Saur, Drew D.; Tan, Yap-Peng; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R.; Ramadge, Peter J.
Automated analysis and annotation of video sequences are important for digital video libraries, content-based video browsing and data mining projects. A successful video annotation system should provide users with useful video content summary in a reasonable processing time. Given the wide variety of video genres available today, automatically extracting meaningful video content for annotation still remains hard by using current available techniques. However, a wide range video has inherent structure such that some prior knowledge about the video content can be exploited to improve our understanding of the high-level video semantic content. In this paper, we develop tools and techniques for analyzing structured video by using the low-level information available directly from MPEG compressed video. Being able to work directly in the video compressed domain can greatly reduce the processing time and enhance storage efficiency. As a testbed, we have developed a basketball annotation system which combines the low-level information extracted from MPEG stream with the prior knowledge of basketball video structure to provide high level content analysis, annotation and browsing for events such as wide- angle and close-up views, fast breaks, steals, potential shots, number of possessions and possession times. We expect our approach can also be extended to structured video in other domains.
Pearre, N. S.
Land-based video has been used to quantify changes in nearshore conditions for over twenty years. By combining the ability to track rapid, short-term shoreline change and changes associated with longer term or seasonal processes, video has proved to be a cost effective and versatile tool for coastal science. Previous video-based studies of shoreline change have typically examined the position of the shoreline along a small number of cross-shore lines as a proxy for the continuous coast. The goal of this study is twofold: (1) to further develop automated shoreline extraction algorithms for continuous shorelines, and (2) to track the evolution of a nourishment project at Rehoboth Beach, DE that was concluded in June 2005. Seven cameras are situated approximately 30 meters above mean sea level and 70 meters from the shoreline. Time exposure and variance images are captured hourly during daylight and transferred to a local processing computer. After correcting for lens distortion and geo-rectifying to a shore-normal coordinate system, the images are merged to form a composite planform image of 6 km of coast. Automated extraction algorithms establish shoreline and breaker positions throughout a tidal cycle on a daily basis. Short and long term variability in the daily shoreline will be characterized using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. Periodic sediment volume information will be extracted by incorporating the results of monthly ground-based LIDAR surveys and by correlating the hourly shorelines to the corresponding tide level under conditions with minimal wave activity. The Delaware coast in the area downdrift of the nourishment site is intermittently interrupted by short groins. An Even/Odd analysis of the shoreline response around these groins will be performed. The impact of groins on the sediment volume transport along the coast during periods of accretive and erosive conditions will be discussed. [This work is being supported by DNREC and the
Demir Sumeyra U
Full Text Available Abstract Background Imaging of the human microcirculation in real-time has the potential to detect injuries and illnesses that disturb the microcirculation at earlier stages and may improve the efficacy of resuscitation. Despite advanced imaging techniques to monitor the microcirculation, there are currently no tools for the near real-time analysis of the videos produced by these imaging systems. An automated system tool that can extract microvasculature information and monitor changes in tissue perfusion quantitatively might be invaluable as a diagnostic and therapeutic endpoint for resuscitation. Methods The experimental algorithm automatically extracts microvascular network and quantitatively measures changes in the microcirculation. There are two main parts in the algorithm: video processing and vessel segmentation. Microcirculatory videos are first stabilized in a video processing step to remove motion artifacts. In the vessel segmentation process, the microvascular network is extracted using multiple level thresholding and pixel verification techniques. Threshold levels are selected using histogram information of a set of training video recordings. Pixel-by-pixel differences are calculated throughout the frames to identify active blood vessels and capillaries with flow. Results Sublingual microcirculatory videos are recorded from anesthetized swine at baseline and during hemorrhage using a hand-held Side-stream Dark Field (SDF imaging device to track changes in the microvasculature during hemorrhage. Automatically segmented vessels in the recordings are analyzed visually and the functional capillary density (FCD values calculated by the algorithm are compared for both health baseline and hemorrhagic conditions. These results were compared to independently made FCD measurements using a well-known semi-automated method. Results of the fully automated algorithm demonstrated a significant decrease of FCD values. Similar, but more variable FCD
Demir Sumeyra U; Hakimzadeh Roya; Hargraves Rosalyn Hobson; Ward Kevin R; Myer Eric V; Najarian Kayvan
Abstract Background Imaging of the human microcirculation in real-time has the potential to detect injuries and illnesses that disturb the microcirculation at earlier stages and may improve the efficacy of resuscitation. Despite advanced imaging techniques to monitor the microcirculation, there are currently no tools for the near real-time analysis of the videos produced by these imaging systems. An automated system tool that can extract microvasculature information and monitor changes in tis...
Ryan DECKER; Joseph DONINI; William GARDNER; Jobin JOHN; Walter KOENIG
This paper describes an approach to identify epicyclic and tricyclic motion during projectile flight caused by mass asymmetries in spin-stabilized projectiles. Flight video was captured following projectile launch of several M110A2E1 155 mm artillery projectiles. These videos were then analyzed using the automated flight video analysis method to attain their initial position and orientation histories. Examination of the pitch and yaw histories clearly indicates that in addition to epicyclic motion’s nutation and precession oscillations, an even faster wobble amplitude is present during each spin revolution, even though some of the amplitudes of the oscillation are smaller than 0.02 degree. The results are compared to a sequence of shots where little appreciable mass asymmetries were present, and only nutation and precession frequencies are predominantly apparent in the motion history results. Magnitudes of the wobble motion are estimated and compared to product of inertia measurements of the asymmetric projectiles.
Hart, Yuval; Czerniak, Efrat; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Mayo, Avraham E; Ziv, Amitai; Biegon, Anat; Citron, Atay; Alon, Uri
Non-verbal communication plays a significant role in establishing good rapport between physicians and patients and may influence aspects of patient health outcomes. It is therefore important to analyze non-verbal communication in medical settings. Current approaches to measure non-verbal interactions in medicine employ coding by human raters. Such tools are labor intensive and hence limit the scale of possible studies. Here, we present an automated video analysis tool for non-verbal interactions in a medical setting. We test the tool using videos of subjects that interact with an actor portraying a doctor. The actor interviews the subjects performing one of two scripted scenarios of interviewing the subjects: in one scenario the actor showed minimal engagement with the subject. The second scenario included active listening by the doctor and attentiveness to the subject. We analyze the cross correlation in total kinetic energy of the two people in the dyad, and also characterize the frequency spectrum of their motion. We find large differences in interpersonal motion synchrony and entrainment between the two performance scenarios. The active listening scenario shows more synchrony and more symmetric followership than the other scenario. Moreover, the active listening scenario shows more high-frequency motion termed jitter that has been recently suggested to be a marker of followership. The present approach may be useful for analyzing physician-patient interactions in terms of synchrony and dominance in a range of medical settings. PMID:27602002
Baatrup, E; Bayley, M
The locomotor activity of adult specimens of the wolf spider Pardosa amentata was measured in an open-field setup, using computer-automated colour object video tracking. The x,y coordinates of the animal in the digitized image of the test arena were recorded three times per second during four...
Pirenne, B.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kalmbach, A.; Sadhu, T.; Branzan Albu, A.; Glotin, H.; Jeffries, M. A.; Bui, A. O. V.
Video provides a rich source of data for geophysical analysis, often supplying detailed information about the environment when other instruments may not. This is especially true of deep-sea environments, where direct visual observations cannot be made. As computer vision techniques improve and volumes of video data increase, automated video analysis is emerging as a practical alternative to labor-intensive manual analysis. Automated techniques can be much more sensitive to video quality than their manual counterparts, so performing quality assessment before doing full analysis is critical to producing valid results.Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories that supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea, including video and still cameras. This network of ocean observatories has produced almost 20,000 hours of video (about 38 hours are recorded each day) and an additional 8,000 hours of logs from remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. We begin by surveying some ways in which deep-sea video poses challenges for automated analysis, including: 1. Non-uniform lighting: Single, directional, light sources produce uneven luminance distributions and shadows; remotely operated lighting equipment are also susceptible to technical failures. 2. Particulate noise: Turbidity and marine snow are often present in underwater video; particles in the water column can have sharper focus and higher contrast than the objects of interest due to their proximity to the light source and can also influence the camera's autofocus and auto white-balance routines. 3. Color distortion (low contrast): The rate of absorption of light in water varies by wavelength, and is higher overall than in air, altering apparent colors and lowering the contrast of objects at a distance.We also describe measures under development at ONC for detecting and mitigating
Full Text Available Fungal morphogenesis is an exciting field of cell biology and several mathematical models have been developed to describe it. These models require experimental evidences to be corroborated and, therefore, there is a continuous search for new microscopy and image analysis techniques. In this work, we have used a Canny-edge-detector based technique to automate the generation of hyphal profiles and calculation of morphogenetic parameters such as diameter, elongation rates and hyphoid fitness. The results show that the data obtained with this technique are similar to published data generated with manualbased tracing techniques and that have been carried out on the same species or genus. Thus, we show that application of edge detector-based technique to hyphal growth represents an efficient and accurate method to study hyphal morphogenesis. This represents the first step towards an automated analysis of videomicroscopy images of fungal morphogenesis.La morfogénesis de los hongos es un área de estudio de gran relevancia en la biología celular y en la que se han desarrollado varios modelos matemáticos. Los modelos matemáticos de procesos biológicos precisan de pruebas experimentales que apoyen y corroboren las predicciones teóricas y, por este motivo, existe una búsqueda continua de nuevas técnicas de microscopía y análisis de imágenes para su aplicación en el estudio del crecimiento celular. En este trabajo hemos utilizado una técnica basada en un detector de contornos llamado â€œCanny-edge-detectorâ€� con el objetivo de automatizar la generación de perfiles de hifas y el cálculo de parámetros morfogenéticos, tales como: el diámetro, la velocidad de elongación y el ajuste con el perfil hifoide, es decir, el perfil teórico de las hifas de los hongos. Los resultados obtenidos son similares a los datos publicados a partir de técnicas manuales de trazado de contornos, generados en la misma especie y género. De esta manera
Gallis, Michael R.
This paper discusses the use of video analysis software and computer-generated animations for student activities. The use of artificial video affords the opportunity for students to study phenomena for which a real video may not be easy or even possible to procure, using analysis software with which the students are already familiar. We will…
Chang, R; Guan, L; Burne, J A
Video image analysis is able to provide quantitative data on postural and movement abnormalities and thus has an important application in neurological diagnosis and management. The conventional techniques require patients to be videotaped while wearing markers in a highly structured laboratory environment. This restricts the utility of video in routine clinical practise. We have begun development of intelligent software which aims to provide a more flexible system able to quantify human posture and movement directly from whole-body images without markers and in an unstructured environment. The steps involved are to extract complete human profiles from video frames, to fit skeletal frameworks to the profiles and derive joint angles and swing distances. By this means a given posture is reduced to a set of basic parameters that can provide input to a neural network classifier. To test the system's performance we videotaped patients with dopa-responsive Parkinsonism and age-matched normals during several gait cycles, to yield 61 patient and 49 normal postures. These postures were reduced to their basic parameters and fed to the neural network classifier in various combinations. The optimal parameter sets (consisting of both swing distances and joint angles) yielded successful classification of normals and patients with an accuracy above 90%. This result demonstrated the feasibility of the approach. The technique has the potential to guide clinicians on the relative sensitivity of specific postural/gait features in diagnosis. Future studies will aim to improve the robustness of the system in providing accurate parameter estimates from subjects wearing a range of clothing, and to further improve discrimination by incorporating more stages of the gait cycle into the analysis. PMID:10661762
Maurus, Reinhold; Ilchenko, Volodymyr; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Garching (Germany)
Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and a very good optical access. For the optical observation of the bubble behaviour the high-speed cinematography is used. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, a huge number of bubble cycles could be analysed. The structure of the developed algorithms for the detection of the bubble diameter, the bubble lifetime, the lifetime after the detachment process and the waiting time between two bubble cycles is described. Subsequently, the results from using these automated procedures are presented. A remarkable novelty is the presentation of all results as distribution functions. This is of physical importance because the commonly applied spatial and temporal averaging leads to a loss of information and, moreover, to an unjustified deterministic view of the boiling process, which exhibits in reality a very wide spread of bubble sizes and characteristic times. The results show that the mass flux dominates the temporal bubble behaviour. An increase of the liquid mass flux reveals a strong decrease of the bubble life - and waiting time. In contrast, the variation of the heat flux has a much smaller impact. It is shown in addition that the investigation of the bubble history using automated algorithms delivers novel information with respect to the bubble lift-off probability. (Author)
Full Text Available The understanding of ecosystem dynamics in deep-sea areas is to date limited by technical constraints on sampling repetition. We have elaborated a morphometry-based protocol for automated video-image analysis where animal movement tracking (by frame subtraction is accompanied by species identification from animals’ outlines by Fourier Descriptors and Standard K-Nearest Neighbours methods. One-week footage from a permanent video-station located at 1,100 m depth in Sagami Bay (Central Japan was analysed. Out of 150,000 frames (1 per 4 s, a subset of 10.000 was analyzed by a trained operator to increase the efficiency of the automated procedure. Error estimation of the automated and trained operator procedure was computed as a measure of protocol performance. Three displacing species were identified as the most recurrent: Zoarcid fishes (eelpouts, red crabs (Paralomis multispina, and snails (Buccinum soyomaruae. Species identification with KNN thresholding produced better results in automated motion detection. Results were discussed assuming that the technological bottleneck is to date deeply conditioning the exploration of the deep-sea.
Full Text Available Automated video based surveillance monitoring is an essential and computationally challenging task to resolve issues in the secure access localities. This paper deals with some of the issues which are encountered in the integration surveillance monitoring in the real-life circumstances. We have employed video frames which are extorted from heterogeneous video formats. Each video frame is chosen to identify the anomalous events which are occurred in the sequence of time-driven process. Background subtraction is essentially required based on the optimal threshold and reference frame. Rest of the frames are ablated from reference image, hence all the foreground images paradigms are obtained. The co-ordinate existing in the deducted images is found by scanning the images horizontally until the occurrence of first black pixel. Obtained coordinate is twinned with existing co-ordinates in the primary images. The twinned co-ordinate in the primary image is considered as an active-region-of-interest. At the end, the starred images are converted to temporal video that scrutinizes the moving silhouettes of human behaviors in a static background. The proposed model is implemented in Java. Results and performance analysis are carried out in the real-life environments.
Thida, Myo; Monekosso, Dorothy
Video context analysis is an active and vibrant research area, which provides means for extracting, analyzing and understanding behavior of a single target and multiple targets. Over the last few decades, computer vision researchers have been working to improve the accuracy and robustness of algorithms to analyse the context of a video automatically. In general, the research work in this area can be categorized into three major topics: 1) counting number of people in the scene 2) tracking individuals in a crowd and 3) understanding behavior of a single target or multiple targets in the scene.
Edgington, D. R.; Cline, D. E.; Schlining, B.; Raymond, E.
Ocean observatories and underwater video surveys have the potential to unlock important discoveries with new and existing camera systems. Yet the burden of video management and analysis often requires reducing the amount of video recorded through time-lapse video or similar methods. It's unknown how many digitized video data sets exist in the oceanographic community, but we suspect that many remain under analyzed due to lack of good tools or human resources to analyze the video. To help address this problem, the Automated Visual Event Detection (AVED) software and The Video Annotation and Reference System (VARS) have been under development at MBARI. For detecting interesting events in the video, the AVED software has been developed over the last 5 years. AVED is based on a neuromorphic-selective attention algorithm, modeled on the human vision system. Frames are decomposed into specific feature maps that are combined into a unique saliency map. This saliency map is then scanned to determine the most salient locations. The candidate salient locations are then segmented from the scene using algorithms suitable for the low, non-uniform light and marine snow typical of deep underwater video. For managing the AVED descriptions of the video, the VARS system provides an interface and database for describing, viewing, and cataloging the video. VARS was developed by the MBARI for annotating deep-sea video data and is currently being used to describe over 3000 dives by our remotely operated vehicles (ROV), making it well suited to this deepwater observatory application with only a few modifications. To meet the compute and data intensive job of video processing, a distributed heterogeneous network of computers is managed using the Condor workload management system. This system manages data storage, video transcoding, and AVED processing. Looking to the future, we see high-speed networks and Grid technology as an important element in addressing the problem of processing and
Baatrup, E; Bayley, M
Pardosa amentata was quantified in an open field setup, using computer-automated video tracking. Each spider was recorded for 24 hr prior to pesticide exposure. After topical application of 4.6 ng of Cypermethrin, the animal was recorded for a further 48 hr. Finally, after 9 days of recovery, the spider...... was tracked for 24 hr. Initially, Cypermethrin induced an almost instant paralysis of the hind legs and a lack of coordination in movement seen in the jagged and circular track appearance. This phase culminated in total quiescence, lasting approximately 12 hr in males and 24-48 hr in females...
Se, Stephen; Firoozfam, Pezhman; Goldstein, Norman; Wu, Linda; Dutkiewicz, Melanie; Pace, Paul; Naud, J. L. Pierre
Airborne surveillance and reconnaissance are essential for successful military missions. Such capabilities are critical for force protection, situational awareness, mission planning, damage assessment and others. UAVs gather huge amount of video data but it is extremely labour-intensive for operators to analyse hours and hours of received data. At MDA, we have developed a suite of tools towards automated video exploitation including calibration, visualization, change detection and 3D reconstruction. The on-going work is to improve the robustness of these tools and automate the process as much as possible. Our calibration tool extracts and matches tie-points in the video frames incrementally to recover the camera calibration and poses, which are then refined by bundle adjustment. Our visualization tool stabilizes the video, expands its field-of-view and creates a geo-referenced mosaic from the video frames. It is important to identify anomalies in a scene, which may include detecting any improvised explosive devices (IED). However, it is tedious and difficult to compare video clips to look for differences manually. Our change detection tool allows the user to load two video clips taken from two passes at different times and flags any changes between them. 3D models are useful for situational awareness, as it is easier to understand the scene by visualizing it in 3D. Our 3D reconstruction tool creates calibrated photo-realistic 3D models from video clips taken from different viewpoints, using both semi-automated and automated approaches. The resulting 3D models also allow distance measurements and line-of- sight analysis.
Full Text Available Abstract The counts of malware attacks exploiting the internet increasing day by day and has become a serious threat. The latest malware spreading out through the media players embedded using the video clip of funny in nature to lure the end users. Once it is executed and installed then the behavior of the malware is in the malware authors hand. The spread of the malware emulates through Internet USB drives sharing of the files and folders can be anything which makes presence concealed. The funny video named as it connected to the film celebrity where the malware variant was collected from the laptop of the terror outfit organization .It runs in the backend which it contains malicious code which steals the user sensitive information like banking credentials username amp password and send it to the remote host user called command amp control. The stealed data is directed to the email encapsulated in the malicious code. The potential malware will spread through the USB and other devices .In summary the analysis reveals the presence of malicious code in executable video file and its behavior.
Phommarach, S.; Wattanakasiwich, P.; Johnston, I.
In this work, we studied the rolling motion of solid and hollow cylinders down an inclined plane at different angles. The motions were captured on video at 300 frames s[superscript -1], and the videos were analyzed frame by frame using video analysis software. Data from the real motion were compared with the theory of rolling down an inclined…
Virtually all of the video data (and full-motion-video (FMV)) that is currently collected and stored in support of missions has been corrupted to various extents by image acquisition and compression artifacts. Additionally, video collected by wide-area motion imagery (WAMI) surveillance systems and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and similar sources is often of low quality or in other ways corrupted so that it is not worth storing or analyzing. In order to make progress in the problem of automatic video analysis, the first problem that should be solved is deciding whether the content of the video is even worth analyzing to begin with. We present a work in progress to address three types of scenes which are typically found in real-world data stored in support of Department of Defense (DoD) missions: no or very little motion in the scene, large occlusions in the scene, and fast camera motion. Each of these produce video that is generally not usable to an analyst or automated algorithm for mission support and therefore should be removed or flagged to the user as such. We utilize recent computer vision advances in motion detection and optical flow to automatically assess FMV for the identification and generation of meta-data (or tagging) of video segments which exhibit unwanted scenarios as described above. Results are shown on representative real-world video data.
Motivic analysis provides very detailed understanding of musical composi- tions, but is also particularly difficult to formalize and systematize. A computational automation of the discovery of motivic patterns cannot be reduced to a mere extraction of all possible sequences of descriptions....... The systematic approach inexorably leads to a proliferation of redundant structures that needs to be addressed properly. Global filtering techniques cause a drastic elimination of interesting structures that damages the quality of the analysis. On the other hand, a selection of closed patterns allows...
Black, Jeffrey D.; Dietzel, Robert; Hartnett, David
A software application has been developed to aid law enforcement and government intelligence gathering organizations in the translation and analysis of foreign language documents with potential intelligence content. The Automated Document Analysis System (ADAS) provides the capability to search (data or text mine) documents in English and the most commonly encountered foreign languages, including Arabic. Hardcopy documents are scanned by a high-speed scanner and are optical character recognized (OCR). Documents obtained in an electronic format bypass the OCR and are copied directly to a working directory. For translation and analysis, the script and the language of the documents are first determined. If the document is not in English, the document is machine translated to English. The documents are searched for keywords and key features in either the native language or translated English. The user can quickly review the document to determine if it has any intelligence content and whether detailed, verbatim human translation is required. The documents and document content are cataloged for potential future analysis. The system allows non-linguists to evaluate foreign language documents and allows for the quick analysis of a large quantity of documents. All document processing can be performed manually or automatically on a single document or a batch of documents.
Full Text Available Design of automated video surveillance systems is one of the exigent missions in computer vision community because of their ability to automatically select frames of interest in incoming video streams based on motion detection. This research paper focuses on the real-time hardware implementation of a motion detection algorithm for such vision based automated surveillance systems. A dedicated VLSI architecture has been proposed and designed for clustering-based motion detection scheme. The working prototype of a complete standalone automated video surveillance system, including input camera interface, designed motion detection VLSI architecture, and output display interface, with real-time relevant motion detection capabilities, has been implemented on Xilinx ML510 (Virtex-5 FX130T FPGA platform. The prototyped system robustly detects the relevant motion in real-time in live PAL (720 × 576 resolution video streams directly coming from the camera.
Zangenehpour, Sohail; Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Saunier, Nicolas
Cities in North America have been building bicycle infrastructure, in particular cycle tracks, with the intention of promoting urban cycling and improving cyclist safety. These facilities have been built and expanded but very little research has been done to investigate the safety impacts of cycle tracks, in particular at intersections, where cyclists interact with turning motor-vehicles. Some safety research has looked at injury data and most have reached the conclusion that cycle tracks have positive effects of cyclist safety. The objective of this work is to investigate the safety effects of cycle tracks at signalized intersections using a case-control study. For this purpose, a video-based method is proposed for analyzing the post-encroachment time as a surrogate measure of the severity of the interactions between cyclists and turning vehicles travelling in the same direction. Using the city of Montreal as the case study, a sample of intersections with and without cycle tracks on the right and left sides of the road were carefully selected accounting for intersection geometry and traffic volumes. More than 90h of video were collected from 23 intersections and processed to obtain cyclist and motor-vehicle trajectories and interactions. After cyclist and motor-vehicle interactions were defined, ordered logit models with random effects were developed to evaluate the safety effects of cycle tracks at intersections. Based on the extracted data from the recorded videos, it was found that intersection approaches with cycle tracks on the right are safer than intersection approaches with no cycle track. However, intersections with cycle tracks on the left compared to no cycle tracks seem to be significantly safer. Results also identify that the likelihood of a cyclist being involved in a dangerous interaction increases with increasing turning vehicle flow and decreases as the size of the cyclist group arriving at the intersection increases. The results highlight the
Jonathan Patterson; Christopher Hargreaves
YouTube is one of the most popular video-sharing websites on the Internet, allowing users to upload, view and share videos with other users all over the world. YouTube contains many different types of videos, from homemade sketches to instructional and educational tutorials, and therefore attracts a wide variety of users with different interests. The majority of YouTube visits are perfectly innocent, but there may be circumstances where YouTube video access is related to a digital investigati...
Marcos, Ma Shiela Angeli; David, Laura; Peñaflor, Eileen; Ticzon, Victor; Soriano, Maricor
We introduce an automated benthic counting system in application for rapid reef assessment that utilizes computer vision on subsurface underwater reef video. Video acquisition was executed by lowering a submersible bullet-type camera from a motor boat while moving across the reef area. A GPS and echo sounder were linked to the video recorder to record bathymetry and location points. Analysis of living and non-living components was implemented through image color and texture feature extraction from the reef video frames and classification via Linear Discriminant Analysis. Compared to common rapid reef assessment protocols, our system can perform fine scale data acquisition and processing in one day. Reef video was acquired in Ngedarrak Reef, Koror, Republic of Palau. Overall success performance ranges from 60% to 77% for depths of 1 to 3 m. The development of an automated rapid reef classification system is most promising for reef studies that need fast and frequent data acquisition of percent cover of living and nonliving components. PMID:18210202
Buur, Jacob; Nakamura, Nanami; Larsen, Rainer Rye
discovered that using scale-models like toy trucks has a strongly encouraging effect on developers/designers to collaboratively make sense of field videos. In our analysis of such scale-model sessions, we found some quite fundamental patterns of how participants utilise objects; the participants build shared...... that when analysing for instance truck drivers’ practices, the use of toy trucks to replicate actions in scale helps participants engage experiential knowledge as they use their body to make sense of the on-going action....
Full Text Available For entertaining purposes, a computerized special effect referred to as “morphing” has enlarged huge attention and face replacement is one of the interesting tasks. Face replacement in video is a useful application in the amusement and special effect industries. Though various techniques for face replacement have been developed for single image and generally applied in animation and morphing, there are few mechanisms to spread out these techniques to handle videos automatically. Face replacement in video automatically is not only a fascinating application, but a challenging problem. For face replacement in video, the frame-by-frame manipulation process using the software is often time consuming and labor-intensive. Hence, the paper compares numerous latest Automatic face replacement techniques in video to understand the various problems to be solved, their shortcomings and benefits over others.
Barjasteh, Iman; Liu, Ying; Radha, Hayder
Unlike popular videos, which would have already achieved high viewership numbers by the time they are declared popular, YouTube trending videos represent content that targets viewers attention over a relatively short time, and has the potential of becoming popular. Despite their importance and visibility, YouTube trending videos have not been studied or analyzed thoroughly. In this paper, we present our findings for measuring, analyzing, and comparing key aspects of YouTube trending videos. O...
Cordelières, Fabrice P; Petit, Valérie; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Debeir, Olivier; Letort, Véronique; Gallagher, Stuart J; Larue, Lionel
Cell migration is a key biological process with a role in both physiological and pathological conditions. Locomotion of cells during embryonic development is essential for their correct positioning in the organism; immune cells have to migrate and circulate in response to injury. Failure of cells to migrate or an inappropriate acquisition of migratory capacities can result in severe defects such as altered pigmentation, skull and limb abnormalities during development, and defective wound repair, immunosuppression or tumor dissemination. The ability to accurately analyze and quantify cell migration is important for our understanding of development, homeostasis and disease. In vitro cell tracking experiments, using primary or established cell cultures, are often used to study migration as cells can quickly and easily be genetically or chemically manipulated. Images of the cells are acquired at regular time intervals over several hours using microscopes equipped with CCD camera. The locations (x,y,t) of each cell on the recorded sequence of frames then need to be tracked. Manual computer-assisted tracking is the traditional method for analyzing the migratory behavior of cells. However, this processing is extremely tedious and time-consuming. Most existing tracking algorithms require experience in programming languages that are unfamiliar to most biologists. We therefore developed an automated cell tracking program, written in Java, which uses a mean-shift algorithm and ImageJ as a library. iTrack4U is a user-friendly software. Compared to manual tracking, it saves considerable amount of time to generate and analyze the variables characterizing cell migration, since they are automatically computed with iTrack4U. Another major interest of iTrack4U is the standardization and the lack of inter-experimenter differences. Finally, iTrack4U is adapted for phase contrast and fluorescent cells. PMID:24312283
Fabrice P Cordelières
Full Text Available Cell migration is a key biological process with a role in both physiological and pathological conditions. Locomotion of cells during embryonic development is essential for their correct positioning in the organism; immune cells have to migrate and circulate in response to injury. Failure of cells to migrate or an inappropriate acquisition of migratory capacities can result in severe defects such as altered pigmentation, skull and limb abnormalities during development, and defective wound repair, immunosuppression or tumor dissemination. The ability to accurately analyze and quantify cell migration is important for our understanding of development, homeostasis and disease. In vitro cell tracking experiments, using primary or established cell cultures, are often used to study migration as cells can quickly and easily be genetically or chemically manipulated. Images of the cells are acquired at regular time intervals over several hours using microscopes equipped with CCD camera. The locations (x,y,t of each cell on the recorded sequence of frames then need to be tracked. Manual computer-assisted tracking is the traditional method for analyzing the migratory behavior of cells. However, this processing is extremely tedious and time-consuming. Most existing tracking algorithms require experience in programming languages that are unfamiliar to most biologists. We therefore developed an automated cell tracking program, written in Java, which uses a mean-shift algorithm and ImageJ as a library. iTrack4U is a user-friendly software. Compared to manual tracking, it saves considerable amount of time to generate and analyze the variables characterizing cell migration, since they are automatically computed with iTrack4U. Another major interest of iTrack4U is the standardization and the lack of inter-experimenter differences. Finally, iTrack4U is adapted for phase contrast and fluorescent cells.
Conklin, Emily E; Lee, Kathyann L; Schlabach, Sadie A; Woods, Ian G
Differences in nervous system function can result in differences in behavioral output. Measurements of animal locomotion enable the quantification of these differences. Automated tracking of animal movement is less labor-intensive and bias-prone than direct observation, and allows for simultaneous analysis of multiple animals, high spatial and temporal resolution, and data collection over extended periods of time. Here, we present a new video-tracking system built on Python-based software that is free, open source, and cross-platform, and that can analyze video input from widely available video capture devices such as smartphone cameras and webcams. We validated this software through four tests on a variety of animal species, including larval and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio), Siberian dwarf hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), and wild birds. These tests highlight the capacity of our software for long-term data acquisition, parallel analysis of multiple animals, and application to animal species of different sizes and movement patterns. We applied the software to an analysis of the effects of ethanol on thigmotaxis (wall-hugging) behavior on adult zebrafish, and found that acute ethanol treatment decreased thigmotaxis behaviors without affecting overall amounts of motion. The open source nature of our software enables flexibility, customization, and scalability in behavioral analyses. Moreover, our system presents a free alternative to commercial video-tracking systems and is thus broadly applicable to a wide variety of educational settings and research programs. PMID:26240518
Wyrembeck, Edward P.
Recent advances in technology have made video capture and analysis in the introductory physics lab even more affordable and accessible. The purchase of a relatively inexpensive web camera is all you need if you already have a newer computer and Vernier's Logger Pro 3 software. In addition to Logger Pro 3, other video analysis tools such as…
An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described
The security of a network protocol crucially relies on the scenario in which the protocol is deployed. This paper describes syntactic constructs for modelling network scenarios and presents an automated analysis tool, which can guarantee that security properties hold in all of the (infinitely many...
Tafreshi, Marzieh Kohandani; Linard, Nicolas; André, Barbara; Ayache, Nicholas; Vercauteren, Tom
Content-based video retrieval has shown promising results to help physicians in their interpretation of medical videos in general and endomicroscopic ones in particular. Defining a relevant query for CBVR can however be a complex and time-consuming task for non-expert and even expert users. Indeed, uncut endomicroscopy videos may very well contain images corresponding to a variety of different tissue types. Using such uncut videos as queries may lead to drastic performance degradations for the system. In this study, we propose a semi-automated methodology that allows the physician to create meaningful and relevant queries in a simple and efficient manner. We believe that this will lead to more reproducible and more consistent results. The validation of our method is divided into two approaches. The first one is an indirect validation based on per video classification results with histopathological ground-truth. The second one is more direct and relies on perceived inter-video visual similarity ground-truth. We demonstrate that our proposed method significantly outperforms the approach with uncut videos and approaches the performance of a tedious manual query construction by an expert. Finally, we show that the similarity perceived between videos by experts is significantly correlated with the inter-video similarity distance computed by our retrieval system. PMID:25333105
E. M. Farhadzade
Full Text Available Breakers relate to Electric Power Systems’ equipment, the reliability of which influence, to a great extend, on reliability of Power Plants. In particular, the breakers determine structural reliability of switchgear circuit of Power Stations and network substations. Failure in short-circuit switching off by breaker with further failure of reservation unit or system of long-distance protection lead quite often to system emergency.The problem of breakers’ reliability improvement and the reduction of maintenance expenses is becoming ever more urgent in conditions of systematic increasing of maintenance cost and repair expenses of oil circuit and air-break circuit breakers. The main direction of this problem solution is the improvement of diagnostic control methods and organization of on-condition maintenance. But this demands to use a great amount of statistic information about nameplate data of breakers and their operating conditions, about their failures, testing and repairing, advanced developments (software of computer technologies and specific automated information system (AIS.The new AIS with AISV logo was developed at the department: “Reliability of power equipment” of AzRDSI of Energy. The main features of AISV are:· to provide the security and data base accuracy;· to carry out systematic control of breakers conformity with operating conditions;· to make the estimation of individual reliability’s value and characteristics of its changing for given combination of characteristics variety;· to provide personnel, who is responsible for technical maintenance of breakers, not only with information but also with methodological support, including recommendations for the given problem solving and advanced methods for its realization.
Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Davies, Rhodri H.
This report describes and evaluates the steps needed to perform modern model-based interpretation of the corpus callosum in MRI. The process is discussed from the initial landmark-free contours to full-fledged statistical models based on the Active Appearance Models framework. Topics treated...... include landmark placement, background modelling and multi-resolution analysis. Preliminary quantitative and qualitative validation in a cross-sectional study show that fully automated analysis and segmentation of the corpus callosum are feasible....
Starting in 1999, a database of meteor records was created from automated single station video observations (Molau, 1991) of the IMO network. At the 2006 IMC, a first full analysis of the IMO Video Meteor Database based on roughly 190,000 meteors was presented. In the optical domain it was the first time, that a list of meteor showers was obtained automated, based on fully objective criteria only. For each shower, the activity interval, radiant position and drift, and an activity profile was obtained. A number of hitherto unknown showers were found as well. The corresponding analysis procedure was derived and explained in detail in Molau (2006). However, beside the successful application of the analysis procedure, also a number of weak points were detected. As of 2008, the database had almost doubled, which made it worthwhile to repeat the analysis. However, these weak points were to be addressed first. This paper describes the problems in detail and presents solutions for them. In addition, a new meter shower list derived from the new full analysis of the IMO Video Meteor Database is given.
Holck, Ulla; Oldfield, Amelia; Plahl, Christine
Three music therapy researchers from three different countries who have recently completed their PhD theses will each briefly discuss the role of video analysis in their investigations. All three of these research projects have involved music therapy work with children, some of whom were...... and qualitative approaches to data collection. In addition, participants will be encouraged to reflect on what types of knowledge can be gained from video analyses and to explore the general relevance of video analysis in music therapy research....
Yendrys Blanco Rosabal
Full Text Available El resumen automático de vídeo dentro del procesamiento digital de imágenes, campo de mucho auge de investigación en la actualidad, es una de las herramientas, que crea automáticamente una versión corta compuesta por un subconjunto de fotogramas claves que deben contener la mayor cantidad de información posible del video original.This work aims at developing a simple method which allows automatic video summary using statistical methods, such as processing histograms. The most significant work is to demonstrate the creation of a video summarization.
Tse G. Tan
Full Text Available Problem statement: The retail sales of computer and video games have grown enormously during the last few years, not just in United States (US, but also all over the world. This is the reason a lot of game developers and academic researchers have focused on game related technologies, such as graphics, audio, physics and Artificial Intelligence (AI with the goal of creating newer and more fun games. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in game AI for producing intelligent game objects and characters that can carry out their tasks autonomously. Approach: The aim of this study is an attempt to create an autonomous intelligent controller to play the game with no human intervention. Our approach is to use a simple but powerful evolutionary algorithm called Evolution Strategies (ES to evolve the connection weights and biases of feed-forward Artificial Neural Networks (ANN and to examine its learning ability through computational experiments in a non-deterministic and dynamic environment, which is the well-known arcade game, called Ms. Pac-man. The resulting algorithm is referred to as an Evolution Strategies Neural Network or ESNet. Results: The comparison of ESNet with two random systems, Random Direction (RandDir and Random Neural Network (RandNet yields promising results. The contribution of this work also focused on the comparison between the ESNet with different mutation probabilities. The results show that ESNet with a high probability with high mean scores recorded compared to the mean scores of RandDir, RandNet and ESNet with a low probability. Conclusion: Overall, the proposed algorithm has a very good performance with a high probability of automatically generating successful game AI controllers for the video game.
Murtaza Ali Khan
Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient method for approximation of temporal video data using linear Bezierfitting. For a given sequence of frames, the proposed method estimates the intensity variations of eachpixel in temporal dimension using linear Bezier fitting in Euclidean space. Fitting of each segmentensures upper bound of specified mean squared error. Break and fit criteria is employed to minimize thenumber of segments required to fit the data. The proposed method is well suitable for lossy compressionof temporal video data and automates the fitting process of each pixel. Experimental results show that theproposed method yields good results both in terms of objective and subjective quality measurementparameters without causing any blocking artifacts.
© 2013 IEEE. The existing efforts in computer assisted semen analysis have been focused on high speed imaging and automated image analysis of sperm motility. This results in a large amount of data, and it is extremely challenging for both clinical scientists and researchers to interpret, compare and correlate the multidimensional and time-varying measurements captured from video data. In this work, we use glyphs to encode a collection of numerical measurements taken at a regular interval and to summarize spatio-temporal motion characteristics using static visual representations. The design of the glyphs addresses the needs for (a) encoding some 20 variables using separable visual channels, (b) supporting scientific observation of the interrelationships between different measurements and comparison between different sperm cells and their flagella, and (c) facilitating the learning of the encoding scheme by making use of appropriate visual abstractions and metaphors. As a case study, we focus this work on video visualization for computer-aided semen analysis, which has a broad impact on both biological sciences and medical healthcare. We demonstrate that glyph-based visualization can serve as a means of external memorization of video data as well as an overview of a large set of spatiotemporal measurements. It enables domain scientists to make scientific observation in a cost-effective manner by reducing the burden of viewing videos repeatedly, while providing them with a new visual representation for conveying semen statistics.
Kamenicky, Jan; Bartos, Michal; Flusser, Jan; Mahdian, Babak; Kotera, Jan; Novozamsky, Adam; Saic, Stanislav; Sroubek, Filip; Sorel, Michal; Zita, Ales; Zitova, Barbara; Sima, Zdenek; Svarc, Petr; Horinek, Jan
This paper introduces a set of methods for image and video forensic analysis. They were designed to help to assess image and video credibility and origin and to restore and increase image quality by diminishing unwanted blur, noise, and other possible artifacts. The motivation came from the best practices used in the criminal investigation utilizing images and/or videos. The determination of the image source, the verification of the image content, and image restoration were identified as the most important issues of which automation can facilitate criminalists work. Novel theoretical results complemented with existing approaches (LCD re-capture detection and denoising) were implemented in the PIZZARO software tool, which consists of the image processing functionality as well as of reporting and archiving functions to ensure the repeatability of image analysis procedures and thus fulfills formal aspects of the image/video analysis work. Comparison of new proposed methods with the state of the art approaches is shown. Real use cases are presented, which illustrate the functionality of the developed methods and demonstrate their applicability in different situations. The use cases as well as the method design were solved in tight cooperation of scientists from the Institute of Criminalistics, National Drug Headquarters of the Criminal Police and Investigation Service of the Police of the Czech Republic, and image processing experts from the Czech Academy of Sciences. PMID:27182830
Bai, Liang; Lao, Songyang; Jones, Gareth J.F.; Smeaton, Alan F.
The rapid increase in the available amount of video data is creating a growing demand for efficient methods for understanding and managing it at the semantic level. New multimedia standards, such as MPEG-4 and MPEG-7, provide the basic functionalities in order to manipulate and transmit objects and metadata. But importantly, most of the content of video data at a semantic level is out of the scope of the standards. In this paper, a video semantic content analysis framework based on ontology i...
Augusiak, J.A.; Brink, van den, L.
Quantifying and understanding movement is critical for a wide range of questions in basic and applied ecology. Movement ecology is also fostered by technological advances that allow automated tracking for a wide range of animal species. However, for aquatic macroinvertebrates, such detailed methods do not yet exist. We developed a video tracking method for two different species of benthic macroinvertebrates, the crawling isopod Asellus aquaticus and the swimming fresh water amphipod Gammarus ...
Mustaquim, Moyen; Nyström, Tobias
In this paper we have studied the video games control dimensionality and its effects on the traditional way of interpreting difficulty and familiarity in games. This paper presents the findings in which we have studied the Xbox 360 console’s games control dimensionality. Multivariate statistical operations were performed on the collected data from 83 different games of Xbox 360. It was found that the player’s perceived level of familiarity and difficulty can be influenced by the game control ...
Aguiar, Paulo; Mendonça, Luís; Galhardo, Vasco
Operant animal behavioral tests require the interaction of the subject with sensors and actuators distributed in the experimental environment of the arena. In order to provide user independent reliable results and versatile control of these devices it is vital to use an automated control system. Commercial systems for control of animal mazes are usually based in software implementations that restrict their application to the proprietary hardware of the vendor. In this paper we present OpenControl: an opensource Visual Basic software that permits a Windows-based computer to function as a system to run fully automated behavioral experiments. OpenControl integrates video-tracking of the animal, definition of zones from the video signal for real-time assignment of animal position in the maze, control of the maze actuators from either hardware sensors or from the online video tracking, and recording of experimental data. Bidirectional communication with the maze hardware is achieved through the parallel-port interface, without the need for expensive AD-DA cards, while video tracking is attained using an inexpensive Firewire digital camera. OpenControl Visual Basic code is structurally general and versatile allowing it to be easily modified or extended to fulfill specific experimental protocols and custom hardware configurations. The Visual Basic environment was chosen in order to allow experimenters to easily adapt the code and expand it at their own needs. PMID:17681380
Iyer Adith Nagarajan
Full Text Available This paper deals with the design and implementation of a building automation and security system which facilitates a healthy, flexible, comfortable and a secure environment to the residents. The design incorporates a SIRC (Sony Infrared Remote Control protocol based infrared remote controller for the wireless operation and control of electrical appliances. Alternatively, the appliances are monitored and controlled via a laptop using a GUI (Graphical User Interface application built in C#. Apart from automation, this paper also focuses on indoor security. Multiple PIR (Pyroelectric Infrared sensors are placed within the area under surveillance to detect any intruder. A web camera used to record the video footage is mounted on the shaft of a servo motor to enable angular motion. Corresponding to which sensor has detected the motion; the ARM7 LPC2148 microcontroller provides appropriate PWM pulses to drive the servo motor, thus adjusting the position and orientation of the camera precisely. OpenCV libraries are used to record a video feed of 5 seconds at 30 frames per second (fps. Video frames are embedded with date and time stamp. The recorded video is compressed, saved to predefined directory (for backup and also uploaded to specific remote location over the internet using Google drive for instant access. The entire security system is automatic and does not need any human intervention.
You Junyong; Liu Guizhong; Zhang Yaxin
Semantic video analysis plays an important role in the field of machine intelligence and pattern recognition. In this paper, based on the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), a semantic recognition framework on compressed videos is proposed to analyze the video events according to six low-level features. After the detailed analysis of video events, the pattern of global motion and five features in foreground--the principal parts of videos, are employed as the observations of the Hidden Markov Model to classify events in videos. The applications of the proposed framework in some video event detections demonstrate the promising success of the proposed framework on semantic video analysis.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Law enforcement, military personnel, and forensic analysts are increasingly reliant on imaging ystems to perform in a hostile environment and require a robust method to efficiently locate bjects of interest in videos and still images. Current approaches require a full-time operator to monitor a surveillance video or to sift a hard drive for suspicious content. In this thesis, we demonstrate the effectiveness of automated analysis tools...
Performing core physics calculations for the sake of reload safety analysis is a very demanding and time consuming process. This process generally begins with the preparation of libraries for the core physics code using a lattice code. The next step involves creating a very large set of calculations with the core physics code. Lastly, the results of the calculations must be interpreted, correctly applying uncertainties and checking whether applicable limits are satisfied. Such a procedure requires three specialized experts. One must understand the lattice code in order to correctly calculate and interpret its results. The next expert must have a good understanding of the physics code in order to create libraries from the lattice code results and to correctly define all the calculations involved. The third expert must have a deep knowledge of the power plant and the reload safety analysis procedure in order to verify, that all the necessary calculations were performed. Such a procedure involves many steps and is very time consuming. At ÚJV Řež, a.s., we have developed a set of tools which can be used to automate and simplify the whole process of performing reload safety analysis. Our application QUADRIGA automates lattice code calculations for library preparation. It removes user interaction with the lattice code and reduces his task to defining fuel pin types, enrichments, assembly maps and operational parameters all through a very nice and user-friendly GUI. The second part in reload safety analysis calculations is done by CycleKit, a code which is linked with our core physics code ANDREA. Through CycleKit large sets of calculations with complicated interdependencies can be performed using simple and convenient notation. CycleKit automates the interaction with ANDREA, organizes all the calculations, collects the results, performs limit verification and displays the output in clickable html format. Using this set of tools for reload safety analysis simplifies
Kondo, Hiroshi; Zhao, Bin; Mino, Masako
Automated quantitative analysis for pneumoconiosis is presented. In this paper Japanese standard radiographs of pneumoconiosis are categorized by measuring the area density and the number density of small rounded opacities. And furthermore the classification of the size and shape of the opacities is made from the measuring of the equivalent radiuses of each opacity. The proposed method includes a bi- level unsharp masking filter with a 1D uniform impulse response in order to eliminate the undesired parts such as the images of blood vessels and ribs in the chest x-ray photo. The fuzzy contrast enhancement is also introduced in this method for easy and exact detection of small rounded opacities. Many simulation examples show that the proposed method is more reliable than the former method.
Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Brüstle, Stefan; Trantelle, Patrick; Unmüßig, Gabriel; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen
Motion video analysis is a challenging task, especially in real-time applications. In most safety and security critical applications, a human observer is an obligatory part of the overall analysis system. Over the last years, substantial progress has been made in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms. Hence, we investigate how the benefits of automated video analysis can be integrated suitably into the current video exploitation systems. In this paper, a system design is introduced which strives to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms, thus aiming to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. The system design builds on prior work where we showed the benefits for the human observer by means of a user interface which utilizes the human visual focus of attention revealed by the eye gaze direction for interaction with the image exploitation system; eye tracker-based interaction allows much faster, more convenient, and equally precise moving target acquisition in video images than traditional computer mouse selection. The system design also builds on prior work we did on automated target detection, segmentation, and tracking algorithms. Beside the system design, a first pilot study is presented, where we investigated how the participants (all non-experts in video analysis) performed in initializing an object tracking subsystem by selecting a target for tracking. Preliminary results show that the gaze + key press technique is an effective, efficient, and easy to use interaction technique when performing selection operations on moving targets in videos in order to initialize an object tracking function.
Hong, Weizhe; Kennedy, Ann; Burgos-Artizzu, Xavier P; Zelikowsky, Moriel; Navonne, Santiago G; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J
A lack of automated, quantitative, and accurate assessment of social behaviors in mammalian animal models has limited progress toward understanding mechanisms underlying social interactions and their disorders such as autism. Here we present a new integrated hardware and software system that combines video tracking, depth sensing, and machine learning for automatic detection and quantification of social behaviors involving close and dynamic interactions between two mice of different coat colors in their home cage. We designed a hardware setup that integrates traditional video cameras with a depth camera, developed computer vision tools to extract the body "pose" of individual animals in a social context, and used a supervised learning algorithm to classify several well-described social behaviors. We validated the robustness of the automated classifiers in various experimental settings and used them to examine how genetic background, such as that of Black and Tan Brachyury (BTBR) mice (a previously reported autism model), influences social behavior. Our integrated approach allows for rapid, automated measurement of social behaviors across diverse experimental designs and also affords the ability to develop new, objective behavioral metrics. PMID:26354123
Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land; Throop, David; Thronesbery, Carroll; Flores, Joshua; Bennett, Ted; Wennberg, Paul
This presentation describes work to integrate a set of tools to support early model-based analysis of failures and hazards due to system-software interactions. The tools perform and assist analysts in the following tasks: 1) extract model parts from text for architecture and safety/hazard models; 2) combine the parts with library information to develop the models for visualization and analysis; 3) perform graph analysis and simulation to identify and evaluate possible paths from hazard sources to vulnerable entities and functions, in nominal and anomalous system-software configurations and scenarios; and 4) identify resulting candidate scenarios for software integration testing. There has been significant technical progress in model extraction from Orion program text sources, architecture model derivation (components and connections) and documentation of extraction sources. Models have been derived from Internal Interface Requirements Documents (IIRDs) and FMEA documents. Linguistic text processing is used to extract model parts and relationships, and the Aerospace Ontology also aids automated model development from the extracted information. Visualizations of these models assist analysts in requirements overview and in checking consistency and completeness.
European Music Therapy Congress, June 16-20, 2004 Jyväskylä, Finland. P. 1094-1110. eBook available at MusicTherapyToday.com Vol.6. Issue 4 (November 2005). Holck, U. (2007). An Ethnographic Descriptive Approach to Video Micro Analysis. In: T. Wosch & T. Wigram (Eds.) Microanalysis in music therapy...
Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.
Prieto, Carlos Allende
The Gaia mission will have a profound impact on our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way. Gaia is providing an exhaustive census of stellar parallaxes, proper motions, positions, colors and radial velocities, but also leaves some flaring holes in an otherwise complete data set. The radial velocities measured with the on-board high-resolution spectrograph will only reach some 10% of the full sample of stars with astrometry and photometry from the mission, and detailed chemical information will be obtained for less than 1%. Teams all over the world are organizing large-scale projects to provide complementary radial velocities and chemistry, since this can now be done very efficiently from the ground thanks to large and mid-size telescopes with a wide field-of-view and multi-object spectrographs. As a result, automated data processing is taking an ever increasing relevance, and the concept is applying to many more areas, from targeting to analysis. In this paper, I provide a quick overvie...
Wang, Nancy X. R.; Olson, Jared D.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Brunton, Bingni W.
Fully automated decoding of human activities and intentions from direct neural recordings is a tantalizing challenge in brain-computer interfacing. Implementing Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) outside carefully controlled experiments in laboratory settings requires adaptive and scalable strategies with minimal supervision. Here we describe an unsupervised approach to decoding neural states from naturalistic human brain recordings. We analyzed continuous, long-term electrocorticography (ECoG) data recorded over many days from the brain of subjects in a hospital room, with simultaneous audio and video recordings. We discovered coherent clusters in high-dimensional ECoG recordings using hierarchical clustering and automatically annotated them using speech and movement labels extracted from audio and video. To our knowledge, this represents the first time techniques from computer vision and speech processing have been used for natural ECoG decoding. Interpretable behaviors were decoded from ECoG data, including moving, speaking and resting; the results were assessed by comparison with manual annotation. Discovered clusters were projected back onto the brain revealing features consistent with known functional areas, opening the door to automated functional brain mapping in natural settings. PMID:27148018
Wang, Nancy X R; Olson, Jared D; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Rao, Rajesh P N; Brunton, Bingni W
Fully automated decoding of human activities and intentions from direct neural recordings is a tantalizing challenge in brain-computer interfacing. Implementing Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) outside carefully controlled experiments in laboratory settings requires adaptive and scalable strategies with minimal supervision. Here we describe an unsupervised approach to decoding neural states from naturalistic human brain recordings. We analyzed continuous, long-term electrocorticography (ECoG) data recorded over many days from the brain of subjects in a hospital room, with simultaneous audio and video recordings. We discovered coherent clusters in high-dimensional ECoG recordings using hierarchical clustering and automatically annotated them using speech and movement labels extracted from audio and video. To our knowledge, this represents the first time techniques from computer vision and speech processing have been used for natural ECoG decoding. Interpretable behaviors were decoded from ECoG data, including moving, speaking and resting; the results were assessed by comparison with manual annotation. Discovered clusters were projected back onto the brain revealing features consistent with known functional areas, opening the door to automated functional brain mapping in natural settings. PMID:27148018
Se, Stephen; Nadeau, Christian; Wood, Scott
Airborne surveillance and reconnaissance are essential for successful military missions. Such capabilities are critical for troop protection, situational awareness, mission planning, damage assessment, and others. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) gather huge amounts of video data but it is extremely labour-intensive for operators to analyze hours and hours of received data. At MDA, we have developed a suite of tools that can process the UAV video data automatically, including mosaicking, change detection and 3D reconstruction, which have been integrated within a standard GIS framework. In addition, the mosaicking and 3D reconstruction tools have also been integrated in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) framework. The Visualization and Exploitation Workstation (VIEW) integrates 2D and 3D visualization, processing, and analysis capabilities developed for UAV video exploitation. Visualization capabilities are supported through a thick-client Graphical User Interface (GUI), which allows visualization of 2D imagery, video, and 3D models. The GUI interacts with the VIEW server, which provides video mosaicking and 3D reconstruction exploitation services through the SOA framework. The SOA framework allows multiple users to perform video exploitation by running a GUI client on the operator's computer and invoking the video exploitation functionalities residing on the server. This allows the exploitation services to be upgraded easily and allows the intensive video processing to run on powerful workstations. MDA provides UAV services to the Canadian and Australian forces in Afghanistan with the Heron, a Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAV system. On-going flight operations service provides important intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance information to commanders and front-line soldiers.
Changsheng Xu; Jian Cheng; Yi Zhang; Yifan Zhang; Hanqing Lu
Advances in computing, networking, and multimedia technologies have led to a tremendous growth of sports video content and accelerated the need of analysis and understanding of sports video content. Sports video analysis has been a hot research area and a number of potential applications have been identified. In this paper, we summarize our research achievement on semantics extraction and automatic editorial content creation and adaptation in sports video analysis. We first propose a generic ...
A comprehensive guide to techniques that allow engineers to simulate, analyse and optimise power distribution systems which combined with automation, underpin the emerging concept of the "smart grid". This book is supported by theoretical concepts with real-world applications and MATLAB exercises.
DONG Ming-xiao; MEI Xue-song; JIANG Ge-dong; ZHANG Gui-qing
This paper summarizes the modeling methods, open-loop control and closed-loop control techniques of various forms of cranes, worldwide, and discusses their feasibilities and limitations in engineering. Then the dynamic behaviors of cranes are analyzed. Finally, we propose applied modeling methods and feasible control techniques and demonstrate the feasibilities of crane automation.
The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) project defines the automated laboratory as a series of standard laboratory modules (SLM) serviced by a robotic standard support module (SSM). These SLMs are designed to allow plug-and-play integration into automated systems that perform standard analysis methods (SAM). While the SLMs are autonomous in the execution of their particular chemical processing task, the SAM concept relies on a high-level task sequence controller (TSC) to coordinate the robotic delivery of materials requisite for SLM operations, initiate an SLM operation with the chemical method dependent operating parameters, and coordinate the robotic removal of materials from the SLM when its commands and events has been established to allow ready them for transport operations as well as performing the Supervisor and Subsystems (GENISAS) software governs events from the SLMs and robot. The Intelligent System Operating Environment (ISOE) enables the inter-process communications used by GENISAS. CAA selected the Hewlett-Packard Optimized Robot for Chemical Analysis (ORCA) and its associated Windows based Methods Development Software (MDS) as the robot SSM. The MDS software is used to teach the robot each SLM position and required material port motions. To allow the TSC to command these SLM motions, a hardware and software implementation was required that allowed message passing between different operating systems. This implementation involved the use of a Virtual Memory Extended (VME) rack with a Force CPU-30 computer running VxWorks; a real-time multitasking operating system, and a Radiuses PC compatible VME computer running MDS. A GENISAS server on The Force computer accepts a transport command from the TSC, a GENISAS supervisor, over Ethernet and notifies software on the RadiSys PC of the pending command through VMEbus shared memory. The command is then delivered to the MDS robot control software using a Windows Dynamic Data Exchange conversation
Stralen, Marijn van
In this thesis we aim at automating the analysis of 3D echocardiography, mainly targeting the functional analysis of the left ventricle. Manual analysis of these data is cumbersome, time-consuming and is associated with inter-observer and inter-institutional variability. Methods for reconstruction o
Poonyawatpornkul, J.; Wattanakasiwich, P.
In this paper, we acquire and analyse high-speed videos of a spring-mass system oscillating in glycerin at different temperatures. Three cases of damped harmonic oscillation are investigated and analysed by using high-speed video at a rate of 120 frames s[superscript -1] and Tracker Video Analysis (Tracker) software. We present empirical data for…
Koppel, Dan; Chen, Chao-I.; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Lee, Hua; Gu, Jia; Poirson, Allen; Wolters, Rolf
A 3D colon model is an essential component of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system in colonoscopy to assist surgeons in visualization, and surgical planning and training. This research is thus aimed at developing the ability to construct a 3D colon model from endoscopic videos (or images). This paper summarizes our ongoing research in automated model building in colonoscopy. We have developed the mathematical formulations and algorithms for modeling static, localized 3D anatomic structures within a colon that can be rendered from multiple novel view points for close scrutiny and precise dimensioning. This ability is useful for the scenario when a surgeon notices some abnormal tissue growth and wants a close inspection and precise dimensioning. Our modeling system uses only video images and follows a well-established computer-vision paradigm for image-based modeling. We extract prominent features from images and establish their correspondences across multiple images by continuous tracking and discrete matching. We then use these feature correspondences to infer the camera's movement. The camera motion parameters allow us to rectify images into a standard stereo configuration and calculate pixel movements (disparity) in these images. The inferred disparity is then used to recover 3D surface depth. The inferred 3D depth, together with texture information recorded in images, allow us to construct a 3D model with both structure and appearance information that can be rendered from multiple novel view points.
Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari
We present a method for No-Reference (NR) Video Quality Assessment (VQA) for decoded video without access to the bitstream. This is achieved by extracting and pooling features from a NR image quality assessment method used frame by frame. We also present methods to identify the video coding and...... estimate the video coding parameters for MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC which can be used to improve the VQA. The analysis differs from most other video coding analysis methods since it is without access to the bitstream. The results show that our proposed method is competitive with other recent NR VQA methods for...
Domnik, Nicolle J.; Polymeropoulos, Elias T.; Elliott, Nicholas G.; Frappell, Peter B.; Fisher, John T.
We developed an automated, non-invasive method to detect real-time cardiac contraction in post-larval (1.1–1.7 mm length), juvenile oysters (i.e., oyster spat) via a fiber-optic trans-illumination system. The system is housed within a temperature-controlled chamber and video microscopy imaging of the heart was coupled with video edge-detection to measure cardiac contraction, inter-beat interval, and heart rate (HR). We used the method to address the hypothesis that cool acclimation (10°C vs. 22°C—Ta10 or Ta22, respectively; each n = 8) would preserve cardiac phenotype (assessed via HR variability, HRV analysis and maintained cardiac activity) during acute temperature changes. The temperature ramp (TR) protocol comprised 2°C steps (10 min/experimental temperature, Texp) from 22°C to 10°C to 22°C. HR was related to Texp in both acclimation groups. Spat became asystolic at low temperatures, particularly Ta22 spat (Ta22: 8/8 vs. Ta10: 3/8 asystolic at Texp = 10°C). The rate of HR decrease during cooling was less in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat when asystole was included in analysis (P = 0.026). Time-domain HRV was inversely related to temperature and elevated in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat (P < 0.001), whereas a lack of defined peaks in spectral density precluded frequency-domain analysis. Application of the method during an acute cooling challenge revealed that cool temperature acclimation preserved active cardiac contraction in oyster spat and increased time-domain HRV responses, whereas warm acclimation enhanced asystole. These physiologic changes highlight the need for studies of mechanisms, and have translational potential for oyster aquaculture practices.
Full Text Available The indexing and retrieval of video footage requires appropriate annotation of the video for search queries to be able to provide useful results. This paper discusses an approach to automating video annotation based on an expanded consideration of readability that covers both text factors and cognitive factors. The eventual aim is the selection of ontological elements that support wider ranges of user queries through limited sets of annotations derived automatically through the analysis of expert annotations of prior content. We describe how considerations of readability influence the approach taken to ontology extraction components of the system in development, and the automatic population of a CCTV ontology from analysis of expert transcripts of video footage. Considerations are made of the semantic content of the expert transcripts through theories on readability analysis and terminology extraction to provide knowledgebased video retrieval. Using readability studies to improve the text, we suggest that the semantic content can be made more accessible and improves the terminology extraction process which highlights the key concepts. This information can be used to determine relationships in the text, as a proxy for relationships between video objects with strong potential for interlinkage.
Ram, A Ranjith
This book presents various video processing methodologies that are useful for distance education. The motivation is to devise new multimedia technologies that are suitable for better representation of instructional videos by exploiting the temporal redundancies present in the original video. This solves many of the issues related to the memory and bandwidth limitation of lecture videos. The various methods described in the book focus on a key-frame based approach which is used to time shrink, repackage and retarget instructional videos. All the methods need a preprocessing step of shot detecti
This volume contains the papers presented at the 7th International Symposium on Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis held during October 13-16 in Macao SAR, China. The primary objective of the ATVA conferences remains the same: to exchange and promote the latest advances of state-of...
Praha : Katedra matematiky, FSv ČVUT v Praze, 2012, s. 19-20. [Aplikovaná matematika – Rektorysova soutěž. Praha (CZ), 07.12.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Factor Analysis * Dynamic Sequence * Scintigraphy Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/tichy-automated functional analysis in dynamic medical imaging.pdf
Desbien, Dwain M.
The use of probe ware and computers has become quite common in introductory physics classrooms. Video analysis is also becoming more popular and is available to a wide range of students through commercially available and/or free software. Video analysis allows for the study of motions that cannot be easily measured in the traditional lab setting…
Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari
estimate the video coding parameters for MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC which can be used to improve the VQA. The analysis differs from most other video coding analysis methods since it is without access to the bitstream. The results show that our proposed method is competitive with other recent NR VQA methods for...... MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC....
Full Text Available Analysis of the Vehicle Behavior is mainly to analyze and identify the vehicles’ motion pattern, and describe it by the use of natural language. It is a considerable challenge to analyze and describe the vehicles’ behavior in a complex scene. This paper first hackles the development history of the intelligent transportation system and analysis of vehicles’ behavior, and then conducts an in-depth analysis of current situation of vehicle behavior analysis from the video processing, video analysis and video understanding, summarizes the achieved results and the key technical problems, and prospects the future development of vehicle behavior analysis.
Cheng, Xi En
These are videos in which the results are overlaid on the original from-camera videos. Please turn to the section 3.2 and the legend of Fig. 7b for the explanation of the inset(s) of "MovieS1" and "MovieS2".
Jensen, Karsten; Juhl, Jens
The project presented in this article aims to develop software so that close-range photogrammetry with sufficient accuracy can be used to point out the most frequent foot mal positions and monitor the effect of the traditional treatment. The project is carried out as a cooperation between the Ort...... Sequence Analysis (MVSA). Results show that the developed MVSA system, in the following called Fodex, can measure the navicula height with a precision of 0.5-0.8 mm. The calcaneus angle can be measured with a precision of 0.8-1.5 degrees....
Full Text Available Multimedia communications in wireless sensor networks is a very challenging task. Video coding with high computational complexity and great contribution to the energy consumption of nodes and video transmission over erroneous wireless channel are the main reasons of these challenges. Distributed Video Coding has high potential for being deployed in these networks due to its unique features like as independent frame coding and low complexity encoding operations. The purpose of this study is to understand and evaluate the distributed video coding performance facing the transmission characteristics in wireless multimedia sensor networks. To this end, the comparative analysis of the coding in respect of main factors of video transmission (i.e., bit rate and error resiliency in the Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN has been done. We have used both the objective and subjective criteria for checking the video quality and applied the Gilbert-Elliot channel model for capturing the bit-level error in WMSN. Therefore, unlike previous works, our results are more realistic. In addition, based on this model we have investigated the impact of protection of frames by Reed-Solomon error control scheme. The results show that paying attention to coding parameters and protecting key frames, have a great impact on increasing the quality of the receiving video and will reduce the energy consumption and delays due to low number of requests from the feedback channel.
Tajbakhsh, Nima; Gurudu, Suryakanth R; Liang, Jianming
This paper presents the culmination of our research in designing a system for computer-aided detection (CAD) of polyps in colonoscopy videos. Our system is based on a hybrid context-shape approach, which utilizes context information to remove non-polyp structures and shape information to reliably localize polyps. Specifically, given a colonoscopy image, we first obtain a crude edge map. Second, we remove non-polyp edges from the edge map using our unique feature extraction and edge classification scheme. Third, we localize polyp candidates with probabilistic confidence scores in the refined edge maps using our novel voting scheme. The suggested CAD system has been tested using two public polyp databases, CVC-ColonDB, containing 300 colonoscopy images with a total of 300 polyp instances from 15 unique polyps, and ASU-Mayo database, which is our collection of colonoscopy videos containing 19,400 frames and a total of 5,200 polyp instances from 10 unique polyps. We have evaluated our system using free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) analysis. At 0.1 false positives per frame, our system achieves a sensitivity of 88.0% for CVC-ColonDB and a sensitivity of 48% for the ASU-Mayo database. In addition, we have evaluated our system using a new detection latency analysis where latency is defined as the time from the first appearance of a polyp in the colonoscopy video to the time of its first detection by our system. At 0.05 false positives per frame, our system yields a polyp detection latency of 0.3 seconds. PMID:26462083
Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari
A no-reference video quality assessment (VQA) method is presented for videos distorted by H.264/AVC and MPEG-2. The assessment is performed without access to the bit-stream. Instead we analyze and estimate coefficients based on decoded pixels. The approach involves distinguishing between the two...... types of videos, estimating the level of quantization used in the I-frames, and exploiting this information to assess the video quality. In order to do this for H.264/AVC, the distribution of the DCT-coefficients after intra-prediction and deblocking are modeled. To obtain VQA features for H.264/AVC, we...... propose a novel estimation method of the quantization in H.264/AVC videos without bitstream access, which can also be used for Peak Signalto-Noise Ratio (PSNR) estimation. The results from the MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC analysis are mapped to a perceptual measure of video quality by Support Vector Regression...
Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.
Maxime Frydman; Guifré Ruiz; Elisa Heymann; Eduardo César; Barton P. Miller
The growth of the internet and networked systems has exposed software to an increased amount of security threats. One of the responses from software developers to these threats is the introduction of security activities in the software development lifecycle. This paper describes an approach to reduce the need for costly human expertise to perform risk analysis in software, which is common in secure development methodologies, by automating threat modeling. Reducing the dependency on security e...
Raiola, Gaetano; Parisi, Fabio; Giugno, Ylenia; Di Tore, Pio Alfredo
The feedback method is increasingly used in learning new skills and improving performance. "Recent research, however, showed that the most objective and quantitative feedback is, theº greater its effect on performance". The video analysis, which is the analysis of sports performance by watching the video, is used primarily for use in the quantitative performance of athletes through the notational analysis. It may be useful to combine the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the single ges...
Teuton, Jeremy R.; Griswold, Richard L.; Mehdi, Beata L.; Browning, Nigel D.
Precise analysis of both (S)TEM images and video are time and labor intensive processes. As an example, determining when crystal growth and shrinkage occurs during the dynamic process of Li dendrite deposition and stripping involves manually scanning through each frame in the video to extract a specific set of frames/images. For large numbers of images, this process can be very time consuming, so a fast and accurate automated method is desirable. Given this need, we developed software that uses analysis of video compression statistics for detecting and characterizing events in large data sets. This software works by converting the data into a series of images which it compresses into an MPEG-2 video using the open source “avconv” utility . The software does not use the video itself, but rather analyzes the video statistics from the first pass of the video encoding that avconv records in the log file. This file contains statistics for each frame of the video including the frame quality, intra-texture and predicted texture bits, forward and backward motion vector resolution, among others. In all, avconv records 15 statistics for each frame. By combining different statistics, we have been able to detect events in various types of data. We have developed an interactive tool for exploring the data and the statistics that aids the analyst in selecting useful statistics for each analysis. Going forward, an algorithm for detecting and possibly describing events automatically can be written based on statistic(s) for each data type.
Birgitta E. Ebert
Full Text Available Quantitative knowledge of intracellular fluxes in metabolic networks is invaluable for inferring metabolic system behavior and the design principles of biological systems. However, intracellular reaction rates can not often be calculated directly but have to be estimated; for instance, via 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, a model-based interpretation of stable carbon isotope patterns in intermediates of metabolism. Existing software such as FiatFlux, OpenFLUX or 13CFLUX supports experts in this complex analysis, but requires several steps that have to be carried out manually, hence restricting the use of this software for data interpretation to a rather small number of experiments. In this paper, we present Flux-P as an approach to automate and standardize 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, using the Bio-jETI workflow framework. Exemplarily based on the FiatFlux software, it demonstrates how services can be created that carry out the different analysis steps autonomously and how these can subsequently be assembled into software workflows that perform automated, high-throughput intracellular flux analysis of high quality and reproducibility. Besides significant acceleration and standardization of the data analysis, the agile workflow-based realization supports flexible changes of the analysis workflows on the user level, making it easy to perform custom analyses.
Yoon, Jong-Chul; Lee, In-Kwon; Byun, Siwoo
The expansion of the home video market has created a requirement for video editing tools to allow ordinary people to assemble videos from short clips. However, professional skills are still necessary to create a music video, which requires a stream to be synchronized with pre-composed music. Because the music and the video are pre-generated in separate environments, even a professional producer usually requires a number of trials to obtain a satisfactory synchronization, which is something that most amateurs are unable to achieve.
Full Text Available The growth of the internet and networked systems has exposed software to an increased amount of security threats. One of the responses from software developers to these threats is the introduction of security activities in the software development lifecycle. This paper describes an approach to reduce the need for costly human expertise to perform risk analysis in software, which is common in secure development methodologies, by automating threat modeling. Reducing the dependency on security experts aims at reducing the cost of secure development by allowing non-security-aware developers to apply secure development with little to no additional cost, making secure development more accessible. To automate threat modeling two data structures are introduced, identification trees and mitigation trees, to identify threats in software designs and advise mitigation techniques, while taking into account specification requirements and cost concerns. These are the components of our model for automated threat modeling, AutSEC. We validated AutSEC by implementing it in a tool based on data flow diagrams, from the Microsoft security development methodology, and applying it to VOMS, a grid middleware component, to evaluate our model's performance.
Frydman, Maxime; Ruiz, Guifré; Heymann, Elisa; César, Eduardo; Miller, Barton P
The growth of the internet and networked systems has exposed software to an increased amount of security threats. One of the responses from software developers to these threats is the introduction of security activities in the software development lifecycle. This paper describes an approach to reduce the need for costly human expertise to perform risk analysis in software, which is common in secure development methodologies, by automating threat modeling. Reducing the dependency on security experts aims at reducing the cost of secure development by allowing non-security-aware developers to apply secure development with little to no additional cost, making secure development more accessible. To automate threat modeling two data structures are introduced, identification trees and mitigation trees, to identify threats in software designs and advise mitigation techniques, while taking into account specification requirements and cost concerns. These are the components of our model for automated threat modeling, AutSEC. We validated AutSEC by implementing it in a tool based on data flow diagrams, from the Microsoft security development methodology, and applying it to VOMS, a grid middleware component, to evaluate our model's performance. PMID:25136688
Andersen, T.; Tenga, A; Engebretsen, L.; Bahr, R
Objectives: This study describes the characteristics of injuries and high risk situations in the Norwegian professional football league during one competitive season using Football Incident Analysis (FIA), a video based method.
Davis, George; Cooter, Miranda; Updike, Clark; Carey, Everett; Mackey, Jennifer; Rykowski, Timothy; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)
Spacecraft trend analysis is a vital mission operations function performed by satellite controllers and engineers, who perform detailed analyses of engineering telemetry data to diagnose subsystem faults and to detect trends that may potentially lead to degraded subsystem performance or failure in the future. It is this latter function that is of greatest importance, for careful trending can often predict or detect events that may lead to a spacecraft's entry into safe-hold. Early prediction and detection of such events could result in the avoidance of, or rapid return to service from, spacecraft safing, which not only results in reduced recovery costs but also in a higher overall level of service for the satellite system. Contemporary spacecraft trending activities are manually intensive and are primarily performed diagnostically after a fault occurs, rather than proactively to predict its occurrence. They also tend to rely on information systems and software that are oudated when compared to current technologies. When coupled with the fact that flight operations teams often have limited resources, proactive trending opportunities are limited, and detailed trend analysis is often reserved for critical responses to safe holds or other on-orbit events such as maneuvers. While the contemporary trend analysis approach has sufficed for current single-spacecraft operations, it will be unfeasible for NASA's planned and proposed space science constellations. Missions such as the Dynamics, Reconnection and Configuration Observatory (DRACO), for example, are planning to launch as many as 100 'nanospacecraft' to form a homogenous constellation. A simple extrapolation of resources and manpower based on single-spacecraft operations suggests that trending for such a large spacecraft fleet will be unmanageable, unwieldy, and cost-prohibitive. It is therefore imperative that an approach to automating the spacecraft trend analysis function be studied, developed, and applied to
Chapter 14 for the 2nd edition of the Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis. The techniques and examples described in this chapter demonstrate that modern fluidic techniques and instrumentation can be used to develop automated radiochemical separation workstations. In many applications, these can be mechanically simple and key parameters can be controlled from software. If desired, many of the fluidic components and solution can be located remotely from the radioactive samples and other hot sample processing zones. There are many issues to address in developing automated radiochemical separation that perform reliably time after time in unattended operation. These are associated primarily with the separation and analytical chemistry aspects of the process. The relevant issues include the selectivity of the separation, decontamination factors, matrix effects, and recoveries from the separation column. In addition, flow rate effects, column lifetimes, carryover from one sample to another, and sample throughput must be considered. Nevertheless, successful approaches for addressing these issues have been developed. Radiochemical analysis is required not only for processing nuclear waste samples in the laboratory, but also for at-site or in situ applications. Monitors for nuclear waste processing operations represent an at-site application where continuous unattended monitoring is required to assure effective process radiochemical separations that produce waste streams that qualify for conversion to stable waste forms. Radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and long term stewardship represent an application where at-site or in situ measurements will be most effective. Automated radiochemical analyzers and sensors have been developed that demonstrate that radiochemical analysis beyond the analytical laboratory is both possible and practical
M. I strate
Full Text Available Automated analysis of natural language texts is one of the most important knowledge discovery tasks for any organization. According to Gartner Group, almost 90% of knowledge available at an organization today is dispersed throughout piles of documents buried within unstructured text. Analyzing huge volumes of textual information is often involved in making informed and correct business decisions. Traditional analysis methods based on statistics fail to help processing unstructured texts and the society is in search of new technologies for text analysis. There exist a variety of approaches to the analysis of natural language texts, but most of them do not provide results that could be successfully applied in practice. This article concentrates on recent ideas and practical implementations in this area.
Poppe, Lawrence J.; Eliason, A.H.; Fredericks, J.J.
The Automated Particle Size Analysis System integrates a settling tube and an electroresistance multichannel particle-size analyzer (Coulter Counter) with a Pro-Comp/gg microcomputer and a Hewlett Packard 2100 MX(HP 2100 MX) minicomputer. This system and its associated software digitize the raw sediment grain-size data, combine the coarse- and fine-fraction data into complete grain-size distributions, perform method of moments and inclusive graphics statistics, verbally classify the sediment, generate histogram and cumulative frequency plots, and transfer the results into a data-retrieval system. This system saves time and labor and affords greater reliability, resolution, and reproducibility than conventional methods do.
Menlove, H.O.; Howell, J.A.; Rodriguez, C.A.; Eccleston, G.W.; Beddingfield, D.; Smith, J.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Baumgart, C.W. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)
We have introduced a new method to integrate spatial (digital video) and time (radiation monitoring) information. This technology is based on pattern recognition by neural networks, provides significant capability to analyze complex data, and has the ability to learn and adapt to changing situations. This technique could significantly reduce the frequency of inspection visits to key facilities without a loss of safeguards effectiveness.
Key, Everett Kiusan [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Van Buren, Kendra Lu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warren, Will [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
This is a project which was performed by a graduated high school student at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of the Multi-intelligence (MINT) project is to determine the state of a facility from multiple data streams. The data streams are indirect observations. The researcher is using DARHT (Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility) as a proof of concept. In summary, videos from the DARHT facility contain a rich amount of information. Distribution of car activity can inform us about the state of the facility. Counting large vehicles shows promise as another feature for identifying the state of operations. Signal processing techniques are limited by the low resolution and compression of the videos. We are working on integrating these features with features obtained from other data streams to contribute to the MINT project. Future work can pursue other observations, such as when the gate is functioning or non-functioning.
such networking systems are modelled in the process calculus LySa. On top of this programming language based formalism an analysis is developed, which relies on techniques from data and control ow analysis. These are techniques that can be fully automated, which make them an ideal basis for tools targeted at non......It has for a long time been a challenge to built secure networking systems. One way to counter this problem is to provide developers of software applications for networking systems with easy-to-use tools that can check security properties before the applications ever reach the marked. These tools...... will both help raise the general level of awareness of the problems and prevent the most basic flaws from occurring. This thesis contributes to the development of such tools. Networking systems typically try to attain secure communication by applying standard cryptographic techniques. In this thesis...
Kwan, Chiman; Xu, Roger; Mayhew, David; Zhang, Frank; Zide, Alan; Bonggren, Jeff
A computer program partly automates the analysis, classification, and display of waveforms represented by digital samples. In the original application for which the program was developed, the raw waveform data to be analyzed by the program are acquired from space-shuttle auxiliary power units (APUs) at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. The program could also be modified for application to other waveforms -- for example, electrocardiograms. The program begins by performing principal-component analysis (PCA) of 50 normal-mode APU waveforms. Each waveform is segmented. A covariance matrix is formed by use of the segmented waveforms. Three eigenvectors corresponding to three principal components are calculated. To generate features, each waveform is then projected onto the eigenvectors. These features are displayed on a three-dimensional diagram, facilitating the visualization of the trend of APU operations.
Xu, L.-Q.; Landabaso, J. L.; Lei, B.
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in visual surveillance of a wide range of indoor and outdoor sites by various parties. This is manifested by the widespread and unabated deployment of CCTV cameras in public and private areas. In particular, the increasing connectivity of broadband wired and wireless IP networks, and the emergence of IP-CCTV systems with smart sensors, enabling centralised or distributed remote monitoring, have further fuelled this trend. It is not uncommon nowadays to see a bank of displays in an organisation showing the activities of dozens of surveillance sites simultaneously. However, the limitations and deficiencies, together with the costs associated with human operators in monitoring the overwhelming video sources, have created urgent demands for automated video analysis solutions. Indeed, the ability of a system to automatically analyse and interpret visual scenes is of increasing importance to decision making, offering enormous business opportunities in the sector of information and communications technologies.
Tahboub, Khalid; Gadgil, Neeraj; Ribera, Javier; Delgado, Blanca; Delp, Edward J.
Video surveillance systems are of a great value for public safety. With an exponential increase in the number of cameras, videos obtained from surveillance systems are often archived for forensic purposes. Many automatic methods have been proposed to do video analytics such as anomaly detection and human activity recognition. However, such methods face significant challenges due to object occlusions, shadows and scene illumination changes. In recent years, crowdsourcing has become an effective tool that utilizes human intelligence to perform tasks that are challenging for machines. In this paper, we present an intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video that includes the video recorded as a part of search and rescue missions and large-scale investigation tasks. We describe a method to enhance crowdsourcing by incorporating human detection, re-identification and tracking. At the core of our system, we use a hierarchal pyramid model to distinguish the crowd members based on their ability, experience and performance record. Our proposed system operates in an autonomous fashion and produces a final output of the crowdsourcing analysis consisting of a set of video segments detailing the events of interest as one storyline.
Jackson, K.A.; Hochberg, J.G.; Wilhelmy, S.K.; McClary, J.F.; Christoph, G.G.
This paper discusses management issues associated with the design and implementation of an automated audit analysis system that we use to detect security events. It gives the viewpoint of a team directly responsible for developing and managing such a system. We use Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) as a case in point. We examine issues encountered at Los Alamos, detail our solutions to them, and where appropriate suggest general solutions. After providing an introduction to NADIR, we explore four general management issues: cost-benefit questions, privacy considerations, legal issues, and system integrity. Our experiences are of general interest both to security professionals and to anyone who may wish to implement a similar system. While NADIR investigates security events, the methods used and the management issues are potentially applicable to a broad range of complex systems. These include those used to audit credit card transactions, medical care payments, and procurement systems.
Perren, Gabriel I; Piatti, Andrés E
We present ASteCA (Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis), a suit of tools designed to fully automatize the standard tests applied on stellar clusters to determine their basic parameters. The set of functions included in the code make use of positional and photometric data to obtain precise and objective values for a given cluster's center coordinates, radius, luminosity function and integrated color magnitude, as well as characterizing through a statistical estimator its probability of being a true physical cluster rather than a random overdensity of field stars. ASteCA incorporates a Bayesian field star decontamination algorithm capable of assigning membership probabilities using photometric data alone. An isochrone fitting process based on the generation of synthetic clusters from theoretical isochrones and selection of the best fit through a genetic algorithm is also present, which allows ASteCA to provide accurate estimates for a cluster's metallicity, age, extinction and distance values along with its unce...
For the past several years, the integration of containment and surveillance (C/S) with nondestructive assay (NDA) sensors for monitoring the movement of nuclear material has focused on the hardware and communications protocols in the transmission network. Little progress has been made in methods to utilize the combined C/S and NDA data for safeguards and to reduce the inspector time spent in nuclear facilities. One of the fundamental problems in the integration of the combined data is that the two methods operate in different dimensions. The C/S video data is spatial in nature; whereas, the NDA sensors provide radiation levels versus time data. The authors have introduced a new method to integrate spatial (digital video) with time (radiation monitoring) information. This technology is based on pattern recognition by neural networks, provides significant capability to analyze complex data, and has the ability to learn and adapt to changing situations. This technique has the potential of significantly reducing the frequency of inspection visits to key facilities without a loss of safeguards effectiveness
Menlove, H.O.; Howell, J.A.; Rodriguez, C.A.; Eccleston, G.W.; Beddingfield, D.; Smith, J.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Baumgart, C.W. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)
For the past several years, the integration of containment and surveillance (C/S) with nondestructive assay (NDA) sensors for monitoring the movement of nuclear material has focused on the hardware and communications protocols in the transmission network. Little progress has been made in methods to utilize the combined C/S and NDA data for safeguards and to reduce the inspector time spent in nuclear facilities. One of the fundamental problems in the integration of the combined data is that the two methods operate in different dimensions. The C/S video data is spatial in nature; whereas, the NDA sensors provide radiation levels versus time data. The authors have introduced a new method to integrate spatial (digital video) with time (radiation monitoring) information. This technology is based on pattern recognition by neural networks, provides significant capability to analyze complex data, and has the ability to learn and adapt to changing situations. This technique has the potential of significantly reducing the frequency of inspection visits to key facilities without a loss of safeguards effectiveness.
Duruş, Murat; Durus, Murat
Every year companies spend a sizeable budget on marketing, a large portion of which is spent on advertisement of their product brands on TV broadcasts. These physical advertising artifacts are usually emblazoned with the companies' name, logo, and their trademark brand. Given these astronomical numbers, companies are extremely keen to verify that their brand has the level of visibility they expect for such expenditure. In other words advertisers, in particular, like to verify that their contr...
The methods of approach developed with a view to automatic processing of the different stages of chromosome analysis are described in this study divided into three parts. Part 1 relates the study of automated selection of metaphase spreads, which operates a decision process in order to reject ail the non-pertinent images and keep the good ones. This approach has been achieved by Computing a simulation program that has allowed to establish the proper selection algorithms in order to design a kit of electronic logical units. Part 2 deals with the automatic processing of the morphological study of the chromosome complements in a metaphase: the metaphase photographs are processed by an optical-to-digital converter which extracts the image information and writes it out as a digital data set on a magnetic tape. For one metaphase image this data set includes some 200 000 grey values, encoded according to a 16, 32 or 64 grey-level scale, and is processed by a pattern recognition program isolating the chromosomes and investigating their characteristic features (arm tips, centromere areas), in order to get measurements equivalent to the lengths of the four arms. Part 3 studies a program of automated karyotyping by optimized pairing of human chromosomes. The data are derived from direct digitizing of the arm lengths by means of a BENSON digital reader. The program supplies' 1/ a list of the pairs, 2/ a graphic representation of the pairs so constituted according to their respective lengths and centromeric indexes, and 3/ another BENSON graphic drawing according to the author's own representation of the chromosomes, i.e. crosses with orthogonal arms, each branch being the accurate measurement of the corresponding chromosome arm. This conventionalized karyotype indicates on the last line the really abnormal or non-standard images unpaired by the program, which are of special interest for the biologist. (author)
In high–risk domains like aviation, medicine and nuclear power plant control, automation has enabled new capabilities, increased the economy of operation and has greatly contributed to safety. However, automation increases the number of couplings in a system, which can inadvertently lead to more com
Smith, D.; Dieterly, D. L.
Current thought and research positions which may allow for an improved capability to understand the impact of introducing automation to an existing system are established. The orientation was toward the type of studies which may provide some general insight into automation; specifically, the impact of automation in human performance and the resulting system performance. While an extensive number of articles were reviewed, only those that addressed the issue of automation and human performance were selected to be discussed. The literature is organized along two dimensions: time, Pre-1970, Post-1970; and type of approach, Engineering or Behavioral Science. The conclusions reached are not definitive, but do provide the initial stepping stones in an attempt to begin to bridge the concept of automation in a systematic progression.
Israël, Menno; Broek, van den Egon L.; Putten, van der Peter; Khan, L.; Petrushin, V.A.
This paper introduces a real time automatic scene classifier within content-based video retrieval. In our envisioned approach end users like documentalists, not image processing experts, build classifiers interactively, by simply indicating positive examples of a scene. Classification consists of a
Wieling, M. B.; Hofman, W. H. A.
To what extent a blended learning configuration of face-to-face lectures, online on-demand video recordings of the face-to-face lectures and the offering of online quizzes with appropriate feedback has an additional positive impact on the performance of these students compared to the traditional fac
Probe, John D.
In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.
An image analysis system has been set up which is capable of automated counting and analysis of etched nuclear particle tracks in plastic. The system is composed of an optical microscope, CCD camera, frame grabber, personal computer, monitor, and printer. The frame grabber acquires and displays images at video rate. It has a spatial resolution of 512 x 512 pixels with 8 bits of digitisation corresponding to 256 grey levels. The software has been developed for general image processing and adapted for the present purpose. Comparisons of automated and visual microscope counting of tracks in chemically etched CR-39 detectors are presented with emphasis on results of interest for practical radon measurements or neutron dosimetry, e.g. calibration factors, background track densities and variations in background. (author)
Tarantino, Giovanni; Fazio, Claudio
A video-analysis software tool has been employed in order to measure the steady-state values of the kinematics variables describing the longitudinal behaviour of a radio-controlled model aircraft during take-off, climbing and gliding. These experimental results have been compared with the theoretical steady-state configurations predicted by the…
Woods, Russell L.; Satgunam, PremNandhini; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Peli, Eli
Measuring preferences for moving video quality is harder than for static images due to the fleeting and variable nature of moving video. Subjective preferences for image quality can be tested by observers indicating their preference for one image over another. Such pairwise comparisons can be analyzed using Thurstone scaling (Farrell, 1999). Thurstone (1927) scaling is widely used in applied psychology, marketing, food tasting and advertising research. Thurstone analysis constructs an arbitrary perceptual scale for the items that are compared (e.g. enhancement levels). However, Thurstone scaling does not determine the statistical significance of the differences between items on that perceptual scale. Recent papers have provided inferential statistical methods that produce an outcome similar to Thurstone scaling (Lipovetsky and Conklin, 2004). Here, we demonstrate that binary logistic regression can analyze preferences for enhanced video.
Murthy, Chaitanya R.; Gao, Bo; Tao, Andrea R.; Arya, Gaurav
The ability to characterize higher-order structures formed by nanoparticle (NP) assembly is critical for predicting and engineering the properties of advanced nanocomposite materials. Here we develop a quantitative image analysis software to characterize key structural properties of NP clusters from experimental images of nanocomposites. This analysis can be carried out on images captured at intermittent times during assembly to monitor the time evolution of NP clusters in a highly automated manner. The software outputs averages and distributions in the size, radius of gyration, fractal dimension, backbone length, end-to-end distance, anisotropic ratio, and aspect ratio of NP clusters as a function of time along with bootstrapped error bounds for all calculated properties. The polydispersity in the NP building blocks and biases in the sampling of NP clusters are accounted for through the use of probabilistic weights. This software, named Particle Image Characterization Tool (PICT), has been made publicly available and could be an invaluable resource for researchers studying NP assembly. To demonstrate its practical utility, we used PICT to analyze scanning electron microscopy images taken during the assembly of surface-functionalized metal NPs of differing shapes and sizes within a polymer matrix. PICT is used to characterize and analyze the morphology of NP clusters, providing quantitative information that can be used to elucidate the physical mechanisms governing NP assembly.The ability to characterize higher-order structures formed by nanoparticle (NP) assembly is critical for predicting and engineering the properties of advanced nanocomposite materials. Here we develop a quantitative image analysis software to characterize key structural properties of NP clusters from experimental images of nanocomposites. This analysis can be carried out on images captured at intermittent times during assembly to monitor the time evolution of NP clusters in a highly automated
Full Text Available Gesture is a form of non-verbal, action-based communication made with a part of the body and used instead of and/or in combination with verbal communication. People frequently use gestures for more effective inter-personal communication; out of which nearly 55% come from the facial expressions alone. Facial gestures often reveal when people are trying to conceal emotions such as fear, contempt, disgust, surprise, or even unspoken political tensions. Video conferencing captures such facial signals which can be directly processed by suitable image processing system. Facial gestures are more pronounced via eyes and lip region of human face and hence they form the regions of interest (ROI while processing the video signal. Some of these concepts are used to develop a system which can identify specific human gestures and use their interpretation towards business decision support.
Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.
Researchers interested in studying discrimination learning in primates have typically utilized variations in the Wisconsin General Test Apparatus (WGTA). In the present experiment, a new testing apparatus for the study of primate learning is proposed. In the video-task paradigm, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) respond to computer-generated stimuli by manipulating a joystick. Using this apparatus, discrimination learning-set data for 2 monkeys were obtained. Performance on Trial 2 exceeded 80 percent within 200 discrimination learning problems. These data illustrate the utility of the video-task paradigm in comparative research. Additionally, the efficient learning and rich data that were characteristic of this study suggest several advantages of the present testing paradigm over traditional WGTA testing.
Xiao, Guoqiang; Jiang, Yang; Song, Gang; Jiang, Jianmin
We propose a support-vector-machine (SVM) tree to hierarchically learn from domain knowledge represented by low-level features toward automatic classification of sports videos. The proposed SVM tree adopts a binary tree structure to exploit the nature of SVM's binary classification, where each internal node is a single SVM learning unit, and each external node represents the classified output type. Such a SVM tree presents a number of advantages, which include: 1. low computing cost; 2. integrated learning and classification while preserving individual SVM's learning strength; and 3. flexibility in both structure and learning modules, where different numbers of nodes and features can be added to address specific learning requirements, and various learning models can be added as individual nodes, such as neural networks, AdaBoost, hidden Markov models, dynamic Bayesian networks, etc. Experiments support that the proposed SVM tree achieves good performances in sports video classifications.
Israël, Menno; Broek, van den, L.A.M.; Putten, van, B.; Khan, L.; Petrushin, V.A.
This paper introduces a real time automatic scene classifier within content-based video retrieval. In our envisioned approach end users like documentalists, not image processing experts, build classifiers interactively, by simply indicating positive examples of a scene. Classification consists of a two stage procedure. First, small image fragments called patches are classified. Second, frequency vectors of these patch classifications are fed into a second classifier for global scene classific...
Gu, Ruirui; Piat, Jonathan; Raulet, Mickael; Janneck, Jorn W.; Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S.
International audience This paper proposes an automatic design flow from user-friendly design to efficient implementation of video processing systems. This design flow starts with the use of coarse-grain dataflow representations based on the CAL language, which is a complete language for dataflow programming of embedded systems. Our approach integrates previously developed techniques for detecting synchronous dataflow (SDF) regions within larger CAL networks, and exploiting the static stru...
. A multi-view approach to pose estimation is also presented that integrates low level information from different cameras to generate better pose estimates during heavy occlusions. The works presented in this thesis contribute in these different areas of video-based analysis of human motion and altogether......The human motion contains valuable information in many situations and people frequently perform an unconscious analysis of the motion of other people to understand their actions, intentions, and state of mind. An automatic analysis of human motion will facilitate many applications and thus has...... received great interest from both industry and research communities. The focus of this thesis is on video-based analysis of human motion and the thesis presents work within three overall topics, namely foreground segmentation, action recognition, and human pose estimation. Foreground segmentation is often...
Full Text Available Video often include frames that are irrelevant to the scenes for recording. These are mainly due to imperfect shooting, abrupt movements of camera, or unintended switching of scenes. The irrelevant frames should be removed before the semantic analysis of video scene is performed for video retrieval. An unsupervised approach for automatic removal of irrelevant frames is proposed in this paper. A novel log-spectral representation of color video frames based on Fibonacci lattice-quantization has been developed for better description of the global structures of video contents to measure similarity of video frames. Hyperclique pattern analysis, used to detect redundant data in textual analysis, is extended to extract relevant frame clusters in color videos. A new strategy using the k-nearest neighbor algorithm is developed for generating a video frame support measure and an h-confidence measure on this hyperclique pattern based analysis method. Evaluation of the proposed irrelevant video frame removal algorithm reveals promising results for datasets with irrelevant frames.
Full Text Available We study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. Although human motion is widely investigated, we have extended such research in three aspects. By adding a second camera, not only more reliable behavior analysis is possible, but it also enables to map the ongoing scene events onto a 3D setting to facilitate further semantic analysis. The second contribution is the introduction of a 3D reconstruction scheme for scene understanding. Thirdly, we perform a fast scheme to detect different body parts and generate a fitting skeleton model, without using the explicit assumption of upright body posture. The extension of multiple-view fusion improves the event-based semantic analysis by 15%–30%. Our proposed framework proves its effectiveness as it achieves a near real-time performance (13–15 frames/second and 6–8 frames/second for monocular and two-view video sequences.
Darvann, T. A.; Hermann, N. V.; Larsen, P.; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Hansen, I. V.; Hove, H. D.; Christensen, L.; Rueckert, D.; Kreiborg, S.
We present an automated method of spatially detailed 3D asymmetry quantification in mandibles extracted from CT and apply it to a population of infants with unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS). An atlas-based method employing non-rigid registration of surfaces is used for determining deformation...
Gary Casuccio (RJ Lee Group); Michael Potter (RJ Lee Group); Fred Schwerer (RJ Lee Group); Dr. Richard J. Fruehan (Carnegie Mellon University); Dr. Scott Story (US Steel)
The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment
The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel cleanliness; slab, billet
Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
While there is no lack of performance counter tools for coarse-grained measurement of cache activity, there is a critical lack of tools for relating data layout to cache behavior to application performance. Generally, any nontrivial optimizations are either not done at all, or are done ”by hand” requiring significant time and expertise. To the best of our knowledge no tool available to users measures the latency of memory reference instructions for partic- ular addresses and makes this information available to users in an easy-to-use and intuitive way. In this project, we worked to enable the Open|SpeedShop performance analysis tool to gather memory reference latency information for specific instructions and memory ad- dresses, and to gather and display this information in an easy-to-use and intuitive way to aid performance analysts in identifying problematic data structures in their codes. This tool was primarily designed for use in the supercomputer domain as well as grid, cluster, cloud-based parallel e-commerce, and engineering systems and middleware. Ultimately, we envision a tool to automate optimization of application cache layout and utilization in the Open|SpeedShop performance analysis tool. To commercialize this soft- ware, we worked to develop core capabilities for gathering enhanced memory usage per- formance data from applications and create and apply novel methods for automatic data structure layout optimizations, tailoring the overall approach to support existing supercom- puter and cluster programming models and constraints. In this Phase I project, we focused on infrastructure necessary to gather performance data and present it in an intuitive way to users. With the advent of enhanced Precise Event-Based Sampling (PEBS) counters on recent Intel processor architectures and equivalent technology on AMD processors, we are now in a position to access memory reference information for particular addresses. Prior to the introduction of PEBS counters
This strategic analysis examines market potential and strategic options for entry for a developer of computer games into the market for mobile telephone games in India. The issue is examined from the perspective of Radical Entertainment, a Vancouverbased computer game developer. As the video game industry braces for the market turbulence expected to result from the introduction of the next-generation console platform, Radical Entertainment Inc. has been compelled to reassess its current strat...
Gupta, Komal; Wilderom, Celeste; Hillegersberg, van, Jos
Although recently several studies have addressed the required skills of effective CIOs, little is known of the actual behavior successful CIOs. In this study, we explore the behavior of highly effective CIOs by video-recording CIOs at work. The two CIOs videotaped were nominated as CIO of the year. We analyze the data in an innovative and systematic way by developing and using a behavioral leadership coding scheme. The analysis indicates that highly effective CIOs are good listeners. They als...
Chittenden Thomas W
Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we present and validate a way to measure automatically the extent of cell migration based on automated examination of a series of digital photographs. It was designed specifically to identify the impact of Second Hand Smoke (SHS on endothelial cell migration but has broader applications. The analysis has two stages: (1 preprocessing of image texture, and (2 migration analysis. Results The output is a graphic overlay that indicates the front lines of cell migration superimposed on each original image, with automated reporting of the distance traversed vs. time. Expert preference compares to manual placement of leading edge shows complete equivalence of automated vs. manual leading edge definition for cell migration measurement. Conclusion Our method is indistinguishable from careful manual determinations of cell front lines, with the advantages of full automation, objectivity, and speed.
Afonso M. Cavaco
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyse longitudinally two decades of Portuguese general practi-tioner (GP residents' consultation features, such as consultation length- estimating its major determinants- as well as to compare with GP residents from other Western practices. Methods: This pilot study followed a retrospective and descriptive design, comprising of the analysis of videotaped consultations with real patients from GP residents (southern Portugal, between 1990 and 2008. Main studied variables were consultation length and purpose, participant demographics and residency site characteristics. Results: From 516 residents, 68.0were females, mainly between 26-35 years old (50.6. Female patients' proportion equalled doctors', with the most frequent age group being the 46-65 years old (41.3. The consultation took on average 22 minutes and 22 seconds, with no significant differences by year and residency location. Main consultation purposes were previous scheduling (31.6 and acute symptoms (30.0. Duration was consistently longer than practising GPs from other countries, keeping in mind the supervised practice. Significant and positive predictors of consultation length were number of attendants and patients' frequency at the residency site. Conclusions: South Portugal GP residency program consultations were lengthier in comparison to similar practice in Europe and other Western countries. Length correlated preferably with patient related variables than with professionals', while confirming the longitudinal homogeneity in the residency consultation format for the last two decades.
Arya, Poonam; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming
This study examined how characteristics of Collaborative Peer Video Analysis (CPVA) events are related to teachers' pedagogical outcomes. Data included 39 transcribed literacy video events, in which 14 in-service teachers engaged in discussions of their video clips. Emergent coding and Statistical Discourse Analysis were used to analyze the data.…
Castro Lechtaler, Antonio; Liporace, Julio César; Cipriano, Marcelo; García, Edith; Maiorano, Ariel; Malvacio, Eduardo; Tapia, Néstor
An updated version of a tool for automated analysis of source code patches and branch differences is presented. The upgrade involves the use of machine learning techniques on source code, comments, and messages. It aims to help analysts, code reviewers, or auditors perform repetitive tasks continuously. The environment designed encourages collaborative work. It systematizes certain tasks pertaining to reviewing or auditing processes. Currently, the scope of the automated test is limited. C...
In the present report we propose the automation of least square fitting of Moessbauer spectra, the identification of the substance, its crystal structure and the access to the references with the help of a genetic algorith, Fuzzy logic, and the artificial neural network associated with a databank of Moessbauer parameters and references. This system could be useful for specialists and non-specialists, in industry as well as in research laboratories
This thesis describes the design and implementation of a system to extract meaning from natural language specifications of digital systems. This research is part of the ASPIN project which has the long-term goal of providing an automated system for digital system synthesis from informal specifications. This work makes several contributions, one being the application of artificial intelligence techniques to specifications writing. Also, the work deals with the subset of the Engl...
A schema for content-based analysis of broadcast news video is presented. First, we separate commercials from news using audiovisual features. Then, we automatically organize news programs into a content hierarchy at various levels of abstraction via effective integration of video, audio, and text data available from the news programs. Based on these news video structure and content analysis technologies, a TV news video Library is generated, from which users can retrieve definite news story according to their demands.
Ilea, Dana E; Duffy, Caoimhe; Kavanagh, Liam; Stanton, Alice; Whelan, Paul F
The robust identification and measurement of the intima media thickness (IMT) has a high clinical relevance because it represents one of the most precise predictors used in the assessment of potential future cardiovascular events. To facilitate the analysis of arterial wall thickening in serial clinical investigations, in this paper we have developed a novel fully automatic algorithm for the segmentation, measurement, and tracking of the intima media complex (IMC) in B-mode ultrasound video sequences. The proposed algorithm entails a two-stage image analysis process that initially addresses the segmentation of the IMC in the first frame of the ultrasound video sequence using a model-based approach; in the second step, a novel customized tracking procedure is applied to robustly detect the IMC in the subsequent frames. For the video tracking procedure, we introduce a spatially coherent algorithm called adaptive normalized correlation that prevents the tracking process from converging to wrong arterial interfaces. This represents the main contribution of this paper and was developed to deal with inconsistencies in the appearance of the IMC over the cardiac cycle. The quantitative evaluation has been carried out on 40 ultrasound video sequences of the common carotid artery (CCA) by comparing the results returned by the developed algorithm with respect to ground truth data that has been manually annotated by clinical experts. The measured IMT(mean) ± standard deviation recorded by the proposed algorithm is 0.60 mm ± 0.10, with a mean coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.05%, whereas the corresponding result obtained for the manually annotated ground truth data is 0.60 mm ± 0.11 with a mean CV equal to 5.60%. The numerical results reported in this paper indicate that the proposed algorithm is able to correctly segment and track the IMC in ultrasound CCA video sequences, and we were encouraged by the stability of our technique when applied to data captured under
Ismail M. Saiboon; Reza M. Qamruddin; Johar M. Jaafar; Afliza A. Bakar; Faizal A. Hamzah; Ho S. Eng; Colin E. Robertson
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and retention of learning automated external defibrillator (AED) usage taught through a traditional classroom instruction (TCI) method versus a novel self instructed video (SIV) technique in non-critical care nurses (NCCN). Methods: A prospective single-blind randomized study was conducted over 7 months (April-October 2014) at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia. Eighty nurses were randomized into either TCI ...
An automated procedure for performing sensitivity analysis has been developed. The procedure uses a new FORTRAN compiler with computer calculus capabilities to generate the derivatives needed to set up sensitivity equations. The new compiler is called GRESS - Gradient Enhanced Software System. Application of the automated procedure with direct and adjoint sensitivity theory for the analysis of non-linear, iterative systems of equations is discussed. Calculational efficiency consideration and techniques for adjoint sensitivity analysis are emphasized. The new approach is found to preserve the traditional advantages of adjoint theory while removing the tedious human effort previously needed to apply this theoretical methodology. Conclusions are drawn about the applicability of the automated procedure in numerical analysis and large-scale modelling sensitivity studies
A program for automated task analysis is described. Called TAPS (task analysis profiling system), the program accepts normal English prose and outputs skills, knowledges, attitudes, and abilities (SKAAs) along with specific guidance and recommended ability measurement tests for nuclear power plant operators. A new method for defining SKAAs is presented along with a sample program output
Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Skoglund, Karl
Corpus callosum analysis is influenced by many factors. The effort in controlling these has previously been incomplete and scattered. This paper sketches a complete pipeline for automated corpus callosum analysis from magnetic resonance images, with focus on measurement standardisation. The prese...
This thesis is dedicated to the empirical study of image analysis in HT/HC screen study. Often a HT/HC screening produces extensive amounts that cannot be manually analyzed. Thus, an automated image analysis solution is prior to an objective understanding of the raw image data. Compared to general a
Michalenko, Ashley Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
This is a presentation from Los Alamos National Laboraotyr (LANL) about the analysis of trinity power metrics for automated monitoring. The following topics are covered: current monitoring efforts, motivation for analysis, tools used, the methodology, work performed during the summer, and future work planned.
An automated procedure for performing sensitivity analyses has been developed. The procedure uses a new FORTRAN compiler with computer calculus capabilities to generate the derivatives needed to set up sensitivity equations. The new compiler is called GRESS - Gradient Enhanced Software System. Application of the automated procedure with ''direct'' and ''adjoint'' sensitivity theory for the analysis of non-linear, iterative systems of equations is discussed. Calculational efficiency consideration and techniques for adjoint sensitivity analysis are emphasized. The new approach is found to preserve the traditional advantages of adjoint theory while removing the tedious human effort previously needed to apply this theoretical methodology. Conclusions are drawn about the applicability of the automated procedure in numerical analysis and large-scale modelling sensitivity studies. 24 refs., 2 figs
Egelberg, Peter J.; Mansson, Olle; Peterson, Carsten
A fully integrated instrument for cereal grain quality assessment is presented. Color video images of grains fed onto a belt are digitized. These images are then segmented into kernel entities, which are subject to the analysis. The number of degrees of freedom for each such object is decreased to a suitable level for Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processing. Feed- forward ANN's with one hidden layer are trained with respect to desired features such as purity and flour yield. The resulting performance is compatible with that of manual human ocular inspection and alternative measuring methods. A statistical analysis of training and test set population densities is used to estimate the prediction reliabilities and to set appropriate alarm levels. The instrument containing feeder belts, balance and CCD video camera is physically separated from the 90 MHz Pentium PC computer which is used to perform the segmentation, ANN analysis and for controlling the instrument under the Unix operating system. A user-friendly graphical user interface is used to operate the instrument. The processing time for a 50 g grain sample is approximately 2 - 3 minutes.
Full Text Available The development of new rehabilitation approaches to neurological and traumatological patients requires understanding of normal and pathological movement patterns. Biomechanical analysis of video images is the most accurate method of investigation and quantitative assessment of human normal and pathological locomotion. The review of currently available methods and systems of optical human motion analysis used in clinical practice is presented here. Short historical background is provided. Locomotion kinematics analysis using passive marker based systems is reviewed with special attention to the gait analysis. Clinical application of optical motion capture and analysis systems in the diagnosis of locomotion impairment, in Parkinson’s disease with movement control disorders, stroke sequelae, monitoring of motor function rehabilitation in patients with infantile cerebral paralysis, limb joint endo- and exoprosthetics and some other disorders is described.
Florez, Hector; Sánchez, Mario; Villalobos, Jorge
Enterprise models are created for documenting and communicating the structure and state of Business and Information Technologies elements of an enterprise. After models are completed, they are mainly used to support analysis. Model analysis is an activity typically based on human skills and due to the size and complexity of the models, this process can be complicated and omissions or miscalculations are very likely. This situation has fostered the research of automated analysis methods, for supporting analysts in enterprise analysis processes. By reviewing the literature, we found several analysis methods; nevertheless, they are based on specific situations and different metamodels; then, some analysis methods might not be applicable to all enterprise models. This paper presents the work of compilation (literature review), classification, structuring, and characterization of automated analysis methods for enterprise models, expressing them in a standardized modeling language. In addition, we have implemented the analysis methods in our modeling tool. PMID:27047732
Tsay, T T; Jacobson, K A
The major use of the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique is to measure the translational motion of the molecular components in various condensed media. In a conventional laser spot photobleaching experiment, a photomultiplier is used to measure the total brightness levels of the bleached region in the sample, so no spatial information can be directly obtained. In video-FRAP, a series of images after photobleaching is acquired, allowing the spatial character of the recovery to be determined; this permits direct detection of both anisotropic diffusion and flow. To utilize all of the available image data to determine the transport coefficients, a two-dimensional spatial Fourier transform analysis of the images after photobleaching was employed. The change in the transform between two time points reflects the action of diffusion during the interim. An important advantage of this method, which involves taking the ratio of image transforms at different time points, is that it does not require a specific initial condition to be created by laser photobleaching. The ability of the analysis to extract transport coefficients from computer-simulated diffusional recovery is assessed in the presence of increasing amounts of noise. Experimental data analysis from the diffusion of proteins in viscous solutions and from the diffusion of protein receptors on cell surfaces demonstrate the feasibility of the Fourier analysis to obtain transport coefficients from the video FRAP measurement. PMID:1912279
Siddu P. Algur
Full Text Available Now a days, the Data Engineering becoming emerging trend to discover knowledge from web audiovisual data such as- YouTube videos, Yahoo Screen, Face Book videos etc. Different categories of web video are being shared on such social websites and are being used by the billions of users all over the world. The uploaded web videos will have different kind of metadata as attribute information of the video data. The metadata attributes defines the contents and features/characteristics of the web videos conceptually. Hence, accomplishing web video mining by extracting features of web videos in terms of metadata is a challenging task. In this work, effective attempts are made to classify and predict the metadata features of web videos such as length of the web videos, number of comments of the web videos, ratings information and view counts of the web videos using data mining algorithms such as Decision tree J48 and navie Bayesian algorithms as a part of web video mining. The results of Decision tree J48 and navie Bayesian classification models are analyzed and compared as a step in the process of knowledge discovery from web videos.
In recent years the demand for information about the distribution of elements at trace concentration levels in high purity materials and in biological, environmental and geological specimens has increased greatly. Neutron activation analysis can play an important role in obtaining the required information. Radiochemical separations are required in many of the applications mentioned. A critical review of the progress made over the last 15 years in the development and application of radiochemical separation schemes for multielement activation analysis and in their automation is presented. About 80 radiochemical separation schemes are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of the automation of radiochemical separations are critically analysed. The various machines developed are illustrated and technical suggestions for the development of automated machines are given. (author)
The Department of Energy (DOE) has significant amounts of radioactive and hazardous wastes stored, buried, and still being generated at many sites within the United States. These wastes must be characterized to determine the elemental, isotopic, and compound content before remediation can begin. In this paper, the authors project that sampling requirements will necessitate generating more than 10 million samples by 1995, which will far exceed the capabilities of our current manual chemical analysis laboratories. The Contaminant Analysis Automation effort (CAA), with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as to the coordinating Laboratory, is designing and fabricating robotic systems that will standardize and automate both the hardware and the software of the most common environmental chemical methods. This will be accomplished by designing and producing several unique analysis systems called Standard Analysis Methods (SAM). Each SAM will automate a specific chemical method, including sample preparation, the analytical analysis, and the data interpretation, by using a building block known as the Standard Laboratory Module (SLM). This concept allows the chemist to assemble an automated environmental method using standardized SLMs easily and without the worry of hardware compatibility or the necessity of generating complicated control programs
Corso, Jason J.; Alahi, Alexandre; Grauman, Kristen; Hager, Gregory D.; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Sawhney, Harpreet; Sheikh, Yaser
The social conventions and expectations around the appropriate use of imaging and video has been transformed by the availability of video cameras in our pockets. The impact on law enforcement can easily be seen by watching the nightly news; more and more arrests, interventions, or even routine stops are being caught on cell phones or surveillance video, with both positive and negative consequences. This proliferation of the use of video has led law enforcement to look at the potential benefit...
The rapid growth of camera and storage capabilities, over the past decade, has resulted in an exponential growth in the size of video repositories, such as YouTube. In 2015, 400 hours of videos are uploaded to YouTube every minute. At the same time, massive amount of images/videos are generated from monitoring cameras for elderly, sick assistance, satellites for earth science research, and telescopes for space exploration. Human annotation and manual manipulation of such videos are infeasible...
Blumenstein, Michael; Green, Steve; Fogelman, Shoshana; Nguyen, Ann; Muthukkumarasamy, Vallipuram
This paper describes the Generic Automated Marking Environment (GAME) and provides a detailed analysis of its performance in assessing student programming projects and exercises. GAME has been designed to automatically assess programming assignments written in a variety of languages based on the "structure" of the source code and the correctness…
Williams, Galen S.; Raper, Kellie Curry
This article describes an automated data analysis tool that allows Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service educators to disseminate results in a timely manner. Primary data collected at Oklahoma Quality Beef Network (OQBN) certified calf auctions across the state results in a large amount of data per sale site. Sale summaries for an individual sale…
Xu, Dongxin; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Gilkerson, Jill
Purpose: Conventional resource-intensive methods for child phonetic development studies are often impractical for sampling and analyzing child vocalizations in sufficient quantity. The purpose of this study was to provide new information on early language development by an automated analysis of child phonetic production using naturalistic…
Wieselquist, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, Adam B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bowman, Stephen M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Joshua L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Source terms and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage pool decay heat load analyses for operating nuclear power plants require a large number of Oak Ridge Isotope Generation and Depletion (ORIGEN) calculations. SNF source term calculations also require a significant amount of bookkeeping to track quantities such as core and assembly operating histories, spent fuel pool (SFP) residence times, heavy metal masses, and enrichments. The ORIGEN Assembly Isotopics (ORIGAMI) module in the SCALE code system provides a simple scheme for entering these data. However, given the large scope of the analysis, extensive scripting is necessary to convert formats and process data to create thousands of ORIGAMI input files (one per assembly) and to process the results into formats readily usable by follow-on analysis tools. This primer describes a project within the SCALE Fulcrum graphical user interface (GUI) called ORIGAMI Automator that was developed to automate the scripting and bookkeeping in large-scale source term analyses. The ORIGAMI Automator enables the analyst to (1) easily create, view, and edit the reactor site and assembly information, (2) automatically create and run ORIGAMI inputs, and (3) analyze the results from ORIGAMI. ORIGAMI Automator uses the standard ORIGEN binary concentrations files produced by ORIGAMI, with concentrations available at all time points in each assembly’s life. The GUI plots results such as mass, concentration, activity, and decay heat using a powerful new ORIGEN Post-Processing Utility for SCALE (OPUS) GUI component. This document includes a description and user guide for the GUI, a step-by-step tutorial for a simplified scenario, and appendices that document the file structures used.
In this work, Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) was used to characterize 7.65 and 9mm cartridges Turkish ammunition. All samples were analyzed in a SEM Jeol JSM-5600LV equipped BSE detector and a Link ISIS 300 (EDS). A working distance of 20mm, an accelerating voltage of 20 keV and gunshot residue software was used in all analysis. Automated search resulted in a high number of particles analyzed containing gunshot residues (GSR) unique elements (PbBaSb). The obtained data about the definition of characteristic GSR particles was concordant with other studies on this topic
Computers, the invisible backbone of nuclear safeguards, monitor and control plant operations and support many materials accounting systems. Our automated procedure to assess computer security effectiveness differs from traditional risk analysis methods. The system is modeled as an interactive questionnaire, fully automated on a portable microcomputer. A set of modular event trees links the questionnaire to the risk assessment. Qualitative scores are obtained for target vulnerability, and qualitative impact measures are evaluated for a spectrum of threat-target pairs. These are then combined by a linguistic algebra to provide an accurate and meaningful risk measure. 12 references, 7 figures
Ferguson, Christopher J.
The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in…
Juluru, Krishna; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William; King, Tara; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot
Over the past decade, several computerized tools have been developed for detection of lung nodules and for providing volumetric analysis. Incidentally detected lung nodules have traditionally been followed over time by measurements of their axial dimensions on CT scans to ensure stability or document progression. A recently published article by the Fleischner Society offers guidelines on the management of incidentally detected nodules based on size criteria. For this reason, differences in measurements obtained by automated tools from various vendors may have significant implications on management, yet the degree of variability in these measurements is not well understood. The goal of this study is to quantify the differences in nodule maximum diameter and volume among different automated analysis software. Using a dataset of lung scans obtained with both "ultra-low" and conventional doses, we identified a subset of nodules in each of five size-based categories. Using automated analysis tools provided by three different vendors, we obtained size and volumetric measurements on these nodules, and compared these data using descriptive as well as ANOVA and t-test analysis. Results showed significant differences in nodule maximum diameter measurements among the various automated lung nodule analysis tools but no significant differences in nodule volume measurements. These data suggest that when using automated commercial software, volume measurements may be a more reliable marker of tumor progression than maximum diameter. The data also suggest that volumetric nodule measurements may be relatively reproducible among various commercial workstations, in contrast to the variability documented when performing human mark-ups, as is seen in the LIDC (lung imaging database consortium) study.
Full Text Available In this report, we propose a novel framework to explore the activity interactions and temporal dependencies between activities in complex video surveillance scenes. Under our framework, a low-level codebook is generated by an adaptive quantization with respect to the activeness criterion. The Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes (HDP model is then applied to automatically cluster low-level features into atomic activities. Afterwards, the dynamic behaviors of the activities are represented as a multivariate point-process. The pair-wise relationships between activities are explicitly captured by the non-parametric Granger causality analysis, from which the activity interactions and temporal dependencies are discovered. Then, each video clip is labeled by one of the activity interactions. The results of the real-world traffic datasets show that the proposed method can achieve a high quality classification performance. Compared with traditional K-means clustering, a maximum improvement of 19.19% is achieved by using the proposed causal grouping method.
Ramazani, Roseanna B.; Harish R Krishnan; BERGESON, SUSAN E.; Atkinson, Nigel S.
Currently, measuring ethanol behaviors in flies depends on expensive image analysis software or time intensive experimenter observation. We have designed an automated system for the collection and analysis of locomotor behavior data, using the IEEE 1394 acquisition program dvgrab, the image toolkit ImageMagick and the programming language Perl. In the proposed method, flies are placed in a clear container and a computer-controlled camera takes pictures at regular intervals. Digital subtractio...
Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Skoglund, Karl
Corpus callosum analysis is influenced by many factors. The effort in controlling these has previously been incomplete and scattered. This paper sketches a complete pipeline for automated corpus callosum analysis from magnetic resonance images, with focus on measurement standardisation. The...... presented pipeline deals with i) estimation of the mid-sagittal plane, ii) localisation and registration of the corpus callosum, iii) parameterisation and representation of its contour, and iv) means of standardising the traditional reference area measurements....
The paper aims at demonstrating some analytical potentialities of video data for the study of social interaction. It is based on video recordings of situated activities in their ordinary settings—producing "naturally occurring data" within a naturalistic perspective developed by Harvey SACKS and subsequent research within ethnomethodology, conversation analysis, interactional linguistics and workplace studies. Analysis focuses on a particular kind of video recording, produced during fieldwork...
Wolfe, Carrie A. C.; Oates, Matthew R.; Hage, David S.
The technique of flow injection analysis (FIA) is a common instrumental method used in detecting a variety of chemical and biological agents. This paper describes an undergraduate laboratory that uses FIA to perform a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) colorimetric assay for quantitating protein samples. The method requires less than 2 min per sample injection and gives a response over a broad range of protein concentrations. This method can be used in instrumental analysis labs to illustrate the principles and use of FIA, or as a means for introducing students to common methods employed in the analysis of biological agents.
Aghaeepour, Nima; Finak, Greg; Hoos, Holger; Mosmann, Tim R.; Gottardo, Raphael; Brinkman, Ryan; Scheuermann, Richard H.
Traditional methods for flow cytometry (FCM) data processing rely on subjective manual gating. Recently, several groups have developed computational methods for identifying cell populations in multidimensional FCM data. The Flow Cytometry: Critical Assessment of Population Identification Methods (FlowCAP) challenges were established to compare the performance of these methods on two tasks – mammalian cell population identification to determine if automated algorithms can reproduce expert manual gating, and sample classification to determine if analysis pipelines can identify characteristics that correlate with external variables (e.g., clinical outcome). This analysis presents the results of the first of these challenges. Several methods performed well compared to manual gating or external variables using statistical performance measures, suggesting that automated methods have reached a sufficient level of maturity and accuracy for reliable use in FCM data analysis. PMID:23396282
Full Text Available Data curation is increasingly important. Our previous work on a Kepler curation package has demonstrated advantages that come from automating data curation pipelines by using workflow systems. However, manually designed curation workflows can be error-prone and inefficient due to a lack of user understanding of the workflow system, misuse of actors, or human error. Correcting problematic workflows is often very time-consuming. A more proactive workflow system can help users avoid such pitfalls. For example, static analysis before execution can be used to detect the potential problems in a workflow and help the user to improve workflow design. In this paper, we propose a declarative workflow approach that supports semi-automated workflow design, analysis and optimization. We show how the workflow design engine helps users to construct data curation workflows, how the workflow analysis engine detects different design problems of workflows and how workflows can be optimized by exploiting parallelism.
Liu, Song; Xu, Min; Yi, Haoran; Chia, Liang-Tien; Rajan, Deepu
This paper presents a new multiple-modality method for extracting semantic information from basketball video. The visual, motion, and audio information are extracted from video to first generate some low-level video segmentation and classification. Domain knowledge is further exploited for detecting interesting events in the basketball video. For video, both visual and motion prediction information are utilized for shot and scene boundary detection algorithm; this will be followed by scene classification. For audio, audio keysounds are sets of specific audio sounds related to semantic events and a classification method based on hidden Markov model (HMM) is used for audio keysound identification. Subsequently, by analyzing the multimodal information, the positions of potential semantic events, such as "foul" and "shot at the basket," are located with additional domain knowledge. Finally, a video annotation is generated according to MPEG-7 multimedia description schemes (MDSs). Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Nuclear engineering analysis is automated with the help of preprocessors and postprocessors. All the analysis and processing steps are recorded in a form that is reportable and replayable. These recordings serve both as documentations and as robots, for they are capable of performing the analyses they document. Since the processors and robots in ROBOCOM interface the users in a way independent of the analysis program being used, it is now possible to unify input modeling for programs with similar functionality. ROBOCOM will eventually evolve into an encyclopedia of how every nuclear engineering analysis is performed
Full Text Available Purpose: Improvement of technological processes by the use of technological efficiency analysis can create basis of their optimization. Informatization and computerization of wider and wider scope of activity is one of the most important current development trends of an enterprise.Design/methodology/approach: Indicators appointment makes it possible to evaluate the process efficiency, which can constitute an optimization basis of particular operation. Model of technological efficiency analysis is based on particular efficiency indicators that characterize operation, taking into account following criteria: operation – material, operation – machine, operation – human, operation – technological parameters.Findings: From the qualitative and correctness of choose of technology point of view comprehensive technological processes assessment makes up the basis of technological efficiency analysis. Results of technological efficiency analysis of technological process of prove that the chosen model of technological efficiency analysis makes it possible to improve the process continuously by the technological analysis, and application of computer assistance makes it possible to automate the process of efficiency analysis, and finally controlled improvement of technological processes.Practical implications: For the sake of complexity of technological efficiency analysis one has created an AEPT computer analysis from which result: operation efficiency indicators with distinguished indicators with minimal acceptable values, values of efficiency of the applied samples, value of technological process efficiency.Originality/value: The created computer analysis of ef technological process efficiency (AEPT makes it possible to automate the process of analysis and optimization.
Various economic studies of the video game industry have focused on intra-industry details. This paper complements the approach by highlighting broader budget allocation by households. Using the “total households” data of the Family Income and Expenditure Survey, this paper estimates the demand model for video games. Estimation results show the effects of household income, demographic factors, and prices of goods on the expenditure share of video games. These results indicate the importance o...
Ashish M. Kothari; Dwivedi, Ved V.
In this paper, we have suggested the transform domain method for digital video watermarking for embedding invisible watermarks behind the video. It is used for copyright protection as well as proof of ownership. In this paper, we first extracted the frames from the video and then used frequency domain characteristics of the frames for watermarking. In this paper, we have specifically used the characteristics of the Discrete Cosine Transform for watermarking and calculated different parameters.
Aleksandrova, Aleksandrija; Nancheva, Nadezhda
Video analysis provides an educational, motivating, and cost-effective alternative to traditional course- related activities in physics education. Our paper presents results from video analysis of experiments “Collision of balls” and “Motion of a ball rolled on inclined plane” as examples to illustrate the laws of conservation of impulse and mechanical energy.
Wee, Loo Kang
This workshop aims to demonstrate how the Tracker Video Analysis and Modeling Tool engages, enables and empowers teachers to be learners so that we can be leaders in our teaching practice. Through this workshop, the kinematics of a falling ball and a projectile motion are explored using video analysis and in the later video modeling. We hope to lead and inspire other teachers by facilitating their experiences with this ICT-enabled video modeling pedagogy (Brown, 2008) and free tool for facilitating students-centered active learning, thus motivate students to be more self-directed.
Full Text Available This article is going to discuss on how the audience know and evaluate network video and pay TV and whether the popularity of network video will bring about influences to pay TV. This research is based on a survey conducted in November 2011 of which the respondents were residents living in Guangzhou at the age of 16 and above who had applied internet in the past half year. A comparable analysis of the findings in this survey and the national statistics reveals some common characteristics among the audience using the network video: 1 The audience who use the network video are mainly young people at an age of 10 to 39. 2 Appearance of network video (IPTV does have influences on the frequency and perception of watching the traditional TV by the audience. 3 It is true that more and more audience come into contact with the network video, but the intention of the audience to purchase network video is not strong. Through the survey and analysis, it is found that influences of network video on the traditional TV (including digital pay TV are that it has appealed young audience to watch, but the network video can only attract the audience to watch, and may not attract them to pay to watch. Therefore, the direct influence of network video on pay TV is limited.
Corey; Hannah; Basch; Grace; Clarke; Hillyer; Rachel; Reeves; Charles; E; Basch
AIM: To examine YouTubeTM videos about bowel preparation procedure to better understand the quality of this information on the Internet. METHODS: YouTubeTM videos related to colonoscopy preparation were identified during the winter of 2014; only those with ≥ 5000 views were selected for analysis(n = 280). Creator of the video, length, date posted, whether the video was based upon personal experience, and theme was recorded. Bivariate analysis was conducted to examine differences between consumers vs healthcare professionals-created videos. RESULTS: Most videos were based on personal experience. Half were created by consumers and 34% were ≥ 4.5 min long. Healthcare professional videos were viewed more often(> 19400, 59.4% vs 40.8%,P = 0.037, for healthcare professional and consumer, respectively) and more often focused on the purgative type and completing the preparation. Consumer videos received more comments(> 10 comments, 62.2% vs 42.7%, P = 0.001) and more often emphasized the palatability of the purgative, disgust, and hunger during the procedure. Content of colonoscopy bowel preparation YouTube? videos is influenced by who creates the video and may affect views on colon cancer screening. CONCLUSION: The impact of perspectives on the quality of health-related information found on the Internet requires further examination.
The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities
The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities.
A Microphotometer is used to increase the sharpness of dark spectral lines. Analyzing these lines one sample content and its concentration could be determined and the analysis is known as Quantitative Spectrographic Analysis. The Quantitative Spectrographic Analysis is carried out in 3 steps, as follows. 1. Emulsion calibration. This consists of gauging a photographic emulsion, to determine the intensity variations in terms of the incident radiation. For the procedure of emulsion calibration an adjustment with square minimum to the data obtained is applied to obtain a graph. It is possible to determine the density of dark spectral line against the incident light intensity shown by the microphotometer. 2. Working curves. The values of known concentration of an element against incident light intensity are plotted. Since the sample contains several elements, it is necessary to find a work curve for each one of them. 3. Analytical results. The calibration curve and working curves are compared and the concentration of the studied element is determined. The automatic data acquisition, calculation and obtaining of resulting, is done by means of a computer (PC) and a computer program. The conditioning signal circuits have the function of delivering TTL levels (Transistor Transistor Logic) to make the communication between the microphotometer and the computer possible. Data calculation is done using a computer programm
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-energy laser facility comprised of 192 beamlines that house thousands of optics. These optics guide, amplify and tightly focus light onto a tiny target for fusion ignition research and high energy density physics experiments. The condition of these optics is key to the economic, efficient and maximally energetic performance of the laser. Our goal, and novel achievement, is to find on the optics any imperfections while they are tens of microns in size, track them through time to see if they grow and if so, remove the optic and repair the single site so the entire optic can then be re-installed for further use on the laser. This paper gives an overview of the image analysis used for detecting, measuring, and tracking sites of interest on an optic while it is installed on the beamline via in situ inspection and after it has been removed for maintenance. In this way, the condition of each optic is monitored throughout the optic's lifetime. This overview paper will summarize key algorithms and technical developments for custom image analysis and processing and highlight recent improvements. (Associated papers will include more details on these issues.) We will also discuss the use of OI Analysis for daily operation of the NIF laser and its extension to inspection of NIF targets.
Lee Ernest K
Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of sequences from whole genomes to reconstruct the tree of life has the potential to enable the development of phylogenomic hypotheses in ways that have not been before possible. A significant bottleneck in the analysis of genomic-scale views of the tree of life is the time required for manual curation of genomic data into multi-gene phylogenetic matrices. Results To keep pace with the exponentially growing volume of molecular data in the genomic era, we have developed an automated technique, ASAP (Automated Simultaneous Analysis Phylogenetics, to assemble these multigene/multi species matrices and to evaluate the significance of individual genes within the context of a given phylogenetic hypothesis. Conclusion Applications of ASAP may enable scientists to re-evaluate species relationships and to develop new phylogenomic hypotheses based on genome-scale data.
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is actively involved in the LMFBR Man-Machine Integration (MMI) Safety Program. The objective of this program is to enhance the operational safety and reliability of fast-breeder reactors by optimum integration of men and machines through the application of human factors principles and control engineering to the design, operation, and the control environment. ANL is developing methods to apply automated reasoning and computerization in the validation and sneak function analysis process. This project provides the element definitions and relations necessary for an automated reasoner (AR) to reason about design validation and sneak function analysis. This project also provides a demonstration of this AR application on an Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) system, the Argonne Cooling System
Full Text Available Microarray study enables us to obtain hundreds of thousands of expressions of genes or genotypes at once, and it is an indispensable technology for genome research. The first step is the analysis of scanned microarray images. This is the most important procedure for obtaining biologically reliable data. Currently most microarray image processing systems require burdensome manual block/spot indexing work. Since the amount of experimental data is increasing very quickly, automated microarray image analysis software becomes important. In this paper, we propose two automated methods for analyzing microarray images. First, we propose the extended -regular sequence to index blocks and spots, which enables a novel automatic gridding procedure. Second, we provide a methodology, hierarchical metagrid alignment, to allow reliable and efficient batch processing for a set of microarray images. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are more reliable and convenient than the commercial tools.
Cao, Xinhua; Treves, S. Ted
In this study, an automated analysis of pulmonary ventilation (AAPV) was developed to visualize the ventilation in pediatric lungs using dynamic Xe-133 scintigraphy. AAPV is a software algorithm that converts a dynamic series of Xe- 133 images into four functional images: equilibrium, washout halftime, residual, and clearance rate by analyzing pixelbased activity. Compared to conventional methods of calculating global or regional ventilation parameters, AAPV provides a visual representation of pulmonary ventilation functions.
Winkel, Benjamin; Kerp, Juergen; Stanko, Stephan
In this paper we present an interference detection toolbox consisting of a high dynamic range Digital Fast-Fourier-Transform spectrometer (DFFT, based on FPGA-technology) and data analysis software for automated radio frequency interference (RFI) detection. The DFFT spectrometer allows high speed data storage of spectra on time scales of less than a second. The high dynamic range of the device assures constant calibration even during extremely powerful RFI events. The software uses an algorit...
Analysis of damages done by the radiation in a polymer characterized by optic properties of polished surfaces, of uniformity and chemical resistance that the acrylic; resistant until the 150 centigrade grades of temperature, and with an approximate weight of half of the glass. An objective of this work is the development of a method that analyze in automated form the superficial damages induced by radiation in plastic materials means an images analyst. (Author)
This paper describes three successive studies on ageing of protection automation of nuclear power plants. These studies were aimed at developing a methodology for an experience based ageing analysis, and applying it to identify the most critical components from ageing and safety points of view. The analyses resulted also to suggestions for improvement of data collection systems for the purpose of further ageing analyses. (author)
Hopkins, Daniel J.; King, Gary
The increasing availability of digitized text presents enormous opportunities for social scientists. Yet hand coding many blogs, speeches, government records, newspapers, or other sources of unstructured text is infeasible. Although computer scientists have methods for automated content analysis, most are optimized to classify individual documents, whereas social scientists instead want generalizations about the population of documents, such as the proportion in a given category. Unfortunatel...
Dev, P.; Rindfleisch, T. C.; Kush, S. J.; Stringer, J R
Usage of streaming digital video of lectures in preclinical courses was measured by analysis of the data in the log file maintained on the web server. We observed that students use the video when it is available. They do not use it to replace classroom attendance but rather for review before examinations or when a class has been missed. Usage of video has not increased significantly for any course within the 18 month duration of this project.
Hamilton, Peter W; Wang, Yinhai; Boyd, Clinton; James, Jacqueline A; Loughrey, Maurice B; Hougton, Joseph P; Boyle, David P; Kelly, Paul; Maxwell, Perry; McCleary, David; Diamond, James; McArt, Darragh G; Tunstall, Jonathon; Bankhead, Peter; Salto-Tellez, Manuel
The discovery and clinical application of molecular biomarkers in solid tumors, increasingly relies on nucleic acid extraction from FFPE tissue sections and subsequent molecular profiling. This in turn requires the pathological review of haematoxylin & eosin (H&E) stained slides, to ensure sample quality, tumor DNA sufficiency by visually estimating the percentage tumor nuclei and tumor annotation for manual macrodissection. In this study on NSCLC, we demonstrate considerable variation in tumor nuclei percentage between pathologists, potentially undermining the precision of NSCLC molecular evaluation and emphasising the need for quantitative tumor evaluation. We subsequently describe the development and validation of a system called TissueMark for automated tumor annotation and percentage tumor nuclei measurement in NSCLC using computerized image analysis. Evaluation of 245 NSCLC slides showed precise automated tumor annotation of cases using Tissuemark, strong concordance with manually drawn boundaries and identical EGFR mutational status, following manual macrodissection from the image analysis generated tumor boundaries. Automated analysis of cell counts for % tumor measurements by Tissuemark showed reduced variability and significant correlation (p tissue samples for molecular profiling in discovery and diagnostics. PMID:26317646
Workman, Gary L.
The use of eddy current techniques for characterizing flaws in graphite-based filament-wound cylindrical structures is described. A major emphasis was also placed upon incorporating artificial intelligence techniques into the signal analysis portion of the inspection process. Developing an eddy current scanning system using a commercial robot for inspecting graphite structures (and others) was a goal in the overall concept and is essential for the final implementation for the expert systems interpretation. Manual scans, as performed in the preliminary work here, do not provide sufficiently reproducible eddy current signatures to be easily built into a real time expert system. The expert systems approach to eddy current signal analysis requires that a suitable knowledge base exist in which correct decisions as to the nature of a flaw can be performed. A robotic workcell using eddy current transducers for the inspection of carbon filament materials with improved sensitivity was developed. Improved coupling efficiencies achieved with the E-probes and horseshoe probes are exceptional for graphite fibers. The eddy current supervisory system and expert system was partially developed on a MacIvory system. Continued utilization of finite element models for predetermining eddy current signals was shown to be useful in this work, both for understanding how electromagnetic fields interact with graphite fibers, and also for use in determining how to develop the knowledge base. Sufficient data was taken to indicate that the E-probe and the horseshoe probe can be useful eddy current transducers for inspecting graphite fiber components. The lacking component at this time is a large enough probe to have sensitivity in both the far and near field of a thick graphite epoxy component.
Huang, Xin; Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren
transform coefficients, estimates the distortion, and assesses the video quality. The proposed scheme generates VQA features based on Intra coded frames, and then maps features using an Elastic Net to predict subjective video quality. A set of HEVC coded 4K UHD sequences are tested. Results show that the...
Video games have tremendous potential in mathematics education, yet there is a push to simply add mathematics to a video game without regard to whether the game structure suits the mathematics, and without regard to the level of mathematical thought being learned in the game. Are students practicing facts, or are they problem-solving? This paper…
Fabiano de Jesus Santos
Full Text Available Introduction:The most common cause of diagnostic error is related to errors in laboratory tests as well as errors of results interpretation. In order to reduce them, the laboratory currently has modern equipment which provides accurate and reliable results. The development of automation has revolutionized the laboratory procedures in Brazil and worldwide.Objective:To determine the prevalence of microscopic changes present in blood slides concordant and discordant with results obtained using fully automated procedures.Materials and method:From January to July 2013, 1,000 hematological parameters slides were analyzed. Automated analysis was performed on last generation equipment, which methodology is based on electrical impedance, and is able to quantify all the figurative elements of the blood in a universe of 22 parameters. The microscopy was performed by two experts in microscopy simultaneously.Results:The data showed that only 42.70% were concordant, comparing with 57.30% discordant. The main findings among discordant were: Changes in red blood cells 43.70% (n = 250, white blood cells 38.46% (n = 220, and number of platelet 17.80% (n = 102.Discussion:The data show that some results are not consistent with clinical or physiological state of an individual, and cannot be explained because they have not been investigated, which may compromise the final diagnosis.Conclusion:It was observed that it is of fundamental importance that the microscopy qualitative analysis must be performed in parallel with automated analysis in order to obtain reliable results, causing a positive impact on the prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic follow-up.
Ekobo Akoa, Brice; Simeu, Emmanuel; Lebowsky, Fritz
This paper proposes two novel approaches to Video Quality Assessment (VQA). Both approaches attempt to develop video evaluation techniques capable of replacing human judgment when rating video quality in subjective experiments. The underlying study consists of selecting fundamental quality metrics based on Human Visual System (HVS) models and using artificial intelligence solutions as well as advanced statistical analysis. This new combination enables suitable video quality ratings while taking as input multiple quality metrics. The first method uses a neural network based machine learning process. The second method consists in evaluating the video quality assessment using non-linear regression model. The efficiency of the proposed methods is demonstrated by comparing their results with those of existing work done on synthetic video artifacts. The results obtained by each method are compared with scores from a database resulting from subjective experiments.
Full Text Available Video contents retrieval and semantics research attract a large number ofresearchers in video processing and analysis domain. The researchers try topropose structure or frameworks to extract the content of the video that’sintegrating many algorithms using low and high level features. To improve theefficiency, the system has to consider user behavior as well as develops a lowcomplexity framework. In this paper we present a framework for automatic soccervideo summaries and highlights extraction using audio/video features and anenhanced generic algorithm for dominant color extraction. Our frameworkconsists of stages shown in Figure 1. Experimental results demonstrate theeffectiveness and efficiency of the proposed framework.
Magradze, Erekle; Nadal, Jordi; Quadt, Arnulf; Kawamura, Gen; Musheghyan, Haykuhi
High-throughput computing platforms consist of a complex infrastructure and provide a number of services apt to failures. To mitigate the impact of failures on the quality of the provided services, a constant monitoring and in time reaction is required, which is impossible without automation of the system administration processes. This paper introduces a way of automation of the process of monitoring information analysis to provide the long and short term predictions of the service response time (SRT) for a mass storage and batch systems and to identify the status of a service at a given time. The approach for the SRT predictions is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). An evaluation of the approaches is performed on real monitoring data from the WLCG Tier 2 center GoeGrid. Ten fold cross validation results demonstrate high efficiency of both approaches in comparison to known methods.
This book proposes a data-driven methodology using multi-way data analysis for the design of video-quality metrics. It also enables video- quality metrics to be created using arbitrary features. This data- driven design approach not only requires no detailed knowledge of the human visual system, but also allows a proper consideration of the temporal nature of video using a three-way prediction model, corresponding to the three-way structure of video. Using two simple example metrics, the author demonstrates not only that this purely data- driven approach outperforms state-of-the-art video-quality metrics, which are often optimized for specific properties of the human visual system, but also that multi-way data analysis methods outperform the combination of two-way data analysis methods and temporal pooling. .
Full Text Available This paper presents new algorithms for extracting metadata from video sequences in the MPEG-2 compressed domain. Three algorithms for efficient low-level metadata extraction in preprocessing stages are described. The first algorithm detects camera motion using the motion vector field of an MPEG-2 video. The second method extends the idea of motion detection to a limited region of interest, yielding an efficient algorithm to track objects inside video sequences. The third algorithm performs a cut detection using macroblock types and motion vectors.
There are many empirical studies of supply-side data for the video games industry. This paper,on the contrary, highlights the household side, estimating demand equations for video games.Using the “total households” data of the Family Income and Expenditure Survey, whichincludes one-person households and households engaged in agriculture, forestry and fishery,estimation results show that a household’s income factor has a positive effect on its share of expenditure on video games. It is also ve...
To be productive and profitable in a modern semiconductor fabrication environment, large amounts of manufacturing data must be collected, analyzed, and maintained. This includes data collected from in- and off-line wafer inspection systems and from the process equipment itself. This data is increasingly being used to design new processes, control and maintain tools, and to provide the information needed for rapid yield learning and prediction. Because of increasing device complexity, the amount of data being generated is outstripping the yield engineer close-quote s ability to effectively monitor and correct unexpected trends and excursions. The 1997 SIA National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors highlights a need to address these issues through open-quotes automated data reduction algorithms to source defects from multiple data sources and to reduce defect sourcing time.close quotes SEMATECH and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been developing new strategies and technologies for providing the yield engineer with higher levels of assisted data reduction for the purpose of automated yield analysis. In this article, we will discuss the current state of the art and trends in yield management automation. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society
The Highway Electrification and Automation Technologies Regional Impacts Analysis Project addresses the transportation-related problems of freeway congestion, air pollution, and dependence on fossil fuels in southern California. This report presents a documentation of the basis for the impacts analysis. It contains sections on data collected, baseline forecast for 2025, and electrification and automation specification scenarios. This report constitutes the final report for Phase I of the proj...
Video games, as a contemporary cultural phenomenon, have drawn the attention of academic scholars, who decrypt them from a cultural perspective (what happens outside the game?) or as cultural object in itself (what happens inside the game?). Nowadays, video games are analysed from multiple research perspectives, such as the economic, political, social or technological, and are decoded with the help of aesthetics, popular culture, gender studies, production and reception studies (Aarseth...
Allen, Phillip A.; Wells, Douglas N.
Using automated and standardized computer tools to calculate the pertinent test result values has several advantages such as: 1. allowing high-fidelity solutions to complex nonlinear phenomena that would be impractical to express in written equation form, 2. eliminating errors associated with the interpretation and programing of analysis procedures from the text of test standards, 3. lessening the need for expertise in the areas of solid mechanics, fracture mechanics, numerical methods, and/or finite element modeling, to achieve sound results, 4. and providing one computer tool and/or one set of solutions for all users for a more "standardized" answer. In summary, this approach allows a non-expert with rudimentary training to get the best practical solution based on the latest understanding with minimum difficulty.Other existing ASTM standards that cover complicated phenomena use standard computer programs: 1. ASTM C1340/C1340M-10- Standard Practice for Estimation of Heat Gain or Loss Through Ceilings Under Attics Containing Radiant Barriers by Use of a Computer Program 2. ASTM F 2815 - Standard Practice for Chemical Permeation through Protective Clothing Materials: Testing Data Analysis by Use of a Computer Program 3. ASTM E2807 - Standard Specification for 3D Imaging Data Exchange, Version 1.0 The verification, validation, and round-robin processes required of a computer tool closely parallel the methods that are used to ensure the solution validity for equations included in test standard. The use of automated analysis tools allows the creation and practical implementation of advanced fracture mechanics test standards that capture the physics of a nonlinear fracture mechanics problem without adding undue burden or expense to the user. The presented approach forms a bridge between the equation-based fracture testing standards of today and the next generation of standards solving complex problems through analysis automation.
Cost analysis of an automated network system and a manual system of cataloging and book processing indicates a 20 percent savings using automation. Per unit costs based on the average monthly automation rate are used for comparison. Higher manual system costs are attributed to staff costs. (RAA)
Dr. Anil Kumar Sharma,
Full Text Available Quantization Index Modulation (QIM is an important method for embedding digital watermark signal with information. This technique achieves very efficient tradeoffs among watermark embedding rate, the amount of embedding induced distortion to the host signal and the robustness to intentional or unintentional attacks. Most of the schemes of video watermarking have been proposed on uncompressed video. This paper introduces a compressed video watermarking procedure to reduce computations. In a video frame the luminance component is an important factor where much change can not be made as it can disturb the original data. The MPGE-2 video compression technique is based on a macroblock structure, motion compression and conditional replenishment of macroblocks. To achieve high compression motion compensation employed with P-frames, the Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT always exists in video stream for high robustness. In this work the QIM technique used for embedding is the DC component of chrome DCT of P-frames. The robustness of the proposed method has been studied through simulation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are routinely used to assess mRNA transcript levels on a genome-wide scale. Large amount of microarray datasets are now available in several databases, and new experiments are constantly being performed. In spite of this fact, few and limited tools exist for quickly and easily analyzing the results. Microarray analysis can be challenging for researchers without the necessary training and it can be time-consuming for service providers with many users. Results To address these problems we have developed an automated microarray data analysis (AMDA software, which provides scientists with an easy and integrated system for the analysis of Affymetrix microarray experiments. AMDA is free and it is available as an R package. It is based on the Bioconductor project that provides a number of powerful bioinformatics and microarray analysis tools. This automated pipeline integrates different functions available in the R and Bioconductor projects with newly developed functions. AMDA covers all of the steps, performing a full data analysis, including image analysis, quality controls, normalization, selection of differentially expressed genes, clustering, correspondence analysis and functional evaluation. Finally a LaTEX document is dynamically generated depending on the performed analysis steps. The generated report contains comments and analysis results as well as the references to several files for a deeper investigation. Conclusion AMDA is freely available as an R package under the GPL license. The package as well as an example analysis report can be downloaded in the Services/Bioinformatics section of the Genopolis http://www.genopolis.it/
Lanzarini, Laura Cristina; Hasperué, Waldo; Estrebou, César Armando; Ronchetti, Franco; Villa Monte, Augusto; Aquino, Germán Osvaldo; Quiroga, Facundo; Basgall, María José; Rojas, Luis; Jimbo Santana, Patricia; Fernández Bariviera, Aurelio; Olivas Varela, José Ángel
Esta línea de investigación se centra en el estudio y desarrollo de Sistemas Inteligentes basados en Redes Neuronales Artificiales aplicadas al Reconocimiento de Patrones y a la Minería de Datos. Con respecto al Reconocimiento de Patrones, el énfasis está puesto en el análisis de videos con el objetivo de identificar acciones humanas que faciliten la interfaz hombre/máquina y en la detección de patrones de movimiento en videos provenientes de cámaras de vigilancia asociados con situaciones...
Ricci, D; Ayala, C; Ramón-Fox, F G; Michel, R; Navarro, S; Wang, S -Y; Zhang, Z -W; Lehner, M J; Nicastro, L; Reyes-Ruiz, M
A preliminary data analysis of the stellar light curves obtained by the robotic telescopes of the TAOS project is presented. We selected a data run relative to one of the stellar fields observed by three of the four TAOS telescopes, and we investigate the common trend and the correlation between the light curves. We propose two ways to remove these trends and show the preliminary results. A project aimed at flagging interesting behaviors, such as stellar variability, and to set up an automated follow-up with the San Pedro M\\'artir Facilities is on the way.
Galvagno, E.; Velardocchia, M.; Vigliani, A.
The paper presents the kinematic and dynamic analysis of a power-shift automated manual transmission (AMT) characterised by a wet clutch, called assist clutch (ACL), replacing the fifth gear synchroniser. This torque assist mechanism becomes a torque transfer path during gearshifts, in order to overcome a typical dynamic problem of the AMTs, that is the driving force interruption. The mean power contributions during gearshifts are computed for different engine and ACL interventions, thus allowing to draw considerations useful for developing the control algorithms. The simulation results prove the advantages in terms of gearshift quality and ride comfort of the analysed transmission.
Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Kristensson, Martin; Engel, Ulla;
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop an automated image analysis software to measure the thickness of the subepithelial collagenous band in colon biopsies with collagenous colitis (CC) and incomplete CC (CCi). The software measures the thickness of the collagenous band on microscopic...... agreement between the four pathologists and the VG app was κ=0.71. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the Visiopharm VG app is able to measure the thickness of a sub-epithelial collagenous band in colon biopsies with an accuracy comparable to the performance of a pathologist and thereby provides a promising...
Mukherjee, Amit; Jenkins, Brian; Fang, Cheng; Radke, Richard J; Banker, Gary; Roysam, Badrinath
This paper describes an automated method to profile the velocity patterns of small organelles (BDNF granules) being transported along a selected section of axon of a cultured neuron imaged by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. Instead of directly detecting the granules as in conventional tracking, the proposed method starts by generating a two-dimensional spatio-temporal map (kymograph) of the granule traffic along an axon segment. Temporal sharpening during the kymograph creation helps to highlight granule movements while suppressing clutter due to stationary granules. A voting algorithm defined over orientation distribution functions is used to refine the locations and velocities of the granules. The refined kymograph is analyzed using an algorithm inspired from the minimum set cover framework to generate multiple motion trajectories of granule transport paths. The proposed method is computationally efficient, robust to significant levels of noise and clutter, and can be used to capture and quantify trends in transport patterns quickly and accurately. When evaluated on a collection of image sequences, the proposed method was found to detect granule movement events with 94% recall rate and 82% precision compared to a time-consuming manual analysis. Further, we present a study to evaluate the efficacy of velocity profiling by analyzing the impact of oxidative stress on granule transport in which the fully automated analysis correctly reproduced the biological conclusion generated by manual analysis. PMID:21330183
Li, Kai; Wang, Jue; Wang, Haoqian; Dai, Qionghai
We present a fully automatic system for extracting the semantic structure of a typical academic presentation video, which captures the whole presentation stage with abundant camera motions such as panning, tilting, and zooming. Our system automatically detects and tracks both the projection screen and the presenter whenever they are visible in the video. By analyzing the image content of the tracked screen region, our system is able to detect slide progressions and extract a high-quality, non-occluded, geometrically-compensated image for each slide, resulting in a list of representative images that reconstruct the main presentation structure. Afterwards, our system recognizes text content and extracts keywords from the slides, which can be used for keyword-based video retrieval and browsing. Experimental results show that our system is able to generate more stable and accurate screen localization results than commonly-used object tracking methods. Our system also extracts more accurate presentation structures than general video summarization methods, for this specific type of video. PMID:26357345
Archer, M.; Erickson, J. S.; Hilliard, L. R.; Howell, P. B., Jr.; Stenger, D. A.; Ligler, F. S.; Lin, B.
The increasing demand for portable devices to detect and identify pathogens represents an interdisciplinary effort between engineering, materials science, and molecular biology. Automation of both sample preparation and analysis is critical for performing multiplexed analyses on real world samples. This paper selects two possible components for such automated portable analyzers: modified silicon structures for use in the isolation of nucleic acids and a sheath flow system suitable for automated microflow cytometry. Any detection platform that relies on the genetic content (RNA and DNA) present in complex matrices requires careful extraction and isolation of the nucleic acids in order to ensure their integrity throughout the process. This sample pre-treatment step is commonly performed using commercially available solid phases along with various molecular biology techniques that require multiple manual steps and dedicated laboratory space. Regardless of the detection scheme, a major challenge in the integration of total analysis systems is the development of platforms compatible with current isolation techniques that will ensure the same quality of nucleic acids. Silicon is an ideal candidate for solid phase separations since it can be tailored structurally and chemically to mimic the conditions used in the laboratory. For analytical purposes, we have developed passive structures that can be used to fully ensheath one flow stream with another. As opposed to traditional flow focusing methods, our sheath flow profile is truly two dimensional, making it an ideal candidate for integration into a microfluidic flow cytometer. Such a microflow cytometer could be used to measure targets captured on either antibody- or DNA-coated beads.
Andersen, T.; Larsen, O; Tenga, A; Engebretsen, L.; Bahr, R
Objectives: To develop and test a new video based method for match analysis that combines football specific and medical information to achieve a better understanding of the injury mechanisms and events leading up to high risk situations.
Loizou, Christos P
In ultrasound imaging and video visual perception is hindered by speckle multiplicative noise that degrades the quality. Noise reduction is therefore essential for improving the visual observation quality or as a pre-processing step for further automated analysis, such as image/video segmentation, texture analysis and encoding in ultrasound imaging and video. The goal of the first book (book 1 of 2 books) was to introduce the problem of speckle in ultrasound image and video as well as the theoretical background, algorithmic steps, and the MatlabTM for the following group of despeckle filters:
An automated computer analysis of ventilation (Kr-81m) and perfusion (Tc-99m) lung images has been devised that produces a graphical image of the distribution of ventilation and perfusion, and of ventilation-perfusion ratios. The analysis has overcome the following problems: the identification of the midline between two lungs and the lung boundaries, the exclusion of extrapulmonary radioactivity, the superimposition of lung images of different sizes, and the format for presentation of the data. Therefore, lung images of different sizes and shapes may be compared with each other. The analysis has been used to develop normal ranges from 55 volunteers. Comparison of younger and older age groups of men and women show small but significant differences in the distribution of ventilation and perfusion, but no differences in ventilation-perfusion ratios
Pallath, Nobert Thomas
Pedicle screw insertion technique has made revolution in the surgical treatment of spinal fractures and spinal disorders. Although X- ray fluoroscopy based navigation is popular, there is risk of prolonged exposure to X- ray radiation. Systems that have lower radiation risk are generally quite expensive. The position and orientation of the drill is clinically very important in pedicle screw fixation. In this paper, the position and orientation of the marker on the drill is determined using pattern recognition based methods, using geometric features, obtained from the input video sequence taken from CCD camera. A search is then performed on the video frames after preprocessing, to obtain the exact position and orientation of the drill. Animated graphics, showing the instantaneous position and orientation of the drill is then overlaid on the processed video for real time drill control and navigation.
Nobert Thomas Pallath
Full Text Available Pedicle screw insertion technique has made revolution in the surgical treatment of spinal fractures and spinal disorders. Although X- ray fluoroscopy based navigation is popular, there is risk of prolonged exposure to X- ray radiation. Systems that have lower radiation risk are generally quite expensive. The position and orientation of the drill is clinically very important in pedicle screw fixation. In this paper, the position and orientation of the marker on the drill is determined using pattern recognition based methods, using geometric features, obtained from the input video sequence taken from CCD camera. A search is then performed on the video frames after preprocessing, to obtain the exact position and orientation of the drill. An animated graphics, showing the instantaneous position and orientation of the drill is then overlaid on the processed video for real time drill control and navigation.
Yoo, Jina H; Kim, Junghyun
This study examines (1) how the topics of obesity are framed and (2) how obese persons are portrayed on YouTube video clips. The analysis of 417 obesity videos revealed that a newer medium like YouTube, similar to traditional media, appeared to assign responsibility and solutions for obesity mainly to individuals and their behaviors, although there was a tendency that some video categories have started to show other causal claims or solutions. However, due to the prevailing emphasis on personal causes and solutions, numerous YouTube videos had a theme of weight-based teasing, or showed obese persons engaging in stereotypical eating behaviors. We discuss a potential impact of YouTube videos on shaping viewers' perceptions about obesity and further reinforcing stigmatization of obese persons. PMID:21809934
Nisreen I. Yassin
Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive approach for digital video watermarking is introduced, where a binary watermark image is embedded into the video frames. Each video frame is decomposed into sub-images using 2 level discrete wavelet transform then the Principle Component Analysis (PCA transformation is applied for each block in the two bands LL and HH. The watermark is embedded into the maximum coefficient of the PCA block of the two bands. The proposed scheme is tested using a number of video sequences. Experimental results show high imperceptibility where there is no noticeable difference between the watermarked video frames and the original frames. The computed PSNR achieves high score which is 44.097 db. The proposed scheme shows high robustness against several attacks such as JPEG coding, Gaussian noise addition, histogram equalization, gamma correction, and contrast adjustment.
Acar, Esra; Hopfgartner, Frank; Albayrak, Sahin
When designing a video affective content analysis algorithm, one of the most important steps is the selection of discriminative features for the effective representation of video segments. The majority of existing affective content analysis methods either use low-level audio-visual features or generate handcrafted higher level representations based on these low-level features. We propose in this work to use deep learning methods, in particular convolutional neural networks (CNNs), in order to...
Project Report.docx Project Report.pdf Project Presentation.pptx Project Presentation.pdf Sample_YouTube_Videos_Raw.txt Sample_YouTube_Videos_Readable.txt The goal of this project was to collect YouTube videos for carefully selected events. The videos were manually collected and verified to be relevant to the specific events. The collection together with short description included with each video can later be used to automate the process of collecting videos pertaining to pa...
Søgaard, Jacob; Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell;
the factors influencing on subjective QoE of adaptation events.However, adapting the video quality typically lasts in a time scale much longer than what current standardized subjective testing methods are designed for, thus making the full matrix design of the experiment on an event level hard to achieve....... In this study, we investigated the overall subjective QoE of 6 minutes long video sequences containing different sequential adaptation events. This was compared to a data set from our previous work performed to evaluate the individual adaptation events. We could then derive a relationship between the overall...
Full Text Available Objective measures of canine gait quality via force plates, pressure mats or kinematic analysis are considered superior to subjective gait assessment (SGA. Despite research demonstrating that SGA does not accurately detect subtle lameness, it remains the most commonly performed diagnostic test for detecting lameness in dogs. This is largely because the financial, temporal and spatial requirements for existing objective gait analysis equipment makes this technology impractical for use in general practice. The utility of slow motion video as a potential tool to augment SGA is currently untested. To evaluate a more accessible way to overcome the limitations of SGA, a slow motion video study was undertaken. Three experienced veterinarians reviewed video footage of 30 dogs, 15 with a diagnosis of primary limb lameness based on history and physical examination, and 15 with no indication of limb lameness based on history and physical examination. Four different videos were made for each dog, demonstrating each dog walking and trotting in real time, and then again walking and trotting in 50% slow motion. For each video, the veterinary raters assessed both the degree of lameness, and which limb(s they felt represented the source of the lameness. Spearman’s rho, Cramer’s V, and t-tests were performed to determine if slow motion video increased either the accuracy or consistency of raters’ SGA relative to real time video. Raters demonstrated no significant increase in consistency or accuracy in their SGA of slow motion video relative to real time video. Based on these findings, slow motion video does not increase the consistency or accuracy of SGA values. Further research is required to determine if slow motion video will benefit SGA in other ways.
Lane, D M; Hill, S A; Huntingford, J L; Lafuente, P; Wall, R; Jones, K A
Objective measures of canine gait quality via force plates, pressure mats or kinematic analysis are considered superior to subjective gait assessment (SGA). Despite research demonstrating that SGA does not accurately detect subtle lameness, it remains the most commonly performed diagnostic test for detecting lameness in dogs. This is largely because the financial, temporal and spatial requirements for existing objective gait analysis equipment makes this technology impractical for use in general practice. The utility of slow motion video as a potential tool to augment SGA is currently untested. To evaluate a more accessible way to overcome the limitations of SGA, a slow motion video study was undertaken. Three experienced veterinarians reviewed video footage of 30 dogs, 15 with a diagnosis of primary limb lameness based on history and physical examination, and 15 with no indication of limb lameness based on history and physical examination. Four different videos were made for each dog, demonstrating each dog walking and trotting in real time, and then again walking and trotting in 50% slow motion. For each video, the veterinary raters assessed both the degree of lameness, and which limb(s) they felt represented the source of the lameness. Spearman's rho, Cramer's V, and t-tests were performed to determine if slow motion video increased either the accuracy or consistency of raters' SGA relative to real time video. Raters demonstrated no significant increase in consistency or accuracy in their SGA of slow motion video relative to real time video. Based on these findings, slow motion video does not increase the consistency or accuracy of SGA values. Further research is required to determine if slow motion video will benefit SGA in other ways. PMID:26623383
Christopher Lee Dembia
Full Text Available A simple automated image analysis algorithm has been developed that processes consecutive images from high speed, high resolution digital images of burning fuel droplets. The droplets burn under conditions that promote spherical symmetry. The algorithm performs the tasks of edge detection of the droplet’s boundary using a grayscale intensity threshold, and shape fitting either a circle or ellipse to the droplet’s boundary. The results are compared to manual measurements of droplet diameters done with commercial software. Results show that it is possible to automate data analysis for consecutive droplet burning images even in the presence of a significant amount of noise from soot formation. An adaptive grayscale intensity threshold provides the ability to extract droplet diameters for the wide range of noise encountered. In instances where soot blocks portions of the droplet, the algorithm manages to provide accurate measurements if a circle fit is used instead of an ellipse fit, as an ellipse can be too accommodating to the disturbance.
Xing, Liyuan; Ye, Qixiang; Zhang, Weigang; Huang, Qingming; Yu, Hua
As a very important category in sports video, racquet sports video, e.g. table tennis, tennis and badminton, has been paid little attention in the past years. Considering the characteristics of this kind of sports video, we propose a new scheme for structure indexing and highlight generating based on the combination of audio and visual information. Firstly, a supervised classification method is employed to detect important audio symbols including impact (ball hit), audience cheers, commentator speech, etc. Meanwhile an unsupervised algorithm is proposed to group video shots into various clusters. Then, by taking advantage of temporal relationship between audio and visual signals, we can specify the scene clusters with semantic labels including rally scenes and break scenes. Thirdly, a refinement procedure is developed to reduce false rally scenes by further audio analysis. Finally, an exciting model is proposed to rank the detected rally scenes from which many exciting video clips such as game (match) points can be correctly retrieved. Experiments on two types of representative racquet sports video, table tennis video and tennis video, demonstrate encouraging results.
Roadknight, C. M.; Rose, R. J.; Barber, M. L.; Price, M. C.; Marshall, I. W.
Monitoring the effects on biodiversity of extensive grazing in complex semi-natural habitats is labour intensive. There are also concerns about the standardization of semi-quantitative data collection. We have chosen to focus initially on automating the most time consuming aspect - the image analysis. The advent of cheaper and more sophisticated digital camera technology has lead to a sudden increase in the number of habitat monitoring images and information that is being collected. We report on the use of automated trail cameras (designed for the game hunting market) to continuously capture images of grazer activity in a variety of habitats at Moor House National Nature Reserve, which is situated in the North of England at an average altitude of over 600m. Rainfall is high, and in most areas the soil consists of deep peat (1m to 3m), populated by a mix of heather, mosses and sedges. The cameras have been continuously in operation over a 6 month period, daylight images are in full colour and night images (IR flash) are black and white. We have developed artificial intelligence based methods to assist in the analysis of the large number of images collected, generating alert states for new or unusual image conditions. This paper describes the data collection techniques, outlines the quantitative and qualitative data collected and proposes online and offline systems that can reduce the manpower overheads and increase focus on important subsets in the collected data. By converting digital image data into statistical composite data it can be handled in a similar way to other biodiversity statistics thus improving the scalability of monitoring experiments. Unsupervised feature detection methods and supervised neural methods were tested and offered solutions to simplifying the process. Accurate (85 to 95%) categorization of faunal content can be obtained, requiring human intervention for only those images containing rare animals or unusual (undecidable) conditions, and
Summers, Derek; Chen, Gong; Reese, Bryan; Hutchinson, Trent; Liesching, Marcus; Ying, Hai; Dover, Russell
To minimize potential wafer yield loss due to mask defects, most wafer fabs implement some form of reticle inspection system to monitor photomask quality in high-volume wafer manufacturing environments. Traditionally, experienced operators review reticle defects found by an inspection tool and then manually classify each defect as 'pass, warn, or fail' based on its size and location. However, in the event reticle defects are suspected of causing repeating wafer defects on a completed wafer, potential defects on all associated reticles must be manually searched on a layer-by-layer basis in an effort to identify the reticle responsible for the wafer yield loss. This 'problem reticle' search process is a very tedious and time-consuming task and may cause extended manufacturing line-down situations. Often times, Process Engineers and other team members need to manually investigate several reticle inspection reports to determine if yield loss can be tied to a specific layer. Because of the very nature of this detailed work, calculation errors may occur resulting in an incorrect root cause analysis effort. These delays waste valuable resources that could be spent working on other more productive activities. This paper examines an automated software solution for converting KLA-Tencor reticle inspection defect maps into a format compatible with KLA-Tencor's Klarity Defect(R) data analysis database. The objective is to use the graphical charting capabilities of Klarity Defect to reveal a clearer understanding of defect trends for individual reticle layers or entire mask sets. Automated analysis features include reticle defect count trend analysis and potentially stacking reticle defect maps for signature analysis against wafer inspection defect data. Other possible benefits include optimizing reticle inspection sample plans in an effort to support "lean manufacturing" initiatives for wafer fabs.
This paper addresses the use of videography combined with group interviews, as a way to better understand the informal learnings of 11-12 year old children in cross-cultural encounters during French-German school exchanges. The complete, consistent video data required the researchers to choose the most significant sequences to highlight the…
Ferguson, Christopher J
The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences on youth violence such as family environment, peer delinquency, and depressive symptoms. The current study builds upon previous research in a sample of 302 (52.3% female) mostly Hispanic youth. Results indicated that current levels of depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of serious aggression and violence across most outcome measures. Depressive symptoms also interacted with antisocial traits so that antisocial individuals with depressive symptoms were most inclined toward youth violence. Neither video game violence exposure, nor television violence exposure, were prospective predictors of serious acts of youth aggression or violence. These results are put into the context of criminological data on serious acts of violence among youth. PMID:21161351
Gupta, Komal; Wilderom, Celeste; Hillegersberg, van Jos
Although recently several studies have addressed the required skills of effective CIOs, little is known of the actual behavior successful CIOs. In this study, we explore the behavior of highly effective CIOs by video-recording CIOs at work. The two CIOs videotaped were nominated as CIO of the year.
Gentile, Douglas A.; Gentile, J. Ronald
This article presents conceptual and empirical analyses of several of the "best practices" of learning and instruction, and demonstrates how violent video games use them effectively to motivate learners to persevere in acquiring and mastering a number of skills, to navigate through complex problems and changing environments, and to experiment with…
Rücker, Gerta; Schwarzer, Guido
In systematic reviews based on network meta-analysis, the network structure should be visualized. Network plots often have been drawn by hand using generic graphical software. A typical way of drawing networks, also implemented in statistical software for network meta-analysis, is a circular representation, often with many crossing lines. We use methods from graph theory in order to generate network plots in an automated way. We give a number of requirements for graph drawing and present an algorithm that fits prespecified ideal distances between the nodes representing the treatments. The method was implemented in the function netgraph of the R package netmeta and applied to a number of networks from the literature. We show that graph representations with a small number of crossing lines are often preferable to circular representations. PMID:26060934
Pyne, Saumyadipta; Hu, Xinli; Wang, Kui; Rossin, Elizabeth; Lin, Tsung-I.; Maier, Lisa; Baecher-Allan, Clare; McLachlan, Geoffrey; Tamayo, Pablo; Hafler, David; de Jager, Philip; Mesirov, Jill
Flow cytometry is widely used for single cell interrogation of surface and intracellular protein expression by measuring fluorescence intensity of fluorophore-conjugated reagents. We focus on the recently developed procedure of Pyne et al. (2009, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106, 8519-8524) for automated high- dimensional flow cytometric analysis called FLAME (FLow analysis with Automated Multivariate Estimation). It introduced novel finite mixture models of heavy-tailed and asymmetric distributions to identify and model cell populations in a flow cytometric sample. This approach robustly addresses the complexities of flow data without the need for transformation or projection to lower dimensions. It also addresses the critical task of matching cell populations across samples that enables downstream analysis. It thus facilitates application of flow cytometry to new biological and clinical problems. To facilitate pipelining with standard bioinformatic applications such as high-dimensional visualization, subject classification or outcome prediction, FLAME has been incorporated with the GenePattern package of the Broad Institute. Thereby analysis of flow data can be approached similarly as other genomic platforms. We also consider some new work that proposes a rigorous and robust solution to the registration problem by a multi-level approach that allows us to model and register cell populations simultaneously across a cohort of high-dimensional flow samples. This new approach is called JCM (Joint Clustering and Matching). It enables direct and rigorous comparisons across different time points or phenotypes in a complex biological study as well as for classification of new patient samples in a more clinical setting.
Vincent A Fusaro
Full Text Available Autism is on the rise, with 1 in 88 children receiving a diagnosis in the United States, yet the process for diagnosis remains cumbersome and time consuming. Research has shown that home videos of children can help increase the accuracy of diagnosis. However the use of videos in the diagnostic process is uncommon. In the present study, we assessed the feasibility of applying a gold-standard diagnostic instrument to brief and unstructured home videos and tested whether video analysis can enable more rapid detection of the core features of autism outside of clinical environments. We collected 100 public videos from YouTube of children ages 1-15 with either a self-reported diagnosis of an ASD (N = 45 or not (N = 55. Four non-clinical raters independently scored all videos using one of the most widely adopted tools for behavioral diagnosis of autism, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS. The classification accuracy was 96.8%, with 94.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity, the inter-rater correlation for the behavioral domains on the ADOS was 0.88, and the diagnoses matched a trained clinician in all but 3 of 22 randomly selected video cases. Despite the diversity of videos and non-clinical raters, our results indicate that it is possible to achieve high classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity as well as clinically acceptable inter-rater reliability with nonclinical personnel. Our results also demonstrate the potential for video-based detection of autism in short, unstructured home videos and further suggests that at least a percentage of the effort associated with detection and monitoring of autism may be mobilized and moved outside of traditional clinical environments.
Imani, Elaheh; Pourreza, Hamid-Reza; Banaee, Touka
Diabetic retinopathy is the major cause of blindness in the world. It has been shown that early diagnosis can play a major role in prevention of visual loss and blindness. This diagnosis can be made through regular screening and timely treatment. Besides, automation of this process can significantly reduce the work of ophthalmologists and alleviate inter and intra observer variability. This paper provides a fully automated diabetic retinopathy screening system with the ability of retinal image quality assessment. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the use of Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) algorithm to discriminate between normal and pathological retinal structures. To this end, first a pre-screening algorithm is used to assess the quality of retinal images. If the quality of the image is not satisfactory, it is examined by an ophthalmologist and must be recaptured if necessary. Otherwise, the image is processed for diabetic retinopathy detection. In this stage, normal and pathological structures of the retinal image are separated by MCA algorithm. Finally, the normal and abnormal retinal images are distinguished by statistical features of the retinal lesions. Our proposed system achieved 92.01% sensitivity and 95.45% specificity on the Messidor dataset which is a remarkable result in comparison with previous work. PMID:25863517
Sim, Dawn A; Keane, Pearse A; Tufail, Adnan; Egan, Catherine A; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Silva, Paolo S
There will be an estimated 552 million persons with diabetes globally by the year 2030. Over half of these individuals will develop diabetic retinopathy, representing a nearly insurmountable burden for providing diabetes eye care. Telemedicine programmes have the capability to distribute quality eye care to virtually any location and address the lack of access to ophthalmic services. In most programmes, there is currently a heavy reliance on specially trained retinal image graders, a resource in short supply worldwide. These factors necessitate an image grading automation process to increase the speed of retinal image evaluation while maintaining accuracy and cost effectiveness. Several automatic retinal image analysis systems designed for use in telemedicine have recently become commercially available. Such systems have the potential to substantially improve the manner by which diabetes eye care is delivered by providing automated real-time evaluation to expedite diagnosis and referral if required. Furthermore, integration with electronic medical records may allow a more accurate prognostication for individual patients and may provide predictive modelling of medical risk factors based on broad population data. PMID:25697773
Winter, Mathias William.
Software Fault Tree Analysis (SFTA) is a technique used to analyze software for faults that could lead to hazardous conditions in systems which contain software components. Previous thesis works have developed three Ada-based, semi-automated software analysis tools, the Automated Code Translation Tool (ACm) an Ada statement template generator, the Fault Tree Editor (Fm) a graphical fault tree editor, and the Fault Isolator (Fl) an automated software fault tree isolator. These previous works d...
Josephine, F P; Nissapatorn, V
This retrospective and descriptive study was carried out in the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) from January to September, 2004. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of the Cell-Dyn 4000 hematology analyzer's depolarization analysis and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of this technique in the context of malaria diagnosis. A total of 889 cases presenting with pyrexia of unknown origin or clinically suspected of malaria were examined. Sixteen of these blood samples were found to be positive; 12 for P. vivax, 3 for P. malariae, and 1 for P. falciparum by peripheral blood smear as the standard technique for parasite detection and species identification. Demographic characteristics showed that the majority of patients were in the age range of 20-57 with a mean of 35.9 (+/- SD) 11.4 years, and male foreign workers. Of these, 16 positive blood samples were also processed by Cell-Dyne 4000 analyzer in the normal complete blood count (CBC) operational mode. Malaria parasites produce hemozoin, which depolarizes light and this allows the automated detection of malaria during routine complete blood count analysis with the Abbot Cell-Dyn CD4000 instrument. The white blood cell (WBC) differential plots of all malaria positive samples showed abnormal depolarization events in the NEU-EOS and EOS I plots. This was not seen in the negative samples. In 12 patients with P. vivax infection, a cluster pattern in the Neu-EOS and EOS I plots was observed, and appeared color-coded green or black. In 3 patients with P. malariae infection, few random depolarization events in the NEU-EOS and EOS I plots were seen, and appeared color-coded green, black or blue. While in the patient with P. falciparum infection, the sample was color-coded green with a few random purple depolarizing events in the NEU-EOS and EOS I plots. This study confirms that automated depolarization analysis is a highly sensitive and specific method to diagnose whether or not a patient
Video object extraction is a key technology in content-based video coding. A novel video object extracting algorithm by two Dimensional (2-D) mesh-based motion analysis is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a 2-D mesh fitting the original frame image is obtained via feature detection algorithm.Then, higher order statistics motion analysis is applied on the 2-D mesh representation to get an initial motion detection mask. After post-processing, the final segmenting mask is quickly obtained. And hence the video object is effectively extracted. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm combines the merits of mesh-based segmenting algorithms and pixel-based segmenting algorithms, and hereby achieves satisfactory subjective and objective performance while dramatically increasing the segmenting speed.
Ved Vyas Dwivedi
Full Text Available In this Paper, We worked and documented the implementation and performance analysis of digital video watermarking that uses the hybrid features of two of the most powerful transform domain processing of the video and fundamentals of the linear algebra. We have taken into the account fundamentals of Discrete Cosine Transform and Singular Value Decomposition for the development of the proposed algorithm. We first used the Singular Value Decomposition and then used the singular values for the insertion of the message behind the video. Finally we used two of the visual quality matrices for the analysis purpose. We also applied various attacks on the video and found the proposed scheme more robust.
Bass, Ellen J.; Baumgart, Leigh A.; Shepley, Kathryn Klein
Displaying both the strategy that information analysis automation employs to makes its judgments and variability in the task environment may improve human judgment performance, especially in cases where this variability impacts the judgment performance of the information analysis automation. This work investigated the contribution of providing either information analysis automation strategy information, task environment information, or both, on human judgment performance in a domain where noisy sensor data are used by both the human and the information analysis automation to make judgments. In a simplified air traffic conflict prediction experiment, 32 participants made probability of horizontal conflict judgments under different display content conditions. After being exposed to the information analysis automation, judgment achievement significantly improved for all participants as compared to judgments without any of the automation's information. Participants provided with additional display content pertaining to cue variability in the task environment had significantly higher aided judgment achievement compared to those provided with only the automation's judgment of a probability of conflict. When designing information analysis automation for environments where the automation's judgment achievement is impacted by noisy environmental data, it may be beneficial to show additional task environment information to the human judge in order to improve judgment performance. PMID:24847184
T. Hartmann; Krakowiak, M.; Tsay-Vogel, M.
Mechanisms of moral disengagement in violent video game play have recently received considerable attention among communication scholars. To date, however, no study has analyzed the prevalence of moral disengagement factors in violent video games. To fill this research gap, the present approach includes both a systematic literature review and a content analysis of moral disengagement cues embedded in the narratives and actual game play of 17 top-ranked first-person shooters (PC). Findings sugg...