Hamilton's principle of high-order Lagrangian function is given.

  1. High-order polarization vortex spatial solitons

    We investigate the formation of high-order polarization vortex spatial solitons. The high-order polarization vortex solitons have novel polarization states which are different from fundamental polarization vortex solitons and have rotational symmetry only in intensity. It is proved that the polarization vortex solitons cannot carry vortex phase. The existence domain and dynamical characteristic of these high-order polarization vortex solitons in Bessel optical lattices are discussed in detail. -- Highlights: ► It is proved that the polarization vortex solitons cannot carry vortex phase. ► Polarization vortex solitons formed by cylindrical vector beams must be first-order solitons. ► New high-order polarization vortex solitons are investigated in Bessel optical lattices.

  2. High order Poisson Solver for unbounded flows

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe;


    This paper presents a high order method for solving the unbounded Poisson equation on a regular mesh using a Green’s function solution. The high order convergence was achieved by formulating mollified integration kernels, that were derived from a filter regularisation of the solution field. The...... performing the differentiation as a multiplication of the Fourier coefficients. In this way, differential operators such as the divergence or curl of the solution field could be solved to the same high order convergence without additional computational effort. The method was applied and validated using the...... equations of fluid mechanics as an example, but can be used in many physical problems to solve the Poisson equation on a rectangular unbounded domain. For the two-dimensional case we propose an infinitely smooth test function which allows for arbitrary high order convergence. Using Gaussian smoothing as...


    Jing-bo Chen; Meng-zhao Qin


    A composition method for constructing high order multisymplectic integrators is pre-sented in this paper. The basic idea is to apply composition method to both the time andthe space directions. We also obtain a general formula for composition method.

  4. Dynamic simulation and study of Mechanical Shim (MSHIM) core control strategy for AP1000 reactor

    Highlights: • A reactor core fast simulation program RCFSP is developed for AP1000. • A nodal core model and the MSHIM control strategy are implemented in RCFSP. • Load follow results for the original and revised MSHIM strategies are given. • Parameter sensitivity analysis and optimization of MSHIM control system are performed. - Abstract: The advanced Mechanical Shim (MSHIM) core control strategy is implemented in the AP1000 reactor by a digital rod control system. This control system comprises of two separate rod controllers that automatically control the core reactivity and axial power distribution using the gray and black M control banks and the axial offset (AO) control bank respectively. It has been demonstrated that the MSHIM control system can provide superior reactor control capabilities via automatic rod control only, which needs it to take more burdens than many other traditional core control systems during load change transients. This paper presents the dynamic simulation, and the parameter sensitivity analysis and optimization of the MSHIM control system for AP1000 reactor. A nodal core model is used to describe the dynamic behavior of the reactor core first. Then the nodal model and the original and revised MSHIM strategies are implemented in the AP1000 reactor to develop a fast simulation program in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Based on the simulation program, the MSHIM load follow and load regulation operations are simulated, the results of which demonstrate that the core reactivity and axial power distribution can be well-controlled via automatic rod control only. To show the effects of key factors on the control system behavior, the MSHIM load follow simulations with different control parameter values are performed. According to the simulation results and subsequent quantitative analysis, the mechanisms by which the key factors affect the control system behavior are illustrated and the optimum numerical ranges of these parameters are obtained. These

  5. High-order beam optics - an overview

    Beam-transport codes have been around for as long as thirty years and high order codes, second-order at least, for close to twenty years. Before this period of design-code development, there was considerable high-order treatment, but it was almost entirely analytical. History has a way of repeating itself, and the current excitement in the field of high-order optics is based on the application of Lie algebra and the so-called differential algebra to beam-transport codes, both of which are highly analytical in foundation. The author will describe some of the main design tools available today, giving a little of their history, and will conclude by trying to convey some of the excitement in the field through a brief description of Lie and differential algebra. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  6. Stages: sub-Fourier dynamic shim updating using nonlinear magnetic field phase preparation.

    Witschey, Walter R T; Littin, Sebastian; Cocosco, Chris A; Gallichan, Daniel; Schultz, Gerrit; Weber, Hans; Welz, Anna; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim


    Heterogeneity of the static magnetic field in magnetic resonance imaging may cause image artifacts and degradation in image quality. The field heterogeneity can be reduced by dynamically adjusting shim fields or dynamic shim updating, in which magnetic field homogeneity is optimized for each tomographic slice to improve image quality. A limitation of this approach is that a new magnetic field can be applied only once for each slice, otherwise image quality would improve somewhere to its detriment elsewhere in the slice. The motivation of this work is to overcome this limitation and develop a technique using nonlinear magnetic fields to dynamically shim the static magnetic field within a single Fourier-encoded volume or slice, called sub-Fourier dynamic shim updating. However, the nonlinear magnetic fields are not used as shim fields; instead, they impart a strong spatial dependence to the acquired MR signal by nonlinear phase preparation, which may be exploited to locally improve magnetic field homogeneity during acquisition. A theoretical description of the method is detailed, simulations and a proof-of-principle experiment are performed using a magnet coil with a known field geometry. The method is shown to remove artifacts associated with magnetic field homogeneity in balanced steady-state free-precession pulse sequences. We anticipate that this method will be useful to improve the quality of magnetic resonance images by removing deleterious artifacts associated with a heterogeneous static magnetic field. PMID:23440677

  7. Dynamic multi-coil technique (DYNAMITE) shimming for echo-planar imaging of the human brain at 7 Tesla.

    Juchem, Christoph; Umesh Rudrapatna, S; Nixon, Terence W; de Graaf, Robin A


    Gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) is the primary method of choice in functional MRI and other methods relying on fast MRI to image brain activation and connectivity. However, the high susceptibility of EPI towards B0 magnetic field inhomogeneity poses serious challenges. Conventional magnetic field shimming with low-order spherical harmonic (SH) functions is capable of compensating shallow field distortions, but performs poorly for global brain shimming or on specific areas with strong susceptibility-induced B0 distortions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Excellent B0 homogeneity has been demonstrated recently in the human brain at 7 Tesla with the DYNAmic Multi-coIl TEchnique (DYNAMITE) for magnetic field shimming (J Magn Reson (2011) 212:280-288). Here, we report the benefits of DYNAMITE shimming for multi-slice EPI and T2* mapping. A standard deviation of 13Hz was achieved for the residual B0 distribution in the human brain at 7 Tesla with DYNAMITE shimming and was 60% lower compared to conventional shimming that employs static zero through third order SH shapes. The residual field inhomogeneity with SH shimming led to an average 8mm shift at acquisition parameters commonly used for fMRI and was reduced to 1.5-3mm with DYNAMITE shimming. T2* values obtained from the prefrontal and temporal cortices with DYNAMITE shimming were 10-50% longer than those measured with SH shimming. The reduction of the confounding macroscopic B0 field gradients with DYNAMITE shimming thereby promises improved access to the relevant microscopic T2* effects. The combination of high spatial resolution and DYNAMITE shimming allows largely artifact-free EPI and T2* mapping throughout the brain, including prefrontal and temporal lobe areas. DYNAMITE shimming is expected to critically benefit a wide range of MRI applications that rely on excellent B0 magnetic field conditions including EPI-based fMRI to study various cognitive processes and assessing large-scale brain connectivity

  8. Highly-Ordered Ferroelectric Photonic Crystals

    Naomi Matsuura; Suxia Yang; Ping Sun; Harry E. Ruda


    Highly-ordered, ferroelectric, Pb-doped Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3, inverse opal thin films were fabricated using a sol-gel spin coating technique. The excellent crystal quality is evident from the SEM images and the good agreement between the theory and experiments.



    The problem of adaptive regulation of a class of high-order parametric nonholonomic systems in chained-form was discussed. Using adding a power integrator technique and state scaling with discontinuous projection technique, a discontinuous adaptive dynamic controller was constructed. The controller guarantees the estimated value of unknown parameter is in the prescribed extent.

  10. Enhancement of PARR-2 core reactivity by beryllium shim plate addition

    PARR-2 is a 30 kW research reactor. Its excess reactivity decreased after 10 years operation. Reactor could not be operated continuously for 5 hours during a day to meet the demand of users, because of negative temperature co-efficient of reactivity which is 0.13 mk per degree centigrade. The average temperature increase in the coolant (water) around the core is about 6 deg. C at the end of 5 hours operation. Reactivity of - 0.78 mk is added due to this temperature increase and has to be made available. Beryllium metal shim plate of 1.5mm thickness has been added into the reflector tray of reactor. Reactivity of core increased from 2.96 mk to 3.96 mk. Report covers procedure, preparations for shimming operation and post shimming measurements. (author)

  11. Method and apparatus for magnetic field shimming in an isochronous cyclotron

    In a cyclotron having ferrous material structures associated with the orbital gap, a means is provided of obtaining radial and azimuthal field shimming by altering the geometry of such structures. More specifically, in an isochronous cyclotron of the superconducting type having ferrous material sectors there is provided a flutter field giving a hill and valley effect as a means of obtaining radial and azimuthal field shimming. This is done by mechanically altering the configuration of the ferrous material in the structures, that is, in the magnetic pole pieces or raised sectors defining flutter poles. This is achieved by a system of movable shim rods adapted for movement into and through openings in the pole pieces or flutter pole sectors such as to change the geometry of the poles. (LL)

  12. Mobility Impact on Session Survivability under the SHIM6 Protocol and Enhancement of its Rehoming Procedure

    Amine Dhraief


    Full Text Available Multihoming is a solution that enables a fault-tolerant access to the Internet by configuring on each network entity several IP addresses associated with distinct ISPs. IPv6 natively allows end-hosts and end-sites to be multihomed where nodes and routers can have multiple IP addresses. However, a specific support is required to take full advantage of multihoming. The SHIM6 protocol provides such a support.We study in this paper to what extent the mobility impacts the SHIM6 protocol component in general and more specifically the context establishment as it is a \\textit{sine qua none} condition for session survivability. We focus on possible consequences of mobility before, during, and after the context establishment. We find that in some mobility scenarios, the SHIM6 context is never established and the session survivability cannot be ensured.

  13. Development of Antiwear Shim Inserts Utilizing Segment-Structured DLC Coatings

    Takashima, Mai; Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Masanori; Ohtake, Naoto; Matsuo, Makoto; Iwamoto, Yoshinao

    Wear and fretting fatigue are important technological problems in automotive, railway and aerospace fields. The purpose of this study is to find a method of reducing the wear of cast-iron (FCD)/aluminum components, which are often applied to automotives, and thus extend their lifetime. First, a stainless-steel (SUS) shim was designed, which can be inserted between an FCD plate and an aluminum plate. Second, diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were applied to the shim inserts to prevent the FCD and aluminum plates from wear. Then, the tribological and fatigue characteristics of the shim were evaluated by a ball-on-disk (BoD) test and a bending fatigue test of up to 1×106 cycles. Each substrate was coated with DLC by Plasma-Based Ion Implantation and Deposition (PBII&D). A unique feature of our shim is that a segment-structured DLC film (S-DLC) is employed as well as a continuous DLC (C-DLC) film. The effect of the DLC coating on reducing the damage to the Al plate was apparent, because the surface roughness of the Al plate abraded with the DLC-coated shim was significantly smaller than that abraded directly with the FCD plate. Moreover, the average damage fraction to the C-DLC coating is approximately 20-fold larger than that to the S-DLC coating. The C-DLC film suffers severe damage near the bolt hole, whereas the S-DLC film suffered almost no damage even after 1×106 bending cycles. In conclusion, an S-DLC-coated SUS shim has a marked effect on reducing the wear of Al/FCD components and improving their lifetime.

  14. Installation of the Main Magnet and Preliminary Results of Magnetic Mapping and Shimming for CYCIAE-100

    ZHANG; Tian-jue; LV; Yin-long; ZHONG; Jun-qing; XING; Jian-sheng; CAO; Lei; YANG; Jian-jun; WANG; Chuan; YAO; Hong-juan; CUI; Tao; LI; Ming; YIN; Zhi-guo; WANG; Zhen-hui; LIU; Geng-shou; LEI; Yu; ZOU; Jian; ZHAO; Jiang-bin


    <正>In 2012, the magnetic mapping and shimming for the main magnet of CYCIAE-100 has been carried out 4 times in the temporary building, realizing the goal of reducing the phase shift of the accelerating proton by 80%. A number of large scale equipments, including the main magnet, main coils, hydraulic elevating system, RF amplifier, magnetic mapper and vacuum chamber, have been in place for installation in the main building. The final stage magnetic mapping and shimming has started out as well.

  15. A high-order material point method.

    Ghaffari Motlagh, Y.; Coombs, W.M.


    The material point method (MPM) is a version of the particle-in-cell (PIC) which has substantial advantages over pure Lagrangian or Eulerian methods in numerical simulations of problems involving large deformations. Using MPM helps to avoid mesh distortion and tangling problems related to Lagrangian methods and the advection errors associated with Eulerian methods are avoided. In this paper a novel high-order material point method within an isogeomeric analysis (IGA) framework is developed. U...

  16. Shimming Halbach magnets utilizing genetic algorithms to profit from material imperfections

    Parker, Anna J.; Zia, Wasif; Rehorn, Christian W. G.; Blümich, Bernhard


    In recent years, permanent magnet-based NMR spectrometers have resurfaced as low-cost portable alternatives to superconducting instruments. While the development of these devices as well as clever shimming methods have yielded impressive advancements, scaling the size of these magnets to miniature lengths remains a problem to be addressed. Here we present the results of a study of a discrete shimming scheme for NMR Mandhalas constructed from a set of individual magnet blocks. While our calculations predict a modest reduction in field deviation by a factor of 9.3 in the case of the shimmed ideal Mandhala, a factor of 28 is obtained in the case of the shimmed imperfect Mandhala. This indicates that imperfections of magnet blocks can lead to improved field homogeneity. We also present a new algorithm to improve the homogeneity of a permanent magnet assembly. Strategies for future magnet construction can improve the agreement between simulation and practical implementation by using data from real magnets in these assemblies as the input to such an algorithm to optimize the homogeneity of a given design.

  17. High order harmonic generation from plasma mirror

    When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, its surface is rapidly ionized and forms a dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 1015 W/cm2, high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as = 1018 s), can be generated upon this reflection. Because such a plasma mirror can be used with arbitrarily high laser intensities, this process should eventually lead to the production of very intense pulses in the X-ray domain. In this thesis, we demonstrate that for laser intensities about 1019 W/cm2, two mechanisms can contribute to the generation of high order harmonics: the coherent wake emission and the relativistic emission. These two mechanisms are studied both theoretically and experimentally. In particular, we show that, thanks to very different properties, the harmonics generated by these two processes can be unambiguously distinguished experimentally. We then investigate the phase properties of the harmonic, in the spectral and in the spatial domain. Finally, we illustrate how to exploit the coherence of the generation mechanisms to get information on the dynamics of the plasma electrons. (author)

  18. High order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transforms

    Ran Qi-Wen; Yuan Lin; Tan Li-Ying; Ma Jing; Wang Qi


    We generalize the definition of the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) by extending the new definition proposed by Shih. The generalized FRFT, called the high order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transform (HGPFRFT),is a generalized permutational transform. It is shown to have arbitrary natural number M periodic eigenvalues not only with respect to the order of Hermite-Gaussian functions but also to the order of the transform. This HGPFRFT will be reduced to the original FRFT proposed by Namias and Liu's generalized FRFT and Shih's FRFT at the three limits with M = +∞,M = 4k (k is a natural number), and M = 4, respectively. Therefore the HGPFRFT introduces a comprehensive approach to Shih's FRFT and the original definition. Some important properties of HGPFRFT are discussed. Lastly the results of computer simulations and symbolic representations of the transform are provided.

  19. High order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transforms

    Ran, Qi-Wen; Yuan, Lin; Tan, Li-Ying; Ma, Jing; Wang, Qi


    We generalize the definition of the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) by extending the new definition proposed by Shih. The generalized FRFT, called the high order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transform (HGPFRFT), is a generalized permutational transform. It is shown to have arbitrary natural number M periodic eigenvalues not only with respect to the order of Hermite-Gaussian functions but also to the order of the transform. This HGPFRFT will be reduced to the original FRFT proposed by Namias and Liu's generalized FRFT and Shih's FRFT at the three limits with M = +infty, M = 4k (k is a natural number) and M = 4, respectively. Therefore the HGPFRFT introduces a comprehensive approach to Shih's FRFT and the original definition. Some important properties of HGPFRFT are discussed. Lastly the results of computer simulations and symbolic representations of the transform are provided.

  20. High order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors

    When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, the target's surface is rapidly ionized and forms dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 10 to the power of 15 Wcm-2, high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as 10-18 s), can be generated upon this reflection. In this thesis, we developed numerical tools to reveal original aspects of harmonic generation mechanisms in three different interaction regime: the coherent wake emission, the relativistic emission and the resonant absorption. In particular, we established the role of these mechanisms when the target is a very thin foil (thickness of the order of 100 nm). Then we study experimentally the spectral, spatial and coherence properties of the emitted light. We illustrate how to exploit these measurements to get information on the plasma mirror dynamics on the femtosecond and atto-second time scales. Last, we propose a technique for the single-shot complete characterization of the temporal structure of the harmonic light emission from the laser-plasma mirror interaction. (author)

  1. High order harmonic generation in rare gases

    Budil, K.S.


    The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I {approximately}10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) is focused into a dense ({approximately}10{sup l7} particles/cm{sup 3}) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic {open_quotes}source{close_quotes}. A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.

  2. Dynamic Multi-Coil Technique (DYNAMITE) Shimming for Echo-Planar Imaging of the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    Juchem, Christoph; Rudrapatna, S. Umesh; Nixon, Terence W.; de Graaf, Robin A.


    Gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) is the primary method of choice in functional MRI and other methods relying on fast MRI to image brain activation and connectivity. However, the high susceptibility of EPI towards B0 magnetic field inhomogeneity poses serious challenges. Conventional magnetic field shimming with low-order spherical harmonic (SH) functions is capable of compensating shallow field distortions, but performs poorly for global brain shimming or on specific areas with strong ...

  3. Advanced field shimming technology to reduce the influence of a screening current in a REBCO coil for a high-resolution NMR magnet

    Iguchi, S.; Piao, R.; Hamada, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Suematsu, H.; Takao, T.; Saito, A. T.; Li, J.; Nakagome, H.; Jin, X.; Takahashi, M.; Maeda, H.; Yanagisawa, Y.


    This paper describes a field shimming technology to obtain a spatially homogeneous magnetic field required for a high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet under the influence of a screening current in a (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-x (REBCO) coil. Use of REBCO inner coils is one solution to realize a super-high field (>23.5 T, 1 GHz) NMR magnet. However, a REBCO coil generates a large amount of field error harmonics due to the inhomogeneous coil winding introduced by a thin tape conductor. In addition, the performance of a field correction coil and outer superconducting (SC) shim coils are significantly reduced due to the shielding effect of the screening current in the REBCO coil. Therefore, conventional shimming technology using SC shim coils and room temperature shim coils cannot adequately compensate those field error harmonics and high-resolution NMR measurements are not possible. In the present paper, an advanced field shimming technology including an inner SC shim coil and a novel type of ferromagnetic shim were installed in a 400 MHz low-temperature SC/REBCO NMR magnet. The inner SC shim coil and the ferromagnetic shim compensated for the reduction in the performances of the field correction coil and the SC shim coils, respectively. The field error harmonics were greatly compensated with the technology and a high NMR resolution <0.01 ppm was obtained. The results from the present work suggest an optimal shimming procedure for a super-high field NMR magnet with high-temperature superconductors inner coils, i.e. the best mix of shims.

  4. Dynamic Multi-Coil Shimming of the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    Juchem, Christoph; Nixon, Terence W.; McIntyre, Scott; Boer, Vincent O.; Rothman, Douglas L.; de Graaf, Robin A.


    High quality magnetic field homogenization of the human brain (i.e. shimming) for MR imaging and spectroscopy is a demanding task. The susceptibility differences between air and tissue are a longstanding problem as they induce complex field distortions in the prefrontal cortex and the temporal lobes. To date, the theoretical gains of high field MR have only been realized partially in the human brain due to limited magnetic field homogeneity.

  5. Evaluation of two polyurethane resins for injection shimming of the MFTF magnet

    This work was conducted to support selection of a filler for the injection shimming of the MFTF Magnet (Reference 1). Two candidate polyurethanes (Pplycast RG256-57-3 and Polycast 1009-78 manufactured by CPR Upjohn Co.) were evaluated with respect to their physical and mechanical properties. Physical properties examined include thermal contraction, viscosity, and cure shrinkage. Mechanical properties include thermal shock resistance, compression modulus, and compression strength at LH2 temperature

  6. Mitigating the impact of hohlraum asymmetries in National Ignition Facility implosions using capsule shims

    Clark, D. S.; Weber, C. R.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Kritcher, A. L.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.


    Current indirect drive implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] are believed to be strongly impacted by long wavelength perturbations driven by asymmetries in the hohlraum x-ray flux. To address this perturbation source, active efforts are underway to develop modified hohlraum designs with reduced asymmetry imprint. An alternative strategy, however, is to modify the capsule design to be more resilient to a given amount of hohlraum asymmetry. In particular, the capsule may be deliberately misshaped, or "shimmed," so as to counteract the expected asymmetries from the hohlraum. Here, the efficacy of capsule shimming to correct the asymmetries in two recent NIF implosion experiments is assessed using two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. Despite the highly time-dependent character of the asymmetries and the high convergence ratios of these implosions, simulations suggest that shims could be highly effective at counteracting current asymmetries and result in factors of a few enhancements in neutron yields. For higher compression designs, the yield improvement could be even greater.

  7. Development of a minimal kinase ensemble receptor (MKER) for surrogate AutoShim.

    Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Martin, Eric


    The target-tailored 3-D virtual screening (VS) method "Surrogate AutoShim" adds pharmacophoric shims to a 16-kinase crystal structure "Universal Kinase Ensemble Receptor" (UKER) to generate highly predictive, target-customized docking models. Predocking a corporate archive of millions of compounds into the 16-structure ensemble takes months. However, since the 16 UKER structures are always the same, docking need only be done once. The predocked results are then "shimmed" to reproduce experimental training data for any number of additional kinases far more accurately than conventional docking. Training new kinase models and predicting activity for millions of predocked compounds against dozens of kinases takes only hours. However reducing the predocking time would make the method even more advantageous. Sequential Floating Forward Search (SFFS) was employed to rationally identify a reduced subset using only 8 of the 16 structures, a "Minimal Kinase Ensemble Receptor" (MKER) that preserved the predictive accuracy for 20 kinase models. Furthermore, a performance evaluation of this subset on an extended set of 52 kinase targets and 100,000 compounds showed statistical model performance comparable to the original UKER. The MKER has halved the time for predocking large databases of internal and commercial compounds. For ad hoc virtual libraries, where predocking is not possible, 2- or 3-kinases "Approximate Kinase Ensemble Receptors" (AKER) were also identified with only a modest loss of prediction accuracy. PMID:21848284

  8. Comparison of volume-selective z-shim and conventional EPI in fMRI studies using face stimuli

    Fukunaga, Hu Cheng Srikanth Padmala Rena


    Single-shot gradient recalled echo planar imaging (EPI) is the primary tool for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The image often suffers from signal drop near the air-tissue interface, such as the amygdala and regions of the orbitofrontal lobe. An effective way to correct for this type of artifact is by applying multi-shot EPI using different z-shimming. Unfortunately, the scanning efficiency is significantly lowered. More recently, a new technique called volume-selective z-shim was proposed to implement z-shim compensation to only specific slices with large susceptibility effects. The high imaging efficiency of volume selective z-shim makes it possible to substitute conventional EPI for whole brain studies. In this study two fMRI experiments were conducted to compare volume- selective z-shim and conventional EPI while subjects performed tasks on face stimuli. The comparison was focused on three brain regions: amygdala, hippocampus, and fusiform gyrus. Our results indicate that despite fewer volu...

  9. A rigorous analysis of high order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks

    Weder, Ricardo


    There is currently a great deal of interest in the invisibility cloaks recently proposed by Pendry et al. that are based in the transformation approach. They obtained their results using first order transformations. In recent papers Hendi et al. and Cai et al. considered invisibility cloaks with high order transformations. In this paper we study high order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks in transformation media obtained by high order transformations from general anisotropic media. We cons...

  10. High-order harmonic generation from eld-distorted orbitals

    Spiewanowski, Maciek; Etches, Adam; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    We investigate the eect on high-order harmonic generation of the distortion of molecular orbitals by the driving laser eld. Calculations for high-order harmonic generation including orbital distortion are performed for N2 (high polarizability). Our results allow us to suggest that field...

  11. Experiments towards establishing of design rules for R2R-UV-NIL with polymer working shims

    Nees, Dieter; Ruttloff, Stephan; Palfinger, Ursula; Stadlober, Barbara


    Roll-to-Roll-UV-nanoimprint lithography (R2R-UV-NIL) enables high resolution large area patterning of flexible substrates and is therefore of increasing industrial interest. We have set up a custom-made R2R-UV-NIL pilot machine which is able to convert 10 inch wide web with velocities of up to 30 m/min. In addition, we have developed self-replicable UV-curable resins with tunable surface energy and Young's modulus for UV-imprint material as well as for polymer working stamp/shim manufacturing. Now we have designed test patterns for the evaluation of the impact of structure shape, critical dimension, pitch, depth, side wall angle and orientation relative to the web movement onto the imprint fidelity and working shim life time. We have used female (recessed structures) silicon masters of that design with critical dimensions between CD = 200 nm and 1600 nm, and structure depths of d = 500 nm and 1000 nm - all with vertical as well as inclined side walls. These entire master patterns have been transferred onto single male (protruding structures) R2R polymer working shims. The polymer working shims have been used for R2R-UV-NIL runs of several hundred meters and the imprint fidelity and process stability of the various test patterns have been compared. This study is intended as a first step towards establishing of design rules and developing of nanoimprint proximity correction strategies for industrial R2R-UV-NIL processes using polymer working shims.

  12. Testing of Compact Bolted Fasteners with Insulation and Friction-Enhanced Shims for NCSX

    L. E. Dudek, J.H. Chrzanowski, G. Gettelfinger, P. Heitzenroeder, S. Jurczynski, M. Viola and K. Freudenberg


    The fastening of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment's (NCSX) modular coils presented a number of engineering and manufacturing challenges due to the high magnetic forces, need to control induced currents, tight tolerances and restrictive space envelope. A fastening method using high strength studs, jack nuts, insulating spacers, bushings and alumina coated shims was developed which met the requirements. A test program was conducted to verify the design. The tests included measurements of flatness of the spacers, determination of contact area, torque vs. tension of the studs and jack nuts, friction coefficient tests on the alumina and G-10 insulators, electrical tests, and tension relaxation tests due to temperature excursions from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperatures. This paper will describe the design and the results of the test program.

  13. Testing of Compact Bolted Fasteners with Insulation and Friction-Enhanced Shims for NCSX

    The fastening of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment's (NCSX) modular coils presented a number of engineering and manufacturing challenges due to the high magnetic forces, need to control induced currents, tight tolerances and restrictive space envelope. A fastening method using high strength studs, jack nuts, insulating spacers, bushings and alumina coated shims was developed which met the requirements. A test program was conducted to verify the design. The tests included measurements of flatness of the spacers, determination of contact area, torque vs. tension of the studs and jack nuts, friction coefficient tests on the alumina and G-10 insulators, electrical tests, and tension relaxation tests due to temperature excursions from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperatures. This paper will describe the design and the results of the test program.

  14. Numerical dissipation control in high order shock-capturing schemes for LES of low speed flows

    Kotov, D. V.; Yee, H. C.; Wray, A. A.; Sjögreen, B.; Kritsuk, A. G.


    The Yee & Sjögreen adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order scheme (High Order Filter Methods for Wide Range of Compressible Flow Speeds, ICOSAHOM 09, 2009) is further improved for DNS and LES of shock-free turbulence and low speed turbulence with shocklets. There are vastly different requirements in the minimization of numerical dissipation for accurate turbulence simulations of different compressible flow types and flow speeds. Traditionally, the method of choice for shock-free turbulence and low speed turbulence are by spectral, high order central or high order compact schemes with high order linear filters. With a proper control of a local flow sensor, appropriate amount of numerical dissipation in high order shock-capturing schemes can have spectral-like accuracy for compressible low speed turbulent flows. The development of the method includes an adaptive flow sensor with automatic selection on the amount of numerical dissipation needed at each flow location for more accurate DNS and LES simulations with less tuning of parameters for flows with a wide range of flow speed regime during the time-accurate evolution, e.g., time varying random forcing. An automatic selection of the different flow sensors catered to the different flow types is constructed. A Mach curve and high-frequency oscillation indicators are used to reduce the tuning of parameters in controlling the amount of shock-capturing numerical dissipation to be employed for shock-free turbulence, low speed turbulence and turbulence with strong shocks. In Kotov et al. (High Order Numerical Methods for LES of Turbulent Flows with Shocks, ICCFD8, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, July 14-18, 2014) the LES of a turbulent flow with a strong shock by the Yee & Sjögreen scheme indicated a good agreement with the filtered DNS data. A work in progress for the application of the adaptive flow sensor for compressible turbulence with time-varying random forcing is forthcoming. The present study examines the

  15. High-Order Supervised Discriminant Analysis for Visual Data

    Xiao-Ling Xia; Hang-Hui Huang


    In practical applications, we often have to deal with high-order data, for example, a grayscale image and a video clip are intrinsically a 2nd-order tensor and a 3rd-order tensor, respectively. In order to satisty these high-order data, it is conventional to vectorize these data in advance, which often destroys the intrinsic structures of the data and includes the curse of dimensionality. For this reason, we consider the problem of high-order data representation and classification, and propose a tensor based fisher discriminant analysis (FDA), which is a generalized version of FDA, named as GFDA. Experimental results show our GFDA outperforms the existing methods, such as the 2-directional 2-dimensional principal component analysis ((2D)2PCA), 2-directional 2-dimensional linear discriminant analysis ((2D)2LDA), and multilinear discriminant analysis (MDA), in high-order data classification under a lower compression ratio.

  16. Adaptive high-order methods in computational fluid dynamics

    Wang, Z J


    This book consists of important contributions by world-renowned experts on adaptive high-order methods in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It covers several widely used, and still intensively researched methods, including the discontinuous Galerkin, re

  17. High-order correlation of chaotic bosons and fermions

    Liu, Hong-Chao


    We theoretically study the high-order correlation functions of chaotic bosons and fermions. Based on the different parity of the Stirling number, the products of the first-order correlation functions are well classified and employed to represent the high-order correlation function. The correlation of bosons conduces a bunching effect, which will be enhanced as order N increases. Different from bosons, the anticommutation relation of fermions leads to the parity of the Stirling number, which thereby results in a mixture of bunching and antibunching behaviors in high-order correlation. By further investigating third-order ghost diffraction and ghost imaging, the differences between the high-order correlations of bosons and fermions are discussed in detail. A larger N will dramatically improve the ghost image quality for bosons, but a good strategy should be carefully chosen for the fermionic ghost imaging process due to its complex correlation components.

  18. Illuminating Molecular Symmetries with Bicircular High-Order-Harmonic Generation

    Reich, Daniel M


    We present a complete theory of bicircular high-order-harmonic emission from N-fold rotationally symmetric molecules. Using a rotating frame of reference we predict the complete structure of the high-order-harmonic spectra for arbitrary driving frequency ratios and show how molecular symmetries can be directly identified from the harmonic signal. Our findings reveal that a characteristic fingerprint of rotational molecular symmetries can be universally observed in the ultrafast response of molecules to strong bicircular fields.

  19. Determination of rod insertion limits of the AP600'S M-shim bank at low power operating mode

    A series of calculation works had been conducted to determine the AP00's M-shim bank insertion limits during low-power operating mode. This activity was a part of the preliminary studies toward the plan on implementation a Rapid Power Reduction System (RPRS) in AP00's control / operating system, that enable it to operate under low power level (below 50% RTP). The calculations were performed for cycle 1 and equilibrium cycle as function of power levels and the fraction of AO-bank insertion. The results show that the M-shim insertion limits for both cycle 1 and equilibrium cycle were determined based on the limiting conditions at low-burn-up level (BOL), and high burn-up level (EOL) respectively

  20. Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in a Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon

    Dan eLiu


    Full Text Available A highly order mesoporous carbon has been synthesized through a strongly acidic, aqueous cooperative assembly route. The structure and morphology of the carbon material were investigated using TEM, SEM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The carbon was proven to be meso-structural and consisted of graphitic micro-domain with larger interlayer space. AC impedance and electrochemical measurements reveal that the synthesized highly ordered mesoporous carbon exhibits a promoted electrochemical hydrogen insertion process and improved capacitance and hydrogen storage stability. The meso-structure and enlarged interlayer distance within the highly ordered mesoporous carbon are suggested as possible causes for the enhancement in hydrogen storage. Both hydrogen capacity in the carbon and mass diffusion within the matrix were improved.

  1. Dynamic Stability Analysis Using High-Order Interpolation

    Juarez-Toledo C.


    Full Text Available A non-linear model with robust precision for transient stability analysis in multimachine power systems is proposed. The proposed formulation uses the interpolation of Lagrange and Newton's Divided Difference. The High-Order Interpolation technique developed can be used for evaluation of the critical conditions of the dynamic system.The technique is applied to a 5-area 45-machine model of the Mexican interconnected system. As a particular case, this paper shows the application of the High-Order procedure for identifying the slow-frequency mode for a critical contingency. Numerical examples illustrate the method and demonstrate the ability of the High-Order technique to isolate and extract temporal modal behavior.

  2. Airfoil noise computation use high-order schemes

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    ) finite difference schemes and optimized high-order compact finite difference schemes are applied for acoustic computation. Acoustic equations are derived using so-called splitting technique by separating the compressible NS equations into viscous (flow equation) and inviscid (acoustic equation) parts......High-order finite difference schemes with at least 4th-order spatial accuracy are used to simulate aerodynamically generated noise. The aeroacoustic solver with 4th-order up to 8th-order accuracy is implemented into the in-house flow solver, EllipSys2D/3D. Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP...

  3. Input cavity for high-order asymmetric-mode gyroklystron

    Danilov, Yu. Yu.


    A new input cavity design for a high-order asymmetric-mode gyroklystron is proposed. Methods of the selective excitation of a resonant mode with a rotating field structure and the prevention of cavity self-excitation at harmonics of the gyrofrequency are proposed. Results of experimental investigation of the H711 mode cavity for a multimegawatt pulsed gyroklystron are presented.

  4. A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe; Walther, Jens Honore


    method is extended to directly solve the derivatives of the solution to Poissonʼs equation. In this way differential operators such as the divergence or curl of the solution field can be solved to the same high order convergence without additional computational effort. The method, is applied and...

  5. A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe; Walther, Jens Honore


    This work improves upon Hockney and Eastwood's Fourier-based algorithm for the unbounded Poisson equation to formally achieve arbitrary high order of convergence without any additional computational cost. We assess the methodology on the kinematic relations between the velocity and vorticity fields....

  6. High order finite volume methods for singular perturbation problems

    CHEN ZhongYing; HE ChongNan; WU Bin


    In this paper we establish a high order finite volume method for the fourth order singular perturbation problems. In conjunction with the optimal meshes, the numerical solutions resulting from the method have optimal convergence order. Numerical experiments are presented to verify our theoretical estimates.

  7. High-Order Dispersion Coefficients for Alkali-metal Atoms

    KANG Shuai; DING Chi-Kun; CHEN Chang-Yong; WU Xue-Qing


    High-order dispersion coefficients C9,C11,C12,and C13 for the ground-state alkali-metals were calculated by combining the l-dependent model potential of alkali-metal atoms and linear variation method based on B-spline basis functions.The results were compared.

  8. High order finite volume methods for singular perturbation problems


    In this paper we establish a high order finite volume method for the fourth order singular perturbation problems.In conjunction with the optimal meshes,the numerical solutions resulting from the method have optimal convergence order.Numerical experiments are presented to verify our theoretical estimates.

  9. Recycler Chromaticities and End Shims for NOvA at Fermilab

    Xiao, M


    In era of NOvA operation, it is planned to slip-stack six on six Booster proton batches in the Recycler ring for a total intensity of 5 1013 protons/cycle. During the slip-stacking, the chromaticities are required to be jumped from (-2,-2) to (-20,-20). However, they can only be adjusted to (-12,-12) from (-2,-2) using existing 2 families of powered sextupoles. On the other hand, the presently designed Recycler lattice for Nova replaces the 30 straight section with 8 D-D half FODO cells . We use 3 quads in a half-cell to obtain the working point under the limit of the feasible quad strength, and the maximum beta-function in this section cannot be less than 80 m. In this paper, we re-designed the end shims of the permanent magnets in the ring lattice with appropriate quadrupole and sextupole components to meet both chromaticity and tune requirements. We are able to use 2 quads in a half cell in RR30 straight section within feasible quad strength. The maximum beta-functions are also lowered to around 55 m. The ...

  10. Shimming techniques for the ultraprecise muon g-2 storage ring at the AGS

    Major components are in an advanced state of construction for a 7 meter radius 0.1 PPM precision storage ring. Detailed techniques are planned for static shimming of the assembly to at least 10 PPM magnetic field uniformity prior to the use of field correction coils. An air gap behind each ultra-pure iron pole piece strongly decouples the aperture field shape from the properties of the 1,006 iron yoke. Iron wedges whose thickness varies across the width of the poles with slope of ∼ 1/60 are used to eliminate the gradient produced by the C-magnet shape required for open access for the decay electron counter on the inside radius of the storage ring magnet. These wedges are 10 cm in azimuthal length and can be radially adjusted for short wavelength field adjustments. A horizontal motion of 50 μm effectively adjusts the 10 cm half-gap aperture by 1 μm (or 10 PPM). This and other techniques to adjust dipole, quadrupole, sextuple, etc. multipoles will be described

  11. 7 T body MRI: B1 shimming with simultaneous SAR reduction

    The high frequency of the radiofrequency (RF) fields used in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results in electromagnetic field variations that can cause local regions to have a large specific absorption rate (SAR) and/or a low excitation. In this study, we evaluated the use of a B1 shimming technique which can simultaneously improve the B+1 homogeneity and reduce the SAR for whole body imaging at 7 T. Optimizations for four individual anatomies showed a reduction up to 74% of the peak SAR values with respect to a quadrature excitation and a simultaneous improvement of the B+1 homogeneity varying between 39 and 75% for different optimization parameters. The average SAR was reduced with approximately 50% for all optimizations. The optimized phase and amplitude settings from an elliptical phantom model were applied to four realistic human anatomy models to evaluate whether a generic application without prior knowledge of the detailed human anatomy is possible. This resulted in an average improvement of the B+1 homogeneity of 37% and an average reduction of the maximum and average SAR of 50 and 55%, respectively. It can be concluded that this generic method can be used as a simple method to improve the prospects of 7 T body imaging

  12. Flow simulations past helicopters at different flight conditions using low and high order CFD methods

    The present paper contains a comprehensive literature survey on helicopter flow analyses and describes some true unsteady flows past helicopter rotors obtained using low and high order CFD models. The low order model is based on a panel method coupled with a viscous boundary layer approach and a compressibility correction. The USAERO software is used for the computations. The high order model is based on Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. For the high order models, a true unsteady scheme, as implemented in the CFD-FASTRAN code using the Euler equations, is considered for flows past hovering rotor. On the other hand, a quasi-steady approach, using the WIND code with the Navier-Stokes equations and the SST turbulence model, is used to assess the validity of the approach for the simulation of flows past a helicopter in forward flight conditions. When using the high order models, a Chimera grid technique is used to describe the blade motions within the parent stationary grid. Comparisons with experimental data are performed and the true unsteady simulations provide a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The panel method and the quasisteady approach are found to overestimate the loads on the helicopter rotors. The USAERO panel code is found to produce more thrust owing to some error sources in the computations when a wake-surface collision occurs, as the blades interact with their own wakes. The automatic cutting of the wake sheets, as they approach the model surface, is not working properly at every time step. (author)

  13. Parallel preconditioners and high order elements for microwave imaging

    Bonazzoli, M; Rapetti, F; Tournier, P -H


    This paper combines the use of high order finite element methods with parallel preconditioners of domain decomposition type for solving electromagnetic problems arising from brain microwave imaging. The numerical algorithms involved in such complex imaging systems are computationally expensive since they require solving the direct problem of Maxwell's equations several times. Moreover, wave propagation problems in the high frequency regime are challenging because a sufficiently high number of unknowns is required to accurately represent the solution. In order to use these algorithms in practice for brain stroke diagnosis, running time should be reasonable. The method presented in this paper, coupling high order finite elements and parallel preconditioners, makes it possible to reduce the overall computational cost and simulation time while maintaining accuracy.

  14. Spectral Shifts of Nonadiabatic High-Order Harmonic Generation

    André D. Bandrauk


    Full Text Available High-order harmonic generation (HHG is a nonlinear nonperturbative process in ultrashort intense laser-matter interaction. It is the main source of coherent attosecond (1 as = 10−18 s laser pulses to investigate ultrafast electron dynamics. HHG has become an important table-top source covering a spectral range from infrared to extreme ultraviolet (XUV. One way to extend the cutoff energy of HHG is to increase the intensity of the laser pulses. A consequence of HHG in such intense short laser fields is the characteristic nonadiabatic red and blue shifts of the spectrum, which are reviewed in the present work. An example of this nonperturbative light-matter interaction is presented for the one-electron nonsymmetric molecular ion HeH2+, as molecular systems allow for the study of the laser-molecule orientation dependence of such new effects including a four-step model of MHOHG (Molecular High-order Harmonic Generation.

  15. High-order harmonic generation in laser plasma plumes

    Ganeev, Rashid A


    This book represents the first comprehensive treatment of high-order harmonic generation in laser-produced plumes, covering the principles, past and present experimental status and important applications. It shows how this method of frequency conversion of laser radiation towards the extreme ultraviolet range matured over the course of multiple studies and demonstrated new approaches in the generation of strong coherent short-wavelength radiation for various applications. Significant discoveries and pioneering contributions of researchers in this field carried out in various laser scientific centers worldwide are included in this first attempt to describe the important findings in this area of nonlinear spectroscopy. "High-Order Harmonic Generation in Laser Plasma Plumes" is a self-contained and unified review of the most recent achievements in the field, such as the application of clusters (fullerenes, nanoparticles, nanotubes) for efficient harmonic generation of ultrashort laser pulses in cluster-containin...

  16. High-order Hamiltonian splitting for Vlasov-Poisson equations

    Casas, Fernando; Faou, Erwan; Mehrenberger, Michel


    We consider the Vlasov-Poisson equation in a Hamiltonian framework and derive new time splitting methods based on the decomposition of the Hamiltonian functional between the kinetic and electric energy. Assuming smoothness of the solutions, we study the order conditions of such methods. It appears that these conditions are of Runge-Kutta-Nystr{\\"o}m type. In the one dimensional case, the order conditions can be further simplified, and efficient methods of order 6 with a reduced number of stages can be constructed. In the general case, high-order methods can also be constructed using explicit computations of commutators. Numerical results are performed and show the benefit of using high-order splitting schemes in that context. Complete and self-contained proofs of convergence results and rigorous error estimates are also given.

  17. High-order dispersion effects in two-photon interference

    Mazzotta, Z; Cipriani, D; Olivares, S; Paris, M G A


    Two-photon interference and Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect are relevant tools for quantum metrology and quantum information processing. In optical coherence tomography, HOM effect is exploited to achieve high-resolution measurements with the width of the HOM dip being the main parameter. On the other hand, applications like dense coding require high-visibility performances. Here we address high-order dispersion effects in two-photon interference and study, theoretically and experimentally, the dependence of the visibility and the width of the HOM dip on both the pump spectrum and the downconverted photon spectrum. In particular, a spatial light modulator is exploited to experimentally introduce and manipulate a custom phase function to simulate the high-order dispersion effects.

  18. The Observation of Highly Ordered Domains in Membranes with Cholesterol

    Armstrong, Clare L [McMaster University; Marquardt, Drew [Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada; Dies, Hannah [McMaster University; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Yamani, Zahra [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, National Research Council, Chalk River Laboratorie; Harroun, Thad [Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Shi, A-C [McMaster University; Rheinstadter, Maikel C [McMaster University


    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano- or mesoscopic structures in the exoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane, and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes. Using neutron diffraction and computer modelling, we present evidence for the existence of highly ordered lipid domains in the cholesterol-rich (32.5 mol%) liquid-ordered (lo) phase of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine membranes. The liquid ordered phase in one-component lipid membranes has previously been thought to be a homogeneous phase. The presence of highly ordered lipid domains embedded in a disordered lipid matrix implies non-uniform distribution of cholesterol between the two phases. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with recent computer simulations of DPPC/cholesterol complexes [Meinhardt, Vink and Schmid (2013). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(12): 4476 4481], which reported the existence of nanometer size lo domains in a liquid disordered lipid environment.

  19. Tunneling spectroscopy of highly ordered organic thin films

    Törker, Michael


    In this work, a Au(100) single crystal was used as substrate for organic molecular beam epitaxy. Highly ordered organic thin films of the molecules 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-dianhydrid (PTCDA) and hexa-peri-hexabenzo-coronene (HBC) as well as organic-organic heterostructures on reconstructed Au(100) were prepared. The molecular arrangement was characterized in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Low Energy Electron Diffraction investigations. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy data...

  20. High-Order Harmonic Generation in the Ionization Process

    CHEN Jing; CHEN Shi-Gang; LIU Jie


    Based on the nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics scattering theory for multiphoton ionization developed recently, high-order harmonic generated in the ionization process is discussed. The influence of the Coulomb potential is treated as a perturbation in the expansion of the transition matrix. It is deduced that the harmonic photons are emitted in the resonant process during ionization and the width of the harmonic peaks is just the ionization rate of the atom.

  1. Divergence-free Wavelets and High Order Regularization

    Kadri Harouna, Souleymane; Dérian, Pierre; Héas, Patrick; Mémin, Etienne


    International audience Expanding on a wavelet basis the solution of an inverse problem provides several advantages. Wavelet bases yield a natural and efficient multiresolution analysis. The continuous representation of the solution with wavelets enables analytical calculation of regularization integrals over the spatial domain. By choosing differentiable wavelets, high-order derivative regularizers can be designed, either taking advantage of the wavelet differentiation properties or via th...

  2. High-order WENO scheme for Polymerization-type equations

    Gabriel, Pierre


    Polymerization of proteins is a biochimical process involved in different diseases. Mathematically, it is generally modeled by aggregation-fragmentation-type equations. In this paper we consider a general polymerization model and propose a high-order numerical scheme to investigate the behavior of the solution. An important property of the equation is the mass conservation. The fifth-order WENO scheme is built to preserve the total mass of proteins along time.

  3. Double-peak Splitting in High-order Harmonics Generation

    WANG Yingsong; LIU Yaqing; YANG Xiaodong; XU Zhizhan


    When the intensity of the driving pulse is much higher than the saturation intensity of the media involved, the double-peak splitting in frequency domain emerges in the generated high-order harmonic spectra. The possible origins of this splitting are carefully investigated. The ionization of the gas media and the propagation effect of harmonic field are the main reason for the double-peak splitting observed.

  4. High--order jamming crossovers and density anomalies

    Ciamarra, Massimo Pica; Sollich, Peter


    We demonstrate the existence of high--order jamming crossovers in systems of particles with repulsive contact interactions, which originate from the collapse of successive coordination shells. At zero temperature, these crossovers induce an anomalous behavior of the bulk modulus, which varies non--monotonically with the density, while at finite temperature they induce density anomalies consisting in an increased diffusivity upon isothermal compression and in a negative thermal expansion coeff...

  5. High order Nyström method for elastodynamic scattering

    Chen, Kun; Gurrala, Praveen; Song, Jiming; Roberts, Ron


    Elastic waves in solids find important applications in ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation. The scattering of elastic waves has been treated using many approaches like the finite element method, boundary element method and Kirchhoff approximation. In this work, we propose a novel accurate and efficient high order Nyström method to solve the boundary integral equations for elastodynamic scattering problems. This approach employs high order geometry description for the element, and high order interpolation for fields inside each element. Compared with the boundary element method, this approach makes the choice of the nodes for interpolation based on the Gaussian quadrature, which renders matrix elements for far field interaction free from integration, and also greatly simplifies the process for singularity and near singularity treatment. The proposed approach employs a novel efficient near singularity treatment that makes the solver able to handle extreme geometries like very thin penny-shaped crack. Numerical results are presented to validate the approach. By using the frequency domain response and performing the inverse Fourier transform, we also report the time domain response of flaw scattering.

  6. Magnetic levitation performance of high-temperature superconductor over three magnetic hills of permanent magnet guideway with iron shims of different thicknesses

    Yuming Gong; Gang Liang; Lifeng Zhao; Yong Zhang; Yong Zhao; Xuyong Chen


    Superconducting magnetic levitation perfor-mance, including levitation force and guidance force, is important for the application of high-temperature super-conducting maglev. Both of them are not only affected by different arrays of superconductors and magnets, but also by the thickness of the iron shim between permanent magnets. In order to obtain the best levitation performance, the magnetic field distribution, levitation force, and guid-ance force of a new type of three magnetic hills of per-manent magnet guideway with iron shim of different thicknesses (4, 6, and 8 mm) are discussed in this paper. Simulation analysis and experiment results show that the guideway with iron shim of 8 mm thickness possesses the strongest magnetic field and levitation performance when the suspension gap is larger than 10 mm. However, with the decreasing of suspension gap, the guideway with iron shim of 4 mm thickness possesses the best levitation per-formance. The phenomena can be attributed to the density distribution of flux and magnetization of iron shim.

  7. Highly Ordered Architecture of MicroRNA Cluster

    Bing Shi; Mingxuan Zhu; Shuang Liu; Mandun Zhang


    Although it is known that the placement of genes in a cluster may be critical for proper expression patterns, it remains largely unclear whether the orders of members in an miRNA cluster have biological insights. By investigating the relationship between expression and orders for miRNAs from the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster, we observed a highly ordered architecture in this cluster. A significant correlation between miRNA expression level and its placement was revealed. More importantly, the p...

  8. High-order harmonic generation with short-pulse lasers

    Recent progress in the understanding of high-order harmonic conversion from atoms and ions exposed to high-intensity, short-pulse optical lasers is reviewed. We find that ions can produce harmonics comparable in strength to those obtained from neutral atoms, and that the emission extends to much higher order. Simple scaling laws for the strength of the harmonic emission and the maximium observable harmonic are suggested. These results imply that the photoemission observed in recent experiments in helium and neon contains contributions from ions as well as neutrals

  9. On high-order perturbative calculations at finite density

    Ghisoiu, Ioan; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; Säppi, Matias; Vuorinen, Aleksi


    We discuss the prospects of performing high-order perturbative calculations in systems characterized by a vanishing temperature but finite density. In particular, we show that the determination of generic Feynman integrals containing fermionic chemical potentials can be reduced to the evaluation of three-dimensional phase space integrals over vacuum on-shell amplitudes. Applications of these rules will be discussed in the context of the thermodynamics of cold and dense QCD, where it is argued that they facilitate an extension of the Equation of State of cold quark matter to higher perturbative orders.

  10. Attosecond Synchronization of High-Order Harmonics from Midinfrared Drivers

    The group delay dispersion, also known as the attochirp, of high-order harmonics generated in gases has been identified as the main intrinsic limitation to the duration of Fourier-synthesized attosecond pulses. Theory implies that the attochirp, which is inversely proportional to the laser wavelength, can be decreased at longer wavelength. Here we report the first measurement of the wavelength dependence of the attochirp using an all-optical, in situ method [N. Dudovich et al., Nature Phys. 2, 781 (2006)]. We show that a 2 μm driving wavelength reduces the attochirp with respect to 0.8 μm at comparable intensities

  11. Fast calibration of high-order adaptive optics systems

    Kasper, Markus; Fedrigo, Enrico; Looze, Douglas P.; Bonnet, Henri; Ivanescu, Liviu; Oberti, Sylvain


    We present a new method of calibrating adaptive optics systems that greatly reduces the required calibration time or, equivalently, improves the signal-to-noise ratio. The method uses an optimized actuation scheme with Hadamard patterns and does not scale with the number of actuators for a given noise level in the wave-front sensor channels. It is therefore highly desirable for high-order systems and/or adaptive secondary systems on a telescope without a Gregorian focal plane. In the latter case, the measurement noise is increased by the effects of the turbulent atmosphere when one is calibrating on a natural guide star.

  12. A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe; Walther, Jens Honore

    In mesh-free particle methods a high order solution to the unbounded Poisson equation is usually achieved by constructing regularised integration kernels for the Biot-Savart law. Here the singular, point particles are regularised using smoothed particles to obtain an accurate solution with an order...... of convergence consistent with the moments conserved by the applied smoothing function. In the hybrid particle-mesh method of Hockney and Eastwood (HE) the particles are interpolated onto a regular mesh where the unbounded Poisson equation is solved by a discrete non-cyclic convolution of the mesh...

  13. Enhanced Optomechanical Cooling at High-Order Exceptional Points

    Jing, H; Lü, H; Nori, Franco


    We study mechanical cooling in systems of coupled passive (lossy) and active (with gain) optical resonators. We find that for a driving laser which is red-detuned with respect to the cavity frequency, the supermode structure of the system is radically changed, featuring the emergence of genuine high-order exceptional points. This in turn leads to giant enhancement of both the mechanical damping and the spring stiffness, facilitating low-power mechanical cooling in the vicinity of gain-loss balance. This opens up new avenues of steering micromechanical devices with exceptional points beyond the lowest-order two.

  14. High-order total variation minimization for interior tomography

    Recently, an accurate solution to the interior problem was proposed based on the total variation (TV) minimization, assuming that a region of interest (ROI) is piecewise constant. In this paper, we generalize that assumption to allow a piecewise polynomial ROI, introduce the high-order TV (HOT), and prove that an ROI can be accurately reconstructed from projection data associated with x-rays through the ROI via the HOT minimization if the ROI is piecewise polynomial. Then, we verify our theoretical results in numerical simulation

  15. Simultaneous bilateral hip joint imaging at 7 Tesla using fast transmit B₁ shimming methods and multichannel transmission - a feasibility study.

    Ellermann, J; Goerke, U; Morgan, P; Ugurbil, K; Tian, J; Schmitter, S; Vaughan, T; Van De Moortele, P-F


    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous bilateral hip imaging at 7 Tesla. Hip joint MRI becomes clinically critical since recent advances have made hip arthroscopy an efficacious approach to treat a variety of early hip diseases. The success of these treatments requires a reliable and accurate diagnosis of intraarticular abnormalities at an early stage. Articular cartilage assessment is especially important to guide surgical decisions but is difficult to achieve with current MR methods. Because of gains in tissue contrast and spatial resolution reported at ultra high magnetic fields, there are strong expectations that imaging the hip joint at 7 Tesla will improve diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that the majority of these hip abnormalities occur bilaterally, emphasizing the need for bilateral imaging. However, obtaining high quality images in the human torso, in particular of both hips simultaneously, must overcome a major challenge arising from the damped traveling wave behaviour of RF waves at 7 Tesla that leads to severe inhomogeneities in transmit B1 (B(1) (+) ) phase and magnitude, typically resulting in areas of low signal and contrast, and consequently impairing use for clinical applications. To overcome this problem, a 16-channel stripline transceiver RF coil was used, together with a B1 shimming algorithm aiming at maximizing B(1) (+) in six regions of interest over the hips that were identified on axial scout images. Our successful results demonstrate that this approach effectively reduces inhomogeneities observed before B1 shimming and provides high joint tissue contrast in both hips while reducing the required RF power. Critical to this success was a fast small flip angle B(1) (+) calibration scan that permitted the computation of subject-specific B1 shimming solutions, a necessary step to account for large spatial variations in B(1) (+) phase observed in different subjects. PMID:22311346

  16. Automatic sequences

    Haeseler, Friedrich


    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  17. High-order finite element methods for cardiac monodomain simulations

    Kevin P Vincent


    Full Text Available Computational modeling of tissue-scale cardiac electrophysiology requires numerically converged solutions to avoid spurious artifacts. The steep gradients inherent to cardiac action potential propagation necessitate fine spatial scales and therefore a substantial computational burden. The use of high-order interpolation methods has previously been proposed for these simulations due to their theoretical convergence advantage. In this study, we compare the convergence behavior of linear Lagrange, cubic Hermite, and the newly proposed cubic Hermite-style serendipity interpolation methods for finite element simulations of the cardiac monodomain equation. The high-order methods reach converged solutions with fewer degrees of freedom and longer element edge lengths than traditional linear elements. Additionally, we propose a dimensionless number, the cell Thiele modulus, as a more useful metric for determining solution convergence than element size alone. Finally, we use the cell Thiele modulus to examine convergence criteria for obtaining clinically useful activation patterns for applications such as patient-specific modeling where the total activation time is known a priori.

  18. Enhancing narrowband high order harmonic generation by Fano resonances

    Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Krebs, Manuel; Fritzsche, Stephan; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas


    Resonances in the photo-absorption spectrum of the generating medium can modify the spectrum of high order harmonics. In particular, window-type Fano resonances can reduce photo-absorption within a narrow spectral region and, consequently, lead to an enhanced emission of high-order harmonics in absorption-limited generation conditions. For high harmonic generation in argon it is shown that the 3s3p6 np 1P1 window resonances (n=4,5,6) give rise to enhanced photon yield. In particular, the 3s3p6 4p 1P1 resonance at 26.6 eV allows a relative enhancement up to a factor of 30 compared to the characteristic photon emission of the neighboring harmonic order. This enhanced, spectrally isolated and coherent photon emission line has a relative energy bandwidth of only {\\Delta}E/E=3*10-3. Therefore, it might be directly applied for precision spectroscopy or coherent diffractive imaging without the need of additional spectral filtering. The presented mechanism can be employed for tailoring and controlling the high harmon...

  19. Accelerating experimental high-order spatial statistics calculations using GPUs

    Li, Xue; Huang, Tao; Lu, De-Tang; Niu, Cong


    High-order spatial statistics have been widely used to describe the spatial phenomena in the field of geology science. Spatial statistics are subject to extremely heavy computational burden for large geostatistical models. To improve the computational efficiency, a parallel approach based on GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) is proposed for the calculation of high-order spatial statistics. The parallel scheme is achieved by utilizing a two-stage method to calculate the replicate of a moment for a given template simultaneously termed as the node-stage parallelism, and transform the spatial moments to cumulants for all lags of a template simultaneously termed as the template-stage parallelism. Also, a series of optimization strategies are proposed to take full advantage of the computational capabilities of GPUs, including the appropriate task allocation to the CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) threads, proper organization of the GPU physical memory, and optimal improvement of the existed parallel routines. Tests are carried out on two training images to compare the performance of the GPU-based method with that of the serial implementation. Error analysis results indicate that the proposed parallel method can generate accurate cumulant maps, and the performance comparisons on various examples show that all the speedups for third-order, fourth-order and fifth-order cumulants calculation are over 17 times.

  20. Shaping Neural Circuits by High Order Synaptic Interactions

    Ravid Tannenbaum, Neta; Burak, Yoram


    Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is believed to play an important role in shaping the structure of neural circuits. Here we show that STDP generates effective interactions between synapses of different neurons, which were neglected in previous theoretical treatments, and can be described as a sum over contributions from structural motifs. These interactions can have a pivotal influence on the connectivity patterns that emerge under the influence of STDP. In particular, we consider two highly ordered forms of structure: wide synfire chains, in which groups of neurons project to each other sequentially, and self connected assemblies. We show that high order synaptic interactions can enable the formation of both structures, depending on the form of the STDP function and the time course of synaptic currents. Furthermore, within a certain regime of biophysical parameters, emergence of the ordered connectivity occurs robustly and autonomously in a stochastic network of spiking neurons, without a need to expose the neural network to structured inputs during learning. PMID:27517461

  1. Hybrid overlay metrology for high order correction by using CDSEM

    Leray, Philippe; Halder, Sandip; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart; Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka


    Overlay control has become one of the most critical issues for semiconductor manufacturing. Advanced lithographic scanners use high-order corrections or correction per exposure to reduce the residual overlay. It is not enough in traditional feedback of overlay measurement by using ADI wafer because overlay error depends on other process (etching process and film stress, etc.). It needs high accuracy overlay measurement by using AEI wafer. WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) is the main issue for optical overlay, IBO (Image Based Overlay) and DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay). We design dedicated SEM overlay targets for dual damascene process of N10 by i-ArF multi-patterning. The pattern is same as device-pattern locally. Optical overlay tools select segmented pattern to reduce the WIS. However segmentation has limit, especially the via-pattern, for keeping the sensitivity and accuracy. We evaluate difference between the viapattern and relaxed pitch gratings which are similar to optical overlay target at AEI. CDSEM can estimate asymmetry property of target from image of pattern edge. CDSEM can estimate asymmetry property of target from image of pattern edge. We will compare full map of SEM overlay to full map of optical overlay for high order correction ( correctables and residual fingerprints).

  2. The pyramid wavefront sensor for the high order testbench (HOT)

    Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A. T.; Quiros-Pacheco, F.; Busoni, L.; Tozzi, A.; Esposito, S.; Aller-Carpentier, E.; Kasper, M.


    The High Order Testbench (HOT) is a joint experiment of ESO, Durham University and Arcetri Observatory to built and test in laboratory the performance of Shack-Hartmann and pyramid sensor in a high-order correction loop using a 32x32 actuators MEMS DM. This paper will describe the pyramid wavefront sensor unit developed in Arcetri and now installed in the HOT bench at ESO premises. In the first part of this paper we will describe the pyramid wavefront sensor opto-mechanics and its real-time computer realized with a commercial Linux-PC. In the second part we will show the sensor integration and alignment in the HOT bench and the experimental results obtained at ESO labs. Particular attention will be paid to the implementation of the modal control strategy, like modal basis definition, orthogonalization on the real pupil, and control of edge actuators. A stable closed loop controlling up to 667 modes has been achieved obtaining a Strehl ratio of 90 -- 93% in H band.

  3. Desorption mechanisms in PMMA irradiated by high order harmonics

    De Grazia, M.; Merdji, H.; Auguste, T.; Carré, B.; Gaudin, J.; Geoffroy, G.; Guizard, S.; Krejčí, F.; Kuba, J.; Chalupský, J.; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Hájková, Věra; Ledinský, Martin; Juha, Libor

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2011 - (Juha, L.; Bajt, S.; London, R.), 80770L/1-80770L/10. (Proceedings of SPIE. 8077). ISBN 9780819486677. ISSN 0277-786X. [Conference on Damage to VUV, EUV, and X-ray Optics III. Prague (CZ), 18.04.2011-20.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : XUV pulses * high order harmonics * PMMA * desorption * chain scission * cross-linking Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers 10.1117/12.890093

  4. Genuine High-Order Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering

    Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Kai; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei


    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering demonstrates that two parties share entanglement even if the measurement devices of one party are untrusted. Here, going beyond this bipartite concept, we develop a novel formalism to explore a large class of EPR steering from generic multipartite quantum systems of arbitrarily high dimensionality and degrees of freedom, such as graph states and hyperentangled systems. All of these quantum characteristics of genuine high-order EPR steering can be efficiently certified with few measurement settings in experiments. We faithfully demonstrate for the first time such generality by experimentally showing genuine four-partite EPR steering and applications to universal one-way quantum computing. Our formalism provides a new insight into the intermediate type of genuine multipartite Bell nonlocality and potential applications to quantum information tasks and experiments in the presence of untrusted measurement devices.

  5. High-order Primordial Perturbations with Quantum Gravitational Effects

    Zhu, Tao; Kirsten, Klaus; Cleaver, Gerald; Sheng, Qin


    In this paper, we provide a systematic investigation of high-order primordial perturbations with nonlinear dispersion relations due to quantum gravitational effects in the framework of {\\em uniform asymptotic approximations}. Because of these effects, the equation of motion of the mode function in general has multiple-turning points. After obtaining analytically approximated solutions in different regions, associated with different types of turning points, to any order, we match them to the third one. To this order the errors are less than $0.15\\%$. General expressions of the power spectra of the primordial tensor and scalar perturbations are derived explicitly. We also investigate effects of back-reactions of the quantum gravitational corrections, and make sure that inflation lasts long enough in order to solve underlying problems, such as flatness, horizon and monopole. Various features of the spectra that are observationally relevant are investigated. In particular, under a moderate assumption about the en...

  6. Fabrication of highly ordered metallic nanowire arrays by electrodeposition

    Highly ordered hexagonal arrays of parallel metallic nanowires (Ni, Bi) with diameters of about 50 nm and lengths up to 50 μm were synthesized by electrodeposition. Hexagonal-close-packed nanochannel anodized aluminum oxide film was used as the deposition template. The deposition was performed in an organic bath of dimethylsulfoxide with metal chloride as the electrolyte. A high degree of ordering and uniformity in these arrays can be obtained with this technique by fine-tuning the electrodeposition parameters. Moreover, an unprecedentedly high level of uniformity and control of the wire length was achieved. The arrays are unique platforms for explorations of collective behavior in coupled mesoscopic systems, and are useful for applications in high-density data storage, field emission displays, and sensors. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  7. Tuning the topological charge of laser high-order harmonics

    Gauthier, D; Adhikary, G; Camper, A; Chappuis, C; Cucini, R; Dovillaire, G; Géneaux, R; Poletto, L; Ressel, B; Ruchon, T; Spezzani, C; Stupar, M; De Ninno, G


    We report on the generation of optical vortices carrying a controllable amount of orbital angular momentum in laser high-order harmonics in gas. The experiment is based on two-color wave mixing, where a vortex and a Gaussian beam are spatially overlapped in the generation medium. Such a setup allows efficient and robust generation of lower order orbital angular momentum modes. The results constitute the first experimental verification of the conservation rule for orbital angular momentum in high-harmonic generation using two driving beams. Our findings significantly extend the capability of controlling the spatial properties of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses and could lead to entirely new experiments in the field of light-matter interactions.

  8. XAO coronagraphy with the High-Order Test bench

    Kasper M.


    Full Text Available Extreme adaptive optics systems dedicated to the search for extra solar planets are currently being developed for 8–10 meter class telescopes. The High-Order Test bench (HOT is a high-contrast imaging adaptive optics bench developed at ESO. Its objective is to test and optimize different techniques and technologies (e.g. wave front sensors, coronagraphs, speckle calibration methods…. It mimics realistic conditions at a telescope (e.g. VLT, including turbulence generator, XAO, and various near-IR coronagraphs. Here we provide a short overview of the system, and present results of recent AO-closed loop coronagraphic runs obtained with an Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC.

  9. High-order multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy of NO

    Photoelectron energy and angular distributions of NO following three different high-order multiphoton ionization (MPI) schemes have been measured. The 3+3 resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) via the A2Σ+ (v=0) level yielded a distribution of electron energies corresponding to all accessible vibrational levels (v+=0--6) of the nascent ion. Angular distributions of electrons corresponding to v+=0 and v+=3 were significantly different. The 3+2 REMPI via the A2Σ+ (v=1) level produced only one low-energy electron peak (v+=1). Nonresonant MPI at 532 nm yielded a distribution of electron energies corresponding to both four- and five-photon ionization. Prominent peaks in the five-photon photoelectron spectrum (PES) suggest contributions from near-resonant states at the three-photon level

  10. Mechanism of High-Order Harmonic Generation from Periodic Potentials

    Du, Tao-Yuan


    We study numerically the Bloch electron wave-packet dynamics in periodic potentials to simulate laser-solid interactions. We introduce a quasi-classical model in the \\emph{k} space combined with the energy band structure to understand the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) process occurring in a subcycle timescale. This model interprets the multiple plateau structure in HHG spectra well and the linear dependence of cutoff energies on the amplitude of vector potential of the laser fields. It also predicts the emission time of HHG, which agrees well with the results by solving the time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation (TDSE). It provides a scheme to reconstruct the energy dispersion relations in Brillouin zone and to control the trajectories of HHG by varying the shape of laser pulses. This model is instructive for experimental measurements.

  11. Role of Rydberg States In High-order Harmonic Generation

    Beaulieu, Samuel; Comby, Antoine; Wanie, Vincent; Petit, Stéphane; Légaré, François; Catoire, Fabrice; Mairesse, Yann


    The role of Rydberg states in strong field physics has known a renewed interest in the past few years with the study of resonant high-order harmonic generation. In addition to its fundamental in- terest, this process could create bright sources of coherent vacuum and extreme ultraviolet radiation with controlled polarization state. We investigate the spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of the radiation produced near the ionization threshold of argon by few-cycle laser pulses. The intensity-dependence of the emission shows that two different pathways interfere to populate the Rydberg states. Furthermore, we show that the population of Rydberg states can lead to different emission mecanisms: either direct emission through XUV Free Induction Decay, or sequentially with absorption of additional photons, in processes similar to resonance-enhanced multiphoton above- threshold ionization. Last, using the attosecond lighthouse technique we show that the resonant emission from Rydberg states is not temporal...

  12. High-order jamming crossovers and density anomalies.

    Pica Ciamarra, Massimo; Sollich, Peter


    We demonstrate that particles interacting via core-softened potentials exhibit a series of successive density anomalies upon isothermal compression, leading to oscillations in the diffusivity and thermal expansion coefficient, with the latter reaching negative values. These finite-temperature density anomalies are then shown to correspond to zero-temperature high-order jamming crossovers. These occur when particles are forced to come into contact with neighbours in successive coordination shells upon increasing the density. The crossovers induce anomalous behavior of the bulk modulus, which oscillates with density. We rationalize the dependence of these crossovers on the softness of the interaction potential, and relate the jamming crossovers and the anomalous diffusivity via the properties of the vibrational spectrum. PMID:26029762

  13. A New CMOS Current Reference with High Order Temperature Compensation


    A new high order CMOS temperature compensated current reference is proposed in this paper, which is accomplished by two first order temperature compensation current references. The novel circuit exploits the temperature characteristics of integrated-circuit resistors and gate-source voltage of MOS transistors working in weak inversion. The proposed circuit, designed with a 0.6 (m standard CMOS technology, gives a good temperature coefficient of 31ppm/℃ [(50~100℃] at a 1.8 V supply, and also achieves line regulation of 0.01%/V and (120 dB PSR at 1 MHz. Comparing with other presented work, the proposed circuit shows better temperature coefficient and Line regulation.

  14. High order source approximation for the EFEN method

    The flat source approximation in one dimensional Exponential Function Expansion Nodal (EFEN) method is extended to a high order polynomial approximation while maintaining the simplicity of the nodal response matrix. By applying the new method to a one dimensional PWR pin-by-pin problem, it has been observed that quadratic source approximation is good enough for PWR pin-by-pin calculation, while the flat source approximation causes about 5% of relative error to the thermal flux. By applying the new method to a one dimensional assembly homogenized problem, it has been found that the EFEN method with cubic source approximation can be employed to handle PWR core diffusion problems. Numerical results suggest the optimization of source approximation order for different energy groups and different spacial locations to achieve more accurate results with less computing effort. (author)

  15. High-Order Wave Propagation Algorithms for Hyperbolic Systems

    Ketcheson, David I.


    We present a finite volume method that is applicable to hyperbolic PDEs including spatially varying and semilinear nonconservative systems. The spatial discretization, like that of the well-known Clawpack software, is based on solving Riemann problems and calculating fluctuations (not fluxes). The implementation employs weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstruction in space and strong stability preserving Runge--Kutta integration in time. The method can be extended to arbitrarily high order of accuracy and allows a well-balanced implementation for capturing solutions of balance laws near steady state. This well-balancing is achieved through the $f$-wave Riemann solver and a novel wave-slope WENO reconstruction procedure. The wide applicability and advantageous properties of the method are demonstrated through numerical examples, including problems in nonconservative form, problems with spatially varying fluxes, and problems involving near-equilibrium solutions of balance laws.

  16. Frequency shift in high order harmonic generation from isotopic molecules

    He, Lixin; Zhai, Chunyang; Wang, Feng; Shi, Wenjing; Zhang, Qingbin; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lu, Peixiang


    We report the first experimental observation of frequency shift in high order harmonic generation (HHG) from isotopic molecules H2 and D2 . It is found that harmonics generated from the isotopic molecules exhibit obvious spectral red shift with respect to those from Ar atom. The red shift is further demonstrated to arise from the laser-driven nuclear motion in isotopic molecules. By utilizing the red shift observed in experiment, we successfully retrieve the nuclear vibrations in H2 and D2, which agree well with the theoretical calculations from the time-dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE) with Non-Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Moreover, we demonstrate that the frequency shift can be manipulated by changing the laser chirp.

  17. High-order hydrodynamic algorithms for exascale computing

    Morgan, Nathaniel Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Hydrodynamic algorithms are at the core of many laboratory missions ranging from simulating ICF implosions to climate modeling. The hydrodynamic algorithms commonly employed at the laboratory and in industry (1) typically lack requisite accuracy for complex multi- material vortical flows and (2) are not well suited for exascale computing due to poor data locality and poor FLOP/memory ratios. Exascale computing requires advances in both computer science and numerical algorithms. We propose to research the second requirement and create a new high-order hydrodynamic algorithm that has superior accuracy, excellent data locality, and excellent FLOP/memory ratios. This proposal will impact a broad range of research areas including numerical theory, discrete mathematics, vorticity evolution, gas dynamics, interface instability evolution, turbulent flows, fluid dynamics and shock driven flows. If successful, the proposed research has the potential to radically transform simulation capabilities and help position the laboratory for computing at the exascale.

  18. High-order total variation minimization for interior SPECT

    Recently, we developed an approach for solving the computed tomography (CT) interior problem based on the high-order TV (HOT) minimization, assuming that a region-of-interest (ROI) is piecewise polynomial. In this paper, we generalize this finding from the CT field to the single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) field, and prove that if an ROI is piecewise polynomial, then the ROI can be uniquely reconstructed from the SPECT projection data associated with the ROI through the HOT minimization. Also, we propose a new formulation of HOT, which has an explicit formula for any n-order piecewise polynomial function, while the original formulation has no explicit formula for n ⩾ 2. Finally, we verify our theoretical results in numerical simulation, and discuss relevant issues. (paper)

  19. A highly ordered cubic mesoporous silica/graphene nanocomposite

    Lee, Chang-Wook; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum


    A highly ordered cubic mesoporous silica (KIT-6)/graphene nanocomposite and 2D KIT-6 nanoflakes were synthesized using a novel synthesis methodology. The non-ionic triblock copolymer, P123, played a dual role as a structure-directing agent in the formation of the cubic mesoporous structure and as a cross-linking agent between mesoporous silica and graphene. The prepared (KIT-6)/graphene nanocomposite could act as a template for the preparation of mesoporous material/graphene nanocomposites.A highly ordered cubic mesoporous silica (KIT-6)/graphene nanocomposite and 2D KIT-6 nanoflakes were synthesized using a novel synthesis methodology. The non-ionic triblock copolymer, P123, played a dual role as a structure-directing agent in the formation of the cubic mesoporous structure and as a cross-linking agent between mesoporous silica and graphene. The prepared (KIT-6)/graphene nanocomposite could act as a template for the preparation of mesoporous material/graphene nanocomposites. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: S1: TEM images of disordered mesoporous silica/graphene nanocomposite; S2: TEM images of KIT-6/GO nanocomposite; S3: Thermogravimetric analysis of KIT-6/GO and KG-400-700; S4: SEM and TEM images of KIT-6; S5: Low angle XRD, Raman spectra, N2 adsorption isotherms, pore size distribution and photographic images of the prepared samples; S6: TEM image and N2 adsorption isotherms of mesoporous carbon/graphene nanocomposite; S7: XPS C1s spectra of the prepared samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03108j

  20. High-Order Space-Time Methods for Conservation Laws

    Huynh, H. T.


    Current high-order methods such as discontinuous Galerkin and/or flux reconstruction can provide effective discretization for the spatial derivatives. Together with a time discretization, such methods result in either too small a time step size in the case of an explicit scheme or a very large system in the case of an implicit one. To tackle these problems, two new high-order space-time schemes for conservation laws are introduced: the first is explicit and the second, implicit. The explicit method here, also called the moment scheme, achieves a Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition of 1 for the case of one-spatial dimension regardless of the degree of the polynomial approximation. (For standard explicit methods, if the spatial approximation is of degree p, then the time step sizes are typically proportional to 1/p(exp 2)). Fourier analyses for the one and two-dimensional cases are carried out. The property of super accuracy (or super convergence) is discussed. The implicit method is a simplified but optimal version of the discontinuous Galerkin scheme applied to time. It reduces to a collocation implicit Runge-Kutta (RK) method for ordinary differential equations (ODE) called Radau IIA. The explicit and implicit schemes are closely related since they employ the same intermediate time levels, and the former can serve as a key building block in an iterative procedure for the latter. A limiting technique for the piecewise linear scheme is also discussed. The technique can suppress oscillations near a discontinuity while preserving accuracy near extrema. Preliminary numerical results are shown

  1. Highly ordered periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles with controllable pore structures

    Guan, Buyuan; Cui, Yan; Ren, Zhongyuan; Qiao, Zhen-An; Wang, Li; Liu, Yunling; Huo, Qisheng


    A general synthetic procedure for highly ordered and well-dispersed periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanoparticles is reported based on a single cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and simple silica sources with organic bridging groups via an ammonia-catalyzed sol-gel reaction. By changing the bridging group in the silica sources, the pore structures of the as-made particles with three-dimensional hexagonal (P63/mmc), cubic (Pm3n), two-dimensional hexagonal (P6mm), and wormlike structure were evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size range of the nanoparticles can be adjusted from 30 nm to 500 nm by variation of the ammonia concentration or the co-solvent content of the reaction medium. The PMO nanoparticles with high concentration of organic groups in the framework offered good thermal stability, good dispersion in low polarity solvent and high adsorption of small hydrophobic molecules. Finally, the dye functionalized PMO nanoparticles show low cytotoxicity and excellent cell permeability, which offers great potential for biomedical applications.A general synthetic procedure for highly ordered and well-dispersed periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanoparticles is reported based on a single cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and simple silica sources with organic bridging groups via an ammonia-catalyzed sol-gel reaction. By changing the bridging group in the silica sources, the pore structures of the as-made particles with three-dimensional hexagonal (P63/mmc), cubic (Pm3n), two-dimensional hexagonal (P6mm), and wormlike structure were evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size range of the nanoparticles can be adjusted from 30 nm to 500 nm by variation of the ammonia concentration or the co-solvent content of the reaction medium. The PMO nanoparticles with high concentration of organic

  2. Template synthesis and characterization of highly ordered lamellar hydroxyapatite

    Surfactant template synthesis attracts great attention in the fields of biomaterials and functional materials. In this study, highly ordered lamellar hydroxyapatite (Lα-HA) powder was synthesized by a surfactant templating method in water-ethanol. Ca(NO3)2 and (NH4)2HPO4 were used as calcium and phosphorus sources, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulphonate (SDS, C12H25SO3Na) acted as the template. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses showed that HA is the only crystal phase in Lα-HA. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation further proved this regular lamellar structure detected by XRD. The repeat periodicity of the structure is about 3.6 nm observed by TEM, which is in well accordance with the XRD data (3.16 nm). The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results indicated that Lα-HA was a polycrystalline structure. The formation of Lα-HA could be explained by a surfactant template

  3. Central Command Architecture for High Order Autonomous Unmanned Systems

    Bieber, Chad Michael

    This dissertation describes a High-Order Central Command (HOCC) architecture and presents a flight demonstration where a single user coordinates 4 unmanned fixed-wing aircraft. HOCC decouples the user from control of individual vehicles, eliminating human limits on the size of the system, and uses a non-iterative sequence of algorithms that permit easy estimation of how computational complexity scales. The Hungarian algorithm used to solve a min-sum assignment with a one-task planning horizon becomes the limiting complexity, scaling at O(x3) where x is the larger number of vehicles or tasks in the assignment. This method is shown to have a unique property of creating non-intersecting routes which is used to drastically reduce the computational cost of deconflicting planned routes. Results from several demonstration flights are presented where a single user commands a system of 4 fixed-wing aircraft. The results confirm that autonomous flight of a large number of UAVs is a bona fide engineering sub-discipline, which is expected to be of interest to engineers who will find its utility in the aviation industry and in other emerging markets.

  4. Nonlinear high-order mode locking in stochastic sensory neurons

    Rowe, Michael; Afghan, Muhammad; Neiman, Alexander


    Excitable systems demonstrate various mode locking regimes when driven by periodic external signals. With noise taken into account, such regimes represent complex nonlinear responses which depend crucially on the frequency and amplitude of the periodic drive as well as on the noise intensity. We study this using a computational model of a stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron in combination with the turtle vestibular sensory system as an experimental model. A bifurcation analysis of the model is performed. Extracellular recordings from primary vestibular afferent neurons with two types of stimuli are used in the experimental study. First, mechanical stimuli applied to the labyrinth allow us to study the responses of the entire system, including transduction by the hair cells and spike generation in the primary afferents. Second, a galvanic stimuli applied directly to an afferent are used to study the responses of afferent spike generator directly. The responses to galvanic stimuli reveal multiple high-order mode locking regimes which are well reproduced in numerical simulation. Responses to mechanical stimulation are characterized by larger variability so that fewer mode-locking regimes can be observed.

  5. A high-order Godunov method for multiple condensed phases

    Miller, G.H. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Puckett, E.G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    We present a numerical algorithm for computing strong shock waves in problems involving multiple condensed phases. This method is based on a conservative high-order Godunov method in Eulerian form, similar to those that have been used extensively for gas dynamics computations, with an underlying thermodynamic model based on the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state together with a linear Hugoniot. This thermodynamic model is appropriate for a wide variety of nonporous condensed phases. We model multiple phases by constructing an effective single phase in which the density, specific energy, and elastic properties are given by self-consistent averages of the individual phase properties, including their relative abundances. We use a second-order volume-of-fluid interface reconstruction algorithm to decompose the effective single-phase fluxes back into the appropriate individual component phase quantities. We have coupled a two-dimensional operator-split version of this method to an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm and used it to model problems that arise in experimental shock wave geophysics. Computations from this work are presented. 56 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. A high-order Godunov method for multiple condensed phases

    We present a numerical algorithm for computing strong shock waves in problems involving multiple condensed phases. This method is based on a conservative high-order Godunov method in Eulerian form, similar to those that have been used extensively for gas dynamics computations, with an underlying thermodynamic model based on the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state together with a linear Hugoniot. This thermodynamic model is appropriate for a wide variety of nonporous condensed phases. We model multiple phases by constructing an effective single phase in which the density, specific energy, and elastic properties are given by self-consistent averages of the individual phase properties, including their relative abundances. We use a second-order volume-of-fluid interface reconstruction algorithm to decompose the effective single-phase fluxes back into the appropriate individual component phase quantities. We have coupled a two-dimensional operator-split version of this method to an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm and used it to model problems that arise in experimental shock wave geophysics. Computations from this work are presented. 56 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Integrated high-order surface diffraction gratings for diode lasers

    Zolotarev, V. V.; Leshko, A. Yu; Pikhtin, N. A.; Slipchenko, S. O.; Sokolova, Z. N.; Lubyanskiy, Ya V.; Voronkova, N. V.; Tarasov, I. S.


    High-order surface diffraction gratings acting as a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) in mesa stripe semiconductor lasers (λ = 1030 nm) have been studied theoretically and experimentally. Higher order interfering radiation modes (IRMs), which propagate off the plane of the waveguide, have been shown to have a crucial effect on the reflection and transmission spectra of the DBR. The decrease in the reflectivity of the DBR in response to the increase in the diffraction efficiency of these modes may reach 80% and more. According to theoretical analysis results, the intensity of the higher order IRMs is determined by the geometry of the DBR groove profile. Experimental data demonstrate that the noncavity modes are responsible for parasitic light leakage losses in the laser cavity. It has been shown that, in the case of nonoptimal geometry of the grating groove profile, the overall external differential quantum efficiency of the parasitic laser emission may exceed 45%, which is more than half of the laser output power. The optimal geometry of the DBR groove profile is trapezoidal, with the smallest possible lower base. Experimental evidence has been presented that this geometry considerably reduces the power of the higher order IRMs and minimises the parasitic light leakage loss.

  8. High-order accurate dissipative weighted compact nonlinear schemes

    DENG; Xiaogang(邓小刚)


    Based on the method deriving dissipative compact linear schemes (DCS), novel high-order dissipative weighted compact nonlinear schemes (DWCNS) are developed. By Fourier analysis,the dissipative and dispersive features of DWCNS are discussed. In view of the modified wave number, the DWCNS are equivalent to the fifth-order upwind biased explicit schemes in smooth regions and the interpolations at cell-edges dominate the accuracy of DWCNS. Boundary and near boundary schemes are developed and the asymptotic stabilities of DWCNS on both uniform and stretching grids are analyzed. The multi-dimensional implementations for Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are discussed. Several numerical inviscid and viscous results are given which show the good performances of the DWCNS for discontinuities capturing, high accuracy for boundary layer resolutions, good convergent rates (the root-mean-square of residuals approaching machine zero for solutions with strong shocks) and especially the damping effect on the spudous oscillations which were found in the solutions obtained by TVD and ENO schemes.

  9. High-order WENO scheme for polymerization-type equations*

    Gabriel Pierre


    Full Text Available Polymerization of proteins is a biochemical process involved in different diseases. Mathematically, it is generally modeled by aggregation-fragmentation-type equations. In this paper we consider a general polymerization model and propose a high-order numerical scheme to investigate the behavior of the solution. An important property of the equation is the mass conservation. The WENO scheme is built to preserve the total mass of proteins along time. Le processus biophysique de polymérisation de protéines entre en jeu dans différentes maladies. Mathématiquement, ceci est généralement modélisé par des équations de type agrégation-fragmentation. Dans cet article nous considérons un modèle général de polymérisation et proposons un schéma d’ordre élevé pour sa résolution numérique. Une propriété importante de l’équation est la conservation de la masse. Le schéma WENO est construit pour conserver la masse totale de protéines au cours du temps.

  10. A 1D analysis of two high order MOC methods

    The work presented here provides two different methods for evaluating angular fluxes along long characteristics. One is based off a projection of the 1D transport equation onto a complete set of Legendre polynomials, while the other uses the 1D integral transport equation to evaluate the angular flux values at specific points along each track passing through a cell. The Moment Long Characteristic (M-LC) method is shown to provide 2(P+1) spatial convergence and significant gains in accuracy with the addition of only a few spatial degrees of freedom. The M-LC method, though, is shown to be ill-conditioned at very high order and for optically thin geometries. The Point Long Characteristic (P-LC) method, while less accurate, significantly improves stability to problems with optically thin cells. The P-LC method is also more flexible, allowing for extra angular flux evaluations along a given track to give a more accurate representation of the shape along each track. This is at the expense of increasing the degrees of freedom of the system, though, and requires an increase in memory storage. This work concludes that both may be used simultaneously within the same geometry to provide the best mix of accuracy and stability possible. (authors)

  11. A Novel QAM Technique for High Order QAM Signaling

    A. Ozen


    Full Text Available The paper proposes a novel spread quadrature amplitude modulation (S-QAM technique with high SNR improvement for high-order QAM channels. Simulated and experimental bit error rate (BER performance analyses of the proposed technique in blind and non-blind equalizers are obtained by using single carrier (SC WiMAX (IEEE 802.16-2004 radio. Instead of using any one particular type of channel profile, this study concentrates on true frequency selective Rayleigh fading channels in the real-time WiMAX radio environment around 3.5 GHz. The Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA blind equalizer has been compared with the popular non-blind equalizers, Recursive Least Squares (RLS and Least Mean Squares (LMS algorithm, as benchmarks. It has been proven in experimental and simulated channels that CMA blind equalizer, using the proposed technique, can be considered as a low complexity, spectrum efficient and high performance time domain equalizations to be embedded in a transceiver for the next generation communications. Furthermore the proposed technique has also reduced approximately till 5 dB and 7.5 dB performance differences between non-blind and blind equalizers for 16-QAM and 64-QAM, respectively. The simulation results have demonstrated that the simulated and experimental studies of the proposed technique are compatible with each other and extremely satisfying.

  12. The high-order quantum coherence of thermal light

    Chen, Hui

    Thermal light, such as sunlight, is usually considered classical light. In a macroscopic picture, classical theory successfully explained the first-order coherence phenomena of thermal light. The macroscopic theory, based on the statistical behavior of light intensity fluctuations, however, can only phenomenologically explain the second- or higher-order coherence phenomena of thermal light. This thesis introduces a microscopic quantum picture, based on the interferences of a large number of randomly distributed and randomly radiated subfields, wavepackets or photons, to the study of high-order coherence of thermal light. This thesis concludes that the second-order intensity fluctuation correlation is caused by nonlocal interference: a pair of wavepackets, which are randomly paired together, interferes with the pair itself at two distant space-time coordinates. This study has the following practical motivations: (1) to simulate N-qbits. Practical quantum computing requires quantum bits(qubits) of N-digit to represent all possible integers from 0 to 2N-1 simultaneously. A large number of independent particles can be prepared to represent a large set of N orthogonal |0> and |1> bits. In fact, based on our recent experiments of simulating the high-order correlation of entangled photons, thermal radiation is suggested as a promising source for quantum information processing. (2) to achieve sunlight ghost imaging. Ghost imaging has three attractive non-classical features: (a) the ghost camera can "see" targets that can never be seen by a classic camera; (2) it is turbulence-free; and (3) its spatial resolution is mainly determined by the angular diameter of the light source. For example, a sunlight ghost image of an object on earth may achieve a spatial resolution of 200 micrometer because the angular diameter of sun is 0.53 degree with respect to Earth. Although ghost imaging has been experimental demonstrated by using entangled photon pairs and "pseudo-thermal light

  13. Mode of conception of triplets and high order multiple pregnancies.

    Basit, I


    A retrospective audit was performed of all high order multiple pregnancies (HOMPs) delivered in three maternity hospitals in Dublin between 1999 and 2008. The mode of conception for each pregnancy was established with a view to determining means of reducing their incidence. A total of 101 HOMPs occurred, 93 triplet, 7 quadruplet and 1 quintuplet. Information regarding the mode of conception was available for 78 (81%) pregnancies. Twenty eight (27.7%) were spontaneous, 34 (33.7%) followedlVF\\/ICSI\\/FET treatment (in-vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, frozen embryo transfer), 16 (15.8%) resulted from Clomiphene Citrate treatment and 6 (6%) followed ovulation induction with gonadotrophins. Triplet and HOMPs are a major cause of maternal, feta land neonatal morbidity. Many are iatrogenic, arising from fertility treatments including Clomiphene. Reducing the numbers of embryos transferred will address IVF\\/ICSI\\/FET-related multiple pregnancy rates and this is currently happening in Ireland. Clomiphene and gonadotrophins should only be prescribed when appropriate resources are available to monitor patients adequately.

  14. A Multilevel Parallelization Framework for High-Order Stencil Computations

    Dursun, Hikmet; Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Peng, Liu; Seymour, Richard; Wang, Weiqiang; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    Stencil based computation on structured grids is a common kernel to broad scientific applications. The order of stencils increases with the required precision, and it is a challenge to optimize such high-order stencils on multicore architectures. Here, we propose a multilevel parallelization framework that combines: (1) inter-node parallelism by spatial decomposition; (2) intra-chip parallelism through multithreading; and (3) data-level parallelism via single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) techniques. The framework is applied to a 6 th order stencil based seismic wave propagation code on a suite of multicore architectures. Strong-scaling scalability tests exhibit superlinear speedup due to increasing cache capacity on Intel Harpertown and AMD Barcelona based clusters, whereas weak-scaling parallel efficiency is 0.92 on 65,536 BlueGene/P processors. Multithreading+SIMD optimizations achieve 7.85-fold speedup on a dual quad-core Intel Clovertown, and the data-level parallel efficiency is found to depend on the stencil order.

  15. Highly ordered ultralong magnetic nanowires wrapped in stacked graphene layers

    Abdel-Aziz El Mel


    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis and magnetic characterization of ultralong (1 cm arrays of highly ordered coaxial nanowires with nickel cores and graphene stacking shells (also known as metal-filled carbon nanotubes. Carbon-containing nickel nanowires are first grown on a nanograted surface by magnetron sputtering. Then, a post-annealing treatment favors the metal-catalyzed crystallization of carbon into stacked graphene layers rolled around the nickel cores. The observed uniaxial magnetic anisotropy field oriented along the nanowire axis is an indication that the shape anisotropy dominates the dipolar coupling between the wires. We further show that the thermal treatment induces a decrease in the coercivity of the nanowire arrays. This reflects an enhancement of the quality of the nickel nanowires after annealing attributed to a decrease of the roughness of the nickel surface and to a reduction of the defect density. This new type of graphene–ferromagnetic-metal nanowire appears to be an interesting building block for spintronic applications.

  16. Control of high order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains

    Full text: We show that attosecond pulse trains (APTs) are a natural tool for controlling strong field processes such as high order harmonic generation. When used in combination with an intense infrared laser field, the timing of the APT with respect to the infrared (IR) laser field can be used to microscopically select a single quantum path contribution to a process that would otherwise consist of many interfering components. It is through this timing that we predict control over the release of the electron into the continuum, its excursion inside the continuum and consequently influence the yield and coherence properties of the harmonics. Since our initial calculation was based on the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, only single atom effects could be predicted. We have carried out an initial experiment in which we generate the APT from harmonic generation in a xenon fiber target, and focus the APT together with the remaining IR field with an Ag mirror into an He gas jet. The photon spectrum for a fixed time delay between APT and IR field is shown: a clear enhancement of the harmonic spectrum at the cutoff region is seen only when both the APT and the IR field are present. We have predicted control over quantum paths of electron wavepackets using a combination of APT and an IR field, manifesting in the harmonic photon spectrum as order-of-magnitude enhancement of the harmonic yield and spectral cleanup. First experimental results, for a fixed time delay, clearly confirm the enhancement and spectral control, whereas in a future experiment we plan to vary the time delay. Refs. 3 (author)

  17. Exploration of factors influencing shimming and water suppression on hepatic 1H-MR spectroscopy in vivo on 3.0 T

    Objective: To characterize the clinical factors which influence water suppression and auto-shimming line width for liver 3.0 T 1H-MRS. Methods: Fifty-seven cases with liver 1H-MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) were retrospectively studied, including chronic type B hepatitis (n=5), fatty liver (n=14), chronic type B hepatitis combining fatty liver (n=3) and normal situation (n=35). Independent t test was used to characterize the difference of general condition (height, weight, body mass index etc.) between different water suppression effect groups and between different shimming effect groups. Using Chi-square test to analyze whether water suppression rate and auto-shimming line width between fatty liver groups and non-fatty liver exist significance difference. Results: By comparing WS ≥90% (n=47) group with WS 2 respectively] and LW [(17.7±3.7) and (24.6±6.3) Hz respectively] than the latter (t=-3.488, -3.415, -4.002 and -3.327, P 20 Hz (n=16) group, the former showed better water suppression rate [(93.0±2.7)% and (86.1±8.5)% respectively] than the latter (t=3.213, P2 respectively] (t=-2.516, -2.024, P2=11.347, P2=28.536, P<0.05). Conclusion: Hepatic steatosis exerts an adverse effect in water suppression and shimming. (authors)

  18. Stability of the high-order finite elements for acoustic or elastic wave propagation with high-order time stepping

    De Basabe, Jonás D.


    We investigate the stability of some high-order finite element methods, namely the spectral element method and the interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method (IP-DGM), for acoustic or elastic wave propagation that have become increasingly popular in the recent past. We consider the Lax-Wendroff method (LWM) for time stepping and show that it allows for a larger time step than the classical leap-frog finite difference method, with higher-order accuracy. In particular the fourth-order LWM allows for a time step 73 per cent larger than that of the leap-frog method; the computational cost is approximately double per time step, but the larger time step partially compensates for this additional cost. Necessary, but not sufficient, stability conditions are given for the mentioned methods for orders up to 10 in space and time. The stability conditions for IP-DGM are approximately 20 and 60 per cent more restrictive than those for SEM in the acoustic and elastic cases, respectively. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.

  19. High-order distance-based multiview stochastic learning in image classification.

    Yu, Jun; Rui, Yong; Tang, Yuan Yan; Tao, Dacheng


    How do we find all images in a larger set of images which have a specific content? Or estimate the position of a specific object relative to the camera? Image classification methods, like support vector machine (supervised) and transductive support vector machine (semi-supervised), are invaluable tools for the applications of content-based image retrieval, pose estimation, and optical character recognition. However, these methods only can handle the images represented by single feature. In many cases, different features (or multiview data) can be obtained, and how to efficiently utilize them is a challenge. It is inappropriate for the traditionally concatenating schema to link features of different views into a long vector. The reason is each view has its specific statistical property and physical interpretation. In this paper, we propose a high-order distance-based multiview stochastic learning (HD-MSL) method for image classification. HD-MSL effectively combines varied features into a unified representation and integrates the labeling information based on a probabilistic framework. In comparison with the existing strategies, our approach adopts the high-order distance obtained from the hypergraph to replace pairwise distance in estimating the probability matrix of data distribution. In addition, the proposed approach can automatically learn a combination coefficient for each view, which plays an important role in utilizing the complementary information of multiview data. An alternative optimization is designed to solve the objective functions of HD-MSL and obtain different views on coefficients and classification scores simultaneously. Experiments on two real world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of HD-MSL in image classification. PMID:25415948

  20. ESP pedagogy: Blending low and high order thinking

    Yuvienco, Janette Custodio


    Full Text Available Conventional teaching of English has followed a gradual and linear procedure of learning –from vocabulary to phrase to sentence to paragraph. We are familiar with classroom situations where the teacher starts with lecturing about the target language: Firstly, going through a list of vocabulary, then translating words; singling out phrases where a word may be used, then, reading a sentence where the words may be used; finally, walking students through paragraphs, slowly and carefully explaining the grammatical and contextual information in them. In the present Techo-Info Age, however, this approach to learning may prove irrelevant given the amount of information we see, read and hear in different parts of the world at varying contexts and at distinct phases of the development of the language. This paper reports a study on Technology-based pedagogy; it describes and defines the elements of Genre-based pedagogical framework, an ICT-supported set of procedures of teaching Business English at Higher Education which includes showcasing, highlighting, transferring, in order for students to notice, compare and integrate - cognitive skills that encompass both low and high order thinking. Adopting Fink’s (2003 instructional procedures and taking into account Schmidt’s (1990 Noticing Hypothesis; the framework identifies three aspects of consciousness within language learning: awareness, intention and knowledge thus, seeking to arrive at significant, deliberate learning. Guided by this principle, the last section of the paper proposes a proto-syllabus (Breen, 1989 which elaborates the components of a Business English course. Intermeshing knowledge and skills into teaching, the proto-syllabus contains the following: (1 authentic materials which include genre-specific resources (e.g., writing training course leaflet, writing press release, etc. and straightforwardly demonstrate the elements of commercial documents and the criteria for evaluating

  1. Automated breast tissue density assessment using high order regional texture descriptors in mammography

    Law, Yan Nei; Lieng, Monica Keiko; Li, Jingmei; Khoo, David Aik-Aun


    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death among women in the US. The relative survival rate is lower among women with a more advanced stage at diagnosis. Early detection through screening is vital. Mammography is the most widely used and only proven screening method for reliably and effectively detecting abnormal breast tissues. In particular, mammographic density is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors, after age and gender, and can be used to assess the future risk of disease before individuals become symptomatic. A reliable method for automatic density assessment would be beneficial and could assist radiologists in the evaluation of mammograms. To address this problem, we propose a density classification method which uses statistical features from different parts of the breast. Our method is composed of three parts: breast region identification, feature extraction and building ensemble classifiers for density assessment. It explores the potential of the features extracted from second and higher order statistical information for mammographic density classification. We further investigate the registration of bilateral pairs and time-series of mammograms. The experimental results on 322 mammograms demonstrate that (1) a classifier using features from dense regions has higher discriminative power than a classifier using only features from the whole breast region; (2) these high-order features can be effectively combined to boost the classification accuracy; (3) a classifier using these statistical features from dense regions achieves 75% accuracy, which is a significant improvement from 70% accuracy obtained by the existing approaches.

  2. A high order multi-resolution solver for the Poisson equation with application to vortex methods

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Spietz, Henrik Juul; Walther, Jens Honore

    A high order method is presented for solving the Poisson equation subject to mixed free-space and periodic boundary conditions by using fast Fourier transforms (FFT). The high order convergence is achieved by deriving mollified Green’s functions from a high order regularization function which...

  3. High-Order Bessel-Gaussian Beam and its Propagation Properties

    陆璇辉; 陈许敏; 张蕾; 薛大建


    A high-order Bessel-Gaussian mode is introduced to describe hollow beams. The results for high-order BesselGaussian beams propagating through lens focusing system and free space are derived in terms of Collins integral formula. The diffraction patterns and profile for high-order Bessel-Gaussian beams propagating through the above-mentioned optical systems are illustrated.

  4. Numerical survey of pressure wave propagation around and inside an underground cavity with high order FEM

    Esterhazy, Sofi; Schneider, Felix; Schöberl, Joachim; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz


    The research on purely numerical methods for modeling seismic waves has been more and more intensified over last decades. This development is mainly driven by the fact that on the one hand for subsurface models of interest in exploration and global seismology exact analytic solutions do not exist, but, on the other hand, retrieving full seismic waveforms is important to get insides into spectral characteristics and for the interpretation of seismic phases and amplitudes. Furthermore, the computational potential has dramatically increased in the recent past such that it became worthwhile to perform computations for large-scale problems as those arising in the field of computational seismology. Algorithms based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) are becoming increasingly popular for the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in geophysical models as they provide more geometrical flexibility in terms of complexity as well as heterogeneity of the materials. In particular, we want to demonstrate the benefit of high-order FEMs as they also provide a better control on the accuracy. Our computations are done with the parallel Finite Element Library NGSOLVE ontop of the automatic 2D/3D mesh generator NETGEN ( Further we are interested in the generation of synthetic seismograms including direct, refracted and converted waves in correlation to the presence of an underground cavity and the detailed simulation of the comprehensive wave field inside and around such a cavity that would have been created by a nuclear explosion. The motivation of this application comes from the need to find evidence of a nuclear test as they are forbidden by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). With this approach it is possible for us to investigate the wave field over a large bandwidth of wave numbers. This again will help to provide a better understanding on the characteristic signatures of an underground cavity, improve the protocols for

  5. A high order energy preserving scheme for the strongly coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system

    A high order energy preserving scheme for a strongly coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system is proposed by using the average vector field method. The high order energy preserving scheme is applied to simulate the soliton evolution of the strongly coupled Schrödinger system. Numerical results show that the high order energy preserving scheme can well simulate the soliton evolution, moreover, it preserves the discrete energy of the strongly coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system exactly. (general)

  6. Linear High-Order Distributed Average Consensus Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Xiong Gang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a linear high-order distributed average consensus (DAC algorithm for wireless sensor networks. The average consensus property and the convergence rate of the high-order DAC algorithm are analyzed. In particular, the convergence rate is determined by the spectral radius of a network topology-dependent matrix. Numerical results indicate that this simple linear high-order DAC algorithm can accelerate the convergence without additional communication overhead and reconfiguration of network topology.

  7. Generation of High-order Group-velocity-locked Vector Solitons

    Jin, X X; Zhang, Q; Li, L; Tang, D Y; Shen, D Y; Fu, S N; Liu, D M; Zhao, L M


    We report numerical simulations on the high-order group-velocity-locked vector soliton (GVLVS) generation based on the fundamental GVLVS. The high-order GVLVS generated is characterized with a two-humped pulse along one polarization while a single-humped pulse along the orthogonal polarization. The phase difference between the two humps could be 180 degree. It is found that by appropriate setting the time separation between the two components of the fundamental GVLVS, the high-order GVLVS with different pulse width and pulse intensity could be obtained. 1+2 and 2+2 type high-order GVLVS could be either obtained.

  8. Practical aspects of spherical near-field antenna measurements using a high-order probe

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Breinbjerg, Olav


    Two practical aspects related to accurate antenna pattern characterization by probe-corrected spherical near-field antenna measurements with a high-order probe are examined. First, the requirements set by an arbitrary high-order probe on the scanning technique are pointed out. Secondly, a channel...

  9. Convergency analysis of the high-order mimetic finite difference method

    Lipnikov, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veiga Da Beirao, L [UNIV DEGLI STUDI; Manzini, G [NON LANL


    We prove second-order convergence of the conservative variable and its flux in the high-order MFD method. The convergence results are proved for unstructured polyhedral meshes and full tensor diffusion coefficients. For the case of non-constant coefficients, we also develop a new family of high-order MFD methods. Theoretical result are confirmed through numerical experiments.

  10. Numerical Study on Turbulent Airfoil Noise with High-Order Schemes

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    High-order finite difference schemes are introduced in the flow/acoustics splitting technique for predicting flow generated noise. The flow equations are solved by a second-order finite volume method whereas the acoustic equations are solved by high-order finite difference schemes. At each time...

  11. Effects of high-order dispersions on dark-bright vector soliton propagation and interaction

    Hong Li; Dongning Wang


    The dynamics of dark-bright vector solitons is investigated in a birefringent fiber with the high-order dispersions, and their effects on vector soliton propagation and interaction are analyzed using the numerical method. The combined role of the high-order dispersions, such as the third-order dispersion (TOD) and the fourth-order dispersion (FOD), may cause various deformation of the vector soliton and enhance interaction. These effects depend strictly on the sign of the high-order dispersions. Results indicate that the disadvantageous effects can be reduced effectively via proper mapping of the high-order dispersions.%@@ The dynamics of dark-bright vector solitons is investigated in a birefringent fiber with the high-order dispersions, and their effects on vector soliton propagation and interaction are analyzed using the numerical method.The combined role of the high-order dispersions, such as the third-order dispersion (TOD) and the fourth-order dispersion (FOD), may cause various deformation of the vector soliton and enhance interaction.These effects depend strictly on the sign of the high-order dispersions.Results indicate that the disadvantageous effects can be reduced effectively via proper mapping of the high-order dispersions.

  12. High sensitive detection of high-order partial wave scattering in photoassociation of ultralcold atoms

    Li Yu-Qing; Ma Jie; Wu Ji-Zhou; Zhang Yi-Chi; Zhao Yan-Ting; Wang Li-Rong; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang


    We report on the observation of enhanced high-order partial wave scattering from atom-atom interaction via changing the temperature of a magneto-optical trap in the process of photoassociation. The high-order scattering partial wave is directly manifested through the large signal amplitude of the rovibrational resonance levels of trap-loss spectroscopy from photoassociation.

  13. Quantum and quasi-classical analyses of high order emission processes

    Schafer, K.J.; Kulander, K.C.


    High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions cuts off in accord with the simple rule: E{sub c} {approximately} I{sub p} + 3U{sub p}. This cutoff rule as well as the lack of a cutoff in high- order electron energy spectra can be understood via a simple extension of existing two step quasi-classical models.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Zero and High Order Laue Zones Effects on the Exit Wave Function

    Canying CAI; Qibin YANG; Hongrong LIU; Yanguo WANG


    The exit wave function including zero and high order Laue zones has been simulated by both multi-slice method and electron dynamic diffraction analytical expression. Coincidence of the simulations by these two methods was achieved. The calculated results showed that the exit wave function highly dominated by zero order Laue zone,while high order ones modify the exit wave function to some extent depending on the situation. High order Laue zone effects become important for the following cases: sample consists of light elements, the thickness is very thin,lattice planar spacing perpendicular to the direction of the incident beam is large, and the electron beam has long wavelength. In these cases the exit wave function should be corrected by adding high order Laue zone effects. The analytical expression is effective and convenient for dealing with high order Laue zone effects.

  15. High-Order Calderón Preconditioned Time Domain Integral Equation Solvers

    Valdes, Felipe


    Two high-order accurate Calderón preconditioned time domain electric field integral equation (TDEFIE) solvers are presented. In contrast to existing Calderón preconditioned time domain solvers, the proposed preconditioner allows for high-order surface representations and current expansions by using a novel set of fully-localized high-order div-and quasi curl-conforming (DQCC) basis functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the linear systems of equations obtained using the proposed basis functions converge rapidly, regardless of the mesh density and of the order of the current expansion. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  16. Application of high-order diamond differencing schemes to 3D Cartesian geometries

    An innovative high-order discrete ordinate method for the resolution of the time-independent Boltzmann transport equation in 3D Cartesian geometries is presented. This approach consists in a generalization of the classical diamond differencing scheme to high-order spatial approximations. To insure convergence of the source iteration in presence of high diffusive and strong heterogeneous media, diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) has been implemented, conjugated with a Krylov subspace method, GMRES(m). We provide numerical comparisons of this 3D high-order SN method with SPn and Monte- Carlo reference calculations. (authors)

  17. A Novel Method for Decoding Any High-Order Hidden Markov Model

    Fei Ye; Yifei Wang


    This paper proposes a novel method for decoding any high-order hidden Markov model. First, the high-order hidden Markov model is transformed into an equivalent first-order hidden Markov model by Hadar’s transformation. Next, the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model is recognized by the existing Viterbi algorithm of the first-order hidden Markov model. Finally, the optimal state sequence of the high-order hidden Markov model is inferred from the optimal stat...

  18. Expanding the plateau of high-order harmonic spectrum by multi-color synthesized laser field

    We propose a scheme to extend the plateau of high-order harmonic spectrum by using multi- color synthesized laser field. Firstly, the two-color and three-color laser fields are synthesized by adding control laser pulse to the 800 nm fundamental pulse. Secondly, the high-order harmonic spectra are presented via numerically solving the one-dimensional time-dependent Schrodinger equation in multi-color synthesized laser field, and the results show that the width can be expended effectively. Finally, the high-order harmonic spectra are explained reasonably by means of classical returning kinetic-energy map and the time-frequency distribution. (authors)

  19. Generation of XUV to soft x-ray radiation by high-order harmonics and its application. High-order harmonic generation by an ultrafast near infrared pulse

    We present the two results of high-order harmonic generation experiment by using an ultrafast near infrared (NIR) pulse, one is the generation of a coherent water window x-ray under a neutral-medium condition, and the other is the generation of a continuum high-order harmonic spectrum by mixing multicycle two-color NIR laser fields. Our proposed generation scheme, combining an NIR (1600 nm) laser driver and a neutral medium, is efficient and scalable in output yields of the water window x-ray. And also, by optimizing the wavelength of a supplementary NIR pulse in a two-color field, a continuum harmonic spectrum was created around the cutoff region without carrier-envelope phase stabilization. The obtained harmonic spectra clearly show the possibility of generating isolated attosecond pulses from multicycle two-color laser fields. This concept opens the door to create an intense, isolated attosecond pulse using a conventional femtosecond laser system. (author)

  20. High-order harmonic generation in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-\\mu m source: high-order harmonic spectroscopy under macroscopic effects

    Hong, Kyung-Han; Gkortsas, Vasileios-Marios; Huang, Shu-Wei; Moses, Jeffrey; Granados, Eduardo; Bhardwaj, Siddharth; Kärtner, Franz X


    We experimentally and numerically study the atomic response and pulse propagation effects of high-order harmonics generated in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-\\mu m infrared femtosecond light source. The light source is an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier, and a modified strong-field approximation and 3-dimensional pulse propagation code are used for the numerical simulations. The extended cutoff in the long-wavelength driven high-harmonic generation has revealed the spectral shaping of high-order harmonics due to the atomic structure (or photo-recombination cross-section) and the macroscopic effects, which are the main factors of determining the conversion efficiency besides the driving wavelength. Using precise numerical simulations to determine the macroscopic electron wavepacket, we are able to extract the photo-recombination cross-sections from experimental high-order harmonic spectra in the presence of macroscopic effects. We have experimentally observed that the macroscopic effects shift the o...

  1. High Order Wavelet-Based Multiresolution Technology for Airframe Noise Prediction Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integrated framework is proposed for efficient prediction of rotorcraft and airframe noise. A novel wavelet-based multiresolution technique and high-order...

  2. High-order Finite Elements on Pyramids: Approximation Spaces, Unisolvency and Exactness

    Nigam, Nilima; Phillips, Joel


    We present a family of high-order finite element approximation spaces on a pyramid, and associated unisolvent degrees of freedom. These spaces consist of rational basis functions. We establish conforming, exactness and polynomial approximation properties.

  3. Phase Random Walk Trace in High-order Coherence of Two First-order Incoherent Sources

    Hong, Peilong


    High-order coherence effects between two first-order incoherent sources with fully independent phases have been well studied in the literature, which shows interference fringes with respect to the position separations among different space points. Here we show that this is not the whole story, and find that the high-order coherence effects depend on the mode of the phase random walk of the first-order incoherent sources, which can be controlled artificially and represented geometrically by vectorial polygons. Interestingly, by scanning the detectors along the same direction with the position separations between them kept constant, a set of high-order coherence fringes, which fingerprint the phase random walk of the first-order incoherent sources, can be observed. Our results show that it is possible to control the high-order coherence of two first-order incoherent sources, which could have important practical applications such as superhigh resolution optical lithography.

  4. High-order accurate monotone difference schemes for solving gasdynamic problems by Godunov's method with antidiffusion

    Moiseev, N. Ya.


    An approach to the construction of high-order accurate monotone difference schemes for solving gasdynamic problems by Godunov's method with antidiffusion is proposed. Godunov's theorem on monotone schemes is used to construct a new antidiffusion flux limiter in high-order accurate difference schemes as applied to linear advection equations with constant coefficients. The efficiency of the approach is demonstrated by solving linear advection equations with constant coefficients and one-dimensional gasdynamic equations.

  5. High-order harmonic generation in carbon-nanotube-containing plasma plumes

    High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in carbon-nanotube (CNT)-containing plasma plumes has been demonstrated. Various targets were ablated to produce the plasma plumes containing nanotubes for the HHG in these media. Harmonics up to the 29th order were generated. Odd and even harmonics were generated using a two-color pump. The integrity of CNTs within the plasma plume, indicating nanotubes as the source of high-order harmonics, was confirmed by structural studies of plasma debris.

  6. Technical Training on High-Order Spectral Analysis and Thermal Anemometry Applications

    Maslov, A. A.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Sidirenko, A. A.; Bountin, D. A.


    The topics of thermal anemometry and high-order spectral analyses were the subject of the technical training. Specifically, the objective of the technical training was to study: (i) the recently introduced constant voltage anemometer (CVA) for high-speed boundary layer; and (ii) newly developed high-order spectral analysis techniques (HOSA). Both CVA and HOSA are relevant tools for studies of boundary layer transition and stability.

  7. A High-Order Finite Spectral Volume Method for Conservation Laws on Unstructured Grids

    Wang, Z. J.; Liu, Yen; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)


    A time accurate, high-order, conservative, yet efficient method named Finite Spectral Volume (FSV) is developed for conservation laws on unstructured grids. The concept of a 'spectral volume' is introduced to achieve high-order accuracy in an efficient manner similar to spectral element and multi-domain spectral methods. In addition, each spectral volume is further sub-divided into control volumes (CVs), and cell-averaged data from these control volumes is used to reconstruct a high-order approximation in the spectral volume. Riemann solvers are used to compute the fluxes at spectral volume boundaries. Then cell-averaged state variables in the control volumes are updated independently. Furthermore, TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) and TVB (Total Variation Bounded) limiters are introduced in the FSV method to remove/reduce spurious oscillations near discontinuities. A very desirable feature of the FSV method is that the reconstruction is carried out only once, and analytically, and is the same for all cells of the same type, and that the reconstruction stencil is always non-singular, in contrast to the memory and CPU-intensive reconstruction in a high-order finite volume (FV) method. Discussions are made concerning why the FSV method is significantly more efficient than high-order finite volume and the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. Fundamental properties of the FSV method are studied and high-order accuracy is demonstrated for several model problems with and without discontinuities.

  8. An adaptive high-order hybrid scheme for compressive, viscous flows with detailed chemistry

    Ziegler, Jack L.; Deiterding, Ralf; Shepherd, Joseph E.; Pullin, D. I.


    A hybrid weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO)/centered-difference numerical method, with low numerical dissipation, high-order shock-capturing, and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR), has been developed for the direct numerical simulation of the multicomponent, compressible, reactive Navier-Stokes equations. The method enables accurate resolution of diffusive processes within reaction zones. The approach combines time-split reactive source terms with a high-order, shock-capturing scheme specifically designed for diffusive flows. A description of the order-optimized, symmetric, finite difference, flux-based, hybrid WENO/centered-difference scheme is given, along with its implementation in a high-order SAMR framework. The implementation of new techniques for discontinuity flagging, scheme-switching, and high-order prolongation and restriction is described. In particular, the refined methodology does not require upwinded WENO at grid refinement interfaces for stability, allowing high-order prolongation and thereby eliminating a significant source of numerical diffusion within the overall code performance. A series of one-and two-dimensional test problems is used to verify the implementation, specifically the high-order accuracy of the diffusion terms. One-dimensional benchmarks include a viscous shock wave and a laminar flame. In two-space dimensions, a Lamb-Oseen vortex and an unstable diffusive detonation are considered, for which quantitative convergence is demonstrated. Further, a two-dimensional high-resolution simulation of a reactive Mach reflection phenomenon with diffusive multi-species mixing is presented.

  9. Tumor Classification Using High-Order Gene Expression Profiles Based on Multilinear ICA

    Ming-gang Du


    Full Text Available Motivation. Independent Components Analysis (ICA maximizes the statistical independence of the representational components of a training gene expression profiles (GEP ensemble, but it cannot distinguish relations between the different factors, or different modes, and it is not available to high-order GEP Data Mining. In order to generalize ICA, we introduce Multilinear-ICA and apply it to tumor classification using high order GEP. Firstly, we introduce the basis conceptions and operations of tensor and recommend Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier and Multilinear-ICA. Secondly, the higher score genes of original high order GEP are selected by using t-statistics and tabulate tensors. Thirdly, the tensors are performed by Multilinear-ICA. Finally, the SVM is used to classify the tumor subtypes. Results. To show the validity of the proposed method, we apply it to tumor classification using high order GEP. Though we only use three datasets, the experimental results show that the method is effective and feasible. Through this survey, we hope to gain some insight into the problem of high order GEP tumor classification, in aid of further developing more effective tumor classification algorithms.

  10. Arbitrary Truncated Levy Flight: Asymmetrical Truncation and High-Order Correlations

    Vinogradov, Dmitry V


    The generalized correlation approach, which has been successfully used in statistical radio physics to describe non-Gaussian random processes, is proposed to describe stochastic financial processes. The generalized correlation approach has been used to describe a non-Gaussian random walk with independent, identically distributed increments in the general case, and high-order correlations have been investigated. The cumulants of an asymmetrically truncated Levy distribution have been found. The behaviors of asymmetrically truncated Levy flight, as a particular case of a random walk, are considered. It is shown that, in the Levy regime, high-order correlations between values of asymmetrically truncated Levy flight exist. The source of high-order correlations is the non-Gaussianity of the increments: the increment skewness generates threefold correlation, and the increment kurtosis generates fourfold correlation.

  11. High-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules including nuclear motion and a nuclear modes analysis

    Madsen, Christian Bruun; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer


    We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters as...... a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH4 and CD4...... and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker et al., Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane....

  12. A numerical resolution study of high order essentially non-oscillatory schemes applied to incompressible flow

    Weinan, E.; Shu, Chi-Wang


    High order essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) schemes, originally designed for compressible flow and in general for hyperbolic conservation laws, are applied to incompressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with periodic boundary conditions. The projection to divergence-free velocity fields is achieved by fourth order central differences through Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) and a mild high-order filtering. The objective of this work is to assess the resolution of ENO schemes for large scale features of the flow when a coarse grid is used and small scale features of the flow, such as shears and roll-ups, are not fully resolved. It is found that high-order ENO schemes remain stable under such situations and quantities related to large-scale features, such as the total circulation around the roll-up region, are adequately resolved.

  13. Vibrational resonance: a study with high-order word-series averaging

    Murua, Ander


    We study a model problem describing vibrational resonance by means of a high-order averaging technique based on so-called word series. With the tech- nique applied here, the tasks of constructing the averaged system and the associ- ated change of variables are divided into two parts. It is first necessary to build recursively a set of so-called word basis functions and, after that, all the required manipulations involve only scalar coefficients that are computed by means of sim- ple recursions. As distinct from the situation with other approaches, with word- series, high-order averaged systems may be derived without having to compute the associated change of variables. In the system considered here, the construction of high-order averaged systems makes it possible to obtain very precise approxima- tions to the true dynamics.

  14. Giant Faraday rotation of high-order plasmonic modes in graphene-covered nanowires

    Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Shavrov, Vladimir G; Temnov, Vasily V


    Plasmonic Faraday rotation in nanowires manifests itself in the rotation of the spatial intensity distribution of high-order surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes around the nanowire axis. Here we predict theoretically the giant Faraday rotation for SPP propagating on graphene-coated magneto-optically active nanowires. Upon the reversal of the external magnetic field pointing along the nanowire axis some high-order plasmonic modes may be rotated by up to ~ 100 degrees on scale of about 500 nm at mid-infrared frequencies. Tuning carrier concentration in graphene by chemical doping or gate voltage allows for controlling SPP-properties and notably the rotation angle of high-order azimuthal modes. Our results open the door to novel plasmonic applications ranging from nanowire-based Faraday isolators to the magnetic control in quantum-optical applications.

  15. Very High Order $\\PNM$ Schemes on Unstructured Meshes for the Resistive Relativistic MHD Equations

    Dumbser, Michael


    In this paper we propose the first better than second order accurate method in space and time for the numerical solution of the resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RRMHD) equations on unstructured meshes in multiple space dimensions. The nonlinear system under consideration is purely hyperbolic and contains a source term, the one for the evolution of the electric field, that becomes stiff for low values of the resistivity. For the spatial discretization we propose to use high order $\\PNM$ schemes as introduced in \\cite{Dumbser2008} for hyperbolic conservation laws and a high order accurate unsplit time discretization is achieved using the element-local space-time discontinuous Galerkin approach proposed in \\cite{DumbserEnauxToro} for one-dimensional balance laws with stiff source terms. The divergence free character of the magnetic field is accounted for through the divergence cleaning procedure of Dedner et al. \\cite{Dedneretal}. To validate our high order method we first solve some numerical test c...

  16. Consensus Analysis of High-Order Multiagent Systems with General Topology and Asymmetric Time-Delays

    Fangcui Jiang


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the consensus problem for high-order multiagent systems (MAS with directed network and asymmetric time-varying time-delays. It is proved that the high-order multiagent system can reach consensus when the network topology contains a spanning tree and time-delay is bounded. The main contribution of this paper is that a Lyapunov-like design framework for the explicit selection of protocol parameters is provided. The Lyapunov-like design guarantees the robust consensus of the high-order multiagent system with respect to asymmetric time-delays and is independent of the exact knowledge of the topology when the communication linkages among agents are undirected and connected.

  17. A high order regularisation method for solving the Poisson equation and selected applications using vortex methods

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm

    the appropriate regularised Green’s functions. Using an analogy to the particle-particle particle-mesh method, a framework for calculating multi-resolution solutions using local refinement patches is presented. The regularised Poisson solver is shown to maintain a high order converging solution for different...... configurations of the refinement patches.The regularised Poisson solver has been implemented in a high order particle-mesh based vortex method for simulating incompressible fluid flow. A re-meshing of the vortex particlesis used to ensure the convergence of the method and a re-projection of the vorticity field...... is included to explicitly fulfil the kinematic constraints of the flow field. The high order, unbounded particle-mesh based vortex method is used to simulate the instability, transition to turbulence and eventual destruction of a single vortex ring. From the simulation data, a novel analysis on the vortex...

  18. High order volume-preserving algorithms for relativistic charged particles in general electromagnetic fields

    He, Yang; Zhang, Ruili; Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong


    We construct high order symmetric volume-preserving methods for the relativistic dynamics of a charged particle by the splitting technique with processing. Via expanding the phase space to include time $t$, we give a more general construction of volume-preserving methods that can be applied to systems with time-dependent electromagnetic fields. The newly derived methods provide numerical solutions with good accuracy and conservative properties over long time of simulation. Furthermore, because of the use of processing technique the high order methods are explicit, and cost less than the methods derived from standard compositions, thus are more efficient. The results are verified by the numerical experiments. Linear stability analysis of the methods show that the high order processed method allows larger time step size during integration.

  19. Multipass relativistic high-order-harmonic generation for intense attosecond pulses

    Edwards, Matthew R.; Mikhailova, Julia M.


    We demonstrate that the total reflected field produced by the interaction of a moderately relativistic laser with dense plasma is itself an efficient driver of high-order-harmonic generation. A system of two or more successive interactions of an incident laser beam on solid targets may therefore be an experimentally realizable method of optimizing conversion of laser energy to high-order harmonics. Particle-in-cell simulations suggest that attosecond pulse intensity may be increased by up to four orders of magnitude in a multipass system, with decreased duration of the attosecond pulse train. We discuss high-order-harmonic wave-form engineering for enhanced attosecond pulse generation with an electron trajectory model, present the behavior of multipass systems over a range of parameters, and offer possible routes towards experimental implementation of a two-pass system.

  20. High order filtering methods for approximating hyberbolic systems of conservation laws

    Lafon, F.; Osher, S.


    In the computation of discontinuous solutions of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, the recently developed essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) schemes appear to be very useful. However, they are computationally costly compared to simple central difference methods. A filtering method which is developed uses simple central differencing of arbitrarily high order accuracy, except when a novel local test indicates the development of spurious oscillations. At these points, the full ENO apparatus is used, maintaining the high order of accuracy, but removing spurious oscillations. Numerical results indicate the success of the method. High order of accuracy was obtained in regions of smooth flow without spurious oscillations for a wide range of problems and a significant speed up of generally a factor of almost three over the full ENO method.

  1. Gravitational waveforms from binary neutron star mergers with high-order WENO schemes in numerical relativity

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano


    The theoretical modeling of gravitational waveforms from binary neutron star mergers requires precise numerical relativity simulations. Assessing convergence of the numerical data and building the error budget is currently challenging due to the low accuracy of general-relativistic hydrodynamics schemes and to the grid resolutions that can be employed in (3+1)-dimensional simulations. In this work, we explore the use of high-order weighted-essentially-non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes in neutron star merger simulations and investigate the accuracy of the waveforms obtained with such methods. We find that high-order WENO schemes can be robustly employed for simulating the inspiral-merger phase and they significantly improve the assessment of the waveform's error budget with respect to finite-volume methods. High-order WENO schemes can be thus efficiently used for high-quality waveforms production, also in future large-scale investigations of the binary parameter space.

  2. Giant Faraday Rotation of High-Order Plasmonic Modes in Graphene-Covered Nanowires.

    Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Bychkov, Igor V; Shavrov, Vladimir G; Temnov, Vasily V


    Plasmonic Faraday rotation in nanowires manifests itself in the rotation of the spatial intensity distribution of high-order surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes around the nanowire axis. Here we predict theoretically the giant Faraday rotation for SPPs propagating on graphene-coated magneto-optically active nanowires. Upon the reversal of the external magnetic field pointing along the nanowire axis some high-order plasmonic modes may be rotated by up to ∼100° on the length scale of about 500 nm at mid-infrared frequencies. Tuning the carrier concentration in graphene by chemical doping or gate voltage allows for controlling SPP-properties and notably the rotation angle of high-order azimuthal modes. Our results open the door to novel plasmonic applications ranging from nanowire-based Faraday isolators to the magnetic control in quantum-optical applications. PMID:27348746

  3. High-order discontinuous Galerkin methods for coupled thermoconvective flows under gravity modulation

    Papanicolaou, N. C.; Aristotelous, A. C.


    In this work, we develop a High-Order Symmetric Interior Penalty (SIP) Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Finite Element Method (FEM) to investigate convective flows in a rectangular cavity subject to both vertical and horizontal temperature gradients. The whole cavity is subject to gravity modulation (g-jitter), simulating a microgravity environment. The sensitivity of the bifurcation problem makes the use of a high-order accurate and efficient technique essential. Our method is validated by solving the plane-parallel flow problem and the results were found to be in good agreement with published results. The numerical method was designed to be easily extendable to even more complex flows.

  4. Computational Aero-Acoustic Using High-order Finite-Difference Schemes

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    In this paper, a high-order technique to accurately predict flow-generated noise is introduced. The technique consists of solving the viscous incompressible flow equations and inviscid acoustic equations using a incompressible/compressible splitting technique. The incompressible flow equations are solved using the in-house flow solver EllipSys2D/3D which is a second-order finite volume code. The acoustic solution is found by solving the acoustic equations using high-order finite difference sc...

  5. Preparation of highly-ordered carbon nanotube arrays in the anodized alumina template

    A highly-ordered, hexagonally arranged alumina nanopore template was prepared by self-organized two-step anodization process of aluminium in oxalic acid solution. Highly parallel pores were obtained within domains of a few micrometers. Highly-ordered, parallel carbon nanotube arrays were successfully grown in the alumina template nanopores by chemical vapor deposition catalyzed by alumina itself. The nanotube arrays are suitable for channeling of particle beams. The structures of aluminium, alumina template and carbon nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). The growth mechanism and formation condition of both alumina template and carbon nanotube were discussed. (authors)

  6. Neurodynamics-Based Robust Pole Assignment for High-Order Descriptor Systems.

    Le, Xinyi; Wang, Jun


    In this paper, a neurodynamic optimization approach is proposed for synthesizing high-order descriptor linear systems with state feedback control via robust pole assignment. With a new robustness measure serving as the objective function, the robust eigenstructure assignment problem is formulated as a pseudoconvex optimization problem. A neurodynamic optimization approach is applied and shown to be capable of maximizing the robust stability margin for high-order singular systems with guaranteed optimality and exact pole assignment. Two numerical examples and vehicle vibration control application are discussed to substantiate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:26357408

  7. Quasi phase matching for high order harmonic generation induced by the carrier-envelope phase

    Faccio, Daniele; Serrat, Carles; Cela, Jose M.; Di Trapani, Albert Farres Paolo; Biegert, Jens


    We report a novel quasi-phase matching technique for high-order harmonic generation in low-density gases. Numerical simulations show that in few-optical cycle pulsed Bessel beams it is possible to control the pulse envelope and phase velocities which in turn allows to control the carrier-envelope phase during propagation. The resulting oscillations in the peak intensity allow to phase-match the high-order harmonic generation process with a nearly two decade enhancement in the XUV power spectrum.

  8. Flat-top phase-matched high-order harmonics in gas-filled cell

    Xinhua Xie(谢新华); Zhinan Zeng(曾志男); Ruxin Li(李儒新); Yunpei Deng(邓蕴沛); Haihe Lu(陆海鹤); Dingjun Yin(印定军); Zhizhan Xu(徐至展)


    Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in Ar gas-filled cell is investigated experimentally. We obtain phase-matched 27th order harmonic driven by a commercially available solid-state femtosecond laser system at 0.55 m J/pulse energy level and 1-kHz repetition rate. Moreover, we find that the spatial distribution of intensity of high-order harmonics is flat-top profile other than a Gaussian one under the condition of optimized conversion efficiency in the static gas cell.

  9. High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.


    Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.

  10. Benchmarking with the multigroup diffusion high-order response matrix method

    The benchmarking capabilities of the high-order response matrix eigenvalue method, which was developed more than a decade ago, are demonstrated by means of the numerical analysis of a variety of two-dimensional Cartesian geometry light-water reactor test problems. These problems are typical of those generally used for the benchmarking of coarse-mesh (nodal) diffusion methods and the numerical results show that the high-order response matrix eigenvalue method is well suited to be used as an alternative to fine-mesh finite-difference and refined mesh nodal methods for the purpose of generating reference solutions to such problems. (author)

  11. A Rapid Method for the Synthesis of Highly Ordered MCM-41

    Mohammad Teymouri


    Full Text Available In the present work MCM-41 material was synthesized by a rapid method. The calcined material was characterized using XRD, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen physisorption. The XRD pattern of calcined sample shows five well-defined peaks that indicates highly ordered MCM-41 material was synthesized. The SEM image reveals that the sample particles are in nanometer range. The isotherm of Nitrogen demonstrates a nearly reversible behavior which implies highly ordered MCM-41 material was synthesized by this method. The BET specific surface area of the sample is about 910 m3g-1. This method is also rapid and simple and results in high quality MCM-41 material.

  12. High order single step time delay compensation algorithm for structural active control

    王焕定; 耿淑伟; 王伟


    The optimal instantaneous high order single step algorithm for active control is first discussed andthen, the n + 1 time step controlling force vector of the instantaneous optimal algorithm is derived from way of ntime state vector. An estimating algorithm, is developed from this to solve the problem of active control withtime delay compensation. The estimating algorithm based on this high order single step β method (HSM) foun-dation, is proven by simulation and experiment analysis, to be a valid solution to problem of active control withtime delay compensation.

  13. Room temperature NO2 sensor based on highly ordered porphyrin nanotubes.

    Song, Feifei; Ma, Pan; Chen, Changlong; Jia, Jingna; Wang, Yucheng; Zhu, Peihua


    Highly ordered nanotubes of 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)porphyrin zinc (ZnTAP) are fabricated by using nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane as the template. Electronic absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques are adopted to characterize these nanotubes. The highly ordered nanotubes of ZnTAP show good conductivity and present an efficient gas sensor platform for the ultrasensitive detection of NO2 under room temperature. The proposed sensor shows high sensitivity, reproducibility and fast response/recovery behavior, and provides a promising avenue for improving the sensing performance. PMID:27100904

  14. High Order Centrifugal Distortion Corrections to Energy Levels of Asymmetric Top Molecules

    LIU Yu-Yan; LIU Xiao-Yong; LIU Hong-Ping; GUO Yuan-Qing; HUANG Guang-Ming; LIN Jie-Li; GAO Hui


    High order centrifugal distortion terms have been derived and added to the effective Hamiltonian of asymmetric top molecules. Based on this Hamiltonian, a program in Fortran 77 has been developed for spectral analysis of asymmetric top molecules. The high order centrifugal distortion terms are found to be non-negligible even for the low-lying rotational transitions of molecules, such as Ha 18O, subjected to severe centrifugal distortion effect,and for the high-lying rotational transitions of molecules, such as 14N16O2 subjected to the moderate centrifugal distortion effect.

  15. Probing rotational wave-packet dynamics with the structural minimum in high-order harmonic spectra

    Qin, Meiyan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Qingbin; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang


    We investigate the alignment-dependent high-order harmonic spectrum generated from nonadiabatically aligned molecules around the first half rotational revival. It is found that the evolution of the molecular alignment is encoded in the structural minima. To reveal the relation between the molecular alignment and the structural minimum in the high-order harmonic spectrum, we perform an analysis based on the two-center interference model. Our analysis shows that the structural minimum position depends linearly on the inverse of the alignment parameter $$. This linear relation indicates the possibility of probing the rotational wave-packet dynamics by measuring the spectral minima.

  16. High order filtering methods for approximating hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    Lafon, F.; Osher, S.


    The essentially nonoscillatory (ENO) schemes, while potentially useful in the computation of discontinuous solutions of hyperbolic conservation-law systems, are computationally costly relative to simple central-difference methods. A filtering technique is presented which employs central differencing of arbitrarily high-order accuracy except where a local test detects the presence of spurious oscillations and calls upon the full ENO apparatus to remove them. A factor-of-three speedup is thus obtained over the full-ENO method for a wide range of problems, with high-order accuracy in regions of smooth flow.

  17. Theoretical studies of high-order harmonic generation: Effects of symmetry, degeneracy, and orientation

    Using a quantum-mechanical three-step model, we present numerical calculations of the high-order harmonic generation from four polyatomic molecules. Ethylene (C2H4) serves as an example where orbital symmetry directly affects the harmonic yield. We treat the case of methane (CH4) to address the high-order harmonic generation resulting from a molecule with degenerate orbitals. To this end we illustrate how the single-orbital contributions show up in the total high-order harmonic signal. This example illustrates the importance of adding coherently the amplitude contributions from the individual degenerate orbitals. Finally, we study the high-order harmonic generation from propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). These two molecules, being extended and far from spherical in structure, produce harmonics with nontrivial orientational dependencies. In particular, propane can be oriented so that very high-frequency harmonics are favored, and thus the molecule contains prospects for the generation of uv attosecond pulses

  18. Approximate high-order eigenvalues in two-medium, one-speed neutron transport

    Earlier work on high-order criticality eigenvalues in homogeneous systems with neutrons of one speed has been extended to two-medium systems. Reflected spheres as well as reflected infinite slabs and cylinders have been studied. Values from the derived formulae have been compared with numerical results obtained recently by Garis for spheres and slabs. The agreement is generally good. (author)

  19. A high-order external distributed feedback polymer laser with low working threshold

    Huang, Wenbin; Pu, Donglin; Yang, Xiaofei; Wei, Guojun; Fang, Zongbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Qiao, Wen; Chen, Linsen


    In this paper, we report a high-order distributed feedback (DFB) polymer laser with low working threshold. Using the high-order grating increases the lithographic tolerances, providing coherent light sources that are more amenable to mass-manufacturing techniques, such as laser direct writing lithography and roll-to-roll processing. To enable high-order DFB lasing, an unconventional working configuration is designed in which the grating is situated on top of the uniform conjugated polymer film. In addition, a novel Forster energy transfer blend of two conjugated polymers is used as the gain medium. Upon pumping, the device emits lasing around 603.6 nm with a bandwidth of 0.5 nm. The threshold is around 20.5 μJ cm‑2 (~2.56 kW cm‑2), about to enter the regime of inexpensive LED pumping. A further increase in pump energy results in simultaneous oscillations at the 29th and 30th Bragg orders. Operating principles of the high-order DFB polymer laser, including spectral performance and threshold dependence on pump length, are investigated. This approach represents a step towards low-cost, even ‘disposable’ polymer lasers.

  20. High-order Finite Difference Solution of Euler Equations for Nonlinear Water Waves

    Christiansen, Torben Robert Bilgrav; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter


    with a two-dimensional implementation of the model are compared with highly accurate stream function solutions to the nonlinear wave problem, which show the approximately expected convergence rates and a clear advantage of using high-order finite difference schemes in combination with the Euler equations....

  1. Efficient High Order Central Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations: Talk Slides

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Brian R. (Technical Monitor)


    This viewgraph presentation presents information on the attempt to produce high-order, efficient, central methods that scale well to high dimension. The central philosophy is that the equations should evolve to the point where the data is smooth. This is accomplished by a cyclic pattern of reconstruction, evolution, and re-projection. One dimensional and two dimensional representational methods are detailed, as well.

  2. High Order Finite Difference Methods, Multidimensional Linear Problems and Curvilinear Coordinates

    Nordstrom, Jan; Carpenter, Mark H.


    Boundary and interface conditions are derived for high order finite difference methods applied to multidimensional linear problems in curvilinear coordinates. The boundary and interface conditions lead to conservative schemes and strict and strong stability provided that certain metric conditions are met.

  3. High-Order Binary Symmetry Constraints of a Liouville Integrable Hierarchy and Its Integrable Couplings

    A 3 x 3 matrix spectral problem and a Liouville integrable hierarchy are constructed by designing a new subalgebra of loop algebra A2. Furthermore, high-order binary symmetry constraints of the corresponding hierarchy are obtained by using the binary nonlinearization method. Finally, according to another new subalgebra of loop algebra A2, its integrable couplings are established.

  4. Guided Assemblies of Ferritin Nanocages: Highly Ordered Arrays of Monodisperse Nanoscopic Elements

    Hu, Y.; Chen, D; Park, S; Emrick, T; Russell, T


    High-density arrays of highly ordered ferritin nanocages are fabricated through the guided assembly of thiol-modified ferritin on prepatterned gold nanodots, which are prepared by block copolymer micelle lithography. One and only one ferritin nanocage is anchored to each gold nanodot, as confirmed by scanning electron and scanning force microscopy.

  5. Developing Student-Centered Learning Model to Improve High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, Elvis


    The purpose of this research was to develop student-centered learning model aiming to improve high order mathematical thinking ability of junior high school students of based on curriculum 2013 in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The special purpose of this research was to analyze and to formulate the purpose of mathematics lesson in high order…

  6. Broadband Kerr frequency combs and intracavity soliton dynamics influenced by high-order cavity dispersion

    Wang, Shaofei; Guo, Hairun; Bai, Xuekun;


    We numerically investigate the influence of high-order dispersion (HOD) on temporal and spectral characteristics of microresonator-based optical frequency combs. Theoretical analysis based on the moment method associated with numerical simulations are utilized to study the comb evolution dynamics...

  7. Optimal Design of High-Order Passive-Damped Filters for Grid-Connected Applications

    Beres, Remus Narcis; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede;


    Harmonic stability problems caused by the resonance of high-order filters in power electronic systems are ever increasing. The use of passive damping does provide a robust solution to address these issues, but at the price of reduced efficiency due to the presence of additional passive components...

  8. High order mode damping in the NSLS accelerating RF cavities by the use of damping antennae

    Fewell, N.; Wen, Z.

    High order modes were successfully damped in the existing NSLS accelerating cavities by the insertion of damping antennae. The location of the antennae was aided by cavity field plots using superfish and their lengths determined experimentally. A description of their construction is presented together with the results of their insertion upon higher order cavity modes and beam stability.

  9. Elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules within the strong-field approximation

    Etches, Adam; Madsen, Christian Bruun; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    A correction term is introduced in the stationary-point analysis on high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from aligned molecules. Arising from a multi-centre expansion of the electron wave function, this term brings our numerical calculations of the Lewenstein model into qualitative agreement with...

  10. Guided transmission of slow Ne ions through the nanochannels of highly ordered anodic alumina

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.;


    A highly ordered hexagonally close-packed nanochannels array was prepared using the self-ordering phenomena during a two-step anodization process of a high purity aluminium foil. The anodized aluminium oxide, with pore diameters of about 280nm and interpore distances of about 450nm was prepared as...

  11. High Order Adjoint Derivatives using ESDIRK Methods for Oil Reservoir Production Optimization

    Capolei, Andrea; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Jørgensen, John Bagterp


    In production optimization, computation of the gradients is the computationally expensive step. We improve the computational efficiency of such algorithms by improving the gradient computation using high-order ESDIRK (Explicit Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta) temporal integration methods and...

  12. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    Highlights: ► Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. ► MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS–CO–Cys). ► MPCS–CO–Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. ► Heavy metal ions such as Pb2+ and Cd2+ can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  13. High-order finite difference solution for 3D nonlinear wave-structure interaction

    Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter;


    This contribution presents our recent progress on developing an efficient fully-nonlinear potential flow model for simulating 3D wave-wave and wave-structure interaction over arbitrary depths (i.e. in coastal and offshore environment). The model is based on a high-order finite difference scheme...

  14. Rotating-frame perspective on high-order-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light

    Reich, Daniel M.; Madsen, Lars Bojer


    We employ a rotating frame of reference to elucidate high-order-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light by bicircular driving fields. In particular, we show how the experimentally observed circular components of the high-order-harmonic spectrum can be directly related to the corresponding quantities in the rotating frame. Supported by numerical simulations of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we deduce an optimal strategy for maximizing the cutoff in the high-order-harmonic plateau while keeping the two circular components of the emitted light spectrally distinct. Moreover, we show how the rotating-frame picture can be more generally employed for elliptical drivers. Finally, we point out how circular and elliptical driving fields show a near-duality to static electric and magnetic fields in a rotating-frame description. This demonstrates how high-order-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light under static electromagnetic fields can be emulated in practice even at static field strengths beyond current experimental capabilities.

  15. High-order harmonics in a quantum dot and metallic nanorod complex.

    Yang, Wen-Xing


    We investigate the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) and metallic nanorod (MNR) complex driven by a moderate intensity (supercontinuum harmonics (25 eV maximal photon energy) and isolated ultrashort pulses (2.67-4.36 fs FWHM) are achievable. PMID:26512479

  16. High-order inertial phase shifts for time-domain atom interferometers

    Bongs, Kai; Launay, Romain; Kasevich, Mark A.


    High-order inertial phase shifts are calculated for time-domain atom interferometers. We obtain closed-form analytic expressions for these shifts in accelerometer, gyroscope, optical clock and photon recoil measurement configurations. Our analysis includes Coriolis, centrifugal, gravitational, and gravity gradient-induced forces. We identify new shifts which arise at levels relevant to current and planned experiments.

  17. A family of high-order targeted ENO schemes for compressible-fluid simulations

    Fu, Lin; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.


    Although classical WENO schemes have achieved great success and are widely accepted, they exhibit several shortcomings. They are too dissipative for direct simulations of turbulence and lack robustness when very-high-order versions are applied to complex flows. In this paper, we propose a family of high-order targeted ENO schemes which are applicable for compressible-fluid simulations involving a wide range of flow scales. In order to increase the numerical robustness as compared to very-high-order classical WENO schemes, the reconstruction dynamically assembles a set of low-order candidate stencils with incrementally increasing width. While discontinuities and small-scale fluctuations are efficiently separated, the numerical dissipation is significantly diminished by an ENO-like stencil selection, which either applies a candidate stencil with its original linear weight, or removes its contribution when it is crossed by a discontinuity. The background linear scheme is optimized under the constraint of preserving an approximate dispersion-dissipation relation. By means of quasi-linear analyses and practical numerical experiments, a set of case-independent parameters is determined. The general formulation of arbitrarily high-order schemes is presented in a straightforward way. A variety of benchmark-test problems, including broadband waves, strong shock and contact discontinuities are studied. Compared to well-established classical WENO schemes, the present schemes exhibit significantly improved robustness, low numerical dissipation and sharp discontinuity capturing. They are particularly suitable for DNS and LES of shock-turbulence interactions.

  18. Very high-order finite volume method for one-dimensional convection diffusion problems

    Clain, Stéphane; Diot, Steven; Loubère, Raphaël; Machado, Gaspar; Ralha, Rui; Pereira, Rui


    We propose a new finite volume method to provide very high-order accuracy for the convection diffusion problem. The main tool is a polynomial reconstruction baesd on the mean values to provide the optimal order. Numerical examples are proposed to show the method efficiency.


    Zhang Xiaojuan


    Nystrom method is a new method for solving electromagnetic scattering problems.This paper gives the detailed description on high-order Nystrom method used for the electric field integral equation of electromagnetic scattering problems. The numerical solutions of two examples are correct compared with Method Of Moment(MOM).

  20. A Reconstruction Approach to High-Order Schemes Including Discontinuous Galerkin for Diffusion

    Huynh, H. T.


    We introduce a new approach to high-order accuracy for the numerical solution of diffusion problems by solving the equations in differential form using a reconstruction technique. The approach has the advantages of simplicity and economy. It results in several new high-order methods including a simplified version of discontinuous Galerkin (DG). It also leads to new definitions of common value and common gradient quantities at each interface shared by the two adjacent cells. In addition, the new approach clarifies the relations among the various choices of new and existing common quantities. Fourier stability and accuracy analyses are carried out for the resulting schemes. Extensions to the case of quadrilateral meshes are obtained via tensor products. For the two-point boundary value problem (steady state), it is shown that these schemes, which include most popular DG methods, yield exact common interface quantities as well as exact cell average solutions for nearly all cases.

  1. Pricing Exotic Options under a High-Order Markovian Regime Switching Model

    Wai-Ki Ching


    by a discrete-time Markovian regime-switching process driven by an observable, high-order Markov model (HOMM. We assume that the market interest rate, the drift, and the volatility of the underlying risky asset's return switch over time according to the states of the HOMM, which are interpreted as the states of an economy. We will then employ the well-known tool in actuarial science, namely, the Esscher transform to determine an equivalent martingale measure for option valuation. Moreover, we will also investigate the impact of the high-order effect of the states of the economy on the prices of some path-dependent exotic options, such as Asian options, lookback options, and barrier options.

  2. A wavelet-optimized, very high order adaptive grid and order numerical method

    Jameson, Leland


    Differencing operators of arbitrarily high order can be constructed by interpolating a polynomial through a set of data followed by differentiation of this polynomial and finally evaluation of the polynomial at the point where a derivative approximation is desired. Furthermore, the interpolating polynomial can be constructed from algebraic, trigonometric, or, perhaps exponential polynomials. This paper begins with a comparison of such differencing operator construction. Next, the issue of proper grids for high order polynomials is addressed. Finally, an adaptive numerical method is introduced which adapts the numerical grid and the order of the differencing operator depending on the data. The numerical grid adaptation is performed on a Chebyshev grid. That is, at each level of refinement the grid is a Chebvshev grid and this grid is refined locally based on wavelet analysis.

  3. Enhancement of high-order harmonic generation in the presence of noise

    We report on our simulations of the generation of high-order harmonics from atoms driven by an intense femtosecond laser field in the presence of noise. We numerically solve the non-perturbative stochastic time-dependent Schroedinger equation and observe how varying noise levels affect the frequency components of the high harmonic spectrum. Our calculations show that when an optimum amount of noise is present in the driving laser field, roughly a factor of 45 net enhancement can be achieved in high-order harmonic yield, especially, around the cut-off region. We observe that, for a relatively weak noise, the enhancement mechanism is sensitive to the carrier-envelope phase. We also investigate the possibility of generating ultra-short intense attosecond pulses by combining the laser field and noise and observe that a roughly four orders of magnitude enhanced isolated attosecond burst can be generated.

  4. Retrieval of interatomic separations of molecules from laser-induced high-order harmonic spectra

    We illustrate an iterative method for retrieving the internuclear separations of N2, O2 and CO2 molecules using the high-order harmonics generated from these molecules by intense infrared laser pulses. We show that accurate results can be retrieved with a small set of harmonics and with one or few alignment angles of the molecules. For linear molecules the internuclear separations can also be retrieved from harmonics generated using isotropically distributed molecules. By extracting the transition dipole moment from the high-order harmonic spectra, we further demonstrated that it is preferable to retrieve the interatomic separation iteratively by fitting the extracted dipole moment. Our results show that time-resolved chemical imaging of molecules using infrared laser pulses with femtosecond temporal resolutions is possible

  5. Unstructured nodal DG-FEM solution of high-order Boussinesq-type equations

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter


    high-order Boussinesq equations. Remarkably, it is demonstrated that the linear eigenspectra of the linearized semi-discrete equation system is bounded and hence the stable time increment is not dictated by the spatial discretization. This is a favorable property for explicit time-integration schemes...... equations constitute a highly complex system of coupled equations which put any numerical method to the test. The main problems that need to be overcome to solve the equations are the treatment of strongly nonlinear convection-type terms and spatially varying coefficient terms; efficient and robust solution...... of the resultant time-dependent linear system; and the numerical treatment of high-order and cross-differential derivatives. The suggested solution strategy of the current work is based on a collocation approach where the DG-FEM is used to approximate spatial derivatives and the boundary conditions...

  6. A Compressible High-Order Unstructured Spectral Difference Code for Stratified Convection in Rotating Spherical Shells

    Wang, Junfeng; Miesch, Mark S


    We present a novel and powerful Compressible High-ORder Unstructured Spectral-difference (CHORUS) code for simulating thermal convection and related fluid dynamics in the interiors of stars and planets. The computational geometries are treated as rotating spherical shells filled with stratified gas. The hydrodynamic equations are discretized by a robust and efficient high-order Spectral Difference Method (SDM) on unstructured meshes. The computational stencil of the spectral difference method is compact and advantageous for parallel processing. CHORUS demonstrates excellent parallel performance for all test cases reported in this paper, scaling up to 12,000 cores on the Yellowstone High-Performance Computing cluster at NCAR. The code is verified by defining two benchmark cases for global convection in Jupiter and the Sun. CHORUS results are compared with results from the ASH code and good agreement is found. The CHORUS code creates new opportunities for simulating such varied phenomena as multi-scale solar co...

  7. A note on the general multi-moment constrained flux reconstruction formulation for high order schemes

    Xiao, Feng; Chen, Chungang; Li, Xingliang


    This paper presents a general formulation to construct high order numerical schemes by using multi-moment constraint conditions on the flux function reconstruction. The new formulation, so called multi-moment constrained flux reconstruction (MMC-FR), distinguishes itself essentially from the flux reconstruction formulation (FR) of Huynh (2007) by imposing not only the continuity constraint conditions on the flux function at the cell boundary, but also other types constraints which may include those on the spatial derivatives or the point values. This formulation can be also interprated as a blend of Lagrange interpolation the Hermite interpolation, which provides a numerical framework to accomodate a wider spectrum of high order schemes. Some representative schemes will be presented and evaluated through Fourier analysis and numerical tests.

  8. A high-order Legendre-WENO kernel density function method for modeling disperse flows

    Smith, Timothy; Pantano, Carlos


    We present a high-order kernel density function (KDF) method for disperse flow. The numerical method used to solve the system of hyperbolic equations utilizes a Roe-like update for equations in non-conservation form. We will present the extension of the low-order method to high order using the Legendre-WENO method and demonstrate the improved capability of the method to predict statistics of disperse flows in an accurate, consistent and efficient manner. By construction, the KDF method already enforced many realizability conditions but others remain. The proposed method also considers these constraints and their performance will be discussed. This project was funded by NSF project NSF-DMS 1318161.

  9. Different time scales in plasmonically enhanced high-order harmonic generation

    Zagoya, C; Chomet, H; Slade, E; Faria, C Figueira de Morisson


    We investigate high-order harmonic generation in inhomogeneous media for reduced dimensionality models. We perform a phase-space analysis, in which we identify specific features caused by the field inhomogeneity. We compute high-order harmonic spectra using the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation, and provide an interpretation in terms of classical electron trajectories. We show that the dynamics of the system can be described by the interplay of high-frequency and slow-frequency oscillations, which are given by Mathieu's equations. The latter oscillations lead to an increase in the cutoff energy, and, for small values of the inhomogeneity parameter, take place over many driving-field cycles. In this case, the two processes can be decoupled and the oscillations can be described analytically.

  10. Retrieval of interatomic separations of molecules from laser-induced high-order harmonic spectra

    Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ty [Department of Physics, University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong, Ward 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Jin, C; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C D [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)


    We illustrate an iterative method for retrieving the internuclear separations of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} molecules using the high-order harmonics generated from these molecules by intense infrared laser pulses. We show that accurate results can be retrieved with a small set of harmonics and with one or few alignment angles of the molecules. For linear molecules the internuclear separations can also be retrieved from harmonics generated using isotropically distributed molecules. By extracting the transition dipole moment from the high-order harmonic spectra, we further demonstrated that it is preferable to retrieve the interatomic separation iteratively by fitting the extracted dipole moment. Our results show that time-resolved chemical imaging of molecules using infrared laser pulses with femtosecond temporal resolutions is possible.

  11. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    Duru, Kenneth


    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, we develop a stable and systematic procedure for numerical treatment of elastic waves in discontinuous and layered media. We consider both planar and curved interfaces where media parameters are allowed to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions at layer interfaces are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving lower bounds of the penalty strength and constructing discrete energy estimates we prove time stability. We present numerical experiments in two space dimensions to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method for simulations involving typical interface phenomena in elastic materials. The numerical experiments verify high order accuracy and time stability.

  12. Highly ordered palladium nanodots and nanowires from switchable block copolymer thin films

    Bhoje Gowd, E; Nandan, Bhanu; Vyas, Mukesh Kumar; Stamm, Manfred [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069, Dresden (Germany); Bigall, Nadja C; Eychmueller, Alexander [Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, TU Dresden, Bergstrasse 66b, 01062, Dresden (Germany); Schloerb, Heike, E-mail: gowd@ipfdd.d, E-mail: nandan@ipfdd.d [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, PO Box 27 00 16, D-01171, Dresden (Germany)


    We demonstrate a new approach to fabricate highly ordered arrays of nanoscopic palladium dots and wires using switchable block copolymer thin films. The surface-reconstructed block copolymer templates were directly deposited with palladium nanoparticles from a simple aqueous solution. The preferential interaction of the nanoparticles with one of the blocks is mainly responsible for the lateral arrangement of the nanoparticles inside the pores of the templates in addition to the capillary forces. A subsequent stabilization by UV-irradiation followed by pyrolysis in air at 450 {sup 0}C removes the polymer to produce highly ordered metallic nanostructures. We extended this approach to micellar films to obtain metallic nanostructures. This method is highly versatile as the procedure used here is simple, eco-friendly and provides a simple approach to fabricate a broad range of nanoscaled architectures with tunable lateral spacing, and can be extended to systems with even smaller dimensions.

  13. ECHO: an Eulerian Conservative High Order scheme for general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics and magnetodynamics

    Del Zanna, L; Bucciantini, N; Londrillo, P


    We present a new numerical code, ECHO, based on an Eulerian Conservative High Order scheme for time dependent three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) and magnetodynamics (GRMD). ECHO is aimed at providing a shock-capturing conservative method able to work at an arbitrary level of formal accuracy (for smooth flows), where the other existing GRMHD and GRMD schemes yield an overall second order at most. Moreover, our goal is to present a general framework, based on the 3+1 Eulerian formalism, allowing for different sets of equations, different algorithms, and working in a generic space-time metric, so that ECHO may be easily coupled to any solver for Einstein's equations. Various high order reconstruction methods are implemented and a two-wave approximate Riemann solver is used. The induction equation is treated by adopting the Upwind Constrained Transport (UCT) procedures, appropriate to preserve the divergence-free condition of the magnetic field in shock-capturing methods. The limi...

  14. Amplified high order harmonic light for high coherent x-ray laser

    We proposed a method to generate high spatial and temporal coherent x-ray laser, in which high order harmonic light is used as a seed light of a laser-produced x-ray amplifier. The high order harmonic light is very suitable for this purpose because it has high spatial and temporal coherence. In this report, we conducted an experiment for the amplification of the 29th order harmonic light of the Ti;Sapphire laser with the neon-like manganese x-ray laser medium (λ=26.9 nm) pumped by the Nd:Glass laser. The divergence of Ne-like Mu x-ray laser with the seed light was preserved form the divergence of the seed light. We succeed in amplification of the harmonic light for the purpose of high coherent x-ray laser. (author)

  15. High order convergent multigrid methods on domains containing holes for black hole initial data

    Natchu, Vishnu


    It is well known that multigrid methods are optimally efficient for solution of elliptic equations (O(N)), which means that effort is proportional to the number of points at which the solution is evaluated). Thus this is an ideal method to solve the initial data/constraint equations in General Relativity for (for instance) black hole interactions, or for other strong-field gravitational configurations. Recent efforts have produced finite difference multigrid solvers for domains with holes (excised regions). We present here the extension of these concepts to higher order (fourth-, sixth- and eigth-order). The high order convergence allows rapid solution on relatively small computational grids. Also, general relativity evolution codes are moving to typically fourth-order; data have to be computed at least as accurately as this same order for straightfoward demonstration of the proper order of convergence in the evolution. Our vertex-centered multigrid code demonstrates globally high-order-accurate solutions of ...

  16. High-order harmonic characterization using different schemes of extended plasma formation

    Ganeev, R. A.


    The review of the characterization of the high-order harmonics of ultrashort pulses produced in the extended plasmas is presented. We analyze the spatial and coherence characteristics of the harmonics generated in the extended plasmas produced by 370 ps pulses. We discuss the advanced properties of extended manganese and zinc plasma plumes for the harmonic generation in the shorter and longer wavelength regions of extreme ultraviolet compared with the short-length plasmas used in previous studies. The conversion efficiency of the 11th-19th orders at these conditions was estimated to be 5 × 10-5. The reviewed studies demonstrate the limits of most extended harmonic cut-off in the plasma media. We also discuss the harmonic generation using the two femtosecond pulses propagating in the vicinity of solid and powdered targets. This method allows the simplified analysis of the high-order nonlinear optical properties of the media.

  17. Large eddy simulation of a muffler with the high-order spectral difference method

    Parsani, Matteo; Lacor, Chris


    The combination of the high-order accurate spectral difference discretization on unstructured grids with subgrid-scale modelling is investigated for large eddy simulation of a muffler at Re = 4.64 10^4 and low Mach number. The subgrid-scale stress tensor is modelled by the wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity model with a cut-off length which is a decreasing function of the order of accuracy of the scheme. Numerical results indicate that although the high-order solver without subgrid-scale modelling is already able to capture well the features of the flow, the coupling with the wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity model improves the quality of the solution.

  18. High-order ghost imaging with N-colour thermal light

    High-order ghost imaging with thermal light consisting of N different frequencies is investigated. The high-order intensity correlation and intrinsic correlation functions are derived for such N-colour light. It is found that they are similar in form to those for the monochromatic case, thus most of the conclusions we obtained previously for monochromatic Nth-order ghost imaging are still applicable. However, we find that the visibility of the N-colour ghost image depends strongly on the wavelength used to illuminate the object, and increases as this wavelength increases when the test arm is fixed. On the contrary, changes of wavelength in the reference arms do not lead to any change of the visibility. (rapid communication)

  19. Multi-block simulations in general relativity: high-order discretizations, numerical stability and applications

    Lehner, Luis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Reula, Oscar [FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Tiglio, Manuel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, 302 Johnston Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)


    The need to smoothly cover a computational domain of interest generically requires the adoption of several grids. To solve a given problem under this grid structure, one must ensure the suitable transfer of information among the different grids involved. In this work, we discuss a technique that allows one to construct finite-difference schemes of arbitrary high order which are guaranteed to satisfy linear numerical and strict stability. The method relies on the use of difference operators satisfying summation by parts and penalty terms to transfer information between the grids. This allows the derivation of semi-discrete energy estimates for problems admitting such estimates at the continuum. We analyse several aspects of this technique when used in conjunction with high-order schemes and illustrate its use in one-, two- and three-dimensional numerical relativity model problems with non-trivial topologies, including truly spherical black hole excision.

  20. European Workshop on High Order Nonlinear Numerical Schemes for Evolutionary PDEs

    Beaugendre, Héloïse; Congedo, Pietro; Dobrzynski, Cécile; Perrier, Vincent; Ricchiuto, Mario


    This book collects papers presented during the European Workshop on High Order Nonlinear Numerical Methods for Evolutionary PDEs (HONOM 2013) that was held at INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, Talence, France in March, 2013. The central topic is high order methods for compressible fluid dynamics. In the workshop, and in this proceedings, greater emphasis is placed on the numerical than the theoretical aspects of this scientific field. The range of topics is broad, extending through algorithm design, accuracy, large scale computing, complex geometries, discontinuous Galerkin, finite element methods, Lagrangian hydrodynamics, finite difference methods and applications and uncertainty quantification. These techniques find practical applications in such fields as fluid mechanics, magnetohydrodynamics, nonlinear solid mechanics, and others for which genuinely nonlinear methods are needed.

  1. High-order harmonic spectroscopy for molecular imaging of polyatomic molecules

    Negro, M; Faccialà, D; De Silvestri, S; Vozzi, C; Stagira, S


    High-order harmonic generation is a powerful and sensitive tool for probing atomic and molecular structures, combining in the same measurement an unprecedented attosecond temporal resolution with a high spatial resolution, of the order of the angstrom. Imaging of the outermost molecular orbital by high-order harmonic generation has been limited for a long time to very simple molecules, like nitrogen. Recently we demonstrated a technique that overcame several of the issues that have prevented the extension of molecular orbital tomography to more complex species, showing that molecular imaging can be applied to a triatomic molecule like carbon dioxide. Here we report on the application of such technique to nitrous oxide (N2O) and acetylene (C2H2). This result represents a first step towards the imaging of fragile compounds, a category which includes most of the fundamental biological molecules.

  2. Forward-smooth high-order uniform Aharonov–Bohm asymptotics

    Berry, M. V.


    The Aharonov–Bohm (AB) function, describing a plane wave scattered by a flux line, is expanded asymptotically in a Fresnel-integral based series whose terms are smooth in the forward direction and uniformly valid in angle and flux. Successive approximations are valid for large distance r from the flux (or short wavelength) but are accurate even within one wavelength of it. Coefficients of all the terms are exhibited explicitly for the forward direction, enabling the high-order asymptotics to be understood in detail. The series is factorally divergent, with optimal truncation error exponentially small in r. Systematic resummation gives further exponential improvement. Terms of the series satisfy a resurgence relation: the high orders are related to the low orders. Discontinuities in the backward direction get smaller order by order, with systematic cancellation by successive terms. The relation to an earlier scheme based on the Cornu spiral is discussed.

  3. High order fluid model for streamer discharges: I. Derivation of model and transport data

    Dujko, S; White, R D; Ebert, U


    Streamer discharges pose basic problems in plasma physics, as they are very transient, far from equilibrium and have high ionization density gradients; they appear in diverse areas of science and technology. The present paper focuses on the derivation of a high order fluid model for streamers. Using momentum transfer theory, the fluid equations are obtained as velocity moments of the Boltzmann equation; they are closed in the local mean energy approximation and coupled to the Poisson equation for the space charge generated electric field. The high order tensor in the energy flux equation is approximated by the product of two lower order moments to close the system. The average collision frequencies for momentum and energy transfer in elastic and inelastic collisions for electrons in molecular nitrogen are calculated from a multi term Boltzmann equation solution. We then discuss, in particular, (1) the correct implementation of transport data in streamer models; (2) the accuracy of the two term approximation f...

  4. Multi-input partial eigenvalue assignment for high order control systems with time delay

    Zhang, Lei


    In this paper, we consider the partial eigenvalue assignment problem for high order control systems with time delay. Ram et al. (2011) [1] have shown that a hybrid method can be used to solve partial quadratic eigenvalue assignment problem of single-input vibratory system. Based on this theory, a rather simple algorithm for solving multi-input partial eigenvalue assignment for high order control systems with time delay is proposed. Our method can assign the expected eigenvalues and keep the no spillover property. The solution can be implemented with only partial information of the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors of the matrix polynomial. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of our approach.

  5. Computational Aero-Acoustic Using High-order Finite-Difference Schemes

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    In this paper, a high-order technique to accurately predict flow-generated noise is introduced. The technique consists of solving the viscous incompressible flow equations and inviscid acoustic equations using a incompressible/compressible splitting technique. The incompressible flow equations are...... discretizations of the acoustic equations. The classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta time scheme is applied to the acoustic equations for time discretization....

  6. Generation of high-order optical vortices using directly machined spiral phase mirrors

    Campbell, Geoff; Hage, Boris; Buchler, Ben; Lam, Ping Koy


    We report on the generation of high-order optical vortices by spiral phase mirrors. The phase mirrors are produced by direct machining with a diamond tool and are shown to produce high-quality optical vortices with topological charges ranging from 1 to 1000 at a wavelength of 532 nm. The direct machining technique is flexible and offers the promise of high-precision, large-diameter spiral phase mirrors that are compatible with high optical powers.

  7. Highly Ordered Carbon Nanotube Arrays with Open Ends Grown in Anodic Alumina Nanoholes


    Highly ordered multiwalled carbon nanotube arrays were fabricated by pyrolysis of acetylene within anodic alumina templates.Nanotubes are very uniform in diameter and open at both ends. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis show that the carbon nanotubes are well graphitized. These standing and open carbon nanotubes are possible to offer a potential elegant technique for electron emitting devices,chemical functionalization and nanotube composites.

  8. Formation of highly ordered arrays of dimples on tantalum at the nanoscale.

    El-Sayed, Hany; Singh, Sherdeep; Greiner, Mark T; Kruse, Peter


    We show that electropolishing of tantalum metal in a single step of about 5 min can reproducibly lead to dimples tens of nanometers in diameter, regular in shape, monodispersed in size, and arranged in highly ordered arrays which even transverse grain boundaries. Dimpled tantalum is ductile, high melting, and chemically inert, which makes it suitable for nanostructure synthesis even under extreme conditions, as demonstrated with a simple sputter coating and flame annealing procedure for gold nanoparticles. PMID:17163747

  9. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    Guermond, J. L.


    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  10. High order P-G finite elements for convection-dominated problems

    From the error analysis presented in this paper it is shown that de CCAU method derived by Dutra do Carmo and Galeao [3] preserves the same order of approximation obtained with SUPH (cf. Books and Hughes [2]) when advection-diffusion regular solutions are considered, and improves the accuracy of the approximate boundary layer solution when high order interpolating polynomials are used near sharp layers