Shawdon, A; Brukner, P
Australian Rules Football is played by numerous young Australians throughout winter each year. There have been a number of studies on professional and semi-professional footballers, establishing the nature and frequency of injuries within this football code. Medical cover of an amateur football club over the 1993 season allowed detailed recording of injuries over this period. The data collected revealed a markedly different injury profile to that seen previously. The injury rate in this study was 96 per 1000 player hours. The most common injury was concussion (15%), with hand fractures next most frequent (13.5%). The lower limb was the most common site of injury, with head and neck second and upper limb third. Injuries with an overuse component were seen less commonly in the amateur group while traumatic injuries were more frequent. The time allocated by amateur footballers to their sport is less than professional players, quite aside from the difference in skill level attained. Overuse injuries may be correspondingly much less frequent on a time basis alone. The increased incidence of traumatic injuries is postulated to be a manifestation of both less well developed skills and possibly less available and effective preventative measures such as ankle strapping and tape supplies. Considering the large number of young people playing amateur football and the significant time and cost of what are often relatively minor injuries, more work is required to establish what injuries are most common, and importantly, what measures can be taken to decrease their incidence. PMID:8665278
Burke, L M; Read, R S; Gollan, R A
Anthropometric measurements and personal data were collected from 119 Australian Rules footballers from Victoria. A top level professional league team, a second level association team, and an A-grade amateur association team were observed, representing three levels of ability. The profile of physical features of these athletes at the beginning of the season is presented. A gradation of body size was observed between teams. The players in the top level team were slightly taller and heavier tha...
Kiley, D P; Mitchell, L; Danforth, C M; Dodds, P S
Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of `game stories', we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here, we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1,310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories and show how coarse-graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with a random walk null model, we show that AFL games are superdiffusive and deliver a much broader array of motifs, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.
Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan
Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.
Orchard, J. W.; Read, J. W.; Neophyton, J.; Garlick, D
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of inguinal canal posterior wall deficiency (sports hernia) in professional Australian Rules footballers using an ultrasound technique and correlate the results with the clinical symptom of groin pain. METHODS: Thirty five professional Australian footballers with and without groin pain were investigated blind with a dynamic high resolution ultrasound technique for presence of posterior wall deficiency. RESULTS: Fourteen players had a history of ...
HARDY, K J; McNeil, J J; Capes, A G
OBJECTIVES: To determine by survey whether the frequency of use of performance enhancing drugs (drug doping) is significant in elite players of Australian Rules football, and to compare this frequency with that in other competitions. METHODS: Randomised unannounced prospective urine testing during the period 1990-95 of players from the Australian Football League out of competition, in competition matches, and in finals matches; testing was performed according to Olympic International Committe...
Anthony Bedford; Schembri, Adrian J.
Australian Rules Football, governed by the Australian Football League (AFL) is the most popular winter sport played in Australia. Like North American team based leagues such as the NFL, NBA and NHL, the AFL uses a draft system for rookie players to join a team’s list. The existing method of allocating draft selections in the AFL is simply based on the reverse order of each team’s finishing position for that season, with teams winning less than or equal to 5 regular season matches obtaining an...
Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian rules football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention
Parsons, Sarah; Lynch, Matthew
Australian Rules football is a sport which evolved from Gaelic football and which is played by a large number of predominantly male participants in a number of countries. The highest participation rates are in the southern states of Australia. A retrospective review over a period of 14 years identified 14 cases of sudden cardiac death that occurred in individuals while playing the sport. All were male and ranged in age from 13 to 36 years with a mean and median age of 23 years. A spectrum of cardiac causes was identified including coronary artery atherosclerosis, myocarditis, anomalous coronary artery anatomy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and healed Kawasaki disease. In 5 cases the heart was morphologically normal raising the possibility of a channelopathy. No traumatic deaths were identified. Some of the individuals had experienced symptoms prior to the fatal episode and the role of pre participation screening in reducing mortality is discussed. PMID:26972904
Hoskins Wayne T
Full Text Available Abstract Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules football. There is a lack of evidence based literature on the treatment, prevention and management of hamstring injuries, although it is agreed that the etiology is complicated and multi-factorial. We present two cases of hamstring injury that had full resolution after spinal manipulation and correction of lumbar-pelvic biomechanics. There was no recurrence through preventative treatment over a twelve and sixteen week period. The use of spinal manipulation for treatment or prevention of hamstring injury has not been documented in sports medicine literature and should be further investigated in prospective randomized controlled trials.
James P. Veale
Full Text Available Australian Football (AF is Australia's major football code. Despite research in other football codes, to date, no data has been published on the physiological responses of AF players during match play. Fifteen athletes (17.28 ± 0.76 yrs participated in four pre-season matches, sanctioned by Australian Football League (AFL Victoria, investigating Heart Rate (HR, Blood Lactate (BLa, Core Temperature (Tcore, and Hydration status. Match HR was measured continuously using HR monitors. BLa was measured via finger prick lancet at the end of each quarter of play. Tcore was measured by use of ingestible temperature sensor and measured wirelessly at the end of each quarter of play. Hydration status was measured using refractometry, measuring urine specific gravity, and body weight pre and post-match. Environmental conditions were measured continuously during matches. Results of HR responses showed a high exertion of players in the 85-95% maximum HR range. Elevated mean BLa levels, compared to rest, were observed in all players over the duration of the matches (p = 0.007. Mean Tcore rose 0.68 °C between start and end of matches. Mean USG increased between 0.008 g/ml (p = 0.001 with mean body weight decreasing 1.88 kg (p = 0.001. This study illustrates physiological responses in junior AF players playing in the heat as well as providing physiological data for consideration by AF coaching staff when developing specific training programs. Continued research should consider physiological measurements under varying environments, and at all playing levels of AF, to ascertain full physiological responses during AF matches.
James P. Veale
Full Text Available This study explored the physical movement patterns associated with an elite Under 18 Australian Football (AF team. Five field positions were selected with observations recording the number and relative per cent of "working" efforts (jogging, running, and sprinting, "resting" efforts (walking and the total distances associated with "working" or "resting" efforts. Intra-observer reliability, using test- retest method, showed correlations were r = 0.98 or greater. The Wing position covered 11,877 m, the greatest total distance during an entire game, whilst the HBF and Centre positions both recorded 11,545 m and 11,537 m respectively and the Ruck position covered 9,203 m. The HBF recorded the greatest frequency of 'working' and 'resting' efforts (180 and 182 respectively, whilst the Wing (166 and 158, Centre (162 and 149 and Ruck (161 and 166 showed similarities in their results. The Wing position recorded the longest average distance per 'working' effort (58 m whilst the Centre position recorded the longest average distance per 'resting' effort (17 m. Results also show the completion of less total efforts and smaller total distances, in Under 18 players, recorded compared to professional senior AF data. The results from this study suggest that further in-depth research is required into movement patterns and game activity demands in this AF playing group
Alan J. Pearce
Full Text Available This study investigated the positional movement patterns in elite junior Australian Football (AF. Thirty players (17.1 ± 0.9 years participating in this study were tracked over seven home games of the regular 2006 Victorian junior (Under 18 league season. Using lapsed-time video analysis, each position for an entire match was videotaped on three separate occasions over the course of the season. Data analysed included the number of individual efforts, duration and frequency of efforts; distance and percentage time for the classifications of standing, walking jogging, running and sprinting. Results showed that the midfield position travelled the greatest distance (4173 ± 238 m per quarter; p < 0.05; ES = .94 whilst the full forward/full back travelled the least (2605 ± 348 m per quarter, p < 0.05, ES = 1.21. For all positions, walking or jogging accounted for the greatest number of efforts (45-55%, conversely running and sprinting accounted for 5-13% of match efforts. The majority of efforts across all classifications were between 0-3.99 s. The data from this study provides further evidence that AF is an intermittent sport characterised by high intensity movements separated by low intensity movements at a ratio of one high intensity effort every 12-40 s. However, careful interpretation of the data is required when training junior AF players for specific positions, given the specific group studied.
Taylor, T K; Coolican, M R
A review of 107 footballers who suffered a spinal-cord injury between 1960 and 1985 has been undertaken. Since 1977, the number of such injuries in Rugby Union, Rugby League and Australian Rules has increased, from an average of about two injuries a year before 1977 to over eight injuries a year since then. Rugby Union is clearly the most dangerous game, particularly for schoolboys; all of the injuries in schoolboy games for this code have occurred since 1977. This study has shown that collision at scrum engagement, and not at scrum collapse, is the way in which the majority of scrum injuries are sustained. These injuries are largely preventable, and suggestions for rule changes are made. Half the injured players recovered to Frankel grades D or E. The financial entitlements of those injured were grossly inadequate; this warrants action. A national register for spinal-cord injuries from football should be established to monitor the effects of desirable rule changes in Rugby Union and Rugby League. PMID:3600465
This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…
Hrysomallis, C; McLaughlin, P; Goodman, C
This project measured pre-season balance ability and determined its relationship to knee and ankle ligament injuries during the season for professional Australian footballers. The balance test involved the players stepping onto a foam balance mat on top of a force plate and maintaining single limb balance. Throughout the playing season, injuries were monitored. The results from two hundred and ten players participating in this project were analysed. During the 2003 season, 8 % (17 out of 210) sustained a knee ligament injury and 10 % (21 out of 210) sustained an ankle ligament injury. Multivariate analysis revealed that pre-season balance ability was a significant independent predictor of ankle ligament injury. Players with low balance ability had at least twice as many ankle ligaments injuries as those with average or good balance ability. Balance ability was not a significant predictor of knee ligament injuries. The height of the players was the only significant independent predictor of knee ligament injuries. Low pre-season balance ability was associated with an increased risk of ankle ligament injury. A modifiable injury risk factor has been identified. Research is now required to determine the optimal training regime to enhance balance ability and whether this translates to a reduction in the incidence of ankle injuries. PMID:17373597
Gray, Adrian J; Jenkins, David G
Australian Football, the most popular football code in Australia, is a contact sport played by two teams of 18 players who contest play over four 20-minute quarters; the object of the game is to score the most points through goal kicking. Sixteen professional senior sides compete against each other in the Australian Football League (AFL) and, similar to other football codes, game demands at the elite level in the AFL have changed considerably in recent years. Early time-motion analysis studies highlighted the long periods of time players spent in low intensity activities (standing and walking). While recent studies utilizing global positioning systems (GPS) technology are somewhat in agreement with earlier findings, available evidence suggests that the game is getting faster. For example, 'playing on' after a mark (a feature of the game where players who catch the ball on the full from a kick longer than 15 m are awarded a free kick) is now much quicker. Indeed, rule changes in recent years have increased the flow and speed of the game; there has been a reduction in the time taken for umpires to restart play, and for players to kick-in (after the opposition kicks a behind) or take a set shot at goal. Nomadic players (a broad term for midfielders and ruckmen because they follow play over the entire playing field) cover slightly greater distances (12,310 m) than both forwards (11,920 m) and backs (11,880 m) in a game. Compared with players in other positions, midfielders are consistently found to spend the most time at higher intensities (running and sprint efforts with movement velocities > 4.44 m/sec), complete more high intensity efforts (approximately 98 per game), sustain them for longer and have shorter recovery periods between high intensity exercise bouts (approximately 90 seconds on average). 'Ruckmen' have similar but less intense running profiles, while forwards and backs generally have less game involvement but have a more intermittent running profile
Jessica Orchard; John Orchard; Hugh Seward
It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL) injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012), covering 162,683 player-ma...
Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Austin, Damien J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W
Johnston, RJ, Watsford, ML, Austin, D, Pine, MJ, and Spurrs, RW. Movement profiles, match events, and performance in Australian football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2129-2137, 2016-This study examined the relationship between movement demands, match events, and match performance in professional Australian football. Data were collected from 19 players using global positioning system units during 2 Australian Football League seasons. A range of movement demands and instantaneous power measures were collected. The players were divided into high-caliber (HC, ≥17/20) and low-caliber (LC, ≤8/20) groups based on the rating score by their coaches. A Mann-Whitney U-test, independent samples t-test, and effect sizes were used to determine whether any differences existed between the 2 groups. The HC group had a significantly higher match duration (7.2%), higher total distance (9.6%), and covered more distance and spent more time high-speed running per minute (12.7 and 11.9%). Although not significant, the effect sizes revealed that the HC group tended to have a higher mean metabolic power output (2.6%) and spent more time at the high power zone (7.9%). For the match event data, the HC group had significantly more involvements with the football. The results demonstrated the higher physical demands placed on the HC group. The findings suggest that analyzing instantaneous power measures can provide valuable information about the physical demands placed on team sport athletes to coaches and conditioning staff. PMID:26808858
Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B.; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J.
This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38....
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".
Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…
Lionel Frost; Margaret Lightbody; Abdel Halabi
Australian Football clubs have traditionally been seen as contributing social benefits to the rural communities in which they are embedded. Declining numbers of participants, both players and volunteers, suggest that this role may not be as strong today. Critical explorations of the extent to which football has driven social inclusion and exclusion in such environments emphasise a historic â€˜masculineâ€™ culture of drinking and violence that segregates and marginalises women and children. Le...
Monica Kelly, Paul B. Gastin, Daniel B Dwyer, Simon Sostaric, Rodney J. Snow
Full Text Available This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min, high intensity, interval training (HIIT in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1 and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc (n = 7 or Control (Con group (n = 7. The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH, whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH. Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% VO2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-], heart rate (HR, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p < 0.05 during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007 after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited.
Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.
Mallett, Clifford J.; Rossi, Tony; Rynne, Steven B.; Tinning, Richard
Background and Purpose: Given the turbulent and highly contested environment in which professional coaches work, a prime concern to coach developers is how coaches learn their craft. Understanding the learning and development of senior coaches (SCs) and assistant coaches (ACs) in the Australian Football League (AFL--the peak organisation for…
Brendan Henderson, Jill Cook, Dawson J. Kidgell, Paul B. Gastin
Full Text Available Game demands and training practices within team sports such as Australian football (AF have changed considerably over recent decades, including the requirement of coaching staff to effectively control, manipulate and monitor training and competition loads. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the differences in external and internal physical load measures between game and training in elite junior AF. Twenty five male, adolescent players (mean ±SD: age 17.6 ± 0.5 y recruited from three elite under 18 AF clubs participated. Global positioning system (GPS, heart rate (HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE data were obtained from 32 game files during four games, and 84 training files during 19 training sessions. Matched-pairs statistics along with Cohen’s d effect size and percent difference were used to compare game and training events. Players were exposed to a higher physical load in the game environment, for both external (GPS and internal (HR, Session-RPE load parameters, compared to in-season training. Session time (d = 1.23; percent difference = 31.4% (95% confidence intervals = 17.4 – 45.4, total distance (3.5; 63.5% (17.4 – 45.4, distance per minute (1.93; 33.0% (25.8 – 40.1, high speed distance (2.24; 77.3% (60.3 – 94.2, number of sprints (0.94; 43.6% (18.9 – 68.6, mean HR (1.83; 14.3% (10.5 – 18.1, minutes spent above 80% of predicted HRmax (2.65; 103.7% (89.9 – 117.6 and Session-RPE (1.22; 48.1% (22.1 – 74.1 were all higher in competition compared to training. While training should not be expected to fully replicate competition, the observed differences suggest that monitoring of physical load in both environments is warranted to allow comparisons and evaluate whether training objectives are being met.
Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J
This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac(-)] (all p HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key pointsSome minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat.The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season.Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat training session or some pre-heating prior to exercise. PMID:26957934
Cox, Keturah, Ed.; And Others
Rules for women's soccer, speedball, and flag football from June 1972 to June 1974 are discussed. Standards in sports for girls and women are detailed along with the Division for Girls and WOMEN[S Sports (DGWS) statement of belief, Specific articles dealing with the skills, techniques, and rules of soccer, speedball, and flag football are…
Jakee, Keith; Kenneally, Martin
We concentrate on the redistributional aspects of sports league decisions by analyzing the allocation of scheduling slots in the Australian Football League. We model and empirically test a number of team variables that we hypothesize are likely to influence the league’s allocation of scheduling slots to teams. We frame each of these variables in terms of its likelihood of contributing to either competitive balance or "infant industry" objectives versus its likelihood of contributing to increa...
Nicolas H. Hart, Jodie L. Cochrane, Tania Spiteri, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton
Full Text Available Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2 each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15 and inaccurate (n = 16 kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701. Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631, while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083. Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy.
Veale, James P; Pearce, Alan J; Carlson, John S
The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery (IR) Test is currently used to assess endurance performance in team sport athletes. However, to date, no data has been presented on its application to an elite junior Australian football (AF) playing group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (IR1) ability to discriminate between junior AF players at two different playing standards and a group of non-athletic healthy males. Sixty age matched participants (16.6+/-0.5 years) spread over three groups (20 per group): elite junior footballers; sub-elite junior footballers; and non-athletic healthy males participated in this study. Participants undertook a single Yo-Yo test performance on an indoor basketball court for each group. A one-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post hoc analysis revealed the elite junior footballers covered a significantly greater total distance (pability of the Yo-Yo IR1 to discriminate endurance performance between elite and sub-elite AF players, whilst further distinguishing AF players from a non-athletic healthy control group. PMID:19451033
Woods, Carl T; Raynor, Annette J; Bruce, Lyndell; McDonald, Zane
This study examined if a video decision-making task could discriminate talent-identified junior Australian football players from their non-talent-identified counterparts. Participants were recruited from the 2013 under 18 (U18) West Australian Football League competition and classified into two groups: talent-identified (State U18 Academy representatives; n = 25; 17.8 ± 0.5 years) and non-talent-identified (non-State U18 Academy selection; n = 25; 17.3 ± 0.6 years). Participants completed a video decision-making task consisting of 26 clips sourced from the Australian Football League game-day footage, recording responses on a sheet provided. A score of "1" was given for correct and "0" for incorrect responses, with the participants total score used as the criterion value. One-way analysis of variance tested the main effect of "status" on the task criterion, whilst a bootstrapped receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve assessed the discriminant ability of the task. An area under the curve (AUC) of 1 (100%) represented perfect discrimination. Between-group differences were evident (P < 0.05) and the ROC curve was maximised with a score of 15.5/26 (60%) (AUC = 89.0%), correctly classifying 92% and 76% of the talent-identified and non-talent-identified participants, respectively. Future research should investigate the mechanisms leading to the superior decision-making observed in the talent-identified group. PMID:26019058
Kim, Eunsoon; Young, Michael F.
This study investigated the effects of interactive video (IVD) instruction with embedded rules (production system rules) and practice with feedback on learners' academic achievement and perceived self efficacy in the domain of procedural knowledge for watching professional football. Subjects were 71 female volunteers from undergraduate education…
Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.
Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower
Woods, Carl T; McKeown, Ian; Haff, Gregory G; Robertson, Sam
This study compared the athletic movement skill between elite Under-18 (U18) Australian football (AF) and senior Australian Football League (AFL) players. The U18 sample (n = 13; 17.7 ± 0.6 years) were representatives of an elite talent development programme. The AFL players were classified accordingly; Group 1 (1-4 AFL seasons; n = 20; 21.2 ± 1.9 years) and Group 2 (>5 AFL seasons; n = 14; 26.3 ± 2.6 years). Participants performed an athletic movement skill assessment, inclusive of five foundational movements. Each movement was scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale. Total score for each movement (maximum of nine) and overall score (maximum of 63) were used as criteria. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the effect of developmental group (three levels) on the criteria. Receiver operating curves were built to examine the discriminant capability of the overall score. A significant effect of developmental group was noted, with the U18 sample having a lower mean total score for four of the five movements. Overall scores of 49/63 and 50/63 discriminated the elite U18 sample from Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. U18 players may have less developed athletic movement skills when compared to their senior AFL counterparts. PMID:26525174
Paradis, Kasey; Larkin, Paul; O'Connor, Donna
Decision-making is a key component of an umpire's in-game performance, with each decision potentially having a direct impact on the result of the game. Additionally, umpires have to be physically fit to ensure they keep up with the gameplay. While research has identified the decision-making demands and running demands of umpires separately, few have explored the relationship between them. The aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between physical exertion and decision-making performance of Australian football umpires at the sub-elite and junior levels. A total of 18 Australian football umpires (sub-elite, n = 10; junior n = 8) performed 10 × 300 m runs, with each repetition immediately followed by a video-based decision-making test, then 1 min of recovery. A Mann-Whitney U assessment indicated a significant difference between the sub-elite and junior level umpires for decision-making accuracy (U = 13.00, z = -2.43, P = 0.016, r = -0.5). However, there was no significant difference in response time (U = 28.00, z = -1.07, P = 0.315, r = -0.25). The sub-elite umpires completed the running efforts in significantly less time than the junior umpires (P running times for either skill level (P > 0.05). This suggests decision-making performance may not be affected by physical exertion. Therefore, it may be suggested coaches of football umpires allocate more time to the decision-making development of their umpires instead of focusing largely on the physical fitness side, as is currently the trend. PMID:26654891
The long-simmering debate over the commercialization of college sports reached a boiling point recently when CBS, the NCAA's key corporate partner, announced that it was creating a fantasy football league that uses college athletes' names. Not everyone however, is quite so enthusiastic. Some observers see it as part of a continuing assault on the…
Verrall, Geoffrey M.; Esterman, Adrian; Hewett, Timothy E.
Background: Injuries are common in contact sports like Australian football. The Australian Football League (AFL) has developed an extensive injury surveillance database that can be used for epidemiological studies. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify any association between the three most prevalent injuries in the AFL. Patients and Methods: From the AFL injury surveillance data 1997-2012 the injury incidence (new injuries per club per season) and the injury prevalence data (m...
Gastin, Paul B; McLean, Owen C; Breed, Ray V P; Spittle, Michael
The effectiveness of a wearable microsensor device (MinimaxX(TM) S4, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, VIC, Australia) to automatically detect tackles and impact events in elite Australian football (AF) was assessed during four matches. Video observation was used as the criterion measure. A total of 352 tackles were observed, with 78% correctly detected as tackles by the manufacturer's software. Tackles against (i.e. tackled by an opponent) were more accurately detected than tackles made (90% v 66%). Of the 77 tackles that were not detected at all, the majority (74%) were categorised as low-intensity. In contrast, a total of 1510 "tackle" events were detected, with only 18% of these verified as tackles. A further 57% were from contested ball situations involving player contact. The remaining 25% were in general play where no contact was evident; these were significantly lower in peak Player Load™ than those involving player contact (P tackle detection algorithm, developed primarily for rugby, was not suitable for tackle detection in AF. The underlying sensor data may have the potential to detect a range of events within contact sports such as AF, yet to do so is a complex task and requires sophisticated sport and event-specific algorithms. PMID:24499311
Woods, Carl T; Raynor, Annette J; Bruce, Lyndell; McDonald, Zane; Robertson, Sam
This study investigated whether a multi-dimensional assessment could assist with talent identification in junior Australian football (AF). Participants were recruited from an elite under 18 (U18) AF competition and classified into two groups; talent identified (State U18 Academy representatives; n = 42; 17.6 ± 0.4 y) and non-talent identified (non-State U18 Academy representatives; n = 42; 17.4 ± 0.5 y). Both groups completed a multi-dimensional assessment, which consisted of physical (standing height, dynamic vertical jump height and 20 m multistage fitness test), technical (kicking and handballing tests) and perceptual-cognitive (video decision-making task) performance outcome tests. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of status on the test criterions, whilst a receiver operating characteristic curve assessed the discrimination provided from the full assessment. The talent identified players outperformed their non-talent identified peers in each test (P performance qualities when identifying talented team sports. PMID:26862858
ATHANASIOU HADJIMICHAEL MICHALIS1
Full Text Available The strain on the hamstrings muscles is one of the most common sport related injury and football seems to hold the biggest percentage of all sports. The aim of this study was to push forward the best prevention and rehabilitation methods to be followed regarding football. Once the key words were identified, there was a randomized search of controlled trials on EBSCO Host, Proquest, Medline, SportDiscus, Cinahl Plus, health source, FreeMedicalJournals.com, PubMed, PubMed Central, SPORTDiscus database and on Google Scholar. In addition, the software H Publish or Perish helped in the process of searching. The particular studies were tested based on the criteria of admission and exclusion that were set and selected as the most appropriate ones for the review. The methodological process of the studies was assessed by Furlan et al (22 criteria and the classification for the level of the evidence of this systematic review was done using the 6 level table of Van Tulden et al (55. Twenty nine randomized controlled trials were selected, with a total of 10686 participants that were placed in the review. Twenty four out of these were related to preventing hamstring strain (6 eccentric exercises, 11 neuromuscular training programs, 7 stretching and 5 of these rehabilitation (1 eccentric exercise, 2 neuromuscular warm up training programs, 2 stretching. According to Furlan et al (22 all the studies were marked over 50%. Moreover, based on the classification for the level of evidence of Van Tulden et al (55 the eccentric exercises and the different types of neuromuscular warm up programs ( except FIFA 11 are classified in level 1 with positive findings within multiple randomized controlled trials, regarding prevention as well as rehabilitation. As far as prevention is concerned, stretching are classified in level 5, whereas, as far as rehabilitation is concerned they are classified in level 2, since there is an indication of the Slump test effectiveness
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental ill health, especially depression, is recognised as an important health concern, potentially with greater impact in rural communities. This paper reports on a project, Coach the Coach, in which Australian rural football clubs were the setting and football coaches the leaders in providing greater mental health awareness and capacity to support early help seeking behaviour among young males experiencing mental health difficulties, especially depression. Coaches and other football club leaders were provided with Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training. Method Pre-post measures of the ability of those club leaders undertaking mental health training to recognise depression and schizophrenia and of their knowledge of evidence supported treatment options, and confidence in responding to mental health difficulties were obtained using a questionnaire. This was supplemented by focus group interviews. Pre-post questionnaire data from players in participating football clubs was used to investigate attitudes to depression, treatment options and ability to recognise depression from a clinical scenario. Key project stakeholders were also interviewed. Results Club leaders (n = 36 who were trained in MHFA and club players (n = 275 who were not trained, participated in this evaluation. More than 50% of club leaders who undertook the training showed increased capacity to recognise mental illness and 66% reported increased confidence to respond to mental health difficulties in others. They reported that this training built upon their existing skills, fulfilled their perceived social responsibilities and empowered them. Indirect benefit to club players from this approach seemed limited as minimal changes in attitudes were reported by players. Key stakeholders regarded the project as valuable. Conclusions Rural football clubs appear to be appropriate social structures to promote rural mental health awareness. Club leaders, including many
Carl T. Woods, Harry G. Banyard, Ian McKeown, Job Fransen, Sam Robertson
Full Text Available Talent identification (TID is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF. This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18 AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives. Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA, consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs, single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs, and a push up (six movement criterions. Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02. Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE = -0.89(0.44; p < 0.05, with a score of 4.5 classifying 64% and 88% of the talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent
Gallo, Tania F; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Lorenzen, Christian H
The impact of perceived wellness on a range of external load parameters, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and external load:RPE ratios, was explored during skill-based training in Australian footballers. Fifteen training sessions involving 36 participants were analysed. Each morning before any physical training, players completed a customised perceived wellness questionnaire (sleep quality, fatigue, stress, mood and muscle soreness). Microtechnology devices provided external load (average speed, high-speed running distance, player load and player load slow). Players provided RPE using the modified Borg category-ratio 10 RPE scale. Mixed-effect linear models revealed significant effects of wellness Z-score on player load and player load slow. Effects are reported with 95% confidence limits. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a -4.9 ± 3.1 and -8.6 ± 3.9% reduction in player load and player load slow, respectively, compared to those without reduced wellness. Small significant effects were also seen in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE models. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a 0.43 ± 0.38 m·min(-1) and -0.02 ± 0.01 au·min(-1) change in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE ratios, respectively. Magnitude-based analysis revealed that the practical size of the effect of a pre-training perceived wellness Z-score of -1 would have on player load slow was likely negative. The results of this study suggests that monitoring pre-training perceived wellness may provide coaches with information about the intensity of output that can be expected from individual players during a training session. PMID:26637525
Cintia, Paolo; Pappalardo, Luca; Pedreschi, Dino; Giannotti, Fosca; Malvaldi, Marco
Sports analytics in general, and football (soccer in USA) analytics in particular, have evolved in recent years in an amazing way, thanks to automated or semi-automated sensing technologies that provide high-fidelity data streams extracted from every game. In this paper we propose a data-driven approach and show that there is a large potential to boost the understanding of football team performance. From observational data of football games we extract a set of pass-based performance indicator...
Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard
video analysis the World Cup nations Brazil, Netherlands, Italy and England are analysed to illustrate different dialects within football. Danesi, M. (2003). Second Language Teaching: A View From the Right Side of the Brain. Berlin: Springer Schein, E. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership. San......The language of football: A cultural analysis of selected World Cup nations. This essay describes how actions on the football field relate to the nations’ different cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Saussure reasoned...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...
Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard
analysis the World Cup nations Brazil, Netherlands, Italy and England are analysed to illustrate different dialects within football. Danesi, M. (2003). Second Language Teaching: A View From the Right Side of the Brain. Berlin: Springer Schein, E. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco......The language of football: A cultural analysis of selected World Cup nations. This essay describes how actions on the football field relate to the nations’ different cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Saussure reasoned...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...
Controversy over limited representation of women on a key committee of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, the Division I Management Council, has renewed concerns that big-time football conferences are not committed to diverse membership on such panels. The division's board of directors rejected the first female nominees and suggested…
Full Text Available Anthropological interest in football has been on the rise since the beginning of the century, which can be attested to by the rising number of studies, papers, collective publications and scientific conferences on the topic. Seeing as anthropology is no longer the study of the culturally bizarre and exotic, it is clear that the first anthropological studies of football as a cultural phenomenon are linked to those environments in which football figures as an important cultural trait, which is the reason why this sub discipline thrived in Europe or in places where football was treated as an esoteric phenomenon and where there as a longer tradition of anthropological study of native cultures. From the first analogies between the game of football and its rules with rituals of so called primitive cultures, the anthropological study of football developed into a relatively encompassing approach which includes interest in all the actors who establish the game as a public, cultural good – players, experts, supporters, journalists, organizers etc. – as well as its various cultural manifestations, in the form of a tool for the construction of identity and cultural symbol, a leisure activity with ties to economy, to a specific apotheosis of the concepts of globalization and commodification of culture. Anthropological studies of football are present in Serbia as well, and their subject matter corresponds to the role and position held by football, as a cultural artefact, in Serbian society and other countries in the region.
Dietzen, C J; Topping, B R
Rugby union football continues to gain in popularity in the United States. Both men's and women's clubs have been established at several colleges and universities. There has been substantial growth in the number of high school rugby football clubs in recent years. With the increase in numbers of young participants in this sport, it is important that great efforts be mounted to attempt to control the injury rates and severity of injuries in rugby football. Players and coaches must be knowledgeable of the rules of the game, and referees must strictly enforce these rules. Physicians and dentists should be involved in educating parents, coaches, players, and school officials about the inherent risks of injury and the means for injury prevention. Medical personnel must also be instrumental in educating players about alcohol abuse/addiction. Rugby players should be encouraged to use the limited protective gear that is allowed: wraps, tape, joint sleeves, scrum caps, and facial grease to prevent lacerations. Mouthguards are strongly recommended at any level of play and should be mandated. The use of helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads has been suggested by some authors. Such rule changes could actually increase injury rates and severity, because this equipment could be used as weapons as they are in American football. It is recommended that rugby clubs purchase or build equipment to practice scrummage skills. Coaches should be experienced and attend clinics or complete video courses on medical emergencies and safe techniques of the game. Injury frequency and severity can be decreased by adequate preseason training and conditioning, proper tackling and falling techniques, strengthening of neck muscles, and allowing only experienced, fit athletes to play in the front row. Medical surveillance must be improved at matches and, ideally, at practice sessions. At present, it is common for no emergency medical personnel or physicians to be present at matches in the United
Burke, L M; Gollan, R A; Read, R S
The present study conducted dietary surveys of four groups of Australian male athletes: triathletes, marathon runners, Australian Rules football players, and Olympic weightlifters. Their training diets were assessed via a 7-day food record from which mean daily intakes of energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients were estimated. The data were compared between groups as well as to recommendations in the literature for athlete nutrition. Results showed major differences between groups. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy intake was greater for triathletes and marathon runners than for the other two groups. There was no difference between all four groups in the total amount of fat consumed, yet its contribution to total energy intake was significantly lower for triathletes and marathon runners. The football players and weightlifters consumed a similar fat:energy ratio as the typical Australian diet. Furthermore, the micronutrient density of the football players' diets was significantly lower than that of the other groups. PMID:1844570
Do you know there are two kinds of football games? One is American football, the other is soccer. In China, many young people like playing soccer. It is very popular in China. But Chinese don't call it soccer, They call it football. There are eleven players in a team. And the ball is round.
Albury, Kath; Carmody, Moira; Evers, Clifton; Lumby, Catharine
In 2004, the Australian National Rugby League (NRL) commissioned the Playing By The Rules research project in response to allegations of sexual assault by members of a professional rugby league team. This article offers an overview of the theoretical and methodological approaches adopted by the team, and the subsequent workplace education…
Accordingly with the chellenges of modern football game from one side, and the necessity for the prevention of illnesses and injuries on other side; the importance of appropriate health care and its organization is an imperative. Although FIFA and UEFA provide continuous education and actions in these directions, especially in the prevention of suddendeath in international football competitions andin applying anti-doping rules, health care and health organization in a lot of national level fo...
A hundred years ago, the game we now call football did not exist (存在). American football started during a game between two colleges. The teams had gotten together to play what called “football”, but each team played by different rules. One team played what we now call soccer.The other played what we now call rugby (橄榄球).
The authors analyze the financial situation of the Spanish football industry. They first argue that a relevant analysis of the industry's financial results relies on a careful description of how historical and cultural factors have influenced its organization. Moreover, they stress the important relationship between the industry and television. The authors suggest that the situation of the Spanish football industry suffers from some structural weaknesses in its accounts. However, the situatio...
Full Text Available Michael Kinchington1, Kevin Ball1, Geraldine Naughton21School of Human Movement, Recreation and Performance, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia; 2The Centre of Physical Activity Across the Lifespan (COPAAL, Australian Catholic University, Victoria, AustraliaAims and Objectives: This study extends previous work in the field of injury awareness using a novel lower limb comfort index (LLCI, which was developed to assess comfort in professional football. Participants rated comfort for designated anatomical segments of the lower limb utilizing a seven point Likert scale. The aims of the study were (i to assess the reliability of the LLCI in a competitive football environment (Australian Rules and Rugby League, and (ii to assess whether LLCI measurements were responsive to changes in lower limb comfort over time.Methods and Results: The reliability of the LLCI was observed in two professional football environments: Training Week (mean difference 0.1 point, intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC 0.99 for n = 41 participants; and Match Day (mean difference 0.2 points, ICC 0.97 for n = 22 players. Measurements of lower limb comfort were responsive to changes in comfort over time. Within-player differences were not significant for periods 0–8 hrs (P > 0.05 but, generally, significant for time periods 0–24 hrs (P < 0.05, and significant between 24–96 hrs (P < 0.01. The results indicate that the LLCI was reliable when tested for repeated measures and indicated how the index measures lower limb comfort changes over time.Conclusion: This study shows that the use of a lower limb comfort index, when used in a competitive football environment, is both reliable and responsive to change during both a training week and under match day conditions.Keywords: lower limb comfort, musculoskeletal, football, injury
KR, Gannett; ZA, Kaufman; MA, Clark; ST, McGarvey
The “football3” model refers to a restructuring of traditional football/soccer rules to bring social and developmental benefits to participating youth and their communities. The model incorporates three “halves”: pre-game discussion, football match, and post-game discussion. This study was carried out to shed light on the experiences of youth and adults with the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010. As an official 2010 FIFA World Cup event, the festival assembled 32 mixed-se...
The revelation that women first played Australian Rules football during the period of the Great War is an important element in overall understandings of how both masculine and feminine ideals were challenged and redefined by sporting practices in a time of general social flux. This paper reveals that the genesis of the women's code was in Western Australia, where contests occurred as early as 1915. Three years later, with the war nearing its conclusion, the template of women's involvement in charity matches with strong military and patriotic overtones was adopted in the state of Victoria, the code's heartland. Investigations such as this one, indicative of the complex relationships between sport and gender during the First World War, offer scope for deeper comprehension of a much-studied military conflict, and point the way forward for those that bemoan the static agenda of research into women's football. PMID:21966704
Lundberg, George D; Metzner, David
Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499
Møller, Peter Mindegaard
A brief story of Danish football has been attempted, describing new patterns of time and location. The examples that have been chosen aim to show that football, as body culture, must be understood in connection with societal changes. Yet what do we learn by analysing these tendencies? Football...... of European sports culture. Such writing reduces football to a different concept: "soccer", that is, a hierarchical and competitive sport. This soccer paradigm does not recognise the diversity and pluralism of football as it exists today and as it has always existed. Football is a multiplicity of...... configurations, including not just elite and professional soccer, but also a game of the people, "grassroots football"....
Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila Susanne
organised as small-sided games is highly beneficial for enhancing overall fitness. In addition, studies indicate that team sports such as football may have an advantage over individual sports when it comes to personal development and the development of social capital. The aim of this paper is to explore a...... new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF), with a specific focus on organisational issues. In doing so, we would like to contribute to the discussion of how to organise sports as a means for promoting health within sporting organisations. The theoretical framework is...... Danish context. Key words: Football Fitness, Health, Sports clubs, Sports Organisations, Path dependency...
Full Text Available Football has surpassed the status of being a social phenomenon at a national and international scale for a long time, as it is the new “religion of the 21st century” which brings together game practitioners under its scope regardless of religion, skin colour, geographical area, culture, philosophy, gender, age which has been proven by the number of members in more than 200 FIFA member national federations. As stated in the FIFA status, “each FIFA member shall organize football games by the Laws of the Game promulgated by the International Board which has complete and exclusive jurisdiction to modify them. Football game rules bring together a set of laws under which a game, game relations and player relations must take place, actually being the single criterion to assess players” behaviour as permissible or impermissible. Football game management is provided by referees. A referee guarantees that a competition shall take place according to the Laws of the Game. However, arbitration work in football is not a profession in every sense of the word, but a social function that a person with a specific training performs regularly at various football competitions for children, youth and pros. As in any purposeful and social value activity, football arbitration too requires the set-up of a scientifically based system of recruitment, selection, training, promotion. This system requires a certain way of combining and providing theoretical training, physical training, and psychological/mental training of referees. A referee plays an important role in modern football. Therefore, a referee must be trained, selected and protected from various influences (clubs, league, political field.
PANAGIOTIS E. DIMITROPOULOS
Full Text Available The year 1979 was a cornerstone for the football in Greece, since it practically meant the transformation of the sport’s organization from amateurism to professionalism, establishing new rules and conditions to the management of football clubs. The increased popularity of this sport and the evolutions that took place in Europe and worldwide, forced the Greek government to establish a legislative framework for the successful management of football clubs. These interventions lead to changes in many aspects of football management such as organizational and financial. The new legal environment of football management, required the organization of this sport into a more stable and professional base, following the financial standards of other corporations operating within the Greek state. By these means the government wanted to create a fair economic framework under which the football clubs would operate with common organizational, financial and tax administration rules. The aim of this paper is to present the characteristics of the new «capital form» establishment of the football clubs (Societe Anonyme, the main financial frame under which the new establishment has to operate and the tax obligations that originate from the aforementioned legal form.
Adam J Munn
Full Text Available The energy equivalence rule (EER is a macroecological hypothesis that posits that total population energy use (PEU should be independent of species body mass, because population densities and energy metabolisms scale with body mass in a directly inverse manner. However, evidence supporting the EER is equivocal, and the use of basal metabolic rate (BMR in such studies has been questioned; ecologically-relevant indices like field metabolic rate (FMR are probably more appropriate. In this regard, Australian marsupials present a novel test for the EER because, unlike eutherians, marsupial BMRs and FMRs scale differently with body mass. Based on either FMR or BMR, Australian marsupial PEU did not obey an EER, and scaled positively with body mass based on ordinary least squares (OLS regressions. Importantly, the scaling of marsupial population density with body mass had a slope of -0.37, significantly shallower than the expected slope of -0.75, and not directly inverse of body-mass scaling exponents for BMR (0.72 or FMR (0.62. The findings suggest that the EER may not be a causal, universal rule, or that for reasons not yet clear, it is not operating for Australia's unique native fauna.
Full text: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between MR parameters of hamstring injury and the amount of time lost from competition in Australian Rules footballers. Thirty seven footballers with suspected hamstring injury underwent T1 and inversion recovery T2 turbo spin-echo sequences in axial and sagittal planes. Presence and dimension of abnormal focal intramuscular and / or extramuscular T2 hyperintensity was independently recorded by two radiologists and the percentage abnormal cross sectional muscle area and abnormal muscle volume were measured from T2-weighted images depicting extent of muscle injury. MR detected hamstring muscle and linear extramuscle T2 hyperintensity in 30 (81%) and 25 (68%) of 37 athletes respectively, the long head of biceps being the dominant site of injury in 21 cases.There was a relationship between days lost from competition and percentage abnormal muscle area (r = 0.63, p 0.001) and volume of muscle affected (r = 0.46, p 0.01) with only a trend for linear extramuscular T2 hyperintensity (r = 0.33, p = 0.12) being demonstrated. Hamstring injury most frequently involved the long head of biceps femoris and recovery time was related to MR measurements such as the percentage of abnormal muscle area and volume of muscle injury. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd
Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard
Italian national team football cultures were examined. The basis of the analysis was both document and video analysis. The documents were mostly research studies and popular books on the national football cultures, while the video analysis included all matches including Italy and Brazil from the World Cup...... in 2010 and 2014. The cultural analysis showed some coherence between the national football cultures and the national teams, which suggested a national dialect with the language of the game. Each national dialect seemed to be based on different basic assumptions and to some extent specific symbolic...
Messing, Anne, Ed.; And Others
This guide for soccer, speedball, and flag football is one in a series of guides for 22 sports published by the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS). Guides contain information on NAGWS-approved playing rules, officials' ratings, articles on teaching, coaching and organization, rules governing national championships,…
What is intriguing about women’s football as a cultural phenomenon is that unlike men’s football the finances and media interest for the game are sparse. Nevertheless we have found that migration of female football players is growing steadily and women’s football is becoming global in nature. The...... question is then what drives this globalization process? According to our study of women’s football migration into Scandinavia, one of the centers of women’s football, transnational networks play a crucial role in mobilizing global migratory moves. Using the concept of friends-of-friends networks from Bale...
Full Text Available Uniting Edson Arantes do Nascimento's (Pele's "the beautiful game" with David Beckham's "bending the ball" (talented players apply the laws of physics to the ball is the major motivation of the 6th.World Congress on Science and Football. From Chinese tsu chu to today's modern football games, science was and will be an important part of this excellent sport (http://www7.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0606/feature1/index.html.The congress encourages all scientific aspects of football including soccer (1848 including Australian rules (1866, Rugby (1845, American football (1876, Gaelic football (1884 and Canadian football (1882. Issues such as Biomechanics, Nutrition, Psychology, Academies, Talent identification, Medical aspects, Injuries, Special Population, Coaching, Physiology, Testing, Referee, Fair play, Hooliganism, Management, Economics and Skill learning will be discussed during this congress.Research is as significant as the coach, team and player in competition. Any player can aspire to become a superstar. Encouraging all participants and steak holders will take them to new places where no one has ever dreamt of. Are we close to these dreams? The answer to this question depends on what and how much we sacrifice for science and education. From science and education information should flow into the field. The decisive elements of the game are the referees, trainers, players and supporters. Their approach creates the "climate". They can end or start a war. Football is the sport that leads. It's no miracle but it promotes passion and love. If you are committed, you may even change the world. Football encompasses millions of players, coaches, scientists, administrators, physical education teachers, politicians and inevitably parents of young players. This "simple" game that requires a ball and a goal is not only the game of heroes but also of those who bear a childish enthusiasm that makes dreams come true. Skills include heading, tapping, passing
Muckle, D. S.
The incidence of injuries in footballers is described. Nearly half of footballer's injuries involve the knee, with vertical tearing of the meniscus being common; surgical intervention may be required. Approximately one third of injuries involve the ankle, and will often require immobilisation. Other injuries include muscle damage, spondylosis of L4 or L5, concussion, and dislocations. The importance of prompt and correct treatment of injuries is emphasised.
Machado, Carlos; Costa, Ilidio; Sampaio, Sérgio; Ribeiro, António Fernando
This paper describes an Autonomous Mobile Robot team which plays football, developed by the Group of Automation and Robotics at the Industrial Electronics department of the University of Minho, in Guimarães (Portugal). In this competition each team is free to use and/or build all the different electronics, sensory systems, playing algorithms, etc. as far as they cope with the rules imposed by the organisation. Instead of using several different sensors increasing electronics complexity, th...
@@ Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives.
Braungart, V.; Kotschick, D.
We prove that every spherical football (also known as a spherical soccer ball) is a branched cover, branched only in the vertices, of the standard football made up of 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons. We also give examples showing that the corresponding result is not true for footballs of higher genera. Moreover, we classify the possible pairs (k,l) for which football patterns on the sphere exist satisfying a natural generalisation of the usual incidence relation between pentagons and hexagons to...
Bennike, Søren; Wikman, Johan Michael; Ottesen, Laila Susanne
This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second......-order change (Watzlawick et al.). Theories of Pestoff concerning differences between state, market, and the civil society and theories of voluntary associations in a Danish context (Kaspersen & Ottesen; Ibsen & Seippel) are applied. This article indicates how FF is a result of the changing landscape of sport...... and argues that it can be beneficial to target sports organizations and include the expertise of non-profit sports clubs if the goal is to raise the physical activity level of the local community and make these long lasting. But the organizations need to consider how this is to be done. FF...
Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from
the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction......Football has long time been considered as a genuine masculine domain. However, in the current football culture, the dualism of masculinity and femaleness is in progress. More and more women consume football which is in many countries considered the most popular sport, not only in Scandinavia where....... Yet, the combination ‘women and football’ is still adhered to certain scepticism. Objective The overall objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to contribute to the body of knowledge associated with the distinct aspects of women’s football, female fandom and gender identities in European football drawing...
Mendes, R. S.; Malacarne, L. C.; Anteneodo, C.
We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by q-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.
Mendes, R S; Anteneodo, C
We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by $q$-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.
Luke W Hogarth; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R.
This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line ...
It was a Saturday morning, our school football team was going to have a match with the No. 28 Middle Schooh They were really a strong team. But we weren't afraid of them. We had many mare good players on our team, so we were stronger than ever before.
While the football fan was thrilled to be at the Super Bowl, he was disappointed with the location of his seat. Peering across the stadium through his binoculars, he spied an empty seat on the 50-yard line and made his way there.
In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…
Norizan Mat Diah
Full Text Available Games which persist across cultures and eras are not static institutions; they evolve when they do not go extinct. Changes of rules, styles and strategies contribute to the evolution of games. Western chess and football continue to grow in popularity afte ...
This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…
Like a drama unfolding in a riveting suspense novel, the quadrennial global football gala is becoming more and more compelling as the climax approaches. Billions of people are glued to the tube watching the World Cup in Germany, and Chinese football fans are following the countdown with the rest of the world. According to a poll by China Central Television, the national broadcaster, World Cup games have attracted combined viewers of at least 10 billion. For Chinese football enthusiasts, however, the joy ...
An advanced security assemblage is now at the permanent disposal of authorities in their quest to pre-empt and manage risk at football matches. This chapter proposes the ‘football stadia-as-laboratories’ metaphor as an analytical lens through which to examine the security and risk management technol
Rees, Daniel I.; Schnepel, Kevin T.
There is a great deal of anecdotal evidence that college football games can lead to aggressive and destructive behavior by fans. However, to date, no empirical study has attempted to document the magnitude of this phenomenon. We match daily data on offenses from the NIBRS to 26 Division I-A college football programs in order to estimate the…
On any fall weekend across the United States, football reigns as the nation's favorite sport. Thousands of high school teams, the pride of communities from coast to coast, compete under the lights on Friday nights. Saturdays feature the tradition and pageantry of college football. Sundays belong to the 32 professional teams that play in the major…
Football is one of the biggest sports in the world. Professional teams track their player's positions using GPS (Global Positioning System). This report is divided into two parts, both focusing on applying collective motion to football. % The goal of the first part was to both see if a set of cheaper GPS units could be used to analyze the collective motion of a youth football team. 15 football players did two experiments and played three versus three football matches against each other while ...
Jesús Gil Gómez; Pablo Juan Verdoy
Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommend...
This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....
Ottesen, Laila Susanne; Bennike, Søren
received and adapted in the Danish sports organizations and associations. The Danish Football Association has launched a new concept called "Football Fitness" with a focus on the health dimension of football, both of physiological, psychological and social nature, rather than a focus on the competition...... aspect or the actual game. Currently the concept is in the implementation phase in more than 50 clubs, and is predominantly targeting inactive user groups, new to the club. A wide range of stakeholders engaged in health policy emphasize the need for knowledge about how to anchor health related...
Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “cl...
Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.
Johansen, Stine Liv
Media and mediatization must be seen as a prerequisite for children’s play today. Children’s fan cultures cover a wide range of topics; yet, football is a field with specific explanatory power due to its structural and cultural specificities. In this chapter, football is seen as a specific play...... practice, carried out both physically and through engagements with a diverse range of traditional and new media. The chapter draws on empirical fieldwork among Danish children aged 8 to 13, describing football kids as active users of media, active play practitioners, and active performers of identity...... projects in relation to friends and family. For these children, football as a mediatized play practice is their point of departure, forming the grounds of their everyday practices....
Check out the European championship of proton football 2016 at CERN. Produced by: CERN Audiovisual Productions Service Director: Jacques Fichet Editor: Jacques Fichet Music : Burnt of Jingle Punks You can follow us on:
The principle objective of this thesis is to provide material on what basic technical skills, player positions and physical demands there are when playing football and how to coach them. This thesis also provides information on how to use psychological interventions in order to improve as a player. This material is targeted for sports instructors working at the Shilin Sport Center in Taipei, Taiwan. The Shilin Sport Center does not have any form of football coaching program on offer, which is...
Fawaz, Yarine; Casas, Agustin
In 2007, based on medical reports, FIFA ruled that no international football competition could be played in stadiums with an altitude higher than 2500 meters. We provide stark evidence which supports the claim that playing in high altitude benefits the home team through two channels. First, in these scenarios, high altitude teams (HAT) do better against low altitude teams than against other high altitude teams. Second, every time that low altitude teams visit other high altitude teams they ge...
This paper examines issues of labour and play in children's football. It asks whether global capitalism and the growth of girls' and women's football might lead to greater sexual victimization among female players.
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived level of burnout among football coaches in Greece. The sample consisted of 132 male football coaches from Greece. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure burnout. Results indicated that Greek football coaches of this sample were experienced low level of burnout. Findings also revealed no statistically significant age differences on the burnout subscales.
Finch, Caroline F; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Twomey, Dara M; Doyle, Tim L. A.; Lloyd, David G; Young, Warren; Elliott, Bruce C
Objective To determine the reach and adoption of a coach-led exercise training programme for lower limb injury prevention. Design Secondary analysis of data from a group-clustered randomised controlled trial. Setting A periodised exercise training warm-up programme was delivered to players during training sessions over an 8-week preseason (weeks 1–8) and 18-week playing season. Participants 1564 community Australian football players. Main outcome measurements Reach, measured weekly, was the n...
Abel Duarte Alonso
Full Text Available The development of professional sport leagues, including football, also referred to as ‘soccer’ in some environments and in the media, is an occurring phenomenon in different nations, where interest and consumption of sport appear to be growing. Football’s establishment in the form of a professional league may however pose a dilemma to professional club marketers in the form of misunderstandings or confusion among consumers, particularly where there are more professional sports that have been traditionally known as “football”. This study investigates both the level of association with and consumption of professional football among residents in a large Australian city. An online questionnaire gathered both quantitative and qualitative data from 695 respondents. The findings illustrate the potential for ‘brand confusion’ when new leagues and teams enter the domestic and international sport marketplace. For instance, almost 30% of respondents associated football with at least one more sport, with no one sport positioning its form of football as exclusive and different from the others. The overall findings underline the need for sport marketers to increase their educational efforts to differentiate their product, their brand, and ultimately their form of football among professional sport consumers.
Moore, John W.
Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more
Joshua M. Williams; Jody L. Langdon; James L. McMillan; Thomas A. Buckley
Background: Concussions are a common pathology in football and multiple misconceptions exist amongst the players and managers. To address these misconceptions, and potentially reduce concussion associated sequela, effective educational interventions need to be developed. However, the current knowledge and attitude status must be ascertained to appropriately develop these interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the concussion knowledge and attitude of English professional footballers. Methods: Twenty-six participants from one English Football League Championship club completed the study. A mixed methods approach included the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (RoCKAS) and a semi-structured interview. The RoCKAS contains separate knowledge (0–25) and attitude (15–75) scores and was followed by a semi-structured interview consisting of concussion knowledge, attitude, and behavior related questions. Results: The mean score on the RoCKAS knowledge was 16.4 ± 2.9 (range 11–22) and the attitude score was 59.6 ± 8.5 (range 41–71). The interview responses identified inconsistencies between the RoCKAS and the intended behaviors, endorsing multiple concussion misconceptions, and revealed barriers to concussion reporting. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Championship Level English footballers have moderate concussion knowledge, safe attitudes, and good concussion symptom recognition when assessed with pen and paper questionnaires. However, within the semi-structured interview many respondents reported unsafe concussion behaviors despite accurately identifying the potential risks. Further, multiple barriers to concussion reporting were identified which included perceived severity of the injury, game situations, and the substitution rule. These findings can help form the foundation of educational interventions to potentially improve concussion reporting behaviors amongst professional footballers.
Strategic Management in Football : How the European top club could adjust to UEFA financial fair play and simultaneously create conditions for competitive advantage within the changing UEFA football industry
Rikardsson, Hampus; Rikardsson, Linus
Background The external requirements for the European top clubs within the UEFA football industry are changing. Due to mismanaged finances during a significant period of time derived from the clubs’ ruthless aim for short-term sporting success, UEFA (The Union of European Football Association) has decided to change the rules of the game. UEFA’s newly implemented financial fair play regulations, with the main requirement of breaking even, force clubs that aim to participate in future UEFA com...
Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter;
is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs...... under the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community......As the number of cancer survivors continues to increase, there is an increasing focus on management of the long-term consequences of cancer including health promotion and prevention of co-morbidity. Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer type in men and causes increased risk of heart...
Full Text Available European football is a business with more and more attractive numbers for investors, shareholders or partners all over the planet. It has significantly changed especially over the last 20 years, following an intense procedure of acquisitions and marketing, a process that has brought important sums of money in this industry. This paper presents the overview of the “big five” European football leagues (England, Germany, Spain, Italy, France. The study is primarily focused on economics, but is also considering various social or cultural aspects (media, social media followers. The case-study on the five major leagues corroborates the theoretical underpinning. The paper investigates also the roots of financial regulation divergence in Europe and underlines the main issues regarding the UEFA financial fair-play rules.
@@ Footballer' s ankle is anterior bony spur or anterior impingement symptom of the ankle with anterior ankle pain, limited and painful dorsiflexion. The cause is commonly seen in athletes and dancers, and is probably due to repetitive minor trauma. The condition was firstly described by Morris;1 McMurray2 reported good results from excision of the spurs, naming it footballer's ankle. Opening resection of osteophytes of the anterior tibial and superior talar is an effective treatment for anterior impingement of the ankle.
Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.
It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)
Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Unsell, Bryan J. [Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States)
It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)
Gee, Jim; Button, Mark; Brooks, Graham
Fraud is therefore not a victimless crime, it costs those involved in football and those who watch football. With the loss of revenue due to fraud, both football clubs, and local businesses that provide services to football clubs, are less financially stable, as invoices are left unpaid, the value of shares is reduced and it is difficult to attract all important external investment and sponsorship.
The Premier League is a billion pound industry and English football clubs can deal with significant amounts of foreign cash flow. This dissertation seeks to investigate if and how English football clubs protect themselves against foreign exchange exposure and how this compares to regular UK MNCs. From examination of the financial reports, some of the football clubs in the Premier League state that they manage foreign exchange risk and use financial instruments to do so, whereas others do not ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Football (soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football, and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson, controlling for age and gender. Results The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%. Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the “illusion of control.” Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.
Khazaal Yasser; Chatton Anne; Billieux Joël; Bizzini Lucio; Monney Grégoire; Fresard Emmanuelle; Thorens Gabriel; Bondolfi Guido; El-Guebaly Nady; Zullino Daniele; Khan Riaz
Abstract Background Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are bet...
Thirty-three former football players from the National Football Team of Norway were examined by cerebral computer tomography (CT). The CT studies, evaluated for brain atrophy, visually and by linear measurements compared two different normal materials. One third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy. It is concluded that the atrophy probably was caused by repeated small head injuries during the football play, mainly in connection with heading the ball. (orig.)
The point of departure in this paper is the diagnosis of Hoehn and Szymanski (1999) that the interlocking system of European football creates an unbalanced system. To secure competitive balance at both the European and the national level, they recommend to reform European football into a closed superleague American-style. In this paper I argue for a radically different route. Instead of giving up dominant traditions of European football, like promotion-relegation and the interlocking system, ...
Peter K. Hunsberger; Seth R. Gitter
A recent National Labor Relations Board ruling declared Northwestern football players employees and gave them the right to unionize. This ruling is part of ongoing scrutiny of The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA's) model which labels college athletes as amateurs and limits player compensation to grant-in-aid (scholarships). Our paper estimates the marginal revenue product (MRP) of an elite college quarterback using revenue and game level playing data from eight and nine seasons...
In previous research on girls’ and women’s football the focus has been on gender identity, sexuality, fandom, leadership and media portrayal. To date there is a lack of literature connecting girls’ and women’s football playing experiences to their family relationships. Fathering through football is viewed as a familiar concept for boy’s football but there has yet to be parallel research surrounding football playing daughters. Taken from one element of the author’s current PhD study, this pape...
Kijima, Akifumi; Shima, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Yuji
The multiplayer dynamics of a football game is analyzed to unveil self-similarities in the time evolution of player and ball positioning. Temporal fluctuations in both the team-turf boundary and the ball location are uncovered to follow the rules of fractional Brownian motion with a Hurst exponent of H=0.7. The persistence time below which self-similarity holds is found to be several tens of seconds, implying a characteristic time scale that governs far-from-equilibrium motion on a playing field.
Sampaio, J; Maçãs, V
The present study explored how football players' dynamic positional data can be used to assess tactical behaviour by measuring movement patterns and inter-player coordination. A pre post-test design was used to assess the effects of a 13-week constructivist and cognitivist training program by measuring behaviour in a 5 × 5 football small-sided game, played on a 60 × 40 m outdoor natural turf pitch. Data was captured at 5 Hz by GPS devices (SPI Pro, GPSports, Canberra, Australia) and analysed with non-linear signal processing methods. Approximate entropy values were lower in post-test situations suggesting that these time series became more regular with increasing expertise in football. Relative phase post-test values showed frequent periods with a clear trend to moving in anti-phase, as measured by players' distance to the centre of the team. These advances may open new research topics under the tactical scope and allow narrowing the gap between sports sciences and sports coaching. PMID:22377947
Garland, Daniel J.; Barry, John R.
The present study, based on Chelladurai and Carron's (1978) multidimensional theory of leadership, sought to determine if selected personality traits and specific leader behaviors are predictive of performance in collegiate football. Prior to regular season competition, collegiate football players (N=272) from three southeastern United States…
Study aim: To improve the teaching of football techniques by applying cognitive and imagery techniques. Material and methods: Four groups of subjects, n = 32 each, were studied: male and female physical education students aged 20-21 years, not engaged previously in football training; male juniors and minors, aged 16 and 13 years, respectively,…
Robertson, Jan; Pointing, Boris Shane; Stevenson, Leah; Clough, Alan R
Smoking prevalence in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remains extraordinarily high, with rates reported of up to 82%. Widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is exacerbated by overcrowded housing. Implementation of existing smoke-free policies is challenged by the normalization of smoking and a lack of appropriate regulation resources. This paper celebrates a grassroots approach to control of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in these settings. We report on selected findings from a tobacco intervention study in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory in 2007-2012. In community-level tobacco use surveys at baseline (n = 400 ≥ 16 years), participants reported concern about the constant exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke. Suggestions for action included restricting smoking in private and public spaces. We selected three case studies illustrating management of ETS from observational data during the study's intervention phase. Using a critical realist approach, the context and mechanisms that contributed to specific strategies, or outcomes, were examined in order to develop a hypothesis regarding more effective management of ETS in these environments. Our results suggest that in discrete, disadvantaged communities, enhanced local ownership of smoke-free policies and development of implementation strategies at the grassroots level that acknowledge and incorporate cultural contexts can contribute to more effective management of ETS. PMID:24157514
Alan R. Clough
Full Text Available Smoking prevalence in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remains extraordinarily high, with rates reported of up to 82%. Widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is exacerbated by overcrowded housing. Implementation of existing smoke-free policies is challenged by the normalization of smoking and a lack of appropriate regulation resources. This paper celebrates a grassroots approach to control of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in these settings. We report on selected findings from a tobacco intervention study in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory in 2007–2012. In community-level tobacco use surveys at baseline (n = 400 ≥ 16 years, participants reported concern about the constant exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke. Suggestions for action included restricting smoking in private and public spaces. We selected three case studies illustrating management of ETS from observational data during the study’s intervention phase. Using a critical realist approach, the context and mechanisms that contributed to specific strategies, or outcomes, were examined in order to develop a hypothesis regarding more effective management of ETS in these environments. Our results suggest that in discrete, disadvantaged communities, enhanced local ownership of smoke-free policies and development of implementation strategies at the grassroots level that acknowledge and incorporate cultural contexts can contribute to more effective management of ETS.
Christensen, Mette Krogh; Kahr Sørensen, Jan
Introduction The national football and sports elite unions in Denmark urge young football talents to complete upper secondary education while they are building football careers. The football culture has a magnetic attraction on young football players. Yet, attempting a professional career in...... experiences, especially the difficulties of submitting to the demands of both football training and education. Methods The study was a qualitative inquiry into the young football players´ subjective experiences of balancing football and education. The study used focus group interviews with 6-8 players from 4...... different clubs and 8 in-depth interviews with 2 players from each of the 4 clubs. Results The interviews suggested that very few of the young football players felt they successfully balanced the requirement of school and football training. Most of them actually found it hard to maintain and finish...
Science Teacher, 2005
Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…
Full Text Available John W Orchard,1 Markus Waldén,2 Martin Hägglund,3 Jessica J Orchard,1 Ian Chivers,4 Hugh Seward,5 Jan Ekstrand21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4Native Seeds, Cheltenham, VIC, Australia; 5Australian Football League Medical Officers Association, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Australian Football League (AFL teams in northern (warmer areas generally have higher rates of injury than those in southern (cooler areas. Conversely, in soccer (football in Europe, teams in northern (cooler areas have higher rates of injury than those in southern (warmer areas, with an exception being knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries, which are more common in the southern (warmer parts of Europe. This study examined relative injury incidence in the AFL comparing 9,477 injuries over 229,827 player-weeks from 1999–2012. There was a slightly higher injury incidence for teams from warmer parts of Australia (relative risk [RR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.10 with quadriceps strains (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.58, knee cartilage injuries (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16–1.74, and ankle sprains (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00–1.37 all being more likely in warmer region teams. Achilles injuries followed a reverse pattern, tending to be more common in cooler region teams (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47–1.03. In conclusion, common findings from the AFL and European soccer are that ankle sprains and ACL injuries are generally more likely in teams playing in warmer climate zones, whereas Achilles tendinopathy may be more likely in teams playing in cooler zones. These injuries may have climate or surface risk factors (possibly related to types and structure of grass and shoe-surface traction that are
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the opinions concerning economic, social and cultural of foreign footballers about playing football in the Turkish professional football leagues. The population of the study consisted of 71 foreign players from 12 teams (Ç. Rize, Sivas Spor, Konya Spor, Kayseri Spor, Kayseri Erciyes Spor, G. Antep Spor, Antalya Spor, Denizli Spor, Sakarya Spor, Ankaragücü, Gençlerbirliği, Ankaraspor, in 2006-2007 football seasons in Turkcell Super League and Bank Asya 1st League category. Data had got from the questionnaire which has been done to the sample players by the researcher. Frequency, percent and arithmetic average was used for the description statistical analysis of the subjects’ personal info. As a result, it has been determined that the foreign footballers’ reason of selecting playing football in Turkey caused of economical reasons, they can create a friendship in and out of football field with native footballers, enjoying Turkish cuisine and Turkish music, telling positive opinions about Turkey when they return to their country, they want some special requests in their agreements.
Referees blow the whistle on their collaborations with officials in match-fixing scandals China’s trouble-plagued top soccer league,the Chinese Football Association Super League(CSL),kicked off its 2011 season on April 2 without a sponsor or a national TV deal.Days before the new season,three former league referees,who are awaiting trial,revealed the extent of match-fixing scandals that have led to the punishment of clubs,offi-cials,coaches and former players.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the potentials innovation in football industry. Data were collected from 10 national and international referees, assistant referees and referees’ supervisors in Iran. In this study, technological innovations are identified that assist better refereeing performances. The analysis revealed a significant relationship between using new technologies and referees ‘performance. The results indicate that elite referees, assistant referees and supervisors agreed to use new technological innovations during the game. According to their comments, this kind of technology causes the referees’ performance development.
Football fans and TV stations seize their opportunities to indulge in World Cup mania In China, Huang Jianxiang is the king of sports commentators. His popularity is such that the affable but confident doyen of television broadcasting is mobbed when he goes out in public. He is a new breed of voice maestro, adopting a more professional and relaxed style to the commentators of the past. Those veterans come from an era of radio and are used to describing every detail of the play and the audience, despite v...
Egorova, Emiliya S; Borisova, Alyona V; Mustafina, Leysan J; Arkhipova, Alina A; Gabbasov, Rashid T; Druzhevskaya, Anastasiya M; Astratenkova, Irina V; Ahmetov, Ildus I
Research concerned with predictors of talent in football has highlighted a number of potentially important and partially inherited measures such as body size, anaerobic power, aerobic capacity, agility, psychological profile, game intelligence and susceptibility to injuries. Genotyping for performance-associated DNA polymorphisms at an early age could be useful in predicting later success in football. The aim of the study was to investigate individually and in combination the association of common gene polymorphisms with football player's status. A total of 246 Russian football players and 872 controls were genotyped for 8 gene polymorphisms, which were previously reported to be associated with athlete status. Four alleles (ACE D, ACTN3 Arg577, PPARA rs4253778 C and UCP2 55Val) were first identified, showing discrete associations with football player's status. Next, we determined the total genotype score (TGS, from the accumulated combination of the 4 polymorphisms, with a maximum value of 100 for the theoretically optimal polygenic score) in athletes and controls. The mean TGS was significantly higher in football players (52.0 (17.6) vs. 41.3 (15.5); P < 0.0001) than in controls. These data suggest that the likelihood of becoming a football player depends on the carriage of a high number of "favourable" gene variants. PMID:24784145
Kausova, G K; Karabaeva, A I
The aim of the investigation was to study young football players' health. The study was conducted on 161 football players (mean age 12.3) of six children football teams of Almaty club "KAIRAT" during the competition period. It was found that 55,5% of the football players are practically healthy; 18,6% of football players have iron deficiency anemia. 32,6% of football players have caries; 5% of football players have problems of cardiopulmonary system. Investigation reveal, that in a junior sportsman was body weigh surging with downtrend during contest, testify to portability of aerobic load and in childhood unconformable of metabolism' level. This tendency was retain also in the oldest sportsman, this testify to most emulative aerobic load in comparison with junior sportsman. According as the age increases it is emulative load's extension and free occurrence of body weigh subsequent reduction but in the oldest sportsman with prevalence macrosomia. Concurrently with improvement of the anthropometric profile as far as increase of age in soccer players it is forming of a high training level. In spite of lowering of energy resources and the physical load organism's adaptation there are these phenomena. According as the age increases in a soccer player's performance of cardiac and respiratory system are improved. PMID:24214593
Full Text Available Sport entities have always tried to protect their autonomy from interventions. This status has been seriously put into question by the authorities of the European Communities and especially by the Court of the European Communities. One of the most recent cases where sport authorities were confronted with European competition law, was about the area of players’ agents licenses. In the present, the reader can find a summary of the famous «Piau Case» (C-171/2005 tackling problems such as whether private organisations like F.I.F.A., whose main statutory purpose is to promote football, have a rule-making power, concerning the issuance of these licenses, taking into consideration that these rules do not have a sport-related object but regulate an economic activity that is peripheral to the sporting activity in question and touch on fundamental freedoms.
Parnell, Daniel; Cope, Ed; Bailey, Richard;
Our current understanding is that football is a popular intervention option and can offer valuable health improvement programme success. This includes interventions delivered by professional football clubs and their respective in the community programmes, as well as other sports clubs organizing ...... effectiveness of football-led physical health interventions.......Our current understanding is that football is a popular intervention option and can offer valuable health improvement programme success. This includes interventions delivered by professional football clubs and their respective in the community programmes, as well as other sports clubs organizing...... recreational football and Football Fitness, which is small-sided football training rather than competitive 11v11 matches. This article seeks to communicate an understanding of the role of football in physical health improvement using research, grey literature and policy documentation undertaken predominantly...
Full Text Available Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA, and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a control system by marketing activity of football clubs of Iraq is defined. Positive and negative factors which define management efficiency marketing of football clubs are revealed.
In this paper we examine the detailed theory of the American football in flight, with spin and air resistance included. We find the theory has much in common with the theory of a gyroscope and also rocket trajectory with a misaligned thruster. Unfortunately most of the air resistance data, for rocketry and ballistics, is for speeds of Mach 1 or higher, where the air resistance increases dramatically. We shall approximate a realistic air resistance, at the slower speeds of football flight, with a drag force proportional to cross sectional area and either $v$ or $v^2$, depending on speed, where $v$ is velocity of the football. We begin with a discussion of the motion, giving as much detail as possible without the use of complex analytic calculations. We point out the previous errors made with moments of inertia and make the necessary corrections for more accurate results. We show that the shape of an American football closely resembles a parabola of revolution.
Ekstrand, Jan; Torstveit, M. K.
The objective was to investigate the incidence, type and distribution of stress fractures in professional male football players. Fifty-four football teams, comprising 2379 players, were followed prospectively for 189 team seasons during the years 2001–2009. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries. The first team squads of 24 clubs selected by UEFA as belonging to the 50 best European teams, 15 teams of the Swedish Super League and 15 teams playing their h...
Full Text Available Although far behind association football, futsal is the second most played variant of football in the world. Both sports have comparable global expansion strategies; but with different roots and outcomes. Futsal, which originated in South America, has experienced a more limited geographic expansion. Its recent integration into the FIFA is progressively changing its geographic presence. Consequently, futsal has become an increasingly global sport.
Waddington, I.; Malcolm, D.; Roderick, M.; Naik, R; Spitzer, G.
Objectives: To examine several issues related to drug use in English professional football. More particularly the project sought to gather data on: players' use of permitted supplements (mineral and vitamin pills and creatine); whether they sought advice, and if so from whom, about their use of supplements; their experience of and attitudes towards drug testing; their views on the extent of the use of banned performance enhancing and recreational drugs in football; and their personal knowledg...
Football (soccer) is the the most popular sport worldwide, with a constantly increasing number of male and – moreover – female players. There would be no official football match without the referee and the two assistant referees. The three officials are responsible for ensuring that the players follow the Laws of the Game. Over the last ten years, several studies have examined various aspects of the referee’s performance and training. However, contrary to players, there is a la...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the mental toughness perceived by selected the National football players. A sample of twelve Malaysian footballers (current and ex-players, aged 19 to 57 years old agreed to participate. All of them have been playing in the Malaysia National Football League that consists of four former national footballers, four former state footballers and four currently active footballers. Among them, five individuals are active as a coach. A semi-structure interview scheduled was used in the research. All of the respondents have signed the informed consent letter for tape-recorded during the interviewed. The transcribed verbatim from the tapes were content analyzed by the authors to identify the themes. Results show that eight themes emerged from the interviews, which are motivation, negative energy, self-confidence, positive energy, visual and imagery control, patriotic spirit, perseverance and attention control. Almost all of the themes have been identified by previous researchers (i.e., Fourie & Potgieter, 2001; Jones, Hanton & Connoughton, 2002; 2007; and Loehr, 1986, except for patriotic and perseverance. Recommendations for further research also suggested.
The transfer system was created in order to control player movement between football clubs and has existed since the late nineteenth century. During the negotiation of today’s transfer rules FIFA, UEFA and the Commission found that a breach of contract during the season could upset the balance of competition and therefore should be restricted. It was considered necessary to strengthen the contractual stability and to apply a special rule to preserve the regularity and proper functioning of co...
The organization of the 2014 football world cup by Brazil is an opportunity to recall how the level of natural radioactivity can change from a country to another. Brazil is with Iran and India one of the 3 countries where the level of natural radioactivity is the highest. In Brazil the average value for natural radioactivity is about 10 mSv/year but you can find spots on the Brazilian 'planalto' where natural radioactivity ranges from 10 to a few tens of mSv/year. The mean value of natural radioactivity at the world scale is about 2.5 mSv/year. The value of 10 mSv/year is the radiation threshold that may trigger the evacuation of the local population in case of a nuclear accident in France. These various figures show that radiation dose limits are very low and should not be considered as representative of actual health hazards. (A.C.)
@@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.
Andersen, T.; Tenga, A; Engebretsen, L.; Bahr, R
Objectives: This study describes the characteristics of injuries and high risk situations in the Norwegian professional football league during one competitive season using Football Incident Analysis (FIA), a video based method.
Mohr, Magni; Nybo, Lars; Grantham, Justin;
To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play.......To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play....
... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158807.html Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision Study of college ... concussion, a new study says. During a regular football season, about two dozen college players developed a ...
... news/fullstory_158070.html Cold Weather Can Spike Football Injuries, Study Finds NFL concussions and ankle injuries ... most common injuries that occurred during two National Football League seasons between 2012 and 2014. Players had ...
... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158603.html High School Football Players Suffer More Symptoms After Concussion: Study Meanwhile, ... MONDAY, May 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- High school football players are more likely to suffer more symptoms ...
Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Sonntag, Albrecht; Ranc, David
Football Research in an Enlarged Europe (FREE).This is the third of three policy briefs based on findings from the FREE project. It summarises results from the project's research stream on the feminisation of football.
The football class is one of the main option classes of sports in vocational colleges.Football tactical training plays an important role in teaching.In a football team which has rules and characteristics of football tactics and skills and has dynamic stability,students can learn and master different soccer tactics even better to improve constantly the level of football sports in vocational colleges through practical training.%足球选项课是高职体育主要的选项课之一,足球战术训练在教学中占有十分重要的位置。根据足球运动战术技能形成的规律和特点组建动态稳定的足球队,通过实战训练,才能让学生更好地学习和掌握不同的足球战术,不断提高高职院校足球运动水平。
Sölgén, Samuel; Wiklund, Daniel
Aim of the Thesis: To investigate the practice of using a CRM strategy in football clubs by comparing earlier successful and unsuccessful CRM implementations by football clubs and study fan relationship theories in a large Swedish football club, thereby presenting guidelines on how to further develop a CRM strategy in a Swedish football club. Methodology: A quantitative approach and a qualitative approach have been used, first collecting empirical data on supporter views through a questionn...
Seif Barghi, Tohid; Halabchi, Farzin; Dvorak, Jiri; Hosseinnejad, Heydar
Background: Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Football is the nationally popular sport in Iran. On the other hand, doping is a serious health hazard sport faces today. Studies dealing with athletes’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning doping in football are scarce. Objectives: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the football coaches and players. Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 375 participants (239 football play...
This bachelor’s thesis focuses on personal branding of professional football players in social media. Giovanni Quartana, Co-Founder of a start-up football agency TalentBox Group has commissioned this thesis. The reason for writing this thesis on personal branding for football players is because TalentBox is aiming to revamp their Marketing and Sponsorship department. This department will focus on improving football players’ personal branding by developing a unique and customized plan for ...
Goksøyr, Matti; Olstad, Finn
From an international football perspective football in Norway may be considered as a 'different sort of country'. This essay concerns itself with the tension between the interest in football in Norway and the geographical and topographical preconditions for the sport. This is discussed in three main parts. The first addresses the relation between centre and periphery: how to build a national football community when the local communities are so scattered and different in character? The second ...
Barnfield, A. F. R.
Football was codified in Britain in 1863, the Football League was established in 1888, and by 1950 there were 92 professional clubs in England. In 1992 the top twenty professional teams in England broke away from the Football Association’s league programme to establish the English Premier League (EPL). Over the following decade football, the Premier League in particular, has developed considerably. The league now has a global reach with games being broadcast live around the world to audiences...
Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri
Background International sports bodies should protect the health of their athletes, and injury surveillance is an important pre-requisite for injury prevention. The Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) has systematically surveyed all football injuries in their tournaments since 1998. Aims Analysis of the incidence, characteristics and changes of football injury during international top-level tournaments 1998–2012. Methods All newly incurred football injuries during the FIFA...
MOHAMED SHAFEEQ K.
This paper argues that while it remains a fact that football is the most visible sport in Malappuram, football also allows identifications for the mainstream to describe Malappuram that is by definition in this discourse an other-ed space. By delineating the importance of affect in football and its resistance to being quantified, I argue that the form of football necessitates a spectator whose spectatorship has to be manifested in bodily rituals. I also argue that the category fan has histo...
Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Sonntag, Albrecht; Ranc, David
Football Research in an Enlarged Europe (FREE). This is the third of three policy briefs based on findings from the FREE project. It summarises results from the project's research stream on the feminisation of football.......Football Research in an Enlarged Europe (FREE). This is the third of three policy briefs based on findings from the FREE project. It summarises results from the project's research stream on the feminisation of football....
De Luca, Giacomo; Schokkaert, Jeroen; SWINNEN, Jo
We examine the impact of a different cultural background on individual behavior, focusing on penalties in football matches of southern European and northern European football players in the English Premier League. Southern European football players collect on average more football penalties than their British colleagues and northern European football players collect on average less football penalties than their British colleagues. The number of football penalties incurred by southern European...
Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.
Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…
Burg, van der Tsjalle
In Football business Tsjalle van der Burg shows how the economics of football have developed and been corrupted. In a series of engaging stories he uncovers the mysteries of football finance. Van der Burg explains why if the 2013 English Premiership champions, Manchester United, had played their 196
Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui
High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…
Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas
Despite the apparent popularity of flag football as an activity in physical education class and football as an after-school offering for girls, studies related to gender stereotyping of sports have found overwhelming evidence indicating that football is perceived as a masculine activity among males and females in primary school, secondary school,…
Torg, J S; Vegso, J J; O'Neill, M J; Sennett, B
Epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinematographic data on head and neck injuries occurring in tackle football have been compiled since 1971 by the National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry. Preliminary analysis performed in 1975 indicated that the majority of serious cervical spine football injuries were caused by axial loading. Based on this observation, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and National Federation of High School Athletic Associations (NFHSAA) implemented rule changes banning "spearing" and the use of the top of the helmet as the initial point of contact in striking an opponent during a tackle or block. Between 1976 and 1987, as a result of these rule changes, the Registry has documented a dramatic decrease in both the total number of cervical spine injuries and those resulting in quadriplegia at both the high school and college level. It is suggested that development and implementation of similar preventative measures based on clearly defined injury mechanisms would decrease injury rates in diving, rugby, ice hockey, trampolining, wrestling, and other high-risk sports as well. PMID:2301692
Characterization of college football athletes and basketball: Anthropometry and Body Composition CARACTERIZACIÓN DE DEPORTISTAS UNIVERSITARIOS DE FÚTBOL Y BALONCESTO: ANTROPOMETRÍA Y COMPOSICIÓN CORPORAL
Pablo Juan Verdoy; Jesús Gil Gómez
Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommend...
Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W
American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes. PMID:26359844
Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J
All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit. PMID:8050871
Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard
Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage. PMID:24533517
Full Text Available Abstract Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8% of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29 and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8% were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8% by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3% with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction.
Kampakis, Stylianos; Adamides, Andreas
Twitter has been proven to be a notable source for predictive modelling on various domains such as the stock market, the dissemination of diseases or sports outcomes. However, such a study has not been conducted in football (soccer) so far. The purpose of this research was to study whether data mined from Twitter can be used for this purpose. We built a set of predictive models for the outcome of football games of the English Premier League for a 3 month period based on tweets and we studied ...
Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus
European professional football clubs go out of business even though they operate chronically on the edge of financial collapse? The paper argues that the paradox can be explained by the fact that professional football clubs operate within soft budget constraints in a way which is similar to the role of...... large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...
Andersen, T.; Larsen, O; Tenga, A; Engebretsen, L.; Bahr, R
Objectives: To develop and test a new video based method for match analysis that combines football specific and medical information to achieve a better understanding of the injury mechanisms and events leading up to high risk situations.
Introduction. – 1. Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports. – 2. Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports. – 3. Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence . – 4. Some concluding remarks.
Introduction - 1 Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports - 2 Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports - 3 Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence - 4. Concluding remarks
Sparks, J P
The injuries sustained by the boys at one English public school have been recorded and analysed by age, experience, position, phase, duration of the game and of the season. Few injuries have been serious. Detailed reference is made to concussion, injuries from collapsed scrums and injuries of the cervical spine. The paper emphasises that the tackle leads to most injuries. This paper presents the Rugby football injuries sustained by the boarders of Rugby School in the four seasons 1980-1983. The injury rate was 194 per 10,000 player hours, compared with the rate of 198 per 10,000 player hours for the thirty seasons 1950-1979 (Sparks, 1981). Tables I-VI list the injuries by different criteria. Table VII lists the sites of injury; Table VIII the time off Rugby football after injury; Table IX lists some of the more important injuries; Table XI summarises the playing results of the various school teams; Table XIII compares some of the Rugby School figures with those recorded in the Accident and Emergency Department of Christchurch Hospital during the 1979 New Zealand Rugby football season (Inglis and Stewart, 1981); Table XIV records information on three aspects of Rugby football that have occasioned much recent concern, viz:--Time off playing after concussion, injuries caused by collapsed scrums and neck injuries. PMID:4027497
Storm, Rasmus K.
This paper deals with European and Danish soccer and its commercialization focusing on the Danish male first tier clubs. Based on the systems theoretical argument that sport serves as a mirror system in (late-) modern society, the Danish football clubs are measured against a simple matrix of main...
Full Text Available It is an exercise that every professional can use to see what the value of the manager is, "whether or not you're a manager," and the professional football coach without borders, boundaries of countries or cultures-in which we were born and professional culture in which we live and we want to live now and in the future.
It is an exercise that every professional can use to see what the value of the manager is, "whether or not you're a manager," and the professional football coach without borders, boundaries of countries or cultures-in which we were born and professional culture in which we live and we want to live now and in the future.
Tiago Fernandes Maranhao
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.
Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986
Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)
Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. Despite being the most popular sport in the United States, most American football game analysis is still done manually. Line of scrimmage and offensive team formation recognition are two statistics that must be tagged by American Football coaches when watching and evaluating past play video clips, a process which takesmanyman hours per week. These two statistics are the building blocks for more high-level analysis such as play strategy inference and automatic statistic generation. In this chapter, we propose a novel framework where given an American football play clip, we automatically identify the video frame in which the offensive team lines in formation (formation frame), the line of scrimmage for that play, and the type of player formation the offensive team takes on. The proposed framework achieves 95% accuracy in detecting the formation frame, 98% accuracy in detecting the line of scrimmage, and up to 67%accuracy in classifying the offensive team’s formation. To validate our framework, we compiled a large dataset comprising more than 800 play-clips of standard and high definition resolution from real-world football games. This dataset will be made publicly available for future comparison.
Monk, Des; Olsson, Cliff
Purpose: This paper will examine the two year modern apprenticeship undertaken by trainees in the English professional football industry. Design/methodology/approach: Representatives of seven clubs were interviewed in the summer of 2005; all of them were responsible for youth development in their club. These interviews were the first of what will…
We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints
Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B.
This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a…
Falls, Harold B.
Football, it is argued, is too dangerous for most girls and for many boys. Data on male-female differences in size, speed, and strength are reviewed. A preparticipation screening program with equal requirements for both sexes is proposed. (Author/MT)
Faude, O; Kerper, O; Multhaupt, M; Winter, C; Beziel, K; Junge, A; Meyer, T
The present study aimed at analyzing the efficacy of a 6-month football training program compared with a standard exercise program on health and fitness parameters in overweight children. The study design was a 6-month, two-arm, parallel-group randomized trial. Twenty-two overweight children were randomly assigned to two groups (age=10.8+/-1.2 years, height=1.56+/-0.08 m, weight= 65.1+/-11.4 kg). One group conducted a football training program, and the other group an established standard sports program. Both interventions took place three times per week from mid-May to mid-November. Before, after 3 months and after the training period, comprehensive testing was conducted: anthropometric characteristics, cycling ergometry, psychometric monitoring as well as several motor ability tests. Maximal performance capacity increased and submaximal heart rate during cycling ergometry decreased significantly. Several motor skills as well as self-esteem also improved considerably. Body composition and other psychometric variables remained nearly unchanged. No relevant differences were observed between both exercise programs. It can be concluded that a 6-month football training is as efficacious in improving the physical capacity, health-related fitness parameters and self-esteem of overweight children as a standard exercise program. These results provide further evidence that playing football has significant health effects. PMID:20136766
As a professional sport, professional football teams in a league compete in imperfect market conditions since every team in a professional football league may be known by their differentiated product (i.e. the quality of football they play). If the competition level increases, the quality of football being played may also increase. Thus, consumers`(i.e. football spectators) value of money spent on football should increase too. Thus, this paper tries to implement the above mentioned economic p...
Swarts, Christoffer M. J.
The present study explores how football migrants (foreign professional football / soccer players) perceive the adaptation process in Finland. Globalization and legislation have made it easier for football players to work abroad. The amount of football migrants in Finland is increasing each year. The internationalization of Finnish football requires study. Successful adaptation has a positive outcome on a migrant, which will increase the chances of personal, and thus in the case of football, t...
Full Text Available Football is probably the world’s most popular game, with a huge number of fans. There are numerous ways in which football fans express dedication to their club and the feelings they have for their team, for example, wearing certain colours, waving banners and flags, and singing. Football anthems are nothing new for football fans, and many clubs have a long-established tradition of them. In this paper, I will address and compare the language in some popular British and Slovene football anthems, and attempt to explain its contribution to the creation of fan identity, to the fans’ sense of belonging, unity, and motivation. The linguistic analysis identities the linguistic resources used in football anthems to express attitudes, form bonds and create identities.
four articles that focus on physical testing and training for elite and sub-elite football players.The first article (Study I) aims to identify and establish aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female football players with the use of laboratory tests, and to examine whether...... characteristics or aerobic capacitymeasures across the football player positions in female elite football players when we apply traditional laboratory tests (i.e. VO2max and anaerobic threshold). We speculate whether this may be caused by the parameters not being sufficiently sensitive to differentiate between...... traditional laboratory tests of physical fitness of football players are not suitable to detect physical differences between elite female football players in different playing positions. This indicates that they are not sufficiently related to the relevant physical parameters of each playing position (i...
Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Lenneis, Verena; Mintert, Svenja-Maria
Football is an invention by men for men, and today, the majority of players and fans are men. There is an abundance of literature on football and fandom; however, gender is mostly not an issue in these publications. Research about female football supporters and fans is very limited. This is also...... true for Denmark, the country, which is the focus of this article. Based on gender and socialization theories, this contribution addresses women and their (lack of) interest in men's football. The main questions refer to the numbers of female supporters and their patterns of football consumption. The...... sources of information are reader and user data of mass media, results of surveys about the habits of the Danish population and the results of an interview study with female fans. A specific focus of this article is on the minority of female supporters who attend football games. How do they adapt to a...
Engh, Mari Haugaa
. This Focus draws on academic research, media reports and interviews with national team players to highlight the struggles and victories of South African women footballers over the last 40 years. Despite numerous challenges and setbacks, womenB football has experienced immense growth over the past 15......From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girls...... years. Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....
This study is primarily concerned with the degree of professional football competition in the Turkish first division football since its establishment. Moreover, this article aims to find the optimal number of football teams in a league as well as presenting the effects of the changes in point system on the degree of football competition. Finally, the Turkish first division's football competition level is compared to the selected European leagues.
Laurent Sébastien Fournier
Full Text Available The article addresses old English and Scottish annual village games known as folk football, which still survive along with the more usual federal modern sports like soccer and rugby. The article suggests that the example of folk football enables us to better understand the relationship between sport and violence. The use of the ethnographic method throughout a long-term period allows us to compare different existing games. The article describes aggressiveness in the games and its historical background. It also shows how the authorities tried to control and rule these traditional games. On the field, however, the players argue that the game is rough rather than violent. It is then important to pay attention to the players’ viewpoint. Fieldwork on folk football matches shows that violence is drawn off at different levels. The case presented is an interesting one, grasping the relations between sport and violence. The violence that regularly appears in modern sport and hooliganism can be interpreted as an unconscious restoration of very old dual cultural schemes, connected in a broad psychological perspective to the youth’s universal taste for pride and parade.
Jesús Gil Gómez
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommended by the International Group of Cineantropometry.Results. The college athletes generally have a higher percentage of muscle weight and fat mass and bone weight lower percentage of male college athletes. The male basketball players have a higher percentage of fat mass and bone weight and lower percentage of muscle weight in football players. mong women, we found that basketball players have a higher percentage of bone weight and lower percentage of fat mass and muscle mass than soccer players.Conclusions. The competitive level of body composition changes substantially, primarily among females. It is important to have data on body composition at the college level.Keywords: Body Composition, Fat Mass, Muscle Mass, Weight Bone, Anthropometry.
Wallace, Rich A.
Studies of football hooliganism have developed in a number of academic disciplines, yet little of this literature directly relates to criminology. The fighting, disorderly conduct, and destructive behavior of those who attend football matches, especially in Europe has blossomed over the past thirty years and deserves criminological attention. Football hooliganism is criminal activity, but is unique because of its context specific nature, occurring almost entirely inside the grounds or in prox...
Ekstrand, Jan; Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus
Background: Muscle injuries constitute a large percentage of all injuries in football. Purpose: To investigate the incidence and nature of muscle injuries in male professional footballers. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Fifty-one football teams, comprising 2299 players, were followed prospectively during the years 2001 to 2009. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries. The first-team squads of 24 clubs selected by the Union of E...
Finamore, Leonard V.
This study examined the level of preseason conditioning and health maintenance for high school football players in Massachusetts. In July 1988, data were obtained through a survey of high school football coaches regarding players' conditioning programs and injury rates. A total of 286 surveys were distributed to public, private, and parochial schools that have interscholastic football programs. Of these, 182 correctly completed surveys were collected for a 64% return rate. Although many high ...
Chris Trikalis; Zisis Papanikolaou; Sofia Trikali
Present study firstly investigated the goals and objectives of youth football academies in Greece, according to the different sector that they operate (public, private, voluntary) and secondly created proposals for future youth football academies development. Research was conducted in Greece, at the period of 2010-2011. Fourteen youth football academies participated in this study and divided into three categories (five academies in commercial sector, four academies in public sector, and five ...
Abstract: This thesis is based on data stemming from fieldwork conducted during the spring of 2007, in a professional football club in Lisbon, Portugal. I am interested in how migrant players from the former colonies are included in the local football community. This thesis thus explores the inclusion and exclusion mechanisms of Portuguese football. The ethnographic approach led me to an exploration of local manifestations of global migration processes. Foreign players are making their ma...
John Schulz; Louise Stirling
This article focuses on the experiences of a group of women footballers growing up in England. It specifically looks at their similarities and differences in relation to how they entered the world of football and whether gender relations continue to impact on both their access to and opportunities in sport. The discussion draws on information from nine semi structured interviews with women of varying ages and mixed abilities who have grown up and played football in England. The interview data...
Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan
The risk of injury in football is high, but few studies have compared men's and women's football injuries. The purpose of this prospective study was to analyse the exposure and injury characteristics of European Championships in football and to compare data for men, women and male youth players. The national teams of all 32 countries (672 players) that qualified to the men's European Championship 2004, the women's European Championship 2005 and the men's Under-19 European Championship 2005 we...
Girls’ and women’s football is currently experiencing high levels of media attention, financial support and significant participation rates. This progression is seemingly positive for the game but does not necessarily mirror changing ideological views about females playing football. This paper will explore the manner in which football girls negotiate their gendered Web of Selves through participation. A sport feminist lens was used to explore the spoken conversations shared during a season-lo...
Vassiliki Avgerinou; Stefanos Giakoumatos
Based on data of 26 Greek professional football clubs of Division A’ and B’ for 16 seasons (1991/92-2006/07), we investigate the effect of sporting and economic variables on the attendance in Greek football stadia. Price, income and unemployment are found to be statistically significant in the small Greek football market, while controlling for classic sporting determinants of demand such as success, entertainment and promotion/relegation. We include two more dummy variables; one for the new s...
Gulbrandsen, Anders Munkhaugen; Gulbrandsen, Christian Munkhaugen
In this thesis we will describe a football player’s value to a football club. First we will explore how a player can generate revenue. In doing so, we will describe two valuation factors, where a football player can fulfil none, one or both of them. The two factors will describe how a football player can generate revenue for his club. Next we will present a valuation model based on theory from option pricing. The valuation model will be linked up to the two factors, and give us...
Tryggvi Þór Einarsson 1990
There is not much known about the gambling behaviour of Icelandic football players. Aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of total gambling participation and problem gambling among Icelandic football players, to examine if Icelandic football players have been involved in behaviour that could possibly be related to game fixing and to examine players attitudes towards banning coaches and players to gamble on games the Icelandic championship. Participants were 725, of which 75...
Krohn, Austin R; Sikka, Robby; Olson, David E
Despite growing health and safety concerns, American football remains a vastly popular sport in the United States. Unfortunately, even with increased efforts in promoting education and hydration, the incidence of death from exertional heat stroke continues to rise. General risk factors such as hydration status, obesity, fitness level, and football-specific risk factors such as timing of training camp and equipment all contribute to the development of heat illness. At the professional level, changes have been made to effectively reduce mortality from heat stroke with no deaths since August 2001. However, there have been at least 33 total deaths at the high school and collegiate levels since this time. More efforts need to be focused at these levels to mandate exertional heat illness prevention guidelines in order to reverse this trend of mortality in our younger athletes. PMID:26561768
Marker, L B; Klareskov, B
Posterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint is uncommon, accounting for less than 0.1% of all dislocations. Since 1824 a little more than 100 cases have been reported, and the majority in the past 20 years. A review of published reports suggests that this injury is seen particularly in...... connection with American football. A typical case is described. The importance of this injury is that there is often a delay in diagnosis with potentially serious complications....
Potrac, Paul; Jones, Robyn
This paper seeks to illuminate the micropolitical strategies that Gavin (a pseudonym) used in an attempt to persuade the players, the assistant coach, and the chairman at Erewhon City Football (soccer) Club to “buy into” his coaching program and methods. Data for the study were collected through in-depth, semistructured interviews, and a reflective log relating to those interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim with the subsequent transcripts being subject to a process of ...
This article describes the historical background of the medicolegal aspects of doping in sports and especially in football. The definitions of legal terms are explained and the procedure of individual case management as part of FIFA's approach to doping is presented. Finally, three medicolegal problems awaiting urgent solution are outlined: firstly, the difficulties in decision making arising from the decrease of the T/E ratio from 6 to 4; secondly, the therapeutic application of α‐reductase ...
Van Klaveren, C.; Witte, K.
Schools frequently increase instructional time to improve students' numeric and reading performance, but there is little evidence on the effectiveness of such an increase. This study evaluates 'Playing for Success', an extended day program for underachieving pupils that uses the football environment as a motivating force. Primary school pupils with low motivation and self-esteem are offered practical and sports related teaching content for 30 additional hours. The program is evaluated using a...
The aims of this thesis were to study the incidence, severity and pattern of injury in male and female elite football players; to study time trends in injury risk; to identify risk factors for injury; and to test the effectiveness of an intervention programme aimed at preventing re-injury. All studies followed a prospective design using standardised definitions and data collection forms. Individual training and match exposure was registered for all players participating. Time loss injuries we...
The purpose of this thesis was to study the injury characteristics in elite football, and risk factors for injury with special emphasis on anterior cruciate ligament injury. All five papers followed a prospective design using a standardised methodology. Individual training and match exposure was recorded for all players participating as well as all injuries resulting in time loss. Severe injury was defined as absence from play longer than 4 weeks. In Paper I, all 14 teams in the Swedish men’s...
We aimed to identify any pattern of injuries that impacted on the long-term physical wellbeing o f players, sustained by Senior County Gaelic-football players during their playing career and the impact of those injuries on their quality of life. A questionnaire was sent to different Donegal-Panels looking for injuries and surgical procedures undergone in playing and post-playing career including chronic joint and musculoskeletal problems.
Full Text Available Present study firstly investigated the goals and objectives of youth football academies in Greece, according to the different sector that they operate (public, private, voluntary and secondly created proposals for future youth football academies development. Research was conducted in Greece, at the period of 2010-2011. Fourteen youth football academies participated in this study and divided into three categories (five academies in commercial sector, four academies in public sector, and five academies in voluntary sector. Goals and objectives in each youth football academy were recorded in three different theoretical areas: a administrative, b coaching, and c supportive services. Data were collected through interviews via open and closed question formats from fourteen administrative and fourteen coaching staff of the corresponding teams. Qualitative analysis was applied. The results of the study indicated significant differences in operation of youth football academies according to the different sector they operated: a the commercial sector academies attempted to improve rapidly the technical skills of child footballers, using their good facilities / services, b the public sector academies aimed primarily to improve the number of children, and c the voluntary sector academies aimed mainly to identify footballers talent and excellent skills. The above results, conducted the following proposals for the overall development of youth football academies in Greece: a a new management philosophy should require to adopted by football stakeholders, b scientific methods of training and cooperation with scientific institutions should be applied, and c any action should be taken in mind the recent economic crisis in Greece. In conclusion, youth football academies in the region of Thessaly _ in which this study was conducted_ could be under development if new management strategies be adopted by football shareholders.
Dejan Milenković; Igor Stanojević
The study included 60 young football players aged 10 and 11 years with the aim to examine the influence of motor skills on a specific accuracy in football. The following tests for assessment of motoric abilities were used: Coordination: jumping over the horizontal rope, envelope test, figure „8“ with bending; Flexibility: forward bend-standing upper-body rotation-touch, the splits, side-stepping with a baton; Balance: standing on one leg along the balance bench, standing on one leg with eyes ...
Olde Rikkert, J.; Haes, V.D.; Barsingerhorn, A.D.; Theelen, T.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.
We investigated the impact of the colour of football outfits on localising football players and on the results of football matches. Two studies were conducted: an experimental study examining the effects of outfit colour on the assessment of the positions of computer-animated football players in a v
Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr
Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…
Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.
The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…
Dervent, Fatih; Inan, Mehmet
The purpose of this study was to examine the metaphors which were used to describe the concept "football coach" by some stakeholders in football, such as players, club officials and referees. Each individual (N = 389) within the study group was asked to reveal the single metaphor s/he has in mind in respect of the concept of football…
Hoffman, Jennifer Lee
The circulation of head football coaches is a well-established practice, and with it, salary costs are significantly outpacing other spending as institutions compete in the pursuit of prestige. This movement of college football coaches is known in the popular press as the "coaching carousel." The carousel is a fitting metaphor for a…
Lippe, Gerd von der
You need balls to play football. So it is obvious that being a girl just won't do as far as the guys are concerned, says Gerd von der Lippe in a devastating critique of the state of affairs in the reporting and support of women's football in Norway.
Valadkhani, Abbas; Worthington, Andrew
This paper identifies new classifications of Australian universities based on their total and per-academic staff research outputs using the data for the period 1998-2002. We define research performance in terms of audited numbers of PhD completions, publications and grants (in accordance with rules established by the Department of Education, Science and Training). Our analysis indicates that (a) the highest achievers consists of the seven Group of Eight (Go8) universities; (b) the top-three...
Brus, Anne Birgitte; Trangbæk, Else
In 1970 the Danish Football club Boldklubben Femina (BK Femina) became unofficial world champions. The success of BK Femina women's football team was not a coincidence and should be placed in the context of a ten-year struggle to have football accepted as a sport for women in Denmark. This essay...... examines three consecutive periods in Danish women's football: the establishment of women's football in Denmark before 1970; the time of women's admission to the Danish Football Association (DBU) in 1970–72; and finally, the development of women's football in the DBU from 1972 to 2002....
Full Text Available The purpose of research - the identification of a person's psychological, define promising young players. The study involved 56 players aged 13-17 years, enrolled in training groups of at the stage of basic training specialist. The necessity of study of personality's structure in young footballers at prognostication of perspective of young footballers has confirmed. The degree of expression of personality qualities in footballers on the stage of the specialized base preparation was determined. The search of distinctions of indexes of personality qualities of sportsmen perspective and unpromising is conducted. Intercommunication between activity of footballers intellectual and sporting is exposed. Information about psychological features can be instrumental in prognostication of development of the special capabilities of footballers in the sporting activity.
Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard;
Abstract We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried...
Amanda Onion; 丁娓娓
@@ During a Saturday night football game under the lights this September,DeShawn Smith snagged② a pass③ and turned to run when he was smacked by a defensive player--helmet④ to helmet. He struggled to his feet and walked to the sideline, where he sat down and collapsed.
Full Text Available The study included 60 young football players aged 10 and 11 years with the aim to examine the influence of motor skills on a specific accuracy in football. The following tests for assessment of motoric abilities were used: Coordination: jumping over the horizontal rope, envelope test, figure „8“ with bending; Flexibility: forward bend-standing upper-body rotation-touch, the splits, side-stepping with a baton; Balance: standing on one leg along the balance bench, standing on one leg with eyes closed, flamingo test. Tests for specific accuracy in football included: elevational accuracy by foot - vertical target, elevational accuracy by foot - horizontal target, linear accuracy by foot - vertical target, the hits of ball by foot on the wall after it rebounces from the surface, elevational accuracy by head - vertical target and elevational accuracy by head - horizontal target. Results obtained by processing the data applying canonical correlation and regression analysis indicated the indisputable influence of motor abilities of young football players on the majority of specific accuracy tests.
Based on the analysis of the specific industry environment in which football clubs compete, this paper presents a comparative institutional analysis of three paradigmatic structures of football club governance: classical (privately owned) football firms, modern football corporations (stock corporations with dispersed ownership) and members’ associations with an own legal personality (Verein). The results of the analysis are applied to current developments in German and English football and to...
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research is to research the effect of football on sole comparing the peak pressure, average maximal pressure and pressure–time integral pedobarographic parameters of 11 contact areas of soles of professional female football players and healthy individuals. Working Plan: 22 female football players (18,80 ± 2,2 age and 28 female volunteers (27,5 ±6,6 age (as the control group having no foot complaints were included in the study. In the research EMED-SF (Novel GmbH, Munich, Germany plantar pressure analysis system was used. It was examined whether there was any statistically significant difference between the experiment and control group means using non-parametric Mann Whitney U test, the size of the linear relation between physical structure and variables of sole was examined by calculating Pearson’s (r coefficient. In the measurements 95% reliability range and P < 0.01 – 0.05 were accepted as meaningfulness level. Findings: At the end of the measurements, it was found that there were meaningful differences between the female football players and control group in right foot 2 left feet 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th metatarsal heads sole 11 contact areas peak pressure and in the 3rd, 4th and 5th toes, at average maximal pressure in right and left foot in 2nd metatarsal heads and time pressure integral in right foot 2nd and 3rd metatarsal heads and left foot heel medial, heel lateral, 2nd, 3rd and 4th metatarsal heads. Arguments: In our findings, it was found that the pressure in football players’ sole front interior regions was higher than both the control group and the other regions in their own feet. It was determined that the particularly the crampons used by the football players were insufficient to protect the sole and failed to prevent permanent sole pressure parameters. As a result, Football players’ excessive pressing against their soles in forcing movements in long term exercises and matches are indicated to
Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen;
Abstract This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players...... weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short...... (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen...
The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband) stations (see fig. 1 and table 1). The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.
Full Text Available The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband stations (see fig. 1 and table 1. The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.
Full Text Available Purpose : To study the structure of the motor activity of foreign (European football referees qualifications and Ukrainian arbitrators (Premier League, the first, second league. The objectives of the study was to determine the amount and direction of the motor activity of soccer referees. Also perform a comparative analysis of the motor activity of football referees of different qualifications in Europe and Ukraine. Material : The study involved 38 referees - soccer referees first, second, of the Premier League with the different regions of Ukraine, as well as foreign arbitrators FIFA. Results : It was found that in the period of the motor activity of the arbitrator was walking - 13.0% of the total distance when moving, running at a moderate pace - 67.4%, accelerating - 16.7%, jumps - 2.9%. Average per match referee overcomes distance 8970.2 m: foreign arbitrators - 12,030.0 m., Arbitrators Premier League - 9292.5 m., 1 league - 7530.0 m., 2 leagues - 7028.3 m. Ukrainian Premier League referees are inferior to move moderate jogging foreign arbitrators FIFA respectively - 6,425.0 m (69.1% and 9615.3 m (79.9%. Conclusions : The results of the research showed that the magnitude of motor activity during football matches in professional arbitrators may be different. It depends on their physical fitness Championship (competition, the league, the level of the teams playing, the nature of the intensity of the match. The arbitrator must remain near the gaming moments to control them and prevent possible confrontation.
McAdams, Timothy R.; Deimel, Jay F.; Ferguson, Jeff; Beamer, Brandon S.; Beaulieu, Christopher F.
Background: Although a recognized and discussed injury, chondral rib fractures in professional American football have not been previously reported in the literature. There currently exists no consensus on how to identify and treat these injuries or the expected return to play for the athlete. Purpose: To present 2 cases of chondral rib injuries in the National Football League (NFL) and discuss the current practice patterns for management of these injuries among the NFL team physicians. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Two cases of NFL players with chondral rib injuries are presented. A survey regarding work-up and treatment of these injuries was completed by team physicians at the 2014 NFL Combine. Our experience in identifying and treating these injuries is presented in conjunction with a survey of NFL team physicians’ experiences. Results: Two cases of rib chondral injuries were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and treated with rest and protective splinting. Return to play was 2 to 4 weeks. NFL Combine survey results show that NFL team physicians see a mean of 4 costal cartilage injuries per 5-year period, or approximately 1 case per year per team. Seventy percent of team physicians use CT scanning and 43% use magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of these injuries. An anesthetic block is used acutely in 57% and only electively in subsequent games by 39%. Conclusion: A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose chondral rib injuries in American football. CT scan is most commonly used to confirm diagnosis. Return to play can take up to 2 to 4 weeks with a protective device, although anesthetic blocks can be used to potentially expedite return. Clinical Relevance: Chondral rib injuries are common among NFL football players, while there is no literature to support proper diagnosis and treatment of these injuries or expected duration of recovery. These injuries are likely common in other contact sports and levels of
Full Text Available Purpose: to prove the technology of physical training of young players. Material and Methods: pedagogical observation and analysis of literature, both in the field of football, sports physiology and in the use of technologies that protect the health of the process of physical training of young athletes. Results: notes the need to review approaches to the organization of long-term preparation of sportsmen. It established the contradiction between the increasing demand for training of young sportsmen and features of the growing organism. Conclusion: the ways of rational construction of training process on the basis of the strategy of preparation of sports reserve and health at talented youth
Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on visuaalisen identiteetin suunnitteleminen Arctic Football Forum -jalkapallokonferenssille. Toteutin työn työskennellessäni mainostoimisto Familyssä. Työskentelytapa oli itsenäinen, mutta työskentely tapahtui mainos-toimistossa ja minulla oli mahdollisuus saada konsultointia muilta graafisilta suunnittelijoilta. Tutkin opinnäytetytössäni visuaalisen identiteetin rakennetta ja sen yhteyttä onnistuneeseen visuaaliseen lopputulokseen. Avaan käytännö...
Full Text Available This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group. Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work will provide an overview of the barriers that have excluded British Asian football communities from the professional ranks. In particular, I shall discuss some of the key obstacles including overt racism, ‘all-Asian’ football structures and cultural differences. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the impact and persist-ing nature of institutional racism within football. With the aid of oral testimonies, this work shall present British Asian experiences of covert racism in the game. I shall therefore demonstrate that coaches/scouts (as gatekeepers have a tendency to stereotype and racialize British Asian footballers, thus exacerbating the British Asian football exclusion. Finally, the article will offer policy recommendations for reform. These recommendations, which have come out of primary and secondary research, aspire to challenge institutional racism and combat inequalities within the game.
Full Text Available This article focuses on the experiences of a group of women footballers growing up in England. It specifically looks at their similarities and differences in relation to how they entered the world of football and whether gender relations continue to impact on both their access to and opportunities in sport. The discussion draws on information from nine semi structured interviews with women of varying ages and mixed abilities who have grown up and played football in England. The interview data highlights the prevalence of early male influence within the game and what effect the school education system has on young girls. What emerges from the interviews is that male figures tend to be the most influential in encouraging girls to play football. Developments seem to be being made at primary school level as girls’ access to football is improving. However, whatever strides are gained becomes lost as soon as the girls commence secondary school, due to the absence of football from the curriculum. As the girls reach adulthood the traditional feminine values are more highly sort after, so ‘tomboyish’ behaviours are considered unsuitable and unnatural. There are entrenched cultural attitudes towards the women’s game, which are proving hard to break down. These along with the physical barriers make women’s involvement in sport very difficult, even more so with football.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial performance of the football clubs participating within the first division of the Greek football league for a period of 14 years (1993-2006 and to propose specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs. We perform financial analysis of key accounting ratios extracted from the football club’s annual financial statements in order to explain the particular causes of the recent financial crisis which characterizes the Greek professional football league. The analysis of the clubs’ annual financial statements revealed that the Greek football clubs are highly leveraged, have intense liquidity and profitability problems and face an increased danger of financial distress, despite the increased amounts that football clubs invested during 2005. The above mentioned crisis can be attributed to aggregate financial mismanagement and political inefficiencies during the last fifteen years. The paper proposes specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs and the overall competitiveness of the Greek football league.
Hertbert F. Moorhouse
Full Text Available The paper aims to provoke discussion about two issues. Firstly, how do economic ideas, concepts, theories, principles and information enter into the discourse of the owners and controllers of Europe’s most popular sport – football – and into political discussion about the game? It stresses the role management consultants have created for themselves in the new football 'industry'. Secondly, as a specific example of the general concern, the paper considers the role of the Deloitte company in European football. Its publications – especially the Annual Reviews of Football Finance – have been very influential and the company has acted as consultants for UEFA on many of the key issues in contemporary football. The paper critically assesses the approach Deloitte has adopted to the commercialisation of football, and explores difficulties in the way it has analysed some of the key issues in European football. It suggests that some countervailing forces need to be created to limit the authority and influence Deloitte currently exercise.
为了建立和维护我国职业足球良好的市场秩序，实现对我国职业足球市场的规范管理，对职业足球市场秩序内涵和理想状态进行了深入分析和探讨。研究表明：职业足球市场秩序是指职业足球各利益主体在职业足球市场活动中所共同遵守的规则，以及由此而形成的职业足球市场运行状态和格局，主要包含三个方面的内容；职业足球市场秩序的理想状态主要体现为界定明晰的产权、规范的行为准则、完善的约束体系和较高的总体效率四个方面。%In order to create and maintain an orderly market of professional football in China, the author carries out a careful and deep discussion of the definition and ideal state of market order, especially the order of professional football market. It is showed in this paper that market order of professional football refers to a set of rules with which main players of the market comply in activities of professionul football and also includes the operational state and patterns formed accordingly in football market. It mainly contains three aspects. The author also indicates that the ideal state of market order of professional football can be featured by clearly defined property rights, specification for conduct, well-designed regulatory system and relatively high efficiency.
Ryom, Knud Eske; Stelter, Reinhard
encouraged and motivated to develop life-skills to support everyday life. Furthermore they learn to be part of a team, enhancing their social capability which expands their possibilities for adjusting to society. 3 weekly training sessions, matches and coach education for motivated boys are part of the study...... expressed to be enhanced due to the study. Conclusions are not definite yet, but will indicate how to structure and work with active citizenship through football. The main result will thus point out the social effects football can have for these boys, and how football can help to establish a connection and...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study to determine the relationship between Mobbing and Level of Job Satisfaction among football trainers in football clubs. In this research the data was gathered randomly from Turkish football trainers who had participated in Turkish trainer development seminar 2010-2011 which was organized jointly by Football Federation of Turkey and Turkey Football Coaches Association. Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ which was developed by Einarsen, Raknes, Matthiesen and Hellesoy and adopted by Cemaloglu into Turkish version and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ were applied to all participants. 524 of them answered the questionnaire and 515 out of 524 were evaluated. The answers from the questionnaire were analyzed by Reliability analysis and Correlation analysis. Sub dimensions of NAQ are positively correlated with moderate level. The highest positive correlation was found between organizational communication and duty. On the other hand the lowest correlation was found between organizational communication and social relationships. It is easily seen that from the analysis, level of Job satisfaction of football trainers who was exposed to mobbing is lower than who was not exposed. As a result of this survey there is a relationship between level of job satisfaction and mobbing especially in younger football trainers.
Andrei G. Sakharov; Andrei V. Shelepov; Elizaveta A. Safonkina; Mark R. Rakhmangulov
The 2014 Australian presidency took place against the backdrop of multiple challenges in both global economy and international politics, with Ukrainian crisis, Syrian conflict, Islamic State, and Ebola. Thus, despite being an economic forum, the G20 could not avoid addressing these issues, with discussions taking place during the bilateral meetings and on the sidelines of the forum. The article attempts to analyze the Australian G20 Presidency within a functional paradigm, assessing G20 perfo...